Science.gov

Sample records for provisional process specifications

  1. A provisional regulatory gene network for specification of endomesoderm in the sea urchin embryo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Eric H.; Rast, Jonathan P.; Oliveri, Paola; Ransick, Andrew; Calestani, Cristina; Yuh, Chiou-Hwa; Minokawa, Takuya; Amore, Gabriele; Hinman, Veronica; Arenas-Mena, Cesar; Otim, Ochan; Brown, C. Titus; Livi, Carolina B.; Lee, Pei Yun; Revilla, Roger; Schilstra, Maria J.; Clarke, Peter J C.; Rust, Alistair G.; Pan, Zhengjun; Arnone, Maria I.; Rowen, Lee; Cameron, R. Andrew; McClay, David R.; Hood, Leroy; Bolouri, Hamid

    2002-01-01

    We present the current form of a provisional DNA sequence-based regulatory gene network that explains in outline how endomesodermal specification in the sea urchin embryo is controlled. The model of the network is in a continuous process of revision and growth as new genes are added and new experimental results become available; see http://www.its.caltech.edu/mirsky/endomeso.htm (End-mes Gene Network Update) for the latest version. The network contains over 40 genes at present, many newly uncovered in the course of this work, and most encoding DNA-binding transcriptional regulatory factors. The architecture of the network was approached initially by construction of a logic model that integrated the extensive experimental evidence now available on endomesoderm specification. The internal linkages between genes in the network have been determined functionally, by measurement of the effects of regulatory perturbations on the expression of all relevant genes in the network. Five kinds of perturbation have been applied: (1) use of morpholino antisense oligonucleotides targeted to many of the key regulatory genes in the network; (2) transformation of other regulatory factors into dominant repressors by construction of Engrailed repressor domain fusions; (3) ectopic expression of given regulatory factors, from genetic expression constructs and from injected mRNAs; (4) blockade of the beta-catenin/Tcf pathway by introduction of mRNA encoding the intracellular domain of cadherin; and (5) blockade of the Notch signaling pathway by introduction of mRNA encoding the extracellular domain of the Notch receptor. The network model predicts the cis-regulatory inputs that link each gene into the network. Therefore, its architecture is testable by cis-regulatory analysis. Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus variegatus genomic BAC recombinants that include a large number of the genes in the network have been sequenced and annotated. Tests of the cis-regulatory predictions of

  2. Provisional License.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preusser, David F.; Leaf, William A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the phase in a graduated driver-licensing system that includes the provisional license, which allows young people to drive under certain restrictions. Discusses how the licensing system has emerged as an important factor in reducing crash rates among teenage drivers. (Contains 1 table, 2 figures, and 18 references.) (WFA)

  3. Long-term reinforced fixed provisional restorations.

    PubMed

    Galindo, D; Soltys, J L; Graser, G N

    1998-06-01

    Extensive prosthodontic treatment often requires fabrication of long-term provisional restorations. Numerous materials and techniques have been described for prolonged insertion of interim restorations. This article describes a procedure for fabrication of long-term reinforced heat-processed provisional restorations based on a diagnostic wax-up. Reinforced heat-processed provisional restorations reduced flexure, which minimizes progressive loss of cement and diminished the possibility of recurrent decay. Occlusal stability and vertical dimension were maintained because of greater wear resistance. Occlusion, tooth contours, and pontic design developed in the provisional restoration were duplicated in the definitive restoration. The use of a matrix from a diagnostic wax-up facilitated fabrication of the prosthesis, and made the procedure less time-consuming and more predictable.

  4. 21 CFR 81.1 - Provisional lists of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... affecting § 81.1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Provisional lists of color additives. 81.1 Section... GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS AND GENERAL RESTRICTIONS FOR PROVISIONAL COLOR ADDITIVES FOR USE IN FOODS,...

  5. 21 CFR 81.1 - Provisional lists of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... affecting § 81.1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Provisional lists of color additives. 81.1 Section... GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS AND GENERAL RESTRICTIONS FOR PROVISIONAL COLOR ADDITIVES FOR USE IN FOODS,...

  6. 21 CFR 81.1 - Provisional lists of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... affecting § 81.1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Provisional lists of color additives. 81.1 Section... GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS AND GENERAL RESTRICTIONS FOR PROVISIONAL COLOR ADDITIVES FOR USE IN FOODS,...

  7. 21 CFR 81.1 - Provisional lists of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... affecting § 81.1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Provisional lists of color additives. 81.1 Section... GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS AND GENERAL RESTRICTIONS FOR PROVISIONAL COLOR ADDITIVES FOR USE IN FOODS,...

  8. 21 CFR 81.1 - Provisional lists of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... affecting § 81.1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Provisional lists of color additives. 81.1 Section... GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS AND GENERAL RESTRICTIONS FOR PROVISIONAL COLOR ADDITIVES FOR USE IN FOODS,...

  9. Increasing Immunization Compliance by Reducing Provisional Admittance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Wendy S.; Varni, Susan E.; Barry, Sara E.; Frankowski, Barbara L.; Harder, Valerie S.

    2016-01-01

    Students in Vermont with incomplete or undocumented immunization status are provisionally admitted to schools and historically had a calendar year to resolve their immunization status. The process of resolving these students' immunization status was challenging for school nurses. We conducted a school-based quality improvement effort to increase…

  10. Increasing Immunization Compliance by Reducing Provisional Admittance.

    PubMed

    Davis, Wendy S; Varni, Susan E; Barry, Sara E; Frankowski, Barbara L; Harder, Valerie S

    2016-08-01

    Students in Vermont with incomplete or undocumented immunization status are provisionally admitted to schools and historically had a calendar year to resolve their immunization status. The process of resolving these students' immunization status was challenging for school nurses. We conducted a school-based quality improvement effort to increase student compliance with Vermont immunization regulations using a collaborative learning approach with public health school liaisons and school nurses from public schools to reduce provisional admittance in 2011-2012. Strategies included using a tracking system, accessing the immunization registry, promoting immunization importance, tracking immunization plans, and working with medical homes to update records. Participating school nurses observed decreases in the number of provisionally admitted students, although this reduction was not significantly different than matched comparison schools. We also found the number of provisionally admitted students fluctuated throughout the year and resolving the immunization status of New Americans and exchange students required special attention. Our approach supports the coordinated school health model and demonstrates the critical role school nurses play in improving population health outcomes. PMID:26699951

  11. Increasing Immunization Compliance by Reducing Provisional Admittance.

    PubMed

    Davis, Wendy S; Varni, Susan E; Barry, Sara E; Frankowski, Barbara L; Harder, Valerie S

    2016-08-01

    Students in Vermont with incomplete or undocumented immunization status are provisionally admitted to schools and historically had a calendar year to resolve their immunization status. The process of resolving these students' immunization status was challenging for school nurses. We conducted a school-based quality improvement effort to increase student compliance with Vermont immunization regulations using a collaborative learning approach with public health school liaisons and school nurses from public schools to reduce provisional admittance in 2011-2012. Strategies included using a tracking system, accessing the immunization registry, promoting immunization importance, tracking immunization plans, and working with medical homes to update records. Participating school nurses observed decreases in the number of provisionally admitted students, although this reduction was not significantly different than matched comparison schools. We also found the number of provisionally admitted students fluctuated throughout the year and resolving the immunization status of New Americans and exchange students required special attention. Our approach supports the coordinated school health model and demonstrates the critical role school nurses play in improving population health outcomes.

  12. Priming the Query Specification Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toms, Elaine G.; Freund, Luanne

    2003-01-01

    Tests the use of questions as a technique in the query specification process. Using a within-subjects design, 48 people interacted with a modified Google interface to solve four information problems in four domains. Half the tasks were entered as typical keyword queries, and half as questions or statements. Results suggest the typical search box…

  13. Provisional Admission Practices: Blending Access and Support to Facilitate Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Andrew Howard; Clinedinst, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This report examines provisional admission as an initiative that can expand four-year college access and success for students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Provisional admission policies and programs enable students to enroll at an institution under specific conditions. Students are often required to meet certain academic…

  14. Smile design and advanced provisional fabrication.

    PubMed

    Malone, Mike

    2008-05-01

    Cosmetic reconstruction is much more predictable when superb provisionals are used as a blueprint for the final restoration. This article provides details for a technique that can be used to fabricate indirect multilayered composite provisional restorations for porcelain veneers and complex full-arch cases.

  15. Four new provisional serovars of Shigella.

    PubMed

    Gross, R J; Thomas, L V; Cheasty, T; Rowe, B; Lindberg, A A

    1989-05-01

    Four bacterial strains are described that possess the biochemical characteristics of Shigella species but do not belong to any of the established Shigella serovars or to any previously described provisional serovar. One strain fermented mannitol, and it is proposed that this be the type strain for a new provisional serovar of Shigella boydii. The remaining strains did not ferment mannitol and belonged to three different serovars. These strains are proposed as type strains for three new provisional serovars of Shigella dysenteriae. All four strains were invasive in a HEp-2 cell tissue culture test, but only one was invasive in the guinea pig eye test and might therefore be expected to cause dysenterylike illness in humans. It is important that the designation of such strains remain provisional until other reference laboratories have had the opportunity to search for additional isolates and the possible pathogenicity of these strains for humans can be further assessed.

  16. Integrating fixed and removable provisional restorations.

    PubMed

    Curtis, S R

    1993-10-01

    When both fixed and removable components are required, provisional restorations can be difficult. This article describes a technique where provisional restoration "shells" are made with a plastic stent of the diagnostic wax-up on lightly prepared teeth of a diagnostic cast. An acrylic removable partial denture is then waxed to the shells. The shells are relined intraorally after tooth preparation with the partial denture in place.

  17. Comparison of provisional with final notifiable disease case counts - National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, 2009.

    PubMed

    2013-09-13

    States report notifiable disease cases to CDC through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). This allows CDC to assist with public health action and monitor infectious diseases across jurisdictional boundaries nationwide. The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) is used to disseminate these data on infectious disease incidence. The extent to which the weekly notifiable conditions are overreported or underreported can affect public health understanding of changes in the burden, distribution, and trends in disease, which is essential for control of communicable diseases. NNDSS encourages state health departments to notify CDC of a case when initially reported. These cases are included in the weekly provisional counts. The status of reported cases can change after further investigation by the states, resulting in differences between provisional and final counts. Increased knowledge of these differences can help in guiding the use of information from NNDSS. To quantify the extent to which final counts differ from provisional counts of notifiable infectious disease in the United States, CDC analyzed 2009 NNDSS data for 67 conditions. The results of this analysis demonstrate that for five conditions, final case counts were lower than provisional counts, but for 59 conditions, final counts were higher than provisional counts. The median difference between final and provisional counts was 16.7%; differences were ≤20% for 39 diseases but >50% for 12. These differences occur for various diseases and in all states. Provisional case counts should be interpreted with caution and an understanding of the reporting process.

  18. Trends in indirect dentistry: 6. Provisional restorations, more than just a temporary.

    PubMed

    Burke, F J Trevor; Murray, Madeleine C; Shortall, Adrian C C

    2005-10-01

    The provision of well-fitting, functional provisional restorations is important for a wide variety of reasons, including maintenance of the stability of inter- and intra-arch relationships and positional stability of prepared teeth, and the preservation of occlusal function of anterior provisional restorations by providing appropriate protrusive and lateral guidance. Provisional restorations should be of sufficient strength to resist the forces of occlusion and should be luted with a cement that will resist the forces of removal, yet allow easy removal at the fit appointment without leaving a residue on the prepared tooth. This paper describes the use of provisional restorations in indirect restorative dentistry and suggests some specific techniques for clinical use.

  19. Role of provisional restorations in endodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, Jambai Sampathkumar; Suresh Kumar, Beri Narasimiah; Shyamala, Palaniyandi Vadivel

    2013-01-01

    Root-canal treatment can be carried out in single visit in vital, non-infected teeth, eliminating the need for dressing and provisionalization. Many clinical cases with infected canals require dressing with antibacterial medicaments in a multivisit treatment in which effective provisionalization for different periods of time becomes mandatory. Successful root-canal treatment requires effective mechanical and chemical debridement, elimination of bacteria and pulp tissue remnants and proper canal shaping to facilitate effective obturation. Lack of satisfactory temporary restorations during endodontic therapy ranked second amongst the contributing factors in continuing pain after the commencement of treatment. This review aims to provide an overview of the materials used for provisionalization during and immediately after endodontic treatment. PMID:23946564

  20. Process Specification for Eddy Current Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay

    2011-01-01

    This process specification establishes the minimum requirements for eddy current inspection of flat surfaces, fastener holes, threaded fasteners and seamless and welded tubular products made from nonmagnetic alloys such as aluminum and stainless steel.

  1. 14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provisionally certificated airplanes... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....

  2. 14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Provisionally certificated airplanes... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....

  3. 14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Provisionally certificated airplanes... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....

  4. 14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Provisionally certificated airplanes... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....

  5. Fixed provisional restorations for extended prosthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Amet, E M; Phinney, T L

    1995-01-01

    During extensive and extended prosthodontic treatment, there is need for a durable esthetic fixed provisional restoration that can be easily modified as treatment is completed and that is cost-effective. The needed strength of provisional restorations can be underestimated, and the management of complex treatment is then more difficult and the prosthetic results less predictable. Knowledge of the criteria for treatment restorations and the adequacies of their construction is essential for the prevention of catastrophic failures, patient management problems, and compromised results. Many times in complex prosthodontic treatment, changes are needed in esthetics, the plane of occlusion, incisal edge position, lip support, and type of occlusion, or the soft and/or hard tissues need to be altered or grafted surgically. In addition, after first- and second-stage implant surgery and extractions, there is a need for immediate tooth replacement with extended time between prosthodontic treatments. These prosthodontic changes and challenges can be addressed with reinforced acrylic provisional restorations that are adequately cemented and retained during the interim stage of healing and treatment. In addition, the provisional restoration should serve as a guide for the final restoration while esthetics and phonetics are evaluated for patient acceptance. This article describes the materials used with an indirect technique for fabrication of an extended-treatment acrylic provisional restoration that uses an internal cast metal support system for strength. This support system consists of metal bands or copings with extensions into edentulous areas and that have been opaqued to neutralize the metallic color. A matrix of vinyl polysiloxane made from the diagnostic wax-up simplifies construction of the acrylic, resulting in a strong, ridged, yet esthetic result.

  6. 14 CFR 141.7 - Provisional pilot school certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Provisional pilot school certificate. 141.7... (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS General § 141.7 Provisional pilot school... provisional pilot school certificate with ratings....

  7. 14 CFR 141.7 - Provisional pilot school certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provisional pilot school certificate. 141.7... (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS General § 141.7 Provisional pilot school... provisional pilot school certificate with ratings....

  8. Mechanical properties of four methylmethacrylate-based resins for provisional fixed restorations.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, E P; Oshida, Y; Platt, J A; Andres, C J; Barco, M T; Brown, D T

    2004-01-01

    The use of a provisional restoration is an important phase in the treatment of the dental prosthetic patient. A good provisional restoration should satisfy the following requirements: pulpal protection, positional stability, ease in cleaning, accurate margins, wear resistance, dimensional stability, and serve as a diagnostic aid in treatment assessment and esthetics. There is a tendency for discoloration, occlusal wear, and fracture that eventually leads to unnecessary repair. Heat-processed and reinforced methacrylate-based resins have been used to improve the mechanical and physical properties of provisional restorations. Among various improvements, the interpenetrating network crosslinked PMMA (IPN) has been shown to have superior mechanical properties if manufactured through a dough compression molding process at 130 degrees C. However, there have been no published data that relate with the use of this material for fixed provisional restorations. The objective of this study was to compare four methyl methacrylate-based resins for provisional crowns and bridges with varying processing cycles, including JET [self-cure], ACRALON [heat-cured], titanium dioxide filled PMMA [heat-cured], and IPN [heat-cured denture tooth resin]. Properties studied included transverse strength, toughness, rigidity, and hardness. From the results of this study the following conclusions can be made: the IPN group may have had a lower degree of conversion as demonstrated by decreased strength, toughness, and hardness data as compared with Acralon. Increasing the polymerization cycle of unmodified Acralon resin causes a significant increase in strength.

  9. EUV mask process specifics and development challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesladek, Pavel

    2014-07-01

    EUV lithography is currently the favorite and most promising candidate among the next generation lithography (NGL) technologies. Decade ago the NGL was supposed to be used for 45 nm technology node. Due to introduction of immersion 193nm lithography, double/triple patterning and further techniques, the 193 nm lithography capabilities was greatly improved, so it is expected to be used successfully depending on business decision of the end user down to 10 nm logic. Subsequent technology node will require EUV or DSA alternative technology. Manufacturing and especially process development for EUV technology requires significant number of unique processes, in several cases performed at dedicated tools. Currently several of these tools as e.g. EUV AIMS or actinic reflectometer are not available on site yet. The process development is done using external services /tools with impact on the single unit process development timeline and the uncertainty of the process performance estimation, therefore compromises in process development, caused by assumption about similarities between optical and EUV mask made in experiment planning and omitting of tests are further reasons for challenges to unit process development. Increased defect risk and uncertainty in process qualification are just two examples, which can impact mask quality / process development. The aim of this paper is to identify critical aspects of the EUV mask manufacturing with respect to defects on the mask with focus on mask cleaning and defect repair and discuss the impact of the EUV specific requirements on the experiments needed.

  10. Provisionalization for ceramic laminate veneer restorations: a clinical update.

    PubMed

    Nixon, R L

    1997-01-01

    At the inception of ceramic veneer restorations in the early 1980s, provisional veneer restorations were not customarily placed over teeth which had undergone tooth reduction. During the last several years, provisional veneer restorations have been utilized with increased frequency for a variety of valid reasons. The learning objective of this article is to examine the reasons for the increased utilization of provisional veneer restorations and to describe a selection of the clinical methods employed for direct and indirect fabrication. The indications and contraindications for provisionalization are presented. Four case reports are utilized to describe and illustrate the various clinical circumstances, the provisionalization procedures, the appropriate instruments, and the materials that facilitate the fabrication of aesthetic, functionally sound, and biocompatible provisional restorations.

  11. Atraumatic extraction, implant placement and immediate provisionalization.

    PubMed

    Tavarez, Rudys Rodolfo de Jesus; Calixto, Amanda Martins; Maia Filho, Etevaldo Matos; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Firoozmand, Leily Macedo; Gomes, Mario Gilson Nina; Malheiros, Adriana Santos

    2014-01-01

    Front tooth extraction typically results in significant loss of hard and soft tissue volume, both in the vestibular-lingual and mesiodistal directions. As these changes can compromise the esthetic results of prosthetic rehabilitation, extraction techniques that cause minimal trauma to the remnant tissues are applied in combination with immediate implant placement to minimize such alterations. The case reported in the present article illustrates a therapeutic plan consisting of atraumatic extraction followed by immediate implant placement and provisionalization. When carefully indicated and planned, our results indicate that this technique may provide promising immediate results relative to the maintenance and stability of the peri-implanted tissues. PMID:25576122

  12. Ribosomopathies: Global process, tissue specific defects

    PubMed Central

    Yelick, Pamela C; Trainor, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Disruptions in ribosomal biogenesis would be expected to have global and in fact lethal effects on a developing organism. However, mutations in ribosomal protein genes have been shown in to exhibit tissue specific defects. This seemingly contradictory finding - that globally expressed genes thought to play fundamental housekeeping functions can in fact exhibit tissue and cell type specific functions ‐ provides new insight into roles for ribosomes, the protein translational machinery of the cell, in regulating normal development and disease. Furthermore it illustrates the surprisingly dynamic nature of processes regulating cell type specific protein translation. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of a variety of ribosomal protein mutations associated with human disease, and models to better understand the molecular mechanisms associated with each. We use specific examples to emphasize both the similarities and differences between the effects of various human ribosomal protein mutations. Finally, we discuss areas of future study that are needed to further our understanding of the role of ribosome biogenesis in normal development, and possible approaches that can be used to treat debilitating ribosomopathy diseases. PMID:26442198

  13. Ribosomopathies: Global process, tissue specific defects.

    PubMed

    Yelick, Pamela C; Trainor, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Disruptions in ribosomal biogenesis would be expected to have global and in fact lethal effects on a developing organism. However, mutations in ribosomal protein genes have been shown in to exhibit tissue specific defects. This seemingly contradictory finding - that globally expressed genes thought to play fundamental housekeeping functions can in fact exhibit tissue and cell type specific functions - provides new insight into roles for ribosomes, the protein translational machinery of the cell, in regulating normal development and disease. Furthermore it illustrates the surprisingly dynamic nature of processes regulating cell type specific protein translation. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of a variety of ribosomal protein mutations associated with human disease, and models to better understand the molecular mechanisms associated with each. We use specific examples to emphasize both the similarities and differences between the effects of various human ribosomal protein mutations. Finally, we discuss areas of future study that are needed to further our understanding of the role of ribosome biogenesis in normal development, and possible approaches that can be used to treat debilitating ribosomopathy diseases. PMID:26442198

  14. Techniques of fabrication of provisional restoration: an overview.

    PubMed

    Regish, K M; Sharma, Deeksha; Prithviraj, D R

    2011-01-01

    A properly fabricated provisional restoration is important in achieving a successful indirect restoration. The importance of provisional restorations as an integral part of fixed prosthodontic treatment is evident from the abundance of the literature pertaining to their importance regarding margin fidelity, function, occlusion, and esthetics. There are a variety of techniques available to suit the individual needs of the clinician and of the clinical situation, from a single unit to a complete-arch provisional fixed prostheses.

  15. A simple and predictable direct technique for esthetic provisional veneers.

    PubMed

    Young, Careen W

    2004-02-01

    There are a number of different techniques for fabricating provisional veneers. There are direct and indirect techniques involving acrylic or composite resin veneers made with or without a vacuform matrix. This article describes a direct technique for fabricating removable provisional veneers using an auto-polymerizing urethane dimethyacrylate resin and a thermoplastic matrix that may later serve as a stent to be worn with the provisional veneers.

  16. Techniques of Fabrication of Provisional Restoration: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Regish, K. M.; Sharma, Deeksha; Prithviraj, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    A properly fabricated provisional restoration is important in achieving a successful indirect restoration. The importance of provisional restorations as an integral part of fixed prosthodontic treatment is evident from the abundance of the literature pertaining to their importance regarding margin fidelity, function, occlusion, and esthetics. There are a variety of techniques available to suit the individual needs of the clinician and of the clinical situation, from a single unit to a complete-arch provisional fixed prostheses. PMID:22013441

  17. In vitro color stability of provisional restorations.

    PubMed

    Yaman, P; Razzoog, M; Brandau, H E

    1989-04-01

    A provisional restoration must protect the prepared tooth, provide comfort and function and be esthetically acceptable and color stable. This study measured the degree of color change of provisional restorations. Five commercially available resins were evaluated: Trim, Tab, Kind, Snap and Duralay. Five cylindrical samples of each resin were fabricated by mixing the powder and the liquid to a predetermined ratio and pouring the mix into a mold. The Minolta Chroma Meter II Reflectance was used to establish the baseline color L* a* b*. The resins were then subjected to accelerated in vitro aging in a Weather-O-Meter and color readings were recorded. The color differentials on delta E* were computed for each sample (delta E*ab = [(delta L*)2+(delta b*)2]1/2). The difference is a quantitative measurement of color change. The National Bureau of Standards describes delta E* as units (NBS Unit = delta E*ab x 0.92). With this parameter only the allowable delta E*ab need be specified rather than the range of allowable L*, a*, b* values. This is important for color comparison and quality control functions. The results showed that Kind had a slight color change delta E* = -1.72, Trim demonstrated the most color change delta E* = -13.84, while the remaining resins demonstrated a noticeable change in color due to in vitro aging.

  18. Experiment specific processing of residual acceleration data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Alexander, J. I. D.

    1992-01-01

    To date, most Spacelab residual acceleration data collection projects have resulted in data bases that are overwhelming to the investigator of low-gravity experiments. This paper introduces a simple passive accelerometer system to measure low-frequency accelerations. Model responses for experiments using actual acceleration data are produced and correlations are made between experiment response and the accelerometer time history in order to test the idea that recorded acceleration data and experimental responses can be usefully correlated. Spacelab 3 accelerometer data are used as input to a variety of experiment models, and sensitivity limits are obtained for particular experiment classes. The modeling results are being used to create experiment-specific residual acceleration data processing schemes for interested investigators.

  19. Long-term esthetic provisional restorations in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Lodding, D W

    1997-01-01

    The role of interim dental restorations used for indirect restorative and prosthodontic procedures has changed dramatically in the past several years. These restorations are no longer regarded as temporary restorations but rather as provisional restorations with distinct functions and purposes. Provisional restorations have become a vital diagnostic and assessment tool to evaluate function color, shape, contour, occlusion, periodontal response, implant healing, and overall esthetics. An accurate fit and margination is essential to insure and maintain pulpal health of the tooth. With increased demands being placed on provisional restorations, new materials and techniques are being developed and some existing protocols are being refined to accomplish the desired goals. Provisional restorations are often in the oral environment for several months, requiring a well-fabricated and stable restoration. This review is designed to report on current materials, techniques, and concepts in fabricating and maintaining long-term esthetic provisionals.

  20. PROVISIONAL ADVISORY LEVELS (PALs) FOR PHOSGENE (CG)

    SciTech Connect

    Glass-Mattie, Dana F; McClanahan, Mark; Koller, Loren; Adeshina, Femi; Ross, Robert Hord

    2009-01-01

    The PAL protocol was applied to estimate inhalation exposure limits for phosgene (CG). Data on humans are limited to occupational exposures or accounts from the use of phosgene as a chemical warfare agent in WWI. Animal studies with phosgene show a steep dose-response curve for pulmonary edema and mortality with little species variability in effects. Although immediately upon exposure lacrimation and upper respiratory irritation can occur, the main effect in the target organ, a progressive pulmonary edema, occurs after a latency period of 1-24 hours. PAL estimates were approved by the Expert Consultation Panel for Provisional Advisory Levels in May 2007. Exposure limits for oral exposure to CG are not developed due to insufficient data. PAL estimates for inhalation exposure to CG are presented: The 24-hour PAL values for severity levels 1, 2, and 3 are 0.0017, 0.0033 and 0.022 ppm, respectively. The 30-day PAL values are 0.0006 and 0.0012 ppm for the PAL 1 and 2 values, respectively. These 30-day inhalation values were also accepted as the 90-day and 2-year PAL 1 and 2 values. Data were not available for deriving 30-day, 90-day and 2-year PAL 3 values.

  1. Provisional Matrix Deposition in Hemostasis and Venous Insufficiency: Tissue Preconditioning for Nonhealing Venous Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Tony J.; Broadbent, James A.; McGovern, Jacqui A.; Broszczak, Daniel A.; Parker, Christina N.; Upton, Zee

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Chronic wounds represent a major burden on global healthcare systems and reduce the quality of life of those affected. Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the biochemistry of wound healing progression. However, knowledge regarding the specific molecular processes influencing chronic wound formation and persistence remains limited. Recent Advances: Generally, healing of acute wounds begins with hemostasis and the deposition of a plasma-derived provisional matrix into the wound. The deposition of plasma matrix proteins is known to occur around the microvasculature of the lower limb as a result of venous insufficiency. This appears to alter limb cutaneous tissue physiology and consequently drives the tissue into a ‘preconditioned’ state that negatively influences the response to wounding. Critical Issues: Processes, such as oxygen and nutrient suppression, edema, inflammatory cell trapping/extravasation, diffuse inflammation, and tissue necrosis are thought to contribute to the advent of a chronic wound. Healing of the wound then becomes difficult in the context of an internally injured limb. Thus, interventions and therapies for promoting healing of the limb is a growing area of interest. For venous ulcers, treatment using compression bandaging encourages venous return and improves healing processes within the limb, critically however, once treatment concludes ulcers often reoccur. Future Directions: Improved understanding of the composition and role of pericapillary matrix deposits in facilitating internal limb injury and subsequent development of chronic wounds will be critical for informing and enhancing current best practice therapies and preventative action in the wound care field. PMID:25785239

  2. Provisional material considerations: creating a blueprint of the final restorations.

    PubMed

    Helvey, Gregg A

    2014-01-01

    Indirect restorative dentistry generally requires temporization of prepared teeth during the laboratory fabrication phase. Over the years, the physical properties of newer provisional materials have improved, which has enabled an expansion of the function of provisional restorations. Better strength, surface finish, and color match have increased their acceptability by patients and clinicians. In some clinical situations provisional restorations can provide information that is critical to the overall success of a case. Such information allows the clinician to verify and confirm with the patient the esthetics, phonetics, and function of the proposed anterior restorative treatment. The provisional restorations can also provide valuable information to the laboratory technician regarding design, contour, length, shade, and even correct articulation of the master model. The success of the definitive restoration is dependent on the accurate transfer of this information to the laboratory technician.

  3. System and method for deriving a process-based specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael Gerard (Inventor); Rash, James Larry (Inventor); Rouff, Christopher A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A system and method for deriving a process-based specification for a system is disclosed. The process-based specification is mathematically inferred from a trace-based specification. The trace-based specification is derived from a non-empty set of traces or natural language scenarios. The process-based specification is mathematically equivalent to the trace-based specification. Code is generated, if applicable, from the process-based specification. A process, or phases of a process, using the features disclosed can be reversed and repeated to allow for an interactive development and modification of legacy systems. The process is applicable to any class of system, including, but not limited to, biological and physical systems, electrical and electro-mechanical systems in addition to software, hardware and hybrid hardware-software systems.

  4. Hemisphere-specific processes in letter matching.

    PubMed

    Kirsner, K

    1980-02-01

    Three experiments were designed to investigate outstanding questions concerning the effect of memory load variations on efficiency and coding processes in the left and right cerebral hemispheres. In Experiment 1 subjects were presented with one, two, or three target letters in uppercase or lowercase in central vision, followed by simultaneous bilateral probes requiring a name match response. Twenty young right-handed adults, 10 males and 10 females, acted as subjects. Two main features of the results were as follows: (a) The slope of the linear function relating mean reaction time (RT) and set size was 30% greater for right visual field (RVF)-left-hemisphere probe stimuli under both physical and name identity conditions, and (b) RT for RVF-left-hemisphere probes was greater when the probe was drawn from preterminal serial position in the target list. Experiments 2 and 3 examined the proposition that the results of Experiment 1 reflected asymmetric interference during list acquisition. The results showed that, first, the LVF-right-hemisphere advantage was eliminated or reversed under unilateral probe presentation conditions, and second, the LVF-right-hemisphere advantage for a single, preterminal serial position was insensitive to variations in the interitem interval. The results are thought to be inconsistent with the interference hypothesis. The general implications of the results for existing theories of hemisphere function are discussed.

  5. A comparison of wire- and Kevlar-reinforced provisional restorations.

    PubMed

    Powell, D B; Nicholls, J I; Yuodelis, R A; Strygler, H

    1994-01-01

    Stainless steel wire 0.036 inch in diameter was compared with Kevlar 49 polyaramid fiber as a means of reinforcing a four-unit posterior provisional fixed restoration with 2 pontics. Three reinforcement patterns for wire and two for Kevlar 49 were evaluated and compared with the control, which was an unreinforced provisional restoration. A central tensile load was placed on the cemented provisional restoration and the variables were measured: (1) the initial stiffness; (2) the load at initial fracture; and (3) the unit toughness, or the energy stored in the beam at a point where the load had undergone a 1.0-mm deflection. Statistical analysis showed (1) the bent wire configuration had a significantly higher initial stiffness (P < or = .05), (2) there was no difference between designs for load at initial fracture, and (3) the bent wire had a significantly higher unit toughness value (P < or = .05).

  6. Technology and the use of acrylics for provisional dentine protection.

    PubMed

    Kapusevska, Biljana; Dereban, Nikola; Popovska, Mirjana; Nikolovska, Julijana; Radojkova Nikolovska, Vеrа; Zabokova Bilbilova, Efka; Mijoska, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Acrylics are compounds polymerized from monomers of acrylic, metacrylic acid or acrylonitrates. The purpose of this paper is to present the technology and use of acrylics for provisional dentine protection in the practice of dental prosthodontics. For this reason, we followed 120 clinical cases from the everyday clinical practice, divided into 4 groups of 30 patients who needed prosthetic reconstruction. The first group included cases in which we applied celluloid crowns for dentine protection, for the second group we used acrylic teeth from a set of teeth for complete dentures; in the third and fourth groups the fabrication was done with the system of an impression matrix and the acrylic resin block technique respectively. In all the examined patients, the gingival index by Silness and Loe and the vitality of the dental pulp were verified clinically, after preparation and 8 days from the placement of the provisional crown. The value for dental sensitivity measured after preparation was 2.59, and 8 days after the placement of the provisional crown it bwas 3.1. From these results we can conclude that after the 8th day from the placement of the provisional crown, there was an adaptation period, characterized by a decrease in the painful sensations. The value of the Silness and Loe gingival index measured after the preparation was 1.34, and 8 days from the placement of the provisional crown was 0.94. The results inclined us to the fact that the provisional acrylic crowns facilitated the reparation of the periodontal tissue. PMID:24566021

  7. THE PEDIATRIC RHEUMATOLOGY INTERNATIONAL TRIALS ORGANIZATION PROVISIONAL CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF RESPONSE TO THERAPY IN JUVENILE DERMATOMYOSITIS

    PubMed Central

    Ruperto, Nicolino; Pistorio, Angela; Ravelli, Angelo; Rider, Lisa G.; Pilkington, Clarissa; Oliveira, Sheila; Wulffraat, Nico; Espada, Graciela; Garay, Stella; Cuttica, Ruben; Hofer, Michael; Quartier, Pierre; Melo-Gomes, Jose; Reed, Ann M.; Wierzbowska, Malgorzata; Feldman, Brian M.; Harjacek, Miroslav; Huppertz, Hans-Iko; Nielsen, Susan; Flato, Berit; Lahdenne, Pekka; Michels, Harmut; Murray, Kevin J.; Punaro, Lynn; Rennebohm, Robert; Russo, Ricardo; Balogh, Zsolt; Rooney, Madeleine; Pachman, Lauren M.; Wallace, Carol; Hashkes, Philip; Lovell, Daniel J.; Giannini, Edward H.; Martini, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop a provisional definition for the evaluation of response to therapy in juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) based on the PRINTO JDM core set of variables. Methods Thirty-seven experienced pediatric rheumatologists from 27 countries, achieved consensus on 128 difficult patient profiles as clinically improved or not improved using a stepwise approach (patients rating, statistical analysis, definition selection). Using the physicians’ consensus ratings as the “gold-standard measure”, chi-square, sensitivity, specificity, false positive and negative rate, area under the ROC, and kappa agreement for candidate definitions of improvement were calculated. Definitions with kappa >0.8 were multiplied with the face validity score to select the top definitions. Results The top definition of improvement was: at least 20% improvement from baseline in 3/6 core set variables with no more than 1 of the remaining worsening by more than 30%, which cannot be muscle strength. The second highest scoring definition was at least 20% improvement from baseline in 3/6 core set variables with no more than 2 of the remaining worsening by more than 25%, which cannot be muscle strength which is definition P1 selected by the IMACS group. The third is similar to the second with the maximum amount of worsening set to 30%. This indicates convergent validity of the process. Conclusion we proposes a provisional data driven definition of improvement that reflects well the consensus rating of experienced clinicians, which incorporates clinically meaningful change in core set variables in a composite endpoint for the evaluation of global response to therapy in JDM. PMID:20583105

  8. 42 CFR 457.1180 - Program specific review process: Notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program specific review process: Notice. 457.1180... State Plan Requirements: Applicant and Enrollee Protections § 457.1180 Program specific review process: Notice. A State must provide enrollees and applicants timely written notice of any...

  9. Health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for Homeland Security

    SciTech Connect

    Adeshina, Femi; Sonich-Mullin, Synthia; Wood, Carol S

    2009-01-01

    In compliance with Homeland Security Presidential Directive No.8, the US EPA National Homeland Security Research Center, in collaboration with the Department of Energy, is developing health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for priority toxic industrial chemicals, pesticides, and chemical warfare agents in air and drinking water. The PALs Program will provide exposure levels to assist emergency response decision-making, and to serve as criteria for determining re-use and re-entry into affected areas resulting from transport/storage accidents, natural disasters, and subversive activities. PALs are applicable at federal, state, and local levels, and are intended for use in homeland security efforts, public health, law enforcement, and emergency response, as well as decisions by water utilities, and national and regional EPA offices. PALS have not been promulgated nor have they been formally issued as regulatory guidance. They are intended to be used at the discretion of risk managers in emergency situations when site specific risk assessments are not available. Three levels (PAL 1, PAL 2, and PAL 3), distinguished by severity of toxic effects, are developed for 24-hour, 30-day, 90-day, and 2-year durations of potential drinking water and inhalation exposures for the general public. Draft PALs are evaluated both by an EPA working group, and an external multidisciplinary panel to ensure scientific credibility and wide acceptance. In this issue, we present background information on the PAL program, the methodology used in deriving PALs, and the technical support documents for the derivation of PALs for acrylonitrile, phosgene, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen sulfide.

  10. Aesthetic provisional restoration for the partially edentulous, immediate, postimplantation patient.

    PubMed

    McCord, J F; Smith, G A; Quayle, A A

    1992-01-01

    This article reviews the methods currently used for making provisional restorations for endosseous dental implants. With the requirements for osseointegration in mind, a simple and aesthetic alternative is suggested. The clinical and laboratory stages for the fabrication of the prosthesis are outlined.

  11. 14 CFR 21.85 - Provisional amendments to type certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Provisional amendments to type certificates. (a) An applicant who manufactures aircraft within the United...) An applicant who manufactures aircraft in a foreign country with which the United States has an... airworthiness of the aircraft. (i) The applicant must operate a prototype aircraft modified in accordance...

  12. 14 CFR 21.85 - Provisional amendments to type certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Provisional amendments to type certificates. (a) An applicant who manufactures aircraft within the United... applicant who manufactures aircraft in a foreign country with which the United States has an agreement for... aircraft. (i) The applicant must operate a prototype aircraft modified in accordance with the...

  13. 14 CFR 21.85 - Provisional amendments to type certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Provisional amendments to type certificates. (a) An applicant who manufactures aircraft within the United... applicant who manufactures aircraft in a foreign country with which the United States has an agreement for... aircraft. (i) The applicant must operate a prototype aircraft modified in accordance with the...

  14. 14 CFR 21.85 - Provisional amendments to type certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Provisional amendments to type certificates. (a) An applicant who manufactures aircraft within the United...) An applicant who manufactures aircraft in a foreign country with which the United States has an... airworthiness of the aircraft. (i) The applicant must operate a prototype aircraft modified in accordance...

  15. 14 CFR 21.85 - Provisional amendments to type certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Provisional amendments to type certificates. (a) An applicant who manufactures aircraft within the United... applicant who manufactures aircraft in a foreign country with which the United States has an agreement for... aircraft. (i) The applicant must operate a prototype aircraft modified in accordance with the...

  16. The science of communicating the art of esthetic dentistry. Part II: Diagnostic provisional restorations.

    PubMed

    Derbabian, K; Marzola, R; Donovan, T E; Cho, G C; Arcidiacono, A

    2000-01-01

    Provisional restorations fulfill many functions in restorative dentistry. Quality provisional restorations can provide the clinician, the patient, and the laboratory technician much valuable information prior to fabrication of the definitive restoration. Such diagnostic provisional restorations fabricated with acrylic resin are easily adjusted and modified until both esthetic and functional results are approved by the patient. Once this approval has been obtained, the definitive restorations can be fabricated with confidence, using the esthetic form of the provisional restorations as a blueprint.

  17. Double Shell Tank (DST) Process Waste Sampling Subsystem Specification

    SciTech Connect

    RASMUSSEN, J.H.

    2000-05-03

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied to the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Process Waste Sampling Subsystem which supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery.

  18. PDLE: Extending Provisional Contributions. Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Tim, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    Focusing on midcareer professionals, this second volume includes descriptive accounts of professional development opportunities designed specifically so that language teachers can reinvigorate their teaching and remain on the path of lifelong learning. Due to the amount of development that comes from collaboration with other professionals, this…

  19. Biochemical and Spatial Coincidence in the Provisional Ser/Thr Protein Kinase Interaction Network of Mycobacterium tuberculosis*♦

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Christina E.; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Alber, Tom; Sassetti, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Many Gram-positive bacteria coordinate cellular processes by signaling through Ser/Thr protein kinases (STPKs), but the architecture of these phosphosignaling cascades is unknown. To investigate the network structure of a prokaryotic STPK system, we comprehensively explored the pattern of signal transduction in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ser/Thr kinome. Autophosphorylation is the dominant mode of STPK activation, but the 11 M. tuberculosis STPKs also show a specific pattern of efficient cross-phosphorylation in vitro. The biochemical specificity intrinsic to each kinase domain was used to map the provisional signaling network, revealing a three-layer architecture that includes master regulators, signal transducers, and terminal substrates. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the STPKs are specifically localized in the cell. Master STPKs are concentrated at the same subcellular sites as their substrates, providing additional support for the biochemically defined network. Together, these studies imply a branched functional architecture of the M. tuberculosis Ser/Thr kinome that could enable horizontal signal spreading. This systems-level approach provides a biochemical and spatial framework for understanding Ser/Thr phospho-signaling in M. tuberculosis, which differs fundamentally from previously defined linear histidine kinase cascades. PMID:24928517

  20. Phonological Processing Deficits in Specific Reading Disability and Specific Language Impairment: Same or Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Genevieve; Castles, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if phonological processing deficits in specific reading disability (SRD) and specific language impairment (SLI) are the same or different. In four separate analyses, a different combination of reading and spoken language measures was used to divide 73 children into three subgroups: poor readers with average…

  1. Specificity and completion time distributions of biochemical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Munsky, Brian; Nemenman, Ilya; Bel, Golan

    2009-01-01

    In order to produce specific complex structures from a large set of similar biochemical building blocks, many biochemical systems require high sensitivity to small molecular differences. The first and most common mqdel used to explain this high specificity is kinetic proofreading, which has been extended to a variety of systems from detection of DNA mismatch to cell signaling processes. While the specification properties of the kinetic proofreading model are well known and were studied in various contexts, very little is known about its temporal behavior. In this work, we study the dynamical properties of discrete stochastic two-branch kinetic proofreading schemes. Using the Laplace transform of the corresponding chemical master equation, we obtain an analytical solution for the completion time distribution. In particular we provide expressions for the specificity and the mean and the variance of the process completion times. We also show that, for a wide range of parameters a process distinguishing between two different products can be reduced to a much simpler three point process. Our results allow for the systematic study of the interplay between specificity and completion times as well as testing the validity of the kinetic proofreading model in biological systems.

  2. Specifications for a Federal Information Processing Standard Data Dictionary System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldfine, A.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a software specification that Federal agencies may use in evaluating and selecting data dictionary systems (DDS) is discussed. To supply the flexibility needed by widely different applications and environments in the Federal Government, the Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) specifies a core DDS together with an optimal set of modules. The focus and status of the development project are described. Functional specifications for the FIPS DDS are examined for the dictionary, the dictionary schema, and the dictionary processing system. The DDS user interfaces and DDS software interfaces are discussed as well as dictionary administration.

  3. Magnetic Field Satellite (Magsat) data processing system specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, D.; Gomez, R.; Miller, A.

    1980-01-01

    The software specifications for the MAGSAT data processing system (MDPS) are presented. The MDPS is divided functionally into preprocessing of primary input data, data management, chronicle processing, and postprocessing. Data organization and validity, and checks of spacecraft and instrumentation are dicussed. Output products of the MDPS, including various plots and data tapes, are described. Formats for important tapes are presented. Dicussions and mathematical formulations for coordinate transformations and field model coefficients are included.

  4. Levels of processing and language modality specificity in working memory.

    PubMed

    Rudner, Mary; Karlsson, Thomas; Gunnarsson, Johan; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2013-03-01

    Neural networks underpinning working memory demonstrate sign language specific components possibly related to differences in temporary storage mechanisms. A processing approach to memory systems suggests that the organisation of memory storage is related to type of memory processing as well. In the present study, we investigated for the first time semantic, phonological and orthographic processing in working memory for sign- and speech-based language. During fMRI we administered a picture-based 2-back working memory task with Semantic, Phonological, Orthographic and Baseline conditions to 11 deaf signers and 20 hearing non-signers. Behavioural data showed poorer and slower performance for both groups in Phonological and Orthographic conditions than in the Semantic condition, in line with depth-of-processing theory. An exclusive masking procedure revealed distinct sign-specific neural networks supporting working memory components at all three levels of processing. The overall pattern of sign-specific activations may reflect a relative intermodality difference in the relationship between phonology and semantics influencing working memory storage and processing. PMID:23287569

  5. Early face processing specificity: it's in the eyes!

    PubMed

    Itier, Roxane J; Alain, Claude; Sedore, Katherine; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2007-11-01

    Unlike most other objects that are processed analytically, faces are processed configurally. This configural processing is reflected early in visual processing following face inversion and contrast reversal, as an increase in the N170 amplitude, a scalp-recorded event-related potential. Here, we show that these face-specific effects are mediated by the eye region. That is, they occurred only when the eyes were present, but not when eyes were removed from the face. The N170 recorded to inverted and negative faces likely reflects the processing of the eyes. We propose a neural model of face processing in which face- and eye-selective neurons situated in the superior temporal sulcus region of the human brain respond differently to the face configuration and to the eyes depending on the face context. This dynamic response modulation accounts for the N170 variations reported in the literature. The eyes may be central to what makes faces so special.

  6. Sentence Processing Factors in Adults with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poll, Gerard H.

    2012-01-01

    Sentence imitation effectively discriminates between adults with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Little is known, however, about the factors that result in performance differences. This study evaluated the effects of working memory, processing speed, and argument status on sentence imitation. Working memory was measured by both a…

  7. 32 CFR 701.11 - Processing specific kinds of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Processing specific kinds of records. 701.11 Section 701.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES... must be withheld from disclosure under 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(6). General officers and public affairs...

  8. 32 CFR 701.11 - Processing specific kinds of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Processing specific kinds of records. 701.11 Section 701.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES... must be withheld from disclosure under 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(6). General officers and public affairs...

  9. 32 CFR 701.11 - Processing specific kinds of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Processing specific kinds of records. 701.11 Section 701.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES... must be withheld from disclosure under 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(6). General officers and public affairs...

  10. pH-Dependent solubility and permeability criteria for provisional biopharmaceutics classification (BCS and BDDCS) in early drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Varma, Manthena V; Gardner, Iain; Steyn, Stefanus J; Nkansah, Paul; Rotter, Charles J; Whitney-Pickett, Carrie; Zhang, Hui; Di, Li; Cram, Michael; Fenner, Katherine S; El-Kattan, Ayman F

    2012-05-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) is a scientific framework that provides a basis for predicting the oral absorption of drugs. These concepts have been extended in the Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) to explain the potential mechanism of drug clearance and understand the effects of uptake and efflux transporters on absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination. The objective of present work is to establish criteria for provisional biopharmaceutics classification using pH-dependent passive permeability and aqueous solubility data generated from high throughput screening methodologies in drug discovery settings. The apparent permeability across monolayers of clonal cell line of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, selected for low endogenous efflux transporter expression, was measured for a set of 105 drugs, with known BCS and BDDCS class. The permeability at apical pH 6.5 for acidic drugs and at pH 7.4 for nonacidic drugs showed a good correlation with the fraction absorbed in human (Fa). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was utilized to define the permeability class boundary. At permeability ≥ 5 × 10(-6) cm/s, the accuracy of predicting Fa of ≥ 0.90 was 87%. Also, this cutoff showed more than 80% sensitivity and specificity in predicting the literature permeability classes (BCS), and the metabolism classes (BDDCS). The equilibrium solubility of a subset of 49 drugs was measured in pH 1.2 medium, pH 6.5 phosphate buffer, and in FaSSIF medium (pH 6.5). Although dose was not considered, good concordance of the measured solubility with BCS and BDDCS solubility class was achieved, when solubility at pH 1.2 was used for acidic compounds and FaSSIF solubility was used for basic, neutral, and zwitterionic compounds. Using a cutoff of 200 μg/mL, the data set suggested a 93% sensitivity and 86% specificity in predicting both the BCS and BDDCS solubility classes. In conclusion, this study identified

  11. Full-arch metal-resin cement- and screw-retained provisional restoration for immediately loaded implants.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mirza Rustum; Rajan, Gunaseelan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This article describes the clinical and laboratory procedures involved in the fabrication of laboratory-processed, provisional, screw-retained, implant-supported maxillary and mandibular fixed complete dentures incorporating a cast metal reinforcement for immediate loading of implants. Precise fit is achieved by intraoral luting of the cast frame to milled abutments. Effective splinting of all implants is attained by the metal substructure and retrievability is provided by the screw-retention of the prosthesis. PMID:20553176

  12. [Changes in gingival blood circulation in patients with provisional fixed acrylic dentures].

