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Sample records for proving ground usa

  1. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): USA Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood, MD. (First remedial action), September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-27

    The 17,000-acre USA Aberdeen - Edgewood site is a military ordnance installation in Edgewood, Maryland. The 4.5-acre Old O-Field site, which is the focus of the Record of Decision (ROD), is a fenced hazardous waste and ordnance disposal area. From 1949 to the mid-1970's, several decontamination and clean-up operations were conducted as a result of munitions explosions. These operations included the application of 1,000 barrels of decontaminating agent non-corrosive containing chlorinated hydrocarbons; soaking the field with several hundred gallons of fuel oil and setting the field ablaze; dispersing lime into the surrounding trees to further reduce the amount of mustard present; and using supertropical bleach, lime, and sodium hydroxide to destroy chemical agents. The ROD provides an interim remedy for contaminated ground water and its effect on surface water. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are VOCs including benzene, PCE, TCE, and toluene; and metals including arsenic. The selected remedial action for this interim remedy includes installing a downgradient extraction well network; and pumping and onsite treatment of contaminated ground water using chemical precipitation.

  2. Naval Proving Ground Indian Head, Bounded by the Mattawoman Creek ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Naval Proving Ground Indian Head, Bounded by the Mattawoman Creek to the south, the Potomac River to the west and north, and Benson Road and State Route 210 to the east, Indian Head, Charles County, MD

  3. Renewable Energy Opportunties at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Orrell, Alice C.; Kora, Angela R.; Russo, Bryan J.; Horner, Jacob A.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Weimar, Mark R.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Nesse, Ronald J.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2010-05-31

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Dugway Proving Ground, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and ground source heat pumps (GSHPs). The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment.

  4. Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

  5. Historic Properties Report: Yuma Proving Ground, Yuma, Arizona.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    testing a new floating bridge on the Colorado River below Imperial Dam, several miles northwest of Camp Laguna. Tests were conducted by the Engineer ...between Building Technology Incorporated, Silver Spring, Maryland and the Historic American Building Survey/Historic American Engineering Record...American Engineering Record, National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Yuma Proving Ground, part of the U.S. Army Test and

  6. Preparing for Mars: The Evolvable Mars Campaign 'Proving Ground' Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobskill, Marianne R.; Lupisella, Mark L.; Mueller, Rob P.; Sibille, Laurent; Vangen, Scott; Williams-Byrd, Julie

    2015-01-01

    As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) prepares to extend human presence beyond Low Earth Orbit, we are in the early stages of planning missions within the framework of an Evolvable Mars Campaign. Initial missions would be conducted in near-Earth cis-lunar space and would eventually culminate in extended duration crewed missions on the surface of Mars. To enable such exploration missions, critical technologies and capabilities must be identified, developed, and tested. NASA has followed a principled approach to identify critical capabilities and a "Proving Ground" approach is emerging to address testing needs. The Proving Ground is a period subsequent to current International Space Station activities wherein exploration-enabling capabilities and technologies are developed and the foundation is laid for sustained human presence in space. The Proving Ground domain essentially includes missions beyond Low Earth Orbit that will provide increasing mission capability while reducing technical risks. Proving Ground missions also provide valuable experience with deep space operations and support the transition from "Earth-dependence" to "Earth-independence" required for sustainable space exploration. A Technology Development Assessment Team identified a suite of critical technologies needed to support the cadence of exploration missions. Discussions among mission planners, vehicle developers, subject-matter-experts, and technologists were used to identify a minimum but sufficient set of required technologies and capabilities. Within System Maturation Teams, known challenges were identified and expressed as specific performance gaps in critical capabilities, which were then refined and activities required to close these critical gaps were identified. Analysis was performed to identify test and demonstration opportunities for critical technical capabilities across the Proving Ground spectrum of missions. This suite of critical capabilities is expected to

  7. NASA'S Space Launch System: Progress Toward the Proving Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Angie; Johnson, Les

    2017-01-01

    With significant and substantial progress being accomplished toward readying the Space Launch System (SLS) rocket for its first test flight, work is already also underway on preparations for the second flight – using an upgraded version of the vehicle – and beyond. Designed to support human missions into deep space, Space Launch System (SLS), is the most powerful human-rated launch vehicle the United States has ever undertaken, and together with the Orion spacecraft will support human exploration missions into the proving ground of cislunar space and ultimately to Mars. For its first flight, SLS will deliver a near-term heavy-lift capability for the nation with its 70-metric-ton Block 1 configuration. Each element of the vehicle now has flight hardware in production in support of the initial flight of the SLS, which will propel Orion around the moon and back. For its second flight, SLS will be upgraded to the more-capable Block 1B configuration. While the Block 1 configuration is capable of delivering more than 70 metric tons to low Earth orbit, the Block 1B vehicle will increase that capability to 105 metric tons. For that flight, the new configuration introduces two major new elements to the vehicle – an Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) that will be used for both ascent and in-space propulsion, and a Universal Stage Adapter (USA) that serves as a “payload bay” for the rocket, allowing the launch of large exploration systems along with the Orion spacecraft. Already, flight hardware is being prepared for the Block 1B vehicle. Beyond the second flight, additional upgrades will be made to the vehicle. The Block 1B vehicle will also be able to launch 8.4-meter-diameter payload fairings, larger than any previously flown, and the Spacecraft Payload Integration and Evolution (SPIE) Element will oversee development and production of those fairings. Ultimately, SLS will be evolved to a Block 2 configuration, which will replace the solid rocket boosters on the Block

  8. NASA's Space Launch System: Progress Toward the Proving Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Angie; Johnson, Les

    2017-01-01

    With significant and substantial progress being accomplished toward readying the Space Launch System (SLS) rocket for its first test flight, work is already also underway on preparations for the second flight - using an upgraded version of the vehicle - and beyond. SLS is the most powerful human-rated launch vehicle the United States has ever undertaken, and together with the Orion spacecraft will support human exploration missions into the proving ground of cislunar space and ultimately to Mars. This paper will provide a description of the SLS vehicle, and an overview of the vehicle's capabilities and utilization potential.

  9. Geophysical study of the Building 103 Dump, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.

    1992-12-01

    The Building 103 Dump is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, resistivity, ground-penetrating radar, and seismic refraction, were conducted. These surveys indicate that much of the area is free of debris. However, prominent magnetic and resistivity anomalies occur along well-defined lineaments, suggestive of a dendritic stream pattern. Prior to the onset of dumping, the site was described as a ``sand pit,`` which suggests that headward erosion of Canal Creek tributaries cut into the surficial aquifer. Contaminants dumped into the landfill would have direct access to the surficial aquifer and thus to Canal Creek. Seismic refraction profiling indicates 6--12 ft of fill material now rests on the former land surface. Only the northern third of the former landfill was geophysically surveyed.

  10. Geophysics: Building E5476 decommissiong, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5476 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, were not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. Large magnetic anomalies near the southwest comer of the building are due to aboveground standpipes and steel-reinforced concrete. Two high-resistivity areas, one projecting northeast from the building and another south of the original structure, may indicate the presence of organic pore fluids in the subsurface. A conductive lineament protruding from the south wall that is enclosed by the southem, high-resistivity feature is not associated with an equivalent magnetic anomaly. Magnetic and electrical anomalies south of the old landfill boundary are probably not associated with the building. The boundary is marked by a band of magnetic anomalies and a conductive zone trending northwest to southeast. The cause of high resistivities in a semicircular area in the southwest comer, within the landfill area, is unexplained.

  11. Geophysics: Building E5481 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5481 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The building is located on the northern margin of a landfill that was sited in a wetland. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill that had been used to raise the grade. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. A conductive zone trending northwest to southeast across the site is spatially related to an old roadbed. Higher resistivity areas in the northeast and east are probably representive of background values. Three high-amplitude, positive, rectangular magnetic anomalies have unknown sources. The features do not have equivalent electrical signatures, nor are they seen with radar imaging.

  12. Geophysics: Building E5190 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1992-07-01

    Building E5190 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. A noninvasive geophysical survey, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, was conducted around the perimeter as a guide to developing a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling the building. The magnetics surveys indicated that multistation, positive magnetic sources are randomly distributed north and west of the building. Two linear trends were noted: one that may outline buried utility lines and another that is produced by a steel-covered trench. The resistivity profiling indicated three conductive zones: one due to increased moisture in a ditch, one associated with buried utility lines, and a third zone associated with the steel-covered trench. Ground-penetrating radar imaging detected two significant anomalies, which were correlated with small-amplitude magnetic anomalies. The objectives of the study -- to detect and locate objects and to characterize a located object were achieved.

  13. Evaluation of depleted uranium in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.H.; Myers, O.B.; Bestgen, H.T.; Jenkins, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This report represents an evaluation of depleted uranium (DU) introduced into the environment at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG), Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) Arizona. This was a cooperative project between the Environmental Sciences and Statistical Analyses Groups at LANL and with the Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology at Colorado State University. The project represents a unique approach to assessing the environmental impact of DU in two dissimilar ecosystems. Ecological exposure models were created for each ecosystem and sensitivity/uncertainty analyses were conducted to identify exposure pathways which were most influential in the fate and transport of DU in the environment. Research included field sampling, field exposure experiment, and laboratory experiments. The first section addresses DU at the APG site. Chapter topics include bioenergetics-based food web model; field exposure experiments; bioconcentration by phytoplankton and the toxicity of U to zooplankton; physical processes governing the desorption of uranium from sediment to water; transfer of uranium from sediment to benthic invertebrates; spead of adsorpion by benthic invertebrates; uptake of uranium by fish. The final section of the report addresses DU at the YPG site. Chapters include the following information: Du transport processes and pathway model; field studies of performance of exposure model; uptake and elimination rates for kangaroo rates; chemical toxicity in kangaroo rat kidneys.

  14. Geophysics: Building E5375 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

    1992-08-01

    Building E5375 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Several anomalies wear, noted: (1) An underground storage tank located 25 ft east of Building E5375 was identified with magnetic, resistivity, and GPR profiling. (2) A three-point resistivity anomaly, 12 ft east of the northeast comer of Building E5374 (which borders Building E5375) and 5 ft south of the area surveyed with the magnetometer, may be caused by another underground storage tank. (3) A 2,500-gamma magnetic anomaly near the northeast corner of the site has no equivalent resistivity anomaly, although disruption in GPR reflectors was observed. (4) A one-point magnetic anomaly was located at the northeast comer, but its source cannot be resolved. A chaotic reflective zone to the east represents the radar signature of Building E5375 construction fill.

  15. Geophysics: Building E5282 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses Building E5282 which was one of 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Magnetic surveys identified small, complicated, multiple anomalies west, north, and northeast of the building that may be caused by construction fill. Two underground storage tanks, at the northeast and southeast corners, were identified. A large magnetic anomaly complex east of the building was caused by aboveground pipes and unexploded ordnance fragments scattered at the surface. Electrical resistivity profiling showed a broad, conductive terrain superimposed over magnetic anomalies on the north and west. A broad, high-resistivity, nonmagnetic area centered 25 ft east of the building has an unknown origin, but it may be due to nonconductive organic liquids, construction fill, or a buried concrete slab; GPR imaging showed this area as a highly reflective zone at a depth of about 5 ft. The GPR data also showed a small-diameter pipe oriented north-south located east of the building.

  16. Geophysics: Building E5440 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5440 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The results show several complex geophysical signatures. Isolated, one-point, magnetic anomalies surrounding the building may be associated with construction fill. A 10-ft-wide band of strongly magnetic positive anomalies bordering the north side of the building obliterates small magnetic sources that might otherwise be seen. A prominent magnetic nose'' extending northward from this band toward a standpipe at 100N,63E may be connected to an underground tank. The southeast corner of the site is underlain by a rectangular, magnetized source associated with strong radar images. A magnetic lineament extending south from the anomaly may be caused by a buried pipe; the anomaly itself may be caused by subsurface equipment associated with a manhole or utility access pit. A 2,500-gamma, positive magnetic anomaly centered at 0N,20E, which is also the location of a 12 [Omega]-m resistivity minimum, may be caused by a buried vault. It appears on radar imaging as a strong reflector.

  17. Geophysics: Building E5032 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1991-07-01

    integration of data from surveys using three geophysical technologies has provided information used to define the locations of buried utilities, tanks, vaults, and debris near building E5032 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) profiles indicate the presence of buried pipes, tanks, reinforcement rods (rebar), and remnants of railroad tracks. A magnetic map constructed from a detailed magnetic survey on the north side of the building outlines buried iron-rich objects that are interpreted to be iron pipes, tank, and other debris of uncertain origin at relatively shallow depths. Horizontal electrical resistivity surveys and vertical electrical resistivity soundings essentially corroborated the findings obtained with the magnetometer and GPR. In addition, a highly resistance layer was observed on the east side of the building where a former railroad bed with a thick grave fill is believed to immediately underlie the lawn. The resistivity data show no evidence of a conductive leachate plume. Geophysical measurements from three techniques over a buried concrete slab approximately 130 ft north of Building E5032 give geophysical signatures interpreted to be due to the presence of a large iron tank or vault. An attempt was made to gather meaningful magnetic data on the east, west, and south sides of the building; however, the quality of subsurface interpretations in those areas was poor because of the influence of surficial iron lids, pipes, grates, and the effects of the corrugated iron building itself. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Ecological effects of soil contamination at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Kuperman, R.G.; Dunn, C.P. )

    1994-06-01

    Assessment of the ecological condition of contaminated soil was conducted in portions of the U.S. Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland as part of an ecological risk assessment. This area is covered by open fields, woods and nontidal marshes. Chemicals disposed of in open burning pits included methylphosphonothioic acid, dichlorodiethyl sulfide, and titanium tetrachloride and sulfur trioxide/chlorosulfonic acid. Previous soil analysis showed extensive surface soil contamination with metals, nitrate, PCBs and pesticides. This assessment included characterizing soil biota, biologically-mediated processes in soil and aboveground biomass. Field surveys of the soil invertebrate communities showed significant reductions in the total abundance of animals, reductions in the abundance of several taxonomic and functional groups of soil invertebrates, and changes in the activity of epigeic arthropods in contaminated areas when compared with the local [open quotes]background[close quotes] area. Laboratory toxicity tests also demonstrated that microbial activity and success of egg hatching of ground beetle Harpalus pensylvanicus were reduced in contaminated soils. These results suggest that impacts to soil ecosystems should be explicitly considered in ecological risk assessment.

  19. Environmental geophysics, offshore Bush River Peninsula, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Kuecher, G.J.; Davies, B.E.

    1995-11-01

    Geophysical studies in shallow waters adjacent to the Bush River Peninsula, Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, have delineated the extent of waste disposal sites and established a hydrogeologic framework, which may control contaminant transport offshore. These studies indicate that during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low sea levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits around the Bush River Peninsula. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal paleochannels greater than 50 ft deep. Some of the paleochannels are also imaged with marine seismic reflection. Conductivity highs measured with the EM-31 are also indicative of paleochannels. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the peninsula. Magnetic, conductivity, and side-scan sonar anomalies outline anthropogenic anomalies in the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, underwater anthropogenic materials do exist in some isolated areas, but large-scale offshore dumping has not occurred in the area studied.

  20. NASA SPoRT GOES-R Proving Ground Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Jedloec, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program is a partner with the GOES-R Proving Ground (PG) helping prepare forecasters understand the unique products to come from the GOES-R instrument suite. SPoRT is working collaboratively with other members of the GOES-R PG team and Algorithm Working Group (AWG) scientists to develop and disseminate a suite of proxy products that address specific forecast problems for the WFOs, Regional and National Support Centers, and other NOAA users. These products draw on SPoRT s expertise with the transition and evaluation of products into operations from the MODIS instrument and the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA). The MODIS instrument serves as an excellent proxy for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) that will be aboard GOES-R. SPoRT has transitioned and evaluated several multi-channel MODIS products. The true and false color products are being used in natural hazard detection by several SPoRT partners to provide better observation of land features, such as fires, smoke plumes, and snow cover. Additionally, many of SPoRT s partners are coastal offices and already benefit from the MODIS sea surface temperature composite. This, along with other surface feature observations will be developed into ABI proxy products for diagnostic use in the forecast process as well as assimilation into forecast models. In addition to the MODIS instrument, the NALMA has proven very valuable to WFOs with access to these total lightning data. These data provide situational awareness and enhanced warning decision making to improve lead times for severe thunderstorm and tornado warnings. One effort by SPoRT scientists includes a lightning threat product to create short-term model forecasts of lightning activity. Additionally, SPoRT is working with the AWG to create GLM proxy data from several of the ground based total lightning networks, such as the NALMA. The evaluation will focus on the vastly improved spatial

  1. The GOES-R Proving Ground: 2012 Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurka, J.; Goodman, S. J.; Schmit, T.; Demaria, M.; Mostek, A.; Siewert, C.; Reed, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-R will provide a great leap forward in observing capabilities, but will also offer a significant challenge to ensure that users are ready to exploit the vast improvements in spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions. To ensure user readiness, forecasters and other users must have access to prototype advanced products well before launch, and have the opportunity to provide feedback to product developers and computing and communications managers. The operational assessment is critical to ensure that the end products and NOAA's computing and communications systems truly meet their needs in a rapidly evolving environment. The GOES-R Proving Ground (PG) engages the National Weather Service (NWS) forecast, watch and warning community and other agency users in pre-operational demonstrations of select products with GOES-R attributes (enhanced spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution). In the PG, developers and forecasters test and apply algorithms for new GOES-R satellite data and products using proxy and simulated data sets, including observations from current and future satellite instruments (MODIS, AIRS, IASI, SEVIRI, NAST-I, NPP/VIIRS/CrIS, LIS), lightning networks, and computer simulated products. The complete list of products to be evaluated in 2012 will be determined after evaluating results from experiments in 2011 at the NWS' Storm Prediction Center, National Hurricane Center, Aviation Weather Center, Ocean Prediction Center, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, and from the six NWS regions. In 2012 and beyond, the PG will test and validate data processing and distribution systems and the applications of these products in operational settings. Additionally developers and forecasters will test and apply display techniques and decision aid tools in operational environments. The PG is both a recipient and a source of training. Training materials are developed using various distance training tools in

  2. Environmental geophysics at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Daudt, C.R.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

    1994-11-01

    Geophysical data collected at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, were used in the characterization of the natural hydrogeologic framework of the J-Field area and in the identification of buried disturbances (trenches and other evidences of contamination). Seismic refraction and reflection data and electrical resistivity data have aided in the characterization of the leaky confining unit at the base of the surficial aquifer (designated Unit B of the Tertiary Talbot Formation). Excellent reflectors have been observed for both upper and lower surfaces of Unit B that correspond to stratigraphic units observed in boreholes and on gamma logs. Elevation maps of both surfaces and an isopach map of Unit B, created from reflection data at the toxic burning pits site, show a thickening of Unit B to the east. Abnormally low seismic compressional-wave velocities suggest that Unit B consists of gassy sediments whose gases are not being flushed by upward or downward moving groundwater. The presence of gases suggests that Unit B serves as an efficient aquitard that should not be penetrated by drilling or other activities. Electromagnetic, total-intensity magnetic, and ground-penetrating radar surveys have aided in delineating the limits of two buried trenches, the VX burning pit and the liquid smoke disposal pit, both located at the toxic burning pits site. The techniques have also aided in determining the extent of several other disturbed areas where soils and materials were pushed out of disposal pits during trenching activities. Surveys conducted from the Prototype Building west to the Gunpowder River did not reveal any buried trenches.

  3. Depleted uranium risk assessment at Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M.H.; Myers, O.B.; Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.H.

    1993-03-01

    The Environmental Science Group at Los Alamos and the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) are assessing the risk of depleted uranium (DU) testing at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG). Conceptual and mathematical models of DU transfer through the APG ecosystem have been developed in order to show the mechanisms by which DU migrates or remains unavailable to different flora and fauna and to humans. The models incorporate actual rates of DU transfer between different ecosystem components as much as possible. Availability of data on DU transport through different pathways is scarce and constrains some of the transfer rates that can be used. Estimates of transfer rates were derived from literature sources and used in the mass-transfer models when actual transfer rates were unavailable. Objectives for this risk assessment are (1) to assess if DU transports away from impact areas; (2) to estimate how much, if any, DU migrates into Chesapeake Bay; (3) to determine if there are appreciable risks to the ecosystems due to DU testing; (4) to estimate the risk to human health as a result of DU testing.

  4. Depleted uranium risk assessment at Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M.H. ); Myers, O.B.; Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.H. . Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Science Group at Los Alamos and the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) are assessing the risk of depleted uranium (DU) testing at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG). Conceptual and mathematical models of DU transfer through the APG ecosystem have been developed in order to show the mechanisms by which DU migrates or remains unavailable to different flora and fauna and to humans. The models incorporate actual rates of DU transfer between different ecosystem components as much as possible. Availability of data on DU transport through different pathways is scarce and constrains some of the transfer rates that can be used. Estimates of transfer rates were derived from literature sources and used in the mass-transfer models when actual transfer rates were unavailable. Objectives for this risk assessment are (1) to assess if DU transports away from impact areas; (2) to estimate how much, if any, DU migrates into Chesapeake Bay; (3) to determine if there are appreciable risks to the ecosystems due to DU testing; (4) to estimate the risk to human health as a result of DU testing.

  5. Environmental geophysics at Beach Point, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Miller, S.F.; Mandell, W.A.; Wrobel, J.

    1994-07-01

    Geophysical studies at Beach Point Peninsula, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies permit construction of the most reasonable scenario linking dense, nonaqueous-phase liquid contaminants introduced at the surface with their pathway through the surficial aquifer. Subsurface geology and contaminant presence were identified by drilling, outcrop mapping, and groundwater sampling and analyses. Suspected sources of near-surface contaminants were defined by magnetic and conductivity measurements. Negative conductivity anomalies may be associated with unlined trenches. Positive magnetic and conductivity anomalies outline suspected tanks and pipes. The anomalies of greatest concern are those spatially associated with a concrete slab that formerly supported a mobile clothing impregnating plant. Resistivity and conductivity profiling and depth soundings were used to identify an electrical anomaly extending through the surficial aquifer to the basal pleistocene unconformity, which was mapped by using seismic reflection methods. The anomaly may be representative of a contaminant plume connected to surficial sources. Major activities in the area included liquid rocket fuel tests, rocket fuel fire suppression tests, pyrotechnic material and smoke generator tests, and the use of solvents at a mobile clothing impregnating plant.

  6. Potential Cislunar and Interplanetary Proving Ground Excursion Trajectory Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Strange, Nathan J.; Burke, Laura M.; MacDonald, Mark A.; McElrath, Timothy P.; Landau, Damon F.; Lantoine, Gregory; Hack, Kurt J.; Lopez, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    NASA has been investigating potential translunar excursion concepts to take place in the 2020s that would be used to test and demonstrate long duration life support and other systems needed for eventual Mars missions in the 2030s. These potential trajectory concepts could be conducted in the proving ground, a region of cislunar and near-Earth interplanetary space where international space agencies could cooperate to develop the technologies needed for interplanetary spaceflight. Enabled by high power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technologies, the excursion trajectory concepts studied are grouped into three classes of increasing distance from the Earth and increasing technical difficulty: the first class of excursion trajectory concepts would represent a 90-120 day round trip trajectory with abort to Earth options throughout the entire length, the second class would be a 180-210 day round trip trajectory with periods in which aborts would not be available, and the third would be a 300-400 day round trip trajectory without aborts for most of the length of the trip. This paper provides a top-level summary of the trajectory and mission design of representative example missions of these three classes of excursion trajectory concepts.

  7. Pacific Proving Grounds radioisotope imprint in the Philippine Sea sediments.

    PubMed

    Pittauer, Daniela; Roos, Per; Qiao, Jixin; Geibert, Walter; Elvert, Marcus; Fischer, Helmut W

    2017-08-23

    Radionuclide concentrations were studied in sediment cores taken at the continental slope of the Philippine Sea off Mindanao Island in the equatorial Western Pacific. High resolution deposition records of anthropogenic radionuclides were collected at this site. Excess (210)Pb together with excess (228)Th and anthropogenic radionuclides provided information about accumulation rates. Concentrations of Am and Pu isotopes were detected by gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS. The Pu ratios indicate a high portion (minimum of 60%) of Pu from the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG). This implies that the transport of PPG derived plutonium with the Mindanao Current southward is similarly effective as the previously known transport towards the north with the Kuroshio Current. The record is compared to other studies from northwest Pacific marginal seas and Lombok basin in the Indonesian Archipelago. The sediment core top was found to contain a 6 cm thick layer dominated by terrestrial organic matter, which was interpreted as a result of the 2012 Typhoon Pablo-related fast deposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Yuma proving grounds automatic UXO detection using biomorphic robots

    SciTech Connect

    Tilden, M.W.

    1996-07-01

    The current variety and dispersion of Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) is a daunting technological problem for current sensory and extraction techniques. The bottom line is that the only way to insure a live UXO has been found and removed is to step on it. As this is an upsetting proposition for biological organisms like animals, farmers, or Yuma field personnel, this paper details a non-biological approach to developing inexpensive, automatic machines that will find, tag, and may eventually remove UXO from a variety of terrains by several proposed methods. The Yuma proving grounds (Arizona) has been pelted with bombs, mines, missiles, and shells since the 1940s. The idea of automatic machines that can clean up after such testing is an old one but as yet unrealized because of the daunting cost, power and complexity requirements of capable robot mechanisms. A researcher at Los Alamos National Laboratory has invented and developed a new variety of living robots that are solar powered, legged, autonomous, adaptive to massive damage, and very inexpensive. This technology, called Nervous Networks (Nv), allows for the creation of capable walking mechanisms (known as Biomorphic robots, or Biomechs for short) that rather than work from task principles use instead a survival-based design philosophy. This allows Nv based machines to continue doing work even after multiple limbs and sensors have been removed or damaged, and to dynamically negotiate complex terrains as an emergent property of their operation (fighting to proceed, as it were). They are not programmed, and indeed, the twelve transistor Nv controller keeps their electronic cost well below that of most pocket radios. It is suspected that advanced forms of these machines in huge numbers may be an interesting, capable solution to the problem of general and specific UXO identification, tagging, and removal.

  9. High resolution seismic reflection profiling at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.D.; Xia, Jianghai; Swartzel, S.; Llopis, J.; Miller, P.

    1996-11-01

    The effectiveness of shallow high resolution seismic reflection (i.e., resolution potential) to image geologic interfaces between about 70 and 750 ft at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland (APG), appears to vary locally with the geometric complexity of the unconsolidated sediments that overlay crystalline bedrock. The bedrock surface (which represents the primary geologic target of this study) was imaged at each of three test areas on walkaway noise tests and CDP (common depth point) stacked data. Proven high resolution techniques were used to design and acquire data on this survey. Feasibility of the technique and minimum acquisition requirements were determined through evaluation and correlation of walkaway noise tests, CDP survey lines, and a downhole velocity check shot survey. Data processing and analysis revealed several critical attributes of shallow seismic data from APG that need careful consideration and compensation on reflection data sets. This survey determined: (1) the feasibility of the technique, (2) the resolution potential (both horizontal and vertical) of the technique, (3) the optimum source for this site, (4) the optimum acquisition geometries, (5) general processing flow, and (6) a basic idea of the acoustic variability across this site. Source testing involved an accelerated weight drop, land air gun, downhole black powder charge, sledge hammer/plate, and high frequency vibrator. Shallow seismic reflection profiles provided for a more detailed picture of the geometric complexity and variability of the distinct clay sequences (aquatards), previously inferred from drilling to be present, based on sparse drill holes and basewide conceptual models. The seismic data also reveal a clear explanation for the difficulties previously noted in correlating individual, borehole-identified sand or clay units over even short distances.

  10. Depleted uranium human health risk assessment, Jefferson Proving Ground, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1994-04-29

    The risk to human health from fragments of depleted uranium (DU) at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG) was estimated using two types of ecosystem pathway models. A steady-state, model of the JPG area was developed to examine the effects of DU in soils, water, and vegetation on deer that were hunted and consumed by humans. The RESRAD code was also used to estimate the effects of farming the impact area and consuming the products derived from the farm. The steady-state model showed that minimal doses to humans are expected from consumption of deer that inhabit the impact area. Median values for doses to humans range from about 1 mrem ({plus_minus}2.4) to 0.04 mrem ({plus_minus}0.13) and translate to less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} detriments (excess cancers) in the population. Monte Carlo simulation of the steady-state model was used to derive the probability distributions from which the median values were drawn. Sensitivity analyses of the steady-state model showed that the amount of DU in airborne dust and, therefore, the amount of DU on the vegetation surface, controlled the amount of DU ingested by deer and by humans. Human doses from the RESRAD estimates ranged from less than 1 mrem/y to about 6.5 mrem/y in a hunting scenario and subsistence fanning scenario, respectively. The human doses exceeded the 100 mrem/y dose limit when drinking water for the farming scenario was obtained from the on-site aquifer that was presumably contaminated with DU. The two farming scenarios were unrealistic land uses because the additional risk to humans due to unexploded ordnance in the impact area was not figured into the risk estimate. The doses estimated with RESRAD translated to less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} detriments to about 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} detriments. The higher risks were associated only with the farming scenario in which drinking water was obtained on-site.

  11. Aberdeen Area Fire Training Area Hydrologic Assessment, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    boring soil gas surveys were conducted for volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination at the FTA. Deeper borings were conducted for monitor wells and...high, on the ground surface. Fire training exercises at the AFTA were stopped in March 1989. Assessment During the RFA, a soil gas survey by the...71 Soil Gas Survey ............................................. 77 Soil Samples ...... ........................................ 81 Underground

  12. Polarization : Proving ground for methods in radiative transfer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagendra, K. N.; Anusha, L. S.; Sampoorna, M.

    Polarization of solar lines arises due to illumination of radiating atom by anisotropic (limb darkened/brightened) radiation. Modelling the polarized spectra of the Sun and stars requires solution of the line radiative transfer problem in which the relevant polarizing physical mechanisms are incorporated. The purpose of this paper is to describe in what different ways the polarization state of the radiation `complicates' the numerical methods originally designed for scalar radiative transfer. We present several interesting situations involving the solution of polarized line transfer to prove our point. They are (i) Comparison of the polarized approximate lambda iteration (PALI) methods with new approaches like Bi-conjugate gradient method that is faster, (ii) Polarized Hanle scattering line radiative transfer in random magnetic fields, (iii) Difficulties encountered in incorporating polarized partial frequency redistribution (PRD) matrices in line radiative transfer codes, (iv) Technical difficulties encountered in handling polarized specific intensity vector, some components of which are sign changing, (v) Proving that scattering polarization is indeed a boundary layer phenomenon. We provide credible benchmarks in each of the above studies. We show that any new numerical methods can be tested in the best possible way, when it is extended to include polarization state of the radiation field in line scattering.

  13. Surface Observation Climatic Summaries for Dugway Proving Grounds, Utah

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 0-34 35-39 40-49 50-64 GE 65 TOTAL I UML (DEGREES) Z WlIND U 020-040 .5 1.2 .9 2.7 7.8 9.0 050-070 4.3 .5 .1 5.0 3A4 $J (E...OSURYVAT IO~t 1TATION NUPWU: 690110 STATION AANE: DUMMY PINNING GROLMS UT PERIOD OF RECORD: PAY &0 - Apit 90) LST TO UTC: + 7 MNOTH: JUJN H"~S: 15-17 WIND...AS•VlI,•NCTRUE IC.JLY OBSEAVATIOUS USAFETAC, AIEVLLE V MOBS SAGNETIC RUNWY HEADING: 120-300 STATION 1IM ;R: 690110 STATION M•K: DUMMY PROVING GRIOUNS

  14. Ground-water hydrology of Dugway Proving Ground and adjoining area, Tooele and Juab counties, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steiger, Judy I.; Freethey, Geoffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) is a U.S. Department of Defense chemical, biological, and explosives testing facility in northwestern Utah.  The facility includes about 620 mi2 in Tooele County.  The town of Dugway, referred to as English Village, is the administrative headquarters for the military facility, the primary residential area, and community center.  The English Village area is located at the southern end of Skull Valley and is separated from the Fries area by a surface-water divide.  Most of the facility is located just to the west of Skull Valley in Government Creek Valley, Dugway Valley, and the Great Salt Lake Desert (fig. 1).

  15. Mean of the top ten percent of NDVI values in the Yuma Proving Ground during monsoon season, 1986-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birtwistle, Amy N; Laituri, Melinda J.; Bledsoe, Brian P.; Friedman, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses growth in vegetation during the monsoon season measured from LANDSAT imagery as a proxy for measured rainfall. NDVI values from 26 years of pre- and post-monsoon season Landsat imagery were derived across Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) in southwestern Arizona, USA. The LANDSAT imagery (1986-2011) was downloaded from USGS’s GlobeVis website (http://glovis.usgs.gov/). Change in NDVI was calculated within a set of 2,843 Riparian Area Polygons (RAPs) up to 1 km in length defined in ESRI ArcMap 10.2.

  16. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P. B.; Eppler, D. B.; Kennedy, K. J.; Lewis, R.; Spann, J. F.; Sullivan, T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will begin enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long duration spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fundamental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fundamental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground.

  17. 33 CFR 334.700 - Choctawhatchee Bay, aerial gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and Development Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla... gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and Development Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla... regulations in this section shall be enforced by the Commander, Air Proving Ground Center, Eglin AFB, and...

  18. 33 CFR 334.700 - Choctawhatchee Bay, aerial gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and Development Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla... gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and Development Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla... regulations in this section shall be enforced by the Commander, Air Proving Ground Center, Eglin AFB, and such...

  19. 33 CFR 334.140 - Chesapeake Bay; U.S. Army Proving Ground Reservation, Aberdeen, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., the patrol boat may operate a distinctive rotating blue and red light, public address system, sound a..., eel pot, crab pot, and all other types of nets fastened by means of poles, stakes, weights, or anchors. Permits to fish and crab within the restricted waters of Aberdeen Proving Ground may be obtained...

  20. 33 CFR 334.140 - Chesapeake Bay; U.S. Army Proving Ground Reservation, Aberdeen, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., the patrol boat may operate a distinctive rotating blue and red light, public address system, sound a..., eel pot, crab pot, and all other types of nets fastened by means of poles, stakes, weights, or anchors. Permits to fish and crab within the restricted waters of Aberdeen Proving Ground may be obtained...

  1. Energy Engineering Analysis Program for Yuma Proving Ground, Yuma, Arizona. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1982-12-06

    The purpose of this study is to provide the Army with a Coordinated Basewide Energy Study, determination and analysis of Energy Conservation Investment Program (ECIP) projects, and development of DD Forms 1391, PDB`s, and other necessary back-up information to support Energy Conservation Investment Program (ECIP) projects scheduled for FY 86 at Yuma Proving Ground.

  2. The Joint Polar Satellite System (jpss) Proving Ground Program: Teaming Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjoberg, B.; Goldberg, M.; Guch, I.

    2012-12-01

    The JPSS Proving Ground Program's primary objective is to maximize the benefits and performance of Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP)/JPSS data, algorithms, and products for downstream operational and research users (gateways to the public) through three themes: 1. Detailed characterization of data attributes such as uncertainty (accuracy and precision) and long-term stability 2. Engaging users to enhance their applications (and develop new ones) by working together to facilitate optimal utilization of JPSS data, algorithms and products in combination with other data sources through onsite/offsite demonstrations, experimental data streams, and intercomparisons of enhancements with baselines 3. Education, Training and Outreach The JPSS Proving Ground Program has begun to identify opportunities to team with other national and international satellite programs to bring fused data products into a wide-variety of operational environments. The first initiative is with the Alaskan High Latitude and Arctic Proving Ground. The JPSS Program is working with National Weather Service organizations in Alaska and the GOES-R Program to establish a robust winter satellite proving ground project in 2012-2013. Lessons learned from this initiative will help guide the planning for future joint projects.

  3. Proving Ground Potential Mission and Flight Test Objectives and Near Term Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. Marshall; Craig, Douglas A.; Lopez, Pedro Jr.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is developing a Pioneering Space Strategy to expand human and robotic presence further into the solar system, not just to explore and visit, but to stay. NASA's strategy is designed to meet technical and non-technical challenges, leverage current and near-term activities, and lead to a future where humans can work, learn, operate, and thrive safely in space for an extended, and eventually indefinite, period of time. An important aspect of this strategy is the implementation of proving ground activities needed to ensure confidence in both Mars systems and deep space operations prior to embarking on the journey to the Mars. As part of the proving ground development, NASA is assessing potential mission concepts that could validate the required capabilities needed to expand human presence into the solar system. The first step identified in the proving ground is to establish human presence in the cis-lunar vicinity to enable development and testing of systems and operations required to land humans on Mars and to reach other deep space destinations. These capabilities may also be leveraged to support potential commercial and international objectives for Lunar Surface missions. This paper will discuss a series of potential proving ground mission and flight test objectives that support NASA's journey to Mars and can be leveraged for commercial and international goals. The paper will discuss how early missions will begin to satisfy these objectives, including extensibility and applicability to Mars. The initial capability provided by the launch vehicle will be described as well as planned upgrades required to support longer and more complex missions. Potential architectures and mission concepts will be examined as options to satisfy proving ground objectives. In addition, these architectures will be assessed on commercial and international participation opportunities and on how well they develop capabilities and operations applicable to Mars vicinity missions.

  4. Concept of Operations for a Prospective "Proving Ground" in the Lunar Vicinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Hill, James J.; Goodliff, Kandyce

    2016-01-01

    NASA is studying conceptual architectures for a "Proving Ground" near the Moon or in high lunar orbit to conduct human space exploration missions that bridge the gap between today's operations with the International Space Station (ISS) and future human exploration of Mars beginning in the 2030s. This paper describes the framework of a concept of operations ("Conops") for candidate activities in the Proving Ground. The Conops discusses broad goals that the Proving Ground might address, such as participation from commercial entities, support for human landings on the Moon, use of mature technologies, and growth of capability through a steady cadence of increasingly ambitious piloted missions. Additional Proving Ground objectives are outlined in a companion paper. Key elements in the Conops include the Orion spacecraft (with mission kits for docking and other specialized operations) and the Space Launch System (SLS) heavy-lift rocket. Potential additions include a new space suit, commercial launch vehicles and logistics carriers, Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) stages to move elements between different orbits and eventually take them on excursions to deep space, a core module with multiple docking ports, a habitation block, and robotic and piloted lunar landers. The landers might include reusable ascent modules which could remain docked to in-space elements between lunar sorties. A module providing advanced regenerative life support functions could launch to the ISS, and later move to the Proving Ground. The architecture will include infrastructure for launch preparation, communication, mission control, and range safety. The Conops describes notional missions chosen to guide the design of the architecture and its elements. One such mission might be the delivery of a approximately 10-t Transit Habitat element, comanifested with Orion on a Block 1B SLS launcher, to the Proving Ground. In another mission, the architecture might participate in direct human exploration of

  5. Energy Engineering Analysis Program, energy survey of boiler and chiller plants, Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    This report summarizes all work for the Energy Survey of Boiler and Chiller Plants, Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) at U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, authorized under Contract DACA05-92-C-0155 with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Sacramento District, California. The purpose of this study is to develop projects and actions that will reduce facilities energy consumption and operating costs at Yuma Proving Ground. Implementation of these projects will contribute to achieving the goal of the Army Facilities Energy Plan of a reduction in energy consumption per square foot of building floor area of 20 percent by FY2000 from FY1983 baseline levels. The survey and evaluation effort was limited to chillers and direct expansion cooling units in Buildings 451, 506, 2105, 3482, 3490, and 3510 boilers in Building 506.

  6. Initial building investigations at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: Building E5375

    SciTech Connect

    Brubaker, K.L.; Dougherty, J.M.; Tome, C.

    1993-06-01

    As part of a building decommissioning and demolition program at Aberdeen Proving Ground, a detailed inspection of each target building is being conducted in order to characterize and describe the state of the building as it currently exists and to identify areas potentially contaminated with toxic or other hazardous substances. Room surfaces, drains and sumps, remaining equipment, and such associated exterior aboveground and underground appurtenances as tanks and pipelines are among the features, generically termed compartments, that may be potentially contaminated. Detailed drawings are being prepared for each building to illustrate the existing structure. This report presents the results of the inspection of Building E5375 in the Edgewood/Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground. Nine potentially contaminated compartments were identified in this building and its vicinity.

  7. Concept of Operations for a Prospective "Proving Ground" in the Lunar Vicinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Hill, James J.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is studying a "Proving Ground" near the Moon to conduct human space exploration missions in preparation for future flights to Mars. This paper describes a concept of operations ("conops") for activities in the Proving Ground, focusing on the construction and use of a mobile Cislunar Transit Habitat capable of months-long excursions within and beyond the Earth-Moon system. Key elements in the conops include the Orion spacecraft (with mission kits for docking and other specialized operations) and the Space Launch System heavy-lift rocket. Potential additions include commercial launch vehicles and logistics carriers, solar electric propulsion stages to move elements between different orbits and eventually take them on excursions to deep space, a node module with multiple docking ports, habitation and life support blocks, and international robotic and piloted lunar landers. The landers might include reusable ascent modules which could remain docked to in-space elements between lunar sorties. The architecture will include infrastructure for launch preparation, communication, mission control, and range safety. The conops describes "case studies" of notional missions chosen to guide the design of the architecture and its elements. One such mission is the delivery of a 10-ton pressurized element, co-manifested with an Orion on a Block 1B Space Launch System rocket, to the Proving Ground. With a large solar electric propulsion stage, the architecture could enable a year-long mission to land humans on a near-Earth asteroid. In the last case, after returning to near-lunar space, two of the asteroid explorers could join two crewmembers freshly arrived from Earth for a Moon landing, helping to safely quantify the risk of landing deconditioned crews on Mars. The conops also discusses aborts and contingency operations. Early return to Earth may be difficult, especially during later Proving Ground missions. While adding risk, limited-abort conditions provide needed practice

  8. Executive summary. EEAP, Norfolk District, Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland. (Boiler/chiller). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1986-11-01

    This report presents the results of the Energy Engineering Analysis Program conducted by Roy F. Weston, Inc. at the Aberdeen and Edgewood Areas of Aberdeen Proving Grounds under Contract No. DACA-65-84-C-0105. The study includes evaluation of boiler and chiller plant performance by tests, identification and analysis of specific efficiency improvements, evaluation of existing equipment condition and maintenance procedures, and project development and documentation preparation.

  9. GSA's Green Proving Ground: Identifying, Testing and Evaluating Innovative Technologies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kandt, A.; Lowell, M.

    2012-05-01

    GSA's Green Proving Ground (GPG) program utilizes GSA's real estate portfolio to test and evaluate innovative and underutilized sustainable building technologies and practices. Findings are used to support the development of GSA performance specifications and inform decision making within GSA, other federal agencies, and the real estate industry. The program aims to drive innovation in environmental performance in federal buildings and help lead market transformation through deployment of new technologies.

  10. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 3: Ecological risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2000-02-25

    The Environmental Management Division of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) of the J-Field area at APG, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of that activity, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the J-Field site. This report presents the results of that assessment.

  11. JPSS Preparations at the Satellite Proving Ground for Marine, Precipitation, and Satellite Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folmer, Michael J.; Berndt, E.; Clark, J.; Orrison, A.; Kibler, J.; Sienkiewicz, J.; Nelson, J.; Goldberg, M.; Sjoberg, W.

    2016-01-01

    The ocean prediction center at the national hurricane center's tropical analysis and forecast Branch, the Weather Prediction center and the Satellite analysis branch of NESDIS make up the Satellite Proving Ground for Marine, Precipitation and Satellite Analysis. These centers had early exposure to JPSS products using the S-NPP Satellite that was launched in 2011. Forecasters continue to evaluate new products in anticipation for the launch of JPSS-1 sometime in 2017.

  12. SPoRT's Participation in the GOES-R Proving Ground Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary; Fuell, Kevin; Smith, Matthew; Stano, Geoffrey; Molthan, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The next generation geostationary satellite, GOES-R, will carry two new instruments with unique atmospheric and surface observing capabilities, the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), to study short-term weather processes. The ABI will bring enhanced multispectral observing capabilities with frequent refresh rates for regional and full disk coverage to geostationary orbit to address many existing and new forecast challenges. The GLM will, for the first time, provide the continuous monitoring of total lightning flashes over a hemispherical region from space. NOAA established the GOES-R Proving Ground activity several years ago to demonstrate the new capabilities of these instruments and to prepare forecasters for their day one use. Proving Ground partners work closely with algorithm developers and the end user community to develop and transition proxy data sets representing GOES-R observing capabilities. This close collaboration helps to maximize refine algorithms leading to the delivery of a product that effectively address a forecast challenge. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program has been a participant in the NOAA GOES-R Proving Ground activity by developing and disseminating selected GOES-R proxy products to collaborating WFOs and National Centers. Established in 2002 to demonstrate the weather and forecasting application of real-time EOS measurements, the SPoRT program has grown to be an end-to-end research to operations activity focused on the use of advanced NASA modeling and data assimilation approaches, nowcasting techniques, and unique high-resolution multispectral data from EOS satellites to improve short-term weather forecasts on a regional and local scale. Participation in the Proving Ground activities extends SPoRT s activities and taps its experience and expertise in diagnostic weather analysis, short-term weather forecasting, and the transition of research and experimental

  13. SPoRT's Participation in the GOES-R Proving Ground Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedlovec, G.; Fuell, K.; Smith, M. R.; Stano, G. T.; Molthan, A.

    2011-12-01

    The next generation geostationary satellite, GOES-R, will carry two new instruments with unique atmospheric and surface observing capabilities, the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), to study short-term weather processes. The ABI will bring enhanced multispectral observing capabilities with frequent refresh rates for regional and full disk coverage to geostationary orbit to address many existing and new forecast challenges. The GLM will, for the first time, provide the continuous monitoring of total lightning flashes over a hemispherical region from space. NOAA established the GOES-R Proving Ground activity several years ago to demonstrate the new capabilities of these instruments and to prepare forecasters for their day one use. Proving Ground partners work closely with algorithm developers and the end user community to develop and transition proxy data sets representing GOES-R observing capabilities. This close collaboration helps to maximize refine algorithms leading to the delivery of a product that effectively address a forecast challenge. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program has been a participant in the NOAA GOES-R Proving Ground activity by developing and disseminating selected GOES-R proxy products to collaborating WFOs and National Centers. Established in 2002 to demonstrate the weather and forecasting application of real-time EOS measurements, the SPoRT program has grown to be an end-to-end research to operations activity focused on the use of advanced NASA modeling and data assimilation approaches, nowcasting techniques, and unique high-resolution multispectral data from EOS satellites to improve short-term weather forecasts on a regional and local scale. Participation in the Proving Ground activities extends SPoRT's activities and taps its experience and expertise in diagnostic weather analysis, short-term weather forecasting, and the transition of research and experimental

  14. Ground-water flow and the possible effects of remedial actions at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    J-Field, located in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md, has been used since World War II to test and dispose of explosives, chemical warfare agents, and industrial chemicals resulting in ground-water, surface-water, and soil contami- nation. The U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference model was used to better understand ground-water flow at the site and to simulate the effects of remedial actions. A surficial aquifer and a confined aquifer were simulated with the model. A confining unit separates these units and is represented by leakance between the layers. The area modeled is 3.65 mi2; the model was constructed with a variably spaced 40 X 38 grid. The horizontal and lower boundaries of the model are all no-flow boundaries. Steady-state conditions were used. Ground water at the areas under investigation flows from disposal pit areas toward discharge areas in adjacent estuaries or wetlands. Simulations indicate that capping disposal areas with an impermeable cover effectively slows advective ground water flow by 0.7 to 0.5 times. Barriers to lateral ground-water flow were simulated and effectively prevented the movement of ground water toward discharge areas. Extraction wells were simulated as a way to contain ground-water contamination and to extract ground water for treatment. Two wells pumping 5 gallons per minute each at the toxic-materials disposal area and a single well pumping 2.5 gallons per minute at the riot-control-agent disposal area effectively contained contamination at these sites. A combi- nation of barriers to horizontal flow east and south of the toxic-materials disposal area, and a single extraction well pumping at 5 gallons per minute can extract contaminated ground water and prevent pumpage of marsh water.

  15. Satellite Proving Ground for the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Gurka, James; Bruning, E. C.; Blakeslee, J. R.; Rabin, Robert; Buechler, D.

    2009-01-01

    The key mission of the Satellite Proving Ground is to demonstrate new satellite observing data, products and capabilities in the operational environment to be ready on Day 1 to use the GOES-R suite of measurements. Algorithms, tools, and techniques must be tested, validated, and assessed by end users for their utility before they are finalized and incorporated into forecast operations. The GOES-R Proving Ground for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) focuses on evaluating how the infusion of the new technology, algorithms, decision aids, or tailored products integrate with other available tools (weather radar and ground strike networks; nowcasting systems, mesoscale analysis, and numerical weather prediction models) in the hands of the forecaster responsible for issuing forecasts and warning products. Additionally, the testing concept fosters operation and development staff interactions which will improve training materials and support documentation development. Real-time proxy total lightning data from regional VHF lightning mapping arrays (LMA) in Northern Alabama, Central Oklahoma, Cape Canaveral Florida, and the Washington, DC Greater Metropolitan Area are the cornerstone for the GLM Proving Ground. The proxy data will simulate the 8 km Event, Group and Flash data that will be generated by GLM. Tailored products such as total flash density at 1-2 minute intervals will be provided for display in AWIPS-2 to select NWS forecast offices and national centers such as the Storm Prediction Center. Additional temporal / spatial combinations are being investigated in coordination with operational needs and case-study proxy data and prototype visualizations may also be generated from the NASA heritage Lightning Imaging Sensor and Optical Transient Detector data. End users will provide feedback on the utility of products in their operational environment, identify use cases and spatial/temporal scales of interest, and provide feedback to the developers for adjusted or

  16. Source localization results for airborne acoustic platforms in the 2010 Yuma Proving Ground test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostashev, Vladimir E.; Collier, Sandra L.; Reiff, Christian G.; Cheinet, Sylvain; Ligon, David A.; Wilson, D. Keith; Noble, John M.; Alberts, William C.

    2013-05-01

    Acoustic sensors are being employed on airborne platforms, such as Persistent Threat Detection System (PTDS) and Persistent Ground Surveillance System (PGSS), for source localization. Under certain atmospheric conditions, airborne sensors offer a distinct advantage over ground sensors. Among other factors, the performance of airborne sensors is affected by refraction of sound signals due to vertical gradients in temperature and wind velocity. A comprehensive experiment in source localization with an aerostat-mounted acoustic system was conducted in summer of 2010 at Yuma Proving Ground (YPG). Acoustic sources on the ground consisted of one-pound TNT denotations and small arms firings. The height of the aerostat was approximately 1 km above the ground. In this paper, horizontal, azimuthal, and elevation errors in source localization and their statistics are studied in detail. Initially, straight-line propagation is assumed; then refraction corrections are introduced to improve source localization and decrease the errors. The corrections are based on a recently developed theory [Ostashev, et. al, JASA 2008] which accounts for sound refraction due to vertical profiles of temperature and wind velocity. During the 2010 YPG field test, the vertical profiles were measured only up to a height of approximately 100 m. Therefore, the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is used to generate the profiles for July of 2010.

  17. Aberdeen area fire training area hydrologic assessment, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Final report, September 1989-July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Whitten, C.B.; Miller, S.P.; Derryberry, N.A.; Wade, R.

    1992-12-01

    In 1986, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Hazardous Waste Management Permit to Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland. The permit required a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Assessment (RFA) of sites in the Aberdeen Area (AA) of APG. Recommendations from a draft RFA report suggested further investigations at the Fire Training Area (FTA). This study is in response to the recommendations. Three soil borings and twelve groundwater monitor wells were installed. Three rounds of groundwater sampling and analyses were conducted. APG lies in the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province which is underlain by sediments consisting of three major units, the Potomac Group, the Talbot Formation, and Recent (Holocene) sediments. The Lower Cretaceous sediments of the Potomac Group lie unconformably on the older Precambrian rocks. In the early 1960's fire training was initiated and training has been conducted as often as once a week. Trenches were ignited after being filled with oil and water. The exercises concluded in 1989. During the RFA shallow boring soil gas surveys were conducted for volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination at the FTA. Deeper borings were conducted for monitor wells and geologic mapping. Sampling and monitoring of groundwater, surface water, and soils was conducted. Analyses of groundwater from the monitor wells and two supply wells indicate the AFTA is contributing chemical contaminants to the upper aquifer, which is at a depth of approximately 30 feet below ground surface. ....Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, Hydrogeology, Groundwater, Site characterization, Groundwater contamination.

  18. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spann, James; Niles, Paul B.; Eppler, Dean B.; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Lewis, Ruthan.; Sullivan, Thomas A.