    PubMed

    Shcherbakov, A S; Rudakova, Iu A; Ivanova, S B; Nekrasov, A N

    2015-01-01

    The adhesion of oral microorganisms to the surface of teeth and dental restorative materials is often the starting point in the developments of caries and periodontal disease. Formation of biofilm on the surface provisional acrylic bridge is especially quickly and can potentially generate decay or periodontal disease on the teeth. Occlusion trauma and occlusion disorders effects on increasing of injure regional periodontal tissues. Using ultrasonic doppler diagnostics oral mucosal blood flow was measured in 79 patients with periodontitis of medium severity with different hygiene conditions before and during orthopedic treatment by provisional fixed dentures was model by different methods. According to the results of this study was stated optimization of oral mucosal blood flow after pre-prosthetic treatments and the supportive hygiene periodontal care during the treatment. Results was used for reduce of functional stress in the in periodontal tissues during the orthopedic alignment by the use of fixed dentures. Specific prosthodontic hygiene protocol and model by individual articulator must be used to treat patients with widespread chronic periodontitis by interim prostheses. PMID:25909614

  13. Face recognition deficits in autism spectrum disorders are both domain specific and process specific.

    PubMed

    Weigelt, Sarah; Koldewyn, Kami; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Although many studies have reported face identity recognition deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), two fundamental question remains: 1) Is this deficit "process specific" for face memory in particular, or does it extend to perceptual discrimination of faces as well? And 2) Is the deficit "domain specific" for faces, or is it found more generally for other social or even nonsocial stimuli? The answers to these questions are important both for understanding the nature of autism and its developmental etiology, and for understanding the functional architecture of face processing in the typical brain. Here we show that children with ASD are impaired (compared to age and IQ-matched typical children) in face memory, but not face perception, demonstrating process specificity. Further, we find no deficit for either memory or perception of places or cars, indicating domain specificity. Importantly, we further showed deficits in both the perception and memory of bodies, suggesting that the relevant domain of deficit may be social rather than specifically facial. These results provide a more precise characterization of the cognitive phenotype of autism and further indicate a functional dissociation between face memory and face perception.

  14. Provisional Recommended Weight Limits for Manual Lifting During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Thomas R.; MacDonald, Leslie A.; Hudock, Stephen D.; Goddard, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Revised Lifting Equation (RNLE) was adapted to derive recommended weight limits (RWLs) for pregnant workers and to develop corresponding guidelines for clinicians. Background In the past three decades there has been a large increase in the number of women employed outside the home and remaining in the workforce during pregnancy. Practical authoritative guidelines based on accumulated evidence are needed to inform allowable work activity levels for healthy pregnant workers. Method Empirically based lifting criteria established by NIOSH to reduce the risk of overexertion injuries in the general U.S. working population were evaluated for application to pregnant workers. Our evaluation included an extensive review of the literature linking occupational lifting to maternal and fetal health. Decision logic and supporting literature are presented, along with computational details. Results Provisional RWLs for pregnant workers were derived from the RNLE, along with guidelines for clinicians. The guidelines advise against pregnant workers lifting below midshin and overhead. Conclusion Based on our review of the available evidence, we present lifting thresholds that most pregnant workers with uncomplicated pregnancies should be able to perform without increased risk of adverse maternal and fetal health consequences. Except for restrictions involving lifting from the floor and overhead, the provisional guidelines presented are compatible with NIOSH lifting recommendations adopted in the early 1990s for the general working population. Application Implementation of these provisional guidelines could protect millions of female workers in the work-place from fetal and maternal lifting-related health problems. PMID:24669554

  15. Provisional Crown Dislodgement during Scuba Diving: A Case of Barotrauma

    PubMed Central

    Gulve, Meenal Nitin; Gulve, Nitin Dilip

    2013-01-01

    Changes in ambient pressure, for example, during flying, diving, or hyperbaric oxygen therapy, can lead to barotrauma. Although it may seem that this issue was neglected in dental education and research in recent decades, familiarity with and understanding of these facts may be of importance for dental practitioners. We report the case of a patient who experienced barotrauma involving dislodgement of a provisional crown during scuba diving. Patients who are exposed to pressure changes as a part of their jobs or hobbies and their dentists should know the causes of barotrauma. In addition, the clinician must be aware of the possible influence of pressure changes on the retention of dental components. PMID:23984113

  16. Provisional Crown Dislodgement during Scuba Diving: A Case of Barotrauma.

    PubMed

    Gulve, Meenal Nitin; Gulve, Nitin Dilip

    2013-01-01

    Changes in ambient pressure, for example, during flying, diving, or hyperbaric oxygen therapy, can lead to barotrauma. Although it may seem that this issue was neglected in dental education and research in recent decades, familiarity with and understanding of these facts may be of importance for dental practitioners. We report the case of a patient who experienced barotrauma involving dislodgement of a provisional crown during scuba diving. Patients who are exposed to pressure changes as a part of their jobs or hobbies and their dentists should know the causes of barotrauma. In addition, the clinician must be aware of the possible influence of pressure changes on the retention of dental components. PMID:23984113

  17. Provisional Crown Dislodgement during Scuba Diving: A Case of Barotrauma.

    PubMed

    Gulve, Meenal Nitin; Gulve, Nitin Dilip

    2013-01-01

    Changes in ambient pressure, for example, during flying, diving, or hyperbaric oxygen therapy, can lead to barotrauma. Although it may seem that this issue was neglected in dental education and research in recent decades, familiarity with and understanding of these facts may be of importance for dental practitioners. We report the case of a patient who experienced barotrauma involving dislodgement of a provisional crown during scuba diving. Patients who are exposed to pressure changes as a part of their jobs or hobbies and their dentists should know the causes of barotrauma. In addition, the clinician must be aware of the possible influence of pressure changes on the retention of dental components.

  18. Results of the first provisional technical secretariat interlaboratory comparison test

    SciTech Connect

    Stuff, J.R.; Hoffland, L.

    1995-06-01

    The principal task of this laboratory in the first Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) Interlaboratory Comparison Test was to verify and test the extraction and preparation procedures outlined in the Recommended Operating Procedures for Sampling and Analysis in the Verification of Chemical Disarmament in addition to our laboratory extraction methods and our laboratory analysis methods. Sample preparation began on 16 May 1994 and analysis was completed on 12 June 1994. The analytical methods used included NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 31}P) GC/AED, GC/MS (EI and methane CI), GC/IRD, HPLC/IC, HPLC/TSP/MS, MS/MS(Electrospray), and CZE.

  19. Overview of the Standing Operating Procedures (SOP) for the Development of Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs)

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Robert; Bast, Cheryl B; Wood, Carol S; Adeshina, Femi; Ross, Robert Hord

    2009-01-01

    Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) are concentrations in air and drinking water for priority toxic chemicals. This article summarizes the Standing Operating Procedures (SOPs) currently in place for the data-driven development of chemical-specific PALs. To provide consistency and transparency, and to avoid faults of arbitrariness, SOPs were developed for guidance in deriving PAL values. The SOPs for PAL development focus on: 1) data acquisition and analysis, 2) identification of a chemical-specific critical effect, 3) selection of a quantitative point-of-departure (POD), 4) uncertainty analysis and adjustments, 5) exposure duration adjustment and extrapolation, 6) identification of special concerns and issues, and 7) verification, documentation and dissemination of PALs. To avoid uncompromising rigidity in deriving PAL values and to allow for incorporation of new or refined methodologies, the overall procedure is fluid and subject to modification. The purpose of this publication is to provide a summary of these SOPs.

  20. GSFC specification electronic data processing magnetic recording tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinari, D. F.; Perry, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The design requirements are given for magnetic oxide coated, electronic data processing tape, wound on reels. Magnetic recording tape types covered by this specification are intended for use on digital tape transports using the Non-Return-to-Zero-change-on-ones (NRZI) recording method for recording densities up to and including 800 characters per inch (cpi) and the Phase-Encoding (PE) recording method for a recording density of 1600 cpi.

  1. Fabrication of a fixed provisional restoration utilizing a light-curing acrylic resin.

    PubMed

    Trushkowsky, R D

    1992-06-01

    The properly fabricated provisional restoration must take into account the following interrelated factors: pulpal protection, periodontal health, occlusion, esthetics, and phonetics. The techniques advocated for construction of a provisional restoration include direct, indirect, and a combination of direct and indirect techniques. Two simple techniques that use light-curing acrylic resin for the fabrication of fixed provisional restorations are presented, and advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are discussed.

  2. Production of a Fixed Provisional Restoration Using an Acrylic Denture: Technique and Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kocaagaoglu, Hasan

    2015-07-01

    The damage or loss of anterior teeth causes a negative impact on the patient in many ways. In adolescents and young patients, the provisional replacement with artificial teeth may minimize this impact. Many approaches have been described for provisional restorations. This article discusses about a chairside fixed provisional restoration technique that was adjusted into the edentulous area of a 15-year-old girl. PMID:26393221

  3. Production of a Fixed Provisional Restoration Using an Acrylic Denture: Technique and Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The damage or loss of anterior teeth causes a negative impact on the patient in many ways. In adolescents and young patients, the provisional replacement with artificial teeth may minimize this impact. Many approaches have been described for provisional restorations. This article discusses about a chairside fixed provisional restoration technique that was adjusted into the edentulous area of a 15-year-old girl. PMID:26393221

  4. Direct technique for the fabrication of a visible light-curing resin provisional restoration.

    PubMed

    Passon, C; Goldfogel, M

    1990-09-01

    A properly fabricated provisional restoration will, among other things, provide acceptable esthetics. Although many materials have been used for provisional restorations, when esthetics is of primary concern, the choice is limited to tooth-colored resin materials. Recently, a tooth-colored, light-activated urethane dimethacrylate resin has been developed. This material has been reported to be useful for many prosthetic applications, including the indirect fabrication of provisional restorations. This paper presents a technique for the direct fabrication of single-unit provisional restorations using this material. The physical properties of this resin and the advantages and disadvantages of the technique are also discussed.

  5. Developmental prosopagnosia: a window to content-specific face processing.

    PubMed

    Duchaine, Bradley C; Nakayama, Ken

    2006-04-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia is characterized by severely impaired face recognition. Individuals with this disorder, which often runs in families, have no history of brain damage and intact early visual processing systems. Recent research has also demonstrated that many developmental prosopagnosics have normal or relatively good object recognition, indicating that their impairments are not the result of deficits to a unitary visual recognition mechanism. To investigate the nature of the impaired mechanisms, extensive testing was done on an individual with especially pure face processing deficits. The results ruled out all extant explanations of prosopagnosia except one that proposed that faces are recognized by a content-specific face processing mechanism. fMRI and MEG studies show that there are a variety of neural profiles in developmental prosopagnosia, which is consistent with behavioral studies demonstrating that it is a heterogeneous disorder. PMID:16563738

  6. Breaking up is hard to do: the economic impact of provisional funding contingent upon evidence development.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Duncan; Li, Jing Jing; Watts, Jennifer; Harris, Anthony

    2011-10-01

    Funding contingent upon evidence development (FED) has recently been the subject of some considerable debate in the literature but relatively little has been made of its economic impact. We argue that FED has the potential to shorten the lag between innovation and access but may also (i) crowd-out more valuable interventions in situations in which there is a fixed dedicated budget; or (ii) lead to a de facto increase in the funding threshold and increased expenditure growth in situations in which the programme budget is open-ended. Although FED would typically entail periodic review of provisional or interim listings, it may prove difficult to withdraw funding even at cost/QALY ratios well in excess of current listing thresholds. Further consideration of the design and implementation of FED processes is therefore required to ensure that its introduction yields net benefits over existing processes.

  7. How modality specific is processing of auditory and visual rhythms?

    PubMed

    Pasinski, Amanda C; McAuley, J Devin; Snyder, Joel S

    2016-02-01

    The present study used ERPs to test the extent to which temporal processing is modality specific or modality general. Participants were presented with auditory and visual temporal patterns that consisted of initial two- or three-event beginning patterns. This delineated a constant standard time interval, followed by a two-event ending pattern delineating a variable test interval. Participants judged whether they perceived the pattern as a whole to be speeding up or slowing down. The contingent negative variation (CNV), a negative potential reflecting temporal expectancy, showed a larger amplitude for the auditory modality compared to the visual modality but a high degree of similarity in scalp voltage patterns across modalities, suggesting that the CNV arises from modality-general processes. A late, memory-dependent positive component (P3) also showed similar patterns across modalities.

  8. NDE Process Development Specification for SRB Composite Nose Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suits, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Shuttle Upgrade program is a continuing improvement process to enable the Space Shuttle to be an effective space transportation vehicle for the next few decades. The Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), as a component of that system, is currently undergoing such an improvement. Advanced materials, such as composites, have given us a chance to improve performance and to reduce weight. The SRB Composite Nose Cap (CNC) program aims to replace the current aluminum nose cap, which is coated with a Thermal Protection System and poses a possible debris hazard, with a lighter, stronger, CNC. For the next 2 years, this program will evaluate the design, material selection, properties, and verification of the CNC. This particular process specification cites the methods and techniques for verifying the integrity of such a nose cap with nondestructive evaluation.

  9. Emotion-specific load disrupts concomitant affective processing.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Nicolas; Niedenthal, Paula M; Pleyers, Gordy; Bayot, Marie; Corneille, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Findings in the neuroimaging literature suggest that separate brain circuitries are involved when individuals perform emotional compared to nonemotional working memory (WM) tasks. Here we test this hypothesis with behavioural measures. We predicted that the conceptual processing of affect would be disrupted more by concurrent affective than nonaffective load. Participants performed a conceptual task in which they verified affective versus sensory properties of concepts, and a second, concurrent, working memory (n-back) task in which the target stimuli were facial expressions. Results revealed that storing and updating affective (as compared with identity) features of facial expressions altered performance more for affective than for sensory properties of concepts. The findings are supportive of the ideas that affective resources exist and that these resources are specifically used during the processing and representation of affective properties of objects and events.

  10. Provisional Assessment of Recent Studies on Health Effects of Particulate Matter Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the findings of EPA’s survey and provisional assessment of studies published since the completion of the 2009 PM ISA. EPA has screened and surveyed the recent literature and developed a provisional assessment that places those studies of potentially greatest ...

  11. 10 CFR 903.21 - Completion of rate development; provisional rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Completion of rate development; provisional rates. 903.21... Participation in Power and Transmission Rate Adjustments and Extensions for the Alaska, Southeastern, Southwestern, and Western Area Power Administrations § 903.21 Completion of rate development; provisional...

  12. Stereotype threat and hazard perception among provisional license drivers.

    PubMed

    Skorich, Daniel P; Webb, Hugh; Stewart, Lisa; Kostyanaya, Maria; Cruwys, Tegan; McNeill, Kathy; Frain, Andrew J; Lim, Li; Jones, Benjamin M; Smyth, Lillian; O'Brien, Kerry J

    2013-05-01

    Stereotype threat refers to the negative impact a stereotype about one's group can have on one's performance in domains relevant to the stereotype. In the current paper, we explore whether the negative stereotype of provisional license drivers (PLDs) might produce stereotype threat in a driving-related hazard perception task. We manipulate threat by asking participants to self-identify as PLDs in a categorization condition, or by reminding PLD participants explicitly of the stereotype of PLDs in an explicit stereotype condition. Results reveal increments in hazard perception in the categorization condition, and decrements in hazard perception in the explicit stereotype condition. Mediation analysis reveals that hazard perception performance is fully mediated by increased effort in the categorization condition and by decreased effort in the explicit stereotype condition. We discuss these findings in terms of their implications for stereotype threat and its mediators, and for public policy that explicitly discriminates between PLDs and other driver groups.

  13. Molecular Specificity of Multiple Hippocampal Processes Governing Fear Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Radulovic, Jelena; Tronson, Natalie C.

    2010-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Over many years, fear extinction has been conceptualized as one dominant process, new inhibitory learning, which serves to dampen previously acquired fear. Here we present an alternative view, that brain region-specific processing of representations, expectations and emotional attributes of the fear-provoking event, recruits unique mechanisms that interdependently contribute to the conditioning and extinction of fear. The co-occurrence of these mechanisms within the fear circuit can thus be tracked and differentiated at a molecular and cellular level. Among others, the transcriptional regulators cFos, cAMP-dependent response element binding protein (CREB), Zif268, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk) stand out as hippocampal nuclear markers signaling novelty, arousal, retrieval, and prediction error, respectively. Consistent with evidence from human studies, these findings indicate that, beyond inhibitory learning, fear extinction requires modification of the emotional attributes and expectations that define the threatening context. Given the likely dysregulation of one or more of these processes in anxiety disorders, a key research challenge for the future is the identification and enhancement of individual extinction mechanisms to target the specific components of fear. Environmental stimuli lacking affective properties (conditioned stimuli, CS) rapidly become threatening if presented with stressful events (unconditioned stimuli, US). Consequently, based on a CS-US association, the presentation of the CS triggers species-specific fear responses until the US consistently stops occurring. At that point, new learning takes place and the fear response declines, a phenomenon termed extinction. The view that extinction occurs because a new, inhibitory CS-noUS association gains control over behavior 106, has remained dominant in the field (reviewed by 20,33,35,100). The implications of impaired fear regulation in the development of anxiety disorders

  14. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoek, Pim; Aristidou, Aristos; Rush, Brian

    2014-09-09

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  15. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    DOEpatents

    Van Hoek, Pim; Aristidou, Aristos; Rush, Brian

    2011-05-10

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  16. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    DOEpatents

    Van Hoek, Pim; Aristidou, Aristos; Rush, Brian J.

    2016-08-30

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  17. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    DOEpatents

    Van Hoek; Pim , Aristidou; Aristos , Rush; Brian

    2007-06-19

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  18. Input-specific contributions to valence processing in the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Correia, Susana S; Goosens, Ki A

    2016-10-01

    Reward and punishment are often thought of as opposing processes: rewards and the environmental cues that predict them elicit approach and consummatory behaviors, while punishments drive aversion and avoidance behaviors. This framework suggests that there may be segregated brain circuits for these valenced behaviors. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is one brain region that contributes to both types of motivated behavior. Individual neurons in the BLA can favor positive over negative valence, or vice versa, but these neurons are intermingled, showing no anatomical segregation. The amygdala receives inputs from many brain areas and current theories posit that encoding of positive versus negative valence by BLA neurons is determined by the wiring of each neuron. Specifically, many projections from other brain areas that respond to positive and negative valence stimuli and predictive cues project strongly to the BLA and likely contribute to valence processing within the BLA. Here we review three of these areas, the basal forebrain, the dorsal raphe nucleus and the ventral tegmental area, and discuss how these may promote encoding of positive and negative valence within the BLA. PMID:27634144

  19. Correlations between adolescent processing speed and specific spindle frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Nader, Rebecca S.; Smith, Carlyle T.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep spindles are waxing and waning thalamocortical oscillations with accepted frequencies of between 11 and 16 Hz and a minimum duration of 0.5 s. Our research has suggested that there is spindle activity in all of the sleep stages, and thus for the present analysis we examined the link between spindle activity (Stage 2, rapid eye movement (REM) and slow wave sleep (SWS)) and waking cognitive abilities in 32 healthy adolescents. After software was used to filter frequencies outside the desired range, slow spindles (11.00–13.50 Hz), fast spindles (13.51–16.00 Hz) and spindle-like activity (16.01–18.50 Hz) were observed in Stage 2, SWS and REM sleep. Our analysis suggests that these specific EEG frequencies were significantly related to processing speed, which is one of the subscales of the intelligence score, in adolescents. The relationship was prominent in SWS and REM sleep. Further, the spindle-like activity (16.01–18.50 Hz) that occurred during SWS was strongly related to processing speed. Results suggest that the ability of adolescents to respond to tasks in an accurate, efficient and timely manner is related to their sleep quality. These findings support earlier research reporting relationships between learning, learning potential and sleep spindle activity in adults and adolescents. PMID:25709575

  20. Specification process of animal plate in the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroki; Kominami, Tetsuya

    2008-09-01

    The most animal part of the ciliated band of sea urchin larvae, the animal plate, is a specialized region in which elongated cells form long and non-beating cilia. To learn how this region is specified, animal halves were isolated from the early cleavage to pregastrulation stages. As is well known, the animal half that is isolated at the eight-cell stage develops into a 'dauerblastula', which forms long and non-beating cilia all around the surface. The region with long cilia, however, became restricted toward the animal pole when separation was delayed. If separated before primary mesenchyme ingression, even a small animal-pole-side fragment formed a normal-sized animal plate. Thus, the prospective animal plate region is gradually restricted by some signal from the vegetal hemisphere, and the specification process terminates before the mesenchyme blastula stage. It was also known that a normal-sized animal plate was formed in micromere-less embryos, indicating that the signal does not depend on micromeres or their descendants. Further, the animal-pole-side fragments were isolated from embryos in which the third cleavage plane was shifted toward the vegetal pole. They formed a normal-sized animal plate, containing more than 75% of the egg volume from the animal pole. This indicates that the egg cytoplasm delivered to veg1-lineage blastomeres plays an important role in the animal plate specification. Interestingly, the an1-less embryo formed long and non-beating cilia at its top region, but thickening did not occur. The cytoplasm near the animal pole might contain some factors necessary for the animal plate to become thick.

  1. In vitro study of fracture strength of provisional crown materials

    PubMed Central

    Sayin, Gulsum; Kara, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this report was to evaluate the effect of the fabrication method and material type on the fracture strength of provisional crowns. MATERIALS AND METHODS A master model with one crown (maxillary left second premolar) was manufactured from Cr-Co alloy. The master model was scanned, and the data set was transferred to a CAD/CAM unit (Yenamak D50, Yenadent Ltd, Istanbul, Turkey) for the Cercon Base group. For the other groups, temporary crowns were produced by direct fabrication methods (Imident, Temdent, Structur Premium, Takilon, Systemp c&b II, and Acrytemp). The specimens were subjected to water storage at 37℃ for 24 hours, and then they were thermocycled (TC, 5000×, 5-55℃) (n=10). The maximum force at fracture (Fmax) was measured in a universal test machine at 1 mm/min. Data was analyzed by non-parametric statistics (α=.05). RESULTS Fmax values varied between 711.09-1392.1 N. In the PMMA groups, Takilon showed the lowest values (711.09 N), and Cercon Base showed the highest values (959.59 N). In the composite groups, Structur Premium showed the highest values (1392.1 N), and Acrytemp showed the lowest values (910.05 N). The composite groups showed significantly higher values than the PMMA groups (P=.01). CONCLUSION Composite-based materials showed significantly higher fracture strengths than PMMA-based materials. The CAD-CAM technique offers more advantages than the direct technique. PMID:25722834

  2. PROVISIONAL ADVISORY LEVELS (PALs) FOR HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H2S)

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Thomas C; Dorman, David; Gardner, Donald; Adeshina, Femi; Ross, Robert Hord

    2009-01-01

    Application of PAL protocols was performed for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as experimental data permitted. The data base includes human experimental studies, worker exposure evaluations, as well as case studies on acute and repeated exposure. The data base of animal studies is substantial covering multiple species and addressing acute, repeated, and subchronic exposure scenarios. PAL estimates were approved by the Expert Consultation Panel for Provisional Advisory Levels in November 2006. No reliable data were found on oral exposure, making it impractical to estimate PALs for drinking water. Since H2S exists as a gas, partitioning to air is likely to occur with an environmental release. H2S inhalation PAL values for 24 hr exposure are: PAL 1 = 1.2 ppm; PAL 2 = 7.0 ppm; and PAL 3 = 27 ppm; the 30-d and 90-d inhalation exposure values are: PAL 1 = 0.85 ppm and PAL 2 = 3.0 ppm. PAL 3 values for 30-d and 90-d are not recommended due to insufficient data. Long-term data were insufficient to estimate 2-year inhalation PALs.

  3. Provisional tables on the zinc content of foods.

    PubMed

    Murphy, E W; Willis, B W; Watt, B K

    1975-04-01

    A critical and exhaustive review of published and unpublished data on the zinc content of foods showed that, with few exceptions, the major dietary sources of zinc were foods of animal origin. Oysters, which contained more than 5 mg. zinc per 3-oz. cooked portion, were an outstanding source of zinc. Lean beef and beef liver were also among the foods highest in zinc and ground beef was a good source. Dark meat of poultry contained more zinc than light meat, and turkey was higher in zinc than chicken. Egg yolk, but not egg white, was relatively high in zinc, as were nonfat dry milk and Cheddar cheese. Foods of plant origin, like those of animal origin, varied widely in zinc content. Cocoa and the milling fractions of bran and germ of wheat were high in zinc. Seeds of plants, such as muture dry legumes and peanuts, were better sources of zinc than were leaves, stalks, fruits, or roots. Vegetables, fruits, oils, fats, tea, coffee, and carbonated beverages contained little zinc. Factors influencing the zinc content of foods were evaluated. Provisional tables, giving representative values for zinc in more than two hundred foods, both in 100-gm. portions and in common household units, based on this research, are presented. PMID:1090644

  4. 78 FR 36571 - North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Provisional Official...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Provisional Official Protraction Diagram (OPDs) AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior... Ocean Energy Management. BILLING CODE 4310-MR-P...

  5. LADTAG Progress 2010 and Plans for 2011 and Provisional PELs from Lavage and Blood Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) plans and progress for 2010 and 2011. Provisional Permissible Exposure Limits (PPELs) from lavage fluid and blood data are also presented.

  6. 20 CFR 416.999c - How do we determine provisional benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.999c How do we determine provisional benefits? (a) You may receive up to...

  7. 20 CFR 416.999c - How do we determine provisional benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.999c How do we determine provisional benefits? (a) You may receive up to...

  8. 20 CFR 416.999c - How do we determine provisional benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.999c How do we determine provisional benefits? (a) You may receive up to...

  9. 20 CFR 416.999c - How do we determine provisional benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.999c How do we determine provisional benefits? (a) You may receive up to...

  10. 20 CFR 416.999c - How do we determine provisional benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.999c How do we determine provisional benefits? (a) You may receive up to...

  11. 29 CFR 780.816 - Processing of specific commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap is within the exemption....

  12. 29 CFR 780.816 - Processing of specific commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap is within the exemption....

  13. 29 CFR 780.816 - Processing of specific commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap is within the exemption....

  14. 29 CFR 780.816 - Processing of specific commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap is within the exemption....

  15. 29 CFR 780.816 - Processing of specific commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap is within the exemption....

  16. Relationship-specific identification and spontaneous relationship maintenance processes.

    PubMed

    Linardatos, Lisa; Lydon, John E

    2011-10-01

    Attractive alternative partners pose a relational threat to people in romantic relationships. Given that people are often limited in their time and energy, having the capacity to effortlessly respond to such relational threats is extremely useful. In 4 studies, we explored how people's identity in terms of their romantic relationship--their relationship-specific identity--affects their relationship-protective behaviors. We predicted that once a relationship becomes a part of one's sense of self, relationship maintenance responses are exhibited in a relatively fluid, spontaneous manner. In Study 1, we assessed the convergent and divergent validity of relationship-specific identification, demonstrating how it is associated with other relationship constructs. In Study 2, we found that less identified participants mentioned their relationship less than those high in relationship-specific identification, but only when interacting with an attractive member of their preferred sex. In Study 3, using a dot-probe visual cuing task, we found that when primed with an attractive member of their preferred sex, those low in relationship-specific identification gazed longer at attractive preferred-sex others compared to those high in relationship-specific identification. In Study 4, we found that relationship-specific identification was associated with relationship survival 1-3 years after the initial assessment. The present results demonstrate that relationship-specific identification predicts relatively spontaneous, pro-relationship responses in the face of relational threat.

  17. Health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for homeland security.

    PubMed

    Adeshina, Femi; Sonich-Mullin, Cynthia; Ross, Robert H; Wood, Carol S

    2009-12-01

    The Homeland Security Presidential Directive #8 (HSPD-8) for National Emergency Preparedness was issued to " establish policies to strengthen the preparedness of the United States to prevent and respond to threatened or actual domestic terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies by requiring a national domestic all- hazards preparedness goal. "In response to HSPD-8 and HSPD-22 (classified) on Domestic Chemical Defense, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) is developing health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for priority chemicals (including chemical warfare agents, pesticides, and toxic industrial chemicals) in air and drinking water. PALs are temporary values that will neither be promulgated, nor be formally issued as regulatory guidance. They are intended to be used at the discretion of risk managers in emergency situations. The PAL Program provides advisory exposure levels for chemical agents to assist in emergency planning and response decision-making, and to aid in making informed risk management decisions for evacuation, temporary re-entry into affected areas, and resumed-use of infrastructure, such as water resources. These risk management decisions may be made at the federal, state, and local levels. Three exposure levels (PAL 1, PAL 2, and PAL 3), distinguished by severity of toxic effects, are developed for 24-hour, 30-day, 90-day, and 2-year durations for potential exposure to drinking water and ambient air by the general public. Developed PALs are evaluated both by a US EPA working group, and an external multidisciplinary panel to ensure scientific credibility and wide acceptance. In this Special Issue publication, we present background information on the PAL program, the methodology used in deriving PALs, and the technical support documents for the derivation of PALs for acrylonitrile, hydrogen sulfide, and phosgene.

  18. Health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for homeland security.

    PubMed

    Adeshina, Femi; Sonich-Mullin, Cynthia; Ross, Robert H; Wood, Carol S

    2009-12-01

    The Homeland Security Presidential Directive #8 (HSPD-8) for National Emergency Preparedness was issued to " establish policies to strengthen the preparedness of the United States to prevent and respond to threatened or actual domestic terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies by requiring a national domestic all- hazards preparedness goal. "In response to HSPD-8 and HSPD-22 (classified) on Domestic Chemical Defense, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) is developing health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for priority chemicals (including chemical warfare agents, pesticides, and toxic industrial chemicals) in air and drinking water. PALs are temporary values that will neither be promulgated, nor be formally issued as regulatory guidance. They are intended to be used at the discretion of risk managers in emergency situations. The PAL Program provides advisory exposure levels for chemical agents to assist in emergency planning and response decision-making, and to aid in making informed risk management decisions for evacuation, temporary re-entry into affected areas, and resumed-use of infrastructure, such as water resources. These risk management decisions may be made at the federal, state, and local levels. Three exposure levels (PAL 1, PAL 2, and PAL 3), distinguished by severity of toxic effects, are developed for 24-hour, 30-day, 90-day, and 2-year durations for potential exposure to drinking water and ambient air by the general public. Developed PALs are evaluated both by a US EPA working group, and an external multidisciplinary panel to ensure scientific credibility and wide acceptance. In this Special Issue publication, we present background information on the PAL program, the methodology used in deriving PALs, and the technical support documents for the derivation of PALs for acrylonitrile, hydrogen sulfide, and phosgene. PMID:19814653

  19. Contrasting General and Process-Specific Slowing in Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windsor, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    This article compares two theories on why children with language impairment have slower response times when completing linguistic and nonlinguistic tasks. First, the slowing is due to difficulty with a particular cognitive processes and second, the slowing is due to a general cognitive processing limitation. Clinical implications are discussed.…

  20. Processing of virus-specific glycoproteins of varicella zoster virus

    SciTech Connect

    Namazue, J.; Campo-Vera, H.; Kitamura, K.; Okuno, T.; Yamanishi, K.

    1985-05-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to varicella zoster virus (VZV) glycoproteins were used to study the processing of three glycoproteins with molecular weights of 83K-94K (gp 2), 64K (gp 3), and 55K (gp 5). Immunoprecipitation experiments performed with VZV-infected cells, pulse labeled with (/sup 3/H)glucosamine in the presence of tunicamycin, suggest that O-linked oligosaccharide is present on the glycoprotein of gp 2. Use of the enzyme endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H revealed that the fully processed form of gp 3 had high-mannose type and that of gp 5 had only complex type of N-linked oligosaccharides. Experiments with monensin suggest that the precursor form (116K) of gp 3 is cleaved during the processing from Golgi apparatus to cell surface membrane. The extension of O-linked oligosaccharide chain and the complex type of N-linked oligosaccharide chains also occurs during this processing.

  1. The Activation of Modality-Specific Representations During Discourse Processing

    PubMed Central

    Kurby, Christopher A.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that readers generate mental images of events. Most studies have investigated imagery during the reading of short texts, which also included explicit judgment tasks. In two fMRI studies, we assessed whether modality-specific imagery occurs during naturalistic, discourse comprehension. We identified clauses in the texts that elicited auditory, motor, or visual imagery. In both studies, reading motor imagery clauses was associated with increases in activity in left postcentral and precentral sulci, and reading auditory imagery clauses was associated with increases in left superior temporal gyrus and perisylvian language-related regions. Study 2 compared presentation of connected discourse to a condition in which unconnected sentences were presented, preventing the establishment of global coherence. Sensorimotor imagery was strongest when readers were able to generate a globally coherent discourse representation. Overall, these results suggest that modality-specific imagery occurs during discourse comprehension and it is dependent on the development of discourse-level representations. PMID:23933473

  2. The activation of modality-specific representations during discourse processing.

    PubMed

    Kurby, Christopher A; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2013-09-01

    Previous research has shown that readers generate mental images of events. Most studies have investigated imagery during the reading of short texts, which also included explicit judgment tasks. In two fMRI studies, we assessed whether modality-specific imagery occurs during naturalistic, discourse comprehension. We identified clauses in the texts that elicited auditory, motor, or visual imagery. In both studies, reading motor imagery clauses was associated with increases in activity in left postcentral and precentral sulci, and reading auditory imagery clauses was associated with increases in left superior temporal gyrus and perisylvian language-related regions. Study 2 compared presentation of connected discourse to a condition in which unconnected sentences were presented, preventing the establishment of global coherence. Sensorimotor imagery was strongest when readers were able to generate a globally coherent discourse representation. Overall, these results suggest that modality-specific imagery occurs during discourse comprehension and it is dependent on the development of discourse-level representations.

  3. View specificity in object processing: evidence from picture matching.

    PubMed

    Lawson, R; Humphreys, G W

    1996-04-01

    Four experiments investigated the types of representations mediating sequential visual matching of objects depicted at different depth rotations. Matching performance was affected by the similarity between depicted views of the objects. Effects of view similarity were not influenced by the presence of a meaningless mask in the interstimulus interval (ISI), but they were reduced by long ISIs and by familiarity with the stimuli. It is suggested that with longer ISIs or increased stimulus familiarity, a number of object representations are activated that, although abstracted from some image characteristics, remain view specific. Under these conditions, matching is less reliant on representations closely tied to the view of the initial stimulus presented. The results are consistent with both the derivation and the long-term representation of view-specific rather than view-invariant descriptions of objects. PMID:8934852

  4. Sequential Event Processing: Domain Specificity or Task Specificity? Commentary on Carota and Sirigu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toni, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    The article by Carota and Sirigu addresses a fundamental issue, namely the domain specificity of people's ability to learn and implement sequential structures of events. The authors review theoretical positions and empirical findings related to this issue, providing a useful summary of representative models of sequential event structures, and a…

  5. Mathematical Formulation Requirements and Specifications for the Process Models

    SciTech Connect

    Steefel, C.; Moulton, D.; Pau, G.; Lipnikov, K.; Meza, J.; Lichtner, P.; Wolery, T.; Bacon, D.; Spycher, N.; Bell, J.; Moridis, G.; Yabusaki, S.; Sonnenthal, E.; Zyvoloski, G.; Andre, B.; Zheng, L.; Davis, J.

    2010-11-01

    The Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM) is intended to be a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The ASCEM program is aimed at addressing critical EM program needs to better understand and quantify flow and contaminant transport behavior in complex geological systems. It will also address the long-term performance of engineered components including cementitious materials in nuclear waste disposal facilities, in order to reduce uncertainties and risks associated with DOE EM's environmental cleanup and closure activities. Building upon national capabilities developed from decades of Research and Development in subsurface geosciences, computational and computer science, modeling and applied mathematics, and environmental remediation, the ASCEM initiative will develop an integrated, open-source, high-performance computer modeling system for multiphase, multicomponent, multiscale subsurface flow and contaminant transport. This integrated modeling system will incorporate capabilities for predicting releases from various waste forms, identifying exposure pathways and performing dose calculations, and conducting systematic uncertainty quantification. The ASCEM approach will be demonstrated on selected sites, and then applied to support the next generation of performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal and facility decommissioning across the EM complex. The Multi-Process High Performance Computing (HPC) Simulator is one of three thrust areas in ASCEM. The other two are the Platform and Integrated Toolsets (dubbed the Platform) and Site Applications. The primary objective of the HPC Simulator is to provide a flexible and extensible computational engine to simulate the coupled processes and flow scenarios described by the conceptual models developed using the ASCEM Platform. The graded and iterative approach to assessments naturally

  6. Specifics of processing SRS lidar signals in GHz frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishkanich, A. S.; Elizarov, V. V.; Kascheev, S. V.; Zhevlakov, A. P.; Sidorov, I. S.

    2015-12-01

    One of the highly effective methods of operative remote environmental monitoring on land and water surfaces is laser sensing. It knew that the Raman scattering cross section is very small (10-25-10-27), so in some cases radiation back into captivity to the target could be a few tens of photons. For high-speed sensing, speed of processing and ease of use lidar units required for the use of appropriate hardware and software systems used for the decision of tasks of collecting, processing, storing, organizing large amounts of data.

  7. School Processes Mediate School Compositional Effects: Model Specification and Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hongqiang; Van Damme, Jan; Gielen, Sarah; Van Den Noortgate, Wim

    2015-01-01

    School composition effects have been consistently verified, but few studies ever attempted to study how school composition affects school achievement. Based on prior research findings, we employed multilevel mediation modeling to examine whether school processes mediate the effect of school composition upon school outcomes based on the data of 28…

  8. Auditory Temporal Processing as a Specific Deficit among Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fostick, Leah; Bar-El, Sharona; Ram-Tsur, Ronit

    2012-01-01

    The present study focuses on examining the hypothesis that auditory temporal perception deficit is a basic cause for reading disabilities among dyslexics. This hypothesis maintains that reading impairment is caused by a fundamental perceptual deficit in processing rapid auditory or visual stimuli. Since the auditory perception involves a number of…

  9. Information-Processing Modules and Their Relative Modality Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.; Qin, Yulin; Jung, Kwan-Jin; Carter, Cameron S.

    2007-01-01

    This research uses fMRI to understand the role of eight cortical regions in a relatively complex information-processing task. Modality of input (visual versus auditory) and modality of output (manual versus vocal) are manipulated. Two perceptual regions (auditory cortex and fusiform gyrus) only reflected perceptual encoding. Two motor regions were…

  10. Provisional Tic Disorder: What to tell parents when their child first starts ticcing

    PubMed Central

    Black, Kevin J; Black, Elizabeth Rose; Greene, Deanna J.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2016-01-01

    The child with recent onset of tics is a common patient in a pediatrics or child neurology practice. If the child’s first tic was less than a year in the past, the diagnosis is usually Provisional Tic Disorder (PTD). Published reviews by experts reveal substantial consensus on prognosis in this situation: the tics will almost always disappear in a few months, having remained mild while they lasted. Surprisingly, however, the sparse existing data may not support these opinions. PTD may have just as much importance for science as for clinical care. It provides an opportunity to prospectively observe the spontaneous remission of tics. Such prospective studies may aid identification of genes or biomarkers specifically associated with remission rather than onset of tics. A better understanding of tic remission may also suggest novel treatment strategies for Tourette syndrome, or may lead to secondary prevention of tic disorders. This review summarizes the limited existing data on the epidemiology, phenomenology, and outcome of PTD, highlights areas in which prospective study is sorely needed, and proposes that tic disorders may completely remit much less often than is generally believed. PMID:27158458

  11. Provisional Tic Disorder: What to tell parents when their child first starts ticcing.

    PubMed

    Black, Kevin J; Black, Elizabeth Rose; Greene, Deanna J; Schlaggar, Bradley L

    2016-01-01

    The child with recent onset of tics is a common patient in a pediatrics or child neurology practice. If the child's first tic was less than a year in the past, the diagnosis is usually Provisional Tic Disorder (PTD). Published reviews by experts reveal substantial consensus on prognosis in this situation: the tics will almost always disappear in a few months, having remained mild while they lasted. Surprisingly, however, the sparse existing data may not support these opinions. PTD may have just as much importance for science as for clinical care. It provides an opportunity to prospectively observe the spontaneous remission of tics. Such prospective studies may aid identification of genes or biomarkers specifically associated with remission rather than onset of tics. A better understanding of tic remission may also suggest novel treatment strategies for Tourette syndrome, or may lead to secondary prevention of tic disorders. This review summarizes the limited existing data on the epidemiology, phenomenology, and outcome of PTD, highlights areas in which prospective study is sorely needed, and proposes that tic disorders may completely remit much less often than is generally believed. PMID:27158458

  12. Provisional Tic Disorder: What to tell parents when their child first starts ticcing.

    PubMed

    Black, Kevin J; Black, Elizabeth Rose; Greene, Deanna J; Schlaggar, Bradley L

    2016-01-01

    The child with recent onset of tics is a common patient in a pediatrics or child neurology practice. If the child's first tic was less than a year in the past, the diagnosis is usually Provisional Tic Disorder (PTD). Published reviews by experts reveal substantial consensus on prognosis in this situation: the tics will almost always disappear in a few months, having remained mild while they lasted. Surprisingly, however, the sparse existing data may not support these opinions. PTD may have just as much importance for science as for clinical care. It provides an opportunity to prospectively observe the spontaneous remission of tics. Such prospective studies may aid identification of genes or biomarkers specifically associated with remission rather than onset of tics. A better understanding of tic remission may also suggest novel treatment strategies for Tourette syndrome, or may lead to secondary prevention of tic disorders. This review summarizes the limited existing data on the epidemiology, phenomenology, and outcome of PTD, highlights areas in which prospective study is sorely needed, and proposes that tic disorders may completely remit much less often than is generally believed.

  13. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for Fentanyl in support of the development of Provisional Advisory Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Shankaran, Harish; Adeshina, Femi; Teeguarden, Justin G.

    2013-12-15

    Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) are tiered exposure limits for toxic chemicals in air and drinking water that are developed to assist in emergency responses. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling can support this process by enabling extrapolations across doses, and exposure routes, thereby addressing gaps in the available toxicity data. Here, we describe the development of a PBPK model for Fentanyl – a synthetic opioid used clinically for pain management – to support the establishment of PALs. Starting from an existing model for intravenous Fentanyl, we first optimized distribution and clearance parameters using several additional IV datasets. We then calibrated the model using pharmacokinetic data for various formulations, and determined the absorbed fraction, F, and time taken for the absorbed amount to reach 90% of its final value, t90. For aerosolized pulmonary Fentanyl, F = 1 and t90 < 1 min indicating complete and rapid absorption. The F value ranged from 0.35 to 0.74 for oral and various transmucosal routes. Oral Fentanyl was absorbed the slowest (t90 ∼ 300 min); the absorption of intranasal Fentanyl was relatively rapid (t90 ∼ 20–40 min); and the various oral transmucosal routes had intermediate absorption rates (t90 ∼ 160–300 min). Based on these results, for inhalation exposures, we assumed that all of the Fentanyl inhaled from the air during each breath directly, and instantaneously enters the arterial circulation. We present model predictions of Fentanyl blood concentrations in oral and inhalation scenarios relevant for PAL development, and provide an analytical expression that can be used to extrapolate between oral and inhalation routes for the derivation of PALs. - Highlights: • We develop a Fentanyl PBPK model for relating external dose to internal levels. • We calibrate the model to oral and inhalation exposures using > 50 human datasets. • Model predictions are in good agreement with the available

  14. Process of labeling specific chromosomes using recombinant repetitive DNA

    DOEpatents

    Moyzis, R.K.; Meyne, J.

    1988-02-12

    Chromosome preferential nucleotide sequences are first determined from a library of recombinant DNA clones having families of repetitive sequences. Library clones are identified with a low homology with a sequence of repetitive DNA families to which the first clones respectively belong and variant sequences are then identified by selecting clones having a pattern of hybridization with genomic DNA dissimilar to the hybridization pattern shown by the respective families. In another embodiment, variant sequences are selected from a sequence of a known repetitive DNA family. The selected variant sequence is classified as chromosome specific, chromosome preferential, or chromosome nonspecific. Sequences which are classified as chromosome preferential are further sequenced and regions are identified having a low homology with other regions of the chromosome preferential sequence or with known sequences of other family members and consensus sequences of the repetitive DNA families for the chromosome preferential sequences. The selected low homology regions are then hybridized with chromosomes to determine those low homology regions hybridized with a specific chromosome under normal stringency conditions.

  15. Guardbanding specifications with SPC (statistical process control) application

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    A reasonable assumption in the manufacture and measurement of a product characteristic is that test set variation contributes to the observed random variation of the characteristic in addition to the product variation. A Supplier may use test limits (guardbands) set inside specification limits to preclude the sending of nonconforming product to the Buyer. The Supplier's goals are for very few or no misclassifications of product (especially bad called good) in the Supplier's accepted product which would be submitted to the Buyer. Meeting these goals depends on several factors. This paper reviews an example; quantifies the influencing factors of the product percent defective, the ratio of gage variation to product variation and the guardband limits; provides tables of the misclassification percentages to illustrate the effects of changing these factors; and discusses SPC ratios that may already be available to a user to estimate these factors for the further understanding of the practice of guardbanding. With estimates of these influencing factors, one could make a reasonable setting of a guardband. 6 refs., 7 tabs.

  16. Specific Lipids Modulate the Transporter Associated with Antigen Processing (TAP)*

    PubMed Central

    Schölz, Christian; Parcej, David; Ejsing, Christer S.; Robenek, Horst; Urbatsch, Ina L.; Tampé, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) plays a key role in adaptive immunity by translocating proteasomal degradation products from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum lumen for subsequent loading onto major histocompatibility (MHC) class I molecules. For functional and structural analysis of this ATP-binding cassette complex, we established the overexpression of TAP in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Screening of optimal solubilization and purification conditions allowed the isolation of the heterodimeric transport complex, yielding 30 mg of TAP/liter of culture. Detailed analysis of TAP function in the membrane, solubilized, purified, and reconstituted states revealed a direct influence of the native lipid environment on activity. TAP-associated phospholipids, essential for function, were profiled by liquid chromatography Fourier transform mass spectrometry. The antigen translocation activity is stimulated by phosphatidylinositol and -ethanolamine, whereas cholesterol has a negative effect on TAP activity. PMID:21357424

  17. File Specification for GEOS-5 FP (Forward Processing)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchesi, R.

    2013-01-01

    horizontal grid. The majority of data products are time-averaged, but four instantaneous products are also available. Hourly data intervals are used for two-dimensional products, while 3-hourly intervals are used for three-dimensional products. These may be on the model's native 72-layer vertical grid or at 42 pressure surfaces extending to 0.1 hPa. This document describes the gridded output files produced by the GMAO near real-time operational FP, using the most recent version of the GEOS-5 assimilation system. Additional details about variables listed in this file specification can be found in a separate document, the GEOS-5 File Specification Variable Definition Glossary. Documentation about the current access methods for products described in this document can be found on the GMAO products page: http://gmao.gsfc.nasa.gov/products/.

  18. Apolipoprotein E isoform-specific effects on lipoprotein receptor processing

    PubMed Central

    Bachmeier, Corbin; Shackleton, Ben; Ojo, Joseph; Paris, Daniel; Mullan, Michael; Crawford, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings indicate an isoform-specific role for apolipoprotein E (apoE) in the elimination of beta-amyloid (Aβ) from the brain. ApoE is closely associated with various lipoprotein receptors, which contribute to Aβ brain removal via metabolic clearance or transit across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). These receptors are subject to ectodomain shedding at the cell surface, which alters endocytic transport and mitigates Aβ elimination. To further understand the manner in which apoE influences Aβ brain clearance, these studies investigated the effect of apoE on lipoprotein receptor shedding. Consistent with prior reports, we observed an increased shedding of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and the LDLR-related protein 1 (LRP1) following Aβ exposure in human brain endothelial cells. When Aβ was co-treated with each apoE isoform, there was a reduction in Aβ-induced shedding with apoE2 and apoE3, while lipoprotein receptor shedding in the presence of apoE4 remained elevated. Likewise, intracranial administration of Aβ to apoE targeted replacement mice (expressing the human apoE isoforms) resulted in an isoform-dependent effect on lipoprotein receptor shedding in the brain (apoE4>apoE3>apoE2). Moreover, these results show a strong inverse correlation with our prior work in apoE transgenic mice in which apoE4 animals showed reduced Aβ clearance across the BBB compared to apoE3 animals. Based on these results, apoE4 appears less efficient than other apoE isoforms in regulating lipoprotein receptor shedding, which may explain the differential effects of these isoforms in removing Aβ from the brain. PMID:25015123

  19. The factor of local cultural specificity and process of globalization.

    PubMed

    Rudnev, Viacheslav

    2012-12-01

    is important today. Actually, Glocalization can assist in adaptation process of harmonizing local and global needs to a way of Sustainability. Glocalization puts globalization problems down to the human scale. The age of Globalization has made the problem of cultural dialog extra actual, otherwise the Mankind has no chance to survive. The Glocalization is the process of creation of a harmony in Nature, Society and Humans system in the context of Sustainability.

  20. 50 CFR 648.96 - FMP review, specification, and framework adjustment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FMP review, specification, and framework..., specification, and framework adjustment process. (a) Annual review and adjustment process. The NEFMC and MAFMC... measures, as appropriate, through the annual framework adjustment process specified in paragraph (a)(3)...

  1. 50 CFR 648.96 - FMP review, specification, and framework adjustment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FMP review, specification, and framework..., specification, and framework adjustment process. (a) Annual review and adjustment process. The NEFMC and MAFMC... measures, as appropriate, through the annual framework adjustment process specified in paragraph (a)(3)...

  2. 50 CFR 648.96 - FMP review, specification, and framework adjustment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FMP review, specification, and framework..., specification, and framework adjustment process. (a) Annual review and adjustment process. The NEFMC and MAFMC... measures, as appropriate, through the annual framework adjustment process specified in paragraph (a)(3)...

  3. Summary of some feasibility studies for site-specific solar industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Some feasibility studies for several different site specific solar industrial process heat applications are summarized. The followng applications are examined. Leather Tanning; Concrete Production: Lumber and Paper Processing; Milk Processing; Molding, Curing or Drying; Automobile Manufacture; and Food Processing and Preparation. For each application, site and process data, system design, and performance and cost estimates are summarized.

  4. 75 FR 14144 - Availability for Non-Exclusive, Exclusive, or Partially Exclusive Licensing of U.S. Provisional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... invention. ADDRESSES: Commander, U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, ATTN: Command Judge.... Provisional Patent Application Concerning Medical Delivery System AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION.... Provisional Patent Application Serial No. 61/ ] 312,908 entitled ``Medical Delivery System,'' filed March...

  5. 75 FR 4793 - Availability for Non-Exclusive, Exclusive, or Partially Exclusive Licensing of U.S. Provisional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    .... Provisional Patent Application Concerning Blast Wave Sensor AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION.... Provisional Patent Application Serial No. 61/292,095 entitled ``Blast Wave Sensor,'' filed January 4, 2010...) 619-5034. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The invention relates to blast wave sensors and their use...

  6. Process and domain specificity in regions engaged for face processing: an fMRI study of perceptual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Collins, Heather R; Zhu, Xun; Bhatt, Ramesh S; Clark, Jonathan D; Joseph, Jane E

    2012-12-01

    The degree to which face-specific brain regions are specialized for different kinds of perceptual processing is debated. This study parametrically varied demands on featural, first-order configural, or second-order configural processing of faces and houses in a perceptual matching task to determine the extent to which the process of perceptual differentiation was selective for faces regardless of processing type (domain-specific account), specialized for specific types of perceptual processing regardless of category (process-specific account), engaged in category-optimized processing (i.e., configural face processing or featural house processing), or reflected generalized perceptual differentiation (i.e., differentiation that crosses category and processing type boundaries). ROIs were identified in a separate localizer run or with a similarity regressor in the face-matching runs. The predominant principle accounting for fMRI signal modulation in most regions was generalized perceptual differentiation. Nearly all regions showed perceptual differentiation for both faces and houses for more than one processing type, even if the region was identified as face-preferential in the localizer run. Consistent with process specificity, some regions showed perceptual differentiation for first-order processing of faces and houses (right fusiform face area and occipito-temporal cortex and right lateral occipital complex), but not for featural or second-order processing. Somewhat consistent with domain specificity, the right inferior frontal gyrus showed perceptual differentiation only for faces in the featural matching task. The present findings demonstrate that the majority of regions involved in perceptual differentiation of faces are also involved in differentiation of other visually homogenous categories.

  7. 10 CFR 903.21 - Completion of rate development; provisional rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (a) Following completion of the consultation and comment period and review of any oral and written... into effect on an interim basis (Provisional Rates); or (3) develop rates which in the Administrator's judgment should be confirmed, approved, and placed into effect by the FERC on a final basis without...

  8. 76 FR 49751 - Perfect Fitness, Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... accordance with the terms of 16 CFR 1118.20(e). Published below is a provisionally-accepted Settlement... approximately ten thousand (10,000) ``Perfect Pullup'' exercise equipment (``Subject Products''). Retailers... sold for approximately $80-$100 through major sporting goods stores, online retailers, and...

  9. 76 FR 49453 - CVS Pharmacy, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: It is the policy of the Commission to publish settlements which it provisionally accepts under the Consumer Product Safety Act in the Federal Register in... knowingly violated the CPSA and asserts that at the time it sold the Jackets, CVS did not have...

  10. 76 FR 63906 - Henry Gordy International, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ...: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: It is the policy of the Commission to publish settlements which it provisionally accepts under the Consumer Product Safety Act in the Federal Register in... their mouth, the dart can be inhaled into the throat and it can prevent the child from breathing....

  11. 75 FR 55777 - Pro-Pac Distributing Corp., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... COMMISSION Pro-Pac Distributing Corp., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order AGENCY... Agreement with Pro-Pac Distributing Corp., containing a civil penalty of $125,000.00. DATES: Any interested person may ask the Commission not to accept this agreement or otherwise comment on its contents by...

  12. 77 FR 63801 - Aqua-Leisure Industries, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Aqua-Leisure Industries, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: It is the policy of the Commission to...

  13. Directory of Documentation and Information Services in Adult Education. Provisional Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Adult Education Div.

    The directory was prepared as part of a comprehensive effort for improving the international network for the exchange of documentation, information, ideas, and experiences, in the field of adult education. The provisional edition will be corrected and updated after March 1976. A work-sheet and coding instructions are included for this purpose. In…

  14. 20 CFR 404.1592e - How do we determine provisional benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How do we determine provisional benefits? 404... in April 2004. His disability benefit had previously terminated in January 2003. Since Mr. K meets... beginning April 2004 while we determine whether he is disabled and whether his current impairment(s) is...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1592e - How do we determine provisional benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do we determine provisional benefits? 404... in April 2004. His disability benefit had previously terminated in January 2003. Since Mr. K meets... beginning April 2004 while we determine whether he is disabled and whether his current impairment(s) is...

  16. 75 FR 76405 - Winter Bee, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... COMMISSION Winter Bee, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order AGENCY: Consumer... Agreement with Winter Bee, Inc., containing a civil penalty of $200,000.00, to be suspended except for $40.... Settlement Agreement 1. In accordance with 16 CFR 1118.20, Winter Bee, Inc. (``Winter Bee'') and the...

  17. 76 FR 37793 - Viking Range Corporation, Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... COMMISSION Viking Range Corporation, Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order AGENCY... Agreement with Viking Range Corporation, containing a civil penalty of $450,000.00. DATES: Any interested... 1. In accordance with 16 CFR 1118.20, Viking Range Corporation (``Viking'') and the staff...

  18. 77 FR 19901 - Provisional Unlawful Presence Waivers of Inadmissibility for Certain Immediate Relatives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... application type or area of the United States. Congress also provided in the immigration laws several measures... who are physically present in the United States to request provisional unlawful presence waivers under... in removal proceedings or removed from the United States. Do not send an......

  19. 75 FR 1356 - RC2 Corporation, Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... nationwide, and secondarily through RC2's e-commerce websites or as `sub-components' of retail items... through RC2's e-commerce Web sites or as `sub-components' of retail items distributed independently of RC2... accordance with the terms of 16 CFR 1118.20(e). Published below is a provisionally-accepted...

  20. 78 FR 27190 - Williams-Sonoma, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... COMMISSION Williams-Sonoma, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order AGENCY: Consumer... Agreement with Williams- Sonoma, Inc., containing a civil penalty of $987,500, within twenty (20) days of... Consumer Product Safety Act, 15 U.S.C. 2051-2089 (CPSA) and 16 CFR 1118.20, Williams-Sonoma, Inc. (WS),...

  1. 76 FR 6453 - Raynor Marketing, Ltd., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... COMMISSION Raynor Marketing, Ltd., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order AGENCY... Agreement with Raynor Marketing, Ltd., containing a civil penalty of $390,000.00. DATES: Any interested.... Settlement Agreement 1. In accordance with 16 CFR 1118.20, Raynor Marketing, Ltd. and the staff...

  2. 76 FR 10339 - Ms. Bubbles, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... COMMISSION Ms. Bubbles, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order AGENCY: Consumer... Agreement with Ms. Bubbles, Inc., containing a civil penalty of $40,000.00. \\1\\ The Commission voted 5-0 to... Matter of Ms. Bubbles, Inc.; SETTLEMENT AGREEMENT 1. In accordance with 16 C.F.R. Sec. 1118.20,...

  3. Student Financial Aid, Academic Year 2011-12. First Look. (Provisional Data). NCES 2013-178

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginder, Scott A.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) collects institution-level data from postsecondary institutions in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) and other U.S. jurisdictions (see appendix A for a list of other U.S. jurisdictions). This "First Look" presents findings from the provisional data of the IPEDS…

  4. 76 FR 55648 - Sunsations Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: It is the policy of the Commission to publish settlements which it provisionally accepts under the Consumer Product Safety Act in the Federal Register...

  5. 77 FR 58098 - Haier America Trading, LLC, Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... accordance with the terms of 16 CFR 1118.20(e). Published below is a provisionally-accepted Settlement... retailers, approximately 53,800 electric blenders (``Blenders''). The Blenders were sold at retail stores in...(e). If the Commission does not receive any written request not to accept the Agreement within...

  6. 10 CFR 903.21 - Completion of rate development; provisional rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... into effect on an interim basis (Provisional Rates); or (3) develop rates which in the Administrator's judgment should be confirmed, approved, and placed into effect by the FERC on a final basis without being placed into effect on an interim basis. A statement shall be prepared and made available to the...

  7. Encoding and Retrieving Faces and Places: Distinguishing Process- and Stimulus-Specific Differences in Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Steven E.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Among the most fundamental issues in cognitive neuroscience is how the brain may be organized into process-specific and stimulus-specific regions. In the episodic memory domain, most functional neuroimaging studies have focused on the former dimension, typically investigating the neural correlates of various memory processes. Thus, there is little…

  8. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for Fentanyl in support of the development of Provisional Advisory Levels.

    PubMed

    Shankaran, Harish; Adeshina, Femi; Teeguarden, Justin G

    2013-12-15

    Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) are tiered exposure limits for toxic chemicals in air and drinking water that are developed to assist in emergency responses. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling can support this process by enabling extrapolations across doses, and exposure routes, thereby addressing gaps in the available toxicity data. Here, we describe the development of a PBPK model for Fentanyl - a synthetic opioid used clinically for pain management - to support the establishment of PALs. Starting from an existing model for intravenous Fentanyl, we first optimized distribution and clearance parameters using several additional IV datasets. We then calibrated the model using pharmacokinetic data for various formulations, and determined the absorbed fraction, F, and time taken for the absorbed amount to reach 90% of its final value, t90. For aerosolized pulmonary Fentanyl, F=1 and t90<1 min indicating complete and rapid absorption. The F value ranged from 0.35 to 0.74 for oral and various transmucosal routes. Oral Fentanyl was absorbed the slowest (t90~300 min); the absorption of intranasal Fentanyl was relatively rapid (t90~20-40 min); and the various oral transmucosal routes had intermediate absorption rates (t90~160-300 min). Based on these results, for inhalation exposures, we assumed that all of the Fentanyl inhaled from the air during each breath directly, and instantaneously enters the arterial circulation. We present model predictions of Fentanyl blood concentrations in oral and inhalation scenarios relevant for PAL development, and provide an analytical expression that can be used to extrapolate between oral and inhalation routes for the derivation of PALs.

  9. Delivering Software Process-Specific Project Courses in Tertiary Education Environment: Challenges and Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rong, Guoping; Shao, Dong

    2012-01-01

    The importance of delivering software process courses to software engineering students has been more and more recognized in China in recent years. However, students usually cannot fully appreciate the value of software process courses by only learning methodology and principle in the classroom. Therefore, a process-specific project course was…

  10. Cognitive Risk Factors for Specific Learning Disorder: Processing Speed, Temporal Processing, and Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Moll, Kristina; Göbel, Silke M; Gooch, Debbie; Landerl, Karin; Snowling, Margaret J

    2016-01-01

    High comorbidity rates between reading disorder (RD) and mathematics disorder (MD) indicate that, although the cognitive core deficits underlying these disorders are distinct, additional domain-general risk factors might be shared between the disorders. Three domain-general cognitive abilities were investigated in children with RD and MD: processing speed, temporal processing, and working memory. Since attention problems frequently co-occur with learning disorders, the study examined whether these three factors, which are known to be associated with attention problems, account for the comorbidity between these disorders. The sample comprised 99 primary school children in four groups: children with RD, children with MD, children with both disorders (RD+MD), and typically developing children (TD controls). Measures of processing speed, temporal processing, and memory were analyzed in a series of ANCOVAs including attention ratings as covariate. All three risk factors were associated with poor attention. After controlling for attention, associations with RD and MD differed: Although deficits in verbal memory were associated with both RD and MD, reduced processing speed was related to RD, but not MD; and the association with RD was restricted to processing speed for familiar nameable symbols. In contrast, impairments in temporal processing and visuospatial memory were associated with MD, but not RD. PMID:25124507

  11. Wire-reinforced, light-cured glass ionomer-resin provisional restoration: a description of the technical procedure.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, W H

    1994-09-01

    A procedure to use round-wire and glass ionomer-resin cement to make practical provisional restorations is presented. The viability of the use of glass ionomer-resin cement and the need for embrasure perfection in provisional restorations is discussed. This procedure is suitable as a long-term provisional restoration where extensive coronal destruction has occurred. The inherent disadvantage of the procedure is the need to involve occlusal surfaces of the proximal teeth; thus its use is restricted to mouths in which the adjacent teeth are to receive simultaneous restorative treatment.

  12. A technique for indirect fabrication of an implant-supported, screw-retained, fixed provisional restoration in the esthetic zone.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Shao; Ercoli, Carlo

    2009-12-01

    This article describes an alternative technique for the fabrication of an implant-supported, screw-retained, fixed provisional restoration in the esthetic zone. After an implant-level impression is made with a polyether impression material, the provisional restoration is fabricated indirectly. This technique is easy, saves time, and has economic advantages, while maintaining color stability and esthetic properties for the provisional restoration. It may be contraindicated for severely misaligned implants that require extensive reduction of the implant temporary abutments and denture teeth laminates.

  13. Dyslexia and Specific Language Impairment: The Role of Phonology and Auditory Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Jill; Goswami, Usha; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2010-01-01

    We explore potential similarities between developmental dyslexia (specific reading disability [SRD]) and specific language impairment (SLI) in terms of phonological skills, underlying auditory processing abilities, and nonphonological language skills. Children aged 9 to 11 years with reading and/or language difficulties were recruited and compared…

  14. 22 CFR 161.9 - Specific steps in the Department's NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specific steps in the Department's NEPA process... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Environmental Review Procedures § 161.9 Specific..., economic and other decisionmaking factors relating to the proposed action. (1) Review of the categories...

  15. Look but Don't Touch: Tactile Disadvantage in Processing Modality-Specific Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Louise; Lynott, Dermot

    2010-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging research has shown that perceptual and conceptual processing share a common, modality-specific neural substrate, while work on modality switching costs suggests that they share some of the same attentional mechanisms. In three experiments, we employed a modality detection task that displayed modality-specific object properties…

  16. Towards an Australian Bioregionalisation Atlas: A provisional area taxonomy of Australia's biogeographical regions.

    PubMed

    Ebach, Malte C; Gillu, Anthony C; Kwan, Alan; Ahyong, Shane T; Murphy, Daniel J; Cassis, Gerasimos

    2013-01-01

    The large number, definition, varied application and validity of named Australian biogeographical regions reflect their ad hoc development via disparate methods or case study idiosyncracies. They do not represent a coherent system. In order to resolve these uncertainties an Australian Bioregionalisation Atlas is proposed as a provisional hierarchical classification, accounting for all known named areas. This provisional area taxonomy includes a diagnosis, description, type locality and map for each named area within the Australian continent, as well as a first-ever area synonymy. Akin to biological classifications, this Atlas seeks to provision universality, objectivity and stability, such that biogeographers, macroecologists and geographers, can test existing areas as well as proposing novel areas. With such a formalised and comparative system in place, practitioners can analyse the definition and relationships of biotic areas, and putatively minimise ad hoc explanations. PMID:26131478

  17. An Investigation Into the Integrity of Fit of Provisional Crowns Using Current Proprietary Temporary Crown Materials.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Philip D; Georgakis, Georgios; Niggli, Jason

    2016-06-01

    Three methods of direct provisional crown construction were investigated for accuracy of marginal fit. A modified proprietary crown coping was compared to Bis GMA and isobutyl methacrylate resin provisional crowns with margins modified by using a flowable composite and 'bead on' isobutyl methacrylate respectively. Measurement was at 50x magnification at seven sites over the fit surface. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 13.0.1 and measurement compared using the Mann Whitney test set at a significance level of 0.05. Reliability was checked using the Bland Altman test. Statistical significant differences were found between the three groups. The order of best fit was Bis-GMA and flowable composite > isobutyl methacrylate with 'bead on' margins > Bis-GMA modified implant temporary coping. The clinical significance is that the Bis GMA and flowable composite combination can be used with equal confidence to traditional methods of temporarisation. PMID:27424335

  18. Modality-specific processing precedes amodal linguistic processing during L2 sign language acquisition: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joshua T; Darcy, Isabelle; Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-02-01

    The present study tracked activation pattern differences in response to sign language processing by late hearing second language learners of American Sign Language. Learners were scanned before the start of their language courses. They were scanned again after their first semester of instruction and their second, for a total of 10 months of instruction. The study aimed to characterize modality-specific to modality-general processing throughout the acquisition of sign language. Results indicated that before the acquisition of sign language, neural substrates related to modality-specific processing were present. After approximately 45 h of instruction, the learners transitioned into processing signs on a phonological basis (e.g., supramarginal gyrus, putamen). After one more semester of input, learners transitioned once more to a lexico-semantic processing stage (e.g., left inferior frontal gyrus) at which language control mechanisms (e.g., left caudate, cingulate gyrus) were activated. During these transitional steps right hemispheric recruitment was observed, with increasing left-lateralization, which is similar to other native signers and L2 learners of spoken language; however, specialization for sign language processing with activation in the inferior parietal lobule (i.e., angular gyrus), even for late learners, was observed. As such, the present study is the first to track L2 acquisition of sign language learners in order to characterize modality-independent and modality-specific mechanisms for bilingual language processing. PMID:26720258

  19. Modality-specific processing precedes amodal linguistic processing during L2 sign language acquisition: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joshua T; Darcy, Isabelle; Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-02-01

    The present study tracked activation pattern differences in response to sign language processing by late hearing second language learners of American Sign Language. Learners were scanned before the start of their language courses. They were scanned again after their first semester of instruction and their second, for a total of 10 months of instruction. The study aimed to characterize modality-specific to modality-general processing throughout the acquisition of sign language. Results indicated that before the acquisition of sign language, neural substrates related to modality-specific processing were present. After approximately 45 h of instruction, the learners transitioned into processing signs on a phonological basis (e.g., supramarginal gyrus, putamen). After one more semester of input, learners transitioned once more to a lexico-semantic processing stage (e.g., left inferior frontal gyrus) at which language control mechanisms (e.g., left caudate, cingulate gyrus) were activated. During these transitional steps right hemispheric recruitment was observed, with increasing left-lateralization, which is similar to other native signers and L2 learners of spoken language; however, specialization for sign language processing with activation in the inferior parietal lobule (i.e., angular gyrus), even for late learners, was observed. As such, the present study is the first to track L2 acquisition of sign language learners in order to characterize modality-independent and modality-specific mechanisms for bilingual language processing.

  20. 75 FR 3900 - Availability for Non-Exclusive, Exclusive, or Partially Exclusive Licensing of U.S. Provisional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    .... Provisional Patent Application Concerning Monoclonal Antibodies Against Glycoprotein of Ebola Sudan Boniface...,725 entitled ``Monoclonal Antibodies Against Glycoprotein of Ebola Sudan Boniface Virus,'' filed... Sudan Boniface virus and methods of producing and using the same. Brenda S. Bowen, Army Federal...

  1. 42 CFR 457.1130 - Program specific review process: Matters subject to review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program specific review process: Matters subject to... review process: Matters subject to review. (a) Eligibility or enrollment matter. A State must ensure that... services matter. A State must ensure that an enrollee has an opportunity for external review of a—...

  2. 42 CFR 457.1130 - Program specific review process: Matters subject to review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... review process: Matters subject to review. (a) Eligibility or enrollment matter. A State must ensure that... services matter. A State must ensure that an enrollee has an opportunity for external review of a— (1... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Program specific review process: Matters subject...

  3. Evidence for Reduced Domain-Specificity in Auditory Processing in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvinen-Pasley, Anna; Heaton, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    Neurological and behavioral findings indicate that atypical auditory processing characterizes autism. The present study tested the hypothesis that auditory processing is less domain-specific in autism than in typical development. Participants with autism and controls completed a pitch sequence discrimination task in which same/different judgments…

  4. Real-Time Language Processing in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, James W.

    2006-01-01

    Background:School-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) exhibit slower real-time (i.e. immediate) language processing relative to same-age peers and younger, language-matched peers. Results of the few studies that have been done seem to indicate that the slower language processing of children with SLI is due to inefficient…

  5. 42 CFR 457.1140 - Program specific review process: Core elements of review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program specific review process: Core elements of review. 457.1140 Section 457.1140 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... review process: Core elements of review. In adopting the procedures for review of matters described...

  6. 42 CFR 457.1140 - Program specific review process: Core elements of review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program specific review process: Core elements of review. 457.1140 Section 457.1140 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... review process: Core elements of review. In adopting the procedures for review of matters described...

  7. Visuo-Spatial Processing and Executive Functions in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marton, Klara

    2008-01-01

    Background: Individual differences in complex working memory tasks reflect simultaneous processing, executive functions, and attention control. Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show a deficit in verbal working memory tasks that involve simultaneous processing of information. Aims: The purpose of the study was to examine executive…

  8. Verbal and Spatial Information Processing Constraints in Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, LaVae M.; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2004-01-01

    A dual-processing paradigm was used to investigate information processing limitations underlying specific language impairment (SLI). School-age children with and without SLI were asked to recall verbal and spatial stimuli in situations that varied the number of tasks that were required and the speed at which stimuli were presented. Children…

  9. On the nature of bias and defects in the software specification process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straub, Pablo A.; Zelkowitz, Marvin V.

    1992-01-01

    Implementation bias in a specification is an arbitrary constraint in the solution space. This paper describes the problem of bias. Additionally, this paper presents a model of the specification and design processes describing individual subprocesses in terms of precision/detail diagrams and a model of bias in multi-attribute software specifications. While studying how bias is introduced into a specification we realized that software defects and bias are dual problems of a single phenomenon. This was used to explain the large proportion of faults found during the coding phase at the Software Engineering Laboratory at NASA/GSFC.

  10. Research of Influence Electric Conditions Combined ElectroDiamond Processing by on Specific Consumption of Wheel*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanov, D. V.; Arkhipov, P. V.; Yanyushkin, A. S.; Skeeba, V. Yu

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents results of stability research of cutting properties of diamond abrasive tools in metal binder for grinding high-strength composite materials, as well as the need to reduce the specific consumption of wheel, as one of the most important economic indicators of processing. Shows a comparative analysis of the results of preliminary researches of various methods diamond processing, in which determined that the minimum specific consumption of wheel reached by combined electro-diamond grinding, combining electrochemical grinding with simultaneous continuous electrochemical correction surface wheel. Were conducted more research directed at identifying the specific consumption the diamond wheel on metallic binder depending from electric conditions combined electrodiamond processing. Researches have established the advantages of combined electro-diamond of hard alloys processing and define rational modes to ensure a satisfactory consumption of the diamond wheel, as well as significantly increasing quality and performance.

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Flexural Strength of Provisional Crown and Bridge Materials-An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Provisional restorations serve a key role as a functional and esthetic try-in for the design of the final prosthesis. During selection of materials for this restoration, clinicians must consider physical properties, ease of handling, cost and patient satisfaction and approval. Aim To evaluate and compare the flexural strength of provisional crown and bridge materials available commercially. Materials and Methods This in-vitro study was done to compare the flexural strength of six temporary crown and bridge materials available commercially at 24 hours, 8 days and after repair. Three poly methyl methacrylate based materials (DPI, SC10 and Trulon) and three bis-acrylic based composite resins (Protemp, Cooltemp and Luxatemp) were selected. A total of 72 specimens of dimensions 64mm×10mm×2.5mm were prepared from these materials (12 from each material) and divided into two groups (n=36). Specimens were stored in artificial saliva and were fractured after 24 hours and 8 days using Universal Testing Machine. The fractured samples from the 8 days study were then subjected to repair. A uniform space of 2mm and a 450 bevel was maintained for all the repaired samples for better distribution of forces. Flexural strength of these repaired samples was recorded using the same machine. Results were recorded and statistically analysed by one-way Anova and Post hoc tests. Result: Results revealed that there was decrease in flexural strength for all the materials tested from 24 hours to 8 days, though flexural strength between poly methyl methacrylate and bis-acrylic resins was similar at 24 hours and 8 days time interval. A substantial decrease was noticed in the strength of bis-acrylic composite resins after repair. Conclusion From the current study it can be suggested that though there is decrease in flexural strength for all the materials from 24 hours to 8 days, both can be used to fabricate the provisional restorations. However, in the event of a fracture of a bis

  12. Temporal Processing Capacity in High-Level Visual Cortex Is Domain Specific.

    PubMed

    Stigliani, Anthony; Weiner, Kevin S; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2015-09-01

    Prevailing hierarchical models propose that temporal processing capacity--the amount of information that a brain region processes in a unit time--decreases at higher stages in the ventral stream regardless of domain. However, it is unknown if temporal processing capacities are domain general or domain specific in human high-level visual cortex. Using a novel fMRI paradigm, we measured temporal capacities of functional regions in high-level visual cortex. Contrary to hierarchical models, our data reveal domain-specific processing capacities as follows: (1) regions processing information from different domains have differential temporal capacities within each stage of the visual hierarchy and (2) domain-specific regions display the same temporal capacity regardless of their position in the processing hierarchy. In general, character-selective regions have the lowest capacity, face- and place-selective regions have an intermediate capacity, and body-selective regions have the highest capacity. Notably, domain-specific temporal processing capacities are not apparent in V1 and have perceptual implications. Behavioral testing revealed that the encoding capacity of body images is higher than that of characters, faces, and places, and there is a correspondence between peak encoding rates and cortical capacities for characters and bodies. The present evidence supports a model in which the natural statistics of temporal information in the visual world may affect domain-specific temporal processing and encoding capacities. These findings suggest that the functional organization of high-level visual cortex may be constrained by temporal characteristics of stimuli in the natural world, and this temporal capacity is a characteristic of domain-specific networks in high-level visual cortex. Significance statement: Visual stimuli bombard us at different rates every day. For example, words and scenes are typically stationary and vary at slow rates. In contrast, bodies are dynamic

  13. Collaborative business process support in eHealth: integrating IHE profiles through ebXML business process specification language.

    PubMed

    Dogac, Asuman; Kabak, Yildiray; Namli, Tuncay; Okcan, Alper

    2008-11-01

    Integrating healthcare enterprise (IHE) specifies integration profiles describing selected real world use cases to facilitate the interoperability of healthcare information resources. While realizing a complex real-world scenario, IHE profiles are combined by grouping the related IHE actors. Grouping IHE actors implies that the associated business processes (IHE profiles) that the actors are involved must be combined, that is, the choreography of the resulting collaborative business process must be determined by deciding on the execution sequence of transactions coming from different profiles. There are many IHE profiles and each user or vendor may support a different set of IHE profiles that fits to its business need. However, determining the precedence of all the involved transactions manually for each possible combination of the profiles is a very tedious task. In this paper, we describe how to obtain the overall business process automatically when IHE actors are grouped. For this purpose, we represent the IHE profiles through a standard, machine-processable language, namely, Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) ebusiness eXtensible Markup Language (ebXML) Business Process Specification (ebBP) Language. We define the precedence rules among the transactions of the IHE profiles, again, in a machine-processable way. Then, through a graphical tool, we allow users to select the actors to be grouped and automatically produce the overall business process in a machine-processable format.

  14. Enriching psychological assessment using a person-specific analysis of interpersonal processes in daily life.

    PubMed

    Roche, Michael J; Pincus, Aaron L; Rebar, Amanda L; Conroy, David E; Ram, Nilam

    2014-10-01

    We present a series of methods and approaches for clinicians interested in tracking their individual patients over time and in the natural settings of their daily lives. The application of person-specific analyses to intensive repeated measurement data can assess some aspects of persons that are distinct from the valuable results obtained from single-occasion assessments. Guided by interpersonal theory, we assess a psychotherapy patient's interpersonal processes as they unfold in his daily life. We highlight specific contexts that change these processes, use an informant report to examine discrepancies in his reported interpersonal processes, and examine how his interpersonal processes differ as a function of varying levels of self-esteem and anger. We advocate for this approach to complement existing psychological assessments and provide a scoring program to facilitate initial implementation.

  15. Parallel processing of general and specific threat during early stages of perception.

    PubMed

    You, Yuqi; Li, Wen

    2016-03-01

    Differential processing of threat can consummate as early as 100 ms post-stimulus. Moreover, early perception not only differentiates threat from non-threat stimuli but also distinguishes among discrete threat subtypes (e.g. fear, disgust and anger). Combining spatial-frequency-filtered images of fear, disgust and neutral scenes with high-density event-related potentials and intracranial source estimation, we investigated the neural underpinnings of general and specific threat processing in early stages of perception. Conveyed in low spatial frequencies, fear and disgust images evoked convergent visual responses with similarly enhanced N1 potentials and dorsal visual (middle temporal gyrus) cortical activity (relative to neutral cues; peaking at 156 ms). Nevertheless, conveyed in high spatial frequencies, fear and disgust elicited divergent visual responses, with fear enhancing and disgust suppressing P1 potentials and ventral visual (occipital fusiform) cortical activity (peaking at 121 ms). Therefore, general and specific threat processing operates in parallel in early perception, with the ventral visual pathway engaged in specific processing of discrete threats and the dorsal visual pathway in general threat processing. Furthermore, selectively tuned to distinctive spatial-frequency channels and visual pathways, these parallel processes underpin dimensional and categorical threat characterization, promoting efficient threat response. These findings thus lend support to hybrid models of emotion.

  16. A Compilation of Provisional Karst Geospatial Data for the Interior Low Plateaus Physiographic Region, Central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Charles J.; Nelson, Hugh L.

    2008-01-01

    Geospatial data needed to visualize and evaluate the hydrogeologic framework and distribution of karst features in the Interior Low Plateaus physiographic region of the central United States were compiled during 2004-2007 as part of the Ground-Water Resources Program Karst Hydrology Initiative (KHI) project. Because of the potential usefulness to environmental and water-resources regulators, private consultants, academic researchers, and others, the geospatial data files created during the KHI project are being made available to the public as a provisional regional karst dataset. To enhance accessibility and visualization, the geospatial data files have been compiled as ESRI ArcReader data folders and user interactive Published Map Files (.pmf files), all of which are catalogued by the boundaries of surface watersheds using U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) eight-digit hydrologic unit codes (HUC-8s). Specific karst features included in the dataset include mapped sinkhole locations, sinking (or disappearing) streams, internally drained catchments, karst springs inventoried in the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) database, relic stream valleys, and karst flow paths obtained from results of previously reported water-tracer tests.

  17. 42 CFR 457.1170 - Program specific review process: Continuation of enrollment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Program specific review process: Continuation of enrollment. 457.1170 Section 457.1170 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS...

  18. 42 CFR 457.1170 - Program specific review process: Continuation of enrollment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program specific review process: Continuation of enrollment. 457.1170 Section 457.1170 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS...

  19. Gene recovery microdissection (GRM) a process for producing chromosome region-specific libraries of expressed genes

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, A T; Coleman, M A; Tucker, J D

    2001-02-08

    Gene Recovery Microdissection (GRM) is a unique and cost-effective process for producing chromosome region-specific libraries of expressed genes. It accelerates the pace, reduces the cost, and extends the capabilities of functional genomic research, the means by which scientists will put to life-saving, life-enhancing use their knowledge of any plant or animal genome.

  20. Specific and Nonspecific Neural Activity during Selective Processing of Visual Representations in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hwamee; Leung, Hoi-Chung

    2010-01-01

    In this fMRI study, we investigated prefrontal cortex (PFC) and visual association regions during selective information processing. We recorded behavioral responses and neural activity during a delayed recognition task with a cue presented during the delay period. A specific cue ("Face" or "Scene") was used to indicate which one of the two…

  1. Behavioral Profiles Associated with Auditory Processing Disorder and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carol A.; Wagstaff, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To describe and compare behavioral profiles associated with auditory processing disorder (APD) and specific language impairment (SLI) in school-age children. Method: The participants in this cross-sectional observational study were 64 children (mean age 10.1 years) recruited through clinician referrals. Thirty-five participants had a…

  2. Brainstem Correlates of Temporal Auditory Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basu, Madhavi; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Deficits in identification and discrimination of sounds with short inter-stimulus intervals or short formant transitions in children with specific language impairment (SLI) have been taken to reflect an underlying temporal auditory processing deficit. Using the sustained frequency following response (FFR) and the onset auditory brainstem responses…

  3. Evaluation of surface finish and polish of eight provisional restorative materials using acrylic bur and abrasive disk with and without pumice.

    PubMed

    Maalhagh-Fard, Ahmad; Wagner, Warren C; Pink, Frank E; Neme, Ann Marie

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two finishing techniques and pumice polishing on the surface roughness of eight different provisional materials. Provisional materials included polymethylmethacrylate-based Alike, Snap, Trim and Jetand composite-based provisional materials Temphase, Protemp 3 Garant, Luxatemp and Integrity. Baseline surface roughness was measured by a profilometer, then the provisional materials were finished using extra fine acrylic burs or medium abrasive disks. The surface roughness of each sample was measured following finishing using a profilometer as previously stated. Each surface was then polished with pumice and the surface roughness was measured again. The data were analyzed using repeated measures of ANOVA and Bonferroni pairwise comparisons (alpha = 0.05). The results indicated that with composite provisional materials, the unfinished surfaces are smoother than with bur or abrasive-disk finished surfaces. Pumice application did not smooth the surface finish for all materials. The different types of provisional materials required different finishing techniques to produce the smoothest finishes.

  4. Comparative in vitro evaluation of CAD/CAM vs conventional provisional crowns

    PubMed Central

    ABDULLAH, Adil Othman; TSITROU, Effrosyni A; POLLINGTON, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective This study compared the marginal gap, internal fit, fracture strength, and mode of fracture of CAD/CAM provisional crowns with that of direct provisional crowns. Material and Methods An upper right first premolar phantom tooth was prepared for full ceramic crown following tooth preparation guidelines. The materials tested were: VITA CAD-Temp®, Polyetheretherketone “PEEK”, Telio CAD-Temp, and Protemp™4 (control group). The crowns were divided into four groups (n=10), Group1: VITA CAD-Temp®, Group 2: PEEK, Group 3: Telio CAD-Temp, and Group 4: Protemp™4. Each crown was investigated for marginal and internal fit, fracture strength, and mode of fracture. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism software version 6.0. Results The average marginal gap was: VITA CAD-Temp® 60.61 (±9.99) µm, PEEK 46.75 (±8.26) µm, Telio CAD-Temp 56.10 (±5.65) µm, and Protemp™4 193.07(±35.96) µm (P<0.001). The average internal fit was: VITA CAD-Temp® 124.94 (±22.96) µm, PEEK 113.14 (±23.55) µm, Telio CAD-Temp 110.95 (±11.64) µm, and Protemp™4 143.48(±26.74) µm. The average fracture strength was: VITA CAD-Temp® 361.01 (±21.61) N, PEEK 802.23 (±111.29) N, Telio CAD-Temp 719.24 (±95.17) N, and Protemp™4 416.40 (±69.14) N. One-way ANOVA test showed a statistically significant difference for marginal gap, internal gap, and fracture strength between all groups (p<0.001). However, the mode of fracture showed no differences between the groups (p>0.05). Conclusions CAD/CAM fabricated provisional crowns demonstrated superior fit and better strength than direct provisional crowns. PMID:27383707

  5. Alternative fabrication method for chairside fiber-reinforced composite resin provisional fixed partial dentures.

    PubMed

    Ballo, Ahmed; Vallittu, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    A high level of clinical skill is required for fabricating a provisional fixed partial denture with fiber-reinforced composite resin (FRC) using either the direct or chairside technique. The freehand approach to restoring missing teeth represents a challenge to the clinician, particularly when shaping and finishing a hygienic pontic. This technical report describes a simplified method for chairside fabrication of a fixed dental prosthesis with FRC. It is based on using a translucent template to guide the buildup procedure and to ensure optimal anatomy and function. PMID:21909486

  6. Children with specific language impairment also show impairment of music-syntactic processing.

    PubMed

    Jentschke, Sebastian; Koelsch, Stefan; Sallat, Stephan; Friederici, Angela D

    2008-11-01

    Both language and music consist of sequences that are structured according to syntactic regularities. We used two specific event-related brain potential (ERP) components to investigate music-syntactic processing in children: the ERAN (early right anterior negativity) and the N5. The neural resources underlying these processes have been posited to overlap with those involved in the processing of linguistic syntax. Thus, we expected children with specific language impairment (SLI, which is characterized by deficient processing of linguistic syntax) to demonstrate difficulties with music-syntactic processing. Such difficulties were indeed observed in the neural correlates of music-syntactic processing: neither an ERAN nor an N5 was elicited in children with SLI, whereas both components were evoked in age-matched control children with typical language development. Moreover, the amplitudes of ERAN and N5 were correlated with subtests of a language development test. These data provide evidence for a strong interrelation between the language and the music processing system, thereby setting the ground for possible effects of musical training in SLI therapy.

  7. Electrophysiological Correlates of Rapid Auditory and Linguistic Processing in Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Weber-Fox, Christine; Leonard, Laurence B.; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Brief tonal stimuli and spoken sentences were utilized to examine whether adolescents (aged 14;3-18;1) with specific language impairments (SLI) exhibit atypical neural activity for rapid auditory processing of non-linguistic stimuli and linguistic processing of verb-agreement and semantic constraints. Further, we examined whether the behavioral and electrophysiological indices for rapid auditory processing were correlated with those for linguistic processing. Fifteen adolescents with SLI and 15 adolescents with normal language met strict criteria for displaying consistent diagnoses from kindergarten through the eighth grade. The findings provide evidence that auditory processing for non-linguistic stimuli is atypical in a significant number of adolescents with SLI compared to peers with normal language and indicate that reduced efficiency in auditory processing in SLI is more vulnerable to rapid rates (200 ms ISI) of stimuli presentation (indexed by reduced accuracy, a tendency for longer RTs, reduced N100 over right anterior sites, and reduced amplitude P300). Many adolescents with SLI displayed reduced behavioral accuracy for detecting verb-agreement violations and semantic anomalies, along with less robust P600s elicited by verb-agreement violations. The results indicate that ERPs elicited by morphosyntactic aspects of language processing are atypical in many adolescents with SLI. Additionally, correlational analyses between behavioral and electrophysiological indices of processing non-linguistic stimuli and verb-agreement violations suggest that the integrity of neural functions for auditory processing may only account for a small proportion of the variance in morphosyntactic processing in some adolescents. PMID:20889197

  8. Critical Role of Autophagy in the Processing of Adenovirus Capsid-Incorporated Cancer-Specific Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Sarah R.; Jiang, Hong; Hossain, Mohammad B.; Fan, Xuejun; Gumin, Joy; Dong, Andrew; Alonso, Marta M.; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria; Fueyo, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses are highly immunogenic and are being examined as potential vectors for immunotherapy. Infection by oncolytic adenovirus is followed by massive autophagy in cancer cells. Here, we hypothesize that autophagy regulates the processing of adenoviral proteins for antigen presentation. To test this hypothesis, we first examined the presentation of viral antigens by infected cells using an antibody cocktail of viral capsid proteins. We found that viral antigens were processed by JNK-mediated autophagy, and that autophagy was required for their presentation. Consistent with these results, splenocytes isolated from virus-immunized mice were activated by infected cells in an MHC II-dependent manner. We then hypothesize that this mechanism can be utilized to generate an efficient cancer vaccine. To this end, we constructed an oncolytic virus encompassing an EGFRvIII cancer-specific epitope in the adenoviral fiber. Infection of cancer cells with this fiber-modified adenovirus resulted in recognition of infected cancer cells by a specific anti-EGFRvIII antibody. However, inhibition of autophagy drastically decreased the capability of the specific antibody to detect the cancer-related epitope in infected cells. Our data suggest that combination of adenoviruses with autophagy inducers may enhance the processing and presentation of cancer-specific antigens incorporated into capsid proteins. PMID:27093696

  9. Critical Role of Autophagy in the Processing of Adenovirus Capsid-Incorporated Cancer-Specific Antigens.

    PubMed

    Klein, Sarah R; Jiang, Hong; Hossain, Mohammad B; Fan, Xuejun; Gumin, Joy; Dong, Andrew; Alonso, Marta M; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria; Fueyo, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses are highly immunogenic and are being examined as potential vectors for immunotherapy. Infection by oncolytic adenovirus is followed by massive autophagy in cancer cells. Here, we hypothesize that autophagy regulates the processing of adenoviral proteins for antigen presentation. To test this hypothesis, we first examined the presentation of viral antigens by infected cells using an antibody cocktail of viral capsid proteins. We found that viral antigens were processed by JNK-mediated autophagy, and that autophagy was required for their presentation. Consistent with these results, splenocytes isolated from virus-immunized mice were activated by infected cells in an MHC II-dependent manner. We then hypothesize that this mechanism can be utilized to generate an efficient cancer vaccine. To this end, we constructed an oncolytic virus encompassing an EGFRvIII cancer-specific epitope in the adenoviral fiber. Infection of cancer cells with this fiber-modified adenovirus resulted in recognition of infected cancer cells by a specific anti-EGFRvIII antibody. However, inhibition of autophagy drastically decreased the capability of the specific antibody to detect the cancer-related epitope in infected cells. Our data suggest that combination of adenoviruses with autophagy inducers may enhance the processing and presentation of cancer-specific antigens incorporated into capsid proteins. PMID:27093696

  10. Evaluation of Light-Activated Provisional Resin Materials for Periodontal Soft Tissue Management

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Soo-Kyung; Lee, Hae-Hyoung

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine mechanical properties using a compressive test with cylinder specimen (h = 6 mm and ϕ = 4 mm) as well as cytotoxicity using elutes from disk specimen (ϕ = 10 mm and h = 2 mm) against human gingival fibroblasts and oral keratinocytes with light-activated provisional resin materials (Revotek LC and Luxatemp Solar) compared to chemically activated counterpart (Snap, Trim II, and Jet). Significantly increased compressive strength (210~280 MPa) was detected in light-activated products compared to chemically activated ones (20~65 MPa, P < 0.05) and similar compressive modulus was detected in both types (0.8~1.5 and 0.5~1.3 GPa). Simultaneously, the light-activated products showed less adverse effects on the periodontal soft tissue cells in any polymerization stage compared to the chemically activated products. Particularly, chemically activated products had significantly greater adverse effects during the “polymerizing” phase compared to those that were “already set” (P < 0.05), as shown in confocal microscopic images of live and dead cells. In conclusion, light-activated provisional resin materials have better mechanical properties as well as biocompatibility against two tested types of oral cells compared to the chemically activated counterpart, which are considered as more beneficial choice for periodontal soft tissue management. PMID:27672651

  11. Evaluation of Light-Activated Provisional Resin Materials for Periodontal Soft Tissue Management

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Soo-Kyung; Lee, Hae-Hyoung

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine mechanical properties using a compressive test with cylinder specimen (h = 6 mm and ϕ = 4 mm) as well as cytotoxicity using elutes from disk specimen (ϕ = 10 mm and h = 2 mm) against human gingival fibroblasts and oral keratinocytes with light-activated provisional resin materials (Revotek LC and Luxatemp Solar) compared to chemically activated counterpart (Snap, Trim II, and Jet). Significantly increased compressive strength (210~280 MPa) was detected in light-activated products compared to chemically activated ones (20~65 MPa, P < 0.05) and similar compressive modulus was detected in both types (0.8~1.5 and 0.5~1.3 GPa). Simultaneously, the light-activated products showed less adverse effects on the periodontal soft tissue cells in any polymerization stage compared to the chemically activated products. Particularly, chemically activated products had significantly greater adverse effects during the “polymerizing” phase compared to those that were “already set” (P < 0.05), as shown in confocal microscopic images of live and dead cells. In conclusion, light-activated provisional resin materials have better mechanical properties as well as biocompatibility against two tested types of oral cells compared to the chemically activated counterpart, which are considered as more beneficial choice for periodontal soft tissue management.

  12. Finite element analysis of provisional structures of implant-supported complete prostheses.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Bruno Albuquerque; de Brito, Rui Barbosa; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes

    2014-04-01

    The use of provisional resin implant-supported complete dentures is a fast and safe procedure to restore mastication and esthetics of patients soon after surgery and during the adaptation phase to the new denture. This study assessed stress distribution of provisional implant-supported fixed dentures and the all-on-4 concept using self-curing acrylic resin (Tempron) and bis-acrylic resin (Luxatemp) to simulate functional loads through the three-dimensional finite element method. Solidworks software was used to build three-dimensional models using acrylic resin (Tempron, model A) and bis-acrylic resin (Luxatemp, model B) for denture captions. Two loading patterns were applied on each model: (1) right unilateral axial loading of 150 N on the occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth and (2) oblique loading vector of 150 N at 45°. The results showed that higher stress was found on the bone crest below oblique load application with a maximum value of 187.57 MPa on model A and 167.45 MPa on model B. It was concluded that model B improved stress distribution on the denture compared with model A. PMID:24779949

  13. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF PROVISIONAL STRUCTURES OF IMPLANT-SUPPORTED COMPLETE PROSTHESES.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Bruno Albuquerque; Brito Jr, Rui Barbosa; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes

    2012-03-01

    Abstract The use of provisional resin implant-supported complete dentures is a fast and safe procedure to restore mastication and aesthetics of patients soon after surgery and during the adaptation phase to the new denture. This study assessed stress distribution of provisional implant-supported fixed dentures and the all-on-four concept using self-curing acrylic resin (Tempron) and bis-acrylic resin (Luxatemp) to simulate functional loads through the 3D finite element method. The Solidworks software was used to build 3D models, using acrylic resin (Tempron - A) and bis-acrylic resin (Luxatemp - B) for denture captions. Two loading patterns were applied on each model: 1) right unilateral axial loading of 150 N on the occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth; 2) oblique loading vector of 150 N at 45 degrees. The results showed that higher stress was found on the bone crest below oblique load application with maximum value of 187.57 MPa on model A and 167.45 MPa on model B. It was concluded that model B improved stress distribution on the denture compared to model A.