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: This talk will introduce the preliminary findings in support of NASA's Future Capabilities Team. In support of the ongoing studies conducted by NASA's Future Capabilities Team, we are tasked with collecting research objectives for the Proving Ground activities. The objectives could include but are certainly not limited to: demonstrating crew well being and performance over long duration missions, characterizing lunar volatiles, Earth monitoring, near Earth object search and identification, support of a far-side radio telescope, and measuring impact of deep space environment on biological systems. Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will begin enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long duration spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fundamental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground. Possible Architectures: Activities and objectives will be accomplished during the Proving Ground phase using a deep space habitat. This habitat will potentially be accompanied by a power/propulsion bus capable of moving the habitat to accomplish different objectives within cis-lunar space. This architecture can also potentially support staging of robotic and tele-robotic assets as well as

  19. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spann, James; Niles, Paul; Eppler, Dean; Kennedy, Kriss; Lewis, Ruthan; Sullivan, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: This talk will introduce the preliminary findings in support of NASA's Future Capabilities Team. In support of the ongoing studies conducted by NASA's Future Capabilities Team, we are tasked with collecting re-search objectives for the Proving Ground activities. The objectives could include but are certainly not limited to: demonstrating crew well being and performance over long duration missions, characterizing lunar volatiles, Earth monitoring, near Earth object search and identification, support of a far-side radio telescope, and measuring impact of deep space environment on biological systems. Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will be enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long dura-tion spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fun-damental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground. Possible Architectures: Activities and objectives will be accomplished during the Proving Ground phase using a deep space habitat. This habitat will potentially be accompanied by a power/propulsion bus capable of moving the habitat to accomplish different objectives within cis-lunar space. This architecture can also potentially support stag-ing of robotic and tele-robotic assets as well as

  20. Hydrogeologic setting, hydraulic properties, and ground-water flow at the O-Field area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, W.S.; Smith, B.S.; Donnelly, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Army disposed chemical agents, laboratory materials, and unexploded ordnance at O-Field in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, from before World War II until at least the 1950's. Soil, ground water, surface water,and wetland sediments in the O-Field area were contaminated from the disposal activity. A ground-water-flow model of the O-Field area was constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1989 to simulate flow in the central and southern part of the Gunpowder Neck. The USGS began an additional study of the contamination in the O-Field area in cooperation with the U.S. Army in 1990 to (1) further define the hydrogeologic framework of the O-Field area, (2) characterize the hydraulic properties of the aquifers and confining units, and (3) define ground-water flow paths at O-Field based on the current data and simulations of ground-water flow. A water-table aquifer, an upper confining unit, and an upper confined aquifer comprise the shallow ground-water aquifer system of the O-Field area. A lower confining unit, through which ground-water movement is negligible, is considered a lower boundary to the shallow aquifer system. These units are all part of the Pleistocene Talbot Formation. The model developed in the previous study was redesigned using the data collected during this study and emphasized New O-Field. The current steady-state model was calibrated to water levels of June 1993. The rate of ground-water flow calculated by the model was approximately 0.48 feet per day (ft/d) and the rate determined from chlorofluorocarbon dates was approximately 0.39 ft/d.

  1. Site investigation of Cluster 3, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, M.K.; Kean, T.B.

    1995-08-01

    The Waterways Experiment Station (WES) is currently involved in investigating several sites at the Edgewood Area (EA) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland. These investigations consist of placing monitoring wells and periodically collecting samples for laboratory analysis. Additionally, several of the sites are to be investigated geophysically to determine if any anomalous areas exist. One of the sites, Cluster 3, a suspected landfill area is the focus of this report. Geophysical surveys were conducted to help delineate any anomalies indicative of buried waste, waste containers, boundaries of burial trenches, and the depth to water table. The geophysical methods utilized at the site were electromagnetic induction (EM), magnetics, and seismic refraction.

  2. Landforms and Surface Cover of U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-08

    sediments of the Mio-Pliocene (10-3 million years old) Bousse Formation as mapped by Olmsted (1972) (Figure 2-5, Photo A). 2.1.9 Mountain Highland...Pleistocene (3 million to 800 thousand years old) aged older river deposits (QTor) mapped by Olmsted (1972) in the southwest corner of YPG near the...operations: Army Research Office Report to Yuma Proving Ground, 112 p Olmsted , F.H., 1972, Geologic map of the Laguna Dam 7.5 minute quadrangle Arizona

  3. Initial building investigations at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: Objectives and methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Brubaker, K.L.; Dougherty, J.M.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1994-12-01

    As part of an environmental-contamination source-definition program at Aberdeen Proving Ground, detailed internal and external inspections of 23 potentially contaminated buildings are being conducted to describe and characterize the state of each building as it currently exists and to identify areas potentially contaminated with toxic or other hazardous substances. In addition, a detailed geophysical investigation is being conducted in the vicinity of each target building to locate and identify subsurface structures, associated with former building operations, that are potential sources of contamination. This report describes the objectives of the initial building inspections, including the geophysical investigations, and discusses the methodology that has been developed to achieve these objectives.

  4. Long-term fate of depleted uranium at Aberdeen and Yuma Proving Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M.H.; Essington, E.H.; Gladney, E.S.; Newman, B.D.; Reynolds, C.L.

    1990-06-01

    The environmental fate of fragments of depleted uranium (DU) penetrators in soils and waters at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) is a concern to the Testing and Evaluation Command (TECOM) of the US Army. This report presents the information from preliminary soil and water samples that were collected from the humid woodlands of APG and the arid Sonoran Desert of YPG. Soil samples collected beneath a penetrator fragment of the firing range at APG showed approximately 12% DU by weight in the surface horizon and DU significantly above background to a depth of about 20 cm. Samples of surface water at APG showed U only at background levels, and bottom sediments showed background U levels but with isotopic ratios of DU instead of natural U. Soil samples beneath a penetrator fragment at YPG showed about 0.5% by weight U in the surface horizon, but only background concentrations and isotopic ratios of U between 8 and 20 cm depth. Results from this preliminary study indicate that DU at APG was redistributed primarily be dissolution and transport with water and possibly by migration of DU colloids or DU attached to small particles. Redistribution at YPG, however, was mainly due to erosion of DU fragments from the impact area and redeposition in washes that drain the area. Proposed work for FY90-FY92 includes additional field sampling, laboratory column studies, and the development of a computer model of DU redistribution at both sites. 39 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Rickettsiales: Ehrlichieae) infection in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

    PubMed

    Stromdahl, E Y; Randolph, M P; O'Brien, J J; Gutierrez, A G

    2000-05-01

    Human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) is a sometimes fatal, emerging tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Ehrlichia chaffeensis. It is frequently misdiagnosed because its symptoms mimic those of the flu. Current evidence indicates that Amblyomma americanum (L.), the lone star tick, is the major vector of HME. To determine if E. chaffeensis is present in ticks at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, questing A. americanum ticks were collected from 33 sites. Nucleic acid was extracted from 34 adult and 81 nymphal pools. Sequences diagnostic for E. chaffeensis from three different loci (16S rRNA, 120-kDa protein, and a variable-length polymerase chain reaction [PCR] target, or VLPT) were targeted for amplification by the PCR. Fifty-two percent of the collection sites yielded pools infected with E. chaffeensis, confirming the presence and widespread distribution of E. chaffeensis at Aberdeen Proving Ground. Analysis with the both the 120-kDa protein primers and the VLPT primers showed that genetic variance exists. A novel combination of variance for the two loci was detected in two tick pools. The pathogenic implications of genetic variation in E. chaffeensis are as yet unknown.

  6. Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

    1991-12-01

    An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army`s Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

  7. Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

    1991-12-01

    An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army's Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

  8. Ground-water flow and the potential effects of remediation at Graces Quarters, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tenbus, F.J.; Fleck, W.B.

    1996-01-01

    Ground water in the east-central part of Graces Quarters, a former open-air chemical-agent test facility at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, is contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds. The U.S. Geological Survey's finite- difference model was used to help understand ground-water flow and simulate the effects of alternative remedial actions to clean up the ground water. Scenarios to simulate unstressed conditions and three extraction well con- figurations were used to compare alternative remedial actions on the contaminant plume. The scenarios indicate that contaminants could migrate from their present location to wetland areas within 10 years under unstressed conditions. Pumping 7 gal/min (gallons per minute) from one well upgradient of the plume will not result in containment or removal of the highest contaminant concentrations. Pumping 7 gal/min from three wells along the central axis of the plume should result in containment and removal of dissolved contami- nants, as should pumping 7 gal/min from three wells at the leading edge of the plume while injecting 7 gal/min back into an upgradient well.

  9. Geophysics: Building E5476 decommissiong, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5476 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, were not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. Large magnetic anomalies near the southwest comer of the building are due to aboveground standpipes and steel-reinforced concrete. Two high-resistivity areas, one projecting northeast from the building and another south of the original structure, may indicate the presence of organic pore fluids in the subsurface. A conductive lineament protruding from the south wall that is enclosed by the southem, high-resistivity feature is not associated with an equivalent magnetic anomaly. Magnetic and electrical anomalies south of the old landfill boundary are probably not associated with the building. The boundary is marked by a band of magnetic anomalies and a conductive zone trending northwest to southeast. The cause of high resistivities in a semicircular area in the southwest comer, within the landfill area, is unexplained.

  10. Geophysics: Building E5481 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5481 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The building is located on the northern margin of a landfill that was sited in a wetland. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill that had been used to raise the grade. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. A conductive zone trending northwest to southeast across the site is spatially related to an old roadbed. Higher resistivity areas in the northeast and east are probably representive of background values. Three high-amplitude, positive, rectangular magnetic anomalies have unknown sources. The features do not have equivalent electrical signatures, nor are they seen with radar imaging.

  11. Interim progress report -- geophysics: Decommissioning of Buildings E5974 and E5978, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

    1992-11-01

    Buildings E5974 and E5978, located near the mouth of Canal Creek, were among 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Westwood and Canal Creek areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeters of the buildings to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The magnetic anomalies and the electrically conductive areas around these buildings have a spatial relationship similar to that observed in low-lying sites in the Canal Creek area; they are probably associated with construction fill. Electrically conductive terrain is dominant on the eastern side of the site, and resistive terrain predominates on the west. The smaller magnetic anomalies are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. The high resistivities in the northwest quadrant are believed to be caused by a natural sand lens. The causes of three magnetic anomalies in the high-resistivity area are unidentified, but they are probably anthropogenic.

  12. Geophysics: Building E5190 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1992-07-01

    Building E5190 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. A noninvasive geophysical survey, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, was conducted around the perimeter as a guide to developing a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling the building. The magnetics surveys indicated that multistation, positive magnetic sources are randomly distributed north and west of the building. Two linear trends were noted: one that may outline buried utility lines and another that is produced by a steel-covered trench. The resistivity profiling indicated three conductive zones: one due to increased moisture in a ditch, one associated with buried utility lines, and a third zone associated with the steel-covered trench. Ground-penetrating radar imaging detected two significant anomalies, which were correlated with small-amplitude magnetic anomalies. The objectives of the study -- to detect and locate objects and to characterize a located object were achieved.

  13. Natural attenuation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in a freshwater tidal wetland, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Smith, Barrett L.; Johnson, Mark A.; Fleck, William B.

    1997-01-01

    Ground-water contaminant plumes that are flowing toward or currently discharging to wetland areas present unique remediation problems because of the hydrologic connections between ground water and surface water and the sensitive habitats in wetlands. Because wetlands typically have a large diversity of microorganisms and redox conditions that could enhance biodegradation, they are ideal environments for natural attenuation of organic contaminants, which is a treatment method that would leave the ecosystem largely undisturbed and be cost effective. During 1992-97, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the natural attenuation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOC's) in a contaminant plume that discharges from a sand aquifer to a freshwater tidal wetland along the West Branch Canal Creek at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Characterization of the hydrogeology and geochemistry along flowpaths in the wetland area and determination of the occurrence and rates of biodegradation and sorption show that natural attenuation could be a feasible remediation method for the contaminant plume that extends along the West Branch Canal Creek.

  14. Environmental geophysics: Building E3640 Decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Borden, H.M.; Benson, M.A.; Thompson, M.D.; Padar, C.A.; Daudt, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    Building E3640 is a potentially contaminated site in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground. Noninvasive geophysical survey techniques, including magnetics, EM-31, EM-61, and ground-penetrating radar, were used as part of a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling of the building. Complex and large-amplitude anomalies caused by aboveground metal in this area obscure many smaller features produced by subsurface sources. No underground storage tanks were found in the areas surveyed. Major anomalies produced by subsurface sources include the following: EM-61 and EM-31 lineaments caused by a water line extending north from the south fence; a broad positive magnetic anomaly caused by magnetic fill north of the material and drum storage area and northeast of E3640; a 30-ft-wide band of EM-31 anomalies extending from the front gate to the southeast comer of E3640 and a coincident EM-61 anomaly produced by buried utilities; ground-penetrating radar images along three lines extending from a sump at the northeast comer of E3640 to the eastern fence; and EM-61, EM-31, and magnetic anomalies caused by overhead and underground pipes extending south from the north fence. Smaller, unidentified, localized anomalies observed throughout the survey area are also described in this report.

  15. Environmental geophysics at Kings Creek Disposal Site and 30th Street Landfill, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Stefanov, J.E.; Benson, M.A.; Padar, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Geophysical studies on the Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, delineate landfill areas and provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low seal levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits in the Kings Creek area. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal a paleochannel greater than 50 ft deep, with a thalweg trending offshore in a southwest direction into Kings Creek. Onshore, the ground-penetrating radar data indicate a 35-ft-deep branch to the main channel, trending to the north-northwest directly beneath the 30th Street Landfill. Other branches are suspected to meet the offshore paleochannel in the wetlands south and east of the 30th Street Landfill. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Electromagnetic surveys have delineated the pre-fill lowland area currently occupied by the 30th Street Landfill. Magnetic and conductive anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, large-scale dumping has not occurred north of the Kings Creek Disposal Site or east of the 30th Street Landfill.

  16. Subsidence in the craters of nuclear tests at the Pacific Proving Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.E.; Swift, R.P.; Bryan, J.B.; Glenn, H.D.

    1984-08-01

    The craters from high-yield nuclear tests at the Pacific Proving Ground are very broad and shallow in comparison with the bowl-shaped craters formed in continental rock at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and elsewhere. Attempts to explain the difference in terms of device yield (which was much larger in the Pacific tests than at NTS) have been generally unsatisfactory. We have for the first time successfully modeled the Koa Event, a representative coral-atoll test. On the basis of plausible assumptions about the geology and about the constitutive relations for coral, we have shown that the size and shape of the Koa crater can be accounted for by subsidence and liquefaction phenomena. If future studies confirm these assumptions, it will mean that some scaling formulas based on data from the Pacific will have to be revised to avoid overestimating weapons effects in continental geology. 41 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  17. Contamination source review for Building E5974, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Billmark, K.A.; Emken, M.E.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Smits, M.P.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents the results of a contamination source review of Building E5974 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The primary mission at APG has been the testing and evaluation of US Army warfare materials. Since its beginning in 1917, the Edgewood Area of APG has been the principal location for chemical warfare agent research, development, and testing in the US. APG was also used for producing chemical warfare agents during both world wars, and it has been a center for the storage of chemical warfare material. An attempt was made to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from this review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and collection of air samples.

  18. Remediation application strategies for depleted uranium contaminated soils at the US Army Yuma Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Vandel, D.S.; Medina, S.M.; Weidner, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    The US Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), located in the southwest portion of Arizona conducts firing of projectiles into the Gunpoint (GP-20) firing range. The penetrators are composed of titanium and DU. The purpose of this project was to determine feasible cleanup technologies and disposal alternatives for the cleanup of the depleted uranium (DU) contaminated soils at YPG. The project was split up into several tasks that include (a) collecting and analyzing samples representative of the GP-20 soils, (b) evaluating the data results, (c) conducting a literature search of existing proven technologies for soil remediation, and (0) making final recommendations for implementation of this technology to the site. As a result of this study, several alternatives for the separation, treatment, and disposal procedures are identified that would result in meeting the cleanup levels defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for unrestricted use of soils and would result in a significant cost savings over the life of the firing range.

  19. An Overview of NASA SPoRT GOES-R JPSS Proving Ground Testbed Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Emily; Stano, Geoffrey; Fuell, Kevin; Leroy, Anita; Mcgrath, Kevin; Molthan, Andrew; Schultz, Lori; Smith, Matthew; White, Kris; Schultz, Christopher; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center is funded by NASA's Earth Science Division and NOAA's JPSS and GOES-R Proving Grounds to transition satellite products and capabilities to the NWS to improve short term (0-48 hr) forecasts on a regional and local scale. SPoRT currently collaborates with 30+ NWS WFOs (at least one in each NWS region) and 5 National Centers/Testbeds. SPoRT matches user-identified forecast challenges to specific products, providing access to these data in AWIPS through new plug-in development, and generating applications-based training to use the products for their needs (R20). Upon transition, SPoRT collaborates with the user to assess the product impact in a real-world environment for feedback to product developers (O2R) and to benefit their peers.

  20. Evaluation of decommissioning alternatives for the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of four decommissioning alternatives for the Pilot Plant Complex (PPC), an inactive chemical weapons research, development, and production facility consisting of nine buildings located in the Edgewood Area of the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland. Decommissioning the PPC involves six steps: (1) assessing existing conditions; (2) dismantling the aboveground portions of the buildings (including the floor slabs, paved roads, and sidewalks within the PPC); (3) reducing the size of the demolition debris and sealing the debris in containers for later testing and evaluation; (4) testing and evaluating the debris; (5) conducting site operation and maintenance activities; and (6) recycling or disposing of the debris with or without prior treatment, as appropriate.

  1. Geophysics: Building E5375 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

    1992-08-01

    Building E5375 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Several anomalies wear, noted: (1) An underground storage tank located 25 ft east of Building E5375 was identified with magnetic, resistivity, and GPR profiling. (2) A three-point resistivity anomaly, 12 ft east of the northeast comer of Building E5374 (which borders Building E5375) and 5 ft south of the area surveyed with the magnetometer, may be caused by another underground storage tank. (3) A 2,500-gamma magnetic anomaly near the northeast corner of the site has no equivalent resistivity anomaly, although disruption in GPR reflectors was observed. (4) A one-point magnetic anomaly was located at the northeast comer, but its source cannot be resolved. A chaotic reflective zone to the east represents the radar signature of Building E5375 construction fill.

  2. Geophysics: Building E5282 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses Building E5282 which was one of 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Magnetic surveys identified small, complicated, multiple anomalies west, north, and northeast of the building that may be caused by construction fill. Two underground storage tanks, at the northeast and southeast corners, were identified. A large magnetic anomaly complex east of the building was caused by aboveground pipes and unexploded ordnance fragments scattered at the surface. Electrical resistivity profiling showed a broad, conductive terrain superimposed over magnetic anomalies on the north and west. A broad, high-resistivity, nonmagnetic area centered 25 ft east of the building has an unknown origin, but it may be due to nonconductive organic liquids, construction fill, or a buried concrete slab; GPR imaging showed this area as a highly reflective zone at a depth of about 5 ft. The GPR data also showed a small-diameter pipe oriented north-south located east of the building.

  3. Geophysics: Building E5440 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5440 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The results show several complex geophysical signatures. Isolated, one-point, magnetic anomalies surrounding the building may be associated with construction fill. A 10-ft-wide band of strongly magnetic positive anomalies bordering the north side of the building obliterates small magnetic sources that might otherwise be seen. A prominent magnetic ``nose`` extending northward from this band toward a standpipe at 100N,63E may be connected to an underground tank. The southeast corner of the site is underlain by a rectangular, magnetized source associated with strong radar images. A magnetic lineament extending south from the anomaly may be caused by a buried pipe; the anomaly itself may be caused by subsurface equipment associated with a manhole or utility access pit. A 2,500-gamma, positive magnetic anomaly centered at 0N,20E, which is also the location of a 12 {Omega}-m resistivity minimum, may be caused by a buried vault. It appears on radar imaging as a strong reflector.

  4. Environmental geophysics at the Southern Bush River Peninsula, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1995-05-01

    Geophysical studies have been conducted at five sites in the southern Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The goals of the studies were to identify areas containing buried metallic objects and to provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework of the site. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low sea level resulted in a complex pattern of channel-fill deposits. Paleochannels of various sizes and orientations have been mapped throughout the study area by means of ground-penetrating radar and EM-31 techniques. The EM-31 paleochannel signatures are represented onshore either by conductivity highs or lows, depending on the depths and facies of the fill sequences. A companion study shows the features as conductivity highs where they extend offshore. This erosional and depositional system is environmentally significant because of the role it plays in the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Magnetic and electromagnetic anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the areas surveyed. On the basis of geophysical measurements, large-scale (i.e., tens of feet) landfilling has not been found in the southern Bush River Peninsula, though smaller-scale dumping of metallic debris and/or munitions cannot be ruled out.

  5. Phase II environmental geophysics at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.E.; Thompson, M.D.; Yuen, C.R.

    1995-09-01

    Geophysical studies were conducted at eight sites on the tip of Gunpowder Neck (J-Field) in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The results of the studies were used to delineate the extent of three former burning pits and help determine the necessity of further investigation at five potential areas of concern (PAOCs). Intensive investigations were performed at the three former burning pits and two of the PAOCs by using electromagnetic (EM-31 and EM-61), total field magnetometry, and ground-penetrating radar geophysical techniques. The successful integration of the four data sets characterized the extent, the approximate depth and nature of fill material, and the location of metallic debris at the three former burning pits. At the two PAOC sites that were intensively investigated, no continuous areas of metallic debris, indicating organized burials, were present. Less extensive exploratory profiles conducted at three other PAOC sites indicated the presence of buried metal objects, but they were inconclusive in defining the nature and extent of buried materials.

  6. Ground-water and surface-water quality data for the West Branch Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, Tracey A.; Phelan, Daniel J.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Lorah, Michelle M.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents ground-water and surface-water quality data from samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from November 1999 through May 2001 at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The report also provides a description of the sampling and analytical methods that were used to collect and analyze the samples, and includes an evaluation of the quality-assurance data. The ground-water sampling network included two 4-inch wells, two 2-inch wells, sixteen 1-inch piezometers, one hundred thirteen 0.75-inch piezometers, two 0.25-inch flexible-tubing piezo-meters, twenty-seven 0.25-inch piezometers, and forty-two multi-level monitoring system depths at six sites. Ground-water profiler samples were collected from nine sites at 34 depths. In addition, passive-diffusion-bag samplers were deployed at four sites, and porous-membrane sampling devices were installed in the upper sediment at five sites. Surface-water samples were collected from 20 sites. Samples were collected from wells and 0.75-inch piezometers for measurement of field parameters and reduction-oxidation constituents, and analysis of inorganic and organic constituents, during three sampling events in March?April and June?August 2000, and May 2001. Surface-water samples were collected from November 1999 through September 2000 during five sampling events for analysis of organic constituents. Ground-water profiler samples were collected in April?May 2000, and analyzed for field measure-ments, reduction-oxidation constituents, and inorganic constituents and organic constituents. Passive-diffusion-bag samplers were installed in September 2000, and samples were analyzed for organic constituents. Multi-level monitoring system samples were collected and analyzed for field measurements and reduction-oxidation con-stituents, inorganic constituents, and organic con-stituents in March?April and June?August 2000. Field measurements and organic constituents were collected from 0.25-inch

  7. Optimization of ground-water withdrawal at the old O-Field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, William S.L.; Dillow, Jonathan J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Army disposed of chemical agents, laboratory materials, and unexploded ordnance at the Old O-Field landfill at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, beginning prior to World War II and continuing until at least the 1950?s. Soil, ground water, surface water, and wetland sediments in the Old O-Field area were contaminated by the disposal of these materials. The site is in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and is characterized by a complex series of Pleistocene and Holocene sediments formed in various fluvial, estuarine, and marine-marginal hydrogeologic environments. A previously constructed transient finite-difference ground-water-flow model was used to simulate ground-water flow and the effects of a pump-and-treat remediation system designed to prevent contaminated ground water from flowing into Watson Creek (a tidal estuary and a tributary to the Gunpowder River). The remediation system consists of 14 extraction wells located between the Old O-Field landfill and Watson Creek.Linear programming techniques were applied to the results of the flow-model simulations to identify optimal pumping strategies for the remediation system. The optimal management objective is to minimize total withdrawal from the water-table aquifer, while adhering to the following constraints: (1) ground-water flow from the landfill should be prevented from reaching Watson Creek, (2) no extraction pump should be operated at a rate that exceeds its capacity, and (3) no extraction pump should be operated at a rate below its minimum capacity, the minimum rate at which an Old O-Field pump can function. Water withdrawal is minimized by varying the rate and frequency of pumping at each of the 14 extraction wells over time. This minimizes the costs of both pumping and water treatment, thus providing the least-cost remediation alternative while simultaneously meeting all operating constraints.The optimal strategy identified using this objective and constraint set involved operating 13 of the 14

  8. GOES-R Proving Ground Activities at the NASA Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    SPoRT is actively involved in GOES-R Proving Ground activities in a number of ways: (1) Applying the paradigm of product development, user training, and interaction to foster interaction with end users at NOAA forecast offices national centers. (2) Providing unique capabilities in collaboration with other GOES-R Proving Ground partners (a) Hybrid GOES-MODIS imagery (b) Pseudo-GLM via regional lightning mapping arrays (c) Developing new RGB imagery from EUMETSAT guidelines

  9. Geophysical survey at cluster 6, Westwood Area, US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, J.E.; Harrelson, D.W.; Sharp, M.K.

    1995-05-01

    A geophysical investigation was conducted at Cluster 6 Site 5, located in Westwood Area of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground. This site is the former Westwood Area Radioactive Material Disposal Facility (WRMDF) which was used for processing and packaging radioactive waste material prior to disposal. Original structures at the site included Building 3013 and adjacent concrete slabs where the waste handling work was performed, a small equipment shed, and a wastewater holding and drain system which included tanks in a concrete pit. Discharge of wastewater from the tanks was to Reardon Inlet, located a short distance south of the tank pit. Possible release of radioactive waste to the environment would have been due to either spillage, leakage, or discharge from the wastewater system. Two terra cotta pipelines, one on the western end and one of the eastern end, extended from Building 3013 to Reardon Inlet. The east pipeline handled low-level radioactive wastewater. The west pipeline was the original wastewater line and it is presumed that radioactive wastewater was not discharged through this line. After radioactive waste handling activities were discontinued at WRMDF, the west pipeline system was upgraded to include a septic tank, sand filter bed, and a chlorine contact chamber. The structures associated with the WRMDF were removed during the early 1970`s, including the concrete tank pit. Both pipelines are visible near the edge of Reardon inlet, suggesting that the pipes and related structures have not been removed. Geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electromagnetics (EM), and ground penetrating radar, were performed to identify the location of the two terra cotta pipes, septic tank, and sand filter bed.

  10. Contamination source review for Building E3613, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Billmark, K.A.; Emken, M.E.; Muir-Ploense, K.L.

    1995-09-01

    This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review of Building E3613 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The report may be used to assist the U.S. Army in planning for the future use or disposition of this building, The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and collection of air samples. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994 and 1995. Building E3613 (APG designation) is located in the Canal Creek Area of APG. The building was constructed in 1954 for use as a change house, office, and storage building in support of the white phosphorus smoke program. The building has not been used since 1988. During an inspection in 1988, asbestos was listed as the only potential contaminant. The physical inspection and photographic documentation of Building E3613 were completed in November 1994. At the time of the inspection, Building E3613 was inactive and in disrepair. The single-story, rectangular structure contains five rooms and measures 16 ft 2 in. by 32 ft. The building is wood frame construction with a gabled roof. The exterior walls and roof are constructed of wood covered with asphalt sheeting. The building rests on a concrete foundation. The interior walls are 6-in.-thick wood, and the ceiling is assumed to be white drywall nailed to a wooden frame. Overhead steam pipes supported by vertical pipes traverse the area. Two concrete footings for guy wires that support the overhead steam pipes are located north and west of the building. Four additional vertical pipes exit the ground east of the building.

  11. Modeling erosion and transport of depleted uranium, Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, T.J.; Stevens, K.A.

    1994-06-01

    The high density, relative abundance, and metallic properties have made depleted uranium (DU) an obvious choice for high energy ballistic projectiles. The U.S. Army`s Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) in southwest Arizona tests DU projectiles. When DU projectiles strike a target or the downrange ground surface, they fragment. Most of the fragments are collected after the test firings, but some are either too small or too dispersed to be easily found. Unfortunately, DU has some undesirable characteristics, it is a radioactive material (alpha particle emitter) and a toxic metal. Therefore, the fragments not found pose a potential environmental hazard at the YPG and to surrounding areas. The U.S. Army has contracted with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to study the fate of DU at the YPG. In turn, LANL has contracted with New Mexico State University (NMSU) to investigate water transport of DU during rainfall-runoff events. Nine simulation runs were made on YPG soil containing DU fragments from the impact areas. The nine simulations consisted of three groups of three: rainfall simulation only, overland flow only, and rainfall/overland flow combination. Infiltration rates in the DU ballistic impact areas at YPG were very close to zero. Larger concentrations of DU were contained in the impact area soil which was retained by the 1 mm and 0.5 mm sieves when grain-size analysis was performed. After all nine simulations were completed, a mass balance of the uranium showed most DU remained in the soil box even under extreme hydraulic conditions, though about 7% (by weight) did exit the box. No DU was found in the suspended sediment samples and this suggests that most transport of DU is restricted to contact or bed-load movement during overland flow. Because the experiments were conducted to simulate extreme rainfall-runoff conditions, the probability of significant transport of DU from land surface appears to be low.

  12. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  13. Contamination source review for Building E2370, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    O`Reilly, D.P.; Glennon, M.A.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from this review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, and geophysical investigation. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E2370. Many of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot-scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances, the potential exists for portions of the buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings and associated structures or appurtenances may contribute to environmental concerns at APG.

  14. Contamination source review for Building E7995, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Booher, M.N.; Miller, G.A.; Draugelis, A.K.; Glennon, M.A.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from the review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition, of the buildings. The source contamination review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, investigation of potential hazardous materials facilities (HMFs), and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E7995. any of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot-scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances, the potential exists for portions of the buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings, and associated structures or appurtenances, may contribute to environmental concerns at APG.

  15. Contamination source review for Building E1489, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Billmark, K.A.; Hayes, D.C.; Draugelis, A.K.

    1995-09-01

    This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review of Building E1489 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. This report may be used to assist the U.S. Army-in planning for the future use or disposition of this building. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, and geophysical investigation. The field investigations were performed in 1994-1995. Building E1489 located in J-Field on the Gunpowder Peninsula in APG`s Edgewood Area housed a power generator that supplied electricity to a nearby observation tower. Building E1489 and the generator were abandoned in 1974, demolished by APG personnel and removed from real estate records. A physical inspection and photographic documentation of Building E1489 were completed by ANL staff during November 1994. In 1994, ANL staff conducted geophysical surveys in the immediate vicinity of Building E1489 by using several nonintrusive methods. Survey results suggest the presence of some underground objects near Building E1489, but they do not provide conclusive evidence of the source of geophysical anomalies observed during the survey. No air monitoring was conducted at the site, and no information on underground storage tanks associated with Building E1489 was available.

  16. Contamination source review for Building E3236, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Smits, M.P.; Draugelis, A.K.; Glennon, M.A.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from the review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks associated with each building. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E3236. Many of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot- scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances, the potential exists for portions of the buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings and associated structures or appurtenances may contribute to environmental concerns at APG.

  17. Contamination source review for Building E6891, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of various APG buildings. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E6891. The information obtained from this review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and collection of air samples. This building is part of the Lauderick Creek Concrete Slab Test Site, located in the Lauderick Creek Area in the Edgewood Area. Many of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot-scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances the potential exists` for portions of the buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings and associated structures or appurtenances may contribute to environmental concerns at APG.

  18. Contamination source review for Building E5485, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Billmark, K.A.; Hayes, D.C.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review of Building E5485 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. This report may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of this building. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and collection of air samples. Building E5485 (APG designation) is located in the drainage basin of the west branch of Canal Creek in the Edgewood Area of APG. The building was constructed in 1922 and used as a fan house for agent operations in Building E5487 from 1925 to 1966. Building E5485 was then used as a laboratory to support manufacturing and storage of flammable agents and chemical warfare agents from 1966 until 1967, when it was placed on the inactive list. Air quality samples were collected upwind, downwind, and inside Building E5485 in November 1994. Analytical results showed no distinguishable difference in hydrocarbon and chlorinated solvent levels between the two background samples and the sample collected inside Building E5485. These results indicate that Building E5485 is not a source of volatile organic compound contamination.

  19. Contamination source review for Building E3162, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.A.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review for Building E3162 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The report may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of this building. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and collection of air samples. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994 and 1995. Building E3162 (APG designation) is part of the Medical Research Laboratories Building E3160 Complex. This research laboratory complex is located west of Kings Creek, east of the airfield and Ricketts Point Road, and south of Kings Creek Road in the Edgewood Area of APG. The original structures in the E3160 Complex were constructed during World War 2. The complex was originally used as a medical research laboratory. Much of the research involved wound assessment involving chemical warfare agents. Building E3162 was used as a holding and study area for animals involved in non-agent burns. The building was constructed in 1952, placed on inactive status in 1983, and remains unoccupied. Analytical results from these air samples revealed no distinguishable difference in hydrocarbon and chlorinated solvent levels between the two background samples and the sample taken inside Building E3162.

  20. An Evaluation of Activated Bismuth Isotopes in Environmental Samples From the Former Western Pacific Proving Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Brunk, J.A.; Jokela, T.A.

    2000-03-21

    {sup 207}Bi (t{sub 1/2}=32.2 y) was generated by activation of weapons material during a few ''clean'' nuclear tests at the U.S. Western Pacific Proving Grounds of Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. The radionuclides first appeared in the Enewetak environment during 1958 and in the environment of Bikini during 1956. Crater sediments from Bikini with high levels of {sup 207}Bi were analyzed by gamma spectrometry in an attempt to determine the relative concentrations of {sup 208}Bi (t{sup 1/2} = 3.68 x 10{sup 5} y). The bismuth isotopes were probably generated during the ''clean'', 9.3 Mt Poplar test held on 7/12/58. The atom ratio of {sup 208}Bi to {sup 207}Bi (R value) ranges from {approx}12 to over 200 in sections of core sediments from the largest nuclear crater at Bikini atoll. The presence of bismuth in the device is suggested to account for R values in excess of 10.

  1. Contamination source review for Building E3641, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents the results of a contamination source review of Building E3641 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The primary mission at APG has been the testing and evaluation of US Army warfare materials. Since its beginning in 1917, the Edgewood Area of APG has been the principal location for chemical warfare agent research, development, and testing in the US. APG was also used for producing chemical warfare agents during both world wars, and it has been a center for the storage of chemical warfare material. An attempt was made to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from this review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks associated with each building.

  2. Hydrogeologic and chemical data for the O-Field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemoff, P.R.; Vroblesky, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    O-Field, located at the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground , Maryland, was periodically used for disposal of munitions, waste chemicals, and chemical-warfare agents from World War II through the 1950' s. This report includes various physical, geologic, chemical, and hydrologic data obtained from well-core, groundwater, surface water, and bottom-sediment sampling sites at and near the O-Field disposal area. The data are presented in tables and hydrographs. Three site-location maps are also included. Well-core data include lithologic logs for 11 well- cluster sites, grain-size distributions, various chemical characteristics, and confining unit characteristics. Groundwater data include groundwater chemistry, method blanks for volatile organic carbon, available data on volatile and base/neutral organics, and compilation of corresponding method blanks, chemical-warfare agents, explosive-related products, radionuclides, herbicides, and groundwater levels. Surface-water data include field-measured characteristics; concentrations of various inorganic constituents including arsenic; selected organic constituents with method blanks; detection limits of organics; and a compilation of information on corresponding acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles. Bottom- sediment data include inorganic properties and constituents; organic chemistry; detection limits for organic chemicals; a compilation of information on acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles; and method blanks corresponding to acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles. A set of 15 water- level hydrographs for the period March 1986 through September 1987 also is included in the report. (USGS)

  3. The U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground 900-kVa photovoltaic power station

    SciTech Connect

    Ducey, R.; Chapman, R.; Edwards, S.

    1997-12-31

    In the early spring of 1997, a 900-kVA, utility-tied photovoltaic power station was installed at the US Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), in the southwest corner of Arizona. The system will be used to offset peak demand and serve as an emergency power system for PYG`s water treatment plant. The power station includes 450-kWp of Siemens M-55 modules, 5600-kWh of C and D motive power batteries, and a 900-kVA power processing and control system from Trace Technologies. Enhanced by the battery load leveling system, the power station has the capacity to reliably provide from 450- up to 825-kVA to YPG`s utility grid during the summer peak demand season. The YPG system has three basic operating modes: (1) daytime utility-tied, (2) nighttime utility-tied, and (3) stand-alone. The amount of power delivered to the grid is governed by either available power from the PV array or by a power level defined by the user, whichever is greater.

  4. Contamination source review for Building E3642, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Booher, M.N.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    Many of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot-scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances, the potential exists for portions of these buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings and associated structures or appurtenances may contribute to environmental concerns at APG. The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from the review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks associated with the building. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E3642.

  5. Spatial relationships among soil biota in a contaminated grassland ecosystem at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Kuperman, R.; Williams, G.; Parmelee, R.

    1995-12-31

    Spatial relationships among soil nematodes and soil microorganisms were investigated in a grassland ecosystem contaminated with heavy metals in the US Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground. The study quantified fungal and bacterial biomass, the abundance of soil protozoa, and nematodes. Geostatistical techniques were used to determine spatial distributions of these parameters and to evaluate various cross-correlations. The cross-correlations among soil biota numbers were analyzed using two methods: a cross general relative semi-variogram and an interactive graphical data representation using geostatistically estimated data distributions. Both the visualization technique and the cross general relative semi-variogram and an interactive graphical data representation using geostatistically estimated data distributions. Both the visualization technique and the cross general relative semi-variogram showed a negative correlation between the abundance of fungivore nematodes and fungal biomass, the abundance of bacterivore nematodes and bacterial biomass, the abundance of omnivore/predator nematodes and numbers of protozoa, and between numbers of protozoa and both fungal and bacterial biomass. The negative cross-correlation between soil biota and metal concentrations showed that soil fungi were particularly sensitive to heavy metal concentrations and can be used for quantitative ecological risk assessment of metal-contaminated soils. This study found that geostatistics are a useful tool for describing and analyzing spatial relationships among components of food webs in the soil community.

  6. Hydrogeology and soil gas at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, W.B.

    1993-01-01

    Disposal of chemical warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals in J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, has contaminated soil, groundwater and surface water. Seven exploratory borings and 38 observation wells were drilled to define the hydrogeologic framework at J-Field and to determine the type, extent, and movement of contaminants. The geologic units beneath J-Field consist of Coastal Plain sediments of the Cretaceous Patapsco Formation and Pleistocene Talbot Formation. The Patapsco Formation contains several laterally discontinuous aquifers and confining units. The Pleistocene deposits were divided into 3 hydrogeologic units--a surficial aquifer, a confining unit, and a confined aquifer. Water in the surficial aquifer flows laterally from topographically high areas to discharge areas in marshes and streams, and vertically to the underlying confined aquifer. In offshore areas, water flows from the deeper confined aquifers upward toward discharge areas in the Gunpowder River and Chesapeake Bay. Analyses of soil-gas samples showed high relative-flux values of chlorinated solvents, phthalates, and hydrocarbons at the toxic-materials disposal area, white-phosphorus disposal area, and riot-control-agent disposal area. The highest flux values were located downgradient of the toxic materials and white phosphorus disposal areas, indicating that groundwater contaminants are moving from source areas beneath the disposal pits toward discharge points in the marshes and estuaries. Elevated relative-flux values were measured upgradient and downgradient of the riot-control agent disposal area, and possibly result from soil and (or) groundwater contamination.

  7. A watershed-level approach to evaluating ecological impacts at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, M.C.; Thebeau, L.C.; Neubauer, J.; Drendel, G.; Paul, J.; Durda, J.L.

    1994-12-31

    Aberdeen Proving Ground is a US Army installation occupying approximately 32,400 hectares of relatively undeveloped coastal plain uplands, wetlands, and estuary on the upper Chesapeake Bay. The installation was established in 1917 and historically has been used for research, development, and testing of chemical warfare agents, conventional weapons, and other material. Past activities have resulted in several hundred known or suspected potential sources of contamination in numerous drainage basins of two main watersheds (the Gunpowder River watershed and the Bush River watershed) and several smaller watersheds. All of these watersheds discharge to the upper reaches of the Chesapeake Bay. Investigations are being conducted to evaluate risks to ecological resources in the drainage basins of these watersheds. Following these investigations, watershed-level risk assessments will be conducted to evaluate the individual and combined risks of these multiple sources of contamination to ecological resources within each watershed. Risks to ecological resources in the potentially affected regions of the upper Chesapeake Bay via the migration of contaminants from the watersheds will also be evaluated. The approach being used for the watershed-level ecological assessment is discussed along with the implications of applying this approach to the evaluation of hazardous waste sites.

  8. Modeling exposure to depleted uranium in support of decommissioning at Jefferson Proving Ground, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M.H.; Oxenburg, T.P.

    1997-02-01

    Jefferson Proving Ground was used by the US Army Test and Evaluation Command for testing of depleted uranium munitions and closed in 1995 under the Base Realignment and Closure Act. As part of the closure of JPG, assessments of potential adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem were conducted. This paper integrates recent information obtained from site characterization surveys at JPG with environmental monitoring data collected from 1983 through 1994 during DU testing. Three exposure scenarios were evaluated for potential adverse effects to human health: an occasional use scenario and two farming scenarios. Human exposure was minimal from occasional use, but significant risk were predicted from the farming scenarios when contaminated groundwater was used by site occupants. The human health risk assessments do not consider the significant risk posed by accidents with unexploded ordnance. Exposures of white-tailed deer to DU were also estimated in this study, and exposure rates result in no significant increase in either toxicological or radiological risks. The results of this study indicate that remediation of the DU impact area would not substantially reduce already low risks to humans and the ecosystem, and that managed access to JPG is a reasonable model for future land use options.

  9. Air monitoring for volatile organic compounds at the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.F.; O`Neill, H.J.; Raphaelian, L.A.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Sytsma, L.F.; Cohut, V.J.; Cobo, H.A.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    The US Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground has been a test site for a variety of munitions, including chemical warfare agents (CWA). The Pilot Plant Complex (PPC) at Aberdeen was the site of development, manufacture, storage, and disposal of CWA. Deterioration of the buildings and violations of environmental laws led to closure of the complex in 1986. Since that time, all equipment, piping, and conduit in the buildings have been removed. The buildings have been declared free of surface CWA contamination as a result of air sampling using the military system. However, no air sampling has been done to determine if other hazardous volatile organic compounds are present in the PPC, although a wide range of toxic and/or hazardous materials other than CWA was used in the PPC. The assumption has been that the air in the PPC is not hazardous. The purpose of this air-monitoring study was to screen the indoor air in the PPC to confirm the assumption that the air does not contain volatile organic contaminants at levels that would endanger persons in the buildings. A secondary purpose was to identify any potential sources of volatile organic contaminants that need to be monitored in subsequent sampling efforts.

  10. Contamination source review for Building E3163, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Draugelis, A.K.; Muir-Ploense, K.L.; Glennon, M.A.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review for Building E3163 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. This report may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of this building. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, and geophysical investigation. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994 and 1995. Building E3163 (APG designation) is part of the Medical Research Laboratories E3160 Complex. This research laboratory complex is located west of Kings Creek, east of the airfield and Ricketts Point Road, and south of Kings Creek Road in the Edgewood Area of APG. The original structures in the E3160 Complex were constructed during World War II. The complex was originally used as a medical research laboratory. Much of the research involved wound assessment. Building E3163, constructed in 1946, was used for toxicological studies on animals until 1965. All agent testing was done using laboratory-scale quantities of agents. All operational data were destroyed; total quantities and types of agents used during the testing are unknown. No experimentation has been conducted in the building since 1965. However, the building was used as overflow office space until the late 1980s. Since that time, the building has been unoccupied.

  11. An accelerated remedial strategy developed for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Yuen, C.R.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Wrobel, J.

    1995-06-01

    For an installation with many disposal sites and multiple contaminant sources, successful remediation at minimum cost can be complicated by insufficient geologic and hydrogeologic information, incomplete records of historical disposal activities, and uncertainty about the effectiveness of different investigative methods. To reduce these uncertainties and to increase the probability of successful remediation at minimum cost, a ``Phased and pilot`` accelerated remedial strategy has been developed for the J-Field area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The strategy includes four phases. First, the most contaminated site is selected as a pilot for detailed investigation. Second, the most contaminated areas within the pilot site are chosen as a pilot source area for interim action study, and a remedial action is developed to remove the primary contaminant sources. The subsequent sitewide investigation uses the effective tools developed in the first phase. Third, a cleanup operation is initiated in the pilot source area, while a sitewide feasibility study is developed by taking advantage of lessons learned in the interim action. Fourth, a sitewide cleanup operation proceeds.

  12. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Remedial investigation results

    SciTech Connect

    Yuen, C. R.; Martino, L. E.; Biang, R. P.; Chang, Y. S.; Dolak, D.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R. A.; Patton, T. L.; Prasad, S.; Quinn, J.; Rosenblatt, D. H.; Vercellone, J.; Wang, Y. Y.

    2000-03-14

    This report presents the results of the remedial investigation (RI) conducted at J-Field in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), a U.S. Army installation located in Harford County, Maryland. Since 1917, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, and testing of chemical agents and munitions and the subsequent destruction of these materials at J-Field by open burning and open detonation. These activities have raised concerns about environmental contamination at J-Field. This RI was conducted by the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division, Directorate of Safety, Health and Environmental Division of APG, pursuant to requirements outlined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). The RI was accomplished according to the procedures developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988). The RI provides a comprehensive evaluation of the site conditions, nature of contaminants present, extent of contamination, potential release mechanisms and migration pathways, affected populations, and risks to human health and the environment. This information will be used as the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions to be performed during the remedial action phase, which will follow the feasibility study (FS) for J-Field.

  13. Contamination source review for Building E3180, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Smits, M.P.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review of Building E3180 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The report may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of this building. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, collection of air samples, and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks associated with Building E3180. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994. Building,E3180 (current APG designation) is located near the eastern end of Kings Creek Road, north of Kings Creek, and about 0.5 miles east of the airstrip within APG`s Edgewood Area. The building was constructed in 1944 as a facsimile of a Japanese pillbox and used for the development of flame weapons systems until 1957 (EAI Corporation 1989). The building was not used from 1957 until 1965, when it was converted and used as a flame and incendiary laboratory. During the 1970s, the building was converted to a machine (metal) shop and used for that purpose until 1988.

  14. Review of analytical results from the proposed agent disposal facility site, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Brubaker, K.L.; Reed, L.L.; Myers, S.W.; Shepard, L.T.; Sydelko, T.G.

    1997-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory reviewed the analytical results from 57 composite soil samples collected in the Bush River area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. A suite of 16 analytical tests involving 11 different SW-846 methods was used to detect a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants. One method (BTEX) was considered redundant, and two {open_quotes}single-number{close_quotes} methods (TPH and TOX) were found to lack the required specificity to yield unambiguous results, especially in a preliminary investigation. Volatile analytes detected at the site include 1, 1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, all of which probably represent residual site contamination from past activities. Other volatile analytes detected include toluene, tridecane, methylene chloride, and trichlorofluoromethane. These compounds are probably not associated with site contamination but likely represent cross-contamination or, in the case of tridecane, a naturally occurring material. Semivolatile analytes detected include three different phthalates and low part-per-billion amounts of the pesticide DDT and its degradation product DDE. The pesticide could represent residual site contamination from past activities, and the phthalates are likely due, in part, to cross-contamination during sample handling. A number of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives were detected and were probably naturally occurring compounds. 4 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  15. Simulation of ground-water flow and transport of chlorinated hydrocarbons at Graces Quarters, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tenbus, Frederick J.; Fleck, William B.

    2001-01-01

    Military activity at Graces Quarters, a former open-air chemical-agent facility at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, has resulted in ground-water contamination by chlorinated hydrocarbons. As part of a ground-water remediation feasibility study, a three-dimensional model was constructed to simulate transport of four chlorinated hydrocarbons (1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethene, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform) that are components of a contaminant plume in the surficial and middle aquifers underlying the east-central part of Graces Quarters. The model was calibrated to steady-state hydraulic head at 58 observation wells and to the concentration of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane in 58 observation wells and 101direct-push probe samples from the mid-1990s. Simulations using the same basic model with minor adjustments were then run for each of the other plume constituents. The error statistics between the simulated and measured concentrations of each of the constituents compared favorably to the error statisticst,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane calibration. Model simulations were used in conjunction with contaminant concentration data to examine the sources and degradation of the plume constituents. It was determined from this that mixed contaminant sources with no ambient degradation was the best approach for simulating multi-species solute transport at the site. Forward simulations were run to show potential solute transport 30 years and 100 years into the future with and without source removal. Although forward simulations are subject to uncertainty, they can be useful for illustrating various aspects of the conceptual model and its implementation. The forward simulation with no source removal indicates that contaminants would spread throughout various parts of the surficial and middle aquifers, with the100-year simulation showing potential discharge areas in either the marshes at the end of the Graces Quarters peninsula or just offshore in the estuaries. The

  16. GSA's Green Proving Ground: Identifying, Testing and Evaluating Innovative Technologies; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kandt, A.; Lowell, M.

    2012-05-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the GPG program and its objectives as well as a summary and status update of the 16 technologies selected for enhanced testing and evaluation in 2011. The federal government's General Services Administration's (GSA) Public Buildings Service (PBS) acquires space on behalf of the federal government through new construction and leasing, and acts as a caretaker for federal properties across the country. PBS owns or leases 9,624 assets and maintains an inventory of more than 370.2 million square feet of workspace, and as such has enormous potential for implementing energy efficient and renewable energy technologies to reduce energy and water use and associated emissions. The Green Proving Ground (GPG) program utilizes GSA's real estate portfolio to test and evaluate innovative and underutilized sustainable building technologies and practices. Findings are used to support the development of GSA performance specifications and inform decision making within GSA, other federal agencies, and the real estate industry. The program aims to drive innovation in environmental performance in federal buildings and help lead market transformation through deployment of new technologies. In 2011, the GPG program selected 16 technologies or practices for rigorous testing and evaluation. Evaluations are currently being performed in collaboration with the Department of Energy's National Laboratories, and a steady stream of results will be forthcoming throughout 2012. This paper will provide an overview of the GPG program and its objectives as well as a summary and status update of the 16 technologies selected for enhanced testing and evaluation in 2011. Lastly, it provides a general overview of the 2012 program.

  17. Potential health impacts from range fires at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

    SciTech Connect

    Willians, G.P.; Hermes, A.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Hartmann, H.M.; Tomasko, D.

    1998-03-01

    This study uses atmospheric dispersion computer models to evaluate the potential for human health impacts from exposure to contaminants that could be dispersed by fires on the testing ranges at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. It was designed as a screening study and does not estimate actual human health risks. Considered are five contaminants possibly present in the soil and vegetation from past human activities at APG--lead, arsenic, trichloroethylene (TCE), depleted uranium (DU), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); and two chemical warfare agents that could be released from unexploded ordnance rounds heated in a range fire--mustard and phosgene. For comparison, dispersion of two naturally occurring compounds that could be released by burning of uncontaminated vegetation--vinyl acetate and 2-furaldehyde--is also examined. Data from previous studies on soil contamination at APG are used in conjunction with conservative estimates about plant uptake of contaminants, atmospheric conditions, and size and frequency of range fires at APG to estimate dispersion and possible human exposure. The results are compared with US Environmental Protection Agency action levels. The comparisons indicate that for all of the anthropogenic contaminants except arsenic and mustard, exposure levels would be at least an order of magnitude lower than the corresponding action levels. Because of the compoundingly conservative nature of the assumptions made, they conclude that the potential for significant human health risks from range fires is low. The authors recommend that future efforts be directed at fire management and control, rather than at conducting additional studies to more accurately estimate actual human health risk from range fires.

  18. A deer study at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Project planning, data assimilation, and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Whaley, J.; Leach, G.; Lee, R.