  14. Finite element analysis of provisional structures of implant-supported complete prostheses.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Bruno Albuquerque; de Brito, Rui Barbosa; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes

    2014-04-01

    The use of provisional resin implant-supported complete dentures is a fast and safe procedure to restore mastication and esthetics of patients soon after surgery and during the adaptation phase to the new denture. This study assessed stress distribution of provisional implant-supported fixed dentures and the all-on-4 concept using self-curing acrylic resin (Tempron) and bis-acrylic resin (Luxatemp) to simulate functional loads through the three-dimensional finite element method. Solidworks software was used to build three-dimensional models using acrylic resin (Tempron, model A) and bis-acrylic resin (Luxatemp, model B) for denture captions. Two loading patterns were applied on each model: (1) right unilateral axial loading of 150 N on the occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth and (2) oblique loading vector of 150 N at 45°. The results showed that higher stress was found on the bone crest below oblique load application with a maximum value of 187.57 MPa on model A and 167.45 MPa on model B. It was concluded that model B improved stress distribution on the denture compared with model A.

  15. Word stress processing in specific language impairment: auditory or representational deficits?

    PubMed

    Haake, Caroline; Kob, Malte; Willmes, Klaus; Domahs, Frank

    2013-08-01

    Word stress processing has repeatedly been reported to be affected in specific language impairment (SLI) with potential consequences for various aspects of language development. However, it still remains unresolved whether word stress impairments in SLI are due to deficits in basic auditory processing or to a degraded phonological representation or both. We addressed this question examining an unselected sample of 10 children with SLI and 11 typically developing (TD) children, aged about 8 years, with respect to their basic auditory processing (duration and skewness discrimination) and phonological representation of prosodic (word stress) and segmental (consonant) contrasts. Our results show lower performance of the SLI group compared to the TD group in all tasks. Crucially, two subgroups of children with SLI emerged from our analyses: While one group was impaired in basic auditory perception, particularly affecting duration discrimination, the other showed no significant auditory processing deficits but a representational impairment.

  16. An Advanced User Interface Approach for Complex Parameter Study Process Specification in the Information Power Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarrow, Maurice; McCann, Karen M.; Biswas, Rupak; VanderWijngaart, Rob; Yan, Jerry C. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The creation of parameter study suites has recently become a more challenging problem as the parameter studies have now become multi-tiered and the computational environment has become a supercomputer grid. The parameter spaces are vast, the individual problem sizes are getting larger, and researchers are now seeking to combine several successive stages of parameterization and computation. Simultaneously, grid-based computing offers great resource opportunity but at the expense of great difficulty of use. We present an approach to this problem which stresses intuitive visual design tools for parameter study creation and complex process specification, and also offers programming-free access to grid-based supercomputer resources and process automation.

  17. A comparison of retentive strength of implant cement depending on various methods of removing provisional cement from implant abutment

    PubMed Central

    Keum, Eun-Cheol

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE This study evaluated the effectiveness of various methods for removing provisional cement from implant abutments, and what effect these methods have on the retention of prosthesis during the definitive cementation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty implant fixture analogues and abutments were embedded in resin blocks. Forty cast crowns were fabricated and divided into 4 groups each containing 10 implants. Group A was cemented directly with the definitive cement (Cem-Implant). The remainder were cemented with provisional cement (Temp-Bond NE), and classified according to the method for cleaning the abutments. Group B used a plastic curette and wet gauze, Group C used a rubber cup and pumice, and Group D used an airborne particle abrasion technique. The abutments were observed using a stereomicroscope after removing the provisional cement. The tensile bond strength was measured after the definitive cementation. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance test (α=.05). RESULTS Group B clearly showed provisional cement remaining, whereas the other groups showed almost no cement. Groups A and B showed a relatively smooth surface. More roughness was observed in Group C, and apparent roughness was noted in Group D. The tensile bond strength tests revealed Group D to have significantly the highest tensile bond strength followed in order by Groups C, A and B. CONCLUSION A plastic curette and wet gauze alone cannot effectively remove the residual provisional cement on the abutment. The definitive retention increased when the abutments were treated with rubber cup/pumice or airborne particle abraded to remove the provisional cement. PMID:24049563

  18. NPRA Q and A - 1; 1990 Fuel specifications will require process changes

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, D.C. ); Soumagne, G.; Siegrist, M.R. )

    1990-02-26

    This paper discusses the alteration of specifications for gasoline and diesel fuels in the 1990:0090s. Higher-octane gasoline with lower vapor pressure, and diesel fuel with lower sulfur and aromatics, will require process changes to produce. These altered fuel specifications prompted several questions at the most recent National Petroleum Refiners Association annual question and answer session on refining and petrochemical technology held in New Orleans, October 4-6, 1989. At this meeting, moderated by Herbert W. Bruch, NPRA's technical director, engineers and managers from refineries and petrochemical plants around the world gather to discuss their operating experiences in the form of questions and answers that cover a wide range of topics. A panel of selected technical representatives of operating companies and suppliers first answer previously submitted questions, then the audience is invited to add its contributions. This excerpt from the transcript of the meeting examines operating conditions and catalysts that increase motor octane number in FCC units, the effects on processes of lower vapor pressure gasoline specifications, and processing routes to low sulfur and aromatic diesel fuels.

  19. What's up? Emotion-specific activation of vertical space during language processing.

    PubMed

    Dudschig, Carolin; de la Vega, Irmgard; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between language processing and vertical space has been shown for various groups of words including valence words, implicit location words, and words referring to religious concepts. However, it remains unclear whether these are single phenomena or whether there is an underlying common mechanism. Here, we show that the evaluation of word valence interacts with motor responses in the vertical dimension, with positive (negative) evaluations facilitating upward (downward) responses. When valence evaluation was not required, implicit location words (e.g., bird, shoe) influenced motor responses whereas valence words (e.g., kiss, hate) did not. Importantly, a subset of specific emotional valence words that are commonly associated with particular bodily postures (e.g., proud→upright; sad→slouched) did automatically influence motor responses. Together, this suggests that while the vertical spatial dimension is not directly activated by word valence, it is activated when processing words referring to emotional states with stereotypical bodily-postures. These results provide strong evidence that the activation of spatial associations during language processing is experience-specific in nature and cannot be explained with reference to a general mapping between all valence words and space (i.e., all positive and negative words generally relate to spatial processing). These findings support the experiential view of language comprehension, suggesting that the automatic reactivation of bodily experiences is limited to word groups referring to emotions or entities directly associated with spatial experiences (e.g., posture or location in the world). PMID:25454886

  20. Relative Contributions of Specific Activity Histories and Spontaneous Processes to Size Remodeling of Glutamatergic Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Dvorkin, Roman; Ziv, Noam E.

    2016-01-01

    The idea that synaptic properties are defined by specific pre- and postsynaptic activity histories is one of the oldest and most influential tenets of contemporary neuroscience. Recent studies also indicate, however, that synaptic properties often change spontaneously, even in the absence of specific activity patterns or any activity whatsoever. What, then, are the relative contributions of activity history-dependent and activity history-independent processes to changes synapses undergo? To compare the relative contributions of these processes, we imaged, in spontaneously active networks of cortical neurons, glutamatergic synapses formed between the same axons and neurons or dendrites under the assumption that their similar activity histories should result in similar size changes over timescales of days. The size covariance of such commonly innervated (CI) synapses was then compared to that of synapses formed by different axons (non-CI synapses) that differed in their activity histories. We found that the size covariance of CI synapses was greater than that of non-CI synapses; yet overall size covariance of CI synapses was rather modest. Moreover, momentary and time-averaged sizes of CI synapses correlated rather poorly, in perfect agreement with published electron microscopy-based measurements of mouse cortex synapses. A conservative estimate suggested that ~40% of the observed size remodeling was attributable to specific activity histories, whereas ~10% and ~50% were attributable to cell-wide and spontaneous, synapse-autonomous processes, respectively. These findings demonstrate that histories of naturally occurring activity patterns can direct glutamatergic synapse remodeling but also suggest that the contributions of spontaneous, possibly stochastic, processes are at least as great. PMID:27776122

  1. Electrophysiological evidence of multitasking impairment of attentional deployment reflects target-specific processing, not distractor inhibition.

    PubMed

    Corriveau, Isabelle; Fortier-Gauthier, Ulysse; Pomerleau, Vincent Jetté; McDonald, John; Dell'acqua, Roberto; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2012-11-01

    We studied the interaction between the control mechanisms subserving spatial attention and central attention using the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm. Two stimuli, a pure tone (T(1)) and a circular visual array (T(2)), including a salient target and a salient distractor, were presented at varying stimulus onset asynchronies, each requiring a speeded response. Target-specific and distractor-specific lateralized event-related potentials were isolated by placing one of them at a lateral position and the other on the vertical midline. As SOA was decreased, a progressive reduction and postponement of a T(2)-locked N2pc component was observed with a lateral target and a central distractor. No lateralized potentials were associated with a lateral distractor and a central target. The sustained posterior contralateral negativity (SPCN) was observed independently of SOA modulation, only with a lateral target. We also observed an earlier positive deflection, the Ppc (positivity posterior contralateral), that was contralateral to both lateral targets and distractors, whose amplitude and latency were not affected by SOA variations. We conclude that central processing interferes specifically with target processing reflected by the N2pc and SPCN. We propose that the Ppc reflects an initial, bottom-up response to the presence of a salient stimulus, whereas the N2pc and SPCN reflect the controlled deployment of spatial attention to targets and maintenance of target information in visual short-term memory, respectively.

  2. Hypothalamic neuroactivity in specific processes and central regulation of body temperature and water intake.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, A; Ishimaru, H; Ikarashi, Y; Kishi, E; Maruyama, Y

    2001-08-01

    The method described was designed to elucidate the role of a particular neuronal system or specific nucleus in the central nervous system (CNS) in controlling physiological and biological functions. The neurochemical aspects of the CNS regulatory mechanism and related networks remain to be further investigated. There is little information available about the relationship between neuroactivity in the specific brain nuclei and physiological or biological responses in mammals. An adequate analysis of this relationship provides valuable insight to clarify which nucleus and what types of neurons are truly involved in the excitation of physiological events and its regulation. In the present study, we used microdialysis for stimulation of the anterior hypothalamus (AH) and simultaneous analysis of cholinergic activity, and we investigated c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) in the brain in the same animal following microdialysis. The nuclear protein c-Fos, the product of c-fos oncogene, has been used as a marker of neuronal activity at the cellular level in the brain. Various physiological and pharmacological stimuli have been shown to induce Fos-IR in specific neuronal populations located in various regions of the brain. However, there are few studies investigating the responses produced by c-Fos expression in specific regions in same animals. We showed the involvement of hypothalamic cholinergic mechanisms in the thermoregulatory and water regulatory processes using the above procedures.

  3. Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Central auditory tests.

    PubMed

    Dlouha, Olga; Novak, Alexej; Vokral, Jan

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this project is to use central auditory tests for diagnosis of central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) in children with specific language impairment (SLI), in order to confirm relationship between speech-language impairment and central auditory processing. We attempted to establish special dichotic binaural tests in Czech language modified for younger children. Tests are based on behavioral audiometry using dichotic listening (different auditory stimuli that presented to each ear simultaneously). The experimental tasks consisted of three auditory measures (test 1-3)-dichotic listening of two-syllable words presented like binaural interaction tests. Children with SLI are unable to create simple sentences from two words that are heard separately but simultaneously. Results in our group of 90 pre-school children (6-7 years old) confirmed integration deficit and problems with quality of short-term memory. Average rate of success of children with specific language impairment was 56% in test 1, 64% in test 2 and 63% in test 3. Results of control group: 92% in test 1, 93% in test 2 and 92% in test 3 (p<0.001). Our results indicate the relationship between disorders of speech-language perception and central auditory processing disorders. PMID:17382411

  4. Computational dissection of human episodic memory reveals mental process-specific genetic profiles

    PubMed Central

    Luksys, Gediminas; Fastenrath, Matthias; Coynel, David; Freytag, Virginie; Gschwind, Leo; Heck, Angela; Jessen, Frank; Maier, Wolfgang; Milnik, Annette; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Scherer, Martin; Spalek, Klara; Vogler, Christian; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J.-F.

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory performance is the result of distinct mental processes, such as learning, memory maintenance, and emotional modulation of memory strength. Such processes can be effectively dissociated using computational models. Here we performed gene set enrichment analyses of model parameters estimated from the episodic memory performance of 1,765 healthy young adults. We report robust and replicated associations of the amine compound SLC (solute-carrier) transporters gene set with the learning rate, of the collagen formation and transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity gene sets with the modulation of memory strength by negative emotional arousal, and of the L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) interactions gene set with the repetition-based memory improvement. Furthermore, in a large functional MRI sample of 795 subjects we found that the association between L1CAM interactions and memory maintenance revealed large clusters of differences in brain activity in frontal cortical areas. Our findings provide converging evidence that distinct genetic profiles underlie specific mental processes of human episodic memory. They also provide empirical support to previous theoretical and neurobiological studies linking specific neuromodulators to the learning rate and linking neural cell adhesion molecules to memory maintenance. Furthermore, our study suggests additional memory-related genetic pathways, which may contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of human memory. PMID:26261317

  5. Site-specific investigations of aquifer thermal energy storage for space and process cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D R; Hattrup, M P; Watts, R L

    1991-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has completed three preliminary site-specific feasibility studies that investigated using aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) to reduce space and process cooling costs. Chilled water stored in an ATES system could be used to meet all or part of the process and/or space cooling loads at the three facilities investigated. The work was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Management. The ultimate goal of DOE's Thermal Energy Storage Program is to successfully transfer ATES technology to industrial and commercial sectors. The primary objective of this study was to identify prospective sites and determine the technical and economic feasibility of implementing chill ATES technology. A secondary objective was to identify site-specific factors promoting or inhibiting the application of chill ATES technology so that other potentially attractive sites could be more easily identified and evaluated. A preliminary investigation of the feasibility of commercializing chill ATES in automotive assembly facilities was completed. The results suggested that automotive assembly facilities was completed. The results suggested that automotive assembly facilities represent a good entry market for chill ATES, if the system is cost-effective. As a result, this study was undertaken to identify and evaluate prospective chill ATES applications in the automotive industry. The balance of the report contains two main sections. Section 2.0 describes the site identification process. Site feasibility is addressed in Section 3.0. Overall study conclusions and recommendations are than presented in Section 4.0.

  6. Computational dissection of human episodic memory reveals mental process-specific genetic profiles.

    PubMed

    Luksys, Gediminas; Fastenrath, Matthias; Coynel, David; Freytag, Virginie; Gschwind, Leo; Heck, Angela; Jessen, Frank; Maier, Wolfgang; Milnik, Annette; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Scherer, Martin; Spalek, Klara; Vogler, Christian; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2015-09-01

    Episodic memory performance is the result of distinct mental processes, such as learning, memory maintenance, and emotional modulation of memory strength. Such processes can be effectively dissociated using computational models. Here we performed gene set enrichment analyses of model parameters estimated from the episodic memory performance of 1,765 healthy young adults. We report robust and replicated associations of the amine compound SLC (solute-carrier) transporters gene set with the learning rate, of the collagen formation and transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity gene sets with the modulation of memory strength by negative emotional arousal, and of the L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) interactions gene set with the repetition-based memory improvement. Furthermore, in a large functional MRI sample of 795 subjects we found that the association between L1CAM interactions and memory maintenance revealed large clusters of differences in brain activity in frontal cortical areas. Our findings provide converging evidence that distinct genetic profiles underlie specific mental processes of human episodic memory. They also provide empirical support to previous theoretical and neurobiological studies linking specific neuromodulators to the learning rate and linking neural cell adhesion molecules to memory maintenance. Furthermore, our study suggests additional memory-related genetic pathways, which may contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of human memory. PMID:26261317

  7. Effortful and automatic information processing in boys with ADHD and specific learning disorders.

    PubMed

    Hazell, P L; Carr, V J; Lewin, T J; Dewis, S A; Heathcote, D M; Brucki, B M

    1999-02-01

    Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, N = 50), Specific Learning Disorder (LD, N = 45), combined Specific Learning Disorder and ADHD (LD/ADHD, N = 25), and controls (N = 51) completed effortful and automatic information processing tasks based on Treisman and Gelade's (1980) "information integration theory". ADHD and LD/ADHD subjects did not differ from controls at baseline or under feedback and reward conditions, suggesting that they were investing similar levels of mental effort in the tasks. The LD group had a superior performance in the effortful task and an inferior performance in the automatic task compared with the other groups at baseline. The data suggest a potential method of distinguishing primary LD from learning difficulties that occur secondary to ADHD.

  8. Fabrication of a new crown and provisional to an existing removable partial denture.

    PubMed

    Jackson, A D; Butler, C J

    1995-09-01

    A method of fabricating a new crown to an existing removable partial denture is described. A press-form plastic shell made from the diagnostic cast provides the outer contours for the abutment tooth, while an acrylic resin coping is fabricated on a die to provide accurate internal adaptation. The acrylic resin coping is seated on the prepared abutment. Autopolymerizing acrylic resin is mixed and placed in the plastic shell that is then placed in the mouth over the coping, forming the acrylic resin crown pattern. The removable partial prosthesis is fitted over the crown pattern intraorally. The pattern is transferred back to the die, the margins are refined, and the casting is completed and finished, avoiding reduction of the established contours. The same plastic shell is used with tooth-shaded acrylic resin to construct a provisional crown directly in the mouth. This technique allows the patient to wear the removable partial denture while the laboratory procedures are completed.

  9. Retentive force of O-ring attachment to use Immediate Provisional Implant (IPI)-retained overdenture.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Mariko; Ohkubo, Chikahiro; Suzuki, Yasunori; Aoki, Takayuki; Sato, Jun-ichi; Hosoi, Toshio

    2005-12-01

    This study evaluated the retentive force of the O-ring attachment to an Immediate Provisional Implant (IPI)-retained overdenture. Two sizes of O-rings (#1, #2) were placed on the IPI abutment head. As the controls, soft relining material, silicone lining material, and the PMMA resin were used to connect the IPI abutment head. The retentive forces (n=5, N) obtained at a crosshead speed of 40 mm/min were analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey's HSD test (alpha=0.05). O-ring #1 showed the significantly greatest force among all materials tested (p0.05). Appropriate retention was obtained using the smaller O-ring#1 for the IPI-retained overdenture. PMID:16411569

  10. Digital approach to planning computer-guided surgery and immediate provisionalization in a partially edentulous patient.

    PubMed

    Arunyanak, Sirikarn P; Harris, Bryan T; Grant, Gerald T; Morton, Dean; Lin, Wei-Shao

    2016-07-01

    This report describes a digital approach for computer-guided surgery and immediate provisionalization in a partially edentulous patient. With diagnostic data obtained from cone-beam computed tomography and intraoral digital diagnostic scans, a digital pathway of virtual diagnostic waxing, a virtual prosthetically driven surgical plan, a computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) surgical template, and implant-supported screw-retained interim restorations were realized with various open-architecture CAD/CAM systems. The optional CAD/CAM diagnostic casts with planned implant placement were also additively manufactured to facilitate preoperative inspection of the surgical template and customization of the CAD/CAM-fabricated interim restorations. PMID:26868961

  11. Neurite-specific Ca2+ dynamics underlying sound processing in an auditory interneurone.

    PubMed

    Baden, T; Hedwig, B

    2007-01-01

    Concepts on neuronal signal processing and integration at a cellular and subcellular level are driven by recording techniques and model systems available. The cricket CNS with the omega-1-neurone (ON1) provides a model system for auditory pattern recognition and directional processing. Exploiting ON1's planar structure we simultaneously imaged free intracellular Ca(2+) at both input and output neurites and recorded the membrane potential in vivo during acoustic stimulation. In response to a single sound pulse the rate of Ca(2+) rise followed the onset spike rate of ON1, while the final Ca(2+) level depended on the mean spike rate. Ca(2+) rapidly increased in both dendritic and axonal arborizations and only gradually in the axon and the cell body. Ca(2+) levels were particularly high at the spike-generating zone. Through the activation of a Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) current this may exhibit a specific control over the cell's electrical response properties. In all cellular compartments presentation of species-specific calling song caused distinct oscillations of the Ca(2+) level in the chirp rhythm, but not the faster syllable rhythm. The Ca(2+)-mediated hyperpolarization of ON1 suppressed background spike activity between chirps, acting as a noise filter. During directional auditory processing, the functional interaction of Ca(2+)-mediated inhibition and contralateral synaptic inhibition was demonstrated. Upon stimulation with different sound frequencies, the dendrites, but not the axonal arborizations, demonstrated a tonotopic response profile. This mirrored the dominance of the species-specific carrier frequency and resulted in spatial filtering of high frequency auditory inputs. PMID:17443773

  12. Neurite-specific Ca2+ dynamics underlying sound processing in an auditory interneurone.

    PubMed

    Baden, T; Hedwig, B

    2007-01-01

    Concepts on neuronal signal processing and integration at a cellular and subcellular level are driven by recording techniques and model systems available. The cricket CNS with the omega-1-neurone (ON1) provides a model system for auditory pattern recognition and directional processing. Exploiting ON1's planar structure we simultaneously imaged free intracellular Ca(2+) at both input and output neurites and recorded the membrane potential in vivo during acoustic stimulation. In response to a single sound pulse the rate of Ca(2+) rise followed the onset spike rate of ON1, while the final Ca(2+) level depended on the mean spike rate. Ca(2+) rapidly increased in both dendritic and axonal arborizations and only gradually in the axon and the cell body. Ca(2+) levels were particularly high at the spike-generating zone. Through the activation of a Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) current this may exhibit a specific control over the cell's electrical response properties. In all cellular compartments presentation of species-specific calling song caused distinct oscillations of the Ca(2+) level in the chirp rhythm, but not the faster syllable rhythm. The Ca(2+)-mediated hyperpolarization of ON1 suppressed background spike activity between chirps, acting as a noise filter. During directional auditory processing, the functional interaction of Ca(2+)-mediated inhibition and contralateral synaptic inhibition was demonstrated. Upon stimulation with different sound frequencies, the dendrites, but not the axonal arborizations, demonstrated a tonotopic response profile. This mirrored the dominance of the species-specific carrier frequency and resulted in spatial filtering of high frequency auditory inputs.

  13. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 5: System design and specifications. Volume 6: Specification for EOS Central Data Processing Facility (CDPF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The specifications and functions of the Central Data Processing (CDPF) Facility which supports the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) are discussed. The CDPF will receive the EOS sensor data and spacecraft data through the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) and the Operations Control Center (OCC). The CDPF will process the data and produce high density digital tapes, computer compatible tapes, film and paper print images, and other data products. The specific aspects of data inputs and data processing are identified. A block diagram of the CDPF to show the data flow and interfaces of the subsystems is provided.

  14. Statistical process control analysis for patient-specific IMRT and VMAT QA.

    PubMed

    Sanghangthum, Taweap; Suriyapee, Sivalee; Srisatit, Somyot; Pawlicki, Todd

    2013-05-01

    This work applied statistical process control to establish the control limits of the % gamma pass of patient-specific intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) quality assurance (QA), and to evaluate the efficiency of the QA process by using the process capability index (Cpml). A total of 278 IMRT QA plans in nasopharyngeal carcinoma were measured with MapCHECK, while 159 VMAT QA plans were undertaken with ArcCHECK. Six megavolts with nine fields were used for the IMRT plan and 2.5 arcs were used to generate the VMAT plans. The gamma (3%/3 mm) criteria were used to evaluate the QA plans. The % gamma passes were plotted on a control chart. The first 50 data points were employed to calculate the control limits. The Cpml was calculated to evaluate the capability of the IMRT/VMAT QA process. The results showed higher systematic errors in IMRT QA than VMAT QA due to the more complicated setup used in IMRT QA. The variation of random errors was also larger in IMRT QA than VMAT QA because the VMAT plan has more continuity of dose distribution. The average % gamma pass was 93.7% ± 3.7% for IMRT and 96.7% ± 2.2% for VMAT. The Cpml value of IMRT QA was 1.60 and VMAT QA was 1.99, which implied that the VMAT QA process was more accurate than the IMRT QA process. Our lower control limit for % gamma pass of IMRT is 85.0%, while the limit for VMAT is 90%. Both the IMRT and VMAT QA processes are good quality because Cpml values are higher than 1.0.

  15. In Vitro Fit and Cementation Resistance of Provisional Crowns for Single Implant-Supported Restorations.

    PubMed

    Moris, Izabela Cristina Maurício; Oliveira, Juliana Elias de; Faria, Adriana Cláudia Lapria; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to verify marginal fit and the effect of cement film thickness standardization on retention of provisional crowns made with prefabricated acrylic cylinders on abutments, using two temporary luting agents subjected or not to mechanical cycling. Provisional crowns were made from bis-acryl (Luxatemp Fluorescence) or methyl methacrylate (Duralay) resins on acrylic cylinders and marginal fit and cement film thickness were evaluated. For retention evaluation, crowns were cemented with two temporary luting agents: non-eugenol zinc oxide (Tempbond NE) or calcium hydroxide-based (Hydcal) cements and subjected to tensile strength in a universal testing machine. After cleaning, debonded crowns were cemented again, subjected to mechanical cycling and retention was reassessed. The results of marginal fit and cement film thickness were analyzed by Student's t-test while retention of cements before and after mechanical cycling was analyzed using a mixed linear model. Methyl methacrylate crowns presented greater marginal misfit (p=0.001) and occlusal cement film thickness (p=0.003) than the bis-acryl ones. No difference was observed at axial cement film thickness (p=0.606). Resins (p=0.281) did not affect crown retention, but luting agents (p=0.029) and mechanical cycling (p=0.027) showed significant effects. The only significant interaction was mechanical cycling*luting agents, which means that luting agents were differently affected by mechanical cycling (p=0.002). In conclusion, the results showed that bis-acryl resin associated to calcium-hydroxide luting agent provided the best retention and lower cement thickness.

  16. A computation using mutually exclusive processing is sufficient to identify specific Hedgehog signaling components

    PubMed Central

    Spratt, Spencer J.

    2013-01-01

    A system of more than one part can be deciphered by observing differences between the parts. A simple way to do this is by recording something absolute displaying a trait in one part and not in another: in other words, mutually exclusive computation. Conditional directed expression in vivo offers processing in more than one part of the system giving increased computation power for biological systems analysis. Here, I report the consideration of these aspects in the development of an in vivo screening assay that appears sufficient to identify components specific to a system. PMID:24391661

  17. [The emergence and institutionalization of sexology in Portugal: processes, actors, and specificities].

    PubMed

    Alarcão, Violeta; Machado, Fernando Luís; Giami, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Based on Bourdieu's field theory, this article analyzes the emergence and institutionalization of sexology as a science and profession in Portugal, identifying relevant institutions, actors, and professional practices and discussing its relations and specificities. The analysis begins by contextualizing the emergence of modern Western sexology in order to comprehend the Portuguese case in the international sexology context. The second section describes the social, cultural, and institutional factors that have driven the professionalization of sexology. The third section describes the emergence of Portuguese sexology and its principal historical milestones, institutions, and actors. Finally, the article discusses some implications of this process for the role of sexology as a science and profession. The study reveals the dynamics of national and international processes in the field, in the transition from a holistic perspective of sexology to the hegemony of sexual medicine, and sheds light on its mechanisms of legitimation as a transdisciplinary science of sexuality, suggesting future perspectives. PMID:27598015

  18. [The emergence and institutionalization of sexology in Portugal: processes, actors, and specificities].

    PubMed

    Alarcão, Violeta; Machado, Fernando Luís; Giami, Alain

    2016-09-05

    Based on Bourdieu's field theory, this article analyzes the emergence and institutionalization of sexology as a science and profession in Portugal, identifying relevant institutions, actors, and professional practices and discussing its relations and specificities. The analysis begins by contextualizing the emergence of modern Western sexology in order to comprehend the Portuguese case in the international sexology context. The second section describes the social, cultural, and institutional factors that have driven the professionalization of sexology. The third section describes the emergence of Portuguese sexology and its principal historical milestones, institutions, and actors. Finally, the article discusses some implications of this process for the role of sexology as a science and profession. The study reveals the dynamics of national and international processes in the field, in the transition from a holistic perspective of sexology to the hegemony of sexual medicine, and sheds light on its mechanisms of legitimation as a transdisciplinary science of sexuality, suggesting future perspectives.

  19. Realization of high quality production schedules: Structuring quality factors via iteration of user specification processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamazaki, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an architecture for realizing high quality production schedules. Although quality is one of the most important aspects of production scheduling, it is difficult, even for a user, to specify precisely. However, it is also true that the decision as to whether a scheduler is good or bad can only be made by the user. This paper proposes the following: (1) the quality of a schedule can be represented in the form of quality factors, i.e. constraints and objectives of the domain, and their structure; (2) quality factors and their structure can be used for decision making at local decision points during the scheduling process; and (3) that they can be defined via iteration of user specification processes.

  20. Decentralized PI/PID controllers based on gain and phase margin specifications for TITO processes.

    PubMed

    Maghade, D K; Patre, B M

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a decentralized PI/PID controller design method based on gain and phase margin specifications for two-input-two-output (TITO) interactive processes is proposed. The decouplers are designed for systems to minimize the interaction between the loops, and the first order plus dead time (FOPDT) model is achieved for each decoupled subsystem based on the frequency response fitting. An independent PI/PID controller is designed for each reduced order decoupled subsystem to obtain the desired gain and phase margins, and the performance is verified on the original interactive system to show the effectiveness of the proposed design method for the general class of TITO systems. Simulation examples are incorporated to validate the usefulness of the presented algorithm. An experimentation is performed on the Level-Temperature reactor process to show the practical applicability of the proposed method for the interactive system.

  1. Specific Inhibition of MicroRNA Processing Using L-RNA Aptamers.

    PubMed

    Sczepanski, Jonathan T; Joyce, Gerald F

    2015-12-30

    In vitro selection was used to obtain l-RNA aptamers that bind the distal stem-loop of various precursor microRNAs (pre-miRs). These l-aptamers, termed "aptamiRs", bind their corresponding pre-miR target through highly specific tertiary interactions rather than Watson-Crick pairing. Formation of a pre-miR-aptamiR complex inhibits Dicer-mediated processing of the pre-miR, which is required to form the mature functional microRNA. One of the aptamiRs, which was selected to bind oncogenic pre-miR-155, inhibits Dicer processing under simulated physiological conditions, with an IC50 of 87 nM. Given that l-RNAs are intrinsically resistant to nuclease degradation, these results suggest that aptamiRs might be pursued as a new class of miR inhibitors. PMID:26652064

  2. 76 FR 77981 - Build-A-Bear Workshop, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... COMMISSION Build-A-Bear Workshop, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order AGENCY... Agreement with Build-A-Bear Workshop, Inc., containing a civil penalty of $600,000.00. DATES: Any interested... Agreement 1. In accordance with 16 CFR 1118.20, Build-A-Bear Workshop, Inc. (``Build-A-Bear'') and staff...

  3. 76 FR 48808 - Black & Decker (U.S.) Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... accordance with the terms of 16 CFR 1118.20(e). Published ] below is a provisionally accepted Settlement... sold through retailers nationwide for approximately $70.00. (5) The Grasshog XPs are ``consumer... CPSC staff of what it termed a ``quality'' problem involving the original spool cover but did not...

  4. 75 FR 27736 - Availability for Non-Exclusive, Exclusive, or Partially Exclusive Licensing of U.S. Provisional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    .... Provisional Patent Application Concerning Two-Stage Evaporative Cooling Method for Protective Clothing...,070 entitled ``Two-Stage Evaporative Cooling Method for Protective Clothing Ensembles,'' filed March... cooling method for use in protective clothing ensembles. Brenda S. Bowen, Army Federal Register...

  5. Between Worlds: A Grounded Theory Study of the Experiences of Provisional Students at a Four-Year Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Terry L.

    2009-01-01

    Applicants for college entrance may be deemed able to succeed based on a variety of screening factors: standardized test scores such as ACT or SAT, high school grade point average or completion of college preparatory coursework. Rio Grande University (pseudonym) offered provisional admission to applicants who met all entrance requirements with the…

  6. Provisional standards of radiation safety of flight personnel and passengers in air transport of the civil aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Provisional standards for radiation affecting passenger aircraft are considered. Agencies responsible for seeing that the regulations are enforced are designated while radiation sources and types of radiation are defined. Standard levels of permissible radiation are given and conditions for radiation safety are discussed. Dosimetric equipment on board aircraft is delineated and regulation effective dates are given.

  7. Spectral vs. temporal auditory processing in specific language impairment: a developmental ERP study.

    PubMed

    Ceponiene, R; Cummings, A; Wulfeck, B; Ballantyne, A; Townsend, J

    2009-09-01

    Pre-linguistic sensory deficits, especially in "temporal" processing, have been implicated in developmental language impairment (LI). However, recent evidence has been equivocal with data suggesting problems in the spectral domain. The present study examined event-related potential (ERP) measures of auditory sensory temporal and spectral processing, and their interaction, in typical children and those with LI (7-17 years; n=25 per group). The stimuli were three CV syllables and three consonant-to-vowel transitions (spectral sweeps) isolated from the syllables. Each of these six stimuli appeared in three durations (transitions: 20, 50, and 80 ms; syllables: 120, 150, and 180 ms). Behaviorally, the group with LIs showed inferior syllable discrimination both with long and short stimuli. In ERPs, trends were observed in the group with LI for diminished long-latency negativities (the N2-N4 peaks) and a developmentally transient enhancement of the P2 peak. Some, but not all, ERP indices of spectral processing also showed trends to be diminished in the group with LI specifically in responses to syllables. Importantly, measures of the transition N2-N4 peaks correlated with expressive language abilities in the LI children. None of the group differences depended on stimulus duration. Therefore, sound brevity did not account for the diminished spectral resolution in these LI children. Rather, the results suggest a deficit in acoustic feature integration at higher levels of auditory sensory processing. The observed maturational trajectory suggests a non-linear developmental deviance rather than simple delay. PMID:19457549

  8. Computational models of music perception and cognition II: Domain-specific music processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwins, Hendrik; Grachten, Maarten; Herrera, Perfecto; Hazan, Amaury; Marxer, Ricard; Serra, Xavier

    2008-09-01

    In Part I [Purwins H, Herrera P, Grachten M, Hazan A, Marxer R, Serra X. Computational models of music perception and cognition I: The perceptual and cognitive processing chain. Physics of Life Reviews 2008, in press, doi:10.1016/j.plrev.2008.03.004], we addressed the study of cognitive processes that underlie auditory perception of music, and their neural correlates. The aim of the present paper is to summarize empirical findings from music cognition research that are relevant to three prominent music theoretic domains: rhythm, melody, and tonality. Attention is paid to how cognitive processes like category formation, stimulus grouping, and expectation can account for the music theoretic key concepts in these domains, such as beat, meter, voice, consonance. We give an overview of computational models that have been proposed in the literature for a variety of music processing tasks related to rhythm, melody, and tonality. Although the present state-of-the-art in computational modeling of music cognition definitely provides valuable resources for testing specific hypotheses and theories, we observe the need for models that integrate the various aspects of music perception and cognition into a single framework. Such models should be able to account for aspects that until now have only rarely been addressed in computational models of music cognition, like the active nature of perception and the development of cognitive capacities from infancy to adulthood.

  9. Vivaldi: A Domain-Specific Language for Volume Processing and Visualization on Distributed Heterogeneous Systems.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyungsuk; Choi, Woohyuk; Quan, Tran Minh; Hildebrand, David G C; Pfister, Hanspeter; Jeong, Won-Ki

    2014-12-01

    As the size of image data from microscopes and telescopes increases, the need for high-throughput processing and visualization of large volumetric data has become more pressing. At the same time, many-core processors and GPU accelerators are commonplace, making high-performance distributed heterogeneous computing systems affordable. However, effectively utilizing GPU clusters is difficult for novice programmers, and even experienced programmers often fail to fully leverage the computing power of new parallel architectures due to their steep learning curve and programming complexity. In this paper, we propose Vivaldi, a new domain-specific language for volume processing and visualization on distributed heterogeneous computing systems. Vivaldi's Python-like grammar and parallel processing abstractions provide flexible programming tools for non-experts to easily write high-performance parallel computing code. Vivaldi provides commonly used functions and numerical operators for customized visualization and high-throughput image processing applications. We demonstrate the performance and usability of Vivaldi on several examples ranging from volume rendering to image segmentation. PMID:26356955

  10. Learning misinformation from fictional sources: understanding the contributions of transportation and item-specific processing.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Lisa K; Dolan, Patrick O; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    People often pick up incorrect information about the world from movies, novels and other fictional sources. The question asked here is whether such sources are a particularly potent source of misinformation. On the one hand, story-reading involves transportation into a fictional world, with a possible reduction in access to one's prior knowledge (likely reducing the chances that the reader will notice errors). On the other hand, stories encourage relational processing as readers create mental models, decreasing the likelihood that they will encode and remember more peripheral details like erroneous facts. To test these ideas, we examined suggestibility after readers were exposed to misleading references embedded in stories and lists that were matched on a number of dimensions. In two experiments, suggestibility was greater following exposure to misinformation in a list of sentences rather than a coherent story, even though the story was rated as more engaging than the list. Furthermore, processing the story with an item-specific processing task (inserting missing letters) increased later suggestibility, whereas this task had no impact on suggestibility when misinformation was presented within a list. The type of processing used when reading a text affects suggestibility more than engagement with the text.

  11. Gender-specific modulation of neural mechanisms underlying social reward processing by Autism Quotient.

    PubMed

    Barman, Adriana; Richter, Sylvia; Soch, Joram; Deibele, Anna; Richter, Anni; Assmann, Anne; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Walter, Henrik; Seidenbecher, Constanze I; Schott, Björn H

    2015-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorder refers to a neurodevelopmental condition primarily characterized by deficits in social cognition and behavior. Subclinically, autistic features are supposed to be present in healthy humans and can be quantified using the Autism Quotient (AQ). Here, we investigated a potential relationship between AQ and neural correlates of social and monetary reward processing, using functional magnetic resonance imaging in young, healthy participants. In an incentive delay task with either monetary or social reward, reward anticipation elicited increased ventral striatal activation, which was more pronounced during monetary reward anticipation. Anticipation of social reward elicited activation in the default mode network (DMN), a network previously implicated in social processing. Social reward feedback was associated with bilateral amygdala and fusiform face area activation. The relationship between AQ and neural correlates of social reward processing varied in a gender-dependent manner. In women and, to a lesser extent in men, higher AQ was associated with increased posterior DMN activation during social reward anticipation. During feedback, we observed a negative correlation of AQ and right amygdala activation in men only. Our results suggest that social reward processing might constitute an endophenotype for autism-related traits in healthy humans that manifests in a gender-specific way.

  12. Magnitude comparisons by children with specific language impairments: evidence of unimpaired symbolic processing.

    PubMed

    Donlan, C; Bishop, D V; Hitch, G J

    1998-01-01

    A size judgement task was used to investigate number processing skills in children with specific language impairments (SLI). Previous work with unimpaired adults and children has shown that when comparing the size of written numbers and other ordinal stimuli, there is a symbolic distance effect (SDE) such that decision time decreases with the size distance between items. This study examined the ability of children to judge stimulus pairs which were varied to contrast the processing of symbolic material against direct perceptual judgement and to test processing of numeric versus non-numeric material. Children with SLI were compared with a control group matched on verbal comprehension level. The children with SLI responded faster than the control subjects. The SLI and control groups showed similar SDE and a similar pattern of response across materials. No indication was found in the SLI data of any selective deficit in processing symbolic information. Findings are discussed in relation to theories of numeracy acquisition which acknowledge the importance of non-verbal representation of number meanings. PMID:9709434

  13. Specific Requirements of Physiotherapists on the Practical Use of Software in the Therapeutical Process.

    PubMed

    Messer-Misak, Karin; Egger, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    The current healthcare system requires more effective management. New media and technology are supposed to support the demands of the current healthcare system. By the example of physiotherapy, the primary objective of this study was to define the specific requirements of therapists on the practical use of software which cover the administration, documentation and evaluation of the entire therapy process, including a database with pictures/videos about exercises which can be adapted individually by the therapists. Another objective was to show what conditions for a successful implementation of advanced applications during the entire treatment process have to be fulfilled. The approach of mixed-methods designs was chosen. In the first part a two-stage qualitative study was carried out, followed by a quantitative survey. The results show that the use of the software regarding the therapy-related part is dependent on how adaptable the software is to the special needs of the therapists, that the whole treatment process is mapped on the software and that an additional training during the professional practice must be implemented in order to deploy the use of the software successfully in the therapeutic process. PMID:27139399

  14. Vivaldi: A Domain-Specific Language for Volume Processing and Visualization on Distributed Heterogeneous Systems.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyungsuk; Choi, Woohyuk; Quan, Tran Minh; Hildebrand, David G C; Pfister, Hanspeter; Jeong, Won-Ki

    2014-12-01

    As the size of image data from microscopes and telescopes increases, the need for high-throughput processing and visualization of large volumetric data has become more pressing. At the same time, many-core processors and GPU accelerators are commonplace, making high-performance distributed heterogeneous computing systems affordable. However, effectively utilizing GPU clusters is difficult for novice programmers, and even experienced programmers often fail to fully leverage the computing power of new parallel architectures due to their steep learning curve and programming complexity. In this paper, we propose Vivaldi, a new domain-specific language for volume processing and visualization on distributed heterogeneous computing systems. Vivaldi's Python-like grammar and parallel processing abstractions provide flexible programming tools for non-experts to easily write high-performance parallel computing code. Vivaldi provides commonly used functions and numerical operators for customized visualization and high-throughput image processing applications. We demonstrate the performance and usability of Vivaldi on several examples ranging from volume rendering to image segmentation.

  15. Processing of speech and non-speech stimuli in children with specific language impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Madhavi L.; Surprenant, Aimee M.

    2003-10-01

    Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is a developmental language disorder in which children demonstrate varying degrees of difficulties in acquiring a spoken language. One possible underlying cause is that children with SLI have deficits in processing sounds that are of short duration or when they are presented rapidly. Studies so far have compared their performance on speech and nonspeech sounds of unequal complexity. Hence, it is still unclear whether the deficit is specific to the perception of speech sounds or whether it more generally affects the auditory function. The current study aims to answer this question by comparing the performance of children with SLI on speech and nonspeech sounds synthesized from sine-wave stimuli. The children will be tested using the classic categorical perception paradigm that includes both the identification and discrimination of stimuli along a continuum. If there is a deficit in the performance on both speech and nonspeech tasks, it will show that these children have a deficit in processing complex sounds. Poor performance on only the speech sounds will indicate that the deficit is more related to language. The findings will offer insights into the exact nature of the speech perception deficits in children with SLI. [Work supported by ASHF.

  16. An event-specific DNA microarray to identify genetically modified organisms in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Su-Youn; Lee, Hyungjae; Kim, Young-Rok; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2010-05-26

    We developed an event-specific DNA microarray system to identify 19 genetically modified organisms (GMOs), including two GM soybeans (GTS-40-3-2 and A2704-12), thirteen GM maizes (Bt176, Bt11, MON810, MON863, NK603, GA21, T25, TC1507, Bt10, DAS59122-7, TC6275, MIR604, and LY038), three GM canolas (GT73, MS8xRF3, and T45), and one GM cotton (LLcotton25). The microarray included 27 oligonucleotide probes optimized to identify endogenous reference targets, event-specific targets, screening targets (35S promoter and nos terminator), and an internal target (18S rRNA gene). Thirty-seven maize-containing food products purchased from South Korean and US markets were tested for the presence of GM maize using this microarray system. Thirteen GM maize events were simultaneously detected using multiplex PCR coupled with microarray on a single chip, at a limit of detection of approximately 0.5%. Using the system described here, we detected GM maize in 11 of the 37 food samples tested. These results suggest that an event-specific DNA microarray system can reliably detect GMOs in processed foods.

  17. Evaluation of central auditory processing in children with Specific Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Szkiełkowska, Agata; Piłka, Adam; Skarżyński, Henryk

    2015-01-01

    Specific Language Impairment (SLI) affects about 7-15 % of children of school age and according to the currently accepted diagnostic criteria, it is presumed that these children do not suffer from hearing impairment. The goal of this work was to assess anomalies of central auditory processes in a group of children diagnosed with specific language impairment. Material consisted of 200 children aged 7-10 years (100 children in the study group and 100 hundred in the control group). Selected psychoacoustic tests (Frequency Pattern Test - FPT, Duration Pattern Test - DPT, Dichotic Digit Test - DDT, Time Compressed Sentence Test - CST, Gap Detection Test - GDT) were performed in all children. Results were subject to statistical analysis. It was observed that mean results obtained in individual age groups in the study group are significantly lower than in the control group. Based on the conducted studies we may conclude that children with SLI suffer from disorders of some higher auditory functions, which substantiates the diagnosis of hearing disorders according to the AHSA (American Hearing and Speech Association) guidelines. Use of sound-based, not verbal tests, eliminates the probability that observed problems with perception involve only perception of speech, therefore do not signify central hearing disorders, but problems with understanding of speech. Lack of literature data on the significance of FPT, DPT, DDT, CST and GDT tests in children with specific language impairment precludes comparison of acquired results and makes them unique. PMID:26540009

  18. Macondo crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill disrupts specific developmental processes during zebrafish embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Deepwater Horizon disaster was the largest marine oil spill in history, and total vertical exposure of oil to the water column suggests it could impact an enormous diversity of ecosystems. The most vulnerable organisms are those encountering these pollutants during their early life stages. Water-soluble components of crude oil and specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been shown to cause defects in cardiovascular and craniofacial development in a variety of teleost species, but the developmental origins of these defects have yet to be determined. We have adopted zebrafish, Danio rerio, as a model to test whether water accumulated fractions (WAF) of the Deepwater Horizon oil could impact specific embryonic developmental processes. While not a native species to the Gulf waters, the developmental biology of zebrafish has been well characterized and makes it a powerful model system to reveal the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind Macondo crude toxicity. Results WAF of Macondo crude oil sampled during the oil spill was used to treat zebrafish throughout embryonic and larval development. Our results indicate that the Macondo crude oil causes a variety of significant defects in zebrafish embryogenesis, but these defects have specific developmental origins. WAF treatments caused defects in craniofacial development and circulatory function similar to previous reports, but we extend these results to show they are likely derived from an earlier defect in neural crest cell development. Moreover, we demonstrate that exposure to WAFs causes a variety of novel deformations in specific developmental processes, including programmed cell death, locomotor behavior, sensory and motor axon pathfinding, somitogenesis and muscle patterning. Interestingly, the severity of cell death and muscle phenotypes decreased over several months of repeated analysis, which was correlated with a rapid drop-off in the aromatic and alkane hydrocarbon components of the oil

  19. The PARA-suite: PAR-CLIP specific sequence read simulation and processing

    PubMed Central

    Kloetgen, Andreas; Borkhardt, Arndt; Hoell, Jessica I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Next-generation sequencing technologies have profoundly impacted biology over recent years. Experimental protocols, such as photoactivatable ribonucleoside-enhanced cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP), which identifies protein–RNA interactions on a genome-wide scale, commonly employ deep sequencing. With PAR-CLIP, the incorporation of photoactivatable nucleosides into nascent transcripts leads to high rates of specific nucleotide conversions during reverse transcription. So far, the specific properties of PAR-CLIP-derived sequencing reads have not been assessed in depth. Methods We here compared PAR-CLIP sequencing reads to regular transcriptome sequencing reads (RNA-Seq) to identify distinctive properties that are relevant for reference-based read alignment of PAR-CLIP datasets. We developed a set of freely available tools for PAR-CLIP data analysis, called the PAR-CLIP analyzer suite (PARA-suite). The PARA-suite includes error model inference, PAR-CLIP read simulation based on PAR-CLIP specific properties, a full read alignment pipeline with a modified Burrows–Wheeler Aligner algorithm and CLIP read clustering for binding site detection. Results We show that differences in the error profiles of PAR-CLIP reads relative to regular transcriptome sequencing reads (RNA-Seq) make a distinct processing advantageous. We examine the alignment accuracy of commonly applied read aligners on 10 simulated PAR-CLIP datasets using different parameter settings and identified the most accurate setup among those read aligners. We demonstrate the performance of the PARA-suite in conjunction with different binding site detection algorithms on several real PAR-CLIP and HITS-CLIP datasets. Our processing pipeline allowed the improvement of both alignment and binding site detection accuracy. Availability The PARA-suite toolkit and the PARA-suite aligner are available at https://github.com/akloetgen/PARA-suite and https

  20. The crucial role of posterior frontal regions in modality specific components of the spelling process.

    PubMed

    Hillis, Argye E; Chang, Shannon; Breese, Elisabeth; Heidler, Jennifer

    2004-04-01

    Although it is commonly assumed that posterior temporo-parietal regions are the regions of the brain essential for accessing orthographic representations for written output, patients with lesions in these areas also have reading and/or naming impairments at least early after stroke onset. This observation raises the possibility that these regions are important for components of spelling that are not specific to written output. The goal of the present study was to identify any regions of the brain that, when damaged, result in selective impairment in accessing orthographic representations for written output. We studied 54 consecutive right-handed patients with acute, left hemisphere ischemic stroke, who were barely able to perform the motor aspects of writing with the right hand and had at least 10th grade education, on a battery of lexical tasks designed to identify impaired and spared cognitive processes underlying spelling and with advanced magnetic resonance imaging. Only five patients had pure agraphia, and had evidence of impaired access to lexical-orthographic representations for output; and all five had infarct or ischemia in Brodmann's area 44 and 45. Analysis of performance across tasks of three of these patients, whose performance has not been previously reported, provides evidence for additional impairment in converting graphemes to letter shapes or letter-specific motor programs. These three patients, unlike previously reported patients with lexical-orthographic impairment and compromised function in Brodmann's area 44 and 45, also had infarcts in Brodmann's area 6. On the basis of these cases, and those in the literature, we propose a network of brain regions involved in writing words, each with a separate function. This proposal emphasizes the role of the left posterior frontal regions in modality-specific output processes. PMID:15788255

  1. Temporally Regular Musical Primes Facilitate Subsequent Syntax Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    Bedoin, Nathalie; Brisseau, Lucie; Molinier, Pauline; Roch, Didier; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders have been shown to be also impaired in rhythm and meter perception. Temporal processing and its link to language processing can be understood within the dynamic attending theory. An external stimulus can stimulate internal oscillators, which orient attention over time and drive speech signal segmentation to provide benefits for syntax processing, which is impaired in various patient populations. For children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and dyslexia, previous research has shown the influence of an external rhythmic stimulation on subsequent language processing by comparing the influence of a temporally regular musical prime to that of a temporally irregular prime. Here we tested whether the observed rhythmic stimulation effect is indeed due to a benefit provided by the regular musical prime (rather than a cost subsequent to the temporally irregular prime). Sixteen children with SLI and 16 age-matched controls listened to either a regular musical prime sequence or an environmental sound scene (without temporal regularities in event occurrence; i.e., referred to as "baseline condition") followed by grammatically correct and incorrect sentences. They were required to perform grammaticality judgments for each auditorily presented sentence. Results revealed that performance for the grammaticality judgments was better after the regular prime sequences than after the baseline sequences. Our findings are interpreted in the theoretical framework of the dynamic attending theory (Jones, 1976) and the temporal sampling (oscillatory) framework for developmental language disorders (Goswami, 2011). Furthermore, they encourage the use of rhythmic structures (even in non-verbal materials) to boost linguistic structure processing and outline perspectives for rehabilitation. PMID:27378833

  2. Temporally Regular Musical Primes Facilitate Subsequent Syntax Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bedoin, Nathalie; Brisseau, Lucie; Molinier, Pauline; Roch, Didier; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders have been shown to be also impaired in rhythm and meter perception. Temporal processing and its link to language processing can be understood within the dynamic attending theory. An external stimulus can stimulate internal oscillators, which orient attention over time and drive speech signal segmentation to provide benefits for syntax processing, which is impaired in various patient populations. For children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and dyslexia, previous research has shown the influence of an external rhythmic stimulation on subsequent language processing by comparing the influence of a temporally regular musical prime to that of a temporally irregular prime. Here we tested whether the observed rhythmic stimulation effect is indeed due to a benefit provided by the regular musical prime (rather than a cost subsequent to the temporally irregular prime). Sixteen children with SLI and 16 age-matched controls listened to either a regular musical prime sequence or an environmental sound scene (without temporal regularities in event occurrence; i.e., referred to as “baseline condition”) followed by grammatically correct and incorrect sentences. They were required to perform grammaticality judgments for each auditorily presented sentence. Results revealed that performance for the grammaticality judgments was better after the regular prime sequences than after the baseline sequences. Our findings are interpreted in the theoretical framework of the dynamic attending theory (Jones, 1976) and the temporal sampling (oscillatory) framework for developmental language disorders (Goswami, 2011). Furthermore, they encourage the use of rhythmic structures (even in non-verbal materials) to boost linguistic structure processing and outline perspectives for rehabilitation. PMID:27378833

  3. Are there specific metacognitive processes associated with anxiety disorders in youth?

    PubMed

    Bacow, Terri Landon; May, Jill Ehrenreich; Brody, Leslie R; Pincus, Donna B

    2010-01-01

    While Wells' metacognitive model of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) posits that certain metacognitive processes, such as negative meta-worry (negative beliefs about worry), are more strongly associated with symptoms of GAD than other anxiety disorders in adults, research has yet to determine whether the same pattern is true for younger individuals. We examined the relationship between several metacognitive processes and anxiety disorder diagnostic status in a sample of 98 youth aged 7-17 years. Twenty youth with GAD were compared with similarly sized groups of youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, n = 18), social phobia (SOC, n = 20), separation anxiety disorder (SAD, n = 20), and healthy controls who were not patients (NONP, n = 20) using a self-report measure of metacognition adapted for use with young people in this age range (Metacognitions Questionnaire for Children). Contrary to expectations, only one specific metacognitive process was significantly associated with an anxiety disorder diagnosis, in that the controls endorsed a greater degree of cognitive monitoring (self-reported awareness of one's thoughts) than those with SAD. In addition, there was a trend indicating that nonpatients scored higher than youth with GAD on this scale. These surprising results suggest potentially differing patterns in the relationships between symptoms and metacognitive awareness in anxious youth, depending on the type of anxiety disorder presentation. PMID:22110332

  4. Specific growth rate observer for the growing phase of a Polyhydroxybutyrate production process.

    PubMed

    Jamilis, Martín; Garelli, Fabricio; Mozumder, Md Salatul Islam; Volcke, Eveline; De Battista, Hernán

    2015-03-01

    This paper focuses on the specific growth rate estimation problem in a Polyhydroxybutyrate bioplastic production process by industrial fermentation. The kinetics of the process are unknown and there are uncertainties in the model parameters and inputs. During the first hours of the growth phase of the process, biomass concentration can be measured online by an optical density sensor, but as cell density increases this method becomes ineffective and biomass measurement is lost. An asymptotic observer is developed to estimate the growth rate for the case without biomass measurement based on corrections made by a pH control loop. Furthermore, an exponential observer based on the biomass measurement is developed to estimate the growth rate during the first hours, which gives the initial condition to the asymptotic observer. Error bounds and robustness to uncertainties in the models and in the inputs are found. The estimation is independent of the kinetic models of the microorganism. The characteristic features of the observer are illustrated by numerical simulations and validated by experimental results. PMID:25307471

  5. Target-specific IPSC kinetics promote temporal processing in auditory parallel pathways

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ruili; Manis, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    The acoustic environment contains biologically relevant information on time scales from microseconds to tens of seconds. The auditory brainstem nuclei process this temporal information through parallel pathways that originate in the cochlear nucleus from different classes of cells. While the roles of ion channels and excitatory synapses in temporal processing have been well studied, the contribution of inhibition is less well understood. Here, we show in CBA/CaJ mice that the two major projection neurons of the ventral cochlear nucleus, the bushy and T-stellate cells, receive glycinergic inhibition with different synaptic conductance time courses. Bushy cells, which provide precisely timed spike trains used in sound localization and pitch identification, receive slow inhibitory inputs. In contrast, T-stellate cells, which encode slower envelope information, receive inhibition that is eight-fold faster. Both types of inhibition improved the precision of spike timing, but engage different cellular mechanisms and operate on different time scales. Computer models reveal that slow IPSCs in bushy cells can improve spike timing on the scale of tens of microseconds. While fast and slow IPSCs in T-stellate cells improve spike timing on the scale of milliseconds, only fast IPSCs can enhance the detection of narrowband acoustic signals in a complex background. Our results suggest that target-specific IPSC kinetics are critical for the segregated parallel processing of temporal information from the sensory environment. PMID:23345233

  6. Basic number processing in children with specific learning disorders: Comorbidity of reading and mathematics disorders.

    PubMed

    Moll, Kristina; Göbel, Silke M; Snowling, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    As well as being the hallmark of mathematics disorders, deficits in number processing have also been reported for individuals with reading disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate separately the components of numerical processing affected in reading and mathematical disorders within the framework of the Triple Code Model. Children with reading disorders (RD), mathematics disorders (MD), comorbid deficits (RD + MD), and typically developing children (TD) were tested on verbal, visual-verbal, and nonverbal number tasks. As expected, children with MD were impaired across a broad range of numerical tasks. In contrast, children with RD were impaired in (visual-)verbal number tasks but showed age-appropriate performance in nonverbal number skills, suggesting their impairments were domain specific and related to their reading difficulties. The comorbid group showed an additive profile of the impairments of the two single-deficit groups. Performance in speeded verbal number tasks was related to rapid automatized naming, a measure of visual-verbal access in the RD but not in the MD group. The results indicate that deficits in number skills are due to different underlying cognitive deficits in children with RD compared to children with MD: a phonological deficit in RD and a deficit in processing numerosities in MD.

  7. Minimum specific cost control of technological processes realized in a living objects-containing microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Amelkin, Alexander A; Blagoveschenskaya, Margarita M; Lobanov, Yury V; Amelkin, Anatoly K

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to work out an approach for the development of software and the choice of hardware structures when designing subsystems for automatic control of technological processes realized in living objects containing limited space (microenvironment). The subsystems for automatic control of the microenvironment (SACME) under development use the Devices for Air Prophylactic Treatment, Aeroionization, and Purification (DAPTAP) as execution units for increasing the level of safety and quality of agricultural raw material and foodstuffs, for reducing the losses of agricultural produce during storage and cultivation, as well as for intensifying the processes of activation of agricultural produce and industrial microorganisms. A set of interconnected SACMEs works within the framework of a general microenvironmental system (MES). In this research, the population of baker's yeast is chosen as a basic object of control under the industrial fed-batch cultivation in a bubbling bioreactor. This project is an example of a minimum cost automation approach. The microenvironment optimal control problem for baker's yeast cultivation is reduced from a profit maximum to the maximization of overall yield by the reason that the material flow-oriented specific cost correlates closely with the reciprocal value of the overall yield. Implementation of the project partially solves a local sustainability problem and supports a balance of microeconomical, microecological and microsocial systems within a technological subsystem realized in a microenvironment maintaining an optimal value of economical criterion (e.g. minimum material, flow-oriented specific cost) and ensuring: (a) economical growth (profit increase, raw material saving); (b) high security, safety and quality of agricultural raw material during storage process and of food produce during a technological process; elimination of the contact of gaseous harmful substances with a subproduct during various

  8. Signal processing and display interface studies. [performance tests - design analysis/equipment specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Signal processing equipment specifications, operating and test procedures, and systems design and engineering are described. Five subdivisions of the overall circuitry are treated: (1) the spectrum analyzer; (2) the spectrum integrator; (3) the velocity discriminator; (4) the display interface; and (5) the formatter. They function in series: (1) first in analog form to provide frequency resolution, (2) then in digital form to achieve signal to noise improvement (video integration) and frequency discrimination, and (3) finally in analog form again for the purpose of real-time display of the significant velocity data. The formatter collects binary data from various points in the processor and provides a serial output for bi-phase recording. Block diagrams are used to illustrate the system.

  9. Cognitive representations and cognitive processing of team-specific tactics in soccer.

    PubMed

    Lex, Heiko; Essig, Kai; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Two core elements for the coordination of different actions in sport are tactical information and knowledge about tactical situations. The current study describes two experiments to learn about the memory structure and the cognitive processing of tactical information. Experiment 1 investigated the storage and structuring of team-specific tactics in humans' long-term memory with regard to different expertise levels. Experiment 2 investigated tactical decision-making skills and the corresponding gaze behavior, in presenting participants the identical match situations in a reaction time task. The results showed that more experienced soccer players, in contrast to less experienced soccer players, possess a functionally organized cognitive representation of team-specific tactics in soccer. Moreover, the more experienced soccer players reacted faster in tactical decisions, because they needed less fixations of similar duration as compared to less experienced soccer players. Combined, these experiments offer evidence that a functionally organized memory structure leads to a reaction time and a perceptual advantage in tactical decision-making in soccer. The discussion emphasizes theoretical and applied implications of the current results of the study.

  10. The effects of mindfulness on executive processes and autobiographical memory specificity.

    PubMed

    Heeren, Alexandre; Van Broeck, Nady; Philippot, Pierre

    2009-05-01

    Previous studies have found that mindfulness training reduces overgeneral memories and increases autobiographical memory specificity (e.g., [Williams, J. M. G., Teasdale, J. D., Segal, Z. V., & Soulsby, J. (2000). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy reduces overgeneral autobiographical memory in formerly depressed patients. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 150-155]). However, little work has investigated the mechanisms underlying this effect. The present study explored the role of executive processes as a mediator of MBCT effects in an unselected sample. An autobiographical memory task, a cognitive inhibition task, a motor inhibition task, a cognitive flexibility task and a motor flexibility task were administered before and after intervention. Compared to matched controls, MBCT participants showed increased autobiographical memory specificity, decreased overgenerality, and improved cognitive flexibility capacity and capacity to inhibit cognitive prepotent responses. Mediational analyses indicated that changes in cognitive flexibility partially mediate the impact of MBCT on overgeneral memories. Results are discussed in terms of Conway's [2005. Memory and the self. Journal of Memory and Language, 53, 594-628] autobiographical memory model.

  11. Cognitive Representations and Cognitive Processing of Team-Specific Tactics in Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Lex, Heiko; Essig, Kai; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Two core elements for the coordination of different actions in sport are tactical information and knowledge about tactical situations. The current study describes two experiments to learn about the memory structure and the cognitive processing of tactical information. Experiment 1 investigated the storage and structuring of team-specific tactics in humans’ long-term memory with regard to different expertise levels. Experiment 2 investigated tactical decision-making skills and the corresponding gaze behavior, in presenting participants the identical match situations in a reaction time task. The results showed that more experienced soccer players, in contrast to less experienced soccer players, possess a functionally organized cognitive representation of team-specific tactics in soccer. Moreover, the more experienced soccer players reacted faster in tactical decisions, because they needed less fixations of similar duration as compared to less experienced soccer players. Combined, these experiments offer evidence that a functionally organized memory structure leads to a reaction time and a perceptual advantage in tactical decision-making in soccer. The discussion emphasizes theoretical and applied implications of the current results of the study. PMID:25714486

  12. Spatially specific deficits in processing graphemic representations in reading and writing.

    PubMed

    Hills, A E; Caramazza, A

    1995-03-01

    We report the performance of two brain-damaged subjects, HB and ML, whose spelling performance is characterized by selective impairment in processing the side of words contralateral to their brain damage. A striking feature of these patients' performance was the fact that their spelling errors in all tasks--written naming, written and oral spelling, and delayed copy transcription--almost exclusively concerned the right half of words (in the case of HB) or the left half of words (in the case of ML), regardless of length of the target response. These patterns of performance are interpreted as indicating damage at the level of the grapheme description computed in all spelling tasks. We also discuss the additional observations that HB tended to complete words with nonrandom letter sequences in misspelling the final half of the word and that ML tended to preserve the initial letter of the word (in forward but not backward spelling) even when she made errors on other letters in the initial half of the word. Finally, the relationship between these spatially specific impairments of reading and writing and their relationship to spatially specific deficits in non-lexical tasks is reviewed.

  13. Hanford Integrated Planning Process: 1993 Hanford Site-specific science and technology plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This document is the FY 1993 report on Hanford Site-specific science and technology (S&T) needs for cleanup of the Site as developed via the Hanford Integrated Planning Process (HIPP). It identifies cleanup problems that lack demonstrated technology solutions and technologies that require additional development. Recommendations are provided regarding allocation of funding to address Hanford`s highest-priority technology improvement needs, technology development needs, and scientific research needs, all compiled from a Sitewide perspective. In the past, the S&T agenda for Hanford Site cleanup was sometimes driven by scientists and technologists, with minimal input from the ``problem owners`` (i.e., Westinghouse Hanford Company [WHC] staff who are responsible for cleanup activities). At other times, the problem-owners made decisions to proceed with cleanup without adequate scientific and technological inputs. Under both of these scenarios, there was no significant stakeholder involvement in the decision-making process. One of the key objectives of HIPP is to develop an understanding of the integrated S&T requirements to support the cleanup mission, (a) as defined by the needs of the problem owners, the values of the stakeholders, and the technology development expertise that exists at Hanford and elsewhere. This requires a periodic, systematic assessment of these needs and values to appropriately define a comprehensive technology development program and a complementary scientific research program. Basic to our success is a methodology that is defensible from a technical perspective and acceptable to the stakeholders.

  14. Site-specific investigations on aquifer thermal energy storage for space and process cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. R.

    1991-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has completed three preliminary site-specific feasibility studies that investigated aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) for reducing space and process cooling costs. Chilled water stored in an ATES system could be used to meet all or part of the process and/or space cooling loads at the three facilities investigated. Seasonal or diurnal chill ATES systems could be significantly less expensive than a conventional electrically-driven, load-following chiller system at one of the three sites, depending on the cooling water loop return temperature and presumed future electricity escalation rate. For the other two sites investigated, a chill ATES system would be economically competitive with conventional chillers if onsite aquifer characteristics were improved. Well flow rates at one of the sites were adequate, but the expected thermal recovery efficiency was too low. The reverse of this situation was found at the other site, where the thermal recovery efficiency was expected to be adequate, but well flow rates were too low.

  15. Improving material-specific dispense processes for low-defect coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Brian; Ramirez, Raul; Braggin, Jennifer; Wu, Aiwen; Anderson, Karl; Berron, John; Brakensiek, Nick; Washburn, Carlton

    2010-04-01

    Minimizing defects in spin-on lithography coatings requires a careful understanding of the interactions between the spin-on coating material and the filtration and dispense system used on the coating track. A wet-developable bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) was examined for its interaction with polyamide and UPE media when utilizing the Entegris IntelliGen Mini dispense system. In addition, a new method of priming the filter and pump is described which improves the wetting of the filter media, preventing bubbles and other defect-generating air pockets within the system. The goal is to establish plumb-on procedures that are material and hardware specific to avoid any defect problems in the coating process, as well as to gain a better understanding of the chemical and physical interactions that lead to coating defects. Liquid particle counts from a laboratory-based filtration stand are compared with on-wafer defects from a commercial coating track to establish a correlation and allow better prediction of product performance. This comparison in turn will provide valuable insight to the engineering process of product filtration and bottling at the source.

  16. Optical Brain Imaging Reveals General Auditory and Language-Specific Processing in Early Infant Development

    PubMed Central

    Minagawa-Kawai, Yasuyo; van der Lely, Heather; Ramus, Franck; Sato, Yutaka; Mazuka, Reiko; Dupoux, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    This study uses near-infrared spectroscopy in young infants in order to elucidate the nature of functional cerebral processing for speech. Previous imaging studies of infants’ speech perception revealed left-lateralized responses to native language. However, it is unclear if these activations were due to language per se rather than to some low-level acoustic correlate of spoken language. Here we compare native (L1) and non-native (L2) languages with 3 different nonspeech conditions including emotional voices, monkey calls, and phase scrambled sounds that provide more stringent controls. Hemodynamic responses to these stimuli were measured in the temporal areas of Japanese 4 month-olds. The results show clear left-lateralized responses to speech, prominently to L1, as opposed to various activation patterns in the nonspeech conditions. Furthermore, implementing a new analysis method designed for infants, we discovered a slower hemodynamic time course in awake infants. Our results are largely explained by signal-driven auditory processing. However, stronger activations to L1 than to L2 indicate a language-specific neural factor that modulates these responses. This study is the first to discover a significantly higher sensitivity to L1 in 4 month-olds and reveals a neural precursor of the functional specialization for the higher cognitive network. PMID:20497946

  17. Standardization of the carbon-phenolic materials and processes. Vol. 2: Test methods and specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William B.

    1988-01-01

    Carbon-phenolic composite materials are used in the ablation process in the nozzles of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The nozzle is lined with carbon cloth-phenolic resin composites. The extreme heat and erosion of the burning propellant are controlled by the carbon-phenolic composite by means of ablation, a heat and mass transfer process in which a large amount of heat is dissipated by sacrificailly removing material from a surface. Phenolic materials ablate with the initial formation of a char. The depth of the char is a function of the heat conduction coefficient of the composite. The char layer is a poor conductor so it protects the underlying phenolic composite from the high heat of the burning propellant. The nozzle component ablative liners (carbon cloth-phenolic resin composites) are tape wrapped, hydroclave and/or autoclave cured, machined and assembled. The tape consists of prepreg broadcloth. The materials flow sheet for the nozzle ablative liners is given. The prepreg is a three component system: phenolic resin, carbon cloth, and carbon filler. This is Volume 2 of the report, Test Methods and Specifications.

  18. Tissue-specific processing of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptides in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Thim, Lars; Kristensen, Peter; Nielsen, Per F.; Wulff, Birgitte S.; Clausen, Jes T.

    1999-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a recently discovered hypothalamic peptide regulated by leptin and with a potent appetite-suppressing activity. In the rat, the CART gene encodes a peptide of 116 amino acid residues (or a splice variant 13 residues longer). The predicted signal sequence is 27 amino acid residues, resulting in a prohormone of 89 residues. The CART prohormone contains several potential posttranslational processing sites in the form of mono- and dibasic sequences. In the present study we have purified CART peptides from extracts of adrenal gland, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and pituitary gland (anterior and neurointermediate lobe) of the rat and determined the peptide structures by using microsequencing and mass spectrometry. In none of the tissues examined the long splice variant was found. From the adrenal gland, the CART(1–89) and CART(10–89) peptides were isolated, in contrast to the hypothalamus and nucleus accumbens, from which the shorter form peptides CART(42–89) and CART(49–89) were purified. From the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, CART(42–89) was isolated, in contrast to the neurointermediate lobe, which contains only CART(49–89). This tissue-specific processing indicates that CART peptides may have different biological functions in the periphery and in the central nervous system. PMID:10077578

  19. Foveal crowding in posterior cortical atrophy: a specific early-visual-processing deficit affecting word reading.

    PubMed

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K

    2007-12-01

    Visual crowding is a form of masking in which single-letter identification is compromised by the presence of additional letters or other simple visual forms in close proximity. This behavioural phenomenon has been studied most frequently in the context of amblyopic and normal peripheral vision. In the current study, we investigate this phenomenon in the context of two patients with peripheral dyslexia and a third with visual disorientation consequent to bilateral posterior cortical atrophy. In one case, reading showed the effects of word length typical of letter-by-letter reading, whereas the second case was unable to read any whole words. In a series of letter identification tasks, recognition accuracy was shown to decrease significantly in the presence of a range of flanking stimuli (e.g., letters, digits, letter fragments). Compatible with previous reports of the crowding phenomenon, the flanking effect was strengthened by increasing flanker proximity but was unaffected by target or flank size, flank contrast, target-flank lexicality, or flank category. One patient also showed amelioration of the flanking effect when the target and flankers were of opposite contrast polarity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of visual crowding in individuals with posterior cortical atrophy. We consider the relevance of these empirical findings to accounts of the letter-by-letter reading form of peripheral dyslexia. In particular, we suggest that crowding constitutes one specific form of early-visual-processing deficit, which impairs the reading process.

  20. Steady-state evoked potentials to tag specific components of nociceptive cortical processing.

    PubMed

    Colon, Elisabeth; Nozaradan, Sylvie; Legrain, Valery; Mouraux, André

    2012-03-01

    Studies have shown that the periodic repetition of a stimulus induces, at certain stimulation frequencies, a sustained electro-cortical response of corresponding frequency, referred to as steady-state evoked potential (SSEP). Using infrared laser stimulation, we recently showed that SSEPs can be used to explore nociceptive cortical processing. Here, we implemented a novel approach to elicit such responses, using a periodic intra-epidermal electrical stimulation of cutaneous Aδ-nociceptors (Aδ-SSEPs). Using a wide range of frequencies (3-43 Hz), we compared the scalp topographies and temporal dynamics of these Aδ-SSEPs to the Aβ-SSEPs elicited by non-nociceptive transcutaneous electrical stimulation, as well as to the transient ERPs elicited by the onsets of the 10-s stimulation trains, applied to the left and right hand. At 3 Hz, we found that the topographies of Aβ- and Aδ-SSEPs were both maximal at the scalp vertex, and resembled closely that of the late P2 wave of transient ERPs, suggesting activity originating from the same neuronal populations. The responses also showed marked habituation, suggesting that they were mainly related to unspecific, attention-related processes. In contrast, at frequencies >3 Hz, the topographies of Aβ- and Aδ-SSEPs were markedly different. Aβ-SSEPs were maximal over the contralateral parietal region, whereas Aδ-SSEPs were maximal over midline frontal regions, thus indicating an entrainment of distinct neuronal populations. Furthermore, the responses showed no habituation, suggesting more obligatory and specific stages of sensory processing. Taken together, our results indicate that Aβ- and Aδ-SSEPs offer a unique opportunity to study the cortical representation of nociception and touch. PMID:22197788

  1. En Route Descent Advisor Multi-Sector Planning Using Active and Provisional Controller Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivona, Robert; Green, Steven

    2003-01-01

    As decision support tools are developed to support controllers in complex air traffic control environments, new approaches to maintaining situation awareness and managing traffic planning must be developed to handle the ever-increasing amounts of alerting and advisory data. Within high-density metering and other environments where flight path changes are the rule, not the exception, and where interactions between these changes are required, current trial planning approaches are limited by potential increases in workload. The Enroute Descent Advisor (EDA) is a set of decision support tool capabilities for managing high-density en route traffic subject to metering restrictions. The EDA system s novel approach builds aircraft plans from combinations of user intent data and builds controller plans from combinations of aircraft plans to effectively maintain situation awareness during traffic planning. By maintaining both active (current) and provisional (proposed) controller plans, EDA supports controllers in coordinated traffic planning both within and between sectors. Ultimately, EDA s multi-sector planning approach will facilitate a transition from current sector-oriented operations to a new trajectory-oriented paradigm, enabling new levels of efficiency and collaboration in air traffic control.

  2. Soft Tissue Augmentation Techniques in Implants Placed and Provisionalized Immediately: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Rosa; Prados-Frutos, Juan Carlos; Manchón, Ángel; Rodríguez-Molinero, Jesús; Sammartino, Gilberto; Calvo Guirado, José Luis; Gómez-de Diego, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of techniques for soft tissue augmentation in the placement of immediate implants with and without provisionalization and to assess the quality of the reports in the literature. Randomized clinical trials, prospective clinical trials, and case series were included in this review. Clinical questions were formulated and organised according to the PICOS strategy. An electronic search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, and ISI Web up until June 2016. Interexaminer agreement on eligibility (k = 0.842; p = 0.103) and quality (k = 0.933; p < 0.001) was high. Methodological approaches were assessed using criteria based on design related forms designed by the Dutch Cochrane Collaboration. Finally, 14 papers were identified. In two studies, the implant survival was 90%; for the rest of the studies it was 100%. All studies reported favourable aesthetic, biological, and radiographic outcomes. Surgical and biomechanical complications of this technique were not relevant. This technique effectively compensates for the expected loss of volume of the oral soft tissues and maintains high success rates with good aesthetic results over time. PMID:27517046

  3. Soft Tissue Augmentation Techniques in Implants Placed and Provisionalized Immediately: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Prados-Frutos, Juan Carlos; Manchón, Ángel; Rodríguez-Molinero, Jesús; Sammartino, Gilberto; Calvo Guirado, José Luis; Gómez-de Diego, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of techniques for soft tissue augmentation in the placement of immediate implants with and without provisionalization and to assess the quality of the reports in the literature. Randomized clinical trials, prospective clinical trials, and case series were included in this review. Clinical questions were formulated and organised according to the PICOS strategy. An electronic search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, and ISI Web up until June 2016. Interexaminer agreement on eligibility (k = 0.842; p = 0.103) and quality (k = 0.933; p < 0.001) was high. Methodological approaches were assessed using criteria based on design related forms designed by the Dutch Cochrane Collaboration. Finally, 14 papers were identified. In two studies, the implant survival was 90%; for the rest of the studies it was 100%. All studies reported favourable aesthetic, biological, and radiographic outcomes. Surgical and biomechanical complications of this technique were not relevant. This technique effectively compensates for the expected loss of volume of the oral soft tissues and maintains high success rates with good aesthetic results over time. PMID:27517046

  4. Molecular-Scale Structural Controls on Nanoscale Growth Processes: Step-Specific Regulation of Biomineral Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, P. M.; Davis, K. J.; De Yoreo, J. J.; Orme, C. A.

    2001-12-01

    Deciphering the complex strategies by which organisms produce nanocrystalline materials with exquisite morphologies is central to understanding biomineralizing systems. One control on the morphology of biogenic nanoparticles is the specific interactions of their surfaces with the organic functional groups provided by the organism and the various inorganic species present in the ambient environment. It is now possible to directly probe the microscopic structural controls on crystal morphology by making quantitative measurements of the dynamic processes occurring at the mineral-water interface. These observations can provide crucial information concerning the actual mechanisms of growth that is otherwise unobtainable through macroscopic techniques. Here we use in situ molecular-scale observations of step dynamics and growth hillock morphology to directly resolve roles of principal impurities in regulating calcite surface morphologies. We show that the interactions of certain inorganic as well as organic impurities with the calcite surface are dependent upon the molecular-scale structures of step-edges. These interactions can assume a primary role in directing crystal morphology. In calcite growth experiments containing magnesium, we show that growth hillock structures become modified owing to the preferential inhibition of step motion along directions approximately parallel to the [010]. Compositional analyses have shown that Mg incorporates at different levels into the two types of nonequivalent steps, which meet at the hillock corner parallel to [010]. A simple calculation of the strain caused by this difference indicates that we should expect a significant retardation at this corner, in agreement with the observed development of [010] steps. If the low-energy step-risers produced by these [010] steps is perpendicular to the c-axis as seems likely from crystallographic considerations, this effect provides a plausible mechanism for the elongated calcite crystal

  5. Pomegranate juice and specific components inhibit cell and molecular processes critical for metastasis of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ana; Wang, Lei; Penichet, Manuel; Martins-Green, Manuela

    2012-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death and morbidity among women in the western world. Pomegranate juice (PJ) and three of its specific components have been shown to inhibit processes involved in prostate cancer metastasis. If this also proves to be true for breast cancer, these natural treatments will be promising agents against breast cancer that can serve as potentially effective and nontoxic alternatives or adjuncts to the use of conventional selective estrogen receptor modulators for breast cancer prevention and treatment. To test this possibility, we have used two breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 cells (ER(-)) and MCF7 (ER(+)), and the non-neoplastic cell line MCF10A. We show that, in addition to inhibiting growth of the breast cancer cells, PJ or a combination of its components luteolin (L) + ellagic acid (E) + punicic acid (P) increase cancer cell adhesion and decrease cancer cell migration but do not affect normal cells. These treatments also inhibit chemotaxis of the cancer cells to SDF1α, a chemokine that attracts breast cancer cells to the bone. We hypothesized that PJ and L + E + P stimulate expression of genes that increase adhesion and inhibit genes that stimulate cell migration and inhibit chemotaxis to SDF1α. Using qPCR, we confirmed these proposed effects on gene expression and in addition we found that a gene important in epithelial-to-meshenchymal transitions is decreased. We also found that pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines are significantly reduced by these treatments, thereby having the potential to decrease inflammation and its impact on cancer progression. Discovery that PJ and L + E + P are inhibitory of metastatic processes in breast cancer cells in addition to prostate cancer cells indicate that they are potentially a very effective treatment to prevent cancer progression in general.

  6. Compound-specific isotopic analyses: a novel tool for reconstruction of ancient biogeochemical processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. M.; Freeman, K. H.; Popp, B. N.; Hoham, C. H.

    1990-01-01

    Patterns of isotopic fractionation in biogeochemical processes are reviewed and it is suggested that isotopic fractionations will be small when substrates are large. If so, isotopic compositions of biomarkers will reflect those of their biosynthetic precursors. This prediction is tested by consideration of results of analyses of geoporphyrins and geolipids from the Greenhorn Formation (Cretaceous, Western Interior Seaway of North America) and the Messel Shale (Eocene, lacustrine, southern Germany). It is shown (i) that isotopic compositions of porphyrins that are related to a common source, but which have been altered structurally, cluster tightly and (ii) that isotopic differences between geolipids and porphyrins related to a common source are equal to those observed in modern biosynthetic products. Both of these observations are consistent with preservation of biologically controlled isotopic compositions during diagenesis. Isotopic compositions of individual compounds can thus be interpreted in terms of biogeochemical processes in ancient depositional environments. In the Cretaceous samples, isotopic compositions of n-alkanes are covariant with those of total organic carbon, while delta values for pristane and phytane are covariant with those of porphyrins. In this unit representing an open marine environment, the preserved acyclic polyisoprenoids apparently derive mainly from primary material, while the extractable, n-alkanes derive mainly from lower levels of the food chain. In the Messel Shale, isotopic compositions of individual biomarkers range from -20.9 to -73.4% vs PDB. Isotopic compositions of specific compounds can be interpreted in terms of origin from methylotrophic, chemautotrophic, and chemolithotrophic microorganisms as well as from primary producers that lived in the water column and sediments of this ancient lake.

  7. Bacillus subtilis trp Leader RNA: RNase J1 endonuclease cleavage specificity and PNPase processing.

    PubMed

    Deikus, Gintaras; Bechhofer, David H

    2009-09-25

    In the presence of ample tryptophan, transcription from the Bacillus subtilis trp operon promoter terminates to give a 140-nucleotide trp leader RNA. Turnover of trp leader RNA has been shown to depend on RNase J1 cleavage at a single-stranded, AU-rich region just upstream of the 3' transcription terminator. The small size of trp leader RNA and its strong dependence on RNase J1 cleavage for decay make it a suitable substrate for analyzing the requirements for RNase J1 target site specificity. trp leader RNAs with nucleotide changes around the RNase J1 target site were more stable than wild-type trp leader RNA, showing that sequences on either side of the cleavage site contribute to RNase J1 recognition. An analysis of decay intermediates from these mutants suggested limited 3'-to-5' exonuclease processing from the native 3' end. trp leader RNAs were designed that contained wild-type or mutant RNase J1 targets elsewhere on the molecule. The presence of an additional RNase J1 cleavage site resulted in faster RNA decay, depending on its location. Addition of a 5' tail containing 7 A residues caused destabilization of trp leader RNAs. Surprisingly, addition at the 5' end of a strong stem loop structure that is known to stabilize other RNAs did not result in a longer trp leader RNA half-life, suggesting that the RNase J1 cleavage site may be accessed directly. In the course of these experiments, we found evidence that polynucleotide phosphorylase processivity was inhibited by a GCGGCCGC sequence. PMID:19638340

  8. Perception of Small Frequency Differences in Children with Auditory Processing Disorder or Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Rota-Donahue, Christine; Schwartz, Richard G.; Shafer, Valerie; Sussman, Elyse S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Frequency discrimination is often impaired in children developing language atypically. However, findings in the detection of small frequency changes in these children are conflicting. Previous studies on children’s auditory perceptual abilities usually involved establishing differential sensitivity thresholds in sample populations who were not tested for auditory deficits. To date, there are no data comparing suprathreshold frequency discrimination ability in children tested for both auditory processing and language skills. Purpose This study examined the perception of small frequency differences (Δf) in children with auditory processing disorder (APD) and/or specific language impairment (SLI). The aim was to determine whether children with APD and children with SLI showed differences in their behavioral responses to frequency changes. Results were expected to identify different degrees of impairment and shed some light on the auditory perceptual overlap between pediatric APD and SLI. Research Design An experimental group design using a two-alternative forced-choice procedure was used to determine frequency discrimination ability for three magnitudes of Δf from the 1000-Hz base frequency. Study Sample Thirty children between 10 years of age and 12 years, 11 months of age: 17 children with APD and/or SLI, and 13 typically developing (TD) peers participated. The clinical groups included four children with APD only, four children with SLI only, and nine children with both APD and SLI. Data Collection and Analysis Behavioral data collected using headphone delivery were analyzed using the sensitivity index d′, calculated for three Δf was 2%, 5%, and 15% of the base frequency or 20, 50, and 150 Hz. Correlations between the dependent variable d′ and the independent variables measuring auditory processing and language skills were also obtained. A stepwise regression analysis was then performed. Results TD children and children with APD and/or SLI

  9. Design of a cast bar reinforced provisional restoration for the management of the interim phase in implant dentistry.

    PubMed

    Saba, S

    1999-03-01

    Implant therapy is becoming the treatment of choice for the replacement of teeth in partially edentulous arches. The interim phase of implant treatment often presents particular problems because of the position of the remaining teeth, their periodontal status, and the loss of vertical dimension of occlusion. This case report will discuss the design and fabrication of a cast bar reinforced long-span provisional restoration based on a diagnostic wax-up to simplify the management of the interim phase.

  10. Hepatitis B Virus Screening for Patients With Cancer Before Therapy: American Society of Clinical Oncology Provisional Clinical Opinion Update

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jessica P.; Somerfield, Mark R.; Alston-Johnson, Devena E.; Cryer, Donna R.; Feld, Jordan J.; Kramer, Barnett S.; Sabichi, Anita L.; Wong, Sandra L.; Artz, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This updated provisional clinical opinion presents a revised opinion based on American Society of Clinical Oncology panel consensus in the context of an evolving database. Context Despite the 2010 provisional clinical opinion recommendation, there is still evidence of suboptimal hepatitis B virus (HBV) screening among patients at high risk for HBV infection or HBV reactivation after chemotherapy. This updated provisional clinical opinion introduces a risk-adaptive strategy to identify and treat patients with HBV infection to reduce their risk of HBV reactivation. Provisional Clinical Opinion Medical providers should screen by testing patients for HBV infection before starting anti-CD20 therapy or hematopoietic cell transplantation. Providers should also screen patients with risk factors for HBV infection. Screening should include both hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc), because reactivation can occur in patients who are HBsAg positive/anti-HBc positive or HBsAg negative/anti-HBc positive. Either total anti-HBc or anti-HBc immunoglobulin G (not immunoglobulin M) test should be used. Clinicians should start antiviral therapy for HBsAg-positive/anti-HBc–positive patients before or contemporaneously with cancer therapy and monitor HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc–positive patients for reactivation with HBV DNA and ALT levels, promptly starting antivirals if reactivation occurs. Clinicians can initiate antivirals for HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc–positive patients anticipating cancer therapies associated with a high risk of reactivation, or they can monitor HBV DNA and ALT levels and initiate on-demand antivirals. For patients who neither have HBV risk factors nor anticipate cancer therapy associated with a high risk of reactivation, current evidence does not support HBV screening before initiation of cancer therapy. Two panel members provided a minority viewpoint, involving a strategy of universal HBsAg and selective anti

  11. Effect of water temperature on the fit of provisional crown margins during polymerization: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ramkumar, Vivekanandan; Sangeetha, Arunachalam; Kumar, Vinaya

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of water temperature on the marginal fit of bis-acrylic composite provisional crown during resin polymerization. Materials and Methods: Precisely machined 10 brass master dies were designed to simulate molar teeth. Five brass dies were selected and precisely machined to simulate all ceramic crown preparation. An acrylic jaw replica was made in which brass dies were arranged equidistant from each other. A custom-made metallic tray was fabricated on the acrylic jaw replica to make polyvinyl siloxane impression matrix. Bis-acrylic composite resin provisional crowns were made using polyvinyl siloxane impression matrix. Provisional crowns were polymerized at room temperature (Group I direct technique, on dental stone cast; Group I indirect technique crowns) and at different water temperatures (Group II direct technique crowns). The vertical marginal gap between all the provisional crown margins and the finish line of brass dies was measured using a Research Stereomicroscope System. Results: The results were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and Newman–Keul's test. The results showed that crowns polymerized in 20°C and 30°C water had marginal gap approximately three times smaller than those polymerized in 30°C air, due to the reduced polymerization shrinkage. Conclusion: This study shows that crowns polymerized in 20°C and 30°C water had mean vertical marginal gap approximately three times smaller than those polymerized in 30°C air. It was approximately closer to that of crowns fabricated by indirect technique. Warmer water also supposedly hastens polymerization. PMID:23066294

  12. Provisional anterior tooth replacement using nonimpregnated fiber and fiber-reinforced composite resin materials: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Chan, Daniel C N; Giannini, Marcelo; De Goes, Mario Fernando

    2006-05-01

    The loss of anterior teeth is often a serious esthetic concern. While conventional fixed partial dentures and implant-supported restorations may be the treatments of choice, nonimpregnated fibers (NFs) and fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) resins offer a conservative alternative for improving esthetics. This article describes 2 clinical situations in which NF glass ribbon and FRC were successfully used to provisionally restore anterior edentulous areas in an esthetic, functional, and timely manner. PMID:16679128

  13. Provisional anterior tooth replacement using nonimpregnated fiber and fiber-reinforced composite resin materials: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Chan, Daniel C N; Giannini, Marcelo; De Goes, Mario Fernando

    2006-05-01

    The loss of anterior teeth is often a serious esthetic concern. While conventional fixed partial dentures and implant-supported restorations may be the treatments of choice, nonimpregnated fibers (NFs) and fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) resins offer a conservative alternative for improving esthetics. This article describes 2 clinical situations in which NF glass ribbon and FRC were successfully used to provisionally restore anterior edentulous areas in an esthetic, functional, and timely manner.

  14. Using Business Process Specification and Agent to Integrate a Scenario Driven Supply Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Hyunbo; Kulvatunyou, Boonserm; Jeong, Hanil; Jones, Albert

    2004-07-01

    In today's increasingly competitive global market, most enterprises place high priority on reducing order-fulfillment costs, minimizing time-to-market, and maximizing product quality. The desire of businesses to achieve these goals has seen a shift from a make-to-stock paradigm to a make-to-order paradigm. The success of this new paradigm requires robust and efficient supply chain integration and the ability to operate in the business-to-business (B2B) environment. Recent internet-based approaches have enabled instantaneous and secure information sharing among trading partners (i.e., customers, manufacturers, and suppliers). In this paper, we present a framework that enables both integration and B2B operations. This framework uses pre-defined business process specifications (BPS) and agent technologies. The BPS, which specifies a message choreography among the trading partners, is modeled using a modified Unified Modeling Language (UML). The behavior of the enterprise applications within each trading partner -- how they respond to external events specified in the BPS -- is modeled using Petri-nets and implemented as a collection of agents. The concepts and models proposed in this paper should provide the starting point for the formulation of a structured approach to B2B supply chain integration and implementation.

  15. Environmental risk related to specific processes during scrap computer recycling and disposal.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Shi, Pixing; Shan, Hongshan; Xie, Yijun

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to achieve a better understanding of the generation of toxic chemicals related to specific processes in scrap computer recycling and disposal, such as thermal recycling of printed circuit boards (PCBs) and the landfilling or dumping of cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Tube furnace pyrolysis was carried out to simulate different thermal treatment conditions for the identification of the by-products and potential environmental risk from thermal recycling ofPCBs. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and a column test were used to study the leaching characteristics of lead from waste CRT glass, which is one of the most important environmental concerns arising from the disposal of e-waste. The results indicate that more attention should be paid to the benzene series when recycling PCBs under thermal conditions, especially for workers without any personal protection equipment. The impact of immersion on the leaching of lead from CRT leaded glass was more effective than the impact of washing only by acid rain. Thus when waste leaded glass has to be stored for some reason, the storage facility should be dry.

  16. Toward mission-specific service utility estimation using analytic stochastic process models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornley, David J.; Young, Robert J.; Richardson, James P.

    2009-05-01

    Planning a mission to monitor, control or prevent activity requires postulation of subject behaviours, specification of goals, and the identification of suitable effects, candidate methods, information requirements, and effective infrastructure. In an operation that comprises many missions, it is desirable to base decisions to assign assets and computation time or communications bandwidth on the value of the result of doing so in a particular mission to the operation. We describe initial investigations of a holistic approach for judging the value of candidate sensing service designs by stochastic modeling of information delivery, knowledge building, synthesis of situational awareness, and the selection of actions and achievement of goals. Abstraction of physical and information transformations to interdependent stochastic state transition models enables calculation of probability distributions over uncertain futures using wellcharacterized approximations. This complements traditional Monte Carlo war gaming in which example futures are explored individually, by capturing probability distributions over loci of behaviours that show the importance and value of mission component designs. The overall model is driven by sensing processes that are constructed by abstracting from the physics of sensing to a stochastic model of the system's trajectories through sensing modes. This is formulated by analysing probabilistic projections of subject behaviours against functions which describe the quality of information delivered by the sensing service. This enables energy consumption predictions, and when composed into a mission model, supports calculation of situational awareness formulation and command satisfaction timing probabilities. These outcome probabilities then support calculation of relative utility and value.

  17. Plant-specific CC-type glutaredoxins: functions in developmental processes and stress responses.

    PubMed

    Gutsche, Nora; Thurow, Corinna; Zachgo, Sabine; Gatz, Christiane

    2015-05-01

    Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are small oxidoreductases of the thioredoxin family proteins that can either regulate the thiol redox state of proteins or are linked to iron metabolism because of their ability to incorporate iron-sulfur [2Fe-2S] clusters. Here we review recent research on a land plant-specific class of GRX-like proteins, which are characterized by the conserved CC motif in the active centre. Loss-of-function mutants of CC-type GRXs in Arabidopsis (also named ROXYs), maize, and rice have unraveled a role in floral development, including regulation of organ primordia initiation, control of organ identity gene expression, and progression into meiosis in the male germ line. Other CC-type GRXs play a role in stress responses, most likely through their capacity to regulate nuclear gene expression. Consistently, CC-type GRXs, physically and genetically interact with individual members of the TGA transcription factor family. One of the challenges in the future is to unravel whether ROXYs control the redox state of TGA factors or other yet unknown target proteins or whether they regulate gene expression through other processes. Other intriguing questions concern the original function of the first CC-type GRXs in basal land plants and their potential contribution to the extremely successful radiation of angiosperms.

  18. Specifics of landslide processes in Guatemala: apsect of the terrain and wind circulation during hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorokhovich, Y.; Machado, E.; Giron, I.; Ghahremani, M.

    2015-12-01

    Specific relationship between slope aspect and wind circulation during hurricane events exists for Guatemala. Analysis of hurricanes Mitch (1998) and Stan (2005) showed that eastern, southeastern and southern slopes are more subjected to landslides processes than other slope orientations. This conclusion is based on landslide data obtained immediately after hurricane occurences and satellite data on wind circulation during hurricane events. Because Guatemala is located between Atlantic and Pacific "swarms" of hurricane tracks, typical argument based on the strong right side impact of hurricanes cannot be applied here. We analyzed series of satellite based wind circulation data related to Mitch and Stan and established strong association between eastern, southeastern and southern wind directions and landslide affected areas. This is reflection of the local wind circulation during hurricane events at elevations 800 hPa. This is in agreement with previous meteorologic studies in the region by Portig (1965). It is possible that similar relationship is true for the rest of Central American region. If this is a case then future studies can develop a regional model that can be used as a tool in landslide assessment and hazard mapping on a regional level. However, data quality is a key factor in this type of analysis.

  19. Environmental risk related to specific processes during scrap computer recycling and disposal.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Shi, Pixing; Shan, Hongshan; Xie, Yijun

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to achieve a better understanding of the generation of toxic chemicals related to specific processes in scrap computer recycling and disposal, such as thermal recycling of printed circuit boards (PCBs) and the landfilling or dumping of cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Tube furnace pyrolysis was carried out to simulate different thermal treatment conditions for the identification of the by-products and potential environmental risk from thermal recycling ofPCBs. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and a column test were used to study the leaching characteristics of lead from waste CRT glass, which is one of the most important environmental concerns arising from the disposal of e-waste. The results indicate that more attention should be paid to the benzene series when recycling PCBs under thermal conditions, especially for workers without any personal protection equipment. The impact of immersion on the leaching of lead from CRT leaded glass was more effective than the impact of washing only by acid rain. Thus when waste leaded glass has to be stored for some reason, the storage facility should be dry. PMID:23437653

  20. Equipment, exposure, emission review--specification of process equipment for worker exposure control.

    PubMed

    Bowes, Stephen M

    2008-12-01

    technology was based on detailed assessment of stream composition and risk, rather than on process unit name or function. The EEER and Equipment Selection Matrix provided reproducible recommendations and helped manage cost and complexity of equipment specification for health protection.