    1995-12-31

    For more than 75 years, Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) has been in the business of research, development, and testing of munitions and military vehicles for the US Army. Currently, APG is on the National Priorities List and an installation wide human health risk assessment is underway. Like many Department of the Army facilities, APG has an active hunting program. Hunters harvest approximately 800 whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginanus) from APG annually. To assure public safety, the authors completed a study during the 1993 hunting season to identify any potential human health hazards associated with consumption of venison from APG. This paper will discuss the unique strategy behind the experimental design, the actual assimilation of the data, and the results of the human health risk assessment to establish an appropriate contaminant levels in APG deer. Also, based on information in the literature, the authors considered gender, age, and season in the study design. The list of chemicals for residue analysis included explosives, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, and metals (As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg). Of the 150 deer sampled, metals were the only chemicals detected. The authors compared these data to metal levels in deer collected from an off post background site. Metal levels did not differ significantly between APG deer and off post deer. Finally, the authors completed a health risk assessment of eating deer harvested from both APG and off post. From a survey distributed to the hunters, they incorporated actual consumption data into the exposure assessment. Their findings concluded that the risk of eating APG deer was no higher than eating off post deer; however, total arsenic levels in muscle did appear to elevate the risk.

  19. Ecological risk assessment at a hazardous waste site on Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Iohowskyi, I.; Hayse, J.W.; Kuperman, R.; Lonkhuyzen, R. van

    1995-12-31

    The Toxic Burning Pits (TBP) area of the J-Field site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, was used in the past for disposal and destruction of munitions and chemical agents. The TBP area, located at the end of a large peninsula on Chesapeake Bay, covers about 9 acres adjacent to a marsh containing a large freshwater pond. An ecological risk assessment (ERA) was conducted at the site to determine whether current levels of contamination at the site are producing demonstrable ecological effects, whether contaminated media are toxic to biota, and to estimate potential risks to biota from direct and indirect contaminant uptake from site media. The ERA incorporated field studies, tissue residue analyses, media toxicity tests, and uptake modeling for wildlife species. Areas with contaminated soil had lower abundance, diversity, and biomass of terrestrial vegetation and soil-dwelling invertebrates; altered trophic structure of nematode communities; reduced soil respiration and litter decomposition rates; and reduced soil microbial enzyme activities. Test showed that contaminated soils were toxic to vegetation, insect eggs, and earthworms. Contamination and toxicity of aquatic media were limited to adjacent portions of the marsh that receive surface runoff from the TBP area. Uptake modeling indicated current contamination levels at the TBP area may pose unacceptable risks to several wildlife species and that the risks are associated primarily with soil-based uptake pathways. The ERA results identified soil to be the medium posing the greatest risk to ecological receptors, and the assessment results are currently being used to assist in the development and evaluation of remedial alternatives for the contaminated soil.

  20. Environmental radiation monitoring plan for depleted uranium and beryllium areas, Yuma Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1994-05-11

    This Environmental Radiation Monitoring Plan (ERM) discusses sampling soils, vegetation, and biota for depleted uranium (DU) and beryllium (Be) at Yuma Proving Ground (YPG). The existing ERM plan was used and modified to more adequately assess the potential of DU and Be migration through the YPG ecosystem. The potential pathways for DU and Be migration are discussed and include soil to vegetation, soil to animals, vegetation to animals, animals to animals, and animals to man. Sample collection will show DU deposition and will be used to estimate DU migration. The number of samples from each area varies and depends on if the firing range of interest is currently used for DU testing (GP 17A) or if the range is not used currently for DU testing (GP 20). Twenty to thirty-five individual mammals or lizards will be sampled from each transect. Air samples and samples of dust in the air fall will be collected in three locations in the active ranges. Thirty to forty-five sediment samples will be collected from different locations in the arroys near the impact areas. DU and Be sampling in the Hard Impact and Soft Impact areas changed only slightly from the existing ERM. The modifications are changes in sample locations, addition of two sediment transport locations, addition of vegetation samples, mammal samples, and air sampling from three to five positions on the impact areas. Analysis of samples for DU or total U by inductively-coupled mass spectroscopy (ICP/MS), cc spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis (NAA), and kinetic phosphorimetric analysis (KPA) are discussed, and analysis for Be by ICP/MS are recommended. Acquiring total U (no isotope data) from a large number of samples and analysis of those samples with relatively high total U concentrations results in fewer isotopic identifications but more information on U distribution. From previous studies, total U concentrations greater than about 3 times natural background are usually DU by isotopic confirmation.

  1. Generator, mechanical, smoke: For dual-purpose unit, XM56, Yuma Proving Ground, Yuma, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Driver, C.J.; Ligotke, M.W.; Moore, E.B. Jr. ); Bowers, J.F. )

    1991-10-01

    The US Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC) is planning to perform a field test of the XM56 smoke generator at the US Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), Arizona. The XM56, enabling the use of fog oil in combination with other materials, such as graphite flakes, is part of an effort to improve the efficiency of smoke generation and to extend the effectiveness of the resulting obscurant cloud to include the infrared spectrum. The plan field operation includes a road test and concurrent smoke- generation trials. Three M1037 vehicles with operation XM56 generators will be road-tested for 100 h. Smoke will be generated for 30 min from a single stationary XM56 four times during the road test, resulting in a total of 120 min of smoke generation. The total aerial release of obscurant materials during this test is expected to be 556 kg (1,220 lb) of fog oil and 547 kg (1,200 lb) of graphite flakes. This environmental assessment has evaluated the consequences of the proposed action. Air concentrations and surface deposition levels were estimated using an atmospheric dispersion model. Degradation of fog oil and incorporation of graphite in the soil column will limit the residual impacts of the planned action. No significant impacts to air, water, and soil quality are anticipated. risks to the environment posed by the proposed action were determined to be minimal or below levels previously found to pose measurable impacts. Cultural resources are present on YPG and have been identified in adjacent areas; therefore, off-road activities should be preceded by a cultural resource survey. A Finding of No Significant Impact is recommended. 61 refs., 1 fig.

  2. JPSS Preparations at the Satellite Proving Ground for Marine, Precipitation, and Satellite Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folmer, M. J.; Berndt, E.; Clark, J.; Orrison, A.; Kibler, J.; Sienkiewicz, J. M.; Nelson, J. A., Jr.; Goldberg, M.

    2016-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Satellite Proving Ground (PG) for Marine, Precipitation, and Satellite Analysis (MPS) has been demonstrating and evaluating Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) products along with other polar-orbiting satellite platforms in preparation for the Joint Polar Satellite System - 1 (JPSS-1) launch in March 2017. The first S-NPP imagery was made available to the MPS PG during the evolution of Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 and has since been popular in operations. Since this event the MPS PG Satellite Liaison has been working with forecasters on ways to integrate single-channel and multispectral imagery from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)into operations to complement numerical weather prediction and geostationary satellite savvy National Weather Service (NWS) National Centers. Additional unique products have been introduced to operations to address specific forecast challenges, including the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) Layered Precipitable Water, the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) Snowfall Rate product, NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS) Soundings, ozone products from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Cross-track Infrared Sounder/Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (CrIS/ATMS), and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). In addition, new satellite domains have been created to provide forecasters at the NWS Ocean Prediction Center and Weather Prediction Center with better quality imagery at high latitudes. This has led to research projects that are addressing forecast challenges such as tropical to extratropical transition and explosive cyclogenesis. This presentation will provide examples of how the MPS PG has been introducing and integrating

  3. Linking riparian vegetation to precipitation using NDVI at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birtwistle, Amy N.

    Measuring precipitation in semi-arid landscapes is important for understanding the processes related to rainfall and run-off. However, rain gauges are sparsely distributed. Linear regressions comparing rain gauge and RADAR precipitation estimates revealed that RADAR data is often misleading especially for monsoon type storms. This study investigates an alternative way to map the spatial and temporal variation of precipitation inputs along ephemeral stream channels using NDVI derived from Landsat TM imagery. NDVI was derived on 26 pre- and post-monsoon season Landsat images across Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) in southwestern Arizona. The mean NDVI values along ephemeral stream channels explained 73% of the variance in precipitation totals from a nearby rain gauge for 25 monsoon seasons. A 0.0006 increase in NDVI per day between pre- and post-monsoon season imagery was found to indicate high precipitation inputs and possibly indicate flow events. A second set of Landsat TM imagery were used to relate gains in NDVI during seven winter seasons to precipitation recorded from a nearby NEXRAD radar station. The NEXRAD Stage IV radar data were found to be more accurate during winter precipitation events when associated with rain gauge stations (adjusted R2: 0.81 & 0.84). High correlations were found between NDVI and precipitation at the 32, 48, 64 and 96d time intervals, though each season varied. The number of precipitation events with >5mm at the 96d interval showed significant correlation (0.63 & 0.77) while the number of events with >10mm had less correlation. Moreover, the combination and analysis of these two NDVI datasets revealed that wet winters may influence the vegetation for more than four years into the future.

  4. Contamination source review for Building E5032, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Booher, M.N.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Smits, M.P.

    1995-09-01

    This report by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) documents results of a contamination source review of Building E5032 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks associated with Building E5032. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994 and 1995. Building E5032 (APG designation), originally known as Building 99, is located at the northwest comer of the intersection of Hoadley Road and Magnolia Road in the Edgewood Area of APG. It was constructed during World War I as an incendiary bomb filling plant and in 1920s and 1930s maintained as a filling facility. During World War II the building was a pilot plant for the development of a dry white phosphorus filling process. Since then the building has been used for white phosphorus filling pilot studies. Most of the dry filling methods were developed in Building E5032 between 1965 and 1970. Other filling operations in Building E5032 have included mustard during the period shortly after World War II and triethyl aluminum (TEA) during the late 1960s and early 1970s. During the World War II period, the building was connected to the sanitary sewer system with one large and at least one small interior sump. There are also seven sumps adjacent to the exterior of the building: two on the west elevation, four near the four bays on the south elevation, and one at the northeast corner of the building. All of these sumps are connected with the chemical sewer system and received most, if not all, of the production operation wastewater. The discharge from this system was released into the east branch of Canal Creek; the discharge pipe was located southeast of Building E5032. There are no records indicating the use of Building E5032 after 1974, and it is assumed that the building has been out of service since that time.

  5. Remote sensing and field test capabilities at U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, James T.; Herron, Joshua P.; Marshall, Martin S.

    2012-05-01

    U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) is a Major Range and Test Facility Base (MRTFB) with the mission of testing chemical and biological defense systems and materials. DPG facilities include state-of-the-art laboratories, extensive test grids, controlled environment calibration facilities, and a variety of referee instruments for required test measurements. Among these referee instruments, DPG has built up a significant remote sensing capability for both chemical and biological detection. Technologies employed for remote sensing include FTIR spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, Raman-shifted eye-safe lidar, and other elastic backscatter lidar systems. These systems provide referee data for bio-simulants, chemical simulants, toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), and toxic industrial materials (TIMs). In order to realize a successful large scale open-air test, each type of system requires calibration and characterization. DPG has developed specific calibration facilities to meet this need. These facilities are the Joint Ambient Breeze Tunnel (JABT), and the Active Standoff Chamber (ASC). The JABT and ASC are open ended controlled environment tunnels. Each includes validation instrumentation to characterize simulants that are disseminated. Standoff systems are positioned at typical field test distances to measure characterized simulants within the tunnel. Data from different types of systems can be easily correlated using this method, making later open air test results more meaningful. DPG has a variety of large scale test grids available for field tests. After and during testing, data from the various referee instruments is provided in a visual format to more easily draw conclusions on the results. This presentation provides an overview of DPG's standoff testing facilities and capabilities, as well as example data from different test scenarios.

  6. Remote sensing and field test capabilities at U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, James T.; Herron, Joshua P.; Marshall, Martin S.

    2011-11-01

    U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) is a Major Range and Test Facility Base (MRTFB) with the mission of testing chemical and biological defense systems and materials. DPG facilities include state-of-the-art laboratories, extensive test grids, controlled environment calibration facilities, and a variety of referee instruments for required test measurements. Among these referee instruments, DPG has built up a significant remote sensing capability for both chemical and biological detection. Technologies employed for remote sensing include FTIR spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, Raman-shifted eye-safe lidar, and other elastic backscatter lidar systems. These systems provide referee data for bio-simulants, chemical simulants, toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), and toxic industrial materials (TIMs). In order to realize a successful large scale open-air test, each type of system requires calibration and characterization. DPG has developed specific calibration facilities to meet this need. These facilities are the Joint Ambient Breeze Tunnel (JABT), and the Active Standoff Chamber (ASC). The JABT and ASC are open ended controlled environment tunnels. Each includes validation instrumentation to characterize simulants that are disseminated. Standoff systems are positioned at typical field test distances to measure characterized simulants within the tunnel. Data from different types of systems can be easily correlated using this method, making later open air test results more meaningful. DPG has a variety of large scale test grids available for field tests. After and during testing, data from the various referee instruments is provided in a visual format to more easily draw conclusions on the results. This presentation provides an overview of DPG's standoff testing facilities and capabilities, as well as example data from different test scenarios.

  7. A Prochlorococcus proving ground for constraint-based metabolic modeling and multi-`omics data integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, J.; Ji, B.; Shaoie, S.; Mardinoglu, A.; Sarathi Sen, P.; Jahn, O.; Reda, K.; Leigh, J.; Follows, M. J.; Nielsen, J.; Karl, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    Representatives of the oligotrophic marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus are the smallest free-living photosynthetic organisms, both in terms of physical size and genome size, yet are the most abundant photoautotrophic microbes in the oceans and profoundly influence global biogeochemical cycles. Physiological and regulatory control of nutrient and light stress has been observed in MED4 in culture and in its closely related `ecotype' eMED4 in the field, however its metabolism has not been investigated in detail. We present a genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction of the high-light adapted axenic strain MED4ax ("iJCMED4") for the quantitative analysis of a range of its metabolic phenotypes. The resulting structure is a proving ground for the incorporation of enzyme kinetics, biochemical and elemental compositional data, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, and fluxomic datasets which can be implemented within a constraint-based metabolic modeling environment. The iJCMED4 stoichiometric model consists of 523 metabolic genes encoding 787 reactions with 673 unique metabolites distributed in 5 sub-cellular compartments and is mass, charge, and thermodynamically balanced. Several variants of flux balance analysis were used to simulate growth and metabolic fluxes over the diel cycle, under various stress conditions (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, light), and within the framework of a global biogeochemical model (DARWIN). Model simulations accurately predicted growth rates in culture under a variety of defined medium compositions and there was close agreement of photosynthetic performance, biomass and energy yields and efficiencies, and transporter fluxes for iJCMED4 and culture experiments. In addition to a nearly optimal photosynthetic quotient and central carbon metabolism efficiency, MED4 has made dramatic alterations to redox and phosphorus metabolism across biosynthetic and intermediate pathways. We propose that reductions in phosphate reaction

  8. RCRA delisting of agent-decontaminated waste at Dugway Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.; Green, D.R.; Lopez, J.D.

    1995-04-01

    The State of Utah has declared residues resulting from the demilitarization, treatment, cleanup, testing of military chemical agents to be hazardous wastes. These residues are listed as hazardous waste in Utah and several other States, but are not listed under regulations established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) pursuant to the Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the primary law governing management of hazardous waste in the US These residues are identified as hazardous waste due to corrosivity, reactivity, chronic toxicity, and acute toxicity, and are designated as Hazardous Waste No. F999. The RCRA regulations (40 CFR 260-280), the Utah Administrative Code (R-315), and other State hazardous waste programs list specific wastes as hazardous, but allow generators to petition the regulator to ``delist`` if it can be demonstrated that such wastes are not hazardous. The US Army Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) has initiated a project with the Argonne National Laboratory to demonstrate that certain categories of F999 residues are not hazardous waste and to achieve delisting. The initial focus is on delisting specific residues from decontamination of wastes generated during materials testing activities and contaminated soil at the US Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), Utah. This activity is referred to as Phase I of the delisting program. Subsequent phases of the delisting program will address additional waste streams at DPG and other Army installations. The purpose of this paper is to outline the Phase I TECOM delisting effort at DPG, identify some of the important technical issues associated with the delisting, and to discuss overall progress to date.

  9. Work plan for conducting an ecological risk assessment at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R.

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland, and activities at the Edgewood Area since World War II have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. The J-Field site was used to destroy chemical agents and munitions by open burning and open detonation. This work plan presents the approach proposed to conduct an ecological risk assessment (ERA) as part of the RI/FS program at J-Field. This work plan identifies the locations and types of field studies proposed for each area of concern (AOC), the laboratory studies proposed to evaluate toxicity of media, and the methodology to be used in estimating doses to ecological receptors and discusses the approach that will be used to estimate and evaluate ecological risks at J-Field. Eight AOCs have been identified at J-Field, and the proposed ERA is designed to evaluate the potential for adverse impacts to ecological receptors from contaminated media at each AOC, as well as over the entire J-Field site. The proposed ERA approach consists of three major phases, incorporating field and laboratory studies as well as modeling. Phase 1 includes biotic surveys of the aquatic and terrestrial habitats, biological tissue sampling and analysis, and media toxicity testing at each AOC and appropriate reference locations. Phase 2 includes definitive toxicity testing of media from areas of known or suspected contamination or of media for which the Phase 1 results indicate toxicity or adverse ecological effects. In Phase 3, the uptake models initially developed in Phase 2 will be finalized, and contaminant dose to each receptor from all complete pathways will be estimated.

  10. The Space Launch System and the Proving Ground: Pathways to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Kurt K.

    2014-11-01

    Introduction: The Space Launch System (SLS) is the most powerful rocket ever built and provides a critical heavy-lift launch capability. We focus on mission concepts relevant to NASA’s Cislunar Proving Ground and the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER).Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM): ARM in part is a mission to the lunar vicinity. The ARM mission requirements result in system design based on a modified version of our 702 spacecraft. Including a NASA Docking System (NDS) on the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle allows for easier crewed exploration integration and execution. Exploration Augmentation Module (EAM): Crew operations at a redirected asteroid could be significantly enhanced by providing additional systems and EVA capabilities beyond those available from the Orion only. An EAM located with the asteroid would improve the science and technical return of the mission while also increasing Orion capability through resource provision, abort location and safe haven for contingencies. The EAM could be repurposed as a cislunar exploration platform that advances scientific research, enables lunar surface exploration and provides a deep space vehicle assembly and servicing site. International Space Station (ISS) industry partners have been working for the past several years on concepts for using ISS development methods and assets to support a broad range of exploration missions.Lunar Surface: The mission objectives are to provide lunar surface access for crew and cargo and to provide as much system reuse as possible. Subsequent missions to the surface can reuse the same lander and Lunar Transfer Vehicle.Mars Vicinity: The International space community has declared that our unified horizon goal is for a human mission to Mars. Translunar infrastructure and heavy lift capability are key to this approach. The moons of Mars would provide an excellent stepping stone to the surface. As a “shake-down” cruise before landing, a mission to Deimos or Phobos would test all of the

  11. The Space Launch System and the Proving Ground: Pathways to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, K.

    2014-12-01

    Introduction: The Space Launch System (SLS) is the most powerful rocket ever built and provides a critical heavy-lift launch capability. We present mission concepts relevant to NASA's Cislunar Proving Ground and the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER).Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM): ARM in part is a mission to the lunar vicinity. The ARM mission requirements result in system design based on a modified version of our 702 spacecraft. Including a NASA Docking System (NDS) on the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle allows for easier crewed exploration integration and execution. Exploration Augmentation Module (EAM): Crew operations at a redirected asteroid could be significantly enhanced by providing additional systems and EVA capabilities beyond those available from the Orion only. An EAM located with the asteroid would improve the science and technical return of the asteroid mission while also increasing Orion capability through resource provision and providing an abort location and safe haven for contingencies. The EAM could be repurposed as a cislunar exploration platform that advances scientific research, enables lunar surface exploration and provides a deep space vehicle assembly and servicing site. International Space Station (ISS) industry partners have been working for the past several years on concepts for using ISS development methods and assets to support a broad range of missions. These concepts have matured along with planning details for NASA's SLS and Orion for a platform located in the Earth-Moon Libration (EML) system or Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO).Lunar Surface: The mission objectives are to provide lunar surface access for crew and cargo and to provide as much reuse as possible. Subsequent missions to the surface can reuse the same lander and Lunar Transfer Vehicle.Mars Vicinity: The International space community has declared that our unified horizon goal is for a human mission to Mars. Translunar infrastructure and heavy lift capability are key to this

  12. An Analysis of the Extratropical Transition of Hurricane Arthur (2014) from a JPSS Proving Ground Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folmer, M. J.; Berndt, E.; Halverson, J. B.; Dunion, J. P.; Goldberg, M.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the GOES-R and JPSS Satellite Proving Grounds, multiple proxy and operational products were available to analyze and forecast the complex evolution of Hurricane Arthur (2014). The National Hurricane Center, Ocean Prediction Center, Weather Prediction Center, and NESDIS Satellite Analysis Branch were able to monitor the tropical and extratropical transition of Arthur using various convective and red, green, blue (RGB) products that have been introduced in recent years. During the extratropical transition, the Air Mass RGB (AM RGB) product and AIRS/CrIS ozone products were available as a compliment to water vapor imagery to identify the upper-level low with associated stratospheric drying that absorbed much of Arthur's energy. The AM RGB product provides forecasters with an enhanced view of various air masses that are combined into a single image and can help differentiate between possible stratospheric/tropospheric interactions, moist tropical air masses, and cool, continental/maritime air masses. Even though this product provides a wealth of qualitative information about the horizontal distribution of synoptic features, forecasters are also interested in more quantitative information such as the vertical distribution of temperature, moisture, and ozone which impact the coloring of the resulting AM RGB. Currently, NOAA Unique CrIS/ATMS Processing System (NUCAPS) temperature and moisture soundings are available in AWIPS-II as a point-based display. Traditionally, soundings are used to anticipate and forecast severe convection, however unique and valuable information can be gained from soundings for other forecasting applications, such as extratropical transition, especially in data sparse regions. Additional research has been conducted to look at how NUCAPS soundings might help forecasters identify the pre-extratropical transition environment, leading to earlier diagnosis and better public advisories. NUCAPS soundings, AIRS soundings, NOAA G-IV GPS

  13. Demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF): Apache Longbow - Hellfire Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    endpoint entities susceptible to the Apache-Hellfire test at Yuma. Proving Ground Entity" populations of raptors populations of ungulate mammals...specifically. Barren-ground caribou at river crossings were most reactive to overflights, followed by traveling and feeding animals, and followed by...were resting, standing, or feeding (Harrington and Veitch 1991). Similarly, responses of muskoxen were dependent on the previous activity of the

  14. 33 CFR 334.710 - The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. 334.710 Section... Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area... regulations in this section shall be enforced by the Commander, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin......

  15. Inorganic and organic ground-water chemistry in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, M.M.; Vroblesky, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater chemical data were collected from November 1986 through April 1987 in the first phase of a 5-year study to assess the possibility of groundwater contamination in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Water samples were collected from 87 observation wells screened in Coastal Plain sediments; 59 samples were collected from the Canal Creek aquifer, 18 from the overlying surficial aquifer, and 10 from the lower confined aquifer. Dissolved solids, chloride, iron, manganese, fluoride, mercury, and chromium are present in concentrations that exceed the Federal maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Elevated chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations appear to be related from contaminant plumes but also could result from brackish-water intrusion. Excessive concentrations of iron and manganese were the most extensive water quality problems found among the inorganic constituents and are derived from natural dissolution of minerals and oxide coatings in the aquifer sediments. Volatile organic compounds are present in the Canal Creek and surficial aquifers, but samples from the lower confined aquifer do not show any evidence of contamination by inorganic or organic chemicals. The volatile organic contaminants detected in the groundwater and their maximum concentrations (in micrograms/L) include 1,1,2,2- tetrachloroethane (9,000); carbon tetrachloride (480); chloroform (460); 1,1,2-trichloroethane (80); 1,2-dichloroethane (990); 1,1-dichloroethane (3.1); tetrachloroethylene (100); trichloroethylene (1,800); 1,2-trans- dichloroethylene (1,200); 1,1-dichloroethylene (4.4); vinyl chloride (140); benzene (70); and chlorobenzene (39). On the basis of information on past activities in the study area, some sources of the volatile organic compounds include: (1) decontaminants and degreasers; (2) clothing-impregnating operations; (3) the manufacture of impregnite material; (4) the manufacture of tear gas; and (5) fuels used in garages and at

  16. Hydrogeology and water quality in the Graces Quarters area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tenbus, Frederick J.; Blomquist, Joel D.

    1995-01-01

    Graces Quarters was used for open-air testing of chemical-warfare agents from the late 1940's until 1971. Testing and disposal activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water and surface water. The hydrogeology and water quality were examined at three test areas, four disposal sites, a bunker, and a service area on Graces Quarters. Methods of investigation included surface and borehole geophysics, water-quality sampling, water- level measurement, and hydrologic testing. The hydrogeologic framework is complex and consists of a discontinuous surficial aquifer, one or more upper confining units, and a confined aquifer system. Directions of ground-water flow vary spatially and temporally, and results of site investigations show that ground-water flow is controlled by the geology of the area. The ground water and surface water at Graces Quarters generally are unmineralized; the ground water is mildly acidic (median pH is 5.38) and poorly buffered. Inorganic constituents in excess of certain Federal drinking-water regulations and ambient water-quality criteria were detected at some sites, but they probably were present naturally. Volatile and semivolatile organic com- pounds were detected in the ground water and surface water at seven of the nine sites that were investi- gated. Concentrations of organic compounds at two of the nine sites exceeded Federal drinking-water regulations. Volatile compounds in concentrations as high as 6,000 m/L (micrograms per liter) were detected in the ground water at the site known as the primary test area. Concentrations of volatile compounds detected in the other areas ranged from 0.57 to 17 m/L.

  17. Dugway Proving Ground: Closure Plan Module 2, for SWMUs 20, 164, 166 and 170

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-01

    Sandhill cranes have been reintroduced and introduced chukars have become established. M ammals are represented by about 50 species of rabbit, ground...Noncarcinogenic Endpoints -- Organic Volatile Constituents Page 4 of 5 H RID RfC SI-RBSL DC-RBSL [NH-RBSL Cumulative Constituent (atm-m3/mol) (mg/kg/day) ( rmg /m 3

  18. Lineaments and fracture traces, Jennings County and Jefferson Proving Ground, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeman, T.K.

    1981-01-01

    Well placement is important in this area, as fractures are a principal source of water to wells. In areas of fractured bedrock, the most productive well locations are at the intersections of two or more mapped lineaments or fracture traces and at the lowest local altitude. Use of the lineament and fracture-trace map will not guarantee a sufficent supply of ground water but will minimize the chance of drilling an inadequate well.

  19. Hydrogeology and chemical quality of water and soil at Carroll Island, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tenbus, F.J.; Phillips, S.W.

    1996-01-01

    Carroll Island was used for open-air testing of chemical warfare agents from the late 1940's until 1971. Testing and disposal activities weresuspected of causing environmental contamination at 16 sites on the island. The hydrogeology and chemical quality of ground water, surface water, and soil at these sites were investigated with borehole logs, environmental samples, water-level measurements, and hydrologic tests. A surficial aquifer, upper confining unit, and upper confined aquifer were defined. Ground water in the surficial aquifer generally flows from the east-central part of the island toward the surface-water bodies, butgradient reversals caused by evapotranspiration can occur during dry seasons. In the confined aquifer, hydraulic gradients are low, and hydraulic head is affected by tidal loading and by seasonal pumpage from the west. Inorganic chemistry in the aquifers is affected by brackish-water intrusion from gradient reversals and by dissolution ofcarboniferous shell material in the confining unit.The concentrations of most inorganic constituents probably resulted from natural processes, but some concentrations exceeded Federal water-quality regulations and criteria. Organic compounds were detected in water and soil samples at maximum concentrations of 138 micrograms per liter (thiodiglycol in surface water) and 12 micrograms per gram (octadecanoic acid in soil).Concentrations of organic compounds in ground water exceeded Federal drinking-water regulations at two sites. The organic compounds that weredetected in environmental samples were variously attributed to natural processes, laboratory or field- sampling contamination, fallout from industrial air pollution, and historical military activities.

  20. A hierarchical approach to ecological assessment of contaminated soils at Aberdeen Proving Ground, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Kuperman, R.G.

    1995-12-31

    Despite the expansion of environmental toxicology studies over the past decade, soil ecosystems have largely been ignored in ecotoxicological studies in the United States. The objective of this project was to develop and test the efficacy of a comprehensive methodology for assessing ecological impacts of soil contamination. A hierarchical approach that integrates biotic parameters and ecosystem processes was used to give insight into the mechanisms that lead to alterations in the structure and function of soil ecosystems in contaminated areas. This approach involved (1) a thorough survey of the soil biota to determine community structure, (2) laboratory and field tests on critical ecosystem processes, (3) toxicity trials, and (4) the use of spatial analyses to provide input to the decision-making, process. This methodology appears to, offer an efficient and potentially cost-saving tool for remedial investigations of contaminated sites.

  1. Ecohydrology of an Arid Soil Chronosequence in the Sonoran Desert, Yuma Proving Ground, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, T. G.; McDonald, E. V.; Young, M. H.; Hamerlynck, E. P.; Bacon, S. N.

    2006-12-01

    The spatial distribution and density of perennial shrubs in arid regions is ultimately tied to the search for water. Soil morphological features, including desert pavement, vesicular (Av) horizon and subsoil horizonation, are known to effect infiltration processes and thus regulate the soil water balance. Recent drought over the past century appears to have enhanced the contraction of Sonoran vegetation on geomorphically older, inter- pavement surfaces in the Sonoran Desert resulting in plant scars and depressions. Antecedent data indicates that this contraction is also enhanced by the development of piedmont soils, especially the formation of fine- textured surface and near- surface soil horizons. For this study, a combination of field measurements, geomorphic and vegetation mapping, continuous soil moisture monitoring, and numerical modeling was used to evaluate the soil moisture regime across a soil chronosequence (i.e. the substitution of space for time) ranging in age from 3 ka to >100 ka. The monitored soil microclimate (matric potential and temperature) were evaluated over a 4-year period and used to benchmark numerical simulations using Hydrus- 1D. Results indicate a 10-fold decrease in the saturated conductivity (KS) due to the presence of the Av horizon regardless of surface age (0.7 ± 0.1 cm h-1). Measured B-horizon KS were significantly higher (30 ± 12 cm h-1) with a sharp textural contact between the B and overlying Av horizons. Av horizon thickness increased with surface age with concomitant increased surface runoff, limiting infiltration into the subsoil. Results from field surveys and monitoring indicate a correlation between the inter-pavement soil moisture balance and both the distribution and density of perennial vegetation. Data and numerical results further illustrate the role of the pedologic soil development resulting ecohydrology of a heterogeneous alluvial fan sequence in the same climatic regime.

  2. Hydrogeologic, soil, and water-quality data for j-field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, 1989-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelan, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Disposal of chemical-warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals in J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, has resulted in ground-water, surface-water, and soil contamination. This report presents data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from Novembr 1989 through September 1994 as part of a remedial investigation of J-Field in response to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Hydrogeologic data, soil-gas and soil-quality data, and water-qualtiy data are included.

  3. Finding and proving the exact ground state of a generalized Ising model by convex optimization and MAX-SAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenxuan; Kitchaev, Daniil A.; Dacek, Stephen T.; Rong, Ziqin; Urban, Alexander; Cao, Shan; Luo, Chuan; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2016-10-01

    Lattice models, also known as generalized Ising models or cluster expansions, are widely used in many areas of science and are routinely applied to the study of alloy thermodynamics, solid-solid phase transitions, magnetic and thermal properties of solids, fluid mechanics, and others. However, the problem of finding and proving the global ground state of a lattice model, which is essential for all of the aforementioned applications, has remained unresolved for relatively complex practical systems, with only a limited number of results for highly simplified systems known. In this paper, we present a practical and general algorithm that provides a provable periodically constrained ground state of a complex lattice model up to a given unit cell size and in many cases is able to prove global optimality over all other choices of unit cell. We transform the infinite-discrete-optimization problem into a pair of combinatorial optimization (MAX-SAT) and nonsmooth convex optimization (MAX-MIN) problems, which provide upper and lower bounds on the ground state energy, respectively. By systematically converging these bounds to each other, we may find and prove the exact ground state of realistic Hamiltonians whose exact solutions are difficult, if not impossible, to obtain via traditional methods. Considering that currently such practical Hamiltonians are solved using simulated annealing and genetic algorithms that are often unable to find the true global energy minimum and inherently cannot prove the optimality of their result, our paper opens the door to resolving longstanding uncertainties in lattice models of physical phenomena. An implementation of the algorithm is available at https://github.com/dkitch/maxsat-ising.

  4. Depleted uranium risk assessment for Jefferson Proving Ground using data from environmental monitoring and site characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1996-10-01

    This report documents the third risk assessment completed for the depleted uranium (DU) munitions testing range at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG), Indiana, for the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation command. Jefferson Proving Ground was closed in 1995 under the Base Realignment and Closure Act and the testing mission was moved to Yuma Proving Ground. As part of the closure of JPG, assessments of potential adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem were conducted. This report integrates recent information obtained from site characterization surveys at JPG with environmental monitoring data collected from 1983 through 1994 during DU testing. Three exposure scenarios were evaluated for potential adverse effects to human health: an occasional use scenario and two farming scenarios. Human exposure was minimal from occasional use, but significant risk were predicted from the farming scenarios when contaminated groundwater was used by site occupants. The human health risk assessments do not consider the significant risk posed by accidents with unexploded ordnance. Exposures of white-tailed deer to DU were also estimated in this study, and exposure rates result in no significant increase in either toxicological or radiological risks. The results of this study indicate that remediation of the DU impact area would not substantially reduce already low risks to humans and the ecosystem, and that managed access to JPG is a reasonable model for future land use options.

  5. Interim progress report addendun - environmental geophysics: Building E5032 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground, January 1994 resurvey

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, L.D.; Benson, M.A.; Borden, H.M.; Padar, C.A.

    1994-12-01

    Geophysical surveying around Building E5032 using three new continuously recording geophysical instruments - two types of electromagnetic induction instruments and a cesium vapor magnetometer that were unavailable at the time of the original survey - has provided additional information for defining the location of buried debris, vaults, tanks, and the drainage/sump system near the building. The dominant geophysical signature around Building E5032 consists of a complex pattern of linear magnetic, electrical-conductivity, and electromagnetic field anomalies that appear to be associated with drainage/sewer systems, ditches, past railway activity, the location for Building T5033 (old number 99A), and the probable location of Building 91. Integrated analysis of data acquired using the three techniques, plus a review of the existing ground-penetrating-radar data, allow a more thorough definition of the sources for the observed anomalies.

  6. Contamination source review for Building E5978, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Mosqueda, G.; Dougherty, J.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents the results of a contamination source review of Building E5978 at the Aberdeen Proving Group (APG) in Maryland. The primary mission at APG has been the testing and evaluation of US Army warfare materials. Since its beginning in 1917, the Edgewood Area of APG has been the principal location for chemical warfare agent research, development, and testing in the US. APG was also used for producing chemical warfare agents during both world wars, and it has been a center for the storage of chemical warfare material. An attempt was made to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from this review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and collection of air samples for the presence of volatile organic compounds.

  7. SPoRT Participation in the GOES-R and JPSS Proving Grounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary; Fuell, Kevin; Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    For the last several years, the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) project at has been working with the various algorithm working groups and science teams to demonstrate the utility of future operational sensors for GOES-R and the suite of instruments for the JPSS observing platforms. For GOES-R, imagery and products have been developed from polar-orbiting sensors such as MODIS and geostationary observations from SEVIRI, simulated imagery, enhanced products derived from existing GOES satellites, and data from ground-based observing systems to generate pseudo or proxy products for the ABI and GLM instruments. The suite of products include GOES-POES basic and RGB hybrid imagery, total lightning flash products, quantitative precipitation estimates, and convective initiation products. SPoRT is using imagery and products from VIIRS, CrIS, ATMS, and OMPS to show the utility of data and products from their operational counterparts on JPSS. The products include VIIRS imagery in swath form, the GOES-POES hybrid, a suite of RGB products including the air mass RGB using water vapor and ozone channels from CrIS, and several DNB products. Over a dozen SPoRT collaborative WFOs and several National Centers are involved in an intensive evaluation of the operational utility of these products.

  8. Nitrate behavior in ground water of the southeastern USA

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, B.T.

    1999-10-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed with water-quality data from studies conducted during 1993 to 1995 to explore potential nitrate-attenuation processes in ground waters of the southeastern USA. Nitrate reduction is an important attenuation process in selected areas of the Southeast. A nitrate-reduction component explains 23% of the total variance in the data and indicates that nitrate and dissolved oxygen (DO) are inversely related to ammonium, iron, manganese, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Additional components extracted by PCA include calcite dissolution (18% of variance explained) and phosphate dissolution (9% of variance explained). Reducing conditions in ground waters of the region influence nitrate behavior through bacterially mediated reduction in the presence of organic matter, and by inhibition of nitrate formation in anoxic ground water beneath forested areas. Component scores are consistent with observed water-quality conditions in the region. For example, median nitrate concentration in ground-water samples from the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin (ALBE) Coastal Plain is {lt}0.05 mg L{sup {minus}1}, median DOC concentration is 4.2 mg L{sup {minus}1}, and median DO concentration is 2.1 mg L{sup {minus}1}, consistent with denitrification. Nitrate reduction does not occur uniformly throughout the Southeast. Median DO concentrations in ground-water samples from the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin (ACFB) are 6.2 to 7.1 mg L{sup {minus}1}, and median nitrate concentrations are 0.61 to 2.2 mg L{sup {minus}1}, inconsistent with denitrification. Similarly, median DO concentration in samples from the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain (GAFL) is 6.0 mg L{sup {minus}1} and median nitrate concentration is 5.8 mg L{sup {minus}1}.

  9. Experimental studies of the characteristics of solar-power-plant heliostats on a proving ground - The fixed-heliostat method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepliakov, D. I.; Aparisi, R. R.

    The specific features of a new method for investigating the energy characteristics of heliostats for a tower-type solar plant are examined. The method consists in fixing a heliostat in a certain position in the case of which the spot formed by reflected solar radiation due to the apparent motion of the sun is displaced on the surface of an instrumented screen. Midday experiments on a meridional proving ground are discussed, and the practical implementation of the fixed-heliostat method is described.

  10. Investigation of soil contamination at the Riot Control Burning Pit area in J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ying-Ya; Yuen, C.R.; Martino, L.

    1996-05-01

    A remedial investigation was conducted to identify soil contamination in the Riot Control Burning Pit area in J-field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The investigation included geophysical surveys to delineate the filled section of the pit, soil-gas surveys to locate the organic contamination area, field X-ray fluorescence measurements along the burning pit to identify the major metal contamination, and surface and subsurface soil analyses to investigate the nature and extent of contamination. This paper presents the results of this investigation

  11. Long-term ground-water monitoring program and performance-evaluation plan for the extraction system at the former Nike Missile Battery Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senus, Michael P.; Tenbus, Frederick J.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents lithologic and ground-water-quality data collected during April and May 2000 in the remote areas of the tidal wetland of West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contamination of the Canal Creek aquifer with volatile organic compounds has been documented in previous investigations of the area. This study was conducted to investigate areas that were previously inaccessible because of deep mud and shallow water, and to support ongoing investigations of the fate and transport of volatile organic compounds in the Canal Creek aquifer. A unique vibracore drill rig mounted on a hovercraft was used for drilling and ground-water sampling. Continuous cores of the wetland sediment and of the Canal Creek aquifer were collected at five sites. Attempts to sample ground water were made by use of a continuous profiler at 12 sites, without well installation, at a total of 81 depths within the aquifer. Of those 81 attempts, only 34 sampling depths produced enough water to collect samples. Ground-water samples from two sites had the highest concentrations of volatile organic compounds?with total volatile organic compound concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer ranging from about 15,000 to 50,000 micrograms per liter. Ground-water samples from five sites had much lower total volatile organic compound concentrations (95 to 2,100 micrograms per liter), whereas two sites were essentially not contaminated, with total volatile organic compound concentrations less than or equal to 5 micrograms per liter.

  12. Assessment of volatile organic compounds in surface water at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Spencer, Tracey A.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected 13 surface-water samples and 3 replicates from 5 sites in the West Branch Canal Creek area at Aberdeen Proving Ground from February through August 1999, as a part of an investigation of ground-water contamination and natural attenuation processes. The samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds, including trichloroethylene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform, which are the four major contaminants that were detected in ground water in the Canal Creek area in earlier USGS studies. Field blanks were collected during the sampling period to assess sample bias. Field replicates were used to assess sample variability, which was expressed as relative percent difference. The mean variability of the surface-water replicate analyses was larger (35.4 percent) than the mean variability of ground-water replicate analyses (14.6 percent) determined for West Branch Canal Creek from 1995 through 1996. The higher variability in surface-water analyses is probably due to heterogeneities in the composition of the surface water rather than differences in sampling or analytical procedures. The most frequently detected volatile organic compound was 1,1,2,2- tetrachloroethane, which was detected in every sample and in two of the replicates. The surface-water contamination is likely the result of cross-media transfer of contaminants from the ground water and sediments along the West Branch Canal Creek. The full extent of surface-water contamination in West Branch Canal Creek and the locations of probable contaminant sources cannot be determined from this limited set of data. Tidal mixing, creek flow patterns, and potential effects of a drought that occurred during the sampling period also complicate the evaluation of surface-water contamination.

  13. Temporal and vertical variation of hydraulic head in aquifers in the Edgewood area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnelly, Colleen A.; Tenbus, Fredrick J.

    1998-01-01

    Water-level data and interpretations from previous hydrogeological studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, were compared to determine similarities and differences among the aquifers. Because the sediments that comprise the shallow aquifers are discontinuous, the shallow ground-water-flow systems are local rather than extensive across the Edgewood Area. Hydrogeologic cross sections, hydrographs of water levels, and vertical gradients calculated from previous studies in the Canal Creek area, Graces Quarters, the O-Field area, Carroll Island, and the J-Field area, over periods of record ranging from 1 to 10 years during 1986-97, were used to determine recharge and discharge areas, connections between aquifers, and hydrologic responses of aquifers to natural and anthropogenic stress. Each of the aquifers in the study areas exhibited variation of hydraulic head that was attributed to seasonal changes in recharge. Upward hydraulic gradients and seasonal reversals of vertical hydraulic gradients between aquifers indicate the potential for local ground-water discharge from most of the aquifers that were studied in the Edgewood Area. Hydraulic head in individual aquifers in Graces Quarters and Carroll Island responded to offsite pumping during part of the period of record. Hydraulic head in most of the confined aquifers responded to tidal loading effects from nearby estuaries.

  14. Environmental geophysics of the Pilot Plant on the west branch of Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Borden, H.; Benson, M.; Wrobel, J.

    1994-05-01

    Plans to demolish and remediate the Pilot Plant complex in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground have served to initiate a series of nonintrusive, environmental-geophysical studies. The studies are assisting in the location and identification of pipes, tanks, trenches, and liquid waste in the subsurface. Multiple databases have been integrated to provide support for detection of underground utilities and to determine the stratigraphy and lithology of the subsurface. The studies were conducted within the double security fence and exterior to the double fence, down gradient toward the west branch of Canal Creek. To determine if contaminants found in the creek were associated with the Pilot Plant, both the east and west banks were included in the study area. Magnetic, conductivity, inductive emf, and ground-penetrating-radar anomalies outline buried pipes, trenches, and various pieces of hardware associated with building activities. Ground-penetrating-radar imagery also defines a paleovalley cut 30 ft into Potomac Group sediments of Cretaceous age. The paleovalley crosses the site between Building E5654 and the Pilot Plant fence. The valley is environmentally significant because it may control the pathways of contaminants. The Pilot Plant complex was used to manufacture CC2 Impregnite and incapacitating agents; it also served as a production facility for nerve agents.

  15. Historical wildlife dynamics on Dugway Proving Ground: population and disease trends in jack rabbits over two decades. [Lepus californicus

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, L.E.; Van Voris, P.

    1986-08-01

    In an effort to determine whether US Army activities on the Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) have had an impact on resident wildlife, intensive studies have been conducted on the biology and ecology of the black-tailed jack rabbit (Lepus californicus) since 1965. in addition, the incidence of endemic diseases in several species of resident wildlife on the DPG have been studied from the late 1950s through the mid-1970s. The objectives of this report are to: (1) compile and summarize the jack rabbit data and some of the disease information that is presently contained only in annual reports; (2) compare the DPG jack rabbit data to data available on other jack rabbit populations; and (3) analyze the data for unusual or unexplained fluctuations in population densities or in incidence of disease.

  16. Health assessment for Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Aberdeen, Maryland, Region 3. CERCLIS Nos. MD3210021355 and MD10020036. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-19

    The Aberdeen Proving Grounds site is located in Aberdeen (Harford County) Maryland. Preliminary on-site groundwater and surface water sampling results have identified various metals, phosphorus, and volatile organic compounds. They include: 1,2-dichloroethylene, chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane, trichloroethylene, benzene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, 1,4-dithiane and 1,2-dichloroethylene. In addition, it has been reported that among the substances disposed of on-site are significant quantities of toxic metals, cyanide compounds, phosphorus, phosgene, napalm, and mustard gas. The site is considered to be of public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the likelihood of human exposure to hazardous substances. Potential environmental pathways include those related to contaminated groundwater, surface water, on-site soils, and volatilization of contaminants in ambient air.

  17. Report on environmental effects at Yuma Proving Ground from continued testing of projectiles containing beryllium and depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.; Sharmer, L.A.; Cederwall, R.T.; Novo, M.G.; Mitchell, C.S.

    1988-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine, from the available information, the potential environmental effects at Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), resulting from further testing of surface-burst artillery projectiles (XM785) containing amounts of beryllium (Be) and depleted uranium (DU). A model was applied to assess the downwind deposition and air concentrations of Be and DU during actual tests with the XM753 and XM785 at YPG. In addition, one single, static test of an XM785 was conducted at Tonopah Test Range. The potential effects of continued testing of devices such as the XM753 and XM785 appear to be insignificant, providing that prudent mitigations and environmental management practices are carried out. 44 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Toxicity of sediments surrounding the Gunpowder Neck Superfund Site at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Final report, August 1992-December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, M.V.; Anthony, J.S.; Chester, N.A.; Kurnas, C.W.

    1995-07-01

    From the late 1940s through the 1960s, the standard practice for disposing of toxic chemicals at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, was open burning. This disposal site has since been placed on the National Priority List (NPt) by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In the spring 1992, sediment samples were taken from waterways that surround that disposal area. Chemical analysis and sediment toxicity assays (Ampelisca abdita) were conducted. Toxicity comparison, with sediment leachate from an Adapted Toxicity Characteristic teaching Procedure (ATCLP), were made using Daphnia magna and a fluorescent bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum in MICROTOX assays. Amphipods showed a wide range of mortality in mud as well as coarser sediments indicating substrate preference is not critical to the outcome of the assay. Toxicity results from the leachates showed the sediments were not toxic to daphnia and MICROTOX assays.

  19. Demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF): Apache Longbow - Hell Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, R.A.

    2002-05-09

    This ecological risk assessment for a testing program at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, is a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF; Suter et al. 2001). The demonstration is intended to illustrate how risk assessment guidance concerning-generic military training and testing activities and guidance concerning a specific type of activity (e.g., low-altitude aircraft overflights) may be implemented at a military installation. MERAF was developed with funding from the Strategic Research and Development Program (SERDP) of the Department of Defense. Novel aspects of MERAF include: (1) the assessment of risks from physical stressors using an ecological risk assessment framework, (2) the consideration of contingent or indirect effects of stressors (e.g., population-level effects that are derived from habitat or hydrological changes), (3) the integration of risks associated with different component activities or stressors, (4) the emphasis on quantitative risk estimates and estimates of uncertainty, and (5) the modularity of design, permitting components of the framework to be used in various military risk assessments that include similar activities. The particular subject of this report is the assessment of ecological risks associated with a testing program at Cibola Range of Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. The program involves an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, i.e., M60-A1 tanks. Thus, the three component activities of the Apache-Hellfire test were: (1) helicopter overflight, (2) missile firing, and (3) tracked vehicle movement. The demonstration was limited, to two ecological endpoint entities (i.e., potentially susceptible and valued populations or communities): woody desert wash communities and mule deer populations. The core assessment area is composed of about 126 km{sup 2} between the Chocolate and Middle Mountains. The core time of the program is a three-week period, including fourteen days of

  20. Long-term fate of depleted uranium at Aberdeen and Yuma Proving Grounds: Human health and ecological risk assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M.H.; Beckman, R.J.; Myers, O.B.; Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.; Bestgen, H.T.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of depleted uranium (DU) in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) for the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) of the US Army. Specifically, we examined the potential for adverse radiological and toxicological effects to humans and ecosystems caused by exposure to DU at both installations. We developed contaminant transport models of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at APG and terrestrial ecosystems at YPG to assess potential adverse effects from DU exposure. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the initial models showed the portions of the models that most influenced predicted DU concentrations, and the results of the sensitivity analyses were fundamental tools in designing field sampling campaigns at both installations. Results of uranium (U) isotope analyses of field samples provided data to evaluate the source of U in the environment and the toxicological and radiological doses to different ecosystem components and to humans. Probabilistic doses were estimated from the field data, and DU was identified in several components of the food chain at APG and YPG. Dose estimates from APG data indicated that U or DU uptake was insufficient to cause adverse toxicological or radiological effects. Dose estimates from YPG data indicated that U or DU uptake is insufficient to cause radiological effects in ecosystem components or in humans, but toxicological effects in small mammals (e.g., kangaroo rats and pocket mice) may occur from U or DU ingestion. The results of this study were used to modify environmental radiation monitoring plans at APG and YPG to ensure collection of adequate data for ongoing ecological and human health risk assessments.

  1. JPSS Proving Ground Activities with NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, L. A.; Smith, M. R.; Fuell, K.; Stano, G. T.; LeRoy, A.; Berndt, E.

    2015-12-01

    Instruments aboard the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of satellites will provide imagery and other data sets relevant to operational weather forecasts. To prepare current and future weather forecasters in application of these data sets, Proving Ground activities have been established that demonstrate future JPSS capabilities through use of similar sensors aboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, and the S-NPP mission. As part of these efforts, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, Alabama partners with near real-time providers of S-NPP products (e.g., NASA, UW/CIMSS, UAF/GINA, etc.) to demonstrate future capabilities of JPSS. This includes training materials and product distribution of multi-spectral false color composites of the visible, near-infrared, and infrared bands of MODIS and VIIRS. These are designed to highlight phenomena of interest to help forecasters digest the multispectral data provided by the VIIRS sensor. In addition, forecasters have been trained on the use of the VIIRS day-night band, which provides imagery of moonlit clouds, surface, and lights emitted by human activities. Hyperspectral information from the S-NPP/CrIS instrument provides thermodynamic profiles that aid in the detection of extremely cold air aloft, helping to map specific aviation hazards at high latitudes. Hyperspectral data also support the estimation of ozone concentration, which can highlight the presence of much drier stratospheric air, and map its interaction with mid-latitude or tropical cyclones to improve predictions of their strengthening or decay. Proving Ground activities are reviewed, including training materials and methods that have been provided to forecasters, and forecaster feedback on these products that has been acquired through formal, detailed assessment of their applicability to a given forecast threat or task. Future opportunities for collaborations around the delivery of training are proposed

  2. Ground-water, surface-water, and bottom-sediment contamination in the O-field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, and the possible effects of selected remedial actions on ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Oliveros, James P.

    1995-01-01

    Disposal of munitions and chemical-warfare substances has introduced inorganic and organic contaminants to the ground water, surface water, and bottom sediment at O-Field, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contaminants include chloride, arsenic, transition metals, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, and organosulfur and organophosphorus compounds. The hydrologic effects of several remedial actions were estimated by use of a ground-water-flow model. The remedial actions examined were an impermeable covering, encapsulation, subsurface barriers, a ground-water drain, pumping of wells to manage water levels or to remove contaminated ground water for treatment, and no action.