  1. Predictors for Side Branch Failure During Provisional Strategy of Coronary Intervention for Bifurcation Lesions (from the Korean Bifurcation Registry).

    PubMed

    Seo, Jae-Bin; Shin, Dong-Ho; Park, Kyung Woo; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol; Jeong, Myung-Ho; Seong, In-Whan; Rha, Seung Woon; Yang, Ju-Young; Park, Seung-Jung; Yoon, Jung Han; Han, Kyoo-Rok; Park, Jong-Sun; Hur, Seung-Ho; Tahk, Seung-Jea; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2016-09-15

    The most favored strategy for bifurcation lesion is stenting main vessel with provisional side branch (SB) stenting. This study was performed to elucidate predictors for SB failure during this provisional strategy. The study population was patients from 16 centers in Korea who underwent drug-eluting stent implantation for bifurcation lesions with provisional strategy (1,219 patients and 1,236 lesions). On multivariate analysis, the independent predictors for SB jailing after main vessel stenting were SB calcification, large SB reference diameter, severe stenosis of SB, and not taking clopidogrel. Regarding SB compromise, however, the independent predictors were true bifurcation lesion and small SB reference diameter, whereas possible predictors were parent vessel thrombus and parent vessel total occlusion. In addition, SB predilation helps us to get favorable SB outcome. The diameter of SB ostium after main vessel stenting became similar between severe SB lesions treated with predilation and mild SB lesions not treated with predilation. In conclusion, SB calcification, less clopidogrel use, large SB reference diameter, and high SB diameter stenosis are independent predictors for SB jailing, and true bifurcation and small SB reference diameter are independent predictors for SB compromise after main vessel stenting. PMID:27523437

  2. File Specification for GEOS-5 FP-IT (Forward Processing for Instrument Teams)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchesi, R.

    2013-01-01

    horizontal grid. The majority of data products are time-averaged, but four instantaneous products are also available. Hourly data intervals are used for two-dimensional products, while 3-hourly intervals are used for three-dimensional products. These may be on the model's native 72-layer vertical grid or at 42 pressure surfaces extending to 0.1 hPa. This document describes the gridded output files produced by the GMAO near real-time operational GEOS-5 FP-IT processing in support of the EOS instrument teams. Additional details about variables listed in this file specification can be found in a separate document, the GEOS-5 File Specification Variable Definition Glossary.

  3. Design and control of energy efficient drying processes with specific reference to foods

    SciTech Connect

    Franzen, K.; Kim, M.; Liang, H.; Murakami, E.; Narsimhan, G.; Okos, M.; Singh, R.; Waananen, K.; Xiong, X.

    1988-07-15

    This report contains a detailed summary of all work performed to date. Task 10 involves a comprehensive review of drying theory. Proposed mass transfer mechanisms include liquid and vapor diffusion, capillary flow, surface diffusion, hydrodynamic flow, and evaporation/condensation processes. Pasta was chosen as a model system in this project since it is macroscopically homogenous and can be made under controlled conditions. Task 11 involves experimental drying studies. A high pressure drying apparatus is available for studies related to the revision of the fundamental drying model. The dryer will require two major modifications for the planned tests: installation of a pressure control valve and recirculation of exhaust gas. A tray dryer was used to measure the shrinkage coefficient of nonfat milk, and will be used for further tests on nonfat milk, as well as whey and tomato puree. A method of economic analysis regarding use of mechanical vapor recompression is presented. Task 12 involves food quality studies. A model of nonenzymatic browning (NEB) was developed based on NEB in skim milk samples containing 3.5--50% moisture, exposed to temperatures of 35--130{degrees}C. The browning rate was zero order after a lag period, and the temperature dependence fit an Arrhenius relation. The critical moisture occurs between 4% and 11% moisture. Task 13 addresses recommendations and strategies for dryer design and control. Moisture sensors were reviewed with specific reference to their on-line applicability. The IR sensor was found to be the most promising. Task 14 examined moisture mobility and interaction in foods. The BET adsorption method using nitrogen gas was applied to pasta, skim milk and egg albumin systems. The data obtained do not show good reproducibility, possibly due to an inadequate sample size. The possibility of using water vapor adsorption will be studied in future experiments. 210 refs., 30 figs., 22 tabs. (MHB)

  4. How Does Processing Affect Storage in Working Memory Tasks? Evidence for Both Domain-General and Domain-Specific Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrold, Christopher; Tam, Helen; Baddeley, Alan D.; Harvey, Caroline E.

    2011-01-01

    Two studies that examine whether the forgetting caused by the processing demands of working memory tasks is domain-general or domain-specific are presented. In each, separate groups of adult participants were asked to carry out either verbal or nonverbal operations on exactly the same processing materials while maintaining verbal storage items.…

  5. Provisional in-silico biopharmaceutics classification (BCS) to guide oral drug product development.

    PubMed

    Wolk, Omri; Agbaria, Riad; Dahan, Arik

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate in-silico predictions of physicochemical properties, in order to guide oral drug development by provisional biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS). Four in-silico methods were used to estimate LogP: group contribution (CLogP) using two different software programs, atom contribution (ALogP), and element contribution (KLogP). The correlations (r(2)) of CLogP, ALogP and KLogP versus measured LogP data were 0.97, 0.82, and 0.71, respectively. The classification of drugs with reported intestinal permeability in humans was correct for 64.3%-72.4% of the 29 drugs on the dataset, and for 81.82%-90.91% of the 22 drugs that are passively absorbed using the different in-silico algorithms. Similar permeability classification was obtained with the various in-silico methods. The in-silico calculations, along with experimental melting points, were then incorporated into a thermodynamic equation for solubility estimations that largely matched the reference solubility values. It was revealed that the effect of melting point on the solubility is minor compared to the partition coefficient, and an average melting point (162.7 °C) could replace the experimental values, with similar results. The in-silico methods classified 20.76% (± 3.07%) as Class 1, 41.51% (± 3.32%) as Class 2, 30.49% (± 4.47%) as Class 3, and 6.27% (± 4.39%) as Class 4. In conclusion, in-silico methods can be used for BCS classification of drugs in early development, from merely their molecular formula and without foreknowledge of their chemical structure, which will allow for the improved selection, engineering, and developability of candidates. These in-silico methods could enhance success rates, reduce costs, and accelerate oral drug products development.

  6. Information Processing and Proactive Interference in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Eichorn, Naomi; Scheuer, Jessica; Yoon, Jungmee

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing evidence suggests that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a deficit in inhibition control, but research isolating specific abilities is scarce. The goal of this study was to examine whether children with SLI differ from their peers in resistance to proactive interference under different conditions. Method: An…

  7. A systematic study of site-specific GalNAc-type O-glycosylation modulating proprotein convertase processing.

    PubMed

    Schjoldager, Katrine Ter-Borch Gram; Vester-Christensen, Malene B; Goth, Christoffer K; Petersen, Thomas Nordahl; Brunak, Søren; Bennett, Eric P; Levery, Steven B; Clausen, Henrik

    2011-11-18

    Site-specific GalNAc-type O-glycosylation is emerging as an important co-regulator of proprotein convertase (PC) processing of proteins. PC processing is crucial in regulating many fundamental biological pathways and O-glycans in or immediately adjacent to processing sites may affect recognition and function of PCs. Thus, we previously demonstrated that deficiency in site-specific O-glycosylation in a PC site of the fibroblast growth factor, FGF23, resulted in marked reduction in secretion of active unprocessed FGF23, which cause familial tumoral calcinosis and hyperostosis hyperphosphatemia. GalNAc-type O-glycosylation is found on serine and threonine amino acids and up to 20 distinct polypeptide GalNAc transferases catalyze the first addition of GalNAc to proteins making this step the most complex and differentially regulated steps in protein glycosylation. There is no reliable prediction model for O-glycosylation especially of isolated sites, but serine and to a lesser extent threonine residues are frequently found adjacent to PC processing sites. In the present study we used in vitro enzyme assays and ex vivo cell models to systematically address the boundaries of the region within site-specific O-glycosylation affect PC processing. The results demonstrate that O-glycans within at least ±3 residues of the RXXR furin cleavage site may affect PC processing suggesting that site-specific O-glycosylation is a major co-regulator of PC processing.

  8. A systematic study of site-specific GalNAc-type O-glycosylation modulating proprotein convertase processing.

    PubMed

    Schjoldager, Katrine Ter-Borch Gram; Vester-Christensen, Malene B; Goth, Christoffer K; Petersen, Thomas Nordahl; Brunak, Søren; Bennett, Eric P; Levery, Steven B; Clausen, Henrik

    2011-11-18

    Site-specific GalNAc-type O-glycosylation is emerging as an important co-regulator of proprotein convertase (PC) processing of proteins. PC processing is crucial in regulating many fundamental biological pathways and O-glycans in or immediately adjacent to processing sites may affect recognition and function of PCs. Thus, we previously demonstrated that deficiency in site-specific O-glycosylation in a PC site of the fibroblast growth factor, FGF23, resulted in marked reduction in secretion of active unprocessed FGF23, which cause familial tumoral calcinosis and hyperostosis hyperphosphatemia. GalNAc-type O-glycosylation is found on serine and threonine amino acids and up to 20 distinct polypeptide GalNAc transferases catalyze the first addition of GalNAc to proteins making this step the most complex and differentially regulated steps in protein glycosylation. There is no reliable prediction model for O-glycosylation especially of isolated sites, but serine and to a lesser extent threonine residues are frequently found adjacent to PC processing sites. In the present study we used in vitro enzyme assays and ex vivo cell models to systematically address the boundaries of the region within site-specific O-glycosylation affect PC processing. The results demonstrate that O-glycans within at least ±3 residues of the RXXR furin cleavage site may affect PC processing suggesting that site-specific O-glycosylation is a major co-regulator of PC processing. PMID:21937429

  9. Words and Pictures: An Electrophysiological Investigation of Domain Specific Processing in Native Chinese and English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yum, Yen Na; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Comparisons of word and picture processing using event-related potentials (ERPs) are contaminated by gross physical differences between the two types of stimuli. In the present study, we tackle this problem by comparing picture processing with word processing in an alphabetic and a logographic script, that are also characterized by gross physical…

  10. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-04: Statistical Process Control for Patient-Specific QA in Proton Beams

    SciTech Connect

    LAH, J; SHIN, D; Kim, G

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate and improve the reliability of proton QA process, to provide an optimal customized level using the statistical process control (SPC) methodology. The aim is then to suggest the suitable guidelines for patient-specific QA process. Methods: We investigated the constancy of the dose output and range to see whether it was within the tolerance level of daily QA process. This study analyzed the difference between the measured and calculated ranges along the central axis to suggest the suitable guidelines for patient-specific QA in proton beam by using process capability indices. In this study, patient QA plans were classified into 6 treatment sites: head and neck (41 cases), spinal cord (29 cases), lung (28 cases), liver (30 cases), pancreas (26 cases), and prostate (24 cases). Results: The deviations for the dose output and range of daily QA process were ±0.84% and ±019%, respectively. Our results show that the patient-specific range measurements are capable at a specification limit of ±2% in all treatment sites except spinal cord cases. In spinal cord cases, comparison of process capability indices (Cp, Cpm, Cpk ≥1, but Cpmk ≤1) indicated that the process is capable, but not centered, the process mean deviates from its target value. The UCL (upper control limit), CL (center line) and LCL (lower control limit) for spinal cord cases were 1.37%, −0.27% and −1.89%, respectively. On the other hands, the range differences in prostate cases were good agreement between calculated and measured values. The UCL, CL and LCL for prostate cases were 0.57%, −0.11% and −0.78%, respectively. Conclusion: SPC methodology has potential as a useful tool to customize an optimal tolerance levels and to suggest the suitable guidelines for patient-specific QA in clinical proton beam.

  11. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of provisional serotype Shigella flexneri 1c and clonal relationships with 1a and 1b strains isolated in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Talukder, Kaisar A; Islam, Zhahirul; Islam, M Aminul; Dutta, Dilip K; Safa, Ashrafus; Ansaruzzaman, M; Faruque, A S G; Shahed, Shamima N; Nair, G B; Sack, David A

    2003-01-01

    The serotypes of 144 strains of Shigella flexneri serotype 1 (serotypes 1a, 1b, and 1c) isolated from patients attending the Dhaka treatment center of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, between 1997 and 2001 were serologically confirmed by using commercially available antisera and a panel of monoclonal antibodies specific for S. flexneri group and type factor antigen (MASF). Among serotype 1 isolates, the prevalence of provisional serotype S. flexneri 1c increased from 0 to 56% from 1978 to 2001 in Bangladesh. Detailed biochemical studies revealed that none of the strains of serotype 1 produced indole, while all the strains fermented mannose, mannitol, and trehalose. Twenty percent of the serotype 1c and all the serotype 1a strains fermented maltose and 53% of the serotype 1c strains and 60% of the serotype 1a strains fermented arabinose, whereas all serotype 1b strains were negative for fermentation of these sugars. Only 18% of serotype 1b strains were resistant to nalidixic acid, and most of the serotype 1c and 1b strains were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. All the strains of serotypes 1a and 1b and about 88% of the serotype 1c strains were found to be invasive by the Sereny test, had a 140-MDa plasmid, and had Congo red absorption ability. Plasmid profile analysis showed that 26% of the strains of serotype 1 contained identical patterns. Most of the serotype 1c strains (72%) had the 1.6-MDa plasmid, which was not found in either serotype 1a or 1b strains. A self-transmissible middle-range plasmid (35 to 80 MDa) was found in some strains carrying the multiple-antibiotic-resistance gene. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis yielded three types (types A, B, and C) with numerous subtypes among the serotype 1c strains, whereas serotypes 1b and 1a yielded only one type for each serotype, and those types were related to the types for serotype 1c strains. Ribotyping analysis yielded three

  12. Characterization of antigen association with accessory cells: specific removal of processed antigens from the cell surface by phospholipases.

    PubMed Central

    Falo, L D; Haber, S I; Herrmann, S; Benacerraf, B; Rock, K L

    1987-01-01

    To characterize the basis for the cell surface association of processed antigen with the antigen-presenting cell (APC) we analyzed its sensitivity to enzymatic digestion. Antigen-exposed APC that are treated with phospholipase and then immediately fixed lose their ability to stimulate antigen-plus-Ia-specific T-T hybridomas. This effect is seen with highly purified phospholipase A2 and phospholipase C. In addition it is observed with three distinct antigens--ovalbumin, bovine insulin, and poly(LGlu56LLys35LPhe9) [(GluLysPhe)n]. The effect of phospholipases is highly specific. Identically treated APC are equivalent to controls in their ability to stimulate alloreactive hybridomas specific for precisely the same Ia molecule that is corecognized by antigen-plus-Ia-specific hybrids. Furthermore, the antigen-presenting function of enzyme-treated, fixed APC can be reconstituted by the addition of exogenous in vitro processed or "processing independent" antigens. In parallel studies 125I-labeled avidin was shown to specifically bind to APC that were previously exposed and allowed to process biotin-insulin. Biotin-insulin-exposed APC that are pretreated with phospholipase bind significantly less 125I-labeled avidin than do untreated, exposed APC. Identical enzyme treatment does not reduce the binding of avidin to a biotinylated antibody already bound to class II major histocompatibility complex molecules of APC. At least some of the biotin-insulin surface sites are immunologically relevant, because the presentation of processed biotin-insulin by fixed APC is blocked by avidin. This effect is specific. Avidin binding to biotin-insulin-exposed APC does not inhibit allospecific stimulation nor the presentation of unconjugated insulin. These studies demonstrate that phospholipase effectively removes processed cell surface antigen. PMID:3467371

  13. A Full GMP Process to Select and Amplify Epitope-Specific T Lymphocytes for Adoptive Immunotherapy of Metastatic Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Labarriere, N.; Fortun, A.; Bellec, A.; Khammari, A.; Dreno, B.; Saïagh, S.; Lang, F.

    2013-01-01

    A number of trials of adoptive transfer of tumor-specific T lymphocytes have been performed in the last 20 years in metastatic melanoma, with increasingly encouraging results as the relevant melanoma antigens were identified and the purity/specificity of injected T cells improved. We have previously described a sorting method of epitope-specific T lymphocytes that uses magnetic beads coated with HLA/peptide complexes and we suggested that this method could be applied to a clinical setting. In the present work, we provide a detailed description of the whole GMP process of sorting and amplification of clinical grade T cells specific for the melanoma antigens Melan-A and MELOE-1. All the reagents used in this process including the sorting reagent were produced in GMP conditions and we document the optimization of the different steps of the process such as peptide stimulation, sorting, and amplification. The optimized procedure, validated in 3 blank runs in a clinical setting, allowed the production of at least 108 pure (>90%) Melan-A- and MELOE-1-specific T cells within 28 days starting with 100 mL of blood from metastatic melanoma patients. This GMP process is thus ready to be used in an upcoming phase I/II clinical trial on metastatic melanoma patients. PMID:24194775

  14. Switch-like regulation of tissue-specific alternative pre-mRNA processing patterns revealed by customized fluorescence reporters

    PubMed Central

    Kuroyanagi, Hidehito

    2013-01-01

    Alternative processing of precursor mRNAs (pre-mRNAs), including alternative transcription start sites, alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation, is the major source of protein diversity and plays crucial roles in development, differentiation and diseases in higher eukaryotes. It is estimated from microarray analyses and deep sequencing of mRNAs from synchronized worms that up to 25% of protein-coding genes in Caenorhabditis elegans undergo alternative pre-mRNA processing and that many of them are subject to developmental regulation. Recent progress in visualizing the alternative pre-mRNA processing patterns in living worms with custom-designed fluorescence reporters has enabled genetic analyses of the regulatory mechanisms for alternative processing events of interest in vivo. Expression of the tissue-specific isoforms of actin depolymerising factor (ADF)/cofilin, UNC-60A and UNC-60B, is regulated by a combination of alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation of pre-mRNA from a single gene unc-60. We recently found that muscle-specific splicing regulators ASD-2 and SUP-12 cooperatively switch the pre-mRNA processing patterns of the unc-60 gene in body wall muscles. Here I summarize the bichromatic fluorescence reporter system utilized for visualizing the tissue-specific alternative processing patterns of the unc-60 pre-mRNA. I also discuss the model for the coordinated regulation of the UNC-60B-type pre-mRNA processing in body wall muscles by ASD-2 and SUP-12. PMID:24778931

  15. The Complexities of Complex Memory Span: Storage and Processing Deficits in Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Gathercole, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the verbal and visuospatial processing and storage skills of children with SLI and typically developing children. Fourteen school-age children with SLI, and two groups of typically developing children matched either for age or language abilities, completed measures of processing speed and storage capacity, and a set of…

  16. When Side Matters: Hemispheric Processing and the Visual Specificity of Emotional Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kensinger, Elizabeth A.; Choi, Elizabeth S.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the right hemisphere processes the visual details of objects and the emotionality of information. These two roles of the right hemisphere have not been examined concurrently. In the present study, the authors examined whether right hemisphere processing would lead to particularly good memory for the visual details…

  17. The Effect of School-Specific Parenting Processes on Academic Achievement in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Mellissa S.; Cui, Ming

    2012-01-01

    There is inconsistency in the current literature regarding the association between dimensions of parenting processes and academic achievement for adolescents. Further, few studies have extended such an association into young adulthood. In this study, we examined the effect of three dimensions of parenting processes, including school-specific…

  18. Auditory Processing in Specific Language Impairment (SLI): Relations with the Perception of Lexical and Phrasal Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Susan; Goswami, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether impaired acoustic processing is a factor in developmental language disorders. The amplitude envelope of the speech signal is known to be important in language processing. We examined whether impaired perception of amplitude envelope rise time is related to impaired perception of lexical and phrasal stress in…

  19. The Relation between Specific and General Dimensions of the Psychotherapy Process in Interpersonal Psychotherapy of Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rounsaville, Bruce J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relation between general dimensions of psychotherapy process, rated with the Vanderbilt Psychotherapy Process Scale (VPPS), and a manual-guided psychotherapy, Short-Term Interpersonal Psychotherapy of Depression (IPT). VPPS-rated dimensions of patients and therapist behaviors were significantly correlated with IPT competence ratings.…

  20. "Reading" Paintings: Evidence for Trans-Symbolic and Symbol-Specific Comprehension Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughlin, Sandra; Grossnickle, Emily; Dinsmore, Daniel; Alexander, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Art-based reading instruction and interventions for elementary and middle school students are growing in popularity despite scant theoretical rationale and empirical research support. This study explored the degree to which painting comprehension processes map onto text comprehension processes in this population. In particular, we used think aloud…

  1. A comparative evaluation of the marginal accuracy of crowns fabricated from four commercially available provisional materials: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Bhavya Mohandas; Aras, Meena Ajay; Chitre, Vidya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the primary marginal accuracy of four commercially available provisional materials (Protemp 4, Luxatemp Star, Visalys Temp and DPI tooth moulding powder and liquid) at 2 time intervals (10 and 30 min). Materials and Methods: A customized stainless steel master model containing two interchangeable dies was used for fabrication of provisional crowns. Forty crowns (n = 10) were fabricated, and each crown was evaluated under a stereomicroscope. Vertical marginal discrepancies were noted and compared at 10 min since the start of mixing and then at 30 min. Observations and Results: Protemp 4 showed the least vertical marginal discrepancy (71.59 μ), followed by Luxatemp Star (91.93 μ) at 10 min. DPI showed a marginal discrepancy of 95.94 μ while Visalys Temp crowns had vertical marginal discrepancy of 106.81 μ. There was a significant difference in the marginal discrepancy values of Protemp 4 and Visalys Temp. At 30 min, there was a significant difference between the marginal discrepancy of Protemp 4 crowns (83.11 μ) and Visalys Temp crowns (128.97 μ) and between Protemp 4 and DPI (118.88 μ). No significant differences were observed between Protemp 4 and Luxatemp Star. Conclusion: The vertical marginal discrepancy of temporary crowns fabricated from the four commercially available provisional materials ranged from 71 to 106 μ immediately after fabrication (at 10 min from the start of mix) to 83–128 μ (30 min from the start of mix). The time elapsed after mixing had a significant influence on the marginal accuracy of the crowns. PMID:26097348

  2. Developing a provisional, international Minimal Dataset for Juvenile Dermatomyositis: for use in clinical practice to inform research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is a rare but severe autoimmune inflammatory myositis of childhood. International collaboration is essential in order to undertake clinical trials, understand the disease and improve long-term outcome. The aim of this study was to propose from existing collaborative initiatives a preliminary minimal dataset for JDM. This will form the basis of the future development of an international consensus-approved minimum core dataset to be used both in clinical care and inform research, allowing integration of data between centres. Methods A working group of internationally-representative JDM experts was formed to develop a provisional minimal dataset. Clinical and laboratory variables contained within current national and international collaborative databases of patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies were scrutinised. Judgements were informed by published literature and a more detailed analysis of the Juvenile Dermatomyositis Cohort Biomarker Study and Repository, UK and Ireland. Results A provisional minimal JDM dataset has been produced, with an associated glossary of definitions. The provisional minimal dataset will request information at time of patient diagnosis and during on-going prospective follow up. At time of patient diagnosis, information will be requested on patient demographics, diagnostic criteria and treatments given prior to diagnosis. During on-going prospective follow-up, variables will include the presence of active muscle or skin disease, major organ involvement or constitutional symptoms, investigations, treatment, physician global assessments and patient reported outcome measures. Conclusions An internationally agreed minimal dataset has the potential to significantly enhance collaboration, allow effective communication between groups, provide a minimal standard of care and enable analysis of the largest possible number of JDM patients to provide a greater understanding of this disease. This

  3. In vitro comparison of flexural strength and elastic modulus of three provisional crown materials used in fixed prosthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Poonacha, Seema; Salagundi, Basavaraj; Rupesh, P L.; Raghavan, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate and compare the flexural strength and the elastic moduli of three provisional crown materials (methyl methacrylate based autopolymerized resin, bis acryl composite based autopolymerized resin and urethane dimethacrylate based light polymerized resin) after storing in artificial saliva and testing at intervals of 24 hours and 7 days. Study design: A metal master mould with four slots of dimensions 25x2x2 mm was fabricated to obtain samples of standard dimensions. A total of 135 specimens were thus obtained with 45 each of three provisional materials. Further 15 samples of each group were tested after storing for one hour at room temperature and again at intervals of 24 hours and 7 days after storing in artificial saliva. Three point flexural tests were carried out in the universal testing machine to calculate the flexural strength and the elastic modulus. The changes were calculated and data was analyzed with Fisher’s test and ANOVA. Results: The flexural strength of the methyl methacrylate resin reduced significantly while bis-acrylic composite resin showed a significant increase in its flexural strength after storing in artificial saliva for 24 hours and the values of both remained constant thereafter. Contrary to these findings, light polymerized resin showed a significant decrease in flexural strength after storing in artificial saliva for 24 hours and then significantly increased in flexural strength after 7 days. However the changes in the values for elastic modulus of respective materials were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Methacrylate based autopolymerizing resin showed the highest flexural strength and elastic moduli after fabrication and after storing in artificial saliva and for 24 hours and 7 days. Bis-acrylic composite resin showed the least flexural strength and elastic moduli. Key words:Provisional restorations, interim restorations, Methyl Methacrylate, composite restoration, flexural strength, elastic moduli

  4. Amino-terminal sequences of prosomatostatin direct intracellular targeting but not processing specificity.

    PubMed

    Sevarino, K A; Stork, P; Ventimiglia, R; Mandel, G; Goodman, R H

    1989-04-01

    Rat preprosomatostatin (rPPSS) is processed to two bioactive peptides, somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28. In anglerfish islets, the two peptides are synthesized by distinct cell types and are derived from different precursors, anglerfish preprosomatostatin-1 (a(I)PPSS) and anglerfish preprosomatostatin-2 (a(II)PPSS). To determine the basis of the differential processing, we introduced a(I)PPSS or a(II)PPSS expression vectors into mammalian endocrine cell lines that can accomplish both patterns of processing. Both precursors were processed identically, indicating that cellular factors must determine the processing pattern. Although similar processing sites are present in both precursors, high levels of unprocessed anglerfish prosomatostatin-2 were secreted constitutively from the transfected cells. A hybrid protein containing the leader sequence and a portion of the pro-region of rPPSS fused to the carboxy-terminal third of a(II)PPSS was processed and secreted via a regulated pathway. We conclude that the amino-terminal 78 residues of rPPSS contain sufficient information to correct the targeting deficiency of a(II)PPSS in mammalian endocrine cell lines. PMID:2564811

  5. [The assessment of the regularity of the nephron anlage tubule formation on the basis of provisionality principle].

    PubMed

    Panteleev, S M; Vikhareva, L V; Mal'tseva, N G; Ushakov, A L; Khamoshina, I Ia; Iaroslavtseva, O F; Chivshina, R V; Pal'chenkova, N O; Margarian, A V; Belkhoroeva, M M

    2011-01-01

    The study of the definitive kidneys of 94 human embryos and fetuses at 4.5 to 12 weeks of gestation, has demonstrated that the formation of the proximal nephron tubules resulted from the cellular proliferation in the area of transition of the capsule of the renal corpuscle into the tubular part of the nephron that occurs only after the completion of the segregation of the renal corpuscle and the distal tubule within the nephron anlage. The formation of the renal tubules in the nephron anlage seems to be determined phylogenetically, while the initial differentiation of the distal tubule is a provisional feature.

  6. Lexico-Semantic Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment: The Overactivation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizzioli, Fabrizio; Schelstraete, Marie-Anne

    2011-01-01

    The hypothesis indicating an overactivation of the lexico-semantic network in children with specific language impairment (SLI) was tested using an auditory pair-primed paradigm (PPP), where participants made a lexical-decision on the second word of a noun pair that could be semantically related, or not, to the first one. Though children with SLI…

  7. Neural Processing of Spoken Words in Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helenius, Paivi; Parviainen, Tiina; Paetau, Ritva; Salmelin, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Young adults with a history of specific language impairment (SLI) differ from reading-impaired (dyslexic) individuals in terms of limited vocabulary and poor verbal short-term memory. Phonological short-term memory has been shown to play a significant role in learning new words. We investigated the neural signatures of auditory word recognition…

  8. Specific Language Impairment Affects the Early Spelling Process Quantitatively but Not Qualitatively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordewener, Kim A. H.; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated whether children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) need a special spelling education program, by examining whether the early spelling of children with SLI is quantitatively and qualitatively different from the spelling of typically developing children. Two groups of first grade children participated: 39…

  9. Action-Specific Influences on Perception and Post-Perceptual Processes: Present Controversies and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Philbeck, John W.; Witt, Jessica K.

    2015-01-01

    The action-specific perception account holds that people perceive the environment in terms of their ability to act in it. In this view, for example, decreased ability to climb a hill due to fatigue makes the hill visually appear to be steeper. Though influential, this account has not been universally accepted, and in fact a heated controversy has emerged. The opposing view holds that action capability has little or no influence on perception. Heretofore, the debate has been quite polarized, with efforts largely being focused on supporting one view and dismantling the other. We argue here that polarized debate can impede scientific progress and that the search for similarities between two sides of a debate can sharpen the theoretical focus of both sides and illuminate important avenues for future research. In this paper, we present a synthetic review of this debate, drawing from the literatures of both approaches, to clarify both the surprising similarities and the core differences between them. We critically evaluate existing evidence, discuss possible mechanisms of action-specific effects, and make recommendations for future research. A primary focus of future work will involve not only the development of methods that guard against action-specific post-perceptual effects, but also development of concrete, well-constrained underlying mechanisms. The criteria for what constitutes acceptable control of post-perceptual effects and what constitutes an appropriately specific mechanism vary between approaches, and bridging this gap is a central challenge for future research. PMID:26501227

  10. Production and Processing of Subject-Verb Agreement in Monolingual Dutch Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Elma; Vasic, Nada; de Jong, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated whether errors with subject-verb agreement in monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) are influenced by verb phonology. In addition, the productive and receptive abilities of Dutch acquiring children with SLI regarding agreement inflection were compared. Method: An SLI…

  11. Interaction of Language Processing and Motor Skill in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiDonato Brumbach, Andrea C.; Goffman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how language production interacts with speech motor and gross and fine motor skill in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Eleven children with SLI and 12 age-matched peers (4-6 years) produced structurally primed sentences containing particles and prepositions. Utterances were analyzed for errors and for…

  12. Anticipatory Sentence Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence from Eye Movements during Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreu, Llorenc; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Trueswell, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five children with specific language impairment (SLI; age 5 years, 3 months [5;3]-8;2), 50 typically developing children (3;3-8;2), and 31 normal adults participated in three eye-tracking experiments of spoken language comprehension that were designed to investigate the use of verb information during real-time sentence comprehension in…

  13. Great expectations: Specific lexical anticipation influences the processing of spoken language

    PubMed Central

    Otten, Marte; Nieuwland, Mante S; Van Berkum, Jos JA

    2007-01-01

    Background Recently several studies have shown that people use contextual information to make predictions about the rest of the sentence or story as the text unfolds. Using event related potentials (ERPs) we tested whether these on-line predictions are based on a message-level representation of the discourse or on simple automatic activation by individual words. Subjects heard short stories that were highly constraining for one specific noun, or stories that were not specifically predictive but contained the same prime words as the predictive stories. To test whether listeners make specific predictions critical nouns were preceded by an adjective that was inflected according to, or in contrast with, the gender of the expected noun. Results When the message of the preceding discourse was predictive, adjectives with an unexpected gender inflection evoked a negative deflection over right-frontal electrodes between 300 and 600 ms. This effect was not present in the prime control context, indicating that the prediction mismatch does not hinge on word-based priming but is based on the actual message of the discourse. Conclusion When listening to a constraining discourse people rapidly make very specific predictions about the remainder of the story, as the story unfolds. These predictions are not simply based on word-based automatic activation, but take into account the actual message of the discourse. PMID:17963486

  14. Treated effluent disposal system process control computer software requirements and specification

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, F.A. Jr.

    1994-06-03

    The software requirements for the monitor and control system that will be associated with the effluent collection pipeline system known as the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal System is covered. The control logic for the two pump stations and specific requirements for the graphic displays are detailed.

  15. The Influence of Specific Phonemic Awareness Processes on the Reading Comprehension of African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Oliver W.; Taub, Gordon E.

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates the primary difference between strong and weak readers is their phonemic awareness skills. However, there is no consensus regarding which specific components of phonemic awareness contribute most robustly to reading comprehension. In this study, the relationship among sound blending, sound segmentation, and reading comprehension…

  16. Designing Specification Languages for Process Control Systems: Lessons Learned and Steps to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.; Heimdahl, Mats P. E.; Reese, Jon Damon

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we defined a blackbox formal system modeling language called RSML (Requirements State Machine Language). The language was developed over several years while specifying the system requirements for a collision avoidance system for commercial passenger aircraft. During the language development, we received continual feedback and evaluation by FAA employees and industry representatives, which helped us to produce a specification language that is easily learned and used by application experts. Since the completion of the PSML project, we have continued our research on specification languages. This research is part of a larger effort to investigate the more general problem of providing tools to assist in developing embedded systems. Our latest experimental toolset is called SpecTRM (Specification Tools and Requirements Methodology), and the formal specification language is SpecTRM-RL (SpecTRM Requirements Language). This paper describes what we have learned from our use of RSML and how those lessons were applied to the design of SpecTRM-RL. We discuss our goals for SpecTRM-RL and the design features that support each of these goals.

  17. Quantitative evaluation of specific vulnerability to nitrate for groundwater resource protection based on process-based simulation model.

    PubMed

    Huan, Huan; Wang, Jinsheng; Zhai, Yuanzheng; Xi, Beidou; Li, Juan; Li, Mingxiao

    2016-04-15

    It has been proved that groundwater vulnerability assessment is an effective tool for groundwater protection. Nowadays, quantitative assessment methods for specific vulnerability are scarce due to limited cognition of complicated contaminant fate and transport processes in the groundwater system. In this paper, process-based simulation model for specific vulnerability to nitrate using 1D flow and solute transport model in the unsaturated vadose zone is presented for groundwater resource protection. For this case study in Jilin City of northeast China, rate constants of denitrification and nitrification as well as adsorption constants of ammonium and nitrate in the vadose zone were acquired by laboratory experiments. The transfer time at the groundwater table t50 was taken as the specific vulnerability indicator. Finally, overall vulnerability was assessed by establishing the relationship between groundwater net recharge, layer thickness and t50. The results suggested that the most vulnerable regions of Jilin City were mainly distributed in the floodplain of Songhua River and Mangniu River. The least vulnerable areas mostly appear in the second terrace and back of the first terrace. The overall area of low, relatively low and moderate vulnerability accounted for 76% of the study area, suggesting the relatively low possibility of suffering nitrate contamination. In addition, the sensitivity analysis showed that the most sensitive factors of specific vulnerability in the vadose zone included the groundwater net recharge rate, physical properties of soil medium and rate constants of nitrate denitrification. By validating the suitability of the process-based simulation model for specific vulnerability and comparing with index-based method by a group of integrated indicators, more realistic and accurate specific vulnerability mapping could be acquired by the process-based simulation model acquiring. In addition, the advantages, disadvantages, constraint conditions and

  18. Quantitative evaluation of specific vulnerability to nitrate for groundwater resource protection based on process-based simulation model.

    PubMed

    Huan, Huan; Wang, Jinsheng; Zhai, Yuanzheng; Xi, Beidou; Li, Juan; Li, Mingxiao

    2016-04-15

    It has been proved that groundwater vulnerability assessment is an effective tool for groundwater protection. Nowadays, quantitative assessment methods for specific vulnerability are scarce due to limited cognition of complicated contaminant fate and transport processes in the groundwater system. In this paper, process-based simulation model for specific vulnerability to nitrate using 1D flow and solute transport model in the unsaturated vadose zone is presented for groundwater resource protection. For this case study in Jilin City of northeast China, rate constants of denitrification and nitrification as well as adsorption constants of ammonium and nitrate in the vadose zone were acquired by laboratory experiments. The transfer time at the groundwater table t50 was taken as the specific vulnerability indicator. Finally, overall vulnerability was assessed by establishing the relationship between groundwater net recharge, layer thickness and t50. The results suggested that the most vulnerable regions of Jilin City were mainly distributed in the floodplain of Songhua River and Mangniu River. The least vulnerable areas mostly appear in the second terrace and back of the first terrace. The overall area of low, relatively low and moderate vulnerability accounted for 76% of the study area, suggesting the relatively low possibility of suffering nitrate contamination. In addition, the sensitivity analysis showed that the most sensitive factors of specific vulnerability in the vadose zone included the groundwater net recharge rate, physical properties of soil medium and rate constants of nitrate denitrification. By validating the suitability of the process-based simulation model for specific vulnerability and comparing with index-based method by a group of integrated indicators, more realistic and accurate specific vulnerability mapping could be acquired by the process-based simulation model acquiring. In addition, the advantages, disadvantages, constraint conditions and

  19. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Data Management System software requirements specification

    SciTech Connect

    Rosnick, C.K.

    1996-04-19

    This document provides the software requirements for Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is one of the plant computer systems for the new WRAP 1 facility (Project W-0126). The DMS will collect, store and report data required to certify the low level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste items processed at WRAP 1 as acceptable for shipment, storage, or disposal.

  20. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Data Management System Software Requirements Specification

    SciTech Connect

    Brann, E.C. II

    1994-09-09

    This document provides the software requirements for Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is one of the plant computer systems for the new WRAP 1 facility (Project W-026). The DMS will collect, store and report data required to certify the low level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste items processed at WRAP 1 as acceptable for shipment, storage, or disposal.

  1. Discovery and characterisation of a new insect-specific bunyavirus from Culex mosquitoes captured in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Hobson-Peters, Jody; Warrilow, David; McLean, Breeanna J; Watterson, Daniel; Colmant, Agathe M G; van den Hurk, Andrew F; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Hastie, Marcus L; Gorman, Jeffrey J; Harrison, Jessica J; Prow, Natalie A; Barnard, Ross T; Allcock, Richard; Johansen, Cheryl A; Hall, Roy A

    2016-02-01

    Insect-specific viruses belonging to significant arboviral families have recently been discovered. These viruses appear to be maintained within the insect population without the requirement for replication in a vertebrate host. Mosquitoes collected from Badu Island in the Torres Strait in 2003 were analysed for insect-specific viruses. A novel bunyavirus was isolated in high prevalence from Culex spp. The new virus, provisionally called Badu virus (BADUV), replicated in mosquito cells of both Culex and Aedes origin, but failed to replicate in vertebrate cells. Genomic sequencing revealed that the virus was distinct from sequenced bunyavirus isolates reported to date, but phylogenetically clustered most closely with recently discovered mosquito-borne, insect-specific bunyaviruses in the newly proposed Goukovirus genus. The detection of a functional furin cleavage motif upstream of the two glycoproteins in the M segment-encoded polyprotein suggests that BADUV may employ a unique strategy to process the virion glycoproteins. PMID:26773387

  2. Subject-Verb Agreement and Phonological Processing in Developmental Dyslexia and Specific Language Impairment (SLI): A Closer Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rispens, Judith; Been, Pieter

    2007-01-01

    Background: Problems with subject-verb agreement and phonological (processing) skills have been reported to occur in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and in those with developmental dyslexia, but only a few studies have compared such problems in these two groups. Previous studies have claimed a causal relationship between…

  3. Sensitivity and Specificity of French Language and Processing Measures for the Identification of Primary Language Impairment at Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thordardottir, Elin; Kehayia, Eva; Mazer, Barbara; Lessard, Nicole; Majnemer, Annette; Sutton, Ann; Trudeau, Natacha; Chilingaryan, Gevorg

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Research on the diagnostic accuracy of different language measures has focused primarily on English. This study examined the sensitivity and specificity of a range of measures of language knowledge and language processing for the identification of primary language impairment (PLI) in French-speaking children. Because of the lack of…

  4. Auditory Processing and Speech Perception in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Relations with Oral Language and Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewalle, Ellen; Boets, Bart; Ghesquiere, Pol; Zink, Inge

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated temporal auditory processing (frequency modulation and between-channel gap detection) and speech perception (speech-in-noise and categorical perception) in three groups of 6 years 3 months to 6 years 8 months-old children attending grade 1: (1) children with specific language impairment (SLI) and literacy delay…

  5. Lexically Specific Knowledge and Individual Differences in Adult Native Speakers' Processing of the English Passive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, James A.; Dabrowska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    This article provides experimental evidence for the role of lexically specific representations in the processing of passive sentences and considerable education-related differences in comprehension of the passive construction. The experiment measured response time and decision accuracy of participants with high and low academic attainment using an…

  6. Spatio-Visual Memory of Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence for Generalized Processing Problems. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavin, Edith L.; Wilson, Peter H.; Maruff, Paul; Sleeman, Felicity

    2005-01-01

    Children with Specific language Impairment (SLI) have problems with verbal memory, particularly with tasks that have more processing demands. They also have slower speeds of responding for some tasks. To identify the extent to which young children with SLI would differ in performance from age-matched non-impaired children on a set of spatio-visual…

  7. Communication, Listening, Cognitive and Speech Perception Skills in Children with Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) or Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Melanie A.; Hall, Rebecca L.; Riley, Alison; Moore, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Parental reports of communication, listening, and behavior in children receiving a clinical diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI) or auditory processing disorder (APD) were compared with direct tests of intelligence, memory, language, phonology, literacy, and speech intelligibility. The primary aim was to identify whether there…

  8. A joint frailty model to estimate the recurrence process and the disease-specific mortality process without needing the cause of death.

    PubMed

    Belot, Aurélien; Rondeau, Virginie; Remontet, Laurent; Giorgi, Roch

    2014-08-15

    In chronic diseases, such as cancer, recurrent events (such as relapses) are commonly observed; these could be interrupted by death. With such data, a joint analysis of recurrence and mortality processes is usually conducted with a frailty parameter shared by both processes. We examined a joint modeling of these processes considering death under two aspects: 'death due to the disease under study' and 'death due to other causes', which enables estimating the disease-specific mortality hazard. The excess hazard model was used to overcome the difficulties in determining the causes of deaths (unavailability or unreliability); this model allows estimating the disease-specific mortality hazard without needing the cause of death but using the mortality hazards observed in the general population. We propose an approach to model jointly recurrence and disease-specific mortality processes within a parametric framework. A correlation between the two processes is taken into account through a shared frailty parameter. This approach allows estimating unbiased covariate effects on the hazards of recurrence and disease-specific mortality. The performance of the approach was evaluated by simulations with different scenarios. The method is illustrated by an analysis of a population-based dataset on colon cancer with observations of colon cancer recurrences and deaths. The benefits of the new approach are highlighted by comparison with the 'classical' joint model of recurrence and overall mortality. Moreover, we assessed the goodness of fit of the proposed model. Comparisons between the conditional hazard and the marginal hazard of the disease-specific mortality are shown, and differences in interpretation are discussed.

  9. Jazz drummers recruit language-specific areas for the processing of rhythmic structure.

    PubMed

    Herdener, Marcus; Humbel, Thierry; Esposito, Fabrizio; Habermeyer, Benedikt; Cattapan-Ludewig, Katja; Seifritz, Erich

    2014-03-01

    Rhythm is a central characteristic of music and speech, the most important domains of human communication using acoustic signals. Here, we investigated how rhythmical patterns in music are processed in the human brain, and, in addition, evaluated the impact of musical training on rhythm processing. Using fMRI, we found that deviations from a rule-based regular rhythmic structure activated the left planum temporale together with Broca's area and its right-hemispheric homolog across subjects, that is, a network also crucially involved in the processing of harmonic structure in music and the syntactic analysis of language. Comparing the BOLD responses to rhythmic variations between professional jazz drummers and musical laypersons, we found that only highly trained rhythmic experts show additional activity in left-hemispheric supramarginal gyrus, a higher-order region involved in processing of linguistic syntax. This suggests an additional functional recruitment of brain areas usually dedicated to complex linguistic syntax processing for the analysis of rhythmical patterns only in professional jazz drummers, who are especially trained to use rhythmical cues for communication.

  10. NASA's M and S Accreditation Process Plan and Specification for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neil, David; Hale, Joe

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) is implementing a management approach for modeling and simulation (M&S) that will provide decision-makers information on the model's fidelity, credibility, and quality. This information will allow the decision-maker to understand the risks involved in using a model's results in the decision-making process. This presentation will discuss NASA's overall approach to achieving formal accreditation of its models or simulations supporting space exploration. The development of a formal Accreditation Plan is a key component in the preliminary activities for modeling and simulation (M&S) assessment. This presentation will describe NASA's process for identifying risks associated with M&S use and the associated M&S assessments that will dictate the level of data certification and M&S verification and validation (V&V) activities required to support the decision-making process. The M&S Accreditation Plan and Report templates for ESMD will also be illustrated.

  11. Hearing living symbols and nonliving icons: category specificities in the cognitive processing of environmental sounds.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Bruno L; McDonnell, John; McAdams, Stephen

    2010-06-01

    The neurocognitive processing of environmental sounds and linguistic stimuli shares common semantic resources and can lead to the activation of motor programs for the generation of the passively heard sound or speech. We investigated the extent to which the cognition of environmental sounds, like that of language, relies on symbolic mental representations independent of the acoustic input. In a hierarchical sorting task, we found that evaluation of nonliving sounds is consistently biased toward a focus on acoustical information. However, the evaluation of living sounds focuses spontaneously on sound-independent semantic information, but can rely on acoustical information after exposure to a context consisting of nonliving sounds. We interpret these results as support for a robust iconic processing strategy for nonliving sounds and a flexible symbolic processing strategy for living sounds. PMID:20188452

  12. Contamination control in hybrid microelectronic modules. Part 3: Specifications for coating material and process controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    Resin systems for coating hybrids prior to hermetic sealing are described. The resin systems are a flexible silicone junction resin system and a flexible cycloaliphatic epoxy resin system. The coatings are intended for application to the hybrid after all the chips have been assembled and wire bonded, but prior to hermetic sealing of the package. The purpose of the coating is to control particulate contamination by immobilizing particles and by passivating the hybrid. Recommended process controls for the purpose of minimizing contamination in hybrid microcircuit packages are given. Emphasis is placed on those critical hybrid processing steps in which contamination is most likely to occur.

  13. Waste Receiving and Processing, Module 2A, feed specification: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, O.L.; Sheriff, M.L.

    1994-11-14

    Detailed descriptions of the various mixed low-level waste feed streams that will be processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 2A (WRAP 2A) are provided. Feed stream descriptions are based on available reports, the solid waste information tracking system database, and the 1993 solid waste forecast data. Available chemical and physical attributes, radionuclide data, waste codes, and packaging information are shown for 15 feed streams. The information sources and methodology for obtaining projections for WRAP 2A expected feed stream volumes also are described.

  14. Specific aspects of cognitive and language proficiency account for variability in neural indices of semantic and syntactic processing in children

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Amanda Hampton; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The neural activity mediating language processing in young children is characterized by large individual variability that is likely related in part to individual strengths and weakness across various cognitive abilities. The current study addresses the following question: How does proficiency in specific cognitive and language functions impact neural indices mediating language processing in children? Thirty typically developing seven- and eight-year-olds were divided into high-normal and low-normal proficiency groups based on performance on nonverbal IQ, auditory word recall, and grammatical morphology tests. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were elicited by semantic anomalies and phrase structure violations in naturally spoken sentences. The proficiency for each of the specific cognitive and language tasks uniquely contributed to specific aspects (e.g., timing and/or resource allocation) of neural indices underlying semantic (N400) and syntactic (P600) processing. These results suggest that distinct aptitudes within broader domains of cognition and language, even within the normal range, influence the neural signatures of semantic and syntactic processing. Furthermore, the current findings have important implications for the design and interpretation of developmental studies of ERPs indexing language processing, and they highlight the need to take into account cognitive abilities both within and outside the classic language domain. PMID:23557881

  15. California State Library: Processing Center Design and Specifications, Vol. V: Cost Analysis. Supplemental Volume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrove, Thomas L; Stirling, Keith H.

    Presenting this cost analysis as a supplemental volume, separate from the main report, allows the chief activities in implementing the Processing Center Design to be correlated with costs as of a particular date and according to varying rates of production. In considering the total budget, three main areas are distinguished: (1) Systems…

  16. Social Information Processing in Children: Specific Relations to Anxiety, Depression, and Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luebbe, Aaron M.; Bell, Debora J.; Allwood, Maureen A.; Swenson, Lance P.; Early, Martha C.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined shared and unique relations of social information processing (SIP) to youth's anxious and depressive symptoms. Whether SIP added unique variance over and above trait affect in predicting internalizing symptoms was also examined. In Study 1, 215 youth (ages 8-13) completed symptom measures of anxiety and depression and a…

  17. 42 CFR 457.1160 - Program specific review process: Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... process: Time frames. (a) Eligibility or enrollment matter. A State must complete the review of a matter... services matter. The State must ensure that reviews are completed in accordance with the medical needs of... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS...