  3. Lithologic and ground-water-quality data collected using Hoverprobe drilling techniques at the West Branch Canal Creek wetland, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, April-May 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelan, Daniel J.; Senus, Michael P.; Olsen, Lisa D.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents lithologic and groundwater- quality data collected during April and May 2000 in the remote areas of the tidal wetland of West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contamination of the Canal Creek aquifer with volatile organic compounds has been documented in previous investigations of the area. This study was conducted to investigate areas that were previously inaccessible because of deep mud and shallow water, and to support ongoing investigations of the fate and transport of volatile organic compounds in the Canal Creek aquifer. A unique vibracore drill rig mounted on a hovercraft was used for drilling and groundwater sampling. Continuous cores of the wetland sediment and of the Canal Creek aquifer were collected at five sites. Attempts to sample ground water were made by use of a continuous profiler at 12 sites, without well installation, at a total of 81 depths within the aquifer. Of those 81 attempts, only 34 sampling depths produced enough water to collect samples. Ground-water samples from two sites had the highest concentrations of volatile organic compounds?with total volatile organic compound concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer ranging from about 15,000 to 50,000 micrograms per liter. Ground-water samples from five sites had much lower total volatile organic compound concentrations (95 to 2,100 micrograms per liter), whereas two sites were essentially not contaminated, with total volatile organic compound concentrations less than or equal to 5 micrograms per liter.

  4. Design and analysis of a natural-gradient ground-water tracer test in a freshwater tidal wetland, West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Tenbus, Frederick J.

    2005-01-01

    A natural-gradient ground-water tracer test was designed and conducted in a tidal freshwater wetland at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The objectives of the test were to characterize solute transport at the site, obtain data to more accurately determine the ground-water velocity in the upper wetland sediments, and to compare a conservative, ionic tracer (bromide) to a volatile tracer (sulfur hexafluoride) to ascertain whether volatilization could be an important process in attenuating volatile organic compounds in the ground water. The tracer test was conducted within the upper peat unit of a layer of wetland sediments that also includes a lower clayey unit; the combined layer overlies an aquifer. The area selected for the test was thought to have an above-average rate of ground-water discharge based on ground-water head distributions and near-surface detections of volatile organic compounds measured in previous studies. Because ground-water velocities in the wetland sediments were expected to be slow compared to the underlying aquifer, the test was designed to be conducted on a small scale. Ninety-seven ?-inch-diameter inverted-screen stainless-steel piezometers were installed in a cylindrical array within approximately 25 cubic feet (2.3 cubic meters) of wetland sediments, in an area with a vertically upward hydraulic gradient. Fluorescein dye was used to qualitatively evaluate the hydrologic integrity of the tracer array before the start of the tracer test, including verifying the absence of hydraulic short-circuiting due to nonnatural vertical conduits potentially created during piezometer installation. Bromide and sulfur hexafluoride tracers (0.139 liter of solution containing 100,000 milligrams per liter of bromide ion and 23.3 milligrams per liter of sulfur hexafluoride) were co-injected and monitored to generate a dataset that could be used to evaluate solute transport in three dimensions. Piezometers were sampled 2 to 15 times

  5. Thermal energy supply optimization for aberdeen proving ground - edgewood area. Distribution system condition assessment and recommendations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    VanBlaricum, V.L.; Marsh, C.P.; Hock, V.F.

    1995-05-01

    This report documents the results of a study by the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories to assess the condition of the steam heat distribution system at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG)-Edgewood Area (EA), MD. This report documents the portion of the study that addressed widespread corrosion and deterioration existing throughout the aging system. A physical inventory of the steam distribution system piping and manholes was conducted. A visual condition assessment of a significant portion of the system was performed. Factors that impact the deterioration of the system were assessed, including soil chemistry, cathodic protection, and chemistry of the products conveyed by the system. The authors developed a detailed set of recommendations that includes (1) replacement or rehabilitation of severely deteriorated, unsafe or improperly functioning components. (2) implementation of an effective ongoing maintenance program tailored to the specific corrosion and deterioration problems at APG-EA, and (3) recommendations to ensure that new construction is performed in accordance with current Army standards and guidance.

  6. An optimized groundwater extraction system for the toxic burning pits area of J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, J.J.; Johnson, R.L.; Patton, T.L.; Martino, L.E.

    1996-06-01

    Testing and disposal of chemical warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals at the J-Field area of the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) have resulted in contamination of soil and groundwater. The discharge of contaminated groundwater to on-site marshes and adjacent estuaries poses a potential risk to ecological receptors. The Toxic Burning Pits (TBP) area is of special concern because of its disposal history. This report describes a groundwater modeling study conducted at J-Field that focused on the TBP area. The goal of this modeling effort was optimization of the groundwater extraction system at the TBP area by applying linear programming techniques. Initially, the flow field in the J-Field vicinity was characterized with a three-dimensional model that uses existing data and several numerical techniques. A user-specified border was set near the marsh and used as a constraint boundary in two modeled remediation scenarios: containment of the groundwater and containment of groundwater with an impermeable cap installed over the TBP area. In both cases, the objective was to extract the minimum amount of water necessary while satisfying the constraints. The smallest number of wells necessary was then determined for each case. This optimization approach provided two benefits: cost savings, in that the water to be treated and the well installation costs were minimized, and minimization of remediation impacts on the ecology of the marsh.

  7. X-ray fluorescence investigation of surface lead in the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Brubaker, K.L.; O`Neill, H.J.; Parks, J.E.; Rueda, J.F.; Schneider, J.F.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report presents the results and findings from a field measurement program undertaken in the Pilot Plant Complex (PPC) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, to address the potential contamination of the PPC structures with lead in paint. A portable x-ray fluorescence device was used to measure the lead loading at approximately 1,000 locations on painted surfaces in the PPC buildings. The device performed well, although external calibration was necessary for accurate results. The principal conclusion is that the amount of lead present in all the buildings examined presents no regulatory waste disposal problems. The analysis showed that the estimated lead concentration in the amount of rubble expected from each building is far below the regulatory limit, even assuming that all the lead present would be leached during the test procedure (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure). The level of confidence for this conclusion exceeds 95%. The frequency distributions of the data were markedly skewed; the most probable values were quite low, but significant tails were detected. Evidence for at least three different sub-populations of lead loading values was found, and no simple curve is adequate to describe the observed distributions.

  8. The Apache Longbow-Hellfire Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground: Ecological Risk Assessment for Helicopter Overflight

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Hargrove, William Walter; Suter, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    A multi-stressor risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework. The focus of the assessment was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, M60-A1 tanks. This paper focuses on the wildlife risk assessment for the helicopter overflight. The primary stressors were sound and the view of the aircraft. Exposure to desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus crooki) was quantified using Air Force sound contour programs NOISEMAP and MR_NMAP, which gave very different results. Slant distance from helicopters to deer was also used as a measure of exposure that integrated risk from sound and view of the aircraft. Exposure-response models for the characterization of effects consisted of behavioral thresholds in sound exposure level or maximum sound level units or slant distance. Available sound thresholds were limited for desert mule deer, but a distribution of slant-distance thresholds was available for ungulates. The risk characterization used a weight-of-evidence approach and concluded that risk to mule deer behavior from the Apache overflight is uncertain, but that no risk to mule deer abundance and reproduction is expected.

  9. The Apache Longbow-Hellfire Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground: Ecological Risk Assessment for Missile Firing

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Daniel Steven; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Hargrove, William Walter; Suter, Glenn; Pater, Larry

    2008-01-01

    A multiple stressor risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework. The focus was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, M60- A1 tanks. This paper describes the ecological risk assessment for the missile launch and detonation. The primary stressor associated with this activity was sound. Other minor stressors included the detonation impact, shrapnel, and fire. Exposure to desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus crooki) was quantified using the Army sound contour program BNOISE2, as well as distances from the explosion to deer. Few effects data were available from related studies. Exposure-response models for the characterization of effects consisted of human "disturbance" and hearing damage thresholds in units of C-weighted decibels (sound exposure level) and a distance-based No Observed Adverse Effects Level for moose and cannonfire. The risk characterization used a weight-of-evidence approach and concluded that risk to mule deer behavior from the missile firing was likely for a negligible number of deer, but that no risk to mule deer abundance and reproduction is expected.

  10. Changes in ground-water quality in the Canal Creek Aquifer between 1995 and 2000-2001, West Branch Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelan, Daniel J.; Fleck, William B.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Olsen, Lisa D.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1917, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland has been the primary chemical-warfare research and development center for the U.S. Army. Ground-water contamination has been documented in the Canal Creek aquifer because of past disposal of chemical and ordnance manufacturing waste. Comprehensive sampling for volatile organic compounds in ground water by the U.S. Geological Survey in the West Branch Canal Creek area was done in June?October 1995 and June?August 2000. The purpose of this report is (1) to compare volatile organic compound concentrations and determine changes in the ground-water contaminant plumes along two cross sections between 1995 and 2000, and (2) to incorporate data from new piezometers sampled in spring 2001 into the plume descriptions. Along the southern cross section, total concentrations of volatile organic compounds in 1995 were determined to be highest in the landfill area east of the wetland (5,200 micrograms per liter), and concentrations were next highest deep in the aquifer near the center of the wetland (3,300 micrograms per liter at 35 feet below land surface). When new piezometers were sampled in 2001, higher carbon tetrachloride and chloroform concentrations (2,000 and 2,900 micrograms per liter) were detected deep in the aquifer 38 feet below land surface, west of the 1995 sampling. A deep area in the aquifer close to the eastern edge of the wetland and a shallow area just east of the creek channel showed declines in total volatile organic compound concentrations of more than 25 percent, whereas between those two areas, con-centrations generally showed an increase of greater than 25 percent between 1995 and 2000. Along the northern cross section, total concentrations of volatile organic compounds in ground water in both 1995 and 2000 were determined to be highest (greater than 2,000 micrograms per liter) in piezometers located on the east side of the section, farthest from the creek channel, and concentrations were progressively lower

  11. Characterization of Preferential Ground-Water Seepage From a Chlorinated Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Aquifer to West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, 2002-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majcher, Emily H.; Phelan, Daniel J.; Lorah, Michelle M.; McGinty, Angela L.

    2007-01-01

    Wetlands act as natural transition zones between ground water and surface water, characterized by the complex interdependency of hydrology, chemical and physical properties, and biotic effects. Although field and laboratory demonstrations have shown efficient natural attenuation processes in the non-seep wetland areas and stream bottom sediments of West Branch Canal Creek, chlorinated volatile organic compounds are present in a freshwater tidal creek at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volatile organic compound concentrations in surface water indicate that in some areas of the wetland, preferential flow paths or seeps allow transport of organic compounds from the contaminated sand aquifer to the overlying surface water without undergoing natural attenuation. From 2002 through 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division of the U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, characterized preferential ground-water seepage as part of an ongoing investigation of contaminant distribution and natural attenuation processes in wetlands at this site. Seep areas were discrete and spatially consistent during thermal infrared surveys in 2002, 2003, and 2004 throughout West Branch Canal Creek wetlands. In these seep areas, temperature measurements in shallow pore water and sediment more closely resembled those in ground water than those in nearby surface water. Generally, pore water in seep areas contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds had lower methane and greater volatile organic compound concentrations than pore water in non-seep wetland sediments. The volatile organic compounds detected in shallow pore water in seeps were spatially similar to the dominant volatile organic compounds in the underlying Canal Creek aquifer, with both parent and anaerobic daughter compounds detected. Seep locations characterized as focused seeps contained the highest concentrations of chlorinated parent compounds

  12. Remedial investigation sampling and analysis plan for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Field Sampling Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.; Biang, R.; Dolak, D.; Dunn, C.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Wang, Y.; Yuen, C.

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland (Figure 1. 1). Since World War II activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA) (predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center [AEC]). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA -environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-002-1355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in data were collected to model, groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today.

  13. Collecting single and multichannel seismic-reflection data in shallow water near Aberdeen Proving Ground, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Haeni, F.P.; Banks, W.L.; Versteeg, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    In August and September 1994, single- and multi-channel seismic-reflection data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Army and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE), to support a regional hydrogeologic framework study at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland. Data were collected in Chesapeake Bay, as well as in the Bush, Gunpowder, and Sassafras Rivers, which are tributaries to Chesapeake Bay. Data were collected along the shoreline in very shallow water, usually less than 1 m. Approximately 100 km of single-channel seismic-reflection data were collected using a water gun and an electromechanical plate as sound sources; about 50 percent of these data contained usable geologic information. A prominent channel in the Quaternary sediments at a depth of 61 m is clearly evident, and the depth to bedrock ranges from approximately 184 to 223 m. Approximately 14 km of multi-channel data were collected in the Gunpowder and Bush Rivers and in Chesapeake Bay; about 40 percent of these data showed subsurface reflectors, often in small, discontinuous segments. Data were processed using established processing techniques. Numerous reflectors were present in the data that were continuous over long distances. The multi-channel data contained more detail and significantly less noise than the single-channel data. The quality and continuity of the single- and multi-channel data were best in shallow water (less than 1 m) where the presence of gassing organic sediments was at a minimum.

  14. Constrained Parameterization of the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves Approach with Application at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenk, Jacob Tyler

    Field data from Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona was used to test the feasibility of merging common multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) processing routines with mode-consistent shear-wave refraction traveltime tomography and synthetic modeling to optimize and constrain inversion results. Shear-wave first-arrival refraction tomography was used to enhance layer-model resolution and refine the MASW layer model with independent body-wave information. Shear-wave tomograms suggested a high-velocity layer, not found in initial 'smooth' MASW velocity sections that were used as initial models for tomographic inversion. Increasing the stratification of the MASW layer model, to generally match tomogram structure, resulted in a higher-resolution MASW model constrained through joint analysis. This mutual analysis of shear-wave velocity (Vs) provided multiplicity to the structural interpretation of the site. Constrained-parameterization MASW results, compressional-wave tomography (Vp:Vs ratio), and density well logs populated a 2D model for numerical modeling, which was manually updated over several iterations to converge upon the site's first-arrival and dispersion characteristics. Further evaluation of the synthetic seismograms gave insight into the relationship between acquisition geometry (offset selection) and the associated dispersion-image character. Furthermore, modeling gave a secondary measurement on depth to half-space, velocity structure, and relative Vp:Vs ratios, which formulated a final MASW profile. The gradual change of the earth model, given an evolving hierarchy of constraint, is seen as the main finding of this thesis. The calculated movement towards a higher-resolution inversion based on joint geophysical measurements, analysis, and interpretation, engenders a constrained-parameterization solution with highest confidence.

  15. Nuclear Bombs and Coral: Guam Coral Core Reveals Operation-Specific Radiocarbon Signals from the Pacific Proving Grounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, A. H.

    2016-12-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) analyses on a coral core extracted from the western Central Pacific (Guam) has revealed a series of early peaks in the marine bomb 14C record. The typical marine bomb 14C signal, one that is phase lagged and attenuated relative to atmospheric bomb 14C, is present in the coral core and is consistent with other North Pacific records. However, 14C levels that are well above what can be explained by air-sea diffusion alone punctuate this pattern. This anomaly has been demonstrated to a limited extent in other coral cores of the Indo-Pacific region, but is unmatched relative to the magnitude and temporal resolution recorded in the Guam coral core. Other records have shown an early ∆14C rise on the order of 40-50‰ above pre-bomb levels, with a subsequent decline before continuing the gradual ∆14C rise that is indicative of air-sea diffusion of 14CO2. The Guam coral ∆14C record provided three strong pulses in 1954-55, 1956-57, and 1958-59 that are superimposed on the pre-bomb to initial ∆14C rise from atmospheric bomb 14C. Each of these peaks can be directly linked to testing of thermonuclear devices in the Pacific Proving Grounds at Eniwetok and Bikini Atoll of the Marshall Islands. The measurable lag in reaching Guam can be tied to ocean surface currents and can be traced to other regional ∆14C records from corals, providing a transport timeline to places as distant as the Indonesian throughflow, Okinawa and Palmyra.

  16. Work plan for focused feasibility study of the toxic burning pits area at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Biang, C.; Benioff, P.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCIA). J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA)(predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-0021355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in which data were collected to model groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today-

  17. RCRA delisting of agent-decontaminated waste and remediation waste at Dugway Proving Ground: A program update

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.; O`Neill, H.J.

    1996-03-01

    In July 1988, the state of Utah issued regulations that declared residues resulting from the demilitarization, treatment, and testing of military chemical agents to be hazardous wastes. These residues were designated as corrosive, reactive, toxic, and acute hazardous (Hazardous Waste No. F999). These residues are not listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), which is the primary law governing management of hazardous waste in the United States. The RCRAI regulations (40 CFR 260-280), the Utah Administrative Code (R-315), and other state hazardous waste programs list specific wastes as hazardous but allow generators to petition the regulator to {open_quotes}delist{close_quotes} if it can be demonstrated that such wastes are not hazardous. In 1994, the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command FECOM initiated a project with the Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to demonstrate that certain categories of F999 residues are not hazardous waste and to achieve delisting. The initial focus is on delisting agent-decontaminated residues and soil with a history of contamination at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), Utah. An overview of the DPG delisting program was presented at the 1995 American Defense Preparedness Association Environmental Symposium. Since that time, much progress has been made. The purpose of this paper is to review the DPG delisting program and discuss overall progress. Emphasis is placed on progress with regard to analytical methods that will be used to demonstrate that the target residues do not contain hazardous amounts of chemical agent.

  18. Evaluation of Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) Detection Technology at the Standardized UXO Test Sites Aberdeen and Yuma Proving Grounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    so that they combine the advantages of both the EM and MAG sensors. (4) Ground-penetrating radar ( GPR ). GPR systems work by transmitting...buried in the ground or any dielectric discontinuity and then return to the surface. By analyzing the signal that returns from the ground, GPR ...EM EM61MKII sling Jan. 2006 VF Warner Blind Grid (764) EM AMOS towed Dec. 2002 Witten Blind Grid (45) GPR Cart cart Dec. 2002 Witten Mine Grid

  19. The U.S. Army Occupational and Environmental Medicine Residency at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: 1960-1996.

    PubMed

    Gaydos, Joel C; Mallon, Timothy M; Rice, William A

    2016-11-01

    Reorganization of the Army and critical assessment of Army Graduate Medical Education programs prompted the Occupational and Environmental Medicine (OEM) Consultant to the Army Surgeon General to initiate a review of current Army OEM residency training. Available information indicated the Army OEM residency at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, was the first and longest operating Army OEM residency. Describing this residency was identified as the first step in the review, with the objectives of determining why the residency was started and sustained and its relevance to the needs of the Army. Records possibly related to the residency were reviewed, starting with 1954 since certification of physicians as Occupation Medicine specialists began in 1955. Interviews were conducted with selected physicians who had strong affiliations with the Army residency and the practice of Army OEM. The Army OEM residency began in 1960 and closed in 1996 with the transfer of Army OEM residency training to the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD. Over 36 years, 47 uniformed residency graduates were identified; 44 were from the Army. Forty graduated between 1982 and 1996. The OEM residency was part of a dynamic cycle. Uniformed OEM leaders identified the knowledge and skills required of military OEM physicians and where these people should be stationed in the global Army. Rotations at military sites to acquire the needed knowledge and skills were integrated into the residency. Residency graduates were assigned to positions where they were needed. Having uniformed residents and preceptors facilitated the development of trust with military leaders and access to areas where OEM physician skills and knowledge could have a positive impact. Early reports indicated the residency was important in recruiting and retaining OEM physicians, with emphasis placed on supporting the Army industrial base. The late 1970s into the 1990s was a more dynamic period. There was

  20. Estimates of groundwater age from till and carbonate bedrock hydrogeologic units at Jefferson Proving Ground, Southeastern Indiana, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buszka, Paul M.; Lampe, David C.; Egler, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    During 2007-08, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army, conducted a study to evaluate the relative age of groundwater in Pre-Wisconsinan till and underlying shallow and deep carbonate bedrock units in and near an area at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG), southeastern Indiana, which was used during 1984-94 to test fire depleted uranium (DU) penetrators. The shallow carbonate unit includes about the upper 40 feet of bedrock below the bedrock-till surface; the deeper carbonate unit includes wells completed at greater depth. Samples collected during April 2008 from 15 wells were analyzed for field water-quality parameters, dissolved gases, tritium, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) compounds; samples from 14 additional wells were analyzed for tritium only. Water-level gradients in the Pre-Wisconsinan till and the shallow carbonate unit were from topographically higher areas toward Big Creek and Middle Fork Creek, and their tributaries. Vertical gradients were strongly downward from the shallow carbonate unit toward the deep carbonate unit at 3 of 4 paired wells where water levels recovered after development; indicating the general lack of flow between the two units. The lack of post development recovery of water levels at 4 other wells in the deep carbonate unit indicate that parts of that unit have no appreciable permeability. CFC and tritium-based age dates of Pre-Wisconsinan till groundwater are consistent with infiltration of younger (typically post-1960 age) recharge that 'mixes' with older recharge from less permeable or less interconnected strata. Part of the recharge to three till wells dated from the early to mid-1980s (JPG-DU-03O, JPG-DU-09O, and JPG-DU-10O). Age dates of young recharge in water from two till wells predated 1980 (JPG-DU-04O and JPG-DU-06O). Tritium-based age dates of water from seven other till wells indicated post-1972 age recharge. Most wells in the Pre-Wisconsinan till have the potential to produce

  1. Meeting on Solute/Solvent Interactions Held in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland on May 29-30, 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    J. Taylor, Tetrahedxon Letters, 29, 1587 (1988). 6. G. M. Brown & 0. A. W. Strydom, Acta Crystallogr, Sewt. B 30,801 (1974). 7. P. Marsh & D. E...APPENDIX 3 ORGANIZATIONS OF AUTHORS IN THESE PROCEEDINGS Central Michigan University 49 Instituto de Quimica Fisica 33 La Sierra University, Riverside 71...Aberdeen Proving Gd, MD Joxe-Luis Abbud Christopher Cramer Instituto de Quimica Fisica SMCCR-RSP-C "Rocasolano" U.S. Army Chemical RD&E Center Conajo

  2. An Analysis of Multiple Award Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity Contracts at the Army Contracting Command -- Aberdeen Proving Ground

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    quantity of 100 horses/ burros was insufficient to form binding contract. GAO denied the protest on the grounds that historical data indicated that...100 horses/ burros was a number the government was fairly certain to order and that given the multiple award nature of the IDIQ contract there was no...certainty how many horses/ burros each individual contractor would handle over the life of the contract. (Gamboa, 2000) c. B-291185: ABF Freight System’s

  3. MX Siting Investigation. Volume IIB. Geotechnical Report, Yuma Proving Grounds/Luke-Williams Bombing and Gunnery Range (YPG/LWBGR).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-30

    Santa Cruz Basin, Pima and Santa Cruz Counties , in Halpenny, L. C., and others, 1952, Ground- water in Gila River and adjacent areas... Counties , Arizona : Arizona Bur. Mines. , 1960b, Geologic map - Pima and Santa Cruz Counties , Arizona : Arizona Bur. Mines. Wilson, E. D., Moore, R. T...San Andreas fault, California: Geol. Soc. America Spec. Paper 71, 61 p. Cushman, R. L., 1952, Lower Santa

  4. Remedial investigation sampling and analysis plan for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: Volume 2, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, S.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.

    1995-03-01

    J-Field encompasses about 460 acres at the southern end of the Gunpowder Neck Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of APG (Figure 2.1). Since World War II, the Edgewood Area of APG has been used to develop, manufacture, test, and destroy chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). For the purposes of this project, J-Field has been divided into eight geographic areas or facilities that are designated as areas of concern (AOCs): the Toxic Burning Pits (TBP), the White Phosphorus Burning Pits (WPP), the Riot Control Burning Pit (RCP), the Robins Point Demolition Ground (RPDG), the Robins Point Tower Site (RPTS), the South Beach Demolition Ground (SBDG), the South Beach Trench (SBT), and the Prototype Building (PB). The scope of this project is to conduct a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) and ecological risk assessment to evaluate the impacts of past disposal activities at the J-Field site. Sampling for the RI will be carried out in three stages (I, II, and III) as detailed in the FSP. A phased approach will be used for the J-Field ecological risk assessment (ERA).

  5. Ground-water research in the U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuinness, C.L.

    1967-01-01

    Ground-water reservoirs and the overlying unsaturated zone-collectively, the "subsurface"-have an enormous capacity to supply water to wells and useful plants, to store water to meet future needs for the same purposes, and, under suitable precautions, to accept wastes. This capacity can be exploited on a maximum scale, however, only on the basis of information one or more orders of magnitude greater than that available at present on the distribution, recoverability, and replenishability of subsurface water. Because usable water must be made available, and waste water must be disposed of, at costs of only a cent or a few cents per cubic meter, there is a critical need for research to devise methods of accomplishing these water-management tasks at reasonable cost. Among the chief target areas for research in subsurface hydrology are permeability distribution, including vertical permeability; prediction of the departure of the storage coefficient from the theoretically "instantaneous" property assumed in flow equations; theory of unsaturated flow based on fundamental soil characteristics that can be measured practicably; geochemical relations including the effects of injecting water of one composition into zones occupied by waters of different composition, generation of acid mine water, occurrence of saline water, and salt-fresh-water relations in coastal and other areas; prediction of the fate of wastes injected underground; geophysical techniques both surface and subsurface to extend, at low cost, information obtained by other means; and practical techniques of artificial recharge, especially through wells. ?? 1967.

  6. In situ analysis of soil at an open burning/open detonation disposal facility: J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, L.; Cho, E.; Wrobel, J.

    1994-10-01

    Investigators have used a field-portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analyzer to screen soils for a suite of metals indicative of the open burning and open detonation (OB/OD) activities that occurred at the J-Field site at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The field XRF results were incorporated into a multiphase investigation of contaminants at the Toxic Burning Pits Area of Concern at J-Field. The authors determined that the field-portable XRF unit used for the study and the general concept of field XRF screening are invaluable tools for investigating an OB/OD site where intrusive sampling techniques could present unacceptable hazards to site workers.

  7. 2005 Field Tests of ALLTEM and the Planar Tensor Magnetic Gradiometer System (TMGS) at the Standardized UXO Test Area at the Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    to the USGS . In addition, Dr. Charles P. Oden, a recent Ph.D. from CSM, is working at the USGS on a new algorithm to perform inversions of ALLTEM...starting point for this project was three existing geophysical prototype instruments developed by the U.S. Geological Survey ( USGS ) for other...Denver, CO Arrive DFC. Stow gear. Table 1.1. USGS Yuma Proving Ground Field Itinerary, Oct-Nov, 2005 2.0 THE REVISED CALIBRATION GRID AREA AT YPG

  8. Installation restoration research program: Assessment of geophysical methods for subsurface geologic mapping, cluster 13, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, D.K.; Sharp, M.K.; Sjostrom, K.J.; Simms, J.E.; Llopis, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    Seismic refraction, electrical resistivity, and transient electromagnetic surveys were conducted at a portion of Cluster 13, Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Seismic refraction cross sections map the topsoil layer and the water table (saturated zone). The water table elevations from the seismic surveys correlate closely with water table elevations in nearby monitoring wells. Electrical resistivity cross sections reveal a very complicated distribution of sandy and clayey facies in the upper 10 - 15 m of the subsurface. A continuous surficial (topsoil) layer correlates with the surficial layer of the seismic section and nearby boring logs. The complexity and details of the electrical resistivity cross section correlate well with boring and geophysical logs from nearby wells. The transient electromagnetic surveys map the Pleistocene-Cretaceous boundary, the saprolite, and the top of the Precambrian crystalline rocks. Conducting the transient electromagnetic surveys on a grid pattern allows the construction of a three-dimensional representation of subsurface geology (as represented by variations of electrical resistivity). Thickness and depth of the saprolitic layer and depth to top of the Precambrian rocks are consistent with generalized geologic cross sections for the Edgewood Area and depths projected from reported depths at the Aberdeen Proving Ground NW boundary using regional dips.

  9. Preliminary assessment of microbial communities and biodegradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in wetlands at Cluster 13, Lauderick Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Voytek, Mary A.; Spencer, Tracey A.

    2003-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the microbial communities and biodegradation processes for chlorinated volatile organic compounds was con-ducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in wetlands at the Cluster 13, Lauderick Creek area at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The U.S. Geological Survey collected wetland sediment samples from 11 sites in the Lauderick Creek area for microbial analyses, and used existing data to evaluate biodegradation processes and rates. The bacterial and methanogen communities in the Lauderick Creek wetland sediments were similar to those observed in a previous U.S. Geological Survey study at the West Branch Canal Creek wet-land area, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Evaluation of the degradation rate of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and the daughter compounds produced also showed similar results for the two wetlands. How-ever, a vertical profile of contaminant concentra-tions in the wetlands was available at only one site in the Lauderick Creek area, and flow velocities in the wetland sediment are unknown. To better evaluate natural attenuation processes and rates in the wetland sediments at Lauderick Creek, chemi-cal and hydrologic measurements are needed along ground-water flowpaths in the wetland at additional sites and during different seasons. Nat-ural attenuation in the wetlands, enhanced biore-mediation, and constructed wetlands could be feasible remediation methods for the chlorinated volatile organic compounds discharging in the Lauderick Creek area. The similarities in the microbial communities and biodegradation pro-cesses at the Lauderick Creek and West Branch Canal Creek areas indicate that enhanced bioreme-diation techniques currently being developed for the West Branch Canal Creek wetland area would be transferable to this area.

  10. Focused feasibility study for surface soil at the main pits and pushout area, J-field toxic burning pits area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, T.; Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Butler, J.

    1996-06-01

    The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). J-Field is located within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning/open detonation. Portions of J-Field continue to be used for the detonation and disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) by open burning/open detonation under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  11. Ice-on-coil diurnal-ice-storage cooling system for a barracks/office/dining hall facility at Yuma Proving Ground, AZ. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.W.; Cler, G.L.; Kedl, R.J.

    1990-09-01

    Diurnal storage cooling systems provide an effective means for reducing peak electric energy demand at Army installations. The U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (USACERL) demonstrated an ice-on-coil diurnal ice storage (DIS) cooling system at a barracks/ office/dining facility at Yuma Proving Ground, AZ as part of the Facilities Engineering Applications Program (FEAP). This report documents design, construction, and operational performance of the system and provides a design reference for ice-on-coil DIS cooling systems. Operational data collected during the fall of 1988 and the cooling season of 1989 indicated a net annual electrical savings of $22,450. The simple payback period for the system is 6.5 years.

  12. Chemical-Stockpile Disposal Program. Evaluation of multiple-incinerator air-quality impacts, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Final report, November 1986-May 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term additive ambient impact of certain toxic air pollutants that will potentially be emitted from the Chemical Agent Incinerator (AI) proposed for the Edgewood Area (EA) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland and from three additional planned or existing incinerators also located on the EA. This impact was determined in consideration of the existence and operation of three additional planned or existing incinerators also located on EA. Based on air-dispersion modeling conducted as part of an original analysis, emissions were estimated of chlorinated organics from the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center Decontamination/Detoxification Municipal Waste Incinerator (MWI), for downwind distances as great as the distance to the nearest boundary of the EA. Consequently, for this evaluation, only the MWI is considered to emit chlorinated organics.

  13. Agrichemicals in ground water of the midwestern USA: Relations to soil characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkart, M.R.; Kolpin, D.W.; Jaquis, R.J.; Cole, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive set of soil characteristics were examined to determine the effect of soil on the transport of agrichemicals to ground water. This paper examines the relation of local soil characteristics to concentrations and occurrence of nitrate, atrazine (2-chloro-4 ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-trazine), and atrazine residue [atrazine + deethylatrazine (2-amino-4-chloro-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) + deisopropylatrazine (2-amino-4-chloro-6-ethylamino-s-triazine)] from 99 wells completed in unconsolidated aquifers across the midwestern USA. The occurrence and concentrations of nitrate and atrazine in ground water were directly related to soil characteristics that determine the rate of water movement. The substantial differences in the relations found among soil characteristics and nitrate and atrazine in ground water suggest that different processes affect the transformation, adsorption, and transport of these contaminants. A multivariate analysis determined that the soil characteristics examined explained the amount of variability in concentrations for nitrate (19.0%), atrazine (33.4%), and atrazine residue (28.6%). These results document that, although soils do affect the transport of agrichemicals to ground water, other factors such as hydrology, land use, and climate must also be considered to understand the occurrence of agrichemicals in ground water.

  14. Microbial Consortia Development and Microcosm and Column Experiments for Enhanced Bioremediation of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds, West Branch Canal Creek Wetland Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Majcher, Emily H.; Jones, Elizabeth J.; Voytek, Mary A.

    2008-01-01

    Chlorinated solvents, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform, are reaching land surface in localized areas of focused ground-water discharge (seeps) in a wetland and tidal creek in the West Branch Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. In cooperation with the U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, the U.S. Geological Survey is developing enhanced bioremediation methods that simulate the natural anaerobic degradation that occurs without intervention in non-seep areas of the wetland. A combination of natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation could provide a remedy for the discharging ground-water plumes that would minimize disturbance to the sensitive wetland ecosystem. Biostimulation (addition of organic substrate or nutrients) and bioaugmentation (addition of microbial consortium), applied either by direct injection at depth in the wetland sediments or by construction of a permeable reactive mat at the seep surface, were tested as possible methods to enhance anaerobic degradation in the seep areas. For the first phase of developing enhanced bioremediation methods for the contaminant mixtures in the seeps, laboratory studies were conducted to develop a microbial consortium to degrade 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and its chlorinated daughter products under anaerobic conditions, and to test biostimulation and bioaugmentation of wetland sediment and reactive mat matrices in microcosms. The individual components required for the direct injection and reactive mat methods were then combined in column experiments to test them under groundwater- flow rates and contaminant concentrations observed in the field. Results showed that both direct injection and the reactive mat are promising remediation methods, although the success of direct injection likely would depend on adequately distributing and maintaining organic substrate throughout the wetland sediment in the seep

  15. The GOES-R Air Quality Proving Ground: Introducing the Air Quality User Community to the Next Generation of NOAA Geostationary Satellite Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, A. K.; Zhang, H.; Hoff, R. M.; Xu, C.; Ciren, P.; Kondragunta, S.; Yang, E.; Christopher, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    The air quality community uses NOAA satellite products for a variety of applications, including routine air quality forecasting, event analysis, and justification for Exceptional Events. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on GOES-R will provide new and improved aerosol products compared to what is available from the current GOES imager. In addition, GOES-R will make observations every 5-15 minutes, which will provide an unprecedented volume of data for applications. To prepare the air quality user community for GOES-R, NOAA has established an Air Quality Proving Ground (AQPG). A subset of the overall NOAA GOES-R Proving Ground, the AQPG is providing training and outreach to air quality forecasters, modelers, and analysts on GOES-R ABI capabilities and products. This distinction is important because the air quality community has very different needs than the majority of GOES users (e.g., National Weather Service meteorologists). A key aspect of AQPG activities is the generation of simulated ABI aerosol products using current satellite and model data in conjunction with the ABI aerosol algorithm. Simulated ABI aerosol images for case studies of historical smoke and haze air quality events have been generated for several regions of the continental U.S. This year, the AQPG team streamed near real-time hourly GOES-R ABI proxy images for 12:00 - 23:00 UTC daily during the period July 12-30, 2011 as part of a demonstration Proving Ground testbed. Simulated ABI aerosol products include aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol type, which is a new product from GOES-R that will be useful for distinguishing between smoke and dust aerosols. The simulated datasets are designed to give the user community an idea of the aerosol products that will be available from GOES-R. To that end, the AQPG has formed an Advisory Group of representatives from the user community who are providing feedback to NOAA on product development. User community feedback is critical for improving the

  16. Preliminary assessment of risk from toxic materials that might be mobilized in the decommissioning of Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblatt, D.H.; Brubaker, K.L.

    1991-12-01

    Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032 is scheduled for decommissioning, that is, for demolition. Because the building was formerly used for small-scale operations with incendiary and toxic chemical agents, it presents unusual concerns for occupational and public health safety during the demolition. For this reason, an anticipatory risk assessment was conducted, taking into consideration the building's history, properties of potential residual contaminants (particularly chemical and incendiary agents), and assumptions relating to meteorological conditions and envisioned modes of demolition. Safe maximum levels in concrete floors for the worst case were estimated to be: white phosphorus, 3200 mg/kg; mustard, 94 mg/kg; nerve agent GA (tabun), 6 mg/kg; cyanide, 500 mg/kg; and sulfide, 1400 mg/kg. These values will serve as planning guidance for the activities to follow. It is emphasized that the estimates must be reviewed, and perhaps revised, after sampling and analysis are completed, the demolition methodology is chosen, and dust emissions are measured under operating conditions.

  17. Preliminary assessment of risk from toxic materials that might be mobilized in the decommissioning of Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblatt, D.H.; Brubaker, K.L.

    1991-12-01

    Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032 is scheduled for decommissioning, that is, for demolition. Because the building was formerly used for small-scale operations with incendiary and toxic chemical agents, it presents unusual concerns for occupational and public health safety during the demolition. For this reason, an anticipatory risk assessment was conducted, taking into consideration the building`s history, properties of potential residual contaminants (particularly chemical and incendiary agents), and assumptions relating to meteorological conditions and envisioned modes of demolition. Safe maximum levels in concrete floors for the worst case were estimated to be: white phosphorus, 3200 mg/kg; mustard, 94 mg/kg; nerve agent GA (tabun), 6 mg/kg; cyanide, 500 mg/kg; and sulfide, 1400 mg/kg. These values will serve as planning guidance for the activities to follow. It is emphasized that the estimates must be reviewed, and perhaps revised, after sampling and analysis are completed, the demolition methodology is chosen, and dust emissions are measured under operating conditions.

  18. The use of innovative screening-level techniques for the bioassessment of estuarine sediments at U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, R.J.; Thebeau, L.; Paul, J.

    1994-12-31

    The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) is a primarily undeveloped installation on the upper Chesapeake bay in Maryland. The bush and Gunpowder Rivers are two sub-estuaries that run through the installation before emptying into the Chesapeake Bay. Past activities at EA APG include pilot-scale chemical agent manufacturing, munitions testing, smoke/incendiary manufacturing, domestic and rubble landfilling, and disposal of chemical warfare agents as well as other materials. It was determined that if contamination of the Gunpowder River exists from these previous activities on EA APG it was most likely to be found in the sediments. The initial phase was to conduct a sediment survey of the river to determine the spatial distribution of sediment types and the suitability of the benthos for the proposed methodologies. The second phase was to combine innovative screening-level investigative methodologies as well as sediment chemical and physical analyses into one survey of the benthos and sediments of the Gunpowder River. This phase used the Microtox luminescent bioassay and Daphnia magna IQ Toxicity Test, Surface and Profile Image (SPI) photography, analysis of sediment physical characteristics, and limited chemical analysis to identify locations that warrant a more focused investigation.

  19. Operational use of the AIRS Total Column Ozone Retrievals along with the RGB Airmass Product as Part of the GOES-R Proving Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folmer, M.; Zavodsky, Bradley; Molthan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Red, Green, Blue (RGB) Air Mass product has been demonstrated in the GOES ]R Proving Ground as a possible decision aid. Forecasters have been trained on the usefulness of identifying stratospheric intrusions and potential vorticity (PV) anomalies that can lead to explosive cyclogenesis, genesis of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), or the transition of tropical cyclones to extratropical cyclones. It has also been demonstrated to distinguish different air mass types from warm, low ozone air masses to cool, high ozone air masses and the various interactions with the PV anomalies. To assist the forecasters in understanding the stratospheric contribution to high impact weather systems, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Total Column Ozone Retrievals have been made available as an operational tool. These AIRS retrievals provide additional information on the amount of ozone that is associated with the red coloring seen in the RGB Air Mass product. This paper discusses how the AIRS retrievals can be used to quantify the red coloring in RGB Air Mass product. These retrievals can be used to diagnose the depth of the stratospheric intrusions associated with different types of weather systems and provide the forecasters decision aid tools that can improve the quality of forecast products.

  20. Effect of Fe(III) on 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane degradation and vinyl chloride accumulation in wetland sediments of the Aberdeen proving ground

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, E.J.P.; Voytek, M.A.; Lorah, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (TeCA) contaminated groundwater at the Aberdeen Proving Ground discharges through an anaerobic wetland in West Branch Canal Creek, MD, where dechlorination occurred. Two microbially mediated pathways, dichloroelimination and hydrogenolysis, account for most of the TeCA degradation at this site. The dichloroelimination pathways led to the formation of vinyl chloride (VC), a recalcitrant carcinogen of great concern. The effect of adding Fe(III) to TeCA-amended microcosms of wetland sediment was studied. Differences were identified in the TeCA degradation pathway between microcosms treated with amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide (AFO-treated) and untreated (no AFO) microcosms. TeCA degradation was accompanied by a lower accumulation of VC in AFO-treated microcosms than no AFO microcosms. The microcosm incubations and subsequent experiments with the microcosm materials showed that AFO treatment resulted in lower production of VC by shifting TeCA degradation from dichloroelimination pathways to production of a greater proportion of chlorinated ethane products, and decreasing the microbial capability to produce VC from 1,2-dichloroethylene. VC degradation was not stimulated in the presence of Fe(III). Rather, VC degradation occurred readily under methanogenic conditions and was inhibited under Fe(III)-reducing conditions.

  1. Effect of Fe(III) on 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane degradation and vinyl chloride accumulation in wetland sediments of the Aberdeen Proving Ground

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Elizabeth; Voytek, Mary; Lorah, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (TeCA) contaminated groundwater at the Aberdeen Proving Ground discharges through an anaerobic wetland in West Branch Canal Creek (MD), where dechlorination occurs. Two microbially mediated pathways, dichloroelimination and hydrogenolysis, account for most of the TeCA degradation at this site. The dichloroelimination pathways lead to the formation of vinyl chloride (VC), a recalcitrant carcinogen of great concern. The goal of this investigation was to determine whether microbially-available Fe(III) in the wetland surface sediment influenced the fate of TeCA and its daughter products. Differences were identified in the TeCA degradation pathway between microcosms treated with amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide (AFO-treated) and untreated (no AFO) microcosms. TeCA degradation was accompanied by a lower accumulation of VC in AFO-treated microcosms than untreated microcosms. The microcosm incubations and subsequent experiments with the microcosm materials showed that AFO treatment resulted in lower production of VC by (1) shifting TeCA degradation from dichloroelimination pathways to production of a greater proportion of chlorinated ethane products, and (2) decreasing the microbial capability to produce VC from 1,2-dichloroethene (DCE). VC degradation was not stimulated in the presence of Fe(III). Rather, VC degradation occurred readily under methanogenic conditions and was inhibited under Fe(III)-reducing conditions.

  2. Biomonitoring and hazard assessment evaluation of contaminated groundwater at Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood area Beach Point Penincula. Annual report, 31 July 1993-30 July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.T.; Herriott, R.S.; Turley, S.D.

    1994-08-30

    Contaminated groundwater, which contained multiple heavy metals and chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, from the surficial aquifer (well CC-33B) at Beach Point located in the Canal Creek Area of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood Area, Aberdeen, Maryland, was evaluated for toxicity and environmental hazard. Toxicity was detected at various groundwater concentrations by 7 of 9 biomonitoring systems. when estimated maximum acceptable toxicant concentrations (MATC) were established, the data for algae, invertebrates and fish suggested that the groundwater would not be harmful at a concentration of 10% groundwater by volume. Likewise, no genotoxicity (Ames and SEC assays), develop- mental toxicity (FETAX), or chronic histopathology (9-month fish test) occurred at 10% groundwater by volume. The groundwater was considered to be a potentially excessive hazardous material to the benthic biota of the Bush River when a number of conservative assumptions (contaminant distribution and discharge rate of the aquifer) were used in the hazard assessment. However, the potential water quality impacts were judged to be minimal if a mixing zone were to be granted by the State of Maryland which allows for local exceedences of water quality standards.

  3. X-ray fluorescence investigation of heavy-metal contamination on metal surfaces in the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Brubaker, K.L.; Draugelis, A.K.; Schneider, J.F.; Billmark, K.A.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-07-01

    A field program using a portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument was carried out to obtain data on loadings of RCRA-regulated heavy metals in paint on metal surfaces within the Pilot Plant Complex at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Measured loadings of heavy metals were sufficiently small that they do not present problems for either human exposure or the disposition of building demolition rubble. An attempt to develop an external calibration of the XRF instrument for cadmium, chromium, and lead was unsuccessful. Significant substrate effects were observed for cadmium and chromium; for accurate results for these elements, it appears necessary to calibrate by using a sample of the actual metal substrate on which the paint is located. No substrate effects were observed for lead, but the use of lead L-shell x-ray emission lines in the instrument mode utilized in this study appears to result in a significant underestimate of the lead loading due to self-absorption of these emissions.

  4. The Apache Longbow-Hellfire Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground: Introduction and Problem Formulation for a Multiple Stressor Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Peterson, Mark J; Jones, Daniel Steven; Suter, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    An ecological risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF). The focus of the assessment was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, i.e., M60-A1 tanks. The problem formulation for the assessment included conceptual models for three component activities of the test, helicopter overflight, missile firing, and tracked vehicle movement, and two ecological endpoint entities, woody desert wash communities and desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus crooki) populations. An activity-specific risk assessment framework was available to provide guidance for assessing risks associated with aircraft overflights. Key environmental features of the study area include barren desert pavement and tree-lined desert washes. The primary stressors associated with helicopter overflights were sound and the view of the aircraft. The primary stressor associated with Hellfire missile firing was sound. The principal stressor associated with tracked vehicle movement was soil disturbance, and a resulting, secondary stressor was hydrological change. Water loss to washes and wash vegetation was expected to result from increased ponding, infiltrationand/or evaporation associated with disturbances to desert pavement. A plan for estimating integrated risks from the three military activities was included in the problem formulation.

  5. New and improved methods for monitoring air quality and the terrestrial environment: Applications at Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood area. Annual report, 1 April--14 November 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Bromenshenk, J.J.; Smith, G.C.

    1998-03-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) have been shown to be multi-media monitors of chemical exposures and resultant effects. This five-year project has developed an automated system to assess in real-time colony behavioral responses to stressors, both anthropogenic and natural, including inclement weather. Field trials at the Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood included the Old O Field and J field landfills, the Canal Creek and Bush River areas, and a Churchville, MD reference site. Preliminary results show varying concentrations of bioavailable inorganic elements and chlorinated hydrocarbons in bee colonies from all Maryland sites. Industrial solvents in the air inside beehives exhibited the greatest between site differences, with the highest levels occurring in hives near landfills at Old O Field, J Field, and at some sites in the Bush River and Canal Creek areas. Compared to 1996, the 1997 levels of solvents in Old O Field hives decreased by an order of magnitude, and colony performance significantly improved, probably as a consequence of capping the landfill. Recent chemical monitoring accomplishments include development of a new apparatus to quantitatively calibrate TD/GC/MS analysis, a QA/QC assessment of factors that limit the precision of these analyses, and confirmation of transport of aqueous contaminants into the hive. Real-time effects monitoring advances include development of an extensive array of software tools for automated data display, inspection, and numerical analysis and the ability to deliver data from remote locations in real time through Internet or Intranet connections.

  6. Concepts and procedures required for successful reduction of tensor magnetic gradiometer data obtained from an unexploded ordnance detection demonstration at Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bracken, Robert E.; Brown, Philip J.

    2006-01-01

    On March 12, 2003, data were gathered at Yuma Proving Grounds, in Arizona, using a Tensor Magnetic Gradiometer System (TMGS). This report shows how these data were processed and explains concepts required for successful TMGS data reduction. Important concepts discussed include extreme attitudinal sensitivity of vector measurements, low attitudinal sensitivity of gradient measurements, leakage of the common-mode field into gradient measurements, consequences of thermal drift, and effects of field curvature. Spatial-data collection procedures and a spin-calibration method are addressed. Discussions of data-reduction procedures include tracking of axial data by mathematically matching transfer functions among the axes, derivation and application of calibration coefficients, calculation of sensor-pair gradients, thermal-drift corrections, and gradient collocation. For presentation, the magnetic tensor at each data station is converted to a scalar quantity, the I2 tensor invariant, which is easily found by calculating the determinant of the tensor. At important processing junctures, the determinants for all stations in the mapped area are shown in shaded relief map-view. Final processed results are compared to a mathematical model to show the validity of the assumptions made during processing and the reasonableness of the ultimate answer obtained.

  7. Shallow ground-water quality beneath a major urban center: Denver, Colorado, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruce, B.W.; McMahon, P.B.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of the chemical quality of ground water in the unconsolidated alluvial aquifer beneath a major urban center (Denver, Colorado, USA) was performed in 1993 with the objective of characterizing the quality of shallow ground-water in the urban area and relating water quality to land use. Thirty randomly selected alluvial wells were each sampled once for a broad range of dissolved constituents. The urban land use at each well site was sub- classified into one of three land-use settings: residential, commercial, and industrial. Shallow ground-water quality was highly variable in the urban area and the variability could be related to these land-use setting classifications. Sulfate (SO4) was the predominant anion in most samples from the residential and commercial land-use settings, whereas bicarbonate (HCO3) was the predominant anion in samples from the industrial land-use setting, indicating a possible shift in redox conditions associated with land use. Only three of 30 samples had nitrate concentrations that exceeded the US national drinking-water standard of 10 mg l-1 as nitrogen, indicating that nitrate contamination of shallow ground water may not be a serious problem in this urban area. However, the highest median nitrate concentration (4.2 mg l-1) was in samples from the residential setting, where fertilizer application is assumed to be most intense. Twenty-seven of 30 samples had detectable pesticides and nine of 82 analyzed pesticide compounds were detected at low concentrations, indicating that pesticides are widely distributed in shallow ground water in this urban area. Although the highest median total pesticide concentration (0.17 ??g l-1) was in the commercial setting, the herbicides prometon and atrazine were found in each land-use setting. Similarly, 25 of 29 samples analyzed had detectable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) indicating these compounds are also widely distributed in this urban area. The total VOC concentrations in sampled wells

  8. Design and Performance of an Enhanced Bioremediation Pilot Test in a Tidal Wetland Seep, West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majcher, Emily H.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Phelan, Daniel J.; McGinty, Angela L.

    2009-01-01

    Because of a lack of available in situ remediation methods for sensitive wetland environments where contaminated groundwater discharges, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, conceived, designed, and pilot tested a permeable reactive mat that can be placed horizontally at the groundwater/surface-water interface. Development of the reactive mat was part of an enhanced bioremediation study in a tidal wetland area along West Branch Canal Creek at Aberdeen Proving Ground, where localized areas of preferential discharge (seeps) transport groundwater contaminated with carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane from the Canal Creek aquifer to land surface. The reactive mat consisted of a mixture of commercially available organic- and nutrient-rich peat and compost that was bioaugmented with a dechlorinating microbial consortium, WBC-2, developed for this study. Due to elevated chlorinated methane concentrations in the pilot test site, a layer of zero-valent iron mixed with the peat and compost was added at the base of the reactive mat to promote simultaneous abiotic and biotic degradation. The reactive mat for the pilot test area was designed to optimize chlorinated volatile organic compound degradation efficiency without altering the geotechnical and hydraulic characteristics, or creating undesirable water quality in the surrounding wetland area, which is referred to in this report as achieving geotechnical, hydraulic, and water-quality compatibility. Optimization of degradation efficiency was achieved through the selection of a sustainable organic reactive matrix, electron donor, and bioaugmentation method. Consideration of geotechnical compatibility through design calculations of bearing capacity, settlement, and geotextile selection showed that a 2- to 3-feet tolerable thickness of the mat was possible, with 0.17 feet settlement predicted for

  9. Background chemistry for chemical warfare agents and decontamination processes in support of delisting waste streams at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblatt, D.H.; Small, M.J.; Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.

    1996-04-01

    The State of Utah, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste (DSHW), has declared residues resulting from the demilitarization, treatment, cleanup, and testing of military chemical agents to be hazardous wastes. These residues have been designated as corrosive, reactive, toxic, and acute hazardous (Hazardous Waste No. F999). The RCRA regulations (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 260-280), the Utah Administrative Code (R-315), and other state hazardous waste programs list specific wastes as hazardous but allow generators to petition the regulator to {open_quotes}delist,{close_quotes} if it can be demonstrated that such wastes are not hazardous. The U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) believes that certain categories of F999 residues are not hazardous and has obtained assistance from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to make the delisting demonstration. The objective of this project is to delist chemical agent decontaminated residues resulting from materials testing activities and to delist a remediation residue (e.g., contaminated soil). To delist these residues, it must be demonstrated that the residues (1) do not contain hazardous quantities of the listed agents; (2) do not contain hazardous quantities of constituents listed in 40 CFR Part 261, Appendix VIII; (3) do not exhibit other characteristics that could define the residues as hazardous; and (4) do not fail a series of acute toxicity tests. The first phase will focus on a subset of the F999 wastes generated at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), where the Army tests the effects of military chemical agents and agent-decontamination procedures on numerous military items. This effort is identified as Phase I of the Delisting Program. Subsequent phases will address other DPG chemical agent decontaminated residues and remediation wastes and similar residues at other installations.

  10. Bomb-produced radiocarbon in the western tropical Pacific Ocean: Guam coral reveals operation-specific signals from the Pacific Proving Grounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Allen H.; Asami, Ryuji; Iryu, Yasufumi; Kobayashi, Donald R.; Camacho, Frank

    2016-08-01

    High-resolution radiocarbon (14C) analyses on a coral core extracted from Guam, a western tropical Pacific island, revealed a series of early bomb-produced 14C spikes. The typical marine bomb 14C signal—phase lagged and attenuated relative to atmospheric records—is present in the coral and is consistent with other regional coral records. However, 14C levels well above what can be attributed to air-sea diffusion alone punctuate this pattern. This anomaly was observed in other Indo-Pacific coral records, but the Guam record is unmatched in magnitude and temporal resolution. The Guam coral Δ14C record provided three spikes in 1954-1955, 1956-1957, and 1958-1959 that are superimposed on a normal 14C record. Relative to mean prebomb levels, the first peak rises an incredible ˜700‰ and remained elevated for ˜1.2 years. A follow up assay with finer resolution increased the peak by ˜300‰. Subsequent spikes were less intense with a rise of ˜35 and ˜70‰. Each can be linked to thermonuclear testing in the Pacific Proving Grounds at Bikini and Enewetak atolls in Operations Castle (1954), Redwing (1956), and Hardtack I (1958). These 14C signals can be explained by vaporization of coral reef material in the nuclear fireball, coupled with neutron activation of atmospheric nitrogen (14C production), and subsequent absorption of 14CO2 to form particulate carbonates of close-in fallout. The lag time in reaching Guam and other coral records abroad was tied to ocean surface currents and modeling provided validation of 14C arrival observations.

  11. A conservative evaluation of the transport of TCE from the confined aquifer beneath J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, to a hypothetical receptor.

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, L. E.; Patton, T. L.; Quinn, J. J.

    1999-01-04

    Past disposal operations at the Toxic Burn Pits (TBP) area of J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, have resulted in volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination of groundwater. Although the contaminant concentration is highest in the surficial aquifer, VOCs are also present in the confined aquifer, which is approximately 30 m (100 ft) deep at the TBP area. This study focuses on the confined aquifer, a sandy valley-fill Pleistocene unit in a paleochannel cut into Cretaceous sands and clays. This report documents the locations of the region's pumping wells, which are over 6 km (4 mi) away from the TBP. The distances to the pumping wells and the complex stratigraphy limit the likelihood of any contamination reaching a receptor well. Nonetheless, a worst-case scenario was evaluated with a model designed to simulate the transport of trichloroethylene (TCE), the main chemical of concern, from the confined aquifer beneath the TBP along a hypothetical, direct flowpath to a receptor well. The model was designed to be highly conservative (i.e., based on assumptions that promote the transport of contaminants). In addition to the direct flowpath assumption, the model uses the lowest literature value for the biodegradation rate of TCE, a low degree of sorption, a continuous-strength source, and a high flow velocity. Results from this conservative evaluation indicate that the simulated contaminant plume extends into areas offshore from J-Field, but decays before reaching a receptor well. The 5-ppb contour, for example, travels approximately 5 km (3 mi) before stagnating. Recent field analyses have documented that complete biodegradation of TCE to ethene and ethane is occurring directly below the TBP; therefore, the likelihood of TCE or its daughter products reaching a pumping well appears negligible. Thus, the model results may be useful in proposing either a no action or a natural attenuation alternative for the confined aquifer.

  12. The Apache Longbow-Hellfire Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground: Ecological Risk Assessment for Tracked Vehicle Movement across Desert Pavement

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mark J; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Hargrove, William Walter

    2008-01-01

    A multiple stressor risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework. The focus was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, M60-A1 tanks. This paper describes the ecological risk assessment for the tracked vehicle movement component of the testing program. The principal stressor associated with tracked vehicle movement was soil disturbance, and a resulting, secondary stressor was hydrological change. Water loss to washes and wash vegetation was expected to result from increased infiltration and/or evaporation associated with disturbances to desert pavement. The simulated exposure of wash vegetation to water loss was quantified using estimates of exposed land area from a digital ortho quarter quad aerial photo and field observations, a 30 30 m digital elevation model, the flow accumulation feature of ESRI ArcInfo, and a two-step process in which runoff was estimated from direct precipitation to a land area and from water that flowed from upgradient to a land area. In all simulated scenarios, absolute water loss decreased with distance from the disturbance, downgradient in the washes; however, percentage water loss was greatest in land areas immediately downgradient of a disturbance. Potential effects on growth and survival of wash trees were quantified by using an empirical relationship derived from a local unpublished study of water infiltration rates. The risk characterization concluded that neither risk to wash vegetation growth or survival nor risk to mule deer abundance and reproduction was expected. The risk characterization was negative for both the incremental risk of the test program and the combination of the test and pretest disturbances.

  13. 3-D Waveguide Effects of Topographical Structural Variation on Full Waveform Propagation: 3-D Finite Difference Modeling Comparisons with Field Data From Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, T. S.; Miller, R.; Greenfield, R.; Fisk, D.

    2002-12-01

    The propagation of seismic waves through regions of complex topography is not thoroughly understood. Surface waves, are of particular interest, as they are large in amplitude and can characterize the source depth, magnitude, and frequency content. The amplitude and frequency content of seismic waves that propagate in regions with large topographical variations are affected by both the scattering and blockage of the wave energy. The ability to predict the 3-d scattering due to topography will improve the understanding of both regional scale surface wave magnitudes, and refine surface wave discriminants as well as at the local scale (<2 km ) where it will aid in the development of rule of thumb guide lines for array sensor placement for real time sensing technologies. Ideally, when validating the numerical accuracy of a propagation model against field data, the input geologic parameters would be known and thus eliminates geology as a source of error in the calculation. In March of 2001, Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) performed a detailed seismic site characterization at the Smart Weapons Test Range, Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. The result of the KGS characterization study is a high-resolution 3-d model that is used in our seismic simulations. The velocities Vs, Vp are calculated by tomography and refraction, attenuation coefficients estimated from the surface wave and from p-waves and are provided in a model with attributes resolved in 3-d to 0.5 meters. In the present work, we present comparisons of synthetic data with seismic data collected at the Smart Weapons Test Range to benchmark the accuracy achieved in simulating 3-d wave propagation in the vicinity of a topographical anomaly (trench). Synthetic seismograms are generated using a 3-d 8th order staggered grid visco-elastic finite difference code that accounts for topography. The geologic model is based on the Yuma site characterization. The size of these calculations required use of the DoD High Performance

  14. Shallow ground-water quality beneath a major urban center: Denver, Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, Breton W.; McMahon, Peter B.

    1996-11-01

    A survey of the chemical quality of ground water in the unconsolidated alluvial aquifer beneath a major urban center (Denver, Colorado, USA) was performed in 1993 with the objective of characterizing the quality of shallow ground-water in the urban area and relating water quality to land use. Thirty randomly selected alluvial wells were each sampled once for a broad range of dissolved constituents. The urban land use at each well site was sub-classified into one of three land-use settings: residential, commercial, and industrial. Shallow ground-water quality was highly variable in the urban area and the variability could be related to these land-use setting classifications. Sulfate (SO 4) was the predominant anion in most samples from the residential and commercial land-use settings, whereas bicarbonate (HCO 3) was the predominant anion in samples from the industrial land-use setting, indicating a possible shift in redox conditions associated with land use. Only three of 30 samples had nitrate concentrations that exceeded the US national drinking-water standard of 10 mg l -1 as nitrogen, indicating that nitrate contamination of shallow ground water may not be a serious problem in this urban area. However, the highest median nitrate concentration (4.2 mg l -1) was in samples from the residential setting, where fertilizer application is assumed to be most intense. Twenty-seven of 30 samples had detectable pesticides and nine of 82 analyzed pesticide compounds were detected at low concentrations, indicating that pesticides are widely distributed in shallow ground water in this urban area. Although the highest median total pesticide concentration (0.17 μg l -) was in the commercial setting, the herbicides prometon and atrazine were found in each land-use setting. Similarly, 25 of 29 samples analyzed had detectable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) indicating these compounds are also widely distributed in this urban area. The total VOC concentrations in sampled wells

  15. Evaluation of several biological monitoring techniques for hazard assessment of potentially contaminated ground water at the Old O-Field site at the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim report, Jul 90-Sep 91

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.T.; Turley, S.D.

    1991-11-01

    The toxicity of contaminated Old O-Field (Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground) groundwater and the reduction and/or elimination of toxicity by various treatment processes were evaluated. The study was divided into a bench scale and pilot scale study. The bench scale studies consisted of 48-h definitive acute toxicity tests run with daphnid neonates (Daphnia magna) and juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to untreated Old O-Field groundwater and groundwater treated by (1) metals precipitation, (2) UV oxidation (H2O ), (3) carbon adsorption, and (4) carbon adsorption/biological sludge. The pilot scale studies consisted of (1) several 96-h definitive acute toxicity tests run with two freshwater and two saltwater invertebrates and fish and (2) Ames mutagenicity assays. Acute toxicity tests were run on untreated Old 0-Field groundwater and groundwater treated by (1) metals precipitation, (2) UV oxidation (H2O2), (3) air stripping, and (4) carbon adsorption during the pilot scale study. The freshwater invertebrate and fish used in the study were daphnid neonates and juvenile fathead minnows, respectively.

  16. Beach Point Test Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood Area, Maryland. Focused Feasibility Study, Final Quality Assurance Project Plan, Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Appendix A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    Well Samples 015 Document Control System 016 Surface Water, Groundwater, and Soil/Sediment Field Logbooks 017 Ground Penetrating Radar Survey 018...following steps describe how to use the sample labelling system : 3.1 As each sample is collected/selected, fill out a sample label. Enter the...after manufacture. 4.2 HPLC-grade water will be manufactured on-site. An approved tap water source will be used as the influent to the system . Procedures

  17. Recommendations for the Development of a Dust Suppressant Test Operations Procedure (TOP) Performed at the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-08

    moisture on the resistance of sand to wind erosion . In: Aridic Soils and Geomorphic Processes, Catena Supplement 1, edited by D. H. Yaalon, pp. 161-173...were focused only on testing soil suppressant performance on dust abatement. Additional uses of soil suppressants, such as for erosion control, will...impacts of ground-based traffic. The soils used in this study were selected based on relatively high fractions of fine sand , silt, and clay that are

  18. The influence of geology and land use on arsenic in stream sediments and ground waters in New England, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, G.R.; Ayotte, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Population statistics for As concentrations in rocks, sediments and ground water differ by geology and land use features in the New England region, USA. Significant sources of As in the surficial environment include both natural weathering of rocks and anthropogenic sources such as arsenical pesticides that were commonly applied to apple, blueberry and potato crops during the first half of the 20th century in the region. The variation of As in bedrock ground water wells has a strong positive correlation with geologic features at the geologic province, lithology group, and bedrock map unit levels. The variation of As in bedrock ground water wells also has a positive correlation with elevated stream sediment and rock As chemistry. Elevated As concentrations in bedrock wells do not correlate with past agricultural areas that used arsenical pesticides on crops. Stream sediments, which integrate both natural and anthropogenic sources, have a strong positive correlation of As concentrations with rock chemistry, geologic provinces and ground water chemistry, and a weaker positive correlation with past agricultural land use. Although correlation is not sufficient to demonstrate cause-and-effect, the statistics favor rock-based As as the dominant regional source of the element in stream sediments and ground water in New England. The distribution of bedrock geology features at the geologic province, lithology group and map unit level closely correlate with areas of elevated As in ground water, stream sediments, and rocks. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. GEOCHEMICAL PATTERNS OF ARSENIC-ENRICHED GROUND WATER IN FRACTURED, CRYSTALLINE BEDROCK, NORTHPORT, MAINE, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    High arsenic concentrations of up 26.6 µmol/L (1990 µg/L) occur in ground water collected from a fractured-bedrock system composed of sulfidic schist with granitic to dioritic intrusions. The bedrock is the source of the As within the ground water, but the presence of arsenopyrit...

  20. GEOCHEMICAL PATTERNS OF ARSENIC-ENRICHED GROUND WATER IN FRACTURED, CRYSTALLINE BEDROCK, NORTHPORT, MAINE, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    High arsenic concentrations of up 26.6 µmol/L (1990 µg/L) occur in ground water collected from a fractured-bedrock system composed of sulfidic schist with granitic to dioritic intrusions. The bedrock is the source of the As within the ground water, but the presence of arsenopyrit...

  1. Ground-Water Availability Responses to Climate Variability on Interannual to Multidecadal Timescales, Mississippi Embayment Regional Aquifer System, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurdak, J. J.; Clark, B. R.; Hanson, R. T.; Scheiderer, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    Climate variability on interannual to multidecadal timescales has important implications for the availability of global ground-water resources. Spatiotemporal patterns in precipitation, air temperature, evapotranspiration, drought, streamflow, and recharge are partially controlled by the variability in climate forcings on interannual to multidecadal timescales. Because these climate-varying conditions can augment or diminish human stresses (pumping) on ground water, the responses in water levels and ground-water storage can be dramatic when different climate cycles lie coincident in a positive (wet/cool) or negative (dry/warm) phase of variability. Thus, understanding climate cycles on these timescales has particular relevance for management decisions during drought and for ground-water resources close to the limits of sustainability. The objective of this study is to quantify the response of ground-water resources in the Mississippi Embayment Regional aquifer system (USA) (>181,000 km2) to natural climate variability on interannual to multidecadal timescales and to use that knowledge to improve calibration of ground-water availability modeling that will predict the responses in this regional aquifer system over the next twenty-five to fifty years. The Mississippi Embayment Regional aquifer system is an important water resource used predominantly for public-drinking and agricultural supply across parts of seven States (Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee). Using singular spectrum analysis of long-term hydrologic time series, the signal of ground-water pumping was removed and natural variations were identified in all tree ring, precipitation, air temperature, and ground-water level time series as partially coincident with known climate forcings; including the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (2 to 6 year cycle), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (10 to 25 year cycle), and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (50 to 80 year cycle

  2. Evaluation of several biological monitoring techniques for hazard assessment of potentially contaminated wastewater and groundwater. Volume 2. Aberdeen Proving Ground Wastewater Treatment Plant. Final report, November 1988-December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.T.; Herriott, R.S.

    1992-07-01

    An evaluation of several biological monitoring techniques for hazard assessment of potentially contaminated effluent was conducted at the Aberdeen Proving Ground Wastewater Treatment Plant (APG-WWTP), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, from early May 1990 to February 13, 1991. An array of biomonitoring tests structured in a tiered hazard assessment framework was used in the evaluation of the effluent. Several levels of biological organization were included in the array of tests. Acute toxicity was evaluated on daily 24-h composite samples using a 5- and 15-min Microtox assay which employs microbial (Photobacterium phosphoreum) bioluminescent activity. Three 24-h LC50 rotifer (Brachionus rubens) toxicity tests were conducted using 24-h composite samples. The following chronic tests were all performed three times using 24-h composite samples: 96-h EC50 algal (Selenastrum capricornutum) growth test, 7-d daphnid (Ceriodaphnia dubia) survival and reproduction test, and 7-d fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) survival and growth test. The acute rotifer tests and all chronic tests were conducted during the same periods in order to compare toxicological responses between biomonitoring systems.... Wastewater, Aquatic, Acute toxicity, Chronic toxicity, Mutagenicity, Ames, Teratogencity, FETAX, Carcinogenicity, Ventilatory biomonitoring system, Microtox, Photobacterium.

  3. Evaluation of several biological monitoring techniques for hazard assessment of potentially contaminated wastewater and groundwater. Volume 1. Aberdeen proving ground-edgewood area wastewater treatment plant. Final report, November 1988-December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.T.; Graves, W.C.

    1992-07-01

    An evaluation of several biological monitoring techniques for hazard assessment of potentially contaminated effluent was conducted at the Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood Area Wastewater Treatment Plant (APG-EA WWTP), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, from January 1989 to December 13, 1989. An array of biomonitoring tests structured in a tiered hazard assessment framework was used in the evaluation of the effluent. Several levels of biological organization were included in the array of tests. Acute toxicity was evaluated on 24-h composite samples using a 15-min Microtox R assay which employs microbial (Photobacterium phosphoreum) bioluminescent activity. Two 24-h LC50 rotifer (Brachionus rubens) toxicity tests were conducted using 24-h composite samples The following chronic tests were all performed two times using 24-h composite samples: 96-h EC50 algal (Selenastrum capricornutum) growth test, 7-d daphnid (Ceriodaphnia dubia) survival and reproduction test, and 7-d fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) survival and growth test. Generally, the acute rotifer tests and all chronic tests were conducted during the same periods in order to compare toxicological responses between biomonitoring systems.... Wastewater, Aquatic, Acute toxicity, Chronic toxicity, Mutagenicity, Ames, Teratogenicity, FETAX, Carcinogenicity, Ventilatory biomonitoring system, Microtox R, Photobacterium.

  4. Geophysical Investigation at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    magnetic history of the body and is independent of the field in which it is measured (Breiner 1973). 11. An EDA OMNI IV proton - precession magnetometer was...a local disturbance of 10 nT. Figure 5 shows that the quantity measured with the magnetometer is the resultant total field with a value of 50,006 nT...The magnetometer used in this survey has an absolute accuracy of approximately ±1 nT. For reference, the earth’s magnetic field varies from

  5. Tarawa Landing: Proving Ground for Pacific Victory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Points out the importance of the Tarawa landing in the Gilbert Islands during World War II, and recommends teaching about the event. Provides detailed analysis of the November 21-24, 1943, amphibious assault by U.S. Marines. Examines the rationale for the location, timing, and type of attack. Identifies key personnel. Includes intelligence map of…

  6. Vehicle Test Facilities at Aberdeen Proving Ground

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-06

    which affects wheeled vehicles mainly be splash. Course 2 is laid out in a loop of moderately irregular terrain. The native soil includes Sassafras ...loamu, a silty loam with 17.3 percent clay content, and Sassafras silt loam, a silty loam with less than 15 percent clay. Surfaces range from smooth to

  7. Tarawa Landing: Proving Ground for Pacific Victory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Points out the importance of the Tarawa landing in the Gilbert Islands during World War II, and recommends teaching about the event. Provides detailed analysis of the November 21-24, 1943, amphibious assault by U.S. Marines. Examines the rationale for the location, timing, and type of attack. Identifies key personnel. Includes intelligence map of…

  8. Historic Building Inventory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    considered to be. T his criterio , was also used for non-military structures such as farmhouses and other once prevalent building types. 3) D egree of...the Army. Field Manual . Military Chem.istry and Chemical Compounds. Washington, D.C.: Author, 1975. Elliot, Oscar Barry. Environmental Protection...utilities and land. Typical layouts were devised and accompanied by instructions in an Engineering Manual from the Corps of Engineers. These instructions

  9. Starting new populations of longleaf pine ground-layer plants in the Outer Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Glitzenstein, Jeff, S.; Streng, Donna, R.; Wade, Dale, D.; Brubaker, J

    2001-01-01

    Glitzenstein, J.S., Donna R. Streng, D.D. Wade, and J. Brubaker. 2001. Starting new populations of longleaf pine ground-layer plants in the Outer Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. Natural Areas J. 21:89-110. Abstract: Southeastern United States habitats dominated by longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Miller) and associated plant species have declined dangerously. Conservation of rare and common plants of longleaf pine habitats may be aided by starting new populations in the field. We review methods for initiating plant populations and integrate information from our studies of rare and common longleaf pine ground-layer plants of the outer South Carolina Coastal Plain. In our experience it is possible to start new populations of most longleaf pine ground-layer plants, including rare species if (1) seeds are collected from frequently burned sites with reasonably large populations of desired species; (2) appropriate media are used for seedling propagation; (3) outplanting of nursery grown seedlings or direct seeding is done during periods of sufficient soil moisture; and (4) introduction sites properly match habitat requirements (inferred from indicator plants) of desired species, and the sites can be managed with frequent prescribed fire.

  10. Geochemical patterns of arsenic-enriched ground water in fractured, crystalline bedrock, Northport, Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipfert, G.; Reeve, A.S.; Sidle, W.C.; Marvinney, R.

    2006-01-01

    High mean As concentrations of up to 26.6 ??mol/L (1990 ??g/L) occur in ground water collected from a fractured-bedrock system composed of sulfidic schist with granitic to dioritic intrusions. Sulfides in the bedrock are the primary source of the As in the ground water, but the presence of arsenopyrite in rock core retrieved from a borehole with As concentrations in the ground water barely above the detection limit of 2.0 ??mol/L, shows that there are complicating factors. Chemical analyses of water from 35 bedrock wells throughout a small watershed reveal spatial clustering of wells with high As concentrations. Stiff diagrams and box plots distinguish three distinct types; calcium-bicarbonate-dominated water with low As concentrations (CaHCO 3 type), sodium-bicarbonate-dominated water with moderately high As concentrations (NaHCO3 type), and calcium-bicarbonate-dominated water with very high As concentrations (High-As type). It is proposed that differences in recharge area and ground-water evolution, and possible bedrock composition difference are responsible for the chemical distinctions within the watershed. Lack of correlation of As concentrations with pH indicates that desorption of As is an insignificant control on As concentration. Correlations of As concentrations with Fe and redox parameters indicates that reductive dissolution of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides may play a role in the occurrence of high As concentrations in the NaHCO3 and High-As type water. The oxidation of sulfide minerals occurs within the ground-water system and is ultimately responsible for the existence of As in the ground water, but there is no correlation between As and SO4 concentrations, probably due to precipitation of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides and adsorption of As under oxidizing conditions. Crown Copyright ?? 2006 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Drive Row Ground Covers on Hop (Rosales: Cannabaceae) Yard Arthropod Pests in Vermont, USA.

    PubMed

    Calderwood, L; Cubins, J; Vesty, D; Darby, H

    2017-04-01

    Alternatives to pesticides are necessary for the management of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) arthropod pests. The three major arthropod pests in northeastern US hop production include two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, hop aphid Phorodon humuli (Schrank), and potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae Harris. This 3-yr study (2012-2014) in Vermont investigated the effect of flowering ground covers on arthropod pest abundance. Hop cultivars 'Nugget' and 'Cascade' were evaluated under a strip-split plot experimental design. Ground cover treatments included 1) Control: mowed red clover (Trifolium pratense) and resident weeds, 2) Clover: red clover, and 3) Diverse: common yarrow (Achillea millefolium), beebalm (Monarda fistulosa), red clover, and annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Natural enemies were grouped by associated pest and indicated by our mixed model to be strong predictors of the number of hop aphid and potato leafhopper on hop plants. In year two, ground cover treatment had a significant effect on two-spotted spider mite abundance where fewer two-spotted spider mite were observed on hop plants in Diverse plots. The established, un-mowed Clover treatment was preferred by potato leafhopper over Diverse ground cover and hop plants. This revealed the potential for clover ground cover to serve as a trap crop for potato leafhopper management in northeastern hop yards. Our findings are evidence that ground covers implemented for conservation biological control may serve more specific pest management functions instead of or in addition to boosting top-down pest pressure. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Role of ground water in geomorphology, geology, and paleoclimate of the Southern High Plains, USA.

    PubMed

    Wood, Warren W

    2002-01-01

    Study of ground water in the Southern High Plains is central to an understanding of the geomorphology, deposition of economic minerals, and climate change record in the area. Ground water has controlled the course of the Canadian and Pecos rivers that isolated the Southern High Plains from the Great Plains and has contributed significantly to the continuing retreat of the westward escarpment. Evaporative and dissolution processes are responsible for current plateau topography and the development of the signature 20,000 small playa basins and 40 to 50 large saline lake basins in the area. In conjunction with eolian processes, ground water transport controls the mineralogy of commercially valuable mineral deposits and sets up the distribution of fine efflorescent salts that adversely affect water quality. As the water table rises and retreats, lunette and tufa formation provides valuable paleoclimate data for the Southern High Plains. In all these cases, an understanding of ground water processes contributes valuable information to a broad range of geological topics, well beyond traditional interest in water supply and environmental issues.

  13. Interactions between ground water and wetlands, southern shore of Lake Michigan, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedlock, Robert J.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Thompson, Todd A.; Cohen, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The results of this study suggest that wetlands in complex hydrogeologic settings may be influenced by multiple ground-water flow systems that are affected by geomorphic features, stratigraphic discontinuities, and changes in sediment types. Discharge and recharge zones may both occur in the same wetland. Multidisciplinary studies incorporating hydrological, hydrochemical, geophysical, and sedimentological data are necessary to identify such complexities in wetland hydrology.

  14. Role of ground water in geomorphology, geology, and paleoclimate of the southern High Plains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Warren W.

    2002-01-01

    Study of ground water in the Southern High Plains is central to an understanding of the geomorphology, deposition of economic minerals, and climate change record in the area. Ground water has controlled the course of the Canadian and Pecos rivers that isolated the Southern High Plains from the Great Plains and has contributed significantly to the continuing retreat of the westward escarpment. Evaporative and dissolution processes are responsible for current plateau topography and the development of the signature 20,000 small playa basins and 40 to 50 large saline lake basins in the area. In conjunction with eolian processes, ground water transport controls the mineralogy of commercially valuable mineral deposits and sets up the distribution of fine efflorescent salts that adversely affect water quality. As the water table rises and retreats, lunette and tufa formation provides valuable paleoclimate data for the Southern High Plains. In all these cases, an understanding of ground water processes contributes valuable information to a broad range of geological topics, well beyond traditional interest in water supply and environmental issues.

  15. PREDICTING SUSTAINABLE GROUND WATER TO CONSTRUCTED RIPARIAN WETLANDS: SHAKER TRACE, OHIO, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water isotopy is introduced as a best management practice for the prediction of sustained ground water inflows to prospective constructed wetlands. A primer and application of the stable isotopes, 18O and 2H, are discussed for riparian wetland restoration ar...

  16. PREDICTING SUSTAINABLE GROUND WATER TO CONSTRUCTED RIPARIAN WETLANDS: SHAKER TRACE, OHIO, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water isotopy is introduced as a best management practice for the prediction of sustained ground water inflows to prospective constructed wetlands. A primer and application of the stable isotopes, 18O and 2H, are discussed for riparian wetland restoration ar...

  17. Implications of ground-deformation measurements across earth fissures in subsidence areas in the southwestern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Ground deformation was monitored at earth fissures in areas of land subsidence induced by groundwater extraction in the southwestern United States. The ground deformation is consistent with the mechanism that fissures are caused by horizontal strains generated by bending of overburden in response to localized differential compaction. Subsidence profiles indicated that localized differential subsidence occurred across the fissures and that maximum convex-upward curvature was at the fissure. The overall shape of the profile stayed similar with time, and maximum curvature remained stationary at the fissure. Horizontal displacements were largest near the fissure, and generally were small to negligible away from the fissure. Maximum tensile horizontal strains were at the fissure and coincided with maximum curvature in the subsidence profiles. Horizontal tensile strain continued to accumulate at fissures after they formed with rates of opening ranging from 30 to 120 microstrain/year at fissures in Arizona.

  18. Comparison of local- to regional-scale estimates of ground-water recharge in Minnesota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, G.N.; Healy, R.W.; Lorenz, D.L.; Nimmo, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Regional ground-water recharge estimates for Minnesota were compared to estimates made on the basis of four local- and basin-scale methods. Three local-scale methods (unsaturated-zone water balance, water-table fluctuations (WTF) using three approaches, and age dating of ground water) yielded point estimates of recharge that represent spatial scales from about 1 to about 1000 m2. A fourth method (RORA, a basin-scale analysis of streamflow records using a recession-curve-displacement technique) yielded recharge estimates at a scale of 10–1000s of km2. The RORA basin-scale recharge estimates were regionalized to estimate recharge for the entire State of Minnesota on the basis of a regional regression recharge (RRR) model that also incorporated soil and climate data. Recharge rates estimated by the RRR model compared favorably to the local and basin-scale recharge estimates. RRR estimates at study locations were about 41% less on average than the unsaturated-zone water-balance estimates, ranged from 44% greater to 12% less than estimates that were based on the three WTF approaches, were about 4% less than the age dating of ground-water estimates, and were about 5% greater than the RORA estimates. Of the methods used in this study, the WTF method is the simplest and easiest to apply. Recharge estimates made on the basis of the UZWB method were inconsistent with the results from the other methods. Recharge estimates using the RRR model could be a good source of input for regional ground-water flow models; RRR model results currently are being applied for this purpose in USGS studies elsewhere.

  19. Initial response of small ground-dwelling mammals to forest alternative buffers along headwater streams in the Washington Coast Range, USA

    Treesearch

    Randall J. Wilk; Martin G. Raphael; Christopher S. Nations; Jeffrey D. Ricklefs

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the short-term effects of alternative designs of forested buffer treatments along headwater streams on small ground-dwelling mammals in managed forests in western Washington, USA. Over three summers (one pretreatment and two posttreatment), we trapped 19 mammalian species along 23 streams in the northern Coast Range. We compared faunal communities in...

  20. Estimating Inland Ground Motions from Lake Turbidite Sequences, Northern Cascadia margin, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfinger, C.; Hausmann, R. B.; Black, B.; Romsos, C. G.; Beeson, J. W.; Galer, S.; Collins, T.

    2016-12-01

    Using cores collected from lakes in northern Oregon and Washington, we are attempting to estimate ground motions from plate boundary earthquakes at inland paleoseismic sites. Paleoseismic evidence in Cascadia comes largely from coastal and offshore sites, while population the main population centers of Seattle, Victoria, Vancouver and Portland are 100-180 km inland. Cores from Leland Lake on the Olympic Peninsula, Lake Sawyer, near Seattle, and Bull Run Lake, 65 km east of Portland contain sequences of event beds that are interpreted as internal lake turbidites. The number, timing based on 14C constrained age models, sequencing, and individual event characteristics correlated with physical properties and CT data are compatible with onshore and offshore paleoseismic records of plate boundary earthquakes. The likely correlative turbidite sequence at Bull Run is well-matched to the nearest offshore turbidite sequences at Hydrate Ridge and Oceanus Basin (see also Hausmann et al. this meeting). Similarly, the Washington lake sequences are well matched to the offshore Washington sequences (Goldfinger et al. 2016), with the likely inclusion of a single Seattle Fault earthquake 1000 cal BP. Bull Run Lake has several ashes, but otherwise, additional event beds related to crustal faulting or other events are not observed. Our strategy is to investigate lakes that have low sensitivity to subaquatic slope failures in order to explore the limits of stability. In this case, the minimum ground shaking required for slope failure will approach actual ground motions as stability increases. We mapped failure zones within the lakes, and collected shear vane measurements to estimate sediment cohesion. We then computed minimum ground motions for these sites. For Leland Lake, there are no mappable failures, indicating internal lake turbidites likely were generated by thin surface failures below mapping resolution. For Sawyer and Bull Run, the most stable failure sites require 0.2-0.3g

  1. On Mathematical Proving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefaneas, Petros; Vandoulakis, Ioannis M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper outlines a logical representation of certain aspects of the process of mathematical proving that are important from the point of view of Artificial Intelligence. Our starting-point is the concept of proof-event or proving, introduced by Goguen, instead of the traditional concept of mathematical proof. The reason behind this choice is that in contrast to the traditional static concept of mathematical proof, proof-events are understood as processes, which enables their use in Artificial Intelligence in such contexts, in which problem-solving procedures and strategies are studied. We represent proof-events as problem-centered spatio-temporal processes by means of the language of the calculus of events, which captures adequately certain temporal aspects of proof-events (i.e. that they have history and form sequences of proof-events evolving in time). Further, we suggest a "loose" semantics for the proof-events, by means of Kolmogorov's calculus of problems. Finally, we expose the intented interpretations for our logical model from the fields of automated theorem-proving and Web-based collective proving.

  2. On Mathematical Proving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefaneas, Petros; Vandoulakis, Ioannis M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper outlines a logical representation of certain aspects of the process of mathematical proving that are important from the point of view of Artificial Intelligence. Our starting-point is the concept of proof-event or proving, introduced by Goguen, instead of the traditional concept of mathematical proof. The reason behind this choice is that in contrast to the traditional static concept of mathematical proof, proof-events are understood as processes, which enables their use in Artificial Intelligence in such contexts, in which problem-solving procedures and strategies are studied. We represent proof-events as problem-centered spatio-temporal processes by means of the language of the calculus of events, which captures adequately certain temporal aspects of proof-events (i.e. that they have history and form sequences of proof-events evolving in time). Further, we suggest a "loose" semantics for the proof-events, by means of Kolmogorov's calculus of problems. Finally, we expose the intented interpretations for our logical model from the fields of automated theorem-proving and Web-based collective proving.

  3. Occurrence of Pharmaceutical and Other Organic Compounds in Ground Water in Ten Regions of California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagalski, J.; Belitz, K.; Furlong, E. T.

    2007-05-01

    A State-wide assessment of the occurrence of pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and other anthropogenic and natural constituents in ground-water aquifers that are used for public supply is being made as part of the California Ground-Water Assessment and Monitoring Program (http:ca.water.usgs.gov/gama/). During the first three years of the program, a total of 682 wells were sampled in ten areas of California representing a wide range of climatic, land-use, population density, and hydrogeologic conditions. Although the wells were generally deep (greater than 100 meters below land surface), the percent of wells containing at least one pesticide ranged from 15 to 88 in the ten study areas. In contrast, the detection frequency of pharmaceuticals ranged from 5 to 22 percent. Concentrations of pharmaceutical compounds were generally less than 50 parts per trillion. Of the 14 pharmaceutical compounds investigated, only 3 were detected in more than half of the study areas (carbamazapine, acetaminophen, and sulfmethoxazole) and only one was detected in more than 2 percent of the wells (carbamapazine). These 3 compounds have low soil-water partition coefficients (Kd) and are presumably less degradable, with respect to the time of transport to the sampled portion of the aquifer, compared to the other compounds. These 3 compounds are also a subset of the pharmaceuticals that have been detected most frequently in surface water. Several other pharmaceutical compounds that are frequently detected in surface water but not abundant in this study have high Kd values, suggesting sorption onto aquifer solids may limit their sub- surface transport, or have faster degradation rates. The occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds is not well correlated with that of pesticides, but may be related to land-use as the highest detection frequency occurred in the study unit with the highest urban density.

  4. Seagrass biomass and productivity in the Florida Keys, USA: ground-level and airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarbro, L.; Carlson, P. R., Jr.; McHan, C.; Carlson, D. F.; Hu, C.; Danielson, T.; Durnan, B.; English, D. C.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Yates, K. K.; Herwitz, S.; Merrill, J.; Mewes, T.

    2013-12-01

    Seagrass communities serve as essential habitat for fish and shellfish, and recent research indicates that they can play a significant role in reducing ocean acidification. As part of a collaborative project funded by the NASA ROSES program and administered by the NASA UAV Collaborative, we collected hyperspectral imagery of seagrass beds and measured productivity of Thalassia testudinum at Sugarloaf Key, Florida, in May 2012, October 2012, and May 2013. Our primary goal was to evaluate the utility of hyperspectral sensors, in general, and UAV platforms, in specific, to measure seagrass health and productivity. Airborne measurements using the AISA Eagle hyperspectral imaging system were carried out simultaneously with ground measurements of Thalassia fluorescence, oxygen metabolism, growth, and biomass, as well as remote sensing reflectance and several in situ optical properties. Water depths at the study site ranged from less than 1 m to 5 m. Phytoplankton chlorophyll-a concentrations (0.09-0.72 ug l-1), ag(440) (0-0.02 m-1), and turbidity (0.12-4.1 ntu) were relatively low for all three deployments, facilitating the collection of excellent imagery and application of water-column radiative-transfer corrections. Aboveground Thalassia and macroalgal biomass, at 18 sites in the study area, ranged from 210 to 690 and 11 to 590 gDW m-2, respectively. One-sided green leaf area index of Thalassia ranged from 0.7 to 3.0. Preliminary findings show that the sensitivity of relationships between seagrass productivity and biomass parameters and remotely-sensed habitat spectra is reduced with increasing water depth and, even in shallow water, is complicated by epiphytic algae and sediment coverage of leaf surfaces.

  5. Marine and Lacustrine Turbidite Records: Testing Linkages and Estimating Ground Motions, Central Cascadia Margin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, R. B.; Goldfinger, C.; Black, B.; Collins, T.; Romsos, C. G.; Medeiros, L.; Mutschler, M.; Galer, S.; Raymond, R.; Morey, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    measurements. Initial slope stability models suggest that slopes less than ~ 25 degrees are statically stable. We are investigating the levels of ground motion required to destabilize surface sediments around the lake, and radiocarbon dating the disturbance events for comparison to other paleoseismic records, including new offshore cores at a similar latitude.

  6. NOAA Satellite Air Quality Proving Ground: Providing Near-Real Guidance to Forecasters on Dust and Haze Events using Suomi-NPP/VIIRS and GOES-R/ABI Aerosol Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, R. M.; Huff, A. K.; Kondragunta, S.; Zhang, H.; Ciren, P.; Xu, C.

    2013-12-01

    Air quality forecasters and analysts routinely use a wide range of NOAA and NASA satellite data products. Historically, these data have been available in near-real time but with limited numbers of observations per day. In 2015, this paradigm will change radically since the GOES-R ABI aerosol products will be available on time scales as short as 5 minutes. The NOAA Satellite Air Quality Proving Ground is preparing these users for this change in data availability and utility. To do so, a key component of the AQPG is the generation of simulated ABI aerosol imagery using air quality model output in conjunction with the ABI aerosol algorithm. Simulated ABI imagery allows users to anticipate how they will utilize actual ABI products and to provide feedback on product development before GOES-R launches in 2015. Results from the AQPG's July 2011 daily near real-time streaming testbed of simulated ABI aerosol imagery will be presented, as well as case studies of provisional VIIRS aerosol optical depth data for recent wildfire events. The AQPG works directly with a dedicated Advisory Group of approximately 40 representatives from the air quality user community who are providing feedback to NOAA on VIIRS and ABI aerosol product development. Improvements to VIIRS and ABI aerosol products based on user feedback will be discussed, and an overview of future AQPG activities will be presented, including upcoming training and outreach events to build capacity.

  7. Anaerobic degradation of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and association with microbial communities in a freshwater tidal wetland, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland : laboratory experiments and comparisons to field data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Voytek, Mary A.; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Jones, Elizabeth J.

    2003-01-01

    Defining biodegradation rates and processes is a critical part of assessing the feasibility of monitored natural attenuation as a remediation method for ground water containing organic contaminants. During 1998?2001, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a microbial study at a freshwater tidal wetland along the West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, as part of an investigation of natural attenuation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the wetland sediments. Geochemical analyses and molecular biology techniques were used to investigate factors controlling anaerobic degradation of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TeCA), and to characterize the microbial communities that potentially are important in its degradation. Rapid TeCA and daughter product degradation observed in laboratory experiments and estimated with field data confirm that natural attenuation is a feasible remediation method at this site. The diverse microbial community that seems to be involved in TeCA degradation in the wetland sediments varies with changing spatial and seasonal conditions, allowing continued effective natural attenuation throughout the year. Rates of TeCA degradation in anaerobic microcosm experiments conducted with wetland sediment collected from two different sites (WB23 and WB30) and during three different seasons (March?April 1999, July?August 1999, and October?November 2000) showed little spatial variability but high seasonal variability. Initial first-order degradation rate constants for TeCA ranged from 0.10?0.01 to 0.16?0.05 per day (half-lives of 4.3 to 6.9 days) for March?April 1999 and October?November 2000 microcosms incubated at 19 degrees Celsius, whereas lower rate constants of 0 ? 0.03 and 0.06 ? 0.03 per day were obtained in July?August 1999 microcosms incubated at 19 degrees Celsius. Microbial community profiles showed that low microbial biomass and microbial diversity in the summer, possibly due to competition for nutrients by the

  8. ICESat elevations in Antarctica along the 2007-09 Norway-USA Traverse: Validation with ground-based GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, J.; Neumann, T.; Robbins, J. W.; Melland, G.; Tronstad, S.

    2010-12-01

    The 2007-09 Norway-USA Traverse of East Antarctica collected dual-frequency GPS data at 5-s intervals on two of the traverse vehicles. The traverse covered a 2,400 km route from the coast to the vicinity of the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in 2007-08, and along a 2,600 km route from the South Pole to the coast in 2008-09. Side traverses were also conducted in the latter season over the so-called Recovery Lakes, for a total of over 10,000 km of GPS data collected. We use precise point processing (PPP) to post-process our single receiver kinematic GPS data, with no need for base station support. Analysis of data obtained while the vehicles were stationary shows individual solutions are accurate to <1 cm in the horizontal and <3 cm in the vertical. Analysis of elevation differences at vehicle cross-over points implies vertical position accuracies of <10 cm at the cross-over locations, when the vehicles are in motion. Correct determination of GPS antenna height (AH) relative to the snow surface is a critical aspect of this analysis. Measurements of AH made in the field varied appreciably, but we estimate that the AH error is still <10 cm based on consistency of the best quality measurements. The mean cross-over difference for the two vehicles was ca. 5 cm, in both years, which represents an unresolved bias in the AH of one or both vehicles. We compare our GPS elevations with those determined by ICESat, the orbiting laser altimetry system designed to measure ice elevation. Direct cross-over analysis at the cross-over of traverse GPS tracks and ICESat ground tracks results in RMS differences of < 20 cm in low-slope areas. Mean differences between GPS and ICESat elevations show a bias of a ca. 5 - 10 cm, with ICESat elevations lower than GPS measurements in low-slope areas, but higher than GPS measurements in high-slope areas. In general the agreement is best between 86° S and 82° S, and decreases northward of 82° S. We also compare the GPS data to two DEMs made

  9. Ground water flow analysis of a mid-Atlantic outer coastal plain watershed, Virginia, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael A; Reay, William G

    2002-01-01

    Models for ground water flow (MODFLOW) and particle tracking (MODPATH) were used to determine ground water flow patterns, principal ground water discharge and recharge zones, and estimates of ground water travel times in an unconfined ground water system of an outer coastal plain watershed on the Delmarva Peninsula, Virginia. By coupling recharge and discharge zones within the watershed, flowpath analysis can provide a method to locate and implement specific management strategies within a watershed to reduce ground water nitrogen loading to surface water. A monitoring well network was installed in Eyreville Creek watershed, a first-order creek, to determine hydraulic conductivities and spatial and temporal variations in hydraulic heads for use in model calibration. Ground water flow patterns indicated the convergence of flow along the four surface water features of the watershed; primary discharge areas were in the nontidal portions of the watershed. Ground water recharge zones corresponded to the surface water features with minimal development of a regional ground water system. Predicted ground water velocities varied between < 0.01 to 0.24 m/day, with elevated values associated with discharge areas and areas of convergence along surface water features. Some ground water residence times exceeded 100 years, although average residence times ranged between 16 and 21 years; approximately 95% of the ground water resource would reflect land use activities within the last 50 years.

  10. Environmental Assessment for the Continued Exclusive Use of Department of the Army Land Located at U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground by Members of the U.S. Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    the 2003 DPG EIS include environmental support services, equipment maintenance, fire fighting and emergency response, security, and utilities (Table...and ground training activities; and  Artillery firing from conventional munitions and ground training activities. A 1991 study conducted by the...dioxide tanks used for both the moisture reduction wave guide system of the radar and the fire suppression system. Two oxygen tanks and a 50-gallon

  11. Early response of ground layer plant communities to wildfire and harvesting disturbance in forested peatland ecosystems in northern Minnesota, USA

    Treesearch

    Erika R. Rowe; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; John C. Almendinger

    2017-01-01

    A rare, stand-replacing fire in northern Minnesota, USA provided the opportunity to compare the effects of wildfire and timber harvesting in two peatland forest communities, nutrient-poor black spruce (Picea mariana) bogs (BSB) and nutrient-rich tamarack (Larix laricina) swamps (RTS). We found the response between the two...

  12. Influence of local meteorology and NO2 conditions on ground-level ozone concentrations in the eastern part of Texas, USA

    PubMed Central

    Gorai, A. K.; Tuluri, F.; Tchounwou, P. B.; Ambinakudige, S.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of local climatic factors on ground-level ozone concentrations is an area of increasing interest to air quality management in regards to future climate change. This study presents an analysis on the role of temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and NO2 level on ground-level ozone concentrations over the region of Eastern Texas, USA. Ozone concentrations at the ground level depend on the formation and dispersion processes. Formation process mainly depends on the precursor sources, whereas, the dispersion of ozone depends on meteorological factors. Study results showed that the spatial mean of ground-level ozone concentrations was highly dependent on the spatial mean of NO2 concentrations. However, spatial distributions of NO2 and ozone concentrations were not uniformed throughout the study period due to uneven wind speeds and wind directions. Wind speed and wind direction also played a significant role in the dispersion of ozone. Temperature profile in the area rarely had any effects on the ozone concentrations due to low spatial variations. PMID:25755687

  13. Influence of local meteorology and NO2 conditions on ground-level ozone concentrations in the eastern part of Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Gorai, A K; Tuluri, F; Tchounwou, P B; Ambinakudige, S

    2015-02-01

    The influence of local climatic factors on ground-level ozone concentrations is an area of increasing interest to air quality management in regards to future climate change. This study presents an analysis on the role of temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and NO2 level on ground-level ozone concentrations over the region of Eastern Texas, USA. Ozone concentrations at the ground level depend on the formation and dispersion processes. Formation process mainly depends on the precursor sources, whereas, the dispersion of ozone depends on meteorological factors. Study results showed that the spatial mean of ground-level ozone concentrations was highly dependent on the spatial mean of NO2 concentrations. However, spatial distributions of NO2 and ozone concentrations were not uniformed throughout the study period due to uneven wind speeds and wind directions. Wind speed and wind direction also played a significant role in the dispersion of ozone. Temperature profile in the area rarely had any effects on the ozone concentrations due to low spatial variations.

  14. Comparison of ground-water flow model particle-tracking results and isotopic data in the Mojave River ground-water basin, southern California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, J.A.; Stamos, C.L.; Nishikawa, T.; Martin, P.

    2004-01-01

    Flow-path and time-of-travel results for the Mojave River ground-water basin, southern California, calculated using the ground-water flow model MODFLOW and particle-tracking model MODPATH were similar to flow path and time-of-travel interpretations derived from delta-deuterium and carbon-14 data. Model and isotopic data both show short flow paths and young ground-water ages throughout the floodplain aquifer along most the Mojave River. Longer flow paths and older ground-water ages as great as 10,000 years before present were measured and simulated in the floodplain aquifer near the Mojave Valley. Model and isotopic data also show movement of water between the floodplain and regional aquifer and subsequent discharge of water from the river to dry lakes in some areas. It was not possible to simulate the isotopic composition of ground-water in the regional aquifer away from the front of the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains - because recharge in these areas does not occur under the present-day climatic conditions used for calibration of the model.

  15. Stream air temperature relations to classify stream ground water interactions in a karst setting, central Pennsylvania, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Driscoll, Michael A.; DeWalle, David R.

    2006-09-01

    SummaryStream-ground water interactions in karst vary from complete losses through swallow holes, to reemergences from springs. Our study objective was to compare stream-air temperature and energy exchange relationships across various stream-ground water relationships in a carbonate watershed. It was hypothesized that ground water-fed stream segments could be distinguished from perched/losing segments using stream-air temperature relationships. Two types of computations were conducted: (1) comparisons of stream-air temperature relationships for the period of October 1999-September 2002 at 12 sites in the Spring Creek drainage and (2) detailed energy budget computations for the same period for ground water-dominated Thompson Run and Lower Buffalo Run, a stream with negligible ground water inputs. Weekly average air temperatures and stream temperatures were highly correlated, but slopes and intercepts of the relationship varied for the 12 sites. Slopes ranged from 0.19 to 0.67 and intercepts ranged from 3.23 to 9.07 °C. A two-component mixing model with end members of ground water and actual stream temperatures indicated that the slope and intercept of the stream-air temperature relationship was controlled by ground water inputs. Streams with large ground water inputs had greater intercepts and lesser slopes than streams that were seasonally losing, perched, and/or distant from ground water inputs. Energy fluxes across the air-water interface were greatest for the ground water-fed stream due to increased longwave, latent, and sensible heat losses from the stream in winter when large temperature and vapor pressure differences existed between the stream and air. Advection of ground water was an important source and sink for heat in the ground water-fed stream, depending on season. In contrast, along the seasonally losing stream reach, advection was of minimal importance and stream temperatures were dominated by energy exchange across the air- water interface. Overall

  16. Modeling the spatial differentiation in cloud-to-ground lightning: A case study in Atlanta, Georgia, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strikas, Ona

    Urban cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning enhancement has been well documented for Atlanta, Georgia. This study builds on those investigations using modeling techniques. Numerous styles of analyses and regressions were conducted to establish patterns of CG lightning over the North Georgia region. CG lightning demonstrated clustering for all years of data: 1995--2008. However, the first strike of each day with lightning was randomly distributed according to a Poisson distribution, demonstrating the clustering is not due to permanent features. Attempts were unsuccessful to model CG lightning clusters as either a Matern or Thomas Poisson point process. Regressions of CG lightning with built environment covariates---FAA aviation obstacle locations and heights, population density, road length density, distance to the center of Atlanta, PM10 emissions data, distance to highways, and coal plant locations---as well as natural variables such as projected coordinate easting, northing, and NWS severe thunderstorm status were executed at resolutions of 1km, 2km, 4km, and 8km. Analyses demonstrated significantly higher flash frequency near FAA aviation obstacles. With an R2 value of 0.22, taller obstacles are struck more frequently than shorter obstacles. Regressions with road length density revealed little explanatory power (maximum R2=0.19), but demonstrated a positive correlation independent of scale. A multi-level visualization technique demonstrates the road length density correlation loses accuracy within dense urban corridors. Distance from Atlanta shows a negative correlation, but only at larger scales. Subsetting both regressions by direction reveals a significant difference on the Eastern and Western sides of Atlanta. Subsetting both regressions only to Gwinnett County, Georgia illustrates road length density has no correlation with flash frequency, and distance to Atlanta is still a scale dependent process. PM10 emissions analysis suggests that CG amplification is most

  17. Effects of agricultural practices and vadose zone stratigraphy on nitrate concentration in ground water in Kansas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Townsend, M.A.; Sleezer, R.O.; Macko, S.A.; ,

    1996-01-01

    Differences in nitrate-N concentrations in,around water in Kansas can be explained by variations in agricultural practices and vadose-zone stratigraphy. In northwestern Kansas, past use of a local stream for tailwater runoff from irrigation and high fertilizer applications for sugar-beet farming resulted in high nitrate-N concentrations (12-60 mg L-1; in both soil and ground water. Nitrogen isotope values from the soil and ground water range from +4 to +8? which is typical for a fertilizer source. In parts of south-central Kansas, the use of crop rotation and the presence of both continuous fine-textured layers and a reducing ground-water chemistry resulted in ground-water nitrate-N values of 10 mg L-1; in both soil and grounwater. Nitrogen isotope values of +3 to +7? indicate a fertilizer source. Crop rotation decreased nitrate-N values in the shallow ground water (9 m). However, deeper ground water showed increasing nitrate-N concentrations as a result of past farming practices.

  18. Late Quaternary paleoenvironments of an ephemeral wetland in North Dakota, USA: Relative interactions of ground-water hydrology and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yansa, C.H.; Dean, W.E.; Murphy, E.C.

    2007-01-01

    This study of fossils (pollen, plant macrofossils, stomata and fish) and sediments (lithostratigraphy and geochemistry) from the Wendel site in North Dakota, USA, emphasizes the importance of considering ground-water hydrology when deciphering paleoclimate signals from lakes in postglacial landscapes. The Wendel site was a paleolake from about 11,500 14C yr BP to 11,100 14C yr BP. Afterwards, the lake-level lowered until it became a prairie marsh by 9,300 14C yr BP and finally, at 8,500 14C yr BP, an ephemeral wetland as it is today. Meanwhile, the vegetation changed from a white spruce parkland (11,500 to 10,500 14C yr BP) to deciduous parkland, followed by grassland at 9,300 14C yr BP. The pattern and timing of these aquatic and terrestrial changes are similar to coeval kettle lake records from adjacent uplands, providing a regional aridity signal. However, two local sources of ground water were identified from the fossil and geochemical data, which mediated atmospheric inputs to the Wendel basin. First, the paleolake received water from the melting of stagnant ice buried under local till for about 900 years after glacier recession. Later, Holocene droughts probably caused the lower-elevation Wendel site to capture the ground water of up-gradient lakes. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  19. Source and Movement of Ground Water in the Western Part of the Mojave Desert, Southern California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.