  18. The Relationship between Learning Disabilities and Delinquency and the Vocational Rehabilitation Process regarding Specific Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briney, Marilou S.; Satcher, Jamie

    This paper discusses the relationship between students with learning disabilities and delinquency and the implications for the vocational rehabilitation process. Learning disabilities and juvenile delinquency are defined to establish a theoretical and conceptual framework. Four hypotheses that have been proposed to explain why individuals with…

  19. The Development of Language-Specific and Language-Independent Talker Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Susannah V.; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to investigate how differences in language ability relate to differences in processing talker information in the native language and an unfamiliar language by comparing performance for different ages and for groups with impaired language. Method: Three groups of native English listeners with typical…

  20. 40 CFR 270.24 - Specific part B information requirements for process vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cannot install a closed-vent system and control device to comply with the provisions of 40 CFR 264 subpart AA on the effective date that the facility becomes subject to the provisions of 40 CFR 264 or 265... incinerator, flare, boiler, process heater, condenser, or carbon adsorption system to comply with...

  1. Solar feasibility study for site-specific industrial-process-heat applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, O.L.

    1980-03-18

    This study addresses the technical feasibility of solar energy in industrial process heat (IPH) applications in Mid-America. The study was one of two contracted efforts covering the MASEC 12-state region comprised of: Illinois, Michigan, North Dakota, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, Iowa, Missouri, South Dakota, Kansas, Nebraska, Wisconsin. The results of our study are encouraging to the potential future role of solar energy in supplying process heat to a varied range of industries and applications. We identified and developed Case Study documentation of twenty feasible solar IPH applications covering eight major SIC groups within the Mid-American region. The geographical distribution of these applications for the existing range of solar insolation levels are shown and the characteristics of the applications are summarized. The results of the study include process identification, analysis of process heat requirements, selection of preliminary solar system characteristics, and estimation of system performance and cost. These are included in each of the 20 Case Studies. The body of the report is divided into two primary discussion sections dealing with the Study Methodology employed in the effort and the Follow-On Potential of the identified applications with regard to possible demonstration projects. The 20 applications are rated with respect to their relative overall viability and procedures are discussed for possible demonstration project embarkment. Also, a possible extension of this present feasibility study for late-comer industrial firms expressing interest appears worthy of consideration.

  2. Determination of film processing specifications for the Apollo 17 S-209 lunar sounder experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, M. S.

    1972-01-01

    The lunar sounder is described as a radar system operating at carrier frequencies of 5, 15, and 150 MHz. The radar echoes are recorded onto Kodak type S0-394 film through the use of an optical recorder utilizing a cathode ray tube as the exposing device. A processing configuration is determined with regard to linearity, dynamic range, and noise.

  3. Explicit Processing Demands Reveal Language Modality-Specific Organization of Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Mary; Ronnberg, Jerker

    2008-01-01

    The working memory model for Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) predicts that processing differences between language modalities emerge when cognitive demands are explicit. This prediction was tested in three working memory experiments with participants who were Deaf Signers (DS), Hearing Signers (HS), or Hearing Nonsigners (HN). Easily nameable…

  4. Spectral vs. Temporal Auditory Processing in Specific Language Impairment: A Developmental ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceponiene, R.; Cummings, A.; Wulfeck, B.; Ballantyne, A.; Townsend, J.

    2009-01-01

    Pre-linguistic sensory deficits, especially in "temporal" processing, have been implicated in developmental language impairment (LI). However, recent evidence has been equivocal with data suggesting problems in the spectral domain. The present study examined event-related potential (ERP) measures of auditory sensory temporal and spectral…

  5. Job Specifications for the Computer Productions Operations and Skill-Related Data Processing Job Cluster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mildred Fitzgerald

    1978-01-01

    Diagrams the levels of specialization in electronic data processing and provides a job description for the first level, computer production operations job cluster. Data collected from computer operations managers, incumbent operators, and interviews and observations were analyzed for the job skills and educational and employment qualifications…

  6. Stroop Dilution Revisited: Evidence for Domain-Specific, Limited-Capacity Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Martha Anne; Besner, Derek

    2005-01-01

    Nine experiments show that in the context of Stroop dilution the extent to which flanking distractors are processed depends on the nature of the material at fixation. A Stroop effect is eliminated if a word or a nonword is colored and appears at fixation and the color word appears as a flanker. A Stroop effect is observed when the color carrier at…

  7. 40 CFR 270.24 - Specific part B information requirements for process vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cannot install a closed-vent system and control device to comply with the provisions of 40 CFR 264 subpart AA on the effective date that the facility becomes subject to the provisions of 40 CFR 264 or 265... incinerator, flare, boiler, process heater, condenser, or carbon adsorption system to comply with...

  8. Hearing Living Symbols and Nonliving Icons: Category Specificities in the Cognitive Processing of Environmental Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Bruno L.; McDonnell, John; McAdams, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The neurocognitive processing of environmental sounds and linguistic stimuli shares common semantic resources and can lead to the activation of motor programs for the generation of the passively heard sound or speech. We investigated the extent to which the cognition of environmental sounds, like that of language, relies on symbolic mental…

  9. 42 CFR 457.1160 - Program specific review process: Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... process: Time frames. (a) Eligibility or enrollment matter. A State must complete the review of a matter... services matter. The State must ensure that reviews are completed in accordance with the medical needs of... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS...

  10. Post-growth process for flexible CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells with high specific power.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eunwoo; Kang, Yoonmook; Kim, Donghwan; Kim, Jihyun

    2016-05-16

    We demonstrated a flexible CdS/CdTe thin film solar cell with high specific power of approximately 254 W/kg. A flexible and ultra-light weight CdS/CdTe cell treated with pre-NP etch process exhibited high conversion efficiency of 13.56% in superstrate configuration. Morphological, structural and optical changes of CdS/CdTe thin films were characterized when pre-NP etch step was incorporated to the conventional post-deposition process. Improvement of photovoltaic parameters can be attributed to the removal of the oxide and the formation of Te-rich layer, which benefit the activation process. Pre-NP etched cell maintained their flexibility and performance under the repeated tensile strain of 0.13%. Our method can pave a way for manufacturing flexible CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells with high specific power for mobile and aerospace applications.

  11. Post-growth process for flexible CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells with high specific power.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eunwoo; Kang, Yoonmook; Kim, Donghwan; Kim, Jihyun

    2016-05-16

    We demonstrated a flexible CdS/CdTe thin film solar cell with high specific power of approximately 254 W/kg. A flexible and ultra-light weight CdS/CdTe cell treated with pre-NP etch process exhibited high conversion efficiency of 13.56% in superstrate configuration. Morphological, structural and optical changes of CdS/CdTe thin films were characterized when pre-NP etch step was incorporated to the conventional post-deposition process. Improvement of photovoltaic parameters can be attributed to the removal of the oxide and the formation of Te-rich layer, which benefit the activation process. Pre-NP etched cell maintained their flexibility and performance under the repeated tensile strain of 0.13%. Our method can pave a way for manufacturing flexible CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells with high specific power for mobile and aerospace applications. PMID:27409952

  12. Sensitivity of snow density and specific surface area measured by microtomography to different image processing algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagenmuller, Pascal; Matzl, Margret; Chambon, Guillaume; Schneebeli, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Microtomography can measure the X-ray attenuation coefficient in a 3-D volume of snow with a spatial resolution of a few microns. In order to extract quantitative characteristics of the microstructure, such as the specific surface area (SSA), from these data, the greyscale image first needs to be segmented into a binary image of ice and air. Different numerical algorithms can then be used to compute the surface area of the binary image. In this paper, we report on the effect of commonly used segmentation and surface area computation techniques on the evaluation of density and specific surface area. The evaluation is based on a set of 38 X-ray tomographies of different snow samples without impregnation, scanned with an effective voxel size of 10 and 18 μm. We found that different surface area computation methods can induce relative variations up to 5 % in the density and SSA values. Regarding segmentation, similar results were obtained by sequential and energy-based approaches, provided the associated parameters were correctly chosen. The voxel size also appears to affect the values of density and SSA, but because images with the higher resolution also show the higher noise level, it was not possible to draw a definitive conclusion on this effect of resolution.

  13. The Search for a Volatile Human Specific Marker in the Decomposition Process

    PubMed Central

    Rosier, E.; Loix, S.; Develter, W.; Van de Voorde, W.; Tytgat, J.; Cuypers, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a validated method using a thermal desorber combined with a gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometry was used to identify the volatile organic compounds released during decomposition of 6 human and 26 animal remains in a laboratory environment during a period of 6 months. 452 compounds were identified. Among them a human specific marker was sought using principle component analysis. We found a combination of 8 compounds (ethyl propionate, propyl propionate, propyl butyrate, ethyl pentanoate, pyridine, diethyl disulfide, methyl(methylthio)ethyl disulfide and 3-methylthio-1-propanol) that led to the distinction of human and pig remains from other animal remains. Furthermore, it was possible to separate the pig remains from human remains based on 5 esters (3-methylbutyl pentanoate, 3-methylbutyl 3-methylbutyrate, 3-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate, butyl pentanoate and propyl hexanoate). Further research in the field with full bodies has to corroborate these results and search for one or more human specific markers. These markers would allow a more efficiently training of cadaver dogs or portable detection devices could be developed. PMID:26375029

  14. Joint-specific DNA methylation and transcriptome signatures in rheumatoid arthritis identify distinct pathogenic processes

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Rizi; Hammaker, Deepa; Boyle, David L.; Morgan, Rachel; Walsh, Alice M.; Fan, Shicai; Firestein, Gary S.; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Stratifying patients on the basis of molecular signatures could facilitate development of therapeutics that target pathways specific to a particular disease or tissue location. Previous studies suggest that pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is similar in all affected joints. Here we show that distinct DNA methylation and transcriptome signatures not only discriminate RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) from osteoarthritis FLS, but also distinguish RA FLS isolated from knees and hips. Using genome-wide methods, we show differences between RA knee and hip FLS in the methylation of genes encoding biological pathways, such as IL-6 signalling via JAK-STAT pathway. Furthermore, differentially expressed genes are identified between knee and hip FLS using RNA-sequencing. Double-evidenced genes that are both differentially methylated and expressed include multiple HOX genes. Joint-specific DNA signatures suggest that RA disease mechanisms might vary from joint to joint, thus potentially explaining some of the diversity of drug responses in RA patients. PMID:27282753

  15. Adaptation Duration Dissociates Category-, Image-, and Person-Specific Processes on Face-Evoked Event-Related Potentials.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Márta; Zbanţ, Adriana; Németh, Kornél; Kovács, Gyula

    2015-01-01

    Several studies demonstrated that face perception is biased by the prior presentation of another face, a phenomenon termed as face-related after-effect (FAE). FAE is linked to a neural signal-reduction at occipito-temporal areas and it can be observed in the amplitude modulation of the early event-related potential (ERP) components. Recently, macaque single-cell recording studies suggested that manipulating the duration of the adaptor makes the selective adaptation of different visual motion processing steps possible. To date, however, only a few studies tested the effects of adaptor duration on the electrophysiological correlates of human face processing directly. The goal of the current study was to test the effect of adaptor duration on the image-, identity-, and generic category-specific face processing steps. To this end, in a two-alternative forced choice familiarity decision task we used five adaptor durations (ranging from 200-5000 ms) and four adaptor categories: adaptor and test were identical images-Repetition Suppression (RS); adaptor and test were different images of the Same Identity (SameID); adaptor and test images depicted Different Identities (DiffID); the adaptor was a Fourier phase-randomized image (No). Behaviorally, a strong priming effect was observed in both accuracy and response times for RS compared with both DiffID and No. The electrophysiological results suggest that rapid adaptation leads to a category-specific modulation of P100, N170, and N250. In addition, both identity and image-specific processes affected the N250 component during rapid adaptation. On the other hand, prolonged (5000 ms) adaptation enhanced, and extended category-specific adaptation processes over all tested ERP components. Additionally, prolonged adaptation led to the emergence of image-, and identity-specific modulations on the N170 and P2 components as well. In other words, there was a clear dissociation among category, identity-, and image-specific processing

  16. Adaptation Duration Dissociates Category-, Image-, and Person-Specific Processes on Face-Evoked Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Márta; Zbanţ, Adriana; Németh, Kornél; Kovács, Gyula

    2015-01-01

    Several studies demonstrated that face perception is biased by the prior presentation of another face, a phenomenon termed as face-related after-effect (FAE). FAE is linked to a neural signal-reduction at occipito-temporal areas and it can be observed in the amplitude modulation of the early event-related potential (ERP) components. Recently, macaque single-cell recording studies suggested that manipulating the duration of the adaptor makes the selective adaptation of different visual motion processing steps possible. To date, however, only a few studies tested the effects of adaptor duration on the electrophysiological correlates of human face processing directly. The goal of the current study was to test the effect of adaptor duration on the image-, identity-, and generic category-specific face processing steps. To this end, in a two-alternative forced choice familiarity decision task we used five adaptor durations (ranging from 200–5000 ms) and four adaptor categories: adaptor and test were identical images—Repetition Suppression (RS); adaptor and test were different images of the Same Identity (SameID); adaptor and test images depicted Different Identities (DiffID); the adaptor was a Fourier phase-randomized image (No). Behaviorally, a strong priming effect was observed in both accuracy and response times for RS compared with both DiffID and No. The electrophysiological results suggest that rapid adaptation leads to a category-specific modulation of P100, N170, and N250. In addition, both identity and image-specific processes affected the N250 component during rapid adaptation. On the other hand, prolonged (5000 ms) adaptation enhanced, and extended category-specific adaptation processes over all tested ERP components. Additionally, prolonged adaptation led to the emergence of image-, and identity-specific modulations on the N170 and P2 components as well. In other words, there was a clear dissociation among category, identity-, and image-specific

  17. Specificity of Processing α-Glucosidase I Is Guided by the Substrate Conformation

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Megan K.; Rose, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Processing α-glucosidase I (GluI) is a key member of the eukaryotic N-glycosylation processing pathway, selectively catalyzing the first glycoprotein trimming step in the endoplasmic reticulum. Inhibition of GluI activity impacts the infectivity of enveloped viruses; however, despite interest in this protein from a structural, enzymatic, and therapeutic standpoint, little is known about its structure and enzymatic mechanism in catalysis of the unique glycan substrate Glc3Man9GlcNAc2. The first structural model of eukaryotic GluI is here presented at 2-Å resolution. Two catalytic residues are proposed, mutations of which result in catalytically inactive, properly folded protein. Using Autodocking methods with the known substrate and inhibitors as ligands, including a novel inhibitor characterized in this work, the active site of GluI was mapped. From these results, a model of substrate binding has been formulated, which is most likely conserved in mammalian GluI. PMID:23536181

  18. Not lost in translation: generalization of the primary systems hypothesis to Japanese-specific language processes.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Taiji; Saito, Satoru; Saito, Akie; Tanida, Yuki; Patterson, Karalyn; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2014-02-01

    The emergentist-connectionist approach assumes that language processing reflects interaction between primary neural systems (Primary Systems Hypothesis). This idea offers an overarching framework that generalizes to various kinds of (English) language and nonverbal cognitive activities. The current study advances this approach with respect to language in two new and important ways. The first is the provision of a neuroanatomically constrained implementation of the theory. The second is a test of its ability to generalize to a language other than English (in this case Japanese) and, in particular, to a feature of that language (pitch accent) for which there is no English equivalent. A corpus analysis revealed the presence and distribution of typical and atypical accent forms in Japanese vocabulary, forming a quasiregular domain. Consequently, according to the Primary Systems Hypothesis, there should be a greater semantic impact on the processing of words with an atypical pitch accent. In turn, when word meaning is intrinsically less rich (e.g., abstract words), speakers should be prone to regularization errors of pitch accent. We explored these semantic-phonological interactions, first, in a neuroanatomically constrained, parallel-distributed processing model of spoken language processing. This model captured the accent typicality effect observed in nonword repetition in Japanese adults and children and exhibited the predicted semantic impact on repetition of words with atypical accent patterns. Second, also as predicted, in word repetition and immediate serial recall of spoken words, human participants exhibited reduced pitch-accent accuracy and/or slower RT for low imageability words with atypical accent patterns, and they generated accent errors reflecting the more typical accent patterns found in Japanese.

  19. Variants in Ion Channel Genes Link Phenotypic Features of Bipolar Illness to Specific Neurobiological Process Domains

    PubMed Central

    Balaraman, Yokesh; Lahiri, Debomoy K.; Nurnberger, John I.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in genome-wide association studies are pointing towards a major role for voltage-gated ion channels in neuropsychiatric disorders and, in particular, bipolar disorder (BD). The phenotype of BD is complex, with symptoms during mood episodes and deficits persisting between episodes. We have tried to elucidate the common neurobiological mechanisms associated with ion channel signaling in order to provide a new perspective on the clinical symptoms and possible endophenotypes seen in BD patients. We propose a model in which the multiple variants in genes coding for ion channel proteins would perturb motivational circuits, synaptic plasticity, myelination, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function, circadian neuronal rhythms, and energy regulation. These changes in neurobiological mechanisms would manifest in endophenotypes of aberrant reward processing, white matter hyperintensities, deficits in executive function, altered frontolimbic connectivity, increased amygdala activity, increased melatonin suppression, decreased REM latency, and aberrant myo-inositol/ATP shuttling. The endophenotypes result in behaviors of poor impulse control, motivational changes, cognitive deficits, abnormal stress response, sleep disturbances, and energy changes involving different neurobiological process domains. The hypothesis is that these disturbances start with altered neural circuitry during development, following which multiple environmental triggers may disrupt the neuronal excitability balance through an activity-dependent molecular process, resulting in clinical mood episodes.

  20. Genetic Architecture of the Variation in Male-Specific Ossified Processes on the Anal Fins of Japanese Medaka.

    PubMed

    Kawajiri, Maiko; Fujimoto, Shingo; Yoshida, Kohta; Yamahira, Kazunori; Kitano, Jun

    2015-10-28

    Traits involved in reproduction evolve rapidly and show great diversity among closely related species. However, the genetic mechanisms that underlie the diversification of courtship traits are mostly unknown. Japanese medaka fishes (Oryzias latipes) use anal fins to attract females and to grasp females during courtship; the males have longer anal fins with male-specific ossified papillary processes on the fin rays. However, anal fin morphology varies between populations: the southern populations tend to have longer anal fins and more processes than the northern populations. In the present study, we conducted quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping to investigate the genetic architecture underlying the variation in the number of papillary processes of Japanese medaka fish and compared the QTL with previously identified QTL controlling anal fin length. First, we found that only a few QTL were shared between anal fin length and papillary process number. Second, we found that the numbers of papillary processes on different fin rays often were controlled by different QTL. Finally, we produced another independent cross and found that some QTL were repeatable between the two crosses, whereas others were specific to only one cross. These results suggest that variation in the number of papillary processes is polygenic and controlled by QTL that are distinct from those controlling anal fin length. Thus, different courtship traits in Japanese medaka share a small number of QTL and have the potential for independent evolution.

  1. Genetic Architecture of the Variation in Male-Specific Ossified Processes on the Anal Fins of Japanese Medaka

    PubMed Central

    Kawajiri, Maiko; Fujimoto, Shingo; Yoshida, Kohta; Yamahira, Kazunori; Kitano, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Traits involved in reproduction evolve rapidly and show great diversity among closely related species. However, the genetic mechanisms that underlie the diversification of courtship traits are mostly unknown. Japanese medaka fishes (Oryzias latipes) use anal fins to attract females and to grasp females during courtship; the males have longer anal fins with male-specific ossified papillary processes on the fin rays. However, anal fin morphology varies between populations: the southern populations tend to have longer anal fins and more processes than the northern populations. In the present study, we conducted quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping to investigate the genetic architecture underlying the variation in the number of papillary processes of Japanese medaka fish and compared the QTL with previously identified QTL controlling anal fin length. First, we found that only a few QTL were shared between anal fin length and papillary process number. Second, we found that the numbers of papillary processes on different fin rays often were controlled by different QTL. Finally, we produced another independent cross and found that some QTL were repeatable between the two crosses, whereas others were specific to only one cross. These results suggest that variation in the number of papillary processes is polygenic and controlled by QTL that are distinct from those controlling anal fin length. Thus, different courtship traits in Japanese medaka share a small number of QTL and have the potential for independent evolution. PMID:26511497

  2. Dissociating motivational direction and affective valence: specific emotions alter central motor processes.

    PubMed

    Coombes, Stephen A; Cauraugh, James H; Janelle, Christopher M

    2007-11-01

    We aimed to clarify the relation between affective valence and motivational direction by specifying how central and peripheral components of extension movements are altered according to specific unpleasant affective states. As predicted, premotor reaction time was quicker for extension movements initiated during exposure to attack than for extension movements initiated during exposure to all other valence categories (mutilation, erotic couples, opposite-sex nudes, neutral humans, household objects, blank). Exposure to erotic couples and mutilations yielded greater peak force than exposure to images of attack, neutral humans, and household objects. Finally, motor reaction time and peak electromyographic amplitude were not altered by valence. These findings indicate that unpleasant states do not unilaterally prime withdrawal movements, and that the quick execution of extension movements during exposure to threatening images is due to rapid premotor, rather than motor, reaction time. Collectively, our findings support the call for dissociating motivational direction and affective valence. PMID:17958705

  3. Grammatical Morpheme Effects on Sentence Processing by School-Aged Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Laurence B.; Miller, Carol A.; Finneran, Denise A.

    2009-01-01

    Sixteen-year-olds with specific language impairment (SLI), nonspecific language impairment (NLI), and those showing typical language development (TD) responded to target words in sentences that were either grammatical or contained a grammatical error immediately before the target word. The TD participants showed the expected slower response times (RTs) when errors preceded the target word, regardless of error type. The SLI and NLI groups also showed the expected slowing, except when the error type involved the omission of a tense/agreement inflection. This response pattern mirrored an early developmental period of alternating between using and omitting tense/agreement inflections that is characteristic of SLI and NLI. The findings could not be readily attributed to factors such as insensitivity to omissions in general or insensitivity to the particular phonetic forms used to mark tense/agreement. The observed response pattern may represent continued difficulty with tense/agreement morphology that persists in subtle form into adolescence. PMID:19690626

  4. Serum biomarkers reflecting specific tumor tissue remodeling processes are valuable diagnostic tools for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Willumsen, Nicholas; Bager, Cecilie L; Leeming, Diana J; Smith, Victoria; Christiansen, Claus; Karsdal, Morten A; Dornan, David; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, such as collagen type I and elastin, and intermediate filament (IMF) proteins, such as vimentin are modified and dysregulated as part of the malignant changes leading to disruption of tissue homeostasis. Noninvasive biomarkers that reflect such changes may have a great potential for cancer. Levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) generated fragments of type I collagen (C1M), of elastin (ELM), and of citrullinated vimentin (VICM) were measured in serum from patients with lung cancer (n = 40), gastrointestinal cancer (n = 25), prostate cancer (n = 14), malignant melanoma (n = 7), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 13), and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 10), as well as in age-matched controls (n = 33). The area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) was calculated and a diagnostic decision tree generated from specific cutoff values. C1M and VICM were significantly elevated in lung cancer patients as compared with healthy controls (AUROC = 0.98, P < 0.0001) and other cancers (AUROC = 0.83 P < 0.0001). A trend was detected when comparing lung cancer with COPD+IPF. No difference could be seen for ELM. Interestingly, C1M and VICM were able to identify patients with lung cancer with a positive predictive value of 0.9 and an odds ratio of 40 (95% CI = 8.7–186, P < 0.0001). Biomarkers specifically reflecting degradation of collagen type I and citrullinated vimentin are applicable for lung cancer patients. Our data indicate that biomarkers reflecting ECM and IMF protein dysregulation are highly applicable in the lung cancer setting. We speculate that these markers may aid in diagnosing and characterizing patients with lung cancer. PMID:25044252

  5. Representations of modality-specific affective processing for visual and auditory stimuli derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging data.

    PubMed

    Shinkareva, Svetlana V; Wang, Jing; Kim, Jongwan; Facciani, Matthew J; Baucom, Laura B; Wedell, Douglas H

    2014-07-01

    There is converging evidence that people rapidly and automatically encode affective dimensions of objects, events, and environments that they encounter in the normal course of their daily routines. An important research question is whether affective representations differ with sensory modality. This research examined the nature of the dependency of affect and sensory modality at a whole-brain level of analysis in an incidental affective processing paradigm. Participants were presented with picture and sound stimuli that differed in positive or negative valence in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Global statistical tests, applied at a level of the individual, demonstrated significant sensitivity to valence within modality, but not valence across modalities. Modality-general and modality-specific valence hypotheses predict distinctly different multidimensional patterns of the stimulus conditions. Examination of lower dimensional representation of the data demonstrated separable dimensions for valence processing within each modality. These results provide support for modality-specific valence processing in an incidental affective processing paradigm at a whole-brain level of analysis. Future research should further investigate how stimulus-specific emotional decoding may be mediated by the physical properties of the stimuli.

  6. Specific signal processing method for sound detected by an intrinsic optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arezki, M.; Meyrueis, P.; Javahiraly, N.

    2010-04-01

    Intrinsic optical fiber microphones with the design that we propose have a good sensitivity and dynamic allowing them to address many innovative applications. But their performances induce some defects as noise sensing that has to be separated to the wanted sound signal to obtain a clean usable sound signal. In this paper we introduce the design of an optical fiber sound sensing system and the bases of the adapted signal processing allowing to use all the advantages of this design with a low level of noise. The results are very promising.

  7. Hearing silences: human auditory processing relies on preactivation of sound-specific brain activity patterns.

    PubMed

    SanMiguel, Iria; Widmann, Andreas; Bendixen, Alexandra; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson; Schröger, Erich

    2013-05-15

    The remarkable capabilities displayed by humans in making sense of an overwhelming amount of sensory information cannot be explained easily if perception is viewed as a passive process. Current theoretical and computational models assume that to achieve meaningful and coherent perception, the human brain must anticipate upcoming stimulation. But how are upcoming stimuli predicted in the brain? We unmasked the neural representation of a prediction by omitting the predicted sensory input. Electrophysiological brain signals showed that when a clear prediction can be formulated, the brain activates a template of its response to the predicted stimulus before it arrives to our senses.

  8. The Validation of Vapor Phase Hydrogen Peroxide Microbial Reduction for Planetary Protection and a Proposed Vacuum Process Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Shirley; Barengoltz, Jack; Kern, Roger; Koukol, Robert; Cash, Howard

    2006-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in conjunction with the NASA Planetary Protection Officer, has selected the vapor phase hydrogen peroxide sterilization process for continued development as a NASA approved sterilization technique for spacecraft subsystems and systems. The goal is to include this technique, with an appropriate specification, in NPR 8020.12C as a low temperature complementary technique to the dry heat sterilization process.To meet microbial reduction requirements for all Mars in-situ life detection and sample return missions, various planetary spacecraft subsystems will have to be exposed to a qualified sterilization process. This process could be the elevated temperature dry heat sterilization process (115 C for 40 hours) which was used to sterilize the Viking lander spacecraft. However, with utilization of such elements as highly sophisticated electronics and sensors in modern spacecraft, this process presents significant materials challenges and is thus an undesirable bioburden reduction method to design engineers. The objective of this work is to introduce vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an alternative to dry heat microbial reduction to meet planetary protection requirements.The VHP process is widely used by the medical industry to sterilize surgical instruments and biomedical devices, but high doses of VHP may degrade the performance of flight hardware, or compromise material properties. Our goal for this study was to determine the minimum VHP process conditions to achieve microbial reduction levels acceptable for planetary protection.

  9. Plasmonic nanobubbles for target cell-specific gene and drug delivery and multifunctional processing of heterogeneous cell systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukianova-Hleb, Ekaterina Y.; Huye, Leslie E.; Brenner, Malcolm K.; Lapotko, Dmitri O.

    2014-03-01

    Cell and gene cancer therapies require ex vivo cell processing of human grafts. Such processing requires at least three steps - cell enrichment, cell separation (destruction), and gene transfer - each of which requires the use of a separate technology. While these technologies may be satisfactory for research use, they are of limited usefulness in the clinical treatment setting because they have a low processing rate, as well as a low transfection and separation efficacy and specificity in heterogeneous human grafts. Most problematic, because current technologies are administered in multiple steps - rather than in a single, multifunctional, and simultaneous procedure - they lengthen treatment process and introduce an unnecessary level of complexity, labor, and resources into clinical treatment; all these limitations result in high losses of valuable cells. We report a universal, high-throughput, and multifunctional technology that simultaneously (1) inject free external cargo in target cells, (2) destroys unwanted cells, and (3) preserve valuable non-target cells in heterogeneous grafts. Each of these functions has single target cell specificity in heterogeneous cell system, processing rate > 45 mln cell/min, injection efficacy 90% under 96% viability of the injected cells, target cell destruction efficacy > 99%, viability of not-target cells >99% The developed technology employs novel cellular agents, called plasmonic nanobubbles (PNBs). PNBs are not particles, but transient, intracellular events, a vapor nanobubbles that expand and collapse in mere nanoseconds under optical excitation of gold nanoparticles with short picosecond laser pulses. PNBs of different, cell-specific, size (1) inject free external cargo with small PNBs, (2) Destroy other target cells mechanically with large PNBs and (3) Preserve non-target cells. The multi-functionality, precision, and high throughput of all-in-one PNB technology will tremendously impact cell and gene therapies and other

  10. Information processing at the foxa node of the sea urchin endomesoderm specification network.

    PubMed

    de-Leon, Smadar Ben-Tabou; Davidson, Eric H

    2010-06-01

    The foxa regulatory gene is of central importance for endoderm specification across Bilateria, and this gene lies at an essential node of the well-characterized sea urchin endomesoderm gene regulatory network (GRN). Here we experimentally dissect the cis-regulatory system that controls the complex pattern of foxa expression in these embryos. Four separate cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) cooperate to control foxa expression in different spatial domains of the endomesoderm, and at different times. A detailed mutational analysis revealed the inputs to each of these cis-regulatory modules. The complex and dynamic expression of foxa is regulated by a combination of repressors, a permissive switch, and multiple activators. A mathematical kinetic model was applied to study the dynamic response of foxa cis-regulatory modules to transient inputs. This study shed light on the mesoderm-endoderm fate decision and provides a functional explanation, in terms of the genomic regulatory code, for the spatial and temporal expression of a key developmental control gene. PMID:20479235

  11. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex specifically processes general - but not personal - knowledge deception: Multiple brain networks for lying.

    PubMed

    Mameli, Francesca; Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Vergari, Maurizio; Fumagalli, Manuela; Macis, Margherita; Ferrucci, Roberta; Nordio, Francesco; Consonni, Dario; Sartori, Giuseppe; Priori, Alberto

    2010-08-25

    Despite intensive research into ways of detecting deception in legal, moral and clinical contexts, few experimental data are available on the neural substrate for the different types of lies. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to modulate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) function and to assess its influence on various types of lies. Twenty healthy volunteers were tested before and after tDCS (anodal and sham). In each session the Guilty Knowledge Task and Visual Attention Task were administered at baseline and immediately after tDCS ended. A computer-controlled task was used to evaluate truthful responses and lie responses to questions referring to personal information and general knowledge. Dependent variables collected were reaction times (RTs) and accuracy. At baseline the RTs were significantly longer for lies than for truthful responses. After sham stimulation, lie responses remained unchanged (p = 0.24) but after anodal tDCS, RTs decreased significantly only for lies involving general knowledge (p = 0.02). tDCS left the Visual Attention Task unaffected. These findings show that manipulating DLPFC function with tDCS specifically modulates deceptive responses for general information leaving those on personal information unaffected. Multiple cortical networks intervene in deception involving general and personal knowledge. Deception referring to general and personal knowledge probably involves multiple cortical networks.

  12. Parent-child and triadic antecedents of children's social competence: cultural specificity, shared process.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ruth; Masalha, Shafiq

    2010-03-01

    Guided by theories of cultural participation, the authors examined mother-child, father-child, and triadic interactive behaviors in 141 Israeli and Palestinian couples and their firstborn child at 5 and 33 months as antecedents of children's social competence. Four parent-child measures (parent sensitivity, child social engagement, parental control, dyadic reciprocity) and two family-level measures (cohesion and rigidity) were coded at each age. Children's social competence was observed at child-care locations. Cultural differences were observed for parent sensitivity and child social engagement, and the large cultural differences in sensitivity observed in infancy were attenuated by the toddler age. Interactive behaviors correlated with culture-specific parenting practices, child-rearing goals, and sex-role attitudes. Mother-child reciprocity in infancy and child engagement with father and family-level cohesion at both time points predicted social competence. Maternal sensitivity in infancy facilitated social competence only among Israeli children. Paternal control in toddlerhood interfered with Israeli children's social functioning but contributed to competence among Palestinians. Results underscore the links between early relational experiences and children's adaptation to the social milieu.

  13. Immediate Provisionalization and Nonfunctional Loading of a Single Implant in the Maxillary Esthetic Zone: A Clinical Presentation and Parameters for Consideration

    PubMed Central

    Michalakis, Konstantinos X.; Kalpidis, Christos D. R.; Kirmanidou, Yvone; Hirayama, Hiroshi; Calvani, Pasquale Lino; Pissiotis, Argiris L.

    2013-01-01

    Restoration of single tooth loss with implant supported prosthesis is now considered a highly predictable treatment. However, the maxillary anterior region still presents a challenge for both the prosthodontist and the periodontist because of the inherent difficulties encountered in the provisionalization and harmonic incorporation of the definitive prosthesis into patient's dentogingival complex. This paper presents a clinical case of a single implant placed immediately after the extraction of a maxillary central incisor, followed by immediate provisionalization and nonfunctional loading. The surgical and the restorative techniques are described, and the parameters of consideration for this approach are presented. PMID:24383012

  14. Hanford tank waste simulants specification and their applicability for the retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification processes

    SciTech Connect

    GR Golcar; NG Colton; JG Darab; HD Smith

    2000-04-04

    A wide variety of waste simulants were developed over the past few years to test various retrieval, pretreatment and waste immobilization technologies and unit operations. Experiments can be performed cost-effectively using non-radioactive waste simulants in open laboratories. This document reviews the composition of many previously used waste simulants for remediation of tank wastes at the Hanford reservation. In this review, the simulants used in testing for the retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification processes are compiled, and the representative chemical and physical characteristics of each simulant are specified. The retrieval and transport simulants may be useful for testing in-plant fluidic devices and in some cases for filtration technologies. The pretreatment simulants will be useful for filtration, Sr/TRU removal, and ion exchange testing. The vitrification simulants will be useful for testing melter, melter feed preparation technologies, and for waste form evaluations.

  15. Categorization of Extremely Brief Auditory Stimuli: Domain-Specific or Domain-General Processes?

    PubMed Central

    Bigand, Emmanuel; Delbé, Charles; Gérard, Yannick; Tillmann, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the minimum amount of auditory stimulation that allows differentiation of spoken voices, instrumental music, and environmental sounds. Three new findings were reported. 1) All stimuli were categorized above chance level with 50 ms-segments. 2) When a peak-level normalization was applied, music and voices started to be accurately categorized with 20 ms-segments. When the root-mean-square (RMS) energy of the stimuli was equalized, voice stimuli were better recognized than music and environmental sounds. 3) Further psychoacoustical analyses suggest that the categorization of extremely brief auditory stimuli depends on the variability of their spectral envelope in the used set. These last two findings challenge the interpretation of the voice superiority effect reported in previously published studies and propose a more parsimonious interpretation in terms of an emerging property of auditory categorization processes. PMID:22046436

  16. Prefrontal set activity predicts rule-specific neural processing during subsequent cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Katsuyuki; Passingham, Richard E

    2006-01-25

    Prefrontal neurons have been shown to represent task rules. Here we show the mechanisms by which the rule-selective activity in the prefrontal cortex influences subsequent cognitive performance based on that rule. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that the frontopolar cortex interacted with posterior areas differently depending on whether subjects were going to perform a phonological or semantic task. Moreover, we found that the sustained "set" activity in this region predicted the activity that could be recorded in the posterior areas during the performance, as well as the speed of that performance. We argue that the prefrontal set activity does not reflect simple maintenance of the task rules but the process of implementing the rule for subsequent cognitive performance and that this is done through rule-selective interactions with areas involved in execution of the tasks.

  17. Process-specific emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petrochemical facilities in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ziwei; Shao, Min; Lu, Sihua; Qu, Hang; Zhou, Mengyi; Sun, Jin; Gou, Bin

    2015-11-15

    Process-specific emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petrochemical facilities were investigated in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Source samples were collected from various process units in the petrochemical, basic chemical, and chlorinated chemical plants, and were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection. The results showed that propane (19.9%), propene (11.7%), ethane (9.5%) and i-butane (9.2%) were the most abundant species in the petrochemical plant, with propene at much higher levels than in petrochemical profiles measured in other regions. Styrene (15.3%), toluene (10.3%) and 1,3-butadiene (7.5%) were the major species in the basic chemical industry, while halocarbons, especially dichloromethane (15.2%) and chloromethane (7.5%), were substantial in the chlorinated chemical plant. Composite profiles were calculated using a weight-average approach based on the VOC emission strength of various process units. Emission profiles for an entire petrochemical-related industry were found to be process-oriented and should be established considering the differences in VOC emissions from various manufacturing facilities. The VOC source reactivity and carcinogenic risk potential of each process unit were also calculated in this study, suggesting that process operations mainly producing alkenes should be targeted for possible controls with respect to reducing the ozone formation potential, while process units emitting 1,3-butadiene should be under priority control in terms of toxicity. This provides a basis for further measurements of process-specific VOC emissions from the entire petrochemical industry. Meanwhile, more representative samples should be collected to reduce the large uncertainties.

  18. Process-specific emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petrochemical facilities in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ziwei; Shao, Min; Lu, Sihua; Qu, Hang; Zhou, Mengyi; Sun, Jin; Gou, Bin

    2015-11-15

    Process-specific emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petrochemical facilities were investigated in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Source samples were collected from various process units in the petrochemical, basic chemical, and chlorinated chemical plants, and were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection. The results showed that propane (19.9%), propene (11.7%), ethane (9.5%) and i-butane (9.2%) were the most abundant species in the petrochemical plant, with propene at much higher levels than in petrochemical profiles measured in other regions. Styrene (15.3%), toluene (10.3%) and 1,3-butadiene (7.5%) were the major species in the basic chemical industry, while halocarbons, especially dichloromethane (15.2%) and chloromethane (7.5%), were substantial in the chlorinated chemical plant. Composite profiles were calculated using a weight-average approach based on the VOC emission strength of various process units. Emission profiles for an entire petrochemical-related industry were found to be process-oriented and should be established considering the differences in VOC emissions from various manufacturing facilities. The VOC source reactivity and carcinogenic risk potential of each process unit were also calculated in this study, suggesting that process operations mainly producing alkenes should be targeted for possible controls with respect to reducing the ozone formation potential, while process units emitting 1,3-butadiene should be under priority control in terms of toxicity. This provides a basis for further measurements of process-specific VOC emissions from the entire petrochemical industry. Meanwhile, more representative samples should be collected to reduce the large uncertainties. PMID:26179779

  19. Thermal Radiometer Signal Processing Using Radiation Hard CMOS Application Specific Integrated Circuits for Use in Harsh Planetary Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quilligan, G.; DuMonthier, J.; Aslam, S.; Lakew, B.; Kleyner, I.; Katz, R.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal radiometers such as proposed for the Europa Clipper flyby mission require low noise signal processing for thermal imaging with immunity to Total Ionizing Dose (TID) and Single Event Latchup (SEL). Described is a second generation Multi- Channel Digitizer (MCD2G) Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) that accurately digitizes up to 40 thermopile pixels with greater than 50 Mrad (Si) immunity TID and 174 MeV-sq cm/mg SEL. The MCD2G ASIC uses Radiation Hardened By Design (RHBD) techniques with a 180 nm CMOS process node.

  20. Thermal Radiometer Signal Processing using Radiation Hard CMOS Application Specific Integrated Circuits for use in Harsh Planetary Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quilligan, G.; DuMonthier, J.; Aslam, S.; Lakew, B.; Kleyner, I.; Katz, R.

    2015-10-01

    Thermal radiometers such as proposed for the Europa Clipper flyby mission [1] require low noise signal processing for thermal imaging with immunity to Total Ionizing Dose (TID) and Single Event Latchup (SEL). Described is a second generation Multi- Channel Digitizer (MCD2G) Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) that accurately digitizes up to 40 thermopile pixels with greater than 50 Mrad (Si) immunity TID and 174 MeV-cm2/mg SEL. The MCD2G ASIC uses Radiation Hardened By Design (RHBD) techniques with a 180 nm CMOS process node.

  1. Specific discrimination of chicken DNA from other poultry DNA in processed foods using the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Tatsuya; Matsumoto, Takashi; Tanabe, Soichi; Morimatsu, Fumiki

    2008-03-01

    In the present study, specific discrimination of chicken DNA contamination in processed foods using the polymerase chain reaction was investigated. The primer pair was designed to amplify a 102-bp fragment of the chicken mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. While the DNA from chicken meat was amplified, the DNA from other poultry meat, mammalian meat, fish, shellfish, and cereals was not amplified. The primer amplified DNA fragments derived from model processed and nonprocessed food samples containing 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100% chicken.

  2. Determination of the Specificity Landscape for Ribonuclease P Processing of Precursor tRNA 5' Leader Sequences.

    PubMed

    Niland, Courtney N; Zhao, Jing; Lin, Hsuan-Chun; Anderson, David R; Jankowsky, Eckhard; Harris, Michael E

    2016-08-19

    Maturation of tRNA depends on a single endonuclease, ribonuclease P (RNase P), to remove highly variable 5' leader sequences from precursor tRNA transcripts. Here, we use high-throughput enzymology to report multiple-turnover and single-turnover kinetics for Escherichia coli RNase P processing of all possible 5' leader sequences, including nucleotides contacting both the RNA and protein subunits of RNase P. The results reveal that the identity of N(-2) and N(-3) relative to the cleavage site at N(1) primarily control alternative substrate selection and act at the level of association not the cleavage step. As a consequence, the specificity for N(-1), which contacts the active site and contributes to catalysis, is suppressed. This study demonstrates high-throughput RNA enzymology as a means to globally determine RNA specificity landscapes and reveals the mechanism of substrate discrimination by a widespread and essential RNA-processing enzyme. PMID:27336323

  3. Determination of the Specificity Landscape for Ribonuclease P Processing of Precursor tRNA 5' Leader Sequences.

    PubMed

    Niland, Courtney N; Zhao, Jing; Lin, Hsuan-Chun; Anderson, David R; Jankowsky, Eckhard; Harris, Michael E

    2016-08-19

    Maturation of tRNA depends on a single endonuclease, ribonuclease P (RNase P), to remove highly variable 5' leader sequences from precursor tRNA transcripts. Here, we use high-throughput enzymology to report multiple-turnover and single-turnover kinetics for Escherichia coli RNase P processing of all possible 5' leader sequences, including nucleotides contacting both the RNA and protein subunits of RNase P. The results reveal that the identity of N(-2) and N(-3) relative to the cleavage site at N(1) primarily control alternative substrate selection and act at the level of association not the cleavage step. As a consequence, the specificity for N(-1), which contacts the active site and contributes to catalysis, is suppressed. This study demonstrates high-throughput RNA enzymology as a means to globally determine RNA specificity landscapes and reveals the mechanism of substrate discrimination by a widespread and essential RNA-processing enzyme.

  4. Instruments to assess the perception of physicians in the decision-making process of specific clinical encounters: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Légaré, France; Moher, David; Elwyn, Glyn; LeBlanc, Annie; Gravel, Karine

    2007-01-01

    Background The measurement of processes and outcomes that reflect the complexity of the decision-making process within specific clinical encounters is an important area of research to pursue. A systematic review was conducted to identify instruments that assess the perception physicians have of the decision-making process within specific clinical encounters. Methods For every year available up until April 2007, PubMed, PsycINFO, Current Contents, Dissertation Abstracts and Sociological Abstracts were searched for original studies in English or French. Reference lists from retrieved studies were also consulted. Studies were included if they reported a self-administered instrument evaluating physicians' perceptions of the decision-making process within specific clinical encounters, contained sufficient description to permit critical appraisal and presented quantitative results based on administering the instrument. Two individuals independently assessed the eligibility of the instruments and abstracted information on their conceptual underpinnings, main evaluation domain, development, format, reliability, validity and responsiveness. They also assessed the quality of the studies that reported on the development of the instruments with a modified version of STARD. Results Out of 3431 records identified and screened for evaluation, 26 potentially relevant instruments were assessed; 11 met the inclusion criteria. Five instruments were published before 1995. Among those published after 1995, five offered a corresponding patient version. Overall, the main evaluation domains were: satisfaction with the clinical encounter (n = 2), mutual understanding between health professional and patient (n = 2), mental workload (n = 1), frustration with the clinical encounter (n = 1), nurse-physician collaboration (n = 1), perceptions of communication competence (n = 2), degree of comfort with a decision (n = 1) and information on medication (n = 1). For most instruments (n = 10), some

  5. Foundational dendritic processing that is independent of the cell type-specific structure in model primary neurons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hojeong; Heckman, C J

    2015-11-16

    It has long been known that primary neurons in the brain and spinal cord exhibit very distinctive dendritic structures. However, it remains unclear whether dendritic processing for signal propagation and channel activation over dendrites is a function of the cell type-specific dendritic structure. By applying an extended analysis of signal attenuation for the physiological distributions of synaptic inputs and active channels on dendritic branches, we first demonstrate that regardless of their specific structure, all anatomically reconstructed models of primary neurons display a similar pattern of directional signal attenuation and locational channel activation over their dendrites. Then, using a novel modeling approach that allows direct comparison of the anatomically reconstructed primary neurons with their reduced models that exclusively retain anatomical dendritic signaling without being associated with structural specificity, we show that the reduced model can accurately predict dendritic excitability of the anatomical model in both passive and active mode. These results indicate that the directional signaling, locational excitability and their relationship are foundational features of dendritic processing that are independent of the cell type-specific structure across primary neurons. PMID:26463670

  6. Foundational dendritic processing that is independent of the cell type-specific structure in model primary neurons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hojeong; Heckman, C J

    2015-11-16

    It has long been known that primary neurons in the brain and spinal cord exhibit very distinctive dendritic structures. However, it remains unclear whether dendritic processing for signal propagation and channel activation over dendrites is a function of the cell type-specific dendritic structure. By applying an extended analysis of signal attenuation for the physiological distributions of synaptic inputs and active channels on dendritic branches, we first demonstrate that regardless of their specific structure, all anatomically reconstructed models of primary neurons display a similar pattern of directional signal attenuation and locational channel activation over their dendrites. Then, using a novel modeling approach that allows direct comparison of the anatomically reconstructed primary neurons with their reduced models that exclusively retain anatomical dendritic signaling without being associated with structural specificity, we show that the reduced model can accurately predict dendritic excitability of the anatomical model in both passive and active mode. These results indicate that the directional signaling, locational excitability and their relationship are foundational features of dendritic processing that are independent of the cell type-specific structure across primary neurons.

  7. Simple processes drive unpredictable differences in estuarine fish assemblages: Baselines for understanding site-specific ecological and anthropogenic impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheaves, Marcus

    2016-03-01

    Predicting patterns of abundance and composition of biotic assemblages is essential to our understanding of key ecological processes, and our ability to monitor, evaluate and manage assemblages and ecosystems. Fish assemblages often vary from estuary to estuary in apparently unpredictable ways, making it challenging to develop a general understanding of the processes that determine assemblage composition. This makes it problematic to transfer understanding from one estuary situation to another and therefore difficult to assemble effective management plans or to assess the impacts of natural and anthropogenic disturbance. Although system-to-system variability is a common property of ecological systems, rather than being random it is the product of complex interactions of multiple causes and effects at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. I investigate the drivers of differences in estuary fish assemblages, to develop a simple model explaining the diversity and complexity of observed estuary-to-estuary differences, and explore its implications for management and conservation. The model attributes apparently unpredictable differences in fish assemblage composition from estuary to estuary to the interaction of species-specific, life history-specific and scale-specific processes. In explaining innate faunal differences among estuaries without the need to invoke complex ecological or anthropogenic drivers, the model provides a baseline against which the effects of additional natural and anthropogenic factors can be evaluated.