    2004-01-01

    Delta oxygen-18 and delta deuterium composition of precipitation and water from wells in the Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins in the western part of the Mojave Desert show that ground-water recharge occurs primarily from winter precipitation near low-altitude passes in the San Bernardino and the San Gabriel Mountains?as opposed to runoff from higher altitudes in the mountains. The resulting deuterium composition of the ground water, about -64 per mil, contrasts sharply with the isotopic composition of water from wells recharged by runoff from higher altitudes of the San Gabriel and the San Bernardino Mountains, about -84 per mil. These differences define the 3-dimensional movement of ground water between aquifers especially downgradient from faults that act as barriers to ground-water flow. Water recharged from runoff in the mountains farther to the east in the Mojave Desert plots to the right of the meteoric water line and after accounting for evaporative effects had an isotopic composition lighter than present-day precipitation.

  20. Movement and Age of Ground Water in the Western Part of the Mojave Desert, Southern California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Michel, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    Tritium and carbon-14 data in water from wells in the Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins in the western part of the Mojave Desert show recent recharge focused in the floodplain aquifer along the Mojave River. Older ground water was present in parts of the regional aquifer that surround and underlie the floodplain aquifer. Movement of water between the floodplain and the regional aquifers occurs near on the upgradient side of faults as water from the regional aquifer discharges to the floodplain aquifer and on the downgradient side of the faults where water from the floodplain aquifer recharges the regional aquifer. On the basis of carbon-14 ages, corrected for mineralogic reactions with aquifer materials, water from some wells was recharged more than 20,000 years ago. Geochemical data show ground-water recharge has gradually decreased as the climate changed since that time.

  1. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- From left, United Space Alliance (USA) Deputy Space Shuttle Program Manager of Operations Loren Shriver, USA Associate Program Manager of Ground Operations Andy Allen, NASA Deputy Associate Administrator for Space Station and Shuttle Programs Michael Kostelnik, and USA Vice President and Space Shuttle Program Manager Howard DeCastro examine a tile used in the Shuttle's Thermal Protection System (TPS) in KSC's TPS Facility. NASA and USA Space Shuttle program management are participating in a leadership workday. The day is intended to provide management with an in-depth, hands-on look at Shuttle processing activities at KSC.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-19

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- From left, United Space Alliance (USA) Deputy Space Shuttle Program Manager of Operations Loren Shriver, USA Associate Program Manager of Ground Operations Andy Allen, NASA Deputy Associate Administrator for Space Station and Shuttle Programs Michael Kostelnik, and USA Vice President and Space Shuttle Program Manager Howard DeCastro examine a tile used in the Shuttle's Thermal Protection System (TPS) in KSC's TPS Facility. NASA and USA Space Shuttle program management are participating in a leadership workday. The day is intended to provide management with an in-depth, hands-on look at Shuttle processing activities at KSC.

  2. Late Pleistocene paleoecology of arctic ground squirrel ( Urocitellus parryii) caches and nests from Interior Alaska's mammoth steppe ecosystem, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaglioti, Benjamin V.; Barnes, Brian M.; Zazula, Grant D.; Beaudoin, Alwynne B.; Wooller, Matthew J.

    2011-11-01

    Botanical analyses of fossil and modern arctic ground squirrel ( Urocitellus parryii) caches and nests have been used to reconstruct the past vegetation from some parts of Beringia, but such archives are understudied in Alaska. Five modern and four fossil samples from arctic ground squirrel caches and nests provide information on late Pleistocene vegetation in Eastern Beringia. Modern arctic ground squirrel caches from Alaska's arctic tundra were dominated by willow and grass leaves and grass seeds and bearberries, which were widespread in the local vegetation as confirmed by vegetation surveys. Late Pleistocene caches from Interior Alaska were primarily composed of steppe and dry tundra graminoid and herb seeds. Graminoid cuticle analysis of fossil leaves identified Calamagrostis canadensis, Koeleria sp. and Carex albonigra as being common in the fossil samples. Stable carbon isotopes analysis of these graminoid specimens indicated that plants using the C 3 photosynthetic pathways were present and functioning with medium to high water-use efficiency. Fossil plant taxa and environments from ground squirrel caches in Alaska are similar to other macrofossil assemblages from the Yukon Territory, which supports the existence of a widespread mammoth steppe ecosystem type in Eastern Beringia that persisted throughout much of the late Pleistocene.

  3. Radionuclides in ground water of the Carson River Basin, western Nevada and eastern California, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, J.M.; Welch, A.H.; Lico, M.S.; Hughes, J.L.; Whitney, R.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the main source of domestic and public supply in the Carson River Basin. Ground water originates as precipitation primarily in the Sierra Nevada in the western part of Carson and Eagle Valleys, and flows down gradient in the direction of the Carson River through Dayton and Churchill Valleys to a terminal sink in the Carson Desert. Because radionuclides dissolved in ground water can pose a threat to human health, the distribution and sources of several naturally occurring radionuclides that contribute to gross-alpha and gross-beta activities in the study area were investigated. Generally, alpha and beta activities and U concentration increase from the up-gradient to down-gradient hydrographic areas of the Carson River Basin, whereas 222Rn concentration decreases. Both 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations are similar throughout the study area. Alpha and beta activities and U concentration commonly exceed 100 pCi/l in the Carson Desert at the distal end of the flow system. Radon-222 commonly exceeds 2,000 pCi/l in the western part of Carson and Eagle Valleys adjacent to the Sierra Nevada. Radium-226 and 228Ra concentrations are <5 pCi/l. Four ground water samples were analyzed for 210Po and one sample contained a high concentration of 21 pCi/l. Seven samples were analyzed for 210Pb; six contained <3 pCi/l and one contained 12 pCi/l. Thorium-230 was detected at concentrations of 0.15 and 0.20 pCi/l in two of four samples. Alpha-emitting radionuclides in the ground water originated from the dissolution of U-rich granitic rocks in the Sierra Nevada by CO2, oxygenated water. Dissolution of primary minerals, mainly titanite (sphene) in the granitic rocks, releases U to the water. Dissolved U is probably removed from the water by adsorption on Fe- and Mn-oxide coatings on fracture surfaces and fine-grained sediment, by adsorption on organic matter, and by coprecipitation with Fe and Mn oxides. These coated sediments are transported throughout the basin by fluvial

  4. Toxicity of storm-water runoff after dormant spray application in a french prune orchard, Glenn County, California, USA: temporal patterns and the effect of ground covers.

    PubMed

    Werner, Ingeborg; Zalom, Frank G; Oliver, Michael N; Deanovic, Linda A; Kimball, Tom S; Henderson, John D; Wilson, Barry W; Krueger, William; Wallender, Wes W

    2004-11-01

    Organophosphorous (OP) insecticides, especially diazinon, have been detected routinely in surface waters of the Sacramento and San Joaquin River watersheds, coincident with rainfall events following their application to dormant orchards during the winter months. Preventive best management practices (BMP) aim at reducing off-site movement of pesticides into surface waters. Two proposed BMPs are: The use of more hydrophobic pyrethroid insecticides believed to adsorb strongly to organic matter and soil and the use of various types of ground cover vegetation to increase the soil's capacity for water infiltration. To measure the effectiveness of these BMPs, storm water runoff was collected in a California prune orchard (Glenn County, CA, USA) during several rainstorms in the winter of 2001, after the organophosphate diazinon and the pyrethroid esfenvalerate were applied to different orchard sections. We tested and compared acute toxicity of orchard runoff from diazinon- and esfenvalerate-sprayed sections to two species of fish (Pimephales promelas, Onchorhynchus mykiss) and three aquatic invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Simocephalus vetelus, Chironomus riparius), and determined the mitigating effect of three ground cover crops on toxicity and insecticide loading in diazinon-sprayed orchard rows. Runoff from the esfenvalerate-sprayed orchard section was less toxic to waterflea than runoff from the diazinon-sprayed section. However, runoff from the orchard section sprayed with esfenvalerate was highly toxic to fish larvae. Samples collected from both sections one month later were not toxic to fish, but remained highly toxic to invertebrates. The ground cover crops reduced total pesticide loading in runoff by approximately 50%. No differences were found between the types of vegetation used as ground covers.

  5. Use of chemical and isotopic tracers to assess nitrate contamination and ground-water age, Woodville Karst Plain, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; Chelette, A.R.; Pratt, T.R.

    2004-01-01

    Concerns regarding ground-water contamination in the Woodville Karst Plain have arisen due to a steady increase in nitrate-N concentrations (0.25-0.90 mg/l) during the past 30 years in Wakulla Springs, a large regional discharge point for water (9.6 m3/s) from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). Multiple isotopic and chemical tracers were used with geochemical and lumped-parameter models (exponential mixing (EM), dispersion, and combined exponential piston flow) to assess: (1) the sources and extent of nitrate contamination of ground water and springs, and (2) mean transit times (ages) of ground water. Delta 15N-NO3 values (1.7-13.8???) indicated that nitrate in ground water originated from localized sources of inorganic fertilizer and human/animal wastes. Nitrate in spring waters (??15N-NO3=5.3-8.9???) originated from both inorganic and organic N sources. Nitrate-N concentrations (1.0 mg/l) were associated with shallow wells (open intervals less than 15 m below land surface), elevated nitrate concentrations in deeper wells are consistent with mixtures of water from shallow and deep zones in the UFA as indicated from geochemical mixing models and the distribution of mean transit times (5-90 years) estimated using lumped-parameter flow models. Ground water with mean transit times of 10 years or less tended to have higher dissolved organic carbon concentrations, lower dissolved solids, and lower calcite saturation indices than older waters, indicating mixing with nearby surface water that directly recharges the aquifer through sinkholes. Significantly higher values of pH, magnesium, dolomite saturation index, and phosphate in springs and deep water (>45 m) relative to a shallow zone (<45 m) were associated with longer ground-water transit times (50-90 years). Chemical differences with depth in the aquifer result from deep regional flow of water recharged through low permeability sediments (clays and clayey sands of the Hawthorn Formation) that overlie the UFA

  6. Use of chemical and isotopic tracers to assess nitrate contamination and ground-water age, Woodville Karst Plain, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Brian G.; Chelette, Angela R.; Pratt, Thomas R.

    2004-04-01

    Concerns regarding ground-water contamination in the Woodville Karst Plain have arisen due to a steady increase in nitrate-N concentrations (0.25-0.90 mg/l) during the past 30 years in Wakulla Springs, a large regional discharge point for water (9.6 m 3/s) from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). Multiple isotopic and chemical tracers were used with geochemical and lumped-parameter models (exponential mixing (EM), dispersion, and combined exponential piston flow) to assess: (1) the sources and extent of nitrate contamination of ground water and springs, and (2) mean transit times (ages) of ground water. Delta 15N-NO 3 values (1.7-13.8‰) indicated that nitrate in ground water originated from localized sources of inorganic fertilizer and human/animal wastes. Nitrate in spring waters (δ 15N-NO 3=5.3-8.9‰) originated from both inorganic and organic N sources. Nitrate-N concentrations (<0.02-16 mg/l) were highly variable both spatially and vertically in the oxic UFA, based on water samples from 46 wells and four springs collected from 1997 to 2000. During high-flow conditions, spring waters had decreased nitrate and increased DOC concentrations that resulted from mixtures of 20-95% surface water. Although higher nitrate-N concentrations (>1.0 mg/l) were associated with shallow wells (open intervals less than 15 m below land surface), elevated nitrate concentrations in deeper wells are consistent with mixtures of water from shallow and deep zones in the UFA as indicated from geochemical mixing models and the distribution of mean transit times (5-90 years) estimated using lumped-parameter flow models. Ground water with mean transit times of 10 years or less tended to have higher dissolved organic carbon concentrations, lower dissolved solids, and lower calcite saturation indices than older waters, indicating mixing with nearby surface water that directly recharges the aquifer through sinkholes. Significantly higher values of pH, magnesium, dolomite saturation index

  7. Starting new populations of longleaf pine ground-layer plants in the Outer Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA.

    SciTech Connect

    Glitzenstein, J.S.; Streng, Donna R.; Wade, D.D.; Brubaker, J.

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Southeastern United States habitats dominated by longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Miller) and associated plant species have declined dangerously. Conservation of rare and common plants of longleaf pine habitats may be aided by starting new populations in the field. We review methods for initiating plant populations and integrate information from our studies of rare and common longleaf pine ground-layer plants of the outer South Carolina Coastal Plain. In our experience it is possible to start new populations of most longleaf pine ground-layer plants, including rare species if (1) seeds are collected from frequently burned sites with reasonably large populations of desired species; (2) appropriate media are used for seedling propagation; (3) outplanting of nursery grown seedlings or direct seeding is done during periods of sufficient soil moisture; and (4) introduction sites properly match habitat requirements (inferred from indicator plants) of desired species, and the sites can be managed with frequent prescribed fire.

  8. Aquifer-scale controls on the distribution of nitrate and ammonium in ground water near La Pine, Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, S.R.; Böhlke, J.K.; Duff, J.H.; Morgan, D.S.; Weick, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Geochemical and isotopic tools were applied at aquifer, transect, and subtransect scales to provide a framework for understanding sources, transport, and fate of dissolved inorganic N in a sandy aquifer near La Pine, Oregon. NO3 is a common contaminant in shallow ground water in this area, whereas high concentrations of NH4-N (up to 39 mg/L) are present in deep ground water. N concentrations, N/Cl ratios, tracer-based apparent ground-water ages, N isotope data, and hydraulic gradients indicate that septic tank effluent is the primary source of NO3. N isotope data, N/Cl and N/C relations, 3H data, and hydraulic considerations point to a natural, sedimentary organic matter source for the high concentrations of NH4, and are inconsistent with an origin as septic tank N. Low recharge rates and flow velocities have largely restricted anthropogenic NO3 to isolated plumes within several meters of the water table. A variety of geochemical and isotopic data indicate that denitrification also affects NO3 gradients in the aquifer. Ground water in the La Pine aquifer evolves from oxic to increasingly reduced conditions. Suboxic conditions are achieved after about 15-30 y of transport below the water table. NO3 is denitrified near the oxic/suboxic boundary. Denitrification in the La Pine aquifer is characterized well at the aquifer scale with a redox boundary approach that inherently captures spatial variability in the distribution of electron donors. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Natural attentuation of tritium in vadose zone moisture and ground water at a Lawrence Livermore site in Northern California, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Green-Horner, L; Lamarre, A L; Madrid, V M; Oberderdorfer, J A; Taffett, M J; Woodward, R K

    1999-05-20

    Tritium used in explosives experiments and buried in unlined landfills at a remote Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site has resulted in three ground water tritium plumes. Using an innovative approach, we determined that despite ground water tritium activities of up to 1.5 million picoCuries per liter (pCi/L) in some locations, natural attenuation processes are significantly limiting the migration of tritium to environmental receptors. We used soil vapor and moisture tritium activity measurements to calculate the source inventory of tritium in the vadose zone. We determined the 12 year annual inventory of tritium in ground water, using objective tritium activity contours and the highly variable saturated thickness of the aquifer. Our analysis indicates that despite seasonal slug releases of tritium, the two plumes emanating from two landfills are stable, with the 1,000 and 20,000 pCi/L contours essentially fixed in space. The third plume emanates continuously from an explosives testing platform; the 1,000 pCi/L contour is translating slightly, but the 20,000 pCi/L contour is retreating upgradient towards the source. Additionally, the long-term trend in total tritium activity for each plume is decreasing. Three processes account for the attenuation of tritium observed: 1) radioactive decay, 2) hydrodynamic dispersion, and 3) dwindling tritium sources. In preparation for the possibility that remediation may be required anyway, we have evaluated innovative remediation technologies for tritium at this site.

  10. Disease Surveillance of California Ground Squirrels ( Spermophilus beecheyi ) in a Drive-through Zoo in Oregon, USA.

    PubMed

    Beest, Julia Ter; Cushing, Andrew; McClean, Modesto; Hsu, Wendy; Bildfell, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Rodents and other small wild mammals are often considered to be pests and vectors for disease in zoos that house small populations of valuable threatened and endangered animals. In 2005, three nonhuman primates at a drive-through zoo in Oregon, US, acquired tularemia from an unknown source. Due to an abundance of California ground squirrels ( Spermophilus beecheyi ) on zoo grounds, we instituted serosurveillance of this species from July through September 2008 to determine the prevalence of antibodies against pathogens considered to be potentially transmissible to collection animals. Serologic testing was performed for Francisella tularensis ; Leptospira interrogans serovars Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Icterohemorrhagiae, and Pomona; Toxoplasma gondii ; and Yersinia pestis . All squirrels were seronegative for Yersinia pestis (0%; 0/45) and Toxoplasma gondii (0%; 0/20); there was a prevalence of 2% (1/45) for Francisella tularensis antibodies and 57% (24/42) were positive for various Leptospira serovars. Although it remains unclear whether ground squirrels present a significant risk for transmission of disease to zoo animals, vaccination of high-risk zoo animals against leptospirosis warrants consideration. Beyond this, continued vigilance and persistence with various forms of pest control may reduce the likelihood of disease transmission from wildlife hosts to animals in human care.

  11. Computers for liquid meter proving

    SciTech Connect

    Lurie, B.D.

    1995-12-01

    Computer evolution has leveraged the 1990`s into the {open_quotes}Information Super-Highway{close_quotes}. Computer development has enhanced communications more than ten fold in the past twenty years. Today, we have communication tools such as SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) and DCS (distributed control system), and communication linkage via MODBUS and FIELDBUS. This paper describes the evolution of computers as they apply to liquid meter proving. Meter proving is essential for controlling expenses and product accountability whereas prover computers have enhanced the ability for errorless precision accuracy.

  12. Is Proving a Visual Act?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudaly, Vimolan

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at the role of visualisation in the proving process. It considers the different functions of proof and then describes student responses when engaged in the process of discovering Viviani's Theorem. The findings show that learners can attain high levels of conviction when working in a dynamic geometry environment. In particular,…

  13. Comparison of the Hazard Mapping System (HMS) fire product to ground-based fire records in Georgia, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xuefei; Yu, Chao; Tian, Di; Ruminski, Mark; Robertson, Kevin; Waller, Lance A.; Liu, Yang

    2016-03-01

    Biomass burning has a significant and adverse impact on air quality, climate change, and various ecosystems. The Hazard Mapping System (HMS) detects fires using data from multiple satellite sensors in order to maximize its fire detection rate. However, to date, the detection rate of the HMS fire product for small fires has not been well studied, especially using ground-based fire records. This paper utilizes the 2011 fire information compiled from ground observations and burn authorizations in Georgia to assess the comprehensiveness of the HMS active fire product. The results show that detection rates of the hybrid HMS increase substantially by integrating multiple satellite instruments. The detection rate increases dramatically from 3% to 80% with an increase in fire size from less than 0.02 km2 to larger than 2 km2, resulting in detection of approximately 12% of all recorded fires which represent approximately 57% of the total area burned. The spatial pattern of detection rates reveals that grid cells with high detection rates are generally located in areas where large fires occur frequently. The seasonal analysis shows that overall detection rates in winter and spring (12% and 13%, respectively) are higher than those in summer and fall (3% and 6%, respectively), mainly because of higher percentages of large fires (>0.19 km2) that occurred in winter and spring. The land cover analysis shows that detection rates are 2-7 percentage points higher in land cover types that are prone to large fires such as forestland and shrub land.

  14. Proving Program Correctness. Volume V.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    td&Ot’ ’i number) Programming Sy Stems S.. - nulation Pr~ogramming Languages Sche,!%L -g Algorithm Programming Grammars Logic Programming 9roving...able to prove that programs perform as they are specified than is currently possible. Task 3. Grammars of Programming (P.I.: E.F. Storm). This group is...is "An Algorithmic Solution for a Queueing Model of a Computer System with Interactive and Batch Jobs. Volume 4. Report from the Grammars of

  15. Assessment of risks to ground-feeding songbirds from lead in the Coeur d'Alene Basin, Idaho, USA.

    PubMed

    Sample, Bradley E; Hansen, James A; Dailey, Anne; Duncan, Bruce

    2011-10-01

    Previous assessment of ecological risks within the Coeur d'Alene River Basin identified Pb as a key risk driver for ground-feeding songbirds. Because this conclusion was based almost exclusively on literature data, its strength was determined to range from low to moderate. With the support of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the US Fish and Wildlife Service collected site-specific data to address the uncertainty associated with Pb risks to songbirds. These data, plus those from the previous Coeur d'Alene Basin ecological risk assessment, were integrated, and risks to ground-feeding songbirds were reevaluated. These site-specific data were also used to develop updated preliminary remedial goals (PRGs) for Pb in soils that would be protective of songbirds. Available data included site-specific Pb concentrations in blood, liver, and ingesta from 3 songbird species (American robin, song sparrow, and Swainson's thrush), colocated soil data, and soil data from other locations in the basin. Semi-log regression models based on the association between soil Pb and tissue Pb concentrations were applied to measured soil concentrations from the previous risk assessment to estimate Pb exposures in riparian and adjacent upland habitats throughout the Coeur d'Alene Basin. Measured and estimated tissue or dietary exposure was tabulated for 3 areas plus the reference, and then compared to multiple effects measures. As many as 6 exposure-effect metrics were available for assessing risk in any one area. Analyses of site-specific tissue- and diet-based exposure data indicate that exposure of ground-feeding songbirds to Pb in the Coeur d'Alene Basin is sufficient to result in adverse effects. Because this conclusion is based on multiple exposure-effect metrics that include site-specific data, the strength of this conclusion is high. Ecological PRGs were developed by integrating the site-specific regression models with tissue and dietary effect levels to create exposure

  16. GAMMA-PULSE-HEIGHT EVALUATION OF A USA SAVANNAH RIVER SITE BURIAL GROUND SPECIAL CONFIGURATION WASTE ITEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dewberry, R.; Sigg, R.; Salaymeh, S.

    2009-03-23

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Burial Ground had a container labeled as Box 33 for which they had no reliable solid waste stream designation. The container consisted of an outer box of dimensions 48-inch x 46-inch x 66-inch and an inner box that contained high density and high radiation dose material. From the outer box Radiation Control measured an extremity dose rate of 22 mrem/h. With the lid removed from the outer box, the maximum dose rate measured from the inner box was 100 mrem/h extremity and 80 mrem/h whole body. From the outer box the material was sufficiently high in density that the Solid Waste Management operators were unable to obtain a Co-60 radiograph of the contents. Solid Waste Management requested that the Analytical Development Section of Savannah River National Laboratory perform a {gamma}-ray assay of the item to evaluate the radioactive content and possibly to designate a solid waste stream. This paper contains the results of three models used to analyze the measured {gamma}-ray data acquired in an unusual configuration.

  17. Combining satellite-based fire observations and ground-based lightning detections to identify lightning fires across the conterminous USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bar-Massada, A.; Hawbaker, T.J.; Stewart, S.I.; Radeloff, V.C.

    2012-01-01

    Lightning fires are a common natural disturbance in North America, and account for the largest proportion of the area burned by wildfires each year. Yet, the spatiotemporal patterns of lightning fires in the conterminous US are not well understood due to limitations of existing fire databases. Our goal here was to develop and test an algorithm that combined MODIS fire detections with lightning detections from the National Lightning Detection Network to identify lightning fires across the conterminous US from 2000 to 2008. The algorithm searches for spatiotemporal conjunctions of MODIS fire clusters and NLDN detected lightning strikes, given a spatiotemporal lag between lightning strike and fire ignition. The algorithm revealed distinctive spatial patterns of lightning fires in the conterminous US While a sensitivity analysis revealed that the algorithm is highly sensitive to the two thresholds that are used to determine conjunction, the density of fires it detected was moderately correlated with ground based fire records. When only fires larger than 0.4 km2 were considered, correlations were higher and the root-mean-square error between datasets was less than five fires per 625 km2 for the entire study period. Our algorithm is thus suitable for detecting broad scale spatial patterns of lightning fire occurrence, and especially lightning fire hotspots, but has limited detection capability of smaller fires because these cannot be consistently detected by MODIS. These results may enhance our understanding of large scale patterns of lightning fire activity, and can be used to identify the broad scale factors controlling fire occurrence.

  18. Red-throated loons (Gavia stellata) breeding in Alaska, USA, are exposed to PCBs while on their Asian wintering grounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.; Trust, K.A.; Matz, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Red-throated loons (Gavia stellata) breeding in Alaska declined 53% during 1977-1993. We compare concentrations of environmental contaminants in red-throated loons among four nesting areas in Alaska and discuss potential ramifications of exposure on reproductive success and population trends. Eggs from the four areas had similar total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations, but eggs from the Arctic coastal plain had different congener profiles and greater toxic equivalents (TEQs) than eggs from elsewhere. Satellite telemetry data indicate that red-throated loons from the Arctic coastal plain in northern Alaska winter in southeast Asia, while those breeding elsewhere in Alaska winter in North America. Different wintering areas may lead to differential PCB accumulation among red-throated loon populations. For eggs from the Arctic coastal plain, TEQs were great enough to postulate PCB-associated reproductive effects in piscivores. The correlation between migration patterns and PCB profiles suggests that red-throated loons breeding in northern Alaska are exposed to PCBs while on their Asian wintering grounds.

  19. Estimating irrigation water use and withdrawal of ground water on the High Plains, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wray, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    In four decades following the Dust Bowl days of the 1930's, extensive areas of dry farming and rangeland on the semi-arid U.S. High Plains were transformed into a vast region of irrigated oases, producing meat and grain for much of the world. The agricultural economy has experienced such rapid growth in part because of the availability of ground water and because of development of new irrigation technology to use that water for agriculture. However, more water is being used than is being replaced. To estimate both the volume of water withdrawn and the regional scope of the problem a technique has been developed that combines multispectral data from Earth-orbiting satellite with known pumpage data for the same growing season. The location and extent of irrigated cropland-some with different crops watered at different times-is inventoried using computer-assisted analysis of the data from Landsat. The amount of water used is estimated by multiplying and summing surface area of irrigated agriculture and the average measured pumpage from sampled sites. Published findings to date are cited in the Selected References. All suggest transferability of a promising technology to the study of land transformation processes elsewhere. ?? 1983.

  20. Proving Stabilization of Biological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Byron; Fisher, Jasmin; Krepska, Elzbieta; Piterman, Nir

    We describe an efficient procedure for proving stabilization of biological systems modeled as qualitative networks or genetic regulatory networks. For scalability, our procedure uses modular proof techniques, where state-space exploration is applied only locally to small pieces of the system rather than the entire system as a whole. Our procedure exploits the observation that, in practice, the form of modular proofs can be restricted to a very limited set. For completeness, our technique falls back on a non-compositional counterexample search. Using our new procedure, we have solved a number of challenging published examples, including: a 3-D model of the mammalian epidermis; a model of metabolic networks operating in type-2 diabetes; a model of fate determination of vulval precursor cells in the C. elegans worm; and a model of pair-rule regulation during segmentation in the Drosophila embryo. Our results show many orders of magnitude speedup in cases where previous stabilization proving techniques were known to succeed, and new results in cases where tools had previously failed.

  1. Women's decision-making about self-protection during sexual activity in the deep south of the USA: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Konkle-Parker, Deborah; Fouquier, Katherine; Portz, Kaitlin; Wheeless, Linnie; Arnold, Trisha; Harris, Courtney; Turan, Janet

    2017-06-16

    Many women continue to become infected with HIV, particularly in the Southeastern USA, despite widespread knowledge about methods to prevent its sexual transmission. This grounded theory investigation examined the decision-making process women use to guide their use or non-use of self-protective measures when engaging in sexual activity. Participants included women in the Mississippi cohort of the Women's Interagency HIV Study who were infected with or at high risk for HIV. Theoretical sampling was used to recruit a sample of 20 primarily African American women aged between 26 and 56 years, living in rural and urban areas. Data were analysed using constant comparative method to generate a theory of the process that guided women's self-protective decisions. Three key themes were identified: (1) sexual silence, an overall context of silence around sexuality in their communities and relationships; (2) the importance of relationships with male partners, including concepts of 'love and trust', 'filling the void' and 'don't rock the boat'; and (3) perceptions of risk, including 'it never crossed my mind', 'it couldn't happen to me' and 'assumptions about HIV'. These themes impacted on women's understandings of HIV-related risk, making it difficult to put self-protection above other interests and diminishing their motivation to protect themselves.

  2. A new Ordovician arthropod from the Winneshiek Lagerstätte of Iowa (USA) reveals the ground plan of eurypterids and chasmataspidids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamsdell, James C.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Liu, Huaibao P.; Witzke, Brian J.; McKay, Robert M.

    2015-10-01

    Euchelicerates were a major component of Palaeozoic faunas, but their basal relationships are uncertain: it has been suggested that Xiphosura—xiphosurids (horseshoe crabs) and similar Palaeozoic forms, the synziphosurines—may not represent a natural group. Basal euchelicerates are rare in the fossil record, however, particularly during the initial Ordovician radiation of the group. Here, we describe Winneshiekia youngae gen. et sp. nov., a euchelicerate from the Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) Winneshiek Lagerstätte of Iowa, USA. Winneshiekia shares features with both xiphosurans (a large, semicircular carapace and ophthalmic ridges) and dekatriatan euchelicerates such as chasmataspidids and eurypterids (an opisthosoma of 13 tergites). Phylogenetic analysis resolves Winneshiekia at the base of Dekatriata, as sister taxon to a clade comprising chasmataspidids, eurypterids, arachnids, and Houia. Winneshiekia provides further support for the polyphyly of synziphosurines, traditionally considered the stem lineage to xiphosurid horseshoe crabs, and by extension the paraphyly of Xiphosura. The new taxon reveals the ground pattern of Dekatriata and provides evidence of character polarity in chasmataspidids and eurypterids. The Winneshiek Lagerstätte thus represents an important palaeontological window into early chelicerate evolution.

  3. A new Ordovician arthropod from the Winneshiek Lagerstätte of Iowa (USA) reveals the ground plan of eurypterids and chasmataspidids.

    PubMed

    Lamsdell, James C; Briggs, Derek E G; Liu, Huaibao P; Witzke, Brian J; McKay, Robert M

    2015-10-01

    Euchelicerates were a major component of Palaeozoic faunas, but their basal relationships are uncertain: it has been suggested that Xiphosura-xiphosurids (horseshoe crabs) and similar Palaeozoic forms, the synziphosurines-may not represent a natural group. Basal euchelicerates are rare in the fossil record, however, particularly during the initial Ordovician radiation of the group. Here, we describe Winneshiekia youngae gen. et sp. nov., a euchelicerate from the Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) Winneshiek Lagerstätte of Iowa, USA. Winneshiekia shares features with both xiphosurans (a large, semicircular carapace and ophthalmic ridges) and dekatriatan euchelicerates such as chasmataspidids and eurypterids (an opisthosoma of 13 tergites). Phylogenetic analysis resolves Winneshiekia at the base of Dekatriata, as sister taxon to a clade comprising chasmataspidids, eurypterids, arachnids, and Houia. Winneshiekia provides further support for the polyphyly of synziphosurines, traditionally considered the stem lineage to xiphosurid horseshoe crabs, and by extension the paraphyly of Xiphosura. The new taxon reveals the ground pattern of Dekatriata and provides evidence of character polarity in chasmataspidids and eurypterids. The Winneshiek Lagerstätte thus represents an important palaeontological window into early chelicerate evolution.

  4. Terrain Severity Data Generation at Yuma Proving Ground. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    contains the report narrative and supplementary charts; Volume II contains additional supplementary charts. IL Ahbeotva (Umit 200 wood ) This report...as an official Department of the Army position. Mention of any trade names or manufacturers in this report shall not be construed as an official...report and focus on the opportunities a terrain presentation of this format provides. Specifically, in addition to measuring and monitoring test course

  5. Enhanced Preliminary Assessment Report: Jefferson Proving Ground Madison, Indiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    that I was covered over with asphalt or tar. Red lead is a heavy metal, which may be mobile under certain conditions. Excavation work done in these...020 JPG-020 is an approximately 1/2-acre Macadam ( asphalt ) lined test pond (Figure 9). The pond was drained and no munitions-related materials were...safety hazardous aborted and reported under both EPA and DOT rules. Plans are updated at least once every 3-years period, or a major changeoccurs in

  6. A consolidated environmental monitoring plan for Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1997-04-01

    The US Army operates facilities in Edgewood and Aberdeen under several licenses from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Compliance with each license is time consuming and could potentially result in duplicated efforts to demonstrate compliance with existing environmental regulations. The goal of the ERM plan is to provide the sampling necessary to ensure that operations at Edgewood and Aberdeen are within applicable regulatory guidelines and to provide a means of ensuring that adverse effects to the environment are minimized. Existing sampling plans and environmental data generated from those plans are briefly reviewed as part of the development of the present ERM plan. The new ERM plan was designed to provide data that can be used for assessing risks to the environment and to humans using Aberdeen and Edgewood areas. Existing sampling is modified and new sampling is proposed based on the results of the long-term DU fate study. In that study, different environmental pathways were identified that would show transport of DU at Aberdeen. Those pathways would also be impacted by other radioactive constituents from Aberdeen and Edgewood areas. The ERM plan presented in this document includes sampling from Edgewood and Aberdeen facilities. The main radioactive constituents of concern at Edgewood are C, P, N, S, H, I, Co, Cs, Ca, Sr and U that are used in radiolabeling different compounds and tracers for different reactions and syntheses. Air and water sampling are the thrust of efforts at the Edgewood area.

  7. Yuma Proving Ground GEM-3-E Data Collection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    and a battery charger . Standard data acquisition software includes WinGEMv3, a Windows-based operation software which allows the operator to...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 Under Restoration...unless so designated by other authorized documents. DESTROY THIS REPORT WHEN NO LONGER NEEDED. DO NOT RETURN IT TO THE ORIGINATOR. ERDC/EL TR-07

  8. DOE Thermochemical Users Facility A Proving Ground for Biomass Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2003-11-01

    The National Bioenergy Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provides a state-of-the-art Thermochemical Users Facility (TCUF) for converting renewable, biomass feedstocks into a variety of products.

  9. NASA's Space Launch System: Progress Toward the Proving Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Angie

    2017-01-01

    Space Launch System will be able to offer payload accommodations with five times more volume than any contemporary launch vehicle. center dot Payload fairings of up to 10-meter diameter are planned. Space Launch System will offer an initial capability of greater than 70 metric tons to low Earth orbit; current U.S. launch vehicle maximum is 28 t. center dot Evolved version of SLS will offer greatest-ever capability of greater than 130 t to LEO. SLS offers reduced transit times to the outer solar system by half or greater. center dot Higher characteristic energy (C3) also enables larger payloads to destination.

  10. Edgewood Area - Aberdeen Proving Ground Five-Year Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    27 / 2001 Reduce the contaminant mass in the J-Field surficial aquifer through DNAPL recovery, phytoremediation , and natural processes; Eliminate...exposure to groundwater; and Control off-site contaminant migration from the confined aquifer. Institutional Controls Phytoremediation Monitoring... phytoremediation and natural degradaton processes. 2. Monitoring of MCLs and non-zero MCLGs at points outside of the designated TI Zone. J-Field

  11. UXO Technology Demonstration Program at Jefferson Proving Ground, Phase IV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-01

    former Department of Defense (DOD) properties. A legacy of decades old unexploded projectiles, rockets, bombs, and missiles, and even cannonballs ...the project team members . • Equipment data that identified the technologies used in the demonstration. • Results in the form of a standard data...Technician 1.3 Subcontractors and Team Members There were no subcontractors utilized on this project. 2.0 DEMONSTRATED TECHNOLOGIES 2.1 Remediation System

  12. The Proving Grounds: School "Rheeform" in Washington, D.C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingerson, Leigh

    2010-01-01

    Washington, D.C., is leading the transformation of urban public education across the country--at least according to "Time" magazine, which featured D.C. Schools Chancellor Michelle Rhee on its cover, wearing black and holding a broom. But there is nothing remarkably visionary going on in Washington. The model of school reform that is…

  13. The Proving Grounds: School "Rheeform" in Washington, D.C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingerson, Leigh

    2010-01-01

    Washington, D.C., is leading the transformation of urban public education across the country--at least according to "Time" magazine, which featured D.C. Schools Chancellor Michelle Rhee on its cover, wearing black and holding a broom. But there is nothing remarkably visionary going on in Washington. The model of school reform that is…

  14. Hydrogeology of the Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oliveros, J.P.; Vroblesky, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Geologic and borehole geophysical logs made at 77 sites show that the hydrogeologic framework of the study area consists of a sequence of unconsolidated sediments typical of the Coastal Plain of Maryland. Three aquifers and two confining units were delineated within the study area. From the surface down, they are: (1) the surficial aquifer; (2) the upper confining unit; (3) the Canal Creek aquifer; (4) the lower confining unit; and (5) the lower confined aquifer. The aquifer materials range from fine sand to coarse sand and gravel. Clay lenses were commonly found interfingered with the sand, isolating parts of the aquifers. All the units are continuous throughout the study area except for the upper confining unit, which crops out within the study area but is absent in updip outcrops. The unit also is absent within a Pleistocene paleochannel, where it has been eroded. The surficial and Canal Creek aquifers are hydraulically connected where the upper confining unit is absent, and a substantial amount of groundwater may flow between the two aquifers. Currently, no pumping stresses are known to affect the aquifers within the study area. Under current conditions, downward vertical hydraulic gradients prevail at topographic highs, and upward gradients typically prevail near surface-water bodies. Regionally, the direction of groundwater flow in the confined aquifers is to the east and southeast. Significant water level fluctuations correspond with seasonal variations in rainfall, and minor daily fluctuations reflect tidal cycles. (USGS)

  15. Master Environmental Plan, Jefferson Proving Ground, Madison, Indiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Resins ... Pulp and Paper... Rubber and Miscellaneous Plastics Products Synthetic Fibers. " SyntheticRubber:?; :/ •.Textiie.Mills...approval of the use of such commercial products . This report may not be cited for purposes of advertisement. MASTER ENVIRONMENTAL PLAN FOR...a test center of the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) . The mission of JPG is to plan and conduct production acceptance tests

  16. The micromaser: A proving ground for quantum physics

    SciTech Connect

    Raithel, G.; Wagner, C.; Walther, H.

    1994-12-31

    Modern methods of dye-laser spectroscopy allow us to study single atoms or ions in an unperturbed environment. This has opened up interesting new experiments, among them the detailed study of the radiation-atom coupling. One group of experiments of this type is reviewed: the one-atom maser, or micromaser. 76 refs., 28 figs.

  17. Virtual Proving Ground for Assessing Reliability and Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, H; Sam, D

    2004-07-21

    The process for accurately estimating product reliability early in the development process can be a difficult and costly task. Traditional methods like Reliability Prediction Models and Life Testing Strategies yield beneficial results when relative information is known about the product that is to be analyzed. When there is minimal information (e.g., prior failure rates, etc.), such as in new concept design, these above reliability methods have limitations. For these cases computer simulation technology has proven to yield valuable results. This paper will demonstrate analysis procedures for assessing the margin and reliability of product design in the early product development stage. This analysis process is composed of requirements definition, a mathematical model, model validation, parameter diagram, design of experiment (DOE), response surface, and optimization. The analysis process shows its impacts, in the following areas: reducing the product development cycle, reducing cost, increasing confidence, and estimating product reliability. This is particularly important early in the concept development process.

  18. ASTAMIDS minefield detection performance at Aberdeen Proving Ground test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksymonko, George B.; Breiter, Karin

    1997-07-01

    The airborne standoff minefield detection systems (ASTAMIDS) is an airborne imaging system designed for deployment as a modular mission payload on an unmanned aerial vehicle and capable of detecting surface and buried anti-tank mines under all-weather, day/night conditions. Its primary mission is to support a forward maneuver unit with real time intelligence regarding the existence and extent of minefields in their operational area. The ASTAMIDS development effort currently consists of two parallel technical approaches, passive thermal IR sensor technology in one case and an active multi-channel sensor utilizing passive thermal IR coregistered with a near IR laser polarization data for the other case. The minefield detection capability of this system is a result of signal processing of image data. Due to the large quantities of data generated by an imaging sensor even at modest speeds of an unmanned aerial vehicle, manual exploitation of this data is not feasible in a real time tactical environment and therefore computer aided target feature extraction is a necessity to provide detection cues. Our development efforts over the past several years have concentrated on mine and minefield detection algorithms, the hardware necessary to execute these algorithms in real time, and the tools with which to measure detection performance.

  19. Aerosol tests conducted at Aberdeen Proving Grounds MD.

    SciTech Connect

    Brockmann, John E.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Servantes, Brandon Lee; Hankins, Matthew Granholm

    2012-06-01

    Test data are reported that demonstrate the deposition from a spray dispersion system (Illinois Tool Works inductively charging rotary atomization nozzle) for application of decontamination solution to various surfaces in the passenger cabin of a Boeing 737 aircraft. The decontamination solution (EnviroTru) was tagged with a known concentration of fluorescein permitting determination of both airborne decontaminant concentration and surface deposited decontaminant solution so that the effective deposition rates and surface coverage could be determined and correlated with the amount of material sprayed. Six aerosol dispersion tests were conducted. In each test, aluminum foil deposition coupons were set out throughout the passenger area and the aerosol was dispersed. The aerosol concentration was measured with filter samplers as well as with optical techniques Average aerosol deposition ranged from 3 to 15 grams of decontamination solution per square meter. Some disagreement was observed between various instruments utilizing different measurement principles. These results demonstrate a potentially effective method to disperse decontaminant to interior surfaces of a passenger aircraft.

  20. A Cyber Proving Ground: The Search for Cyber Genius

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Alfonso.indd 64 1/27/10 1:30:59 PM Spring 2010 | 65 Views & Analyses developing a viable CPG on par with the MMORPG World of Warcraft or the virtual...Most MMORPGs, like World of Warcraft , have  rules against botting since it gives certain players an  unfair advantage over others, particularly in

  1. An Evaluation of Yuma Proving Grounds Ballistic Arsenal Scoring Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    7.118190 7.850890 15.41010 2.465430 8.802171 PBXN -5 23.72360 36.85650 17.89710... 112 dot))][1] # Sets the output to be the corresponding X,Y,Z and Time that dot.min occurs. This is the Virtual target impact

  2. Subsurface Residence Times as an Algorithm for Aquifer Sensitivity Mapping: testing the concept with analytic element ground water models in the Contentnea Creek Basin, North Carolina, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, S. R.

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this research is to test the utility of simple functions of spatially integrated and temporally averaged ground water residence times in shallow groundwatersheds with field observations and detailed computer simulations. The residence time of water in the subsurface is arguably a surrogate of aquifer sensitivity to contamination --- short contact time in subsurface media may result in reduced contaminant assimilation prior to discharge to a well or stream. Residence time is an established criterion for the delineation of wellhead protection areas. The residence time of water may also have application in assessing the connection between landscape and fair weather loadings of non-point source pollution to streams, such as the drainage of nitrogen-nitrate from agricultural fields as base flow. The field setting of this study includes a hierarchy of catchments in the Contentnea Creek basin (2600 km2) of North Carolina, USA, centered on the intensive coastal plain field study site at Lizzie, NC (1.2+km^2), run by the US Geological Survey and the NC Department of Environment and Natural Resources of Raleigh, NC. Analytic element models are used to define the advective flow field and regional boundary conditions. The issues of conceptual model complexity are explored using the multi-layer object oriented analytic element model Tim, and by embedding the finite difference model MODFLOW within the analytic element model GFLOW copyright. The models are compared to observations of hydraulic head, base flow separations, and aquifer geochemistry and age dating evidence. The resulting insights are captured and mapped across the basin as zones of average aquifer residence time using ArcView copyright GIS tools. Preliminary results and conclusions will be presented. Mention of commercial software does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

  3. Above-ground sulfur cycling in adjacent coniferous and deciduous forest and watershed sulfur retention in the Georgia Piedmont, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cappellato, R.; Peters, N.E.; Meyers, T.P.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition and above-ground cycling of sulfur (S) were evaluated in adjacent deciduous and coniferous forests at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed (PMRW), Georgia U.S.A. Total atmospheric S deposition (wet plus dry) was 12.9 and 12.7 kg ha-1 yr-1 for the deciduous and coniferous forests, respectively, from October 1987 through November 1989. Dry deposition contributes more than 40% to the total atmospheric S deposition, and SO2 is the major source (~55%) of total dry S deposition. Dry deposition to these canopies is similar to regional estimates suggesting that 60-km proximity to emission sources does not noticeably impact dry deposition at PMRW. Below-canopy S fluxes (throughfall plus stemflow) in each forest are 37% higher annually in the deciduous forest than in the coniferous forest. An excess in below-canopy S flux in the deciduous forest is attributed to leaching and higher dry deposition than in the coniferous forest. Total S deposition to the forest floor by throughfall, stemflow and litterfall was 2.4 and 2.8 times higher in the deciduous and coniferous forests, respectively, than annual S growth requirement for foliage and wood. Although A deposition exceeds growth requirement, more than 95% of the total atmospheric S deposition was retained by the watershed in 1988 and 1989. The S retention at PMRW is primarily due to SO2+4 adsorption by iron oxides and hydroxides in watershed soils. The S content in while oak and loblolly pine boles have increased more than 200% in the last 20 yr, possibly reflecting increases in emissions.

  4. Erosional self-channelization of pyroclastic density currents - Evidence from ground-penetrating radar imaging at Mt. St. Helens, Washington (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gase, A.; Brand, B. D.; Bradford, J.

    2016-12-01

    The causes and consequences of substrate erosion are among the least understood attributes of pyroclastic density current (PDC) dynamics. Field evidence of substrate erosion is often limited by the location and quality of exposed PDC deposits. Here we present evidence for one of the most spatially extensive cases of PDC erosion to date, found within the 18 May 1980 deposits of Mt. St. Helens, Washington (USA). An 8 m deep and 300 m wide PDC scour and fill feature, which extends into PDC deposits from earlier in the eruption, is exposed along a distal outcrop of the shallow-dipping (<15º) pumice plain. Near surface geophysical techniques allow us to investigate the nature, extent, and cause of this large scour. We used 50 MHz ground-penetrating radar to track the distal scour from outcrop toward its source. Beginning 700 m up-flow from the large scour and fill exposure, the feature progressively widens from 205 m to 280 m and deepens from 10 m to 13 m, suggesting the PDCs became more erosive along the length of the scour. We extended our transects across the pumice plain to locate additional scours and to establish the topography at the time of erosion. We found a second 420 m wide and 11 m deep scour that extends at least 500 m from its inception point. Apparent dips of the sides of both channels are asymmetrical, due to pronounced erosion on the up-slope side of the flow in cross-section. Our data show no evidence of subsurface topographic irregularities or high slope angles up-flow from either erosional feature. These features imply large PDCs from semi-sustained or fluctuating eruptions can self-channelize by erosional mechanisms. Our findings suggest that (1) concentrated PDCs are capable of producing large scours on shallow slopes with negligible surface roughness, analogous to the erosional channels of submarine turbidity currents, (2) substrate properties, including partial fluidization of fresh PDC deposits, may facilitate substrate erosion during semi

  5. Proving allelopathy in crop-weed interactions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Allelopathy (plant/plant chemical warfare) is difficult to prove, especially when competition for resources is the dominant component of plant/plant interference (interference = allelopathy +competition). This paper describes experimental approaches for proving allelopathy and points out common pit...

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- NASA and United Space Alliance (USA) Space Shuttle program managers attend a briefing, part of activities during a leadership workday. The day is intended to provide management with an in-depth, hands-on look at Shuttle processing activities at KSC. Starting third from left are NASA Deputy Associate Administrator for Space Station and Shuttle Programs Michael Kostelnik, USA Vice President and Space Shuttle Program Manager Howard DeCastro, NASA Space Shuttle Program Manager William Parsons, and USA Associate Program Manager of Ground Operations Andy Allen.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-19

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- NASA and United Space Alliance (USA) Space Shuttle program managers attend a briefing, part of activities during a leadership workday. The day is intended to provide management with an in-depth, hands-on look at Shuttle processing activities at KSC. Starting third from left are NASA Deputy Associate Administrator for Space Station and Shuttle Programs Michael Kostelnik, USA Vice President and Space Shuttle Program Manager Howard DeCastro, NASA Space Shuttle Program Manager William Parsons, and USA Associate Program Manager of Ground Operations Andy Allen.

  7. The Mathematical Nature of Reasoning-and-Proving Opportunities in Geometry Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otten, Samuel; Gilbertson, Nicholas J.; Males, Lorraine M.; Clark, D. Lee

    2014-01-01

    International calls have been made for reasoning-and-proving to permeate school mathematics. It is important that efforts to heed this call are grounded in an understanding of the opportunities to reason-and-prove that already exist, especially in secondary-level geometry where reasoning-and-proving opportunities are prevalent but not thoroughly…

  8. Building Common Ground through Safe Spaces of Dialog: Transforming Perceptions on Intercultural Competence among Future Primary and Secondary School Leaders in Chicago, USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Gabriel Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights critical pedagogical methods used in a community relations class that introduces intercultural education concepts to current K-12 educators who are enrolled in a Masters of Education program at Northeastern Illinois University, which is located in the city of Chicago, Illinois, USA. The purpose of the class is to teach future…

  9. Building Common Ground through Safe Spaces of Dialog: Transforming Perceptions on Intercultural Competence among Future Primary and Secondary School Leaders in Chicago, USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Gabriel Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights critical pedagogical methods used in a community relations class that introduces intercultural education concepts to current K-12 educators who are enrolled in a Masters of Education program at Northeastern Illinois University, which is located in the city of Chicago, Illinois, USA. The purpose of the class is to teach future…

  10. Establishment of alleycropped hybrid aspen "Crandon" in central Iowa, USA: effects of topographic position and fertilizer rate on above ground biomass production and allocation

    Treesearch

    William L. Headlee; Richard B. Hall; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid poplars have demonstrated high productivity as short rotation woody crops (SRWC) in the Midwest USA, and the hybrid aspen "Crandon" (Populus alba L. × P. grandidenta Michx.) has exhibited particularly promising yields on marginal lands. However, a key obstacle for wider deployment is the lack of economic...

  11. Effect of seawater on incident plane P and SV waves at ocean bottom and engineering characteristics of offshore ground motion records off the coast of southern California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, Hongqi; Hu, Jinjun; Xie, Lili

    2014-06-01

    The effect of seawater on vertical ground motions is studied via a theoretical method and then actual offshore ground motion records are analyzed using a statistical method. A theoretical analysis of the effect of seawater on incident plane P and SV waves at ocean bottom indicate that on one hand, the affected frequency range of vertical ground motions is prominent due to P wave resonance in the water layer if the impedance ratio between the seawater and the underlying medium is large, but it is greatly suppressed if the impedance ratio is small; on the other hand, for the ocean bottom interface model selected herein, vertical ground motions consisting of mostly P waves are more easily affected by seawater than those dominated by SV waves. The statistical analysis of engineering parameters of offshore ground motion records indicate that: (1) Under the influence of softer surface soil at the seafloor, both horizontal and vertical spectral accelerations of offshore motions are exaggerated at long period components, which leads to the peak spectral values moving to a longer period. (2) The spectral ratios (V/H) of offshore ground motions are much smaller than onshore ground motions near the P wave resonant frequencies in the water layer; and as the period becomes larger, the effect of seawater becomes smaller, which leads to a similar V/H at intermediate periods (near 2 s). These results are consistent with the conclusions of Boore and Smith (1999), but the V/H of offshore motion may be smaller than the onshore ground motions at longer periods (more than 5 s).

  12. Limnological characteristics of selected lakes in the Nebraska sandhills, U.S.A., and their relation to chemical characteristics of adjacent ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La Baugh, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Limnological characteristics of Crane, Hackberry, Island and Roundup Lakes, and chemical characteristics of shallow ground water, within the Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge, western Nebraska, were determined during a preliminary investigation of the interaction between lakes and ground water in this study area between 1980 and 1984. When ice cover was absent, the lakes were well-mixed vertically, regardless of season. Depth to which 1% of surface illumination penetrated was commonly less than 1m. Variability in light penetration, as measured by Secchidisk transparency, appeared to be unrelated to changes in algal biomass, even though algal biomass, measured as chlorophyll a, varied seasonally within a two-order-of-magnitude range. Blue-green algae were the most abundant phytoplankton; this condition occurred most often when the ratio of total nitrogen to total phosphorus in the lakes' water was less than 29. Although rotifers and copepod naupli commonly were the most abundant zooplankton in the lakes, cladocerans were dominant occasionally. Either sodium or calcium was the most abundant cation, and bicarbonate was the most abundant anion, in water from water-table wells and lakes sampled during the study. The second most abundant cation in the ground water was related to the location of the sampled well within the ground-water system. The lakes were a source of dissolved organic carbon seeping to ground water. Chemical and hydrologic data indicate there is interaction between lakes and ground water in the study area. ?? 1986.

  13. Limnological characteristics of selected lakes in the Nebraska sandhills, U.S.A., and their relation to chemical characteristics of adjacent ground water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Baugh, James W.

    1986-10-01

    Limnological characteristics of Crane, Hackberry, Island and Roundup Lakes, and chemical characteristics of shallow ground water, within the Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge, western Nebraska, were determined during a preliminary investigation of the interaction between lakes and ground water in this study area between 1980 and 1984. When ice cover was absent, the lakes were well-mixed vertically, regardless of season. Depth to which 1% of surface illumination penetrated was commonly less than 1m. Variability in light penetration, as measured by Secchidisk transparency, appeared to be unrelated to changes in algal biomass, even though algal biomass, measured as chlorophyll a, varied seasonally within a two-order-of-magnitude range. Blue-green algae were the most abundant phytoplankton; this condition occurred most often when the ratio of total nitrogen to total phosphorus in the lakes' water was less than 29. Although rotifers and copepod naupli commonly were the most abundant zooplankton in the lakes, cladocerans were dominant occasionally. Either sodium or calcium was the most abundant cation, and bicarbonate was the most abundant anion, in water from water-table wells and lakes sampled during the study. The second most abundant cation in the ground water was related to the location of the sampled well within the ground-water system. The lakes were a source of dissolved organic carbon seeping to ground water. Chemical and hydrologic data indicate there is interaction between lakes and ground water in the study area.

  14. Batch Proving and Proof Scripting in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.

    2007-01-01

    The batch execution modes of PVS are powerful, but highly technical, features of the system that are mostly accessible to expert users. This paper presents a PVS tool, called ProofLite, that extends the theorem prover interface with a batch proving utility and a proof scripting notation. ProofLite enables a semi-literate proving style where specification and proof scripts reside in the same file. The goal of ProofLite is to provide batch proving and proof scripting capabilities to regular, non-expert, users of PVS.

  15. Proving relations between modular graph functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Anirban

    2016-12-01

    We consider modular graph functions that arise in the low energy expansion of the four graviton amplitude in type II string theory. The vertices of these graphs are the positions of insertions of vertex operators on the toroidal worldsheet, while the links are the scalar Green functions connecting the vertices. Graphs with four and five links satisfy several non-trivial relations, which have been proved recently. We prove these relations by using elementary properties of Green functions and the details of the graphs. We also prove a relation between modular graph functions with six links.

  16. Ground water: a review.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    There is growing documentation that a significant portion of the Nation's fresh ground water in the densely populated areas of the USA is contaminated. Because of the slow rates of ground-water movement, ground water once contaminated will remain so for decades, often longer. Cleanup of contaminated ground water is almost always expensive and often technically unfeasible; the expense is often prohibitive. -from Author

  17. The effect of terrace geology on ground-water movement and on the interaction of ground water and surface water on a mountainside near Mirror Lake, New Hampshire, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.; Buso, D.C.; Shattuck, P.C.; Harte, P.T.; Vroblesky, D.A.; Goode, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    The west watershed of Mirror Lake in the White Mountains of New Hampshire contains several terraces that are at different altitudes and have different geologic compositions. The lowest terrace (FSE) has 5 m of sand overlying 9 m of till. The two next successively higher terraces (FS2 and FS1) consist entirely of sand and have maximum thicknesses of about 7 m. A fourth, and highest, terrace (FS3) lies in the north-west watershed directly adjacent to the west watershed. This highest terrace has 2 m of sand overlying 8 m of till. All terraces overlie fractured crystalline bedrock. Numerical models of hypothetical settings simulating ground-water flow in a mountainside indicated that the presence of a terrace can cause local ground-water flow cells to develop, and that the flow patterns differ based on the geologic composition of the terrace. For example, more ground water moves from the bedrock to the glacial deposits beneath terraces consisting completely of sand than beneath terraces that have sand underlain by till. Field data from Mirror Lake watersheds corroborate the numerical experiments. The geology of the terraces also affects how the stream draining the west watershed interacts with ground water. The stream turns part way down the mountainside and passes between the two sand terraces, essentially transecting the movement of ground water down the valley side. Transects of water-table wells were installed across the stream's riparian zone above, between, and below the sand terraces. Head data from these wells indicated that the stream gains ground water on both sides above and below the sand terraces. However, where it flows between the sand terraces the stream gains ground water on its uphill side and loses water on its downhill side. Biogeochemical processes in the riparian zone of the flow-through reach have resulted in anoxic ground water beneath the lower sand terrace. Results of this study indicate that it is useful to understand patterns of ground

  18. SUBSURFACE RESIDENCE TIMES AS AN ALGORITHM FOR AQUIFER SENSITIVITY MAPPING: TESTING THE CONCEPT WITH ANALYTIC ELEMENT GROUND WATER MODELS IN THE CONTENTNEA CREEK BASIN, NORTH CAROLINA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research is to test the utility of simple functions of spatially integrated and temporally averaged ground water residence times in shallow "groundwatersheds" with field observations and more detailed computer simulations. The residence time of water in the...

  19. Aquifer composition and the tendency toward scale-deposit formation during reverse osmosis desalination - Examples from saline ground water in New Mexico, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    Desalination is expected to make a substantial contribution to water supply in the United States by 2020. Currently, reverse osmosis is one of the most cost effective and widely used desalination technologies. The tendency to form scale deposits during reverse osmosis is an important factor in determining the suitability of input waters for use in desalination. The tendency toward scale formation of samples of saline ground water from selected geologic units in New Mexico was assessed using simulated evaporation. All saline water samples showed a strong tendency to form CaCO3 scale deposits. Saline ground water samples from the Yeso Formation and the San Andres Limestone showed relatively stronger tendencies to form CaSO4 2H2O scale deposits and relatively weaker tendencies to form SiO2(a) scale deposits than saline ground water samples from the Rio Grande alluvium. Tendencies toward scale formation in saline ground water samples from the Dockum Group were highly variable. The tendencies toward scale formation of saline waters from the Yeso Formation, San Andres Limestone, and Rio Grande alluvium appear to correlate with the mineralogical composition of the geologic units, suggesting that scale-forming tendencies are governed by aquifer composition and water-rock interaction. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. SUBSURFACE RESIDENCE TIMES AS AN ALGORITHM FOR AQUIFER SENSITIVITY MAPPING: TESTING THE CONCEPT WITH ANALYTIC ELEMENT GROUND WATER MODELS IN THE CONTENTNEA CREEK BASIN, NORTH CAROLINA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research is to test the utility of simple functions of spatially integrated and temporally averaged ground water residence times in shallow "groundwatersheds" with field observations and more detailed computer simulations. The residence time of water in the...

  1. Chicago, Illinois, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In this late winter scene of Chicago, Illinois, USA (42.0N, 87.5W) the light dusting of snow has actually enhanced the determination of the cities street pattern, parks and other cultural features. Sited at the south end of Lake Michigan, Chicago has long served as an industrial, transportation and communications center for the midwest. The obvious snowline on the ground enables meteorologists to trace the regional groundtracks of winter storms.

  2. Chicago, Illinois, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In this late winter scene of Chicago, Illinois, USA (41.5N, 87.0W) the light dusting of snow has actually enhanced the determination of the cities street pattern, parks and other cultural features. Sited at the south end of Lake Michigan, Chicago has long served as an industrial, transportation and communications center for the midwest. The obvious snowline on the ground enables meteorologists to trace the regional groundtracks of winter storms.

  3. Chicago, Illinois, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-03-04

    In this late winter scene of Chicago, Illinois, USA (41.5N, 87.0W) the light dusting of snow has actually enhanced the determination of the cities street pattern, parks and other cultural features. Sited at the south end of Lake Michigan, Chicago has long served as an industrial, transportation and communications center for the midwest. The obvious snowline on the ground enables meteorologists to trace the regional groundtracks of winter storms.

  4. Generic Example Proving Criteria for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, David; Ely, Rob; Johnson­-Leung, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We review literature that discusses generic example proving and highlight ambiguities that pervade our research community's discourse about generic example arguments. We distinguish between pedagogical advice for choosing good examples that can serve as generic examples when teaching and advice for developing generic example arguments. We provide…

  5. Generic Example Proving Criteria for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, David; Ely, Rob; Johnson­-Leung, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We review literature that discusses generic example proving and highlight ambiguities that pervade our research community's discourse about generic example arguments. We distinguish between pedagogical advice for choosing good examples that can serve as generic examples when teaching and advice for developing generic example arguments. We provide…

  6. Affect, Behavioural Schemas and the Proving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Annie; McKee, Kerry; Selden, John

    2010-01-01

    In this largely theoretical article, we discuss the relation between a kind of affect, behavioural schemas and aspects of the proving process. We begin with affect as described in the mathematics education literature, but soon narrow our focus to a particular kind of affect--nonemotional cognitive feelings. We then mention the position of feelings…

  7. The Role of Abduction in Proving Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedemonte, Bettina; Reid, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers a typology of forms and uses of abduction that can be exploited to better analyze abduction in proving processes. Based on the work of Peirce and Eco, we describe different kinds of abductions that occur in students' mathematical activity and extend Toulmin's model of an argument as a methodological tool to describe students'…

  8. Generic Proving: Reflections on Scope and Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leron, Uri; Zaslavsky, Orit

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the role of generic proofs in helping students access difficult proofs more easily and naturally. We present three examples of generic proving--an elementary one on numbers, a more advanced one on permutations, and yet more advanced one on groups--and consider the affordances and pitfalls of the method by reflecting on these examples. A…

  9. Considering Variable Hydrogeology in an Assessment of Regional Shallow Ground-Water Quality in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ator, S. W.; Denver, J. M.; Hancock, T. C.

    2001-05-01

    The variable surficial hydrogeology of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain affects the nature and extent of natural and human influences on regional shallow ground-water quality. Water-quality data collected from 533 shallow wells (median depth of 11 meters) in unconfined aquifers of the Coastal Plain (New Jersey through North Carolina) were compiled from various sources for regional synthesis. These data were compared to a surficial hydrogeologic framework that was developed to provide a template for understanding the major physical processes affecting chemical transport and transformations in the shallow hydrologic system. Seven hydrogeologic subregions of the framework were defined to represent areas of similar geology (primarily siliciclastic sediments) along a continuum of sediment textures and physiography. Although the usefulness of data compiled from multiple sources for regional assessments is limited, broad patterns of similar water chemistry are apparent when the compiled data are analyzed within the context of the hydrogeologic framework. The quality of shallow unconfined ground water in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain is related to aquifer redox properties and the distribution of soluble minerals, as well as land use. In agricultural areas, for example, nitrate concentrations (as nitrogen) rarely exceed 3 mg/L (milligrams per liter) where dissolved oxygen concentration is low (less than 1.4 mg/L), but commonly exceed 10 mg/L where dissolved oxygen concentration is higher (greater than 7.7 mg/L). Conversely, concentrations of phosphorus (which can be mobilized in ground water under reducing conditions) among all land uses decrease with increasing dissolved oxygen concentration (rho = -0.438, p < 0.0001). Regionally, specific conductance, pH, and concentrations of organic carbon, iron, and most nutrients and major ions are higher in the Coastal Lowlands subregion (a poorly drained area of abundant organic matter and little dissolved oxygen) than in a subregion

  10. Theorem Proving In Higher Order Logics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor A. (Editor); Munoz, Cesar A.; Tahar, Sofiene

    2002-01-01

    The TPHOLs International Conference serves as a venue for the presentation of work in theorem proving in higher-order logics and related areas in deduction, formal specification, software and hardware verification, and other applications. Fourteen papers were submitted to Track B (Work in Progress), which are included in this volume. Authors of Track B papers gave short introductory talks that were followed by an open poster session. The FCM 2002 Workshop aimed to bring together researchers working on the formalisation of continuous mathematics in theorem proving systems with those needing such libraries for their applications. Many of the major higher order theorem proving systems now have a formalisation of the real numbers and various levels of real analysis support. This work is of interest in a number of application areas, such as formal methods development for hardware and software application and computer supported mathematics. The FCM 2002 consisted of three papers, presented by their authors at the workshop venue, and one invited talk.

  11. Proving refinement transformations using extended denotational semantics

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, V.L.; Boyle, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    TAMPR is a fully automatic transformation system based on syntactic rewrites. Our approach in a correctness proof is to map the transformation into an axiomatized mathematical domain where formal (and automated) reasoning can be performed. This mapping is accomplished via an extended denotational semantic paradigm. In this approach, the abstract notion of a program state is distributed between an environment function and a store function. Such a distribution introduces properties that go beyond the abstract state that is being modeled. The reasoning framework needs to be aware of these properties in order to successfully complete a correctness proof. This paper discusses some of our experiences in proving the correctness of TAMPR transformations.

  12. Evolution of a highly dilatant fault zone in the grabens of Canyonlands National Park, Utah/USA - integrating field work, ground penetrating radar and airborne imagery analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettermann, M.; Grützner, C.; van Gent, H. W.; Urai, J. L.; Reicherter, K.; Mertens, J.

    2015-03-01

    The grabens of the Canyonlands National Park are a young and active system of sub-parallel, arcuate grabens, whose evolution is the result of salt movement in the subsurface and a slight regional tilt of the faulted strata. We present results of ground penetrating radar surveys in combination with field observations and analysis of high resolution airborne imagery. GPR data show intense faulting of the Quaternary sediments at the flat graben floors, implying a more complex fault structure than visible at the surface. Direct measurements of heave and throw at several locations to infer fault dips at depth, combined with observations of primary joint surfaces in the upper 100 m suggest a model of the highly dilatant fault geometry in profile. Sinkholes observed in the field as well as in airborne imagery give insights in local massive dilatancy and show where water and sediments are transported underground. Based on correlations of paleosols observed in outcrops and GPR profiles, we argue that the grabens in Canyonlands National Park are either older than previously assumed, or that sedimentation rates were much higher in the Pleistocene.

  13. Evolution of a highly dilatant fault zone in the grabens of Canyonlands National Park, Utah, USA - integrating fieldwork, ground-penetrating radar and airborne imagery analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettermann, M.; Grützner, C.; van Gent, H. W.; Urai, J. L.; Reicherter, K.; Mertens, J.

    2015-07-01

    The grabens of Canyonlands National Park are a young and active system of sub-parallel, arcuate grabens, whose evolution is the result of salt movement in the subsurface and a slight regional tilt of the faulted strata. We present results of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys in combination with field observations and analysis of high-resolution airborne imagery. GPR data show intense faulting of the Quaternary sediments at the flat graben floors, implying a more complex fault structure than visible at the surface. Direct measurements of heave and throw at several locations to infer fault dips at depth, combined with observations of primary joint surfaces in the upper 100 m, suggest a highly dilatant fault geometry. Sinkholes observed in the field as well as in airborne imagery give insights in local dilatancy and show where water and sediments are transported underground. Based on correlations of paleosols observed in outcrops and GPR profiles, we argue that either the grabens in Canyonlands National Park are older than previously assumed or that sedimentation rates were much higher in the Pleistocene.

  14. Ground Penetrating Radar Investigation of Sinter Deposits at Old Faithful Geyser and Immediately Adjacent Hydrothermal Features, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, D.; Lynne, B. Y.; Jaworowski, C.; Heasler, H.; Smith, G.; Smith, I.

    2015-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) was used to evaluate the characteristics of the shallow subsurface siliceous sinter deposits around Old Faithful Geyser. Zones of fractures, areas of subsurface alteration and pre-eruption hydrologic changes at Old Faithful Geyser and surrounding hydrothermal mounds were observed. Despite being viewed directly by about 3,000,000 people a year, shallow subsurface geologic and hydrologic conditions on and near Old Faithful Geyser are poorly characterized. GPR transects of 5754 ft (1754m) show strong horizontal to sub-horizontal reflections, which are interpreted as 2.5 to 4.5 meters of sinter. Some discontinuities in reflections are interpreted as fractures in the sinter, some of which line up with known hydrothermal features and some of which have little to no surface expression. Zones with moderate and weak amplitude reflections are interpreted as sinter that has been hydrothermally altered. Temporal changes from stronger to weaker reflections are correlated with the eruption cycle of Old Faithful Geyser, and are interpreted as post-eruption draining of shallow fractures, followed by pre-eruption fracture filling with liquid or vapor thermal fluids.

  15. Subsurface structure of water-gas escape features revealed by ground-penetrating radar and electrical resistivity tomography, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Lake Powell delta, Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrod, L.; Simpson, E. L.; Higgins, R.; Miller, K.; Morgano, K.; Snyder, E.; Vales, D.

    2016-10-01

    Data gathered by electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) were used to produce a three-dimensional image of subsurface soft-sediment deformation structures developed on the modern Lake Powell delta at Hite, Utah. ERT and GPR lines were run orthogonal across the crater. ERT resolved a low-resistivity layer up to 2 m thick in the area near the vents within the crater. This low-resistivity layer thins toward the margins representing clays ejected from the vents. Below and adjacent to this layer is a high-resistivity layer that reflects delta top and pro-delta sands. The deepest zone recognized in the ERT profiles consists of a low-resistivity layer, clay deposits that accumulated during the maximum lake high stand. This clay zone is connected to the vent within the crater by a conduit that changes diameter vertically. GPR profiles recognized the presence of collapse features restricted to the proximity of the vent. The geometry of the model is consistent with those proposed for marine pockmarks that can be generated seismically or aseismically with the exception of subaerial exposure after the dome stage development.

  16. Monitoring the hydrologic system for potential effects of geothermal and ground-water development in the Long Valley caldera, Mono County, California, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, C.D.; Lyster, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    In the early 1980's, renewed interest in the geothermal potential of the Long Valley caldera, California, highlighted the need to balance the benefits of energy development with the established recreational activities of the area. The Long Valley Hydrologic Advisory Committee, formed in 1987, instituted a monitoring program to collect data during the early stages of resource utilization to evaluate potential effects on the hydrologic system. Early data show declines in streamflow, spring flow, and ground-water levels caused by 6 years of below-average precipitation. Springs in the Hot Creek State Fish Hatchery area discharge water that is a mixture of nonthermal and hydrothermal components. Possible sources of nonthermal water have been identified by comparing deuterium concentrations in streams and springs. The equivalent amount of undiluted thermal water discharged from the springs was calculated on the basis of boron and chloride concentrations. Quantifying the thermal and nonthermal fractions of the total flow may allow researchers to assess changes in flow volume or temperature of the springs caused by groundwater or geothermal development.

  17. Evidence of erosional self-channelization of pyroclastic density currents revealed by ground-penetrating radar imaging at Mount St. Helens, Washington (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gase, Andrew C.; Brand, Brittany D.; Bradford, John H.

    2017-03-01

    The causes and effects of erosion are among the least understood aspects of pyroclastic density current (PDC) dynamics. Evidence is especially limited for erosional self-channelization, a process whereby PDCs erode a channel that confines the body of the eroding flow or subsequent flows. We use ground-penetrating radar imaging to trace a large PDC scour and fill from outcrop to its point of inception and discover a second, larger PDC scour and fill. The scours are among the largest PDC erosional features on record, at >200 m wide and at least 500 m long; estimated eroded volumes are on the order of 106 m3. The scours are morphologically similar to incipient channels carved by turbidity currents. Erosion may be promoted by a moderate slope (5-15°), substrate pore pressure retention, and pulses of increased flow energy. These findings are the first direct evidence of erosional self-channelization by PDCs, a phenomenon that may increase flow velocity and runout distance through confinement and substrate erosion.

  18. High resolution shallow geologic characterization of a late Pleistocene eolian environment using ground penetrating radar and optically stimulated luminescence techniques: North Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mallinson, D.; Mahan, S.; Moore, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Geophysical surveys, sedimentology, and optically-stimulated luminescence age analyses were used to assess the geologic development of a coastal system near Swansboro, NC. This area is a significant Woodland Period Native American habitation and is designated the "Broad Reach" archaeological site. 2-d and 3-d subsurface geophysical surveys were performed using a ground penetrating radar system to define the stratigraphic framework and depositional facies. Sediment samples were collected and analyzed for grain-size to determine depositional environments. Samples were acquired and analyzed using optically stimulated luminescence techniques to derive the depositional age of the various features. The data support a low eolian to shallow subtidal coastal depositional setting for this area. Li-DAR data reveal ridge and swale topography, most likely related to beach ridges, and eolian features including low-relief, low-angle transverse and parabolic dunes, blowouts, and a low-relief eolian sand sheet. Geophysical data reveal dominantly seaward dipping units, and low-angle mounded features. Sedimentological data reveal mostly moderately-well to well-sorted fine-grained symmetrical to coarse skewed sands, suggesting initial aqueous transport and deposition, followed by eolian reworking and bioturbation. OSL data indicate initial coastal deposition prior to ca. 45,000 yBP, followed by eolian reworking and low dune stabilization at ca. 13,000 to 11,500 yBP, and again at ca. 10,000 yBP (during, and slightly after the Younger Dryas chronozone).

  19. The Denudation Of Oahu, Hawaii USA By Ground And Surface Waters: The Effects Of Climate, Soil Thickness, And Water Contact Times On Ocean Island Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, S. T.; Tingey, D. G.

    2011-12-01

    Access, size, basalt as the dominant bedrock, and climate variation (rainfall varies by 10x) make Oahu, Hawaii, USA an ideal locality for investigating chemical weathering driven denudation rates. New and compiled surface and groundwater solute data permit calculation of mass balances for solutes from Oahu, revealing that groundwater solute fluxes dominate surface water by a factor of 3 to 12, neglecting if biogenic silica removal by streams. Weathering reactions consistent with the observed mineralogy of Oahu soils and the calculated mineralogy of shield-forming tholeiitic basalts permit denudation rates to be partitioned between dissolved and suspended loads where long term erosion via streams and soil formation rates are assumed to be in a steady state. Aerially averaged denudation rates, indexed to the leaching of SiO2, vary from 0.016 to 0.063 m/ka, with about 70% of denudation due to dissolved fluxes. Thus, groundwater appears to be the single most important source of mass flux to the ocean from ocean islands. Dry regions of Oahu have distinctly lower denudation rates, and areas with thick soil profiles have suppressed solute loads in streams because laterites and subjacent saprolites have already been largely depleted in mobile elements. However, systematic differences also exist due to different contact times between groundwater and aquifer materials. The short, shallow circulation of stream base flows permits less extensive reaction with basalt resulting in lower solute loads even in areas where thick soils are largely absent. In addition to larger total water fluxes, deep groundwaters exhibit elevated solute loads across Oahu. Indexing denudation in basaltic terranes to dissolved SiO2, a minor component in seawater, rather than other solutes leads to improved estimates of weathering rates in ocean islands. Other approaches require correction for the atmospheric depositions of sea salts based on Cl- abundances in waters that are assumed to derive solely

  20. Application of ground-penetrating radar, digital optical borehole images, and cores for characterization of porosity hydraulic conductivity and paleokarst in the Biscayne aquifer, southeastern Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents examples of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data from two study sites in southeastern Florida where karstic Pleistocene platform carbonates that comprise the unconfined Biscayne aquifer were imaged. Important features shown on resultant GPR profiles include: (1) upward and lateral qualitative interpretative distribution of porosity and hydraulic conductivity; (2) paleotopographic relief on karstic subaerial exposure surfaces; and (3) vertical stacking of chronostratigraphic high-frequency cycles (HFCs). These characteristics were verified by comparison to rock properties observed and measured in core samples, and identified in digital optical borehole images. Results demonstrate that an empirical relation exists between measured whole-core porosity and hydraulic conductivity, observed porosity on digital optical borehole images, formation conductivity, and GPR reflection amplitudes-as porosity and hydraulic conductivity determined from core and borehole images increases, formation conductivity increases, and GPR reflection amplitude decreases. This relation allows for qualitative interpretation of the vertical and lateral distribution of porosity and hydraulic conductivity within HFCs. Two subtidal HFCs in the uppermost Biscayne aquifer have significantly unique populations of whole-core porosity values and vertical hydraulic conductivity values. Porosity measurements from one cycle has a median value about two to three times greater than the values from the other HFC, and median values of vertical hydraulic-conductivity about three orders of magnitude higher than the other HFC. The HFC with the higher porosity and hydraulic conductivity values is shown as a discrete package of relatively low-amplitude reflections, whereas the HFC characterized by lower porosity and hydraulic-conductivity measurements is expressed by higher amplitude reflections. Porosity and hydraulic-conductivity values measured from whole-core samples, and vuggy porosity

  1. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Wallace M.; Eble, Jeffrey A.; Franklin, Kimberly; McManus, Reilly B.; Brantley, Sandra L.; Henkel, Jeff; Marek, Paul E.; Hall, W. Eugene; Olson, Carl A.; McInroy, Ryan; Bernal Loaiza, Emmanuel M.; Brusca, Richard C.; Moore, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA) assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May) and summer (September) 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon) biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1) beetles (Coleoptera), (2) spiders (Araneae), (3) grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera), and (4) millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda) were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens) Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species) and 76% (254 species) of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests). Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11–25% depending on taxon), significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  2. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Wallace M; Eble, Jeffrey A; Franklin, Kimberly; McManus, Reilly B; Brantley, Sandra L; Henkel, Jeff; Marek, Paul E; Hall, W Eugene; Olson, Carl A; McInroy, Ryan; Bernal Loaiza, Emmanuel M; Brusca, Richard C; Moore, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA) assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May) and summer (September) 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon) biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1) beetles (Coleoptera), (2) spiders (Araneae), (3) grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera), and (4) millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda) were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens) Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species) and 76% (254 species) of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests). Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon), significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  3. Theorem Proving in Intel Hardware Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Leary, John

    2009-01-01

    For the past decade, a framework combining model checking (symbolic trajectory evaluation) and higher-order logic theorem proving has been in production use at Intel. Our tools and methodology have been used to formally verify execution cluster functionality (including floating-point operations) for a number of Intel products, including the Pentium(Registered TradeMark)4 and Core(TradeMark)i7 processors. Hardware verification in 2009 is much more challenging than it was in 1999 - today s CPU chip designs contain many processor cores and significant firmware content. This talk will attempt to distill the lessons learned over the past ten years, discuss how they apply to today s problems, outline some future directions.

  4. Louisville, KY, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The meandering Ohio River bisecting this image is the border between Kentucky and Indiana. Louisville, KY (38.5N, 86.0W) on the south shore, is the main city seen in this predominately agricultural region where much of the native hardwood forests have been preserved in the hilly terrain. The main crops in this region include corn, alfalfa, wheat and soybeans. The dark rectangle in south Indiana near the river is The U.S. Army's Jefferson Proving Ground.

  5. Proving Program Termination With Matrix Weighted Digraphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutle, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Program termination analysis is an important task in logic and computer science. While determining if a program terminates is known to be undecidable in general, there has been a significant amount of attention given to finding sufficient and computationally practical conditions to prove termination. One such method takes a program and builds from it a matrix weighted digraph. These are directed graphs whose edges are labeled by square matrices with entries in {-1,0,1}, equipped with a nonstandard matrix multiplication. Certain properties of this digraph are known to imply the termination of the related program. In particular, termination of the program can be determined from the weights of the circuits in the digraph. In this talk, the motivation for addressing termination and how matrix weighted digraphs arise will be briefly discussed. The remainder of the talk will describe an efficient method for bounding the weights of a finite set of the circuits in a matrix weighted digraph, which allows termination of the related program to be deduced.

  6. a Test to Prove Cloud Whitening THEORY!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttram, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Climate science researchers believe our planet can possibly tolerate twice the present carbon dioxide levels with no upwards temperature change, IF we could increase the amount of energy reflected back out into space by about 2.0%. (c)Cloudtec basically alters a blend of seawater and applies heat derived from magma to it at a temperature exceeding 2,000 degrees F. The interaction of seawater and magma displaces the oxygen, causing the volume of water to vaporize and expand over 4,000 times - transforming billions of tons of seawater into thousands of cubic miles of white, maritime, stratocumulus clouds to reflect the incident Sun's rays back out into space. A 6 month test to prove Cloud Whitening Theory will cost 6 million dollars. (No profit added.) This study will enable everyone on the planet with a computer the transparency to use satellite imagery and check out for themselves - if and when Cloud Whitening is occurring. If Cloud Whitening Theory is validated, (c)Cloudtec's innovation can strategically create the clouds we need to reflect the Sun's rays back out into space and help neutralize the projected 3.6 degrees F rise in temperature. Based on reasonable calculations of anthropogenic global warming: this one move alone would be comparable to slashing global carbon dioxide emissions by over 60% over the next 40 years.

  7. Louisville, KY, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-10-260 (22 June 1973) --- The meandering Ohio River bisecting this image is the border between Kentucky and Indiana. Louisville, KY (38.5N, 86.0W) on the south shore, is the main city seen in this predominately agricultural region where much of the native hardwood forests have been preserved in the hilly terrain. The main crops in this region include corn, alfalfa, wheat and soybeans. The dark rectangle in south Indiana near the river is The U.S. Army's Jefferson Proving Ground. Photo credit: NASA

  8. Overcoming the Obstacle of Poor Knowledge in Proving Geometry Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magajna, Zlatan

    2013-01-01

    Proving in school geometry is not just about validating the truth of a claim. In the school setting, the main function of the proof is to convince someone that a claim is true by providing an explanation. Students consider proving to be difficult; in fact, they find the very concept of proof demanding. Proving a claim in planar geometry involves…

  9. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base... Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zones—(1) Prohibited area. Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico...

  10. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base... Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air... regulations. (1) Experimental test operations will be conducted by the U.S. Air Force within the...

  11. 76 FR 30319 - Real Property Master Plan Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, at Yuma Proving Ground...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... analyze potential impacts from new construction, changes in testing and training, and activities conducted..., under which no new construction would occur and there would be no changes in testing and training... the installation. Resource areas that may be impacted include air quality, airspace, traffic, noise...

  12. 78 FR 60238 - Proposed Modification and Establishment of Restricted Areas; Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    .... 39 29'30'' N., long. 076 04'59'' W.; to lat. 39 27'00'' N., long. 076 00'29'' W.; to lat. 39 19'47...'' W.; to lat. 39 20'03'' N., long. 076 20'30'' W.; to lat. 39 19'56'' N., long. 076 21'02'' W.; to lat...'' N., long. 076 19'44'' W.; to lat. 39 18'30'' N., long. 076 21'59'' W.; to lat. 39 20'39'' N.,...

  13. Civilian Talent Management: A Proposed Approach for the Aberdeen Proving Ground Workforce

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    breadth of experience desired by senior leaders. Thus, the Army CTMP will face a cultural incongruence, one that may also impact the success of a more...policy so that older workers will not feel compelled to retire as soon as they are eligible. Concepts such as flextime, part-time, telecommuting , and... impact of the baby bust with the side benefit of increasing the average knowledge level of the overall workforce. He also suggests that the fear of a

  14. Classification of Great Basin Plant Communities Occurring on Dugway Proving Ground, Utah.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    collection methods used for vegetation mapping at DPG were based on phytosociological methods developed in Europe by Dr. Josiah Braun- Blanquet. The...original purpose of Braun-Blanquet’s phytosociological technique was to describe and classify the world’s plant communities based on floristic...gists. Recently, phytosociological methods have been used extensively for the purposes of plant community classification and vegetation mapping

  15. Historic American Landscapes Survey: Arco Naval Proving Ground (Idaho National Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Christina; Holmer, Marie; Gilbert, Hollie

    2015-07-01

    Based on historical evaluations in 1993 and 1997, historians determined that the then-remaining Arco NPG structures were significant to the nation’s history through their association with World War II . Through ensuing discussions with the SHPO, it was further determined that the infrastructure and associated landscape were also significant. According to provisions of INL’s Cultural Resource Management Plan (CRMP) as legitimized through a 2004 Programmatic Agreement between DOE-ID, the Idaho State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO), and Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) historians identified the World War II structures as DOE “Signature Properties”. As defined by DOE-HQ, Signature Properties “denote its [DOE’s] most historically important properties across the complex…and/or those properties that are viewed as having tourism potential.” The INL is a secure site and the INL land and structures are not accessible to the public and, therefore have no “tourism potential”. Although DOE-ID actively sought other uses for the vacant, unused buildings, none were identified and the buildings present safety and health concerns. A condition assessment found lead based paint, asbestos, rodent infestation/droppings, small animal carcasses, mold, and, in CF-633, areas of radiological contamination. In early 2013, DOE-ID notified the Idaho SHPO, ACHP, and, as required by the INL CRMP and PA, DOE-Headquarters Federal Preservation Officer, of their intent to demolish the vacant buildings (CF-606, CF-607, CF-613, CF-632, and CF-633). The proposed “end-state” of the buildings will be either grass and/or gravel pads. Through the NHPA Section 106 consultation process, measures to mitigate the adverse impacts of demolition were determined and agreed to through a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between DOE-ID, SHPO, and ACHP. The measures include the development and installation of interpretive signs to be placed at a publicly accessible location, retention of original components of CF-633, and completion of this HALS standard format report. Buildings, infrastructure, and features that are not scheduled for removal are documented here as well as properties that are scheduled for removal and the overall Arco NPG landscape. The Arco NPG, located in the remote high-desert of eastern Idaho aided in the defense and eventual ally victory in the Pacific Theater of World War II, in addition to revising national standards for the safe storage and transport of conventional ordnance.

  16. Assessment of Aberdeen Proving Ground - Army Contracting Command, Contract Management Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-11

    has increased over the last decade, during a time of war, there has been an abundance of contact mismanagement, fraud, and unethical behavior from...Through in-depth analysis, the research will assess APG-ACC contract management process capability by analyzing the integration of best practices ...initiatives to improve contract management process areas having lower levels of process maturity, and implement practices to sustain areas that have been

  17. Assessment of Aberdeen Proving Ground - Army Contracting Command, Contract Management Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    mismanagement, fraud, and unethical behavior from the acquisition contracting workforce, which has cost billions of dollars in lost capital. Current...capability by analyzing the integration of best practices throughout the contracting process. We will also cross-reference the prescribed government...implement practices to sustain areas that have been identified as having higher levels of process maturity. As a final point, the results from this

  18. Anthropomorphic Phantom Radiation Dosimetry at the NATO Standard Reference Point at Aberdeen Proving Ground,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    will have a non-isotropic angular dependance . Thus, for free-field dosimetry, while the bubble detector results could be directly transformed * into...these experiments was the bubble dosimeter temperature dependance . In all experiments, the phantom was surrounded by a tent arrangement (see figs) in

  19. Information Management for Installation Restoration with Focus on Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    would be identi- fied as an error during the data QA check. On the other hand, a typographi - cal error such as entering ൜" instead of 薘" ft for...0 =s 1I IL- wmsH IC owmmft.L LW Logo TDinaW iC &0 timmo AN ON"m TII LW U. eek III O4mo"MA uMm= A-~a. ITsowIamftmt MC Mno Toma v~~n Is.* Aw ompo UT ME...2.02.I Saa a TeOO Ne V~j L2 alm Teom NO" 00# sinTARI - wM j swivm logo 403 OOliguw -.qbN&A 4.(.4LImigboqobk em eu 4a UNi~s -MOM- 042A~qbu~ eM241 M3

  20. The 2015-16 El Nino As A Proving Ground for Coral Proxy Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, S.; Merrifield, M. A.; Powell, B.; Cobb, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    The large internal variability in the ENSO system makes it extremely difficult to assess the degree to which anthropogenic climate change has influenced the properties of El Nino/La Nina events. To extend the record, isotopic time series from coral reefs in the equatorial Pacific are often used, but these proxies are influenced by multiple processes during the ENSO cycle, making them hard to interpret quantitatively. The strong 2015-16 El Nino event provided a unique opportunity to collect in situ data to assess local impacts at the reef scale, and an NSF rapid-response grant established a monitoring program at two sites in the central equatorial Pacific Line Islands chain: Palmyra Atoll (5.9N, 162.1W) and Christmas Island (1.9N, 157.4W). Although situated quite close together, the El Nino affected these islands drastically differently. Extreme heating in excess of 3C occurred at Christmas largely in phase with the NINO3.4, while temperature anomalies at Palmyra never exceeded 1.5C and cooling began well before the peak of the El Nino; the salinity and isotopic signatures at these islands likewise are quite distinct. Differences in the ENSO signal at Palmyra and Christmas seem related to differing impacts from the North Equatorial Countercurrent and surface precipitative fluxes, and have important implications for reconstructing ENSO indices based on records from these locations, as the relationship can be highly nonlinear at times. The role of efforts like these in improving 'forward model' conversions between ENSO and coral proxies will be discussed.

  1. Preliminary Review of the 63W10 Course at Aberdeen Proving Ground

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Annex G: Steering and Suspension Systems and Power Trains Annex G covered the following topics: G-l Fundamentals of Steering Systems 4 hours G-2...Fundamentals of Suspension Systems 3 hours G-3 Fundamentals of Standard Transmission and 4 hours Drive Line Power Units G-4 Fundamentals of Automatic...Transmission Annex J Hydraulics and Electrical Interface Systems Annex K Brake and Suspension Systems Annex L Field Maintenance (FTX) Annex M Troubleshooting

  2. 33 CFR 334.140 - Chesapeake Bay; U.S. Army Proving Ground Reservation, Aberdeen, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Swan Creek, Harford County, Maryland, the most northerly point of the reservation known as Plum... the boundary of the reservation to Swan Creek; and thence in a straight line to Plum Point. (The...

  3. Human genetics after the bomb: Archives, clinics, proving grounds and board rooms.

    PubMed

    Lindee, Susan

    2016-02-01

    In this paper I track the history of post-1945 human genetics and genomics emphasizing the importance of ideas about risk to the scientific study and medical management of human heredity. Drawing on my own scholarship as it is refracted through important new work by other scholars both junior and senior, I explore how radiation risk and then later disease risk mattered to the development of genetics and genomics, particularly in the United States. In this context I excavate one of the central ironies of post-war human genetics: while studies of DNA as the origin and cause of diseases have been lavishly supported by public institutions and private investment around the world, the day-to-day labor of intensive clinical innovation has played a far more important role in the actual human experience of genetic disease and genetic risk for affected families. This has implications for the archival record, where clinical interactions are less readily accessible to historians. This paper then suggests that modern genomics grew out of radiation risk; that it was and remains a risk assessment science; that it is temporally embedded as a form of both prediction and historical reconstruction; and that it has become a big business focused more on risk and prediction (which can be readily marketed) than on effective clinical intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Operation Ivy. Report of commander, Task Group 132. 1. Pacific Proving Grounds. Joint Task Force 132

    SciTech Connect

    Burriss, S.W.

    1984-10-31

    The mission of the Task Group included the responsibilities to conduct experimental measurement programs on Shots Mike and King and to conduct the radiological safety program. Programs were established to make radiochemical analysis of bomb debris; to follow the progress of the nuclear reaction; to make neutron, gamma-ray, blast, thermal radiation, and electromagnetic measurements; and to make a preliminary geophysical and marine survey of the test area. The organizational structure and command relations to accomplish the mission are outlined.

  5. Drinking Water Treatment Optimization Using the Pipe-Loop System: Demonstration at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    define their water quality and appropriate treatments. However, because the simulation conditions are critical to a realistic analysis, it would be...treatment process includes alum coagulation followed by rapid sand filtration, lime treatment for pH adjustment, sodium silicate treatment for...corrosion control by adding sodium silicate at a dosage of 0.5 mg/L. The significance of this treatment on reducing lead dissolution from piumbing materials

  6. Geodetic Survey Coordinates to Support Global Positioning System Tests at Yuma Proving Grounds Arizona

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    The additional GEOCEIVER survey provided a means by which the local survey can be accurately related to WGS 72. The accepted accuracy for...Washington, D.C; May 1974. [Presented by Thomas 0. Seppelln at the International Symposium of Problems Related to the Redefinition of North...gravel road right (Cibola West Access Road); turn right and go northeast for 0.75 mile to the junction with Water Tank Road; bear left and

  7. ESTCP Munitions Response Live Site Demonstrations, Former Southwestern Proving Ground, Arkansas Demonstration Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the advanced sensor and classification methodology for identifying targets of interest ( TOIs ) at a site...intrusively investigated. The classification methodology resulted in the correct classification of 100% of TOI and yielded a reduction in clutter digs of 83...Criteria ........................................................................................................7 3.4 OBJECTIVE: DETECTION OF ALL TOI

  8. Personnel Management for Executives, Army Regional Training Center, Central Atlantic Region, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    COLD , INSENSITIVE, & UNCARING DEALS WITH INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT MAY APPEAR INSINCERE & UNAFFECTIONATE LOGICALLY BY ANALYZING WHAT SHOULD BE FELT...listeners, and communicators. We must rely more and more on interpersonal skills in a world of voluminous impersonal information systems. With the high tech...invasion comes an increasing need for interpersonal communication to compensa te for the impersonal interaction of computer systems. The Myers-Briggs

  9. Operation UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE. Operational Summary, Nevada Proving Grounds, 1 March - 9 June 1953

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    Forces Special Weapons Project Sandia Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico August 1953 NOTICE This is an extract of OPERATION UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE, Operational...Office was superseded by a group of information representatives from the AEC, the FODA ., and the DOD under the direction of Mfr. Morse S&l31 bury, =E...the Directorate of Weapons Ufacts Tests at Sand-ia Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico . 2.4 = = ’HfC A Reports Branch vas organized in the Office of the

  10. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.; Biang, R.; Dolak, D.; Dunn, C.; Haffenden, R.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Wang, Y.; Yuen, C.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of an RI/FS is to characterize the nature and extent of the risks posed by contaminants present at a site and to develop and evaluate options for remedial actions. The overall objective of the RI is to provide a comprehensive evaluation of site conditions, types and quantities of contaminants present, release mechanisms and migration pathways, target populations, and risks to human health and the environment. The information developed during the RI provides the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions during the FS. The purpose of this RI Work Plan is to define the tasks that will direct the remedial investigation of the J-Field site at APG.

  11. 33 CFR 334.140 - Chesapeake Bay; U.S. Army Proving Ground Reservation, Aberdeen, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Point; thence southeasterly along the low water mark on the shore of Chesapeake Bay to and across the north entrance of Spesutie Narrows to and thence along the low water mark on the north shore of Spesutie... approximately 1,400 yards; thence following a line parallel with and 1,000 yards from the low water mark on...

  12. 33 CFR 334.140 - Chesapeake Bay; U.S. Army Proving Ground Reservation, Aberdeen, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... easterly shore of Spesutie Island to a point 1,000 yards due southeast of Sandy Point; thence approximately... Point; thence southeasterly along the low water mark on the shore of Chesapeake Bay to and across the north entrance of Spesutie Narrows to and thence along the low water mark on the north shore of Spesutie...

  13. Jefferson Proving Ground, South of the Firing Line, Quality Control Plan. Volume III

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    CERCLA CLP CNES COC CRL DOT DQOs EPA ID JPG NCP NEPA OSHA PID QA/QC QAP QCP RI/FS SARA semi-VOCs TPH USATHAMA UTM uxo VOCs...assurance/quality control Quality Assurance Program Quality Control Plan Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Studies Superfund Amendments and...Program (QAP) requirements and the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act ( CERCLA ) as amended by

  14. End-stage renal disease: a proving ground for quality improvement in health care.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, W E; Gibney, R

    1997-05-01

    This article chronicles the health care quality improvement efforts that relate to patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). The emphasis is on quality improvement as a management system as opposed to the quality improvements that resulted from strictly technical dialysis-related issues. The government has exercised considerable oversight on the ESRD program because of its growth and cost. History has shown that quality assurance (QA) has had little effect on improving quality or decreasing cost. The philosophy, methods, and tools of continuous quality improvement (CQI) have been shown to work in health care. CQI is a management system that offers hope for higher quality affordable health care. Computer technology is at last sophisticated enough to permit the collection of large amounts of clinical data at the point of care. This will permit CQI methods and tools to be applied generally at reasonable costs. Physicians in general and nephrologists in particular are beginning to understand the managed care environment. They are beginning to understand the paradigm shift that is required to effect the changes necessary for physicians to assume their leadership role in health care. This article reviews the quality efforts of the past and present. It discusses the strengths and weaknesses of efforts to improve quality and lastly presents a vision for the future.

  15. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the Dugway Proving Ground.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-29

    1.0 128 Jif 2.5 = ~ C _ I 1.8 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART Final Report No. 2 March 1984 An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the...REPORT NO. 2. j. RecplentS Accession No PAGE fl,// 2& 4. Title and Subtitle S. ReOrt Data \

  16. U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, UT and the West Desert Test Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ra to ry I ns tr uc tio n G ra du at e Le ve l C la ss ro om E qu ip m en t C er tif ic at io n T ec h In fo rm at io n Su pp or t DPG Homeland...Chemical/ Biological events – Tailored – Realistic l Large and Small scale Chemical and Biological weapons production/storage l Terrorists dissemination

  17. 2002 Airborne Geophysical Survey at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Revision 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    All four sites encompassed known bombing or artillery targets. The areas surveyed at these sites are: Dewatering Ponds (DP, 107 acres / 43...and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of...surveyed are designated Active Recovery Field for indirect-fire weapons (ARF), Mine, grenade and direct-fire weapon range (MGD), Dewatering Ponds ?non

  18. Design of a Control Moment Gyroscope Attitude Actuation System for the Attitude Control Subsystem Proving Ground

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    induction. Faraday’s law of induction states: The induced electromotive force in any closed circuit is equal to the negative time rate of change of the... series 70 of target attitudes, where the spacecraft must align the z-axis of its body frame to target attitude, and hold at each attitude for a set...The simulation ran the ACSPG through a series of target attitudes, where the ACSPG’s z-axis in its body frame must be aligned to a target vector for

  19. Unexploded Ordnance Advanced Technology Demonstration Program at Jefferson Proving Ground (Phase I).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-23

    Magnetic Detection and Identification System ( MagDIS ). An array of five cesium vapor magnetometers were mounted on a man-portable PVC structure. MagDIS was...portable unit and was connected to the electronic sensors by a 40-foot umbilical cable. Six 12-volt batteries were used to power the system. MagDIS used an

  20. Personnel and Vehicle Data Collection at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and its Distribution for Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    sensor signatures of vehicle and people. These signature databases allow researchers to develop cutting-edge detection algorithms that detect and... databases allow researchers to develop cutting-edge detection algorithms that detect and classify 1 or more vehicles or persons. These algorithms will be

  1. Conference on Receptor-Based Biosensors (3rd) Held in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, September 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    channel. It’s the predominate blessing and curse of the occyte; you can either use it as an amplifying method in the cell or it gets in the way and you ...herbicide or pesticide . If you have a plant which is tolerant to a certain herbicide, you know that that plant has a means of breaking dowm and rendering...far to be here and help us in this important program. I mint tell you that I feel somewhat out of place. I am not a scientist; in faot, tn looking at

  2. Operation JANGLE. Nevada Proving Grounds, October-November 1951. Tests of Service Equipment and Operation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1952-07-01

    for background Impregna ted Coton - 3 Walked, Crawled Sateen Coverall 2.60 mr/hr I N Impregnated Cotton Gloves 3.70 SImpregnated Cotton Undershirts...3.1 Clothing Contamiiated Through Wear in the Shot Area (Surface Shot) * . . . . 43 4.3.2 Swatches Contaminated by Controlled Methods (Special Finishes ...43 4.3.3 Clothing Contaminated by Controlled Methods (Special Finishes ) . . . , . 50 4.3.4 Radiographs of Contamination ..... 51 vi son

  3. Applications of Monitored Natural Attenuation in the USA (Abstract)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is widely applied in the USA to control the risk associated with ground water contamination from chlorinated solvents such a tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). MNA relies on the natural processes of degradation, sorption an...

  4. Applications of Monitored Natural Attenuation in the USA (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is widely applied in the USA to control the risk associated with ground water contamination from chlorinated solvents such a tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). MNA relies on the natural processes of degradation, sorption an...

  5. The Earth is Flat, and I Can Prove It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger, Art

    1998-01-01

    Describes an educational program that asks students to attempt to prove that the earth is spherical and that it rotates. Presents tips to pique student interest and charts related to sensing the spin, nonrotation notions, flat earth fallacies, evidence that the earth is spherical and rotates, and the role of watersheds in proving that the earth…

  6. Generating and Using Examples in the Proving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandefur, J.; Mason, J.; Stylianides, G. J.; Watson, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on our analysis of data from a dataset of 26 videotapes of university students working in groups of 2 and 3 on different proving problems. Our aim is to understand the role of example generation in the proving process, focusing on deliberate changes in representation and symbol manipulation. We suggest and illustrate four aspects of…

  7. Reasoning-and-Proving in School Mathematics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianides, Gabriel J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite widespread agreement that the activity of "reasoning-and-proving" should be central to all students' mathematical experiences, many students face serious difficulties with this activity. Mathematics textbooks can play an important role in students' opportunities to engage in reasoning-and-proving: research suggests that many decisions that…

  8. 14 CFR 121.163 - Aircraft proving tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft proving tests. 121.163 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.163 Aircraft proving...) Alterations to the aircraft or its components that materially affect flight characteristics. (e)...

  9. 14 CFR 121.163 - Aircraft proving tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft proving tests. 121.163 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.163 Aircraft proving...) Alterations to the aircraft or its components that materially affect flight characteristics. (e)...

  10. 14 CFR 91.1041 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft proving and validation tests. 91... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1041 Aircraft proving and validation tests. (a) No program manager may permit the operation of an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots...

  11. 14 CFR 91.1041 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft proving and validation tests. 91... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1041 Aircraft proving and validation tests. (a) No program manager may permit the operation of an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots...

  12. 14 CFR 121.163 - Aircraft proving tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft proving tests. 121.163 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.163 Aircraft proving...) Alterations to the aircraft or its components that materially affect flight characteristics. (e)...

  13. 14 CFR 121.163 - Aircraft proving tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft proving tests. 121.163 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.163 Aircraft proving...) Alterations to the aircraft or its components that materially affect flight characteristics. (e)...

  14. The Status of Proving among US Secondary Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotelawala, Usha

    2016-01-01

    This report examines teachers' self-espoused attitudes and beliefs on proving in the secondary mathematics classroom. Conclusions were based on a questionnaire of 78 US mathematics teachers who had completed at least 2 years of teaching mathematics at the secondary level. While these teachers placed importance on proving as a general mathematical…

  15. Cabri as a "Shared Workspace" within the Proving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivero, Federica

    2003-01-01

    This paper will discuss some findings from a study investigating the development of the proving process in a dynamic geometry environment. Through a detailed analysis of students' processes when working with open geometry problems involving conjecturing and proving in Cabri, an analytical and explanatory framework has been developed. This paper…

  16. Generating and Using Examples in the Proving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandefur, J.; Mason, J.; Stylianides, G. J.; Watson, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on our analysis of data from a dataset of 26 videotapes of university students working in groups of 2 and 3 on different proving problems. Our aim is to understand the role of example generation in the proving process, focusing on deliberate changes in representation and symbol manipulation. We suggest and illustrate four aspects of…

  17. The Earth is Flat, and I Can Prove It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger, Art

    1998-01-01

    Describes an educational program that asks students to attempt to prove that the earth is spherical and that it rotates. Presents tips to pique student interest and charts related to sensing the spin, nonrotation notions, flat earth fallacies, evidence that the earth is spherical and rotates, and the role of watersheds in proving that the earth…

  18. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from the...

  19. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23... REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from the public...

  20. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from the...

  1. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from the...

  2. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23... REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from the public...

  3. A New Approach for Proving or Generating Combinatorial Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Luis

    2010-01-01

    A new method for proving, in an immediate way, many combinatorial identities is presented. The method is based on a simple recursive combinatorial formula involving n + 1 arbitrary real parameters. Moreover, this formula enables one not only to prove, but also generate many different combinatorial identities (not being required to know them "a…

  4. 34 CFR 75.51 - How to prove nonprofit status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How to prove nonprofit status. 75.51 Section 75.51... Grant § 75.51 How to prove nonprofit status. (a) Under some programs, an applicant must show that it is... Revenue Service currently recognizes the applicant as an organization to which contributions are tax...

  5. 34 CFR 75.51 - How to prove nonprofit status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How to prove nonprofit status. 75.51 Section 75.51... Grant § 75.51 How to prove nonprofit status. (a) Under some programs, an applicant must show that it is... Revenue Service currently recognizes the applicant as an organization to which contributions are tax...

  6. 34 CFR 75.51 - How to prove nonprofit status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How to prove nonprofit status. 75.51 Section 75.51... Grant § 75.51 How to prove nonprofit status. (a) Under some programs, an applicant must show that it is... Revenue Service currently recognizes the applicant as an organization to which contributions are tax...

  7. 34 CFR 75.51 - How to prove nonprofit status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How to prove nonprofit status. 75.51 Section 75.51... Grant § 75.51 How to prove nonprofit status. (a) Under some programs, an applicant must show that it is... Revenue Service currently recognizes the applicant as an organization to which contributions are tax...

  8. 34 CFR 75.51 - How to prove nonprofit status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How to prove nonprofit status. 75.51 Section 75.51... Grant § 75.51 How to prove nonprofit status. (a) Under some programs, an applicant must show that it is... Revenue Service currently recognizes the applicant as an organization to which contributions are tax...

  9. The Status of Proving among US Secondary Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotelawala, Usha

    2016-01-01

    This report examines teachers' self-espoused attitudes and beliefs on proving in the secondary mathematics classroom. Conclusions were based on a questionnaire of 78 US mathematics teachers who had completed at least 2 years of teaching mathematics at the secondary level. While these teachers placed importance on proving as a general mathematical…

  10. 14 CFR 121.163 - Aircraft proving tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft proving tests. 121.163 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.163 Aircraft proving...) Alterations to the aircraft or its components that materially affect flight characteristics. (e) No...

  11. Preservice Mathematics Teachers' Metaphorical Perceptions towards Proof and Proving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ersen, Zeynep Bahar

    2016-01-01

    Since mathematical proof and proving are in the center of mathematics; preservice mathematics teachers' perceptions against these concepts have a great importance. Therefore, the study aimed to determine preservice mathematics teachers' perceptions towards proof and proving through metaphors. The participants consisted of 192 preservice…

  12. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On a tour of the Orbiter Processing Facility, Center Director Jim Kennedy (left) listens to Kathy Laufenberg, Orbiter Airframe Engineering ground area manager, with United Space Alliance, about corrosion work being done on the external tank door of orbiter Endeavour. On either side of Laufenberg are Tom Roberts, Airframe Engineering System specialist, also with USA, and Joy Huff, with KSC Space Shuttle Processing. Endeavour is in its Orbiter Major Modification period, which began in December 2003.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-25

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On a tour of the Orbiter Processing Facility, Center Director Jim Kennedy (left) listens to Kathy Laufenberg, Orbiter Airframe Engineering ground area manager, with United Space Alliance, about corrosion work being done on the external tank door of orbiter Endeavour. On either side of Laufenberg are Tom Roberts, Airframe Engineering System specialist, also with USA, and Joy Huff, with KSC Space Shuttle Processing. Endeavour is in its Orbiter Major Modification period, which began in December 2003.

  13. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On a tour of the Orbiter Processing Facility, Center Director Jim Kennedy (left) looks at an external tank door corrosion work being done on Endeavour. At right, Tom Roberts, Airframe Engineering System specialist with United Space Alliance, is describing the work. At right is Kathy Laufenberg, Orbiter Airframe Engineering ground area manager,also with USA. Endeavour is in its Orbiter Major Modification period, which began in December 2003.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-25

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On a tour of the Orbiter Processing Facility, Center Director Jim Kennedy (left) looks at an external tank door corrosion work being done on Endeavour. At right, Tom Roberts, Airframe Engineering System specialist with United Space Alliance, is describing the work. At right is Kathy Laufenberg, Orbiter Airframe Engineering ground area manager,also with USA. Endeavour is in its Orbiter Major Modification period, which began in December 2003.

  14. 17 CFR 229.1203 - (Item 1203) Proved undeveloped reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Disclosure by Registrants Engaged in Oil and... reasons why material amounts of proved undeveloped reserves in individual fields or countries remain...

  15. 17 CFR 229.1203 - (Item 1203) Proved undeveloped reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Disclosure by Registrants Engaged in Oil and... reasons why material amounts of proved undeveloped reserves in individual fields or countries remain...

  16. U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    U.S. oil and natural gas proved reserves declined in 2015 due to lower prices. U.S. crude oil and lease condensate proved reserves declined 4.7 billion barrels (11.8%) from their year-end 2014 level to 35.2 billion barrels at year-end 2015, according to U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2015, released today by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. U.S natural gas proved reserves decreased 64.5 trillion cubic feet, a 16.6% decline, reducing the U.S. total to 324.3 Tcf at year-end 2015.

  17. U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    U.S. oil and natural gas proved reserves declined in 2015 due to lower prices. U.S. crude oil and lease condensate proved reserves declined 4.7 billion barrels (11.8%) from their year-end 2014 level to 35.2 billion barrels at year-end 2015, according to U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2015, released today by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. U.S natural gas proved reserves decreased 64.5 trillion cubic feet, a 16.6% decline, reducing the U.S. total to 324.3 Tcf at year-end 2015.

  18. 29 CFR 18.405 - Methods of proving character.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... proving character. (a) Reputation of opinion. In all cases in which evidence of character or a trait of... conduct. (b) Specific instances of conduct. In cases in which character or a trait of character of...

  19. 29 CFR 18.405 - Methods of proving character.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... proving character. (a) Reputation of opinion. In all cases in which evidence of character or a trait of... conduct. (b) Specific instances of conduct. In cases in which character or a trait of character of...

  20. 29 CFR 18.405 - Methods of proving character.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... proving character. (a) Reputation of opinion. In all cases in which evidence of character or a trait of... conduct. (b) Specific instances of conduct. In cases in which character or a trait of character of...

  1. 29 CFR 18.405 - Methods of proving character.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... proving character. (a) Reputation of opinion. In all cases in which evidence of character or a trait of... conduct. (b) Specific instances of conduct. In cases in which character or a trait of character of...

  2. 29 CFR 18.405 - Methods of proving character.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... proving character. (a) Reputation of opinion. In all cases in which evidence of character or a trait of... conduct. (b) Specific instances of conduct. In cases in which character or a trait of character of...

  3. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): USA Aberdeen, Operable Unit One, Michaelsville, MD. (Second remedial action), June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-30

    The 20-acre USA Aberdeen Michaelsville Landfill is a municipal landfill located along the Chesapeake Bay in Harford County, Maryland. The site is in the northern portion of the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in the Aberdeen Area (AA) between Michaelsville Road and Trench Warfare Road. The majority of materials reportedly disposed of at the site included domestic trash, trash from nonindustrial sources at APG, solvents, waste motor oils, PCB transformer oils, wastewater treatment sludges, pesticides containing thallium, insecticides containing selenium, and rodenticides containing antimony. The ROD addresses protection of the ground water by minimizing leachate flow and preventing current or future exposure to waste materials as the first of two OUs planned for the site. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil are organics, including pesticides; and metals, including chromium and lead.

  4. Effect of ground-water recharge on configuration of the water table beneath sand dunes and on seepage in lakes in the sandhills of Nebraska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of water-level fluctuations in about 30 observation wells and 5 lakes in the Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge in the sandhills of Nebraska indicates water-table configuration beneath sand dunes in this area varies considerably, depending on the configuration of the topography of the dunes. If the topography of an interlake dunal area is hummocky, ground-water recharge is focused at topographic lows causing formation of water-table mounds. These mounds prevent ground-water movement from topographically high lakes to adjacent lower lakes. If a dune ridge is sharp, the opportunity for focused recharge does not exist, resulting in water-table troughs between lakes. Lakes aligned in descending altitudes, parallel to the principal direction of regional ground-water movement, generally have seepage from higher lakes toward lower lakes. ?? 1986.

  5. Proving Light Quanta Exist in an Undergraduate Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neel, M. S.; Thorn, J. J.; Davies, R. E.; Beck, M.

    2003-05-01

    While well known experiments involving phenomena such as the photoelectric effect and Compton scattering strongly suggest the existence of photons, they do not prove the existence of light quanta. For example, it is possible to explain both of the aforementioned effects using a semiclassical treatment in which the electromagnetic field is not quantized, and is instead treated as a classical wave. To prove the existence of light quanta one must perform an experiment whose results cannot be explained using classical waves. Here we have performed an experiment that cannot be explained with a classical wave theory, and which demonstrates the localization of light quanta. Namely, we prove that a single photon can only go one way when it leaves a beamsplitter. (P. Grangier, G. Roger and A. Aspect, Europhys. Lett. 1, 173 (1986).) The experimental apparatus is appropriate for an undergraduate teaching laboratory.

  6. Learning-assisted theorem proving with millions of lemmas☆

    PubMed Central

    Kaliszyk, Cezary; Urban, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Large formal mathematical libraries consist of millions of atomic inference steps that give rise to a corresponding number of proved statements (lemmas). Analogously to the informal mathematical practice, only a tiny fraction of such statements is named and re-used in later proofs by formal mathematicians. In this work, we suggest and implement criteria defining the estimated usefulness of the HOL Light lemmas for proving further theorems. We use these criteria to mine the large inference graph of the lemmas in the HOL Light and Flyspeck libraries, adding up to millions of the best lemmas to the pool of statements that can be re-used in later proofs. We show that in combination with learning-based relevance filtering, such methods significantly strengthen automated theorem proving of new conjectures over large formal mathematical libraries such as Flyspeck. PMID:26525678

  7. Proving the mechanical integrity of solution mined caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Van Fossan, N.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-523) specifies an Underground Injection Control (UIC) program be promulgated to satisfy certain requirements of the act. Underground storage wells are covered by the act. The most crucial item in any UIC program is the requirement of proving the mechanical integrity of a storage system. This work enumerates the individual elements of a hydrocarbon underground storage system in domal salt, addresses the nature and magnitude of the maximum forces which may be exerted on each element, and proposes tests which will prove that each element is capable of resisting these forces. Appropriate safety factors also are proposed.

  8. Proved and potential vectors of yellow fever in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    De Meillon, Botha

    1954-01-01

    This paper, based on records obtained from the Entomology Department of the South African Institute for Medical Research, Johannesburg, gives a summary of the distribution, adult habits, and breeding-places of the proved and potential vectors of yellow fever in South Africa. PMID:13209304

  9. 14 CFR 91.1041 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... manager may permit the operation of an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots are... the Administrator. (b) No program manager may permit the operation of a turbojet airplane if it has not previously proved a turbojet airplane in operations under this part in at least 25 hours...

  10. 14 CFR 135.145 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... operate an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots are required by this chapter for... route airports as determined by the Administrator. (b) No certificate holder may operate a turbojet airplane if it has not previously proved a turbojet airplane in operations under this part in at least...

  11. 14 CFR 135.145 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operate an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots are required by this chapter for... route airports as determined by the Administrator. (b) No certificate holder may operate a turbojet airplane if it has not previously proved a turbojet airplane in operations under this part in at least...

  12. 14 CFR 91.1041 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... manager may permit the operation of an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots are... the Administrator. (b) No program manager may permit the operation of a turbojet airplane if it has not previously proved a turbojet airplane in operations under this part in at least 25 hours...

  13. 14 CFR 135.145 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... operate an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots are required by this chapter for... route airports as determined by the Administrator. (b) No certificate holder may operate a turbojet airplane if it has not previously proved a turbojet airplane in operations under this part in at least...

  14. 14 CFR 91.1041 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... manager may permit the operation of an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots are... the Administrator. (b) No program manager may permit the operation of a turbojet airplane if it has not previously proved a turbojet airplane in operations under this part in at least 25 hours...

  15. 14 CFR 135.145 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... operate an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots are required by this chapter for... route airports as determined by the Administrator. (b) No certificate holder may operate a turbojet airplane if it has not previously proved a turbojet airplane in operations under this part in at least...

  16. 14 CFR 135.145 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operate an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots are required by this chapter for... route airports as determined by the Administrator. (b) No certificate holder may operate a turbojet airplane if it has not previously proved a turbojet airplane in operations under this part in at least...

  17. Learning to prove: from examples to general statements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramovitz, Buma; Berezina, Miryam; Berman, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we describe a method for teaching students to prove some mathematical statements independently, by using specially designed auxiliary assignments. The assignments are designed as homework problems and can be adapted for online learning. We illustrate our method using examples from calculus and differential equations.

  18. Proof phenomenon as a function of the phenomenology of proving.

    PubMed

    Hipólito, Inês

    2015-12-01

    Kurt Gödel wrote (1964, p. 272), after he had read Husserl, that the notion of objectivity raises a question: "the question of the objective existence of the objects of mathematical intuition (which, incidentally, is an exact replica of the question of the objective existence of the outer world)". This "exact replica" brings to mind the close analogy Husserl saw between our intuition of essences in Wesensschau and of physical objects in perception. What is it like to experience a mathematical proving process? What is the ontological status of a mathematical proof? Can computer assisted provers output a proof? Taking a naturalized world account, I will assess the relationship between mathematics, the physical world and consciousness by introducing a significant conceptual distinction between proving and proof. I will propose that proving is a phenomenological conscious experience. This experience involves a combination of what Kurt Gödel called intuition, and what Husserl called intentionality. In contrast, proof is a function of that process - the mathematical phenomenon - that objectively self-presents a property in the world, and that results from a spatiotemporal unity being subject to the exact laws of nature. In this essay, I apply phenomenology to mathematical proving as a performance of consciousness, that is, a lived experience expressed and formalized in language, in which there is the possibility of formulating intersubjectively shareable meanings.

  19. Proving Invariants of I/O Automata with TAME

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Intelligence, 29(1–4):139–181. Archer, M. 2002. Proving correctness of the basic TESLA multicast stream authentication protocol with TAME. In Informal...introduction to requirements capture using PVS: Specification of a simple autopilot , NASA Technical Memorandum 110255, NASA Langley Research Center

  20. Prove It! Putting Together the Evidence-Based Practice Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Hannah Byrd

    2015-01-01

    Why is it important to prove that school libraries add value to the school program? The National Center for Education Statistics reports that 20 percent of U.S. public schools lack a full or part-time certified librarian (NCES 2013). In California the ratio of certified school librarians to students is 1:7,374 (California Department of Education…

  1. Responsibility for proving and defining in abstract algebra class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy

    2016-07-01

    There is considerable variety in inquiry-oriented instruction, but what is common is that students assume roles in mathematical activity that in a traditional, lecture-based class are either assumed by the teacher (or text) or are not visible at all in traditional math classrooms. This paper is a case study of the teaching of an inquiry-based undergraduate abstract algebra course. In particular, gives a theoretical account of the defining and proving processes. The study examines the intellectual responsibility for the processes of defining and proving that the professor devolved to the students. While the professor wanted the students to engage in all aspects of defining and proving, he was only successful at devolving responsibility for certain aspects and much more successful at devolving responsibility for proving than conjecturing or defining. This study suggests that even a well-intentioned instructor may not be able to devolve responsibility to students for some aspects of mathematical practice without using a research-based curriculum or further professional development.

  2. Dutch Plural Inflection: The Exception that Proves the Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keuleers, Emmanuel; Sandra, Dominiek; Daelemans, Walter; Gillis, Steven; Durieux, Gert; Martens, Evelyn

    2007-01-01

    We develop the view that inflection is driven partly by non-phonological analogy and that non-phonological information is of particular importance to the inflection of non-canonical roots, which in the view of [Marcus, G. F., Brinkmann, U., Clahsen, H., Wiese, R., & Pinker, S. (1995). "German inflection: the exception that proves the rule."…

  3. Dutch Plural Inflection: The Exception that Proves the Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keuleers, Emmanuel; Sandra, Dominiek; Daelemans, Walter; Gillis, Steven; Durieux, Gert; Martens, Evelyn

    2007-01-01

    We develop the view that inflection is driven partly by non-phonological analogy and that non-phonological information is of particular importance to the inflection of non-canonical roots, which in the view of [Marcus, G. F., Brinkmann, U., Clahsen, H., Wiese, R., & Pinker, S. (1995). "German inflection: the exception that proves the rule."…

  4. Three Lectures on Theorem-proving and Program Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    Topics concerning theorem proving and program verification are discussed with particlar emphasis on the Boyer/Moore theorem prover, and approaches to program verification such as the functional and interpreter methods and the inductive assertion approach. A history of the discipline and specific program examples are included.

  5. 25 CFR 11.702 - Proving and admitting will.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.702 Proving and admitting will. (a) Upon initiating the probate of... admitted to probate by filing an affidavit of an attesting witness which identifies such will as being the... probate, any person having an interest in the decedent's estate may contest the validity of such will....

  6. 25 CFR 11.702 - Proving and admitting will.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.702 Proving and admitting will. (a) Upon initiating the probate of... admitted to probate by filing an affidavit of an attesting witness which identifies such will as being the... probate, any person having an interest in the decedent's estate may contest the validity of such will....

  7. 25 CFR 11.702 - Proving and admitting will.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.702 Proving and admitting will. (a) Upon initiating the probate of... admitted to probate by filing an affidavit of an attesting witness which identifies such will as being the... probate, any person having an interest in the decedent's estate may contest the validity of such will....

  8. 25 CFR 11.702 - Proving and admitting will.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.702 Proving and admitting will. (a) Upon initiating the probate of... admitted to probate by filing an affidavit of an attesting witness which identifies such will as being the... probate, any person having an interest in the decedent's estate may contest the validity of such will....

  9. 25 CFR 11.702 - Proving and admitting will.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.702 Proving and admitting will. (a) Upon initiating the probate of... admitted to probate by filing an affidavit of an attesting witness which identifies such will as being the... probate, any person having an interest in the decedent's estate may contest the validity of such will....

  10. Prove It! Putting Together the Evidence-Based Practice Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Hannah Byrd

    2015-01-01

    Why is it important to prove that school libraries add value to the school program? The National Center for Education Statistics reports that 20 percent of U.S. public schools lack a full or part-time certified librarian (NCES 2013). In California the ratio of certified school librarians to students is 1:7,374 (California Department of Education…

  11. Between Affect and Cognition: Proving at University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furinghetti, Fulvia; Morselli, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we report on a case study of a university student (third year of Mathematics course). She was engaged in proving a statement of elementary number theory. We asked her to write the thoughts that accompanied her solving process. She was collaborative and her protocol is suitable to study the interrelation between affect and cognition.…

  12. A Atomic Energy Lower Bound that Proves Scott's Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Barnwell Webster

    In this paper, we will prove that the energy of an atom with nuclear charge Z is greater than -C(,TF)Z('7/3) + (q/8)Z('2) + O(Z('17/9)log Z) atomic units as Z (--->) (INFIN). q is the number of spin states (q = 2 for electrons) and C(,TF) is the Thomas-Fermi constant for such systems.

  13. Implementing Metamathematics as an Approach to Automatic Theorem Proving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Approach to Automatic Theorem Proving* Robert L. Constable Douglas J. Howet Abstract A simple but important algorithm used to support automated...metatheory in NuprL In E Lusk and R. Overbeek , editors, 9th International Conference on Automated Deduction, pages 238-257, New York, 1988. Springer-Verlag...Wang. Toward mechanical mathematics. IBM J. Research and Development, (4):2- 22., 1960. [331 L. Wos, R. Overbeek , L. Ewing, and J. Boyle. Automated

  14. Ground truth versus no ground truth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torbert, G. B.

    1970-01-01

    The area of study was the southeastern Arizona test site and three areas within the site were studied in detail: Safford, Point of Pines, and Fort Apache-White River. These areas have terrain contrast ranging from flat arid regions to high alpine mountains. Data were obtained from the Apollo 9 photographic missions, high altitude aerial photography, and simulated ERTS-A data from high altitude aircraft. Various monoscopic and steroscopic devices were used to analyze the features, and film density variations were studied. No ground-based data were permitted. Thematic maps were prepared for geology, geomorphology, vegetation, hydrology, and soils. Interpreted boundaries were delineated, with no collaborative data used in the interpretation. Ground-based data were gathered during the overflight of high altitude aerial photography. A further study was made using the ground truth, and the data gathered on the ground were compared with original mapping. 80% to 85% of the interpretations in the areas checked were correct. It was proved that it is possible to monitor gross features of the vigor of crop lands and vegetative cover, to type soils and classify geologic features, and to determine hydrologic conditions.

  15. Ground truth versus no ground truth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torbert, G. B.

    1970-01-01

    The area of study was the southeastern Arizona test site and three areas within the site were studied in detail: Safford, Point of Pines, and Fort Apache-White River. These areas have terrain contrast ranging from flat arid regions to high alpine mountains. Data were obtained from the Apollo 9 photographic missions, high altitude aerial photography, and simulated ERTS-A data from high altitude aircraft. Various monoscopic and steroscopic devices were used to analyze the features, and film density variations were studied. No ground-based data were permitted. Thematic maps were prepared for geology, geomorphology, vegetation, hydrology, and soils. Interpreted boundaries were delineated, with no collaborative data used in the interpretation. Ground-based data were gathered during the overflight of high altitude aerial photography. A further study was made using the ground truth, and the data gathered on the ground were compared with original mapping. 80% to 85% of the interpretations in the areas checked were correct. It was proved that it is possible to monitor gross features of the vigor of crop lands and vegetative cover, to type soils and classify geologic features, and to determine hydrologic conditions.

  16. Grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  17. Proving Causation With Epidemiological Evidence in Tobacco Lawsuits

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a series of lawsuits were filed in Korea claiming tort liability against tobacco companies. The Supreme Court has already issued decisions in some cases, while others are still pending. The primary issue in these cases is whether the epidemiological evidence submitted by the plaintiffs clearly proves the causal relationship between smoking and disease as required by civil law. Proving causation is difficult in tobacco lawsuits because factors other than smoking are involved in the development of a disease, and also because of the lapse of time between smoking and the manifestation of the disease. The Supreme Court (Supreme Court Decision, 2011Da22092, April 10, 2014) has imposed some limitations on using epidemiological evidence to prove causation in tobacco lawsuits filed by smokers and their family members, but these limitations should be reconsidered. First, the Court stated that a disease can be categorized as specific or non-specific, and for each disease type, causation can be proven by different types of evidence. However, the concept of specific diseases is not compatible with multifactor theory, which is generally accepted in the field of public health. Second, when the epidemiological association between the disease and the risk factor is proven to be significant, imposing additional burdens of proof on the plaintiff may considerably limit the plaintiff’s right to recovery, but the Court required the plaintiffs to provide additional information such as health condition and lifestyle. Third, the Supreme Court is not giving greater weight to the evidential value of epidemiological study results because the Court focuses on the fact that these studies were group-level, not individual-level. However, group-level studies could still offer valuable information about individual members of the group, e.g., probability of causation. PMID:27055545

  18. An entry in the 1992 Overbeek theorem-proving contest

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, E.L.; McCune, W.W.

    1992-11-01

    The Conference on Automated Deduction (CADE) has been for nearly twenty years a meeting where both theoreticians and system implementors present their work. Feeling perhaps that the conference was becoming dominated by the theoreticians, Ross Overbeek proposed at CADE-10 in 1990 a contest to stimulate work on the implementation and use of theorem-proving systems. The challenge was to prove a set of theorems, and do so with a uniform approach. That is, it was not allowed to set parameters in the system to specialize it for individual problems. There were actually two separate contests, one represented by a set of seven problems designed to test basic inference components, and the other represented by a set of ten problems designed to test equality-based systems. This paper describes our experiences in preparing to enter the contest with OTTER and Roo, two systems developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Roo is a parallel version of OTTER, but has such different behavior in some cases that we treat them as separate entries. We entered each of them in both contests. Some of the problems are difficult ones; and although many of the problems had been done before with OTTER, in each case we had set OTTER'S many input parameters in a way customized to the problem at hand, and chosen a set of support that appeared to us to be most natural. It was a challenge to come up with a uniform set of parameter settings and a information algorithm for picking the set of support that would allow OTTER to prove each of the theorems.

  19. An entry in the 1992 Overbeek theorem-proving contest

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, E.L.; McCune, W.W.

    1992-11-01

    The Conference on Automated Deduction (CADE) has been for nearly twenty years a meeting where both theoreticians and system implementors present their work. Feeling perhaps that the conference was becoming dominated by the theoreticians, Ross Overbeek proposed at CADE-10 in 1990 a contest to stimulate work on the implementation and use of theorem-proving systems. The challenge was to prove a set of theorems, and do so with a uniform approach. That is, it was not allowed to set parameters in the system to specialize it for individual problems. There were actually two separate contests, one represented by a set of seven problems designed to test basic inference components, and the other represented by a set of ten problems designed to test equality-based systems. This paper describes our experiences in preparing to enter the contest with OTTER and Roo, two systems developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Roo is a parallel version of OTTER, but has such different behavior in some cases that we treat them as separate entries. We entered each of them in both contests. Some of the problems are difficult ones; and although many of the problems had been done before with OTTER, in each case we had set OTTER`S many input parameters in a way customized to the problem at hand, and chosen a set of support that appeared to us to be most natural. It was a challenge to come up with a uniform set of parameter settings and a information algorithm for picking the set of support that would allow OTTER to prove each of the theorems.

  20. Proving Nontrivial Topology of Pure Bismuth by Quantum Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, S.; Feng, B.; Arita, M.; Takayama, A.; Liu, R.-Y.; Someya, T.; Chen, W.-C.; Iimori, T.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Cheng, C.-M.; Tang, S.-J.; Komori, F.; Kobayashi, K.; Chiang, T.-C.; Matsuda, I.

    2016-12-01

    The topology of pure Bi is controversial because of its very small (˜10 meV ) band gap. Here we perform high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy measurements systematically on 14-202 bilayer Bi films. Using high-quality films, we succeed in observing quantized bulk bands with energy separations down to ˜10 meV . Detailed analyses on the phase shift of the confined wave functions precisely determine the surface and bulk electronic structures, which unambiguously show nontrivial topology. The present results not only prove the fundamental property of Bi but also introduce a capability of the quantum-confinement approach.

  1. The Ultimate Challenge: Prove B. F. Skinner Wrong

    PubMed Central

    Chance, Paul

    2007-01-01

    For much of his career, B. F. Skinner displayed the optimism that is often attributed to behaviorists. With time, however, he became less and less sanguine about the power of behavior science to solve the major problems facing humanity. Near the end of his life he concluded that a fair consideration of principles revealed by the scientific analysis of behavior leads to pessimism about our species. In this article I discuss the case for Skinner's pessimism and suggest that the ultimate challenge for behavior analysts today is to prove Skinner wrong. PMID:22478494

  2. Strategy-Enhanced Interactive Proving and Arithmetic Simplification for PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    diVito, Ben L.

    2003-01-01

    We describe an approach to strategy-based proving for improved interactive deduction in specialized domains. An experimental package of strategies (tactics) and support functions called Manip has been developed for PVS to reduce the tedium of arithmetic manipulation. Included are strategies aimed at algebraic simplification of real-valued expressions. A general deduction architecture is described in which domain-specific strategies, such as those for algebraic manipulation, are supported by more generic features, such as term-access techniques applicable in arbitrary settings. An extended expression language provides access to subterms within a sequent.

  3. Strategy-Enhanced Interactive Proving and Arithmetic Simplification for PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiVito, Ben L.

    2003-01-01

    We describe an approach to strategy-based proving for improved interactive deduction in specialized domains. An experimental package of strategies (tactics) and support functions called Manip has been developed for PVS to reduce the tedium of arithmetic manipulation. Included are strategies aimed at algebraic simplification of real-valued expressions. A general deduction architecture is described in which domain-specific strategies, such as those for algebraic manipulation, are supported by more generic features, such as term-access techniques applicable in arbitrary settings. An extended expression language provides access to subterms within a sequent.

  4. The ultimate challenge: prove B. F. Skinner wrong.

    PubMed

    Chance, Paul

    2007-01-01

    For much of his career, B. F. Skinner displayed the optimism that is often attributed to behaviorists. With time, however, he became less and less sanguine about the power of behavior science to solve the major problems facing humanity. Near the end of his life he concluded that a fair consideration of principles revealed by the scientific analysis of behavior leads to pessimism about our species. In this article I discuss the case for Skinner's pessimism and suggest that the ultimate challenge for behavior analysts today is to prove Skinner wrong.

  5. Research in advanced formal theorem-proving techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rulifson, J. F.

    1971-01-01

    The present status is summarized of a continuing research program aimed at the design and implementation of a language for expressing problem-solving procedures in several areas of artificial intelligence, including program synthesis, robot planning, and theorem proving. Notations, concepts, and procedures common to the representation and solution of many of these problems were abstracted and incorporated as features into the language. The areas of research covered are described, and abstracts of six papers that contain extensive description and technical detail of the work are presented.

  6. Reasoning by analogy as an aid to heuristic theorem proving.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kling, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    When heuristic problem-solving programs are faced with large data bases that contain numbers of facts far in excess of those needed to solve any particular problem, their performance rapidly deteriorates. In this paper, the correspondence between a new unsolved problem and a previously solved analogous problem is computed and invoked to tailor large data bases to manageable sizes. This paper outlines the design of an algorithm for generating and exploiting analogies between theorems posed to a resolution-logic system. These algorithms are believed to be the first computationally feasible development of reasoning by analogy to be applied to heuristic theorem proving.

  7. New records and new host plants of powdery mildews (Erysiphales) from Idaho and Oregon (USA)

    Treesearch

    Uwe Braun; S. Krishna Mohan

    2013-01-01

    In the course of routine examinations of powdery mildews collected in Idaho and Oregon, USA, some of the identified species proved to be new to North America, in some cases on new host plants. Leveillula papilionacearum and L. picridis are first records from the USA. Astragalus filipes, Dalea ornata and D. searlsiae are new hosts for Leveillula papilionacearum....

  8. Proving Correctness for Pointer Programs in a Verifying Compiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulczycki, Gregory; Singh, Amrinder

    2008-01-01

    This research describes a component-based approach to proving the correctness of programs involving pointer behavior. The approach supports modular reasoning and is designed to be used within the larger context of a verifying compiler. The approach consists of two parts. When a system component requires the direct manipulation of pointer operations in its implementation, we implement it using a built-in component specifically designed to capture the functional and performance behavior of pointers. When a system component requires pointer behavior via a linked data structure, we ensure that the complexities of the pointer operations are encapsulated within the data structure and are hidden to the client component. In this way, programs that rely on pointers can be verified modularly, without requiring special rules for pointers. The ultimate objective of a verifying compiler is to prove-with as little human intervention as possible-that proposed program code is correct with respect to a full behavioral specification. Full verification for software is especially important for an agency like NASA that is routinely involved in the development of mission critical systems.

  9. Effects of selective handling of pyritic, acid-forming materials on the chemistry of pore gas and ground water at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Clarion County, PA, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A.; Dugas, Diana L.; Brady, Keith; Kovalchuck, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    A change from dragline to “selective handling” mining methods at a reclaimed surface coal mine in western Pennsylvania did not significantly affect concentrations of metals in ground water because oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of siderite were not abated. Throughout the mine, placement of pyritic material near the land surface facilitated the oxidation of pyrite, causing the consumption of oxygen (O2) and release of acid, iron, and sulfate ions. Locally in the unsaturated zone, water sampled within or near pyritic zones was acidic, with concentrations of sulfate exceeding 3,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L). However, acidic conditions generally did not persist below the water table because of neutralization by carbonate minerals. Dissolution of calcite, dolomite, and siderite in unsaturated and saturated zones produced elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, iron, and manganese. Alkalinity concentrations of 600 to 800 mg/L as CaCO3 were common in water samples from the unsaturated zone in spoil, and alkalinities of 100 to 400 mg/L as CaCO3 were common in ground-water samples from the underlying saturated zone in spoil and bedrock. Saturation indices indicated that siderite could dissolve in water throughout the spoil, but that calcite dissolution or precipitation could occur locally. Calcite dissolution could be promoted as a result of pyrite oxidation, gypsum precipitation, and calcium ion exchange for sodium. Calcite precipitation could be promoted by evapotranspiration and siderite dissolution, and corresponding increases in concentrations of alkalinity and other solutes. Partial pressures of O2 (Po2) and CO2 (Pco2) in spoil pore gas indicated that oxidation of pyrite and precipitation of ferric hydroxide, coupled with dissolution of calcite, dolomite, and siderite were the primary reactions affecting water quality. Highest vertical gradients in Po2, particularly in the near-surface zone (0-1 m), did not correlate

  10. NASA's Fermi Proves Supernova Remnants Produce Cosmic Rays

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    The W44 supernova remnant is nestled within and interacting with the molecular cloud that formed its parent star. Fermi's LAT detects GeV gamma rays (magenta) produced when the gas is bombarded by cosmic rays, primarily protons. Radio observations (yellow) from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array near Socorro, N.M., and infrared (red) data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope reveal filamentary structures in the remnant's shell. Blue shows X-ray emission mapped by the Germany-led ROSAT mission. To read more go to: 1.usa.gov/14V14qi NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram Credit: NASA/DOE/Fermi LAT Collaboration, NRAO/AUI, JPL-Caltech, ROSAT

  11. The X-33 Program, Proving Single Stage to Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, Robert E.; Rising, Jerry J.

    1998-01-01

    The X-33, NASA's flagship for reusable space plane technology demonstration, is on course to permit a crucial decision for the nation by the end of this decade. Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, NASA's partner in this effort, has led a dedicated and talented industry and government team that have met and solved numerous challenges within the first 26 months. This program began by accepting the mandate that included two unprecedented and highly challenging goals: 1) demonstrate single stage to orbit technologies in flight and ground demonstration in less than 42 months and 2) demonstrate a new government and industry management relationship working together with industry in the lead.

  12. Methods for proving the equivalency of detonator performance

    SciTech Connect

    Munger, Alan C; Akinci, Adrian A; Thomas, Keith A; Clarke, Steve A; Martin, Eric S; Murphy, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    One of the challenges facing engineers is developing newer, safer detonators that are equivalent to devices currently in use. There is no clear consensus on an exact method for drawing equivalence of detonators. This paper summarizes our current efforts to develop diagnostics addressing various aspects of detonator design to better quantify and prove equivalency. We consider various optical techniques to quantify the output pressure and output wave shape. The development of a unique interpretation of streak camera breakouts, known as the apparent center of initiation, will be discussed as a metric for detonation wave shape. Specific examples apply these techniques to the comparison of a new laser-driven detonator with an existing exploding bridgewire (EBW) detonator. Successes and short-comings of the techniques will be discussed.

  13. Trusted Theorem Proving: A Case Study in SLD-Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkoudas, Konstantine; Shivers, Olin

    Prolog's implementation of SLD-resolution furnishes an efficient theorem-proving technique for the Horn-clause subset of first-order logic, and makes for a powerful addition to any automatic or semi-automatic verification system. However, due to the complexity of SLD-resolution, a naive incorporation of a Prolog engine into such a system would inordinately increase the overall trusted base. In this paper we show how to integrate this procedure in a disciplined, trusted manner, by making the Prolog engine justify its results with very simple natural deduction reasoning. In effect, instead of taking SLD-resolution as a primitive inference rule, we express it as a derived inference rule in terms of much simpler rules such as conditional elimination.

  14. Proving the Authenticity of Ancient DNA by Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, S.; Herrmann, B.; Rameckers, J.; Müller, D.; Sperling, K.; Neitzel, H.; Tönnies, H.

    In PCR-supported amplification of ancient, degraded DNA, contamination with contemporary DNA can lead to false-positive results, which frequently give rise to discussions in which the mere existence of ancient DNA is doubted. Our confirmation of ancient DNA using comparative genome hybridization (CGH) eliminates these doubts. Unlike PCR methods, CGH requires no amplification of the DNA to be analyzed if adequate amounts of specimen DNA is used. Thus, false results traceable to contaminations are practically ruled out. The examples provided here prove the authenticity of ancient DNA for a 250-year-old and a 3000-year-old sample. At the same time, the CGH of ancient DNA offers the chance to gain insight into the pattern of DNA degradation and to monitor the preservation of certain chromosomal segments.

  15. Thomas Cragg Proves to Be a Good Observer (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, R.; Clette, F.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) Thomas Cragg proves to be a good observer, enough to be included in the restricted club of 21 long-duration stations without major stability problems over the interval 1945-2015. Although, his counts seem to make a slight downward jump in 1983, and there is a sharp decline in the last two years of his observing career (aging?). Cragg's observations will be used for the equivalent comparison with the new reconstructed sunspot number that is produced from the 21 stations showing the same features in the past six solar cycles. This reconstructed number is fully independent from the original Zürich sunspot number. It actually confirms the corrections being applied to the original sunspot number series (a more simple approach simply multiplying the original series by the correction factor established for the Locarno Observatory's drift), as published in the 2014 paper, by Frédéric Clette, SILSO, Royal Observatory of Belgium.

  16. Model Checking Failed Conjectures in Theorem Proving: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, Lee; Miner, Paul; Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2004-01-01

    Interactive mechanical theorem proving can provide high assurance of correct design, but it can also be a slow iterative process. Much time is spent determining why a proof of a conjecture is not forthcoming. In some cases, the conjecture is false and in others, the attempted proof is insufficient. In this case study, we use the SAL family of model checkers to generate a concrete counterexample to an unproven conjecture specified in the mechanical theorem prover, PVS. The focus of our case study is the ROBUS Interactive Consistency Protocol. We combine the use of a mechanical theorem prover and a model checker to expose a subtle flaw in the protocol that occurs under a particular scenario of faults and processor states. Uncovering the flaw allows us to mend the protocol and complete its general verification in PVS.

  17. Proving refinement transformations for deriving high-assurance software

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, V.L.; Boyle, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    The construction of a high-assurance system requires some evidence, ideally a proof, that the system as implemented will behave as required. Direct proofs of implementations do not scale up well as systems become more complex and therefore are of limited value. In recent years, refinement-based approaches have been investigated as a means to manage the complexity inherent in the verification process. In a refinement-based approach, a high-level specification is converted into an implementation through a number of refinement steps. The hope is that the proofs of the individual refinement steps will be easier than a direct proof of the implementation. However, if stepwise refinement is performed manually, the number of steps is severely limited, implying that the size of each step is large. If refinement steps are large, then proofs of their correctness will not be much easier than a direct proof of the implementation. The authors describe an approach to refinement-based software development that is based on automatic application of refinements, expressed as program transformations. This automation has the desirable effect that the refinement steps can be extremely small and, thus, easy to prove correct. They give an overview of the TAMPR transformation system that the use for automated refinement. They then focus on some aspects of the semantic framework that they have been developing to enable proofs that TAMPR transformations are correctness preserving. With this framework, proofs of correctness for transformations can be obtained with the assistance of an automated reasoning system.

  18. Common Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruben, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Describes From the Ground Up, one of a growing number of programs that join the environment, access to nutritious food, and the inner-city poor under the idea of "community food security." Reviews other programs with similar interests. (LZ)

  19. Ground Node

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    Node deployment. Original plans were to deploy directly to Fort Jefferson on Dry Tortugas (near Key West, FL). Current plans are to initially deploy...to the USCG Station on Ismoralda Key for training operations; then deploy at a to-be- determined date to Fort Jefferson on Dry Tortugas . During FY09...Dry Tortugas . NRL expects to deliver the Ground Node to Ismoralda Key in October 2009. FY09 continued the third year of providing Ground

  20. Automated Theorem Proving in High-Quality Software Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The amount and complexity of software developed during the last few years has increased tremendously. In particular, programs are being used more and more in embedded systems (from car-brakes to plant-control). Many of these applications are safety-relevant, i.e. a malfunction of hardware or software can cause severe damage or loss. Tremendous risks are typically present in the area of aviation, (nuclear) power plants or (chemical) plant control. Here, even small problems can lead to thousands of casualties and huge financial losses. Large financial risks also exist when computer systems are used in the area of telecommunication (telephone, electronic commerce) or space exploration. Computer applications in this area are not only subject to safety considerations, but also security issues are important. All these systems must be designed and developed to guarantee high quality with respect to safety and security. Even in an industrial setting which is (or at least should be) aware of the high requirements in Software Engineering, many incidents occur. For example, the Warshaw Airbus crash, was caused by an incomplete requirements specification. Uncontrolled reuse of an Ariane 4 software module was the reason for the Ariane 5 disaster. Some recent incidents in the telecommunication area, like illegal "cloning" of smart-cards of D2GSM handies, or the extraction of (secret) passwords from German T-online users show that also in this area serious flaws can happen. Due to the inherent complexity of computer systems, most authors claim that only a rigorous application of formal methods in all stages of the software life cycle can ensure high quality of the software and lead to real safe and secure systems. In this paper, we will have a look, in how far automated theorem proving can contribute to a more widespread application of formal methods and their tools, and what automated theorem provers (ATPs) must provide in order to be useful.

  1. Wall Climbing Micro Ground Vehicle (MGV)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Wall Climbing Micro Ground Vehicle (MGV) by Ian Bryant, Howard Carpenter, Asha Hall, and Mark Bundy ARL-TR-6628 September 2013...Destroy this report when it is no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. Army Research Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground , MD 21005...ARL-TR-6628 September 2013 Wall Climbing Micro Ground Vehicle (MGV) Ian Bryant, Howard Carpenter, Asha Hall, and Mark Bundy Vehicle

  2. PRIORITIZATION OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINANTS AND SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to identify chemical, physical, bacteriological, and viral contaminants, and their sources, which present the greatest health threat in public ground water supplies in the USA; and to classify (prioritize) such contaminants and relative to their...

  3. PRIORITIZATION OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINANTS AND SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to identify chemical, physical, bacteriological, and viral contaminants, and their sources, which present the greatest health threat in public ground water supplies in the USA; and to classify (prioritize) such contaminants and relative to their...

  4. Health care reform in the USA: Recommendations from USA and non-USA radiologists.

    PubMed

    Burke, Lauren Mb; Martin, Diego R; Bader, Till; Semelka, Richard C

    2012-02-28

    To compare the opinions and recommendations of imaging specialists from United States (USA) and non-USA developed nations for USA health care reform. A survey was emailed out to 18 imaging specialists from 17 non-USA developed nation countries and 14 radiologists within the USA regarding health care reform. The questionnaire contained the following questions: what are the strengths of your health care system, what problems are present in your nation's health care system, and what recommendations do you have for health care reform in the USA. USA and non-USA radiologists received the same questionnaire. Strengths of the USA health care system include high quality care, autonomy, and access to timely care. Twelve of 14 (86%) USA radiologists identified medicolegal action as a major problem in their health care system and felt that medicolegal reform was a critical aspect of health care reform. None of the non-USA radiologists identified medicolegal aspects as a problem in their own country nor identified it as a subject for USA health care reform. Eleven of 14 (79%) USA radiologists and 16/18 (89%) non-USA radiologists identified universal health care coverage as an important recommendation for reform. Without full universal coverage, meaningful health care reform will likely require medicolegal reform as an early and important aspect of improved and efficient health care.

  5. Cannabinoids in hair: strategy to prove marijuana/hashish consumption.

    PubMed

    Uhl, Michael; Sachs, Hans

    2004-10-29

    a THC outcome. The most appropriate strategy to prove cannabis consumption is immunochemical initial test followed by a GC/MS/MS confirmation of THCA.

  6. The USA PATRIOT Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minow, Mary; Coyle, Karen; Kaufman, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Explains the USA PATRIOT (Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism) Act, passed after the September 11 terrorist attacks, and its implications for libraries and patron records. Considers past dealings with the FBI; court orders; search warrants; wiretaps; and subpoenas. Includes:…

  7. The USA PATRIOT Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minow, Mary; Coyle, Karen; Kaufman, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Explains the USA PATRIOT (Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism) Act, passed after the September 11 terrorist attacks, and its implications for libraries and patron records. Considers past dealings with the FBI; court orders; search warrants; wiretaps; and subpoenas. Includes:…

  8. Three Smoking Guns Prove Falsity of Green house Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, P.

    2001-12-01

    Three observed facts: 1, the cloud coverage increased 4.1% in 50 years; 2. the precipitation increased 7.8% in 100 years; 3. the two rates are the same. {Interpretation}. 1, By the increased albedo of the clouds heat dissipation is increased 3.98 W/m2 by 2XCO2 time, canceling out greenhouse warming of 4 W/m{2}. Thus no global warming. 2, The precipitation increase show the increased release of latent heat of vaporization, which turns out to be equal to that absorbed by ocean due to increased evaporation by the greenhouse forcing. This all greenhouse heat is used up in evaporation and the warming of the earth is zero. 3, The identity of the two rates double-checked the two independent proofs. Therefore experimentally no greenhouse warming is triply proved. A new branch of science Pleistocene Climatology is developed to study the theoretical origin of no greenhouse warming. Climatology, like mechanics of a large number of particles, is of course complex and unwieldy. If totally order-less then there is no hope. However, if some regularity appears, then a systematic treatment can be done to simplify the complexity. The rigid bodies are subjected to a special simplifying condition (the distances between all particles are constant) and only 6 degrees of freedom are significant, all others are sidetracked. To study the spinning top there is no need to study the dynamics of every particle of the top by Newton's laws through super-computer. It only needs to solve the Euler equations without computer. In climate study the use of super-computer to study all degrees of freedom of the climate is as untenable as the study of the spinning top by super-computer. Yet in spite of the complexity there is strict regularity as seen in the ice ages, which works as the simplifying conditions to establish a new science Pleistocene climatology. See my book Greenhouse Warming and Nuclear Hazards just published (www.PeterFongBook.com). This time the special condition is the presence of a

  9. Ground roost resource selection for Merriam's wild turkeys

    Treesearch

    Chad P. Lehman; Daniel J. Thompson; Mark A. Rumble

    2010-01-01

    Concealment cover is important for ground-roosting wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) poults immediately following hatch during the vulnerable, preflight stage. We compared concealment cover resources selected at ground roosts to those of nest sites and available resources for Merriam's turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) in the Black Hills of South Dakota, USA...

  10. Bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures and microbiological examinations in proving endobronchial tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Şimşek, Abdullah; Yapıcı, İlhami; Babalık, Mesiha; Şimşek, Zekiye; Kolsuz, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    To determine the proportional distribution of endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) subtypes and to evaluate the types of bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures that can prove granulomatous inflammation. This was a retrospective study of 18 HIV-negative patients with biopsy-proven EBTB treated between 2010 and 2014. The most common EBTB subtypes, as classified by the bronchoscopic features, were tumorous and granular (in 22.2% for both). Sputum smear microscopy was performed in 11 patients and was positive for AFB in 4 (36.3%). Sputum culture was also performed in 11 patients and was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 10 (90.9%). Smear microscopy of BAL fluid (BALF) was performed in 16 patients and was positive for AFB in 10 (62.5%). Culture of BALF was also performed in 16 patients and was positive for M. tuberculosis in 15 (93.7%). Culture of BALF was positive for M. tuberculosis in 93.7% of the 16 patients tested. Among the 18 patients with EBTB, granulomatous inflammation was proven by the following bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures: bronchial mucosal biopsy, in 8 (44.4%); bronchial brushing, in 7 (38.8%); fine-needle aspiration biopsy, in 2 (11.1%); and BAL, in 2 (11.1%). Bronchial anthracofibrosis was observed in 5 (27.7%) of the 18 cases evaluated. In our sample of EBTB patients, the most common subtypes were the tumorous and granular subtypes. We recommend that sputum samples and BALF samples be evaluated by smear microscopy for AFB and by culture for M. tuberculosis, which could increase the rates of early diagnosis of EBTB. We also recommend that bronchial brushing be employed together with other bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures in patients suspected of having EBTB. Determinar a distribuição proporcional dos subtipos de tuberculose endobrônquica (TBEB) e avaliar os tipos de procedimentos diagnósticos broncoscópicos que podem revelar inflamação granulomatosa. Este foi um estudo retrospectivo com 18 pacientes HIV negativos com TBEB comprovada

  11. Operation USPHOT-KNOTHOLE, Nevada Proving Grounds, March - June 1953. Radiological Safety Operation. Report to the Test Director,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1953-06-01

    eighty (1880) film badges were processed during this period; of these, some nine hundred were badges issued to the FCDA -,Joint Information -. - Office...special training program for monitorswas initiated by the On-Site Operations Officer. 7.2.5 A group of 16 FCDA personnel were conducted on a guided

  12. Interior Temperature Measurements on XM650E4 RA Projectiles at Yuma Proving Ground in June 1976

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-01

    by other aut~horized documnts. ?h* u** of" taub a~m* or xamfeftm me in thiu m~portr doe wt otiouue i,~embwn of my mvi pr*4w¢. I1 - -’ I UNC LASS IF IED...A. Hodapp, Jr. Albuquerque, NM 87115 Commander US Army Harry Diamond Labs 1 Arnold Research Organization,Inc. ATTN: DRXDO-TI ATTN: Aerodynamics

  13. Methodology Investigation of Rapid Evaluation of Environmental Hazards: The Fate of VX and GB in the Dugway Proving Ground Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    emergence of the rudimentary root ( radicle ). The young root grows downward in the nutcient/soil producing lateral roots and root hairs. The hypocotyl or...stem structure between the radicle and cotyledon, elongates pulling the cotyledons upward out of the nutrient into the air where they separated into a...At the end of the desired agent exposure period, the plant was removed from the contaminated nutrient, the roots were washed free of residual agent

  14. 76 FR 7585 - General Motors Corporation Milford Proving Grounds Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adroit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ..., Non-IT Business Development and Engineering Application Support Teams Milford, MI; Amended... investigation shows that workers of the Non-IT Business Development Team and the Engineering Applications... workers of Hewlett Packard formerly known as EDS, Global Product Development, Non-IT Business Development...

  15. Focused Feasibility Study Final Health and Safety Plan. Beach Point Test Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood Area, Maryland.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    8217ECw.hC ’oWANAIo W e VIwenm qr * -ea~~ C14MSCJ4.P DN*t ~fl* X W’f1 9&* WO 1 WA"f ANC AA0icat" .* v 94 vliof-"a Nk ?b4 0𔃾" i’Th. IAlP-f W-A Aq’We "MMIN...mdcal IdeltifIcstlfn bracelet or cars s$o.S te orni/Carried to prevent aIlsldagnosis. Slmptoas oiy not occ0 r for ji t: seve-s’a ftOirS after es

  16. Operation IVY, Pacific Proving Grounds, November 1952. Project 11.5. Radiobiological Studies at Eniwetok before and after Mike Shot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1953-06-01

    Plants of Portulaca oleracea Growing in the Vicinity of the Atom-bomb Test Sites of Eniwetok Atoll, Report UWFL-31, 1952. UNCLASSIFIED • APPENDIX B...shore in an injured condition. Note absence of skin and scales on right side and back above lateral line . Left side of fish apparently normal...that the radioactivity found in the median portion lined small cavities which are present in the skeleton rather than actually being incorporated in

  17. Carbon fiber plume sampling for large scale fire tests at Dugway Proving Ground. [fiber release during aircraft fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chovit, A. R.; Lieberman, P.; Freeman, D. E.; Beggs, W. C.; Millavec, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon fiber sampling instruments were developed: passive collectors made of sticky bridal veil mesh, and active instruments using a light emitting diode (LED) source. These instruments measured the number or number rate of carbon fibers released from carbon/graphite composite material when the material was burned in a 10.7 m (35 ft) dia JP-4 pool fire for approximately 20 minutes. The instruments were placed in an array suspended from a 305 m by 305 m (1000 ft by 1000 ft) Jacob's Ladder net held vertically aloft by balloons and oriented crosswind approximately 140 meters downwind of the pool fire. Three tests were conducted during which released carbon fiber data were acquired. These data were reduced and analyzed to obtain the characteristics of the released fibers including their spatial and size distributions and estimates of the number and total mass of fibers released. The results of the data analyses showed that 2.5 to 3.5 x 10 to the 8th power single carbon fibers were released during the 20 minute burn of 30 to 50 kg mass of initial, unburned carbon fiber material. The mass released as single carbon fibers was estimated to be between 0.1 and 0.2% of the initial, unburned fiber mass.

  18. Beach Point Test Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood Area, Maryland. Focused Feasibility Study, Final Project Work Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    Paleozoic in age and consist chiefly of schist, gneiss, gabbro , 0 This information has been derived from the RFA, 1996. Jacobs Enn wtn Wo .• FINAL PROJECT...system which has supplied potable water to the area is the Van Bibber system. During World War II (WW II) a system was also used which supplied water...Imregriating plants were operated at Beach Point during and alteir World War I!; these plants were used to treat clothing with a waxy material that provides

  19. Quality Control Methodologies for Advanced EMI Sensor Data Acquisition and Anomaly Classification - Former Southwestern Proving Ground, Arkansas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    the advanced sensor and classification methodology for identifying targets of interest ( TOIs ) at a site containing a diversity of munitions in high...methodology resulted in the correct classification of 100% of TOI and yielded a reduction in clutter digs of 83%. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Section...7 3.4 OBJECTIVE: DETECTION OF ALL TOI

  20. Army Contracting Command - Aberdeen Proving Ground Contracting Center’s Management of Noncompetitive Awards Was Generally Justified

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-19

    the synopsis identifying the intended source and justifying the lack of competition. FAR 5.207(c)(15) requires a statement in the synopsis that all...injury, loss of life, and/or inestimable financial harm to the Government in the event of a chemical, biological, radiological , nuclear, and high...including one or both of the statements required by FAR 5.207 in the synopsis for 9 of the 30 noncompetitive contracts, possibly excluding sources