  8. Compound eyes and retinal information processing in miniature dipteran species match their specific ecological demands.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Bellido, Paloma T; Wardill, Trevor J; Juusola, Mikko

    2011-03-01

    The compound eye of insects imposes a tradeoff between resolution and sensitivity, which should exacerbate with diminishing eye size. Tiny lenses are thought to deliver poor acuity because of diffraction; nevertheless, miniature insects have visual systems that allow a myriad of lifestyles. Here, we investigate whether size constraints result in an archetypal eye design shared between miniature dipterans by comparing the visual performance of the fruit fly Drosophila and the killer fly Coenosia. These closely related species have neural superposition eyes and similar body lengths (3 to 4 mm), but Coenosia is a diurnal aerial predator, whereas slow-flying Drosophila is most active at dawn and dusk. Using in vivo intracellular recordings and EM, we report unique adaptations in the form and function of their photoreceptors that are reflective of their distinct lifestyles. We find that although these species have similar lenses and optical properties, Coenosia photoreceptors have three- to fourfold higher spatial resolution and rate of information transfer than Drosophila. The higher performance in Coenosia mostly results from dramatically diminished light sensors, or rhabdomeres, which reduce pixel size and optical cross-talk between photoreceptors and incorporate accelerated phototransduction reactions. Furthermore, we identify local specializations in the Coenosia eye, consistent with an acute zone and its predatory lifestyle. These results demonstrate how the flexible architecture of miniature compound eyes can evolve to match information processing with ecological demands.

  9. Specific capture of the hydrolysate on magnetic beads for sensitive detecting plant vacuolar processing enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Cheng, Meng; Zeng, Lizhang; Liu, Weipeng; Zhang, Tao; Xing, Da

    2016-05-15

    Conventional plant protease detection always suffers from high background interference caused by the complex coloring metabolites in plant cells. In this study, a bio-modified magnetic beads-based strategy was developed for sensitive and quantitative detection of plant vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) activity. Cleavage of the peptide substrate (ESENCRK-FITC) after asparagine residue by VPE resulted in the 2-cyano-6-amino-benzothiazole (CABT)-functionalized magnetic beads capture of the severed substrate CRK-FITC via a condensation reaction between CABT and cysteine (Cys). The catalytic activity was subsequently obtained by the confocal microscopy imaging and flow cytometry quantitative analysis. The sensor system integrated advantages of (i) the high efficient enrichment and separation capabilities of magnetic beads and (ii) the catalyst-free properties of the CABT-Cys condensation reaction. It exhibited a linear relationship between the fluorescence signal and the concentration of severed substrate in the range of 10-600 pM. The practical results showed that, compared with normal growth conditions, VPE activity was increased by 2.7-fold (307.2 ± 25.3 μM min(-1)g(-1)) upon cadmium toxicity stress. This platform effectively overcame the coloring metabolites-caused background interference, showing fine applicability for the detection of VPE activity in real samples. The strategy offers great sensitivity and may be further extended to other protease activity detection. PMID:26797250

  10. Accounting for photophysical processes and specific signal intensity changes in fluorescence-detected sedimentation velocity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huaying; Ma, Jia; Ingaramo, Maria; Andrade, Eric; MacDonald, Jeff; Ramsay, Glen; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Patterson, George H; Schuck, Peter

    2014-09-16

    Fluorescence detected sedimentation velocity (FDS-SV) has emerged as a powerful technique for the study of high-affinity protein interactions, with hydrodynamic resolution exceeding that of diffusion-based techniques, and with sufficient sensitivity for binding studies at low picomolar concentrations. For the detailed quantitative analysis of the observed sedimentation boundaries, it is necessary to adjust the conventional sedimentation models to the FDS data structure. A key consideration is the change in the macromolecular fluorescence intensity during the course of the experiment, caused by slow drifts of the excitation laser power, and/or by photophysical processes. In the present work, we demonstrate that FDS-SV data have inherently a reference for the time-dependent macromolecular signal intensity, resting on a geometric link between radial boundary migration and plateau signal. We show how this new time-domain can be exploited to study molecules exhibiting photobleaching and photoactivation. This expands the application of FDS-SV to proteins tagged with photoswitchable fluorescent proteins, organic dyes, or nanoparticles, such as those recently introduced for subdiffraction microscopy and enables FDS-SV studies of their interactions and size distributions. At the same time, we find that conventional fluorophores undergo minimal photobleaching under standard illumination in the FDS. These findings support the application of a high laser power density for the detection, which we demonstrate can further increase the signal quality.

  11. Attention allocation: Relationships to general working memory or specific language processing.

    PubMed

    Archibald, Lisa M D; Levee, Tyler; Olino, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Attention allocation, updating working memory, and language processing are interdependent cognitive tasks related to the focused direction of limited resources, refreshing and substituting information in the current focus of attention, and receiving/sending verbal communication, respectively. The current study systematically examined the relationship among executive attention, working memory executive skills, and language abilities while adjusting for individual differences in short-term memory. School-age children completed a selective attention task requiring them to recall whether a presented shape was in the same place as a previous target shape shown in an array imposing a low or high working memory load. Results revealed a selective attention cost when working above but not within memory span capacity. Measures of general working memory were positively related to overall task performance, whereas language abilities were related to response time. In particular, higher language skills were associated with faster responses under low load conditions. These findings suggest that attentional control and storage demands have an additive impact on working memory resources but provide only limited evidence for a domain-general mechanism in language learning.

  12. The contribution of frequency-specific activity to hierarchical information processing in the human auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Fontolan, L.; Morillon, B.; Liegeois-Chauvel, C.; Giraud, Anne-Lise

    2014-01-01

    The fact that feed-forward and top-down propagation of sensory information use distinct frequency bands is an appealing assumption for which evidence remains scarce. Here we obtain human depth recordings from two auditory cortical regions in both hemispheres, while subjects listen to sentences, and show that information travels in each direction using separate frequency channels. Bottom-up and top-down propagation dominates in γ- and δ–β (<40 Hz) bands, respectively. The predominance of low frequencies for top-down information transfer is confirmed by cross-regional frequency coupling, which indicates that the power of γ-activity in A1 is modulated by the phase of δ–β activity sampled from association auditory cortex (AAC). This cross-regional coupling effect is absent in the opposite direction. Finally, we show that information transfer does not proceed continuously but by time windows where bottom-up or top-down processing alternatively dominates. These findings suggest that the brain uses both frequency- and time-division multiplexing to optimize directional information transfer. PMID:25178489

  13. Target-Specific Effects of Somatostatin-Expressing Interneurons on Neocortical Visual Processing

    PubMed Central

    Cottam, James C. H.

    2013-01-01

    A diverse array of interneuron types regulates activity in the mammalian neocortex. Two of the most abundant are the fast-spiking, parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons, which target the axosomatic region of pyramidal cells, and the somatostatin-positive (SOM+) interneurons, which target the dendrites. Recent work has focused on the influence of PV+ and SOM+ interneurons on pyramidal cells. However, the connections among PV+ and SOM+ interneurons are poorly understood and could play an important role in cortical circuitry, since their interactions may alter the net influence on pyramidal cell output. We used an optogenetic approach to investigate the effect of SOM+ interneurons on pyramidal cells and PV+ interneurons during visual stimulation in mouse primary visual cortex. We find that SOM+ interneuron activation suppresses PV+ cell spiking at least twice as potently as pyramidal cell spiking during visual stimulation. This differential effect of SOM+ cell stimulation is detectable even when only two to three SOM+ cells are activated. Importantly, the remaining responses to oriented gratings in PV+ cells are more orientation tuned and temporally modulated, suggesting that SOM+ activity unmasks this tuning by suppressing untuned input. Our results highlight the importance of SOM+ inhibition of PV+ interneurons during sensory processing. This prominent competitive inhibition between interneuron types leads to a reconfiguration of inhibition along the somatodendritic axis of pyramidal cells, and enhances the orientation selectivity of PV+ cells. PMID:24336721

  14. Effects of training condition on the contribution of specific items to relational processing in baboons (Papio papio).

    PubMed

    Maugard, Anaïs; Wasserman, Edward A; Castro, Leyre; Fagot, Joël

    2014-07-01

    Relational processing involves learning about the relationship between or among stimuli, transcending the individual stimuli, so that abstract knowledge generalizable to novel situations is acquired. Relational processing has been studied in animals as well as in humans, but little attention has been paid to the contribution of specific items to relational thinking or to the factors that may affect that contribution. This study assessed the intertwined effects of item and relational processing in nonhuman primates. Using a procedure that entailed both expanding and contracting sets of pictorial items, we trained 13 baboons on a two-alternative forced-choice task, in which they had to distinguish horizontal from vertical relational patterns. In Experiment 1, monkeys engaged in item-based processing with a small training set size, and they progressively engaged in relation-based processing as training set size was increased. However, in Experiment 2, overtraining with a small stimulus set promoted the processing of item-based information. These findings underscore similarities in how humans and nonhuman primates process higher-order stimulus relations.

  15. Cell specific post-translational processing of pikachurin, a protein involved in retinal synaptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Han, Jianzhong; Townes-Anderson, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Pikachurin is a recently identified, highly conserved, extracellular matrix-like protein. Murine pikachurin has 1,017 amino acids (~110 kDa), can bind to α-dystroglycan, and has been found to localize mainly in the synaptic cleft of photoreceptor ribbon synapses. Its knockout selectively disrupts synaptogenesis between photoreceptor and bipolar cells. To further characterize this synaptic protein, we used an antibody raised against the N-terminal of murine pikachurin on Western blots of mammalian and amphibian retinas and found, unexpectedly, that a low weight ~60-kDa band was the predominant signal for endogenous pikachurin. This band was predicted to be an N-terminal product of post-translational cleavage of pikachurin. A similar sized protein was also detected in human Y79 retinoblastoma cells, a cell line with characteristics of photoreceptor cells. In Y79 cells, endogenous pikachurin immunofluorescence was found on the cell surface of living cells. The expression of the N-fragment was not significantly affected by dystroglycan overexpression in spite of the biochemical evidence for pikachurin-α-dystroglycan binding. The presence of a corresponding endogenous C-fragment was not determined because of the lack of a suitable antibody. However, a protein of ~65 kDa was detected in Y79 cells expressing recombinant pikachurin with a C-terminal tag. In contrast, in QBI-HEK 293A cells, whose endogenous pikachurin protein level is negligible, recombinant pikachurin did not appear to be cleaved. Instead pikachurin was found either intact or as dimers. Finally, whole and N- and C-fragments of recombinant pikachurin were present in the conditioned media of Y79 cells indicating the secretion of pikachurin. The site of cleavage, however, was not conclusively determined. Our data suggest the existence of post-translational cleavage of pikachurin protein as well as the extracellular localization of cleaved protein specifically by retinal cells. The functions of the

  16. The effect of glass and polyethylene fiber reinforcement on flexural strength of provisional restorative resins: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Parthasarathy; Thulasingam, C

    2013-12-01

    The aim is to evaluate and compare the flexural strength of different provisional restorative materials reinforced with glass and polyethylene fibers. A total of 90 samples were prepared and divided into three groups based on the type of fiber reinforcement, unidirectional S-glass (Splint-It) and ultra-molecular weight polyethylene (Ribbond). Unreinforced samples served as control group. Again each group was subdivided into three subgroups based on type of provisional restorative resins, heats cure polymethyl methacrylate, self-cure poly methyl methacrylate and self-cure bis-acryl composite. Samples were loaded in a universal testing machine until fracture occurs. The mean flexural strengths (MPa) were subjected to the one-way ANOVA, followed by the Tukey-HSD test at a significance level of 0.001. The result shows all the fiber reinforced samples possessed greater strength than the control samples. In control samples, the heat cure poly methyl methacrylate resin (72.74 ± 2.28 MPa) had the greatest flexural strength, followed by self-cure bis-acryl composite (67.05 ± 2.35 MPa) and self-cure poly methyl methacrylate resin (52.88 ± 1.90 MPa). In both heat and self-cure poly methyl methacrylate resin, the polyethylene fiber reinforcement (96.00 ± 2.63 MPa, 86.17 ± 1.92 MPa) provides the greatest strength than glass fiber reinforcement (92.68 ± 1.58 MPa, 76.40 ± 2.11 MPa). In self-cure bis-acryl composite, the glass fiber (105.95 ± 3.07 MPa) shows better reinforcement than polyethylene fiber (99.41 ± 1.74 MPa).The fibers reinforcement increases the flexural strength of provisional restorative resins.

  17. Out with the Old and in with the New—Is Backward Inhibition a Domain-Specific Process?

    PubMed Central

    Menghini, Deny; Vicari, Stefano; Petrosini, Laura; Ferlazzo, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Effective task switching is supported by the inhibition of the just executed task, so that potential interference from previously executed tasks is adaptively counteracted. This inhibitory mechanism, named Backward Inhibition (BI), has been inferred from the finding that switching back to a recently executed task (A-B-A task sequence) is harder than switching back to a less recently executed task (C-B-A task sequence). Despite the fact that BI effects do impact performance on everyday life activities, up to now it is still not clear whether the BI represents an amodal and material-independent process or whether it interacts with the task material. To address this issue, a group of individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) characterized by specific difficulties in maintaining and processing visuo-spatial, but not verbal, information, and a mental age- and gender-matched group of typically developing (TD) children were subjected to three task-switching experiments requiring verbal or visuo-spatial material to be processed. Results showed that individuals with WS exhibited a normal BI effect during verbal task-switching, but a clear deficit during visuo-spatial task-switching. Overall, our findings demonstrating that the BI is a material-specific process have important implications for theoretical models of cognitive control and its architecture. PMID:26565628

  18. HIVgp120 activates autoreactive CD4-specific T cell responses by unveiling of hidden CD4 peptides during processing

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    T cells are made tolerant only to those self-peptides that are presented in sufficient amounts by antigen-presenting cells. They ignore cryptic self-determinants, such as either those not generated by processing machinery or generated in insufficient amounts. It is anticipated that mechanisms that either change antigen processing or increase the yield of previously "invisible" peptides may be capable of inducing T cell priming and, if they are self-maintained, may sustain autoimmune diseases. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time a mechanism by which the gp120 human immunodeficiency virus-I, by downregulating plasma membrane CD4 and increasing its processing, unveils hidden CD4 epitopes, inducing an autoimmune-specific T cell response. PMID:7760011

  19. Ionic milieu controls the compartment-specific activation of pro-opiomelanocortin processing in AtT-20 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, W K; Moore, H P

    1995-01-01

    Newly synthesized prohormones and their processing enzymes transit through the same compartments before being packaged into regulated secretory granules. Despite this coordinated intracellular transport, prohormone processing does not occur until late in the secretory pathway. In the mouse pituitary AtT-20 cell line, conversion of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) to mature adrenocorticotropic hormone involves the prohormone convertase PC1. The mechanism by which this proteolytic processing is restricted to late secretory compartments is unknown; PC1 activity could be regulated by compartment-specific activators/inhibitors, or through changes in the ionic milieu that influence its activity. By arresting transport in a semi-intact cell system, we have addressed whether metabolically labeled POMC trapped in early secretory compartments can be induced to undergo conversion if the ionic milieu in these compartments is experimentally manipulated. Prolonged incubation of labeled POMC trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi/trans-Golgi network did not result in processing, thereby supporting the theory that processing is normally a post-Golgi/trans-Golgi network event. However, acidification of these compartments allowed effective processing of POMC to the intermediate and mature forms. The observed processing increased sharply at a pH below 6.0 and required millimolar calcium, regardless of the compartment in which labeled POMC resided. These conditions also resulted in the coordinate conversion of PC1 from the 84/87 kDa into the 74-kDa and 66-kDa forms. We propose that POMC processing is predominantly restricted to acidifying secretory granules, and that a change in pH within these granules is both necessary and sufficient to activate POMC processing. Images PMID:8573786

  20. Early event-related potentials indicate context-specific target processing for eye and hand motor systems.

    PubMed

    Wehrspaun, Claudia C; Pfabigan, Daniela M; Sailer, Uta

    2013-01-01

    Concurrent eye and hand movements toward a common visual target require different motor programs based on identical visual input. We used event-related brain potentials (ERP) to determine if and when the processing of the visual target differs for the two motor systems. The N2, an index for target evaluation, was more negative for the target of a hand than of an eye movement in two experiments. A possible interpretation for this finding is different visual target processing. Targets for hand movements require a different weighting of visual information, for example concerning features such as surface structure which are important for hand but not for eye movements. In experiment 2, the early C1-component, which had an average maximum at 67 ms following target onset, was significantly more negative when subjects pointed at the stimuli. Traditionally, the C1 has been regarded as a sensory component, but recent studies have linked it to higher order processing, such as attention and expectations. Thus, the present data indicate that target processing for eye or hand movements is already context-specific during early visual information processing. We suggest that differences in a target's relevance for upcoming movements modify target processing as well as sensory expectations.

  1. Provisional mapping of the gene for a cell surface marker, GA-1, in the red-necked wallaby Macropus rufogriseus.

    PubMed

    Sykes, P J; Hope, R M

    1985-01-01

    A series of M. rufogriseus-mouse somatic cell hybrids was constructed and analysed cytologically, enzymatically and immunologically. A monoclonal antibody, GA-1, was prepared against an M. rufogriseus cell surface antigen on an M. rufogriseus-mouse somatic cell hybrid. A gene determining the expression of this antigen was provisionally assigned to the long arm of the M. rufogriseus chromosome 3. The monoclonal antibody also reacted with an M. rufus (red kangaroo)-mouse somatic cell hybrid containing only the M. rufus chromosome 5, the G-banded chromosome identical to M. rufogriseus 3q. The results also suggest synteny of the genes for the marsupial enzymes hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase and phosphoglycerate kinase-A.

  2. Immediate postextraction implantation with provisionalization of two primary canines and related impacted permanent canines: a case report.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Salvatore; Redemagni, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a case of replacing two maxillary primary canines and related impacted permanent canines with two single implants, in conjunction with grafting lost hard tissue. By using immediate postextraction implant placement and provisionalization protocols, the stability of the implant was ensured while bypassing the bony void created by the removal of the primary canines. In this respect, a minimum healing period of 1 year was originally planned to evaluate the gingival esthetics before the final step was carried out. By the time the final restorations were fitted, the graft and tissues were stable. The time involved not only placed biology on the clinician's side, but also helped the patient to spread the cost over time. In modern esthetic dentistry, harmonious results can be achieved relatively quickly when the prerequisites for esthetic success have already been met, but, as this case demonstrates, human biology often requires more time and patience for augmented hard and soft tissues to heal and mature.

  3. 75 FR 30784 - Schylling Associates, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ..., Massachusetts. At all times relevant hereto, Schylling designed, imported and sold toys and children's products... lead-containing paint. Specifically, Schylling learned that the University of Iowa Hygienic...

  4. The feline oral microbiome: a provisional 16S rRNA gene based taxonomy with full-length reference sequences.

    PubMed

    Dewhirst, Floyd E; Klein, Erin A; Bennett, Marie-Louise; Croft, Julie M; Harris, Stephen J; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V

    2015-02-25

    The human oral microbiome is known to play a significant role in human health and disease. While less well studied, the feline oral microbiome is thought to play a similarly important role. To determine roles oral bacteria play in health and disease, one first has to be able to accurately identify bacterial species present. 16S rRNA gene sequence information is widely used for molecular identification of bacteria and is also useful for establishing the taxonomy of novel species. The objective of this research was to obtain full 16S rRNA gene reference sequences for feline oral bacteria, place the sequences in species-level phylotypes, and create a curated 16S rRNA based taxonomy for common feline oral bacteria. Clone libraries were produced using "universal" and phylum-selective PCR primers and DNA from pooled subgingival plaque from healthy and periodontally diseased cats. Bacteria in subgingival samples were also cultivated to obtain isolates. Full-length 16S rDNA sequences were determined for clones and isolates that represent 171 feline oral taxa. A provisional curated taxonomy was developed based on the position of each taxon in 16S rRNA phylogenetic trees. The feline oral microbiome curated taxonomy and 16S rRNA gene reference set will allow investigators to refer to precisely defined bacterial taxa. A provisional name such as "Propionibacterium sp. feline oral taxon FOT-327" is an anchor to which clone, strain or GenBank names or accession numbers can point. Future next-generation-sequencing studies of feline oral bacteria will be able to map reads to taxonomically curated full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences. PMID:25523504

  5. The feline oral microbiome: a provisional 16S rRNA gene based taxonomy with full-length reference sequences.

    PubMed

    Dewhirst, Floyd E; Klein, Erin A; Bennett, Marie-Louise; Croft, Julie M; Harris, Stephen J; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V

    2015-02-25

    The human oral microbiome is known to play a significant role in human health and disease. While less well studied, the feline oral microbiome is thought to play a similarly important role. To determine roles oral bacteria play in health and disease, one first has to be able to accurately identify bacterial species present. 16S rRNA gene sequence information is widely used for molecular identification of bacteria and is also useful for establishing the taxonomy of novel species. The objective of this research was to obtain full 16S rRNA gene reference sequences for feline oral bacteria, place the sequences in species-level phylotypes, and create a curated 16S rRNA based taxonomy for common feline oral bacteria. Clone libraries were produced using "universal" and phylum-selective PCR primers and DNA from pooled subgingival plaque from healthy and periodontally diseased cats. Bacteria in subgingival samples were also cultivated to obtain isolates. Full-length 16S rDNA sequences were determined for clones and isolates that represent 171 feline oral taxa. A provisional curated taxonomy was developed based on the position of each taxon in 16S rRNA phylogenetic trees. The feline oral microbiome curated taxonomy and 16S rRNA gene reference set will allow investigators to refer to precisely defined bacterial taxa. A provisional name such as "Propionibacterium sp. feline oral taxon FOT-327" is an anchor to which clone, strain or GenBank names or accession numbers can point. Future next-generation-sequencing studies of feline oral bacteria will be able to map reads to taxonomically curated full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences.

  6. Improved SERS-Active Nanoparticles with Various Shapes for CTC Detection without Enrichment Process with Supersensitivity and High Specificity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoxia; Xia, Yuanzhi; Huang, Youju; Li, Juan; Ruan, Huimin; Chen, Tianxiang; Luo, Liqiang; Shen, Zheyu; Wu, Aiguo

    2016-08-10

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have received more and more attention in medical biology and clinical practice, especially diagnosis, prognosis, and cancer treatment monitoring. The detection of CTCs within the large number of healthy blood cells is a big challenge due to their rarity, which requires a detection method with supersensitivity and high specificity. In this study, we developed three kinds of new nanoparticles with the function of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based on spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), gold nanorods (AuNRs), and gold nanostars (AuNSs) with similar particle size, similar modifications, and different shapes for CTC detection without an enrichment process from the blood. The nanoparticles possess strong SERS signal due to modification of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) (i.e., Raman reporter molecule), possess excellent specificity due to stabilization of reductive bovine serum albumin (rBSA) to reduce the nonspecific catching or uptake by healthy cells in blood, and possess high sensitivity due to conjugation of folic acid (FA) (i.e., a targeted ligand) to identify CTCs. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the results of detection demonstrate that these nanoparticles could all be utilized for CTC detection without enrichment process from the blood with high specificity, and the AuNS-MBA-rBSA-FA is the best one due to its supersensitivity, whose limit of detection (i.e., 1 cell/mL) is much lower than the currently reported lowest value (5 cells/mL). PMID:27434820

  7. Activated sludge model (ASM) based modelling of membrane bioreactor (MBR) processes: a critical review with special regard to MBR specificities.

    PubMed

    Fenu, A; Guglielmi, G; Jimenez, J; Spèrandio, M; Saroj, D; Lesjean, B; Brepols, C; Thoeye, C; Nopens, I

    2010-08-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) have been increasingly employed for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment in the last decade. The efforts for modelling of such wastewater treatment systems have always targeted either the biological processes (treatment quality target) as well as the various aspects of engineering (cost effective design and operation). The development of Activated Sludge Models (ASM) was an important evolution in the modelling of Conventional Activated Sludge (CAS) processes and their use is now very well established. However, although they were initially developed to describe CAS processes, they have simply been transferred and applied to MBR processes. Recent studies on MBR biological processes have reported several crucial specificities: medium to very high sludge retention times, high mixed liquor concentration, accumulation of soluble microbial products (SMP) rejected by the membrane filtration step, and high aeration rates for scouring purposes. These aspects raise the question as to what extent the ASM framework is applicable to MBR processes. Several studies highlighting some of the aforementioned issues are scattered through the literature. Hence, through a concise and structured overview of the past developments and current state-of-the-art in biological modelling of MBR, this review explores ASM-based modelling applied to MBR processes. The work aims to synthesize previous studies and differentiates between unmodified and modified applications of ASM to MBR. Particular emphasis is placed on influent fractionation, biokinetics, and soluble microbial products (SMPs)/exo-polymeric substances (EPS) modelling, and suggestions are put forward as to good modelling practice with regard to MBR modelling both for end-users and academia. A last section highlights shortcomings and future needs for improved biological modelling of MBR processes. PMID:20619870

  8. Immediate placement and provisionalization of maxillary anterior single implant with guided bone regeneration, connective tissue graft, and coronally positioned flap procedures.

    PubMed

    Waki, Tomonori; Kan, Joseph Y K

    2016-01-01

    Immediate implant placement and provisionalization in the esthetic zone have been documented with success. The benefit of immediate implant placement and provisionalization is the preservation of papillary mucosa. However, in cases with osseous defects presenting on the facial bony plate, immediate implant placement procedures have resulted in facial gingival recession. Subepithelial connective tissue grafts for immediate implant placement and provisionalization procedures have been reported with a good esthetic outcome. Biotype conversion around implants with subepithelial connective tissue grafts have been advocated, and the resulting tissues appear to be more resistant to recession. The dimensions of peri-implant mucosa in a thick biotype were significantly greater than in a thin biotype. Connective tissue graft with coronally positioned flap procedures on natural teeth has also been documented with success. This article describes a technique combining immediate implant placement, provisionalization, guided bone regeneration (GBR), connective tissue graft, and a coronally positioned flap in order to achieve more stable peri-implant tissue in facial osseous defect situations.

  9. Enrollment in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2011; Financial Statistics, Fiscal Year 2011; and Graduation Rates, Selected Cohorts, 2003-2008: First Look (Provisional Data). NCES 2012-174rev

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Ginder, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) collects institution-level data from postsecondary institutions in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) and other U.S. jurisdictions (see appendix A for a list of other U.S. jurisdictions). This "First Look" presents findings from the provisional data of the…

  10. Employees in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2011 and Student Financial Aid, Academic Year 2010-11: First Look (Provisional Data). NCES 2012-156rev

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Ginder, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) collects institution-level data from postsecondary institutions in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) and other U.S. jurisdictions (see appendix A for a list of other U.S. jurisdictions). This "First Look" presents findings from the provisional data of the IPEDS…

  11. Graduation Rates for Selected Cohorts, 2005-10; and Student Financial Aid in Postsecondary Institutions, Academic Year 2012-13. First Look (Provisional Data). NCES 2014-105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginder, Scott A.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Mann, Farrah B.

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) collects institution-level data from postsecondary institutions in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) and other U.S. jurisdictions (see appendix A for a list of other U.S. jurisdictions). This First Look presents findings from the provisional data of the IPEDS…

  12. Documentation to the NCES Common Core of Data Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey: School Year 2011-12. Provisional Version 1a. NCES 2014-100

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keaton, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The documentation for this provisional version 1a file of the National Center for Education Statistics' (NCES) Common Core of Data (CCD) Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey for SY 2011-12, contains a brief description of the data collection, along with information required to understand and access the data file. The SY 2011-12…

  13. Enrollment and Employees in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2014; and Financial Statistics and Academic Libraries, Fiscal Year 2014. First Look (Provisional Data). NCES 2016-005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginder, Scott A.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Mann, Farrah B.

    2015-01-01

    This First Look presents findings from the provisional data of the Integrated Postsecondary Data System (IPEDS) Spring 2015 data collection, which included four survey components: (1) Enrollment at postsecondary institutions during fall 2014; (2) Finance, for the 2014 fiscal year; (3) Human Resources at postsecondary institutions during fall 2014;…

  14. Documentation to the NCES Common Core of Data Local Education Agency Universe Survey: School Year 2011-12. Provisional Version 1a. NCES 2014-035

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keaton, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This documentation is for the provisional version 1a file of the National Center for Education Statistics' (NCES) Common Core of Data (CCD) Local Education Agency (LEA) Universe Survey for SY 2011-12. It contains a brief description of the data collection, along with information required to understand and access the data file. The CCD is a…

  15. Use of a prefabricated fiber-reinforced composite resin framework to provide a provisional fixed partial denture over an integrating implant: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Meiers, Jonathan C; Freilich, Martin A

    2006-01-01

    The development of fiber-reinforced composites offers new possibilities in minimally invasive tooth replacement approaches. This article describes the use of a prefabricated fiber-reinforced composite resin framework for the chairside fabrication of a provisional fixed partial denture over an integrating implant. The framework fabrication, theory, and a clinical scenario are illustrated. PMID:16399269

  16. Immediate placement and provisionalization of maxillary anterior single implant with guided bone regeneration, connective tissue graft, and coronally positioned flap procedures.

    PubMed

    Waki, Tomonori; Kan, Joseph Y K

    2016-01-01

    Immediate implant placement and provisionalization in the esthetic zone have been documented with success. The benefit of immediate implant placement and provisionalization is the preservation of papillary mucosa. However, in cases with osseous defects presenting on the facial bony plate, immediate implant placement procedures have resulted in facial gingival recession. Subepithelial connective tissue grafts for immediate implant placement and provisionalization procedures have been reported with a good esthetic outcome. Biotype conversion around implants with subepithelial connective tissue grafts have been advocated, and the resulting tissues appear to be more resistant to recession. The dimensions of peri-implant mucosa in a thick biotype were significantly greater than in a thin biotype. Connective tissue graft with coronally positioned flap procedures on natural teeth has also been documented with success. This article describes a technique combining immediate implant placement, provisionalization, guided bone regeneration (GBR), connective tissue graft, and a coronally positioned flap in order to achieve more stable peri-implant tissue in facial osseous defect situations. PMID:27092345

  17. AIDS Knowledge and Attitudes, Provisional Data from the National Health Interview Survey: United States, August 1987. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics. No. 146.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Deborah A.; And Others

    This document presents provisional data for all Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) questionnaire items from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for August 1987. It notes that the AIDS questionnaire was designed to provide baseline estimates of public knowledge and attitudes about AIDS transmission, the prevention of AIDS virus…

  18. Tissue-specific laser microdissection of the Brassica napus funiculus improves gene discovery and spatial identification of biological processes.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ainsley C; Khan, Deirdre; Girard, Ian J; Becker, Michael G; Millar, Jenna L; Sytnik, David; Belmonte, Mark F

    2016-05-01

    The three primary tissue systems of the funiculus each undergo unique developmental programs to support the growth and development of the filial seed. To understand the underlying transcriptional mechanisms that orchestrate development of the funiculus at the globular embryonic stage of seed development, we used laser microdissection coupled with RNA-sequencing to produce a high-resolution dataset of the mRNAs present in the epidermis, cortex, and vasculature of the Brassica napus (canola) funiculus. We identified 7761 additional genes in these tissues compared with the whole funiculus organ alone using this technology. Differential expression and enrichment analyses were used to identify several biological processes associated with each tissue system. Our data show that cell wall modification and lipid metabolism are prominent in the epidermis, cell growth and modification occur in the cortex, and vascular tissue proliferation and differentiation occur in the central vascular strand. We provide further evidence that each of the three tissue systems of the globular stage funiculus are involved in specific biological processes that all co-ordinate to support seed development. The identification of genes and gene regulators responsible for tissue-specific developmental processes of the canola funiculus now serves as a valuable resource for seed improvement research. PMID:27194740

  19. Cell output, cell cycle duration and neuronal specification: a model of integrated mechanisms of the neocortical proliferative process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caviness, V. S. Jr; Goto, T.; Tarui, T.; Takahashi, T.; Bhide, P. G.; Nowakowski, R. S.

    2003-01-01

    The neurons of the neocortex are generated over a 6 day neuronogenetic interval that comprises 11 cell cycles. During these 11 cell cycles, the length of cell cycle increases and the proportion of cells that exits (Q) versus re-enters (P) the cell cycle changes systematically. At the same time, the fate of the neurons produced at each of the 11 cell cycles appears to be specified at least in terms of their laminar destination. As a first step towards determining the causal interrelationships of the proliferative process with the process of laminar specification, we present a two-pronged approach. This consists of (i) a mathematical model that integrates the output of the proliferative process with the laminar fate of the output and predicts the effects of induced changes in Q and P during the neuronogenetic interval on the developing and mature cortex and (ii) an experimental system that allows the manipulation of Q and P in vivo. Here we show that the predictions of the model and the results of the experiments agree. The results indicate that events affecting the output of the proliferative population affect both the number of neurons produced and their specification with regard to their laminar fate.

  20. Tissue-specific laser microdissection of the Brassica napus funiculus improves gene discovery and spatial identification of biological processes

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ainsley C.; Khan, Deirdre; Girard, Ian J.; Becker, Michael G.; Millar, Jenna L.; Sytnik, David; Belmonte, Mark F.

    2016-01-01

    The three primary tissue systems of the funiculus each undergo unique developmental programs to support the growth and development of the filial seed. To understand the underlying transcriptional mechanisms that orchestrate development of the funiculus at the globular embryonic stage of seed development, we used laser microdissection coupled with RNA-sequencing to produce a high-resolution dataset of the mRNAs present in the epidermis, cortex, and vasculature of the Brassica napus (canola) funiculus. We identified 7761 additional genes in these tissues compared with the whole funiculus organ alone using this technology. Differential expression and enrichment analyses were used to identify several biological processes associated with each tissue system. Our data show that cell wall modification and lipid metabolism are prominent in the epidermis, cell growth and modification occur in the cortex, and vascular tissue proliferation and differentiation occur in the central vascular strand. We provide further evidence that each of the three tissue systems of the globular stage funiculus are involved in specific biological processes that all co-ordinate to support seed development. The identification of genes and gene regulators responsible for tissue-specific developmental processes of the canola funiculus now serves as a valuable resource for seed improvement research. PMID:27194740

  1. Purification and substrate specificities of a fructanase from Kluyveromyces marxianus isolated from the fermentation process of Mezcal.

    PubMed

    Arrizon, Javier; Morel, Sandrine; Gschaedler, Anne; Monsan, Pierre

    2011-02-01

    A fructanase, produced by a Kluyveromyces marxianus strain isolated during the fermentation step of the elaboration process of "Mezcal de Guerrero" was purified and biochemically characterized. The active protein was a glycosylated dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 250 kDa. The specific enzymatic activity of the protein was determined for different substrates: sucrose, inulin, Agave tequilana fructan, levan and Actilight® and compared with the activity of Fructozyme®. The hydrolysis profile of the different substrates analyzed by HPAEC-PAD showed that the enzyme has different affinities over the substrates tested with a sucrose/inulin enzymatic activity ratio (S/I) of 125. For the hydrolysis of Agave tequilana fructans, the enzyme also showed a higher enzymatic activity and specificity than Fructozyme®, which is important for its potential application in the tequila industry.

  2. Purification and substrate specificities of a fructanase from Kluyveromyces marxianus isolated from the fermentation process of Mezcal.

    PubMed

    Arrizon, Javier; Morel, Sandrine; Gschaedler, Anne; Monsan, Pierre

    2011-02-01

    A fructanase, produced by a Kluyveromyces marxianus strain isolated during the fermentation step of the elaboration process of "Mezcal de Guerrero" was purified and biochemically characterized. The active protein was a glycosylated dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 250 kDa. The specific enzymatic activity of the protein was determined for different substrates: sucrose, inulin, Agave tequilana fructan, levan and Actilight® and compared with the activity of Fructozyme®. The hydrolysis profile of the different substrates analyzed by HPAEC-PAD showed that the enzyme has different affinities over the substrates tested with a sucrose/inulin enzymatic activity ratio (S/I) of 125. For the hydrolysis of Agave tequilana fructans, the enzyme also showed a higher enzymatic activity and specificity than Fructozyme®, which is important for its potential application in the tequila industry. PMID:21067917

  3. Auditory processing and speech perception in children with specific language impairment: relations with oral language and literacy skills.

    PubMed

    Vandewalle, Ellen; Boets, Bart; Ghesquière, Pol; Zink, Inge

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated temporal auditory processing (frequency modulation and between-channel gap detection) and speech perception (speech-in-noise and categorical perception) in three groups of 6 years 3 months to 6 years 8 months-old children attending grade 1: (1) children with specific language impairment (SLI) and literacy delay (n = 8), (2) children with SLI and normal literacy (n = 10) and (3) typically developing children (n = 14). Moreover, the relations between these auditory processing and speech perception skills and oral language and literacy skills in grade 1 and grade 3 were analyzed. The SLI group with literacy delay scored significantly lower than both other groups on speech perception, but not on temporal auditory processing. Both normal reading groups did not differ in terms of speech perception or auditory processing. Speech perception was significantly related to reading and spelling in grades 1 and 3 and had a unique predictive contribution to reading growth in grade 3, even after controlling reading level, phonological ability, auditory processing and oral language skills in grade 1. These findings indicated that speech perception also had a unique direct impact upon reading development and not only through its relation with phonological awareness. Moreover, speech perception seemed to be more associated with the development of literacy skills and less with oral language ability. PMID:22155538

  4. A New Short Oligonucleotide-Based Strategy for the Precursor-Specific Regulation of microRNA Processing by Dicer

    PubMed Central

    Kurzynska-Kokorniak, Anna; Koralewska, Natalia; Tyczewska, Agata; Twardowski, Tomasz; Figlerowicz, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The precise regulation of microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis seems to be critically important for the proper functioning of all eukaryotic organisms. Even small changes in the levels of specific miRNAs can initiate pathological processes, including carcinogenesis. Accordingly, there is a great need to develop effective methods for the regulation of miRNA biogenesis and activity. In this study, we focused on the final step of miRNA biogenesis; i.e., miRNA processing by Dicer. To test our hypothesis that RNA molecules can function not only as Dicer substrates but also as Dicer regulators, we previously identified by SELEX a pool of RNA oligomers that bind to human Dicer. We found that certain of these RNA oligomers could selectively inhibit the formation of specific miRNAs. Here, we show that these specific inhibitors can simultaneously bind both Dicer and pre-miRNAs. These bifunctional riboregulators interfere with miRNA maturation by affecting pre-miRNA structure and sequestering Dicer. Based on these observations, we designed a set of short oligomers (12 nucleotides long) that were capable of influencing pre-miRNA processing in vitro, both in reactions involving recombinant human Dicer and in cytosolic extracts. We propose that the same strategy may be used to develop effective and selective regulators to control the production of any miRNA. Overall, our findings indicate that the interactions between pre-miRNAs and other RNAs may form very complex regulatory networks that modulate miRNA biogenesis and consequently gene expression. PMID:24204924

  5. Measuring the specific surface area of natural and manmade glasses: effects of formation process, morphology, and particle size

    SciTech Connect

    Papelis, Charalambos; Um, Wooyong; Russel, Charles E.; Chapman, Jenny B.

    2003-03-28

    The specific surface area of natural and manmade solid materials is a key parameter controlling important interfacial processes in natural environments and engineered systems, including dissolution reactions and sorption processes at solid-fluid interfaces. To improve our ability to quantify the release of trace elements trapped in natural glasses, the release of hazardous compounds trapped in manmade glasses, or the release of radionuclides from nuclear melt glass, we measured the specific surface area of natural and manmade glasses as a function of particle size, morphology, and composition. Volcanic ash, volcanic tuff, tektites, obsidian glass, and in situ vitrified rock were analyzed. Specific surface area estimates were obtained using krypton as gas adsorbent and the BET model. The range of surface areas measured exceeded three orders of magnitude. A tektite sample had the highest surface area (1.65 m2/g), while one of the samples of in situ vitrified rock had the lowest surf ace area (0.0016 m2/g). The specific surface area of the samples was a function of particle size, decreasing with increasing particle size. Different types of materials, however, showed variable dependence on particle size, and could be assigned to one of three distinct groups: (1) samples with low surface area dependence on particle size and surface areas approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the surface area of smooth spheres of equivalent size. The specific surface area of these materials was attributed mostly to internal porosity and surface roughness. (2) samples that showed a trend of decreasing surface area dependence on particle size as the particle size increased. The minimum specific surface area of these materials was between 0.1 and 0.01 m2/g and was also attributed to internal porosity and surface roughness. (3) samples whose surface area showed a monotonic decrease with increasing particle size, never reaching an ultimate surface area limit within the particle

  6. Developing a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model Knowledgebase in Support of Provisional Model Construction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for chemicals can be resource-intensive, as neither chemical-specific parameters nor in vivo pharmacokinetic data are easily available for model construction. Previously developed, well-parameterized, and thoroughly-v...

  7. Host Ranges of Listeria-Specific Bacteriophages from the Turkey Processing Plant Environment in the United States ▿

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Won; Siletzky, Robin M.; Kathariou, Sophia

    2008-01-01

    Even though at least 400 Listeria phages have been isolated from various sources, limited information is available on phages from the food processing plant environment. Phages in the processing plant environment may play critical roles in determining the Listeria population that becomes established in the plant. In this study, we pursued the isolation of Listeria-specific phages from environmental samples from four turkey processing plants in the United States. These environmental samples were also utilized to isolate Listeria spp. Twelve phages were isolated and classified into three groups in terms of their host range. Of these, nine (group 1) showed a wide host range, including multiple serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes, as well as other Listeria spp. (L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri, and L. ivanovii). The remaining phages mostly infected L. monocytogenes serotype 4b as well as L. innocua, L. ivanovii, and/or L. welshimeri. All but one of the strains of the serotype 4b complex (4b, 4d, 4e) from the processing plant environment could be readily infected by the wide-host-range phages isolated from the environment of the processing plants. However, many strains of other serotypes (1/2a [or 3a] and 1/2b [or 3b]), which represented the majority of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from the environmental samples, were resistant to infection by these phages. Experiments with two phage-resistant strains showed reduced phage adsorption onto the host cells. These findings suggest that phage resistance may be an important component of the ecology of L. monocytogenes in the turkey processing plants. PMID:18791016

  8. Input-based structure-specific proficiency predicts the neural mechanism of adult L2 syntactic processing.

    PubMed

    Deng, Taiping; Zhou, Huixia; Bi, Hong-Yan; Chen, Baoguo

    2015-06-12

    This study used Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to explore the role of input-based structure-specific proficiency in L2 syntactic processing, using English subject-verb agreement structures as the stimuli. A pre-test/trainings/post-test paradigm of experimental and control groups was employed, and Chinese speakers who learned English as a second language (L2) participated in the experiment. At pre-test, no ERP component related to the subject-verb agreement structures violations was observed in either group. At training session, the experimental group learned the subject-verb agreement structures, while the control group learned other syntactic structures. After two continuously intensive input trainings, at post-test, a significant P600 component related to the subject-verb agreement structures violations was elicited in the experimental group, but not in the control group. These findings suggest that input training improves structure-specific proficiency, which is reflected in the neural mechanism of L2 syntactic processing.

  9. Individual differences in the time course of reward processing: Stage-specific links with depression and impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Novak, Brittni K; Novak, Keisha D; Lynam, Donald R; Foti, Dan

    2016-09-01

    Reward dysfunction has been implicated in a wide range of psychological disorders, including internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Basic neuroscience research has shown that reward is a multistage process, yet it is unclear how specific stages relate to individual differences in reward sensitivity. The current study utilized event-related potentials elicited during a monetary incentive task to parse sub-stages within anticipatory and consummatory reward processing. Effects of depressive symptoms and trait impulsivity were examined at each sub-stage (N=92). Reward anticipation modulated neural activity across three sub-stages: cue detection (cue-P3), approach behavior (contingent negative variation, CNV), and outcome anticipation (stimulus preceding negativity). Reward delivery modulated activity across two sub-stages: initial evaluation (reward positivity, RewP), and allocation of attention (feedback-P3). Sensation seeking predicted faster reaction times, as well as cue-P3 and RewP amplitudes. Depression and lack of premeditation interacted to predict CNV and RewP amplitudes. Results demonstrate that individual differences in reward functioning are stage-specific.

  10. Synapse-specific stabilization of plasticity processes: the synaptic tagging and capture hypothesis revisited 10 years later.

    PubMed

    Barco, Angel; Lopez de Armentia, Mikel; Alarcon, Juan M

    2008-01-01

    A decade ago, the synaptic tagging hypothesis was proposed to explain how newly synthesized plasticity products can be specifically targeted to active synapses. A growing number of studies have validated the seminal findings that gave rise to this model, as well as contributed to unveil and expand the range of mechanisms underlying late-associativity and neuronal computation. Here, we will review what it was learnt during this past decade regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic tagging and synaptic capture. The accumulated experimental evidence has widened the theoretical framework set by the synaptic tagging and capture (STC) model and introduced concepts that were originally considered part of alternative models for explaining synapse-specific long-term potentiation (LTP). As a result, we believe that the STC model, now improved and expanded with these new ideas and concepts, still represents the most compelling hypothesis to explain late-associativity in synapse-specific plasticity processes. We will also discuss the impact of this model in our view of the integrative capability of neurons and associative learning. PMID:18281094

  11. 77 FR 1040 - Provisional Waivers of Inadmissibility for Certain Immediate Relatives of U.S. Citizens

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... unlawful presence in the United States, comprise one such ground. Typically, under current processes... period of unlawful presence in the United States. This revised process, which eliminates the time... days of unlawful presence in the United States, and terrorism. The grounds of......

  12. Predictive Models for Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Spread Dynamics, Considering Frankliniella occidentalis Specific Life Processes as Influenced by the Virus.

    PubMed

    Ogada, Pamella Akoth; Moualeu, Dany Pascal; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Several models have been studied on predictive epidemics of arthropod vectored plant viruses in an attempt to bring understanding to the complex but specific relationship between the three cornered pathosystem (virus, vector and host plant), as well as their interactions with the environment. A large body of studies mainly focuses on weather based models as management tool for monitoring pests and diseases, with very few incorporating the contribution of vector's life processes in the disease dynamics, which is an essential aspect when mitigating virus incidences in a crop stand. In this study, we hypothesized that the multiplication and spread of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in a crop stand is strongly related to its influences on Frankliniella occidentalis preferential behavior and life expectancy. Model dynamics of important aspects in disease development within TSWV-F. occidentalis-host plant interactions were developed, focusing on F. occidentalis' life processes as influenced by TSWV. The results show that the influence of TSWV on F. occidentalis preferential behaviour leads to an estimated increase in relative acquisition rate of the virus, and up to 33% increase in transmission rate to healthy plants. Also, increased life expectancy; which relates to improved fitness, is dependent on the virus induced preferential behaviour, consequently promoting multiplication and spread of the virus in a crop stand. The development of vector-based models could further help in elucidating the role of tri-trophic interactions in agricultural disease systems. Use of the model to examine the components of the disease process could also boost our understanding on how specific epidemiological characteristics interact to cause diseases in crops. With this level of understanding we can efficiently develop more precise control strategies for the virus and the vector.

  13. Predictive Models for Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Spread Dynamics, Considering Frankliniella occidentalis Specific Life Processes as Influenced by the Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ogada, Pamella Akoth; Moualeu, Dany Pascal; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Several models have been studied on predictive epidemics of arthropod vectored plant viruses in an attempt to bring understanding to the complex but specific relationship between the three cornered pathosystem (virus, vector and host plant), as well as their interactions with the environment. A large body of studies mainly focuses on weather based models as management tool for monitoring pests and diseases, with very few incorporating the contribution of vector’s life processes in the disease dynamics, which is an essential aspect when mitigating virus incidences in a crop stand. In this study, we hypothesized that the multiplication and spread of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in a crop stand is strongly related to its influences on Frankliniella occidentalis preferential behavior and life expectancy. Model dynamics of important aspects in disease development within TSWV-F. occidentalis-host plant interactions were developed, focusing on F. occidentalis’ life processes as influenced by TSWV. The results show that the influence of TSWV on F. occidentalis preferential behaviour leads to an estimated increase in relative acquisition rate of the virus, and up to 33% increase in transmission rate to healthy plants. Also, increased life expectancy; which relates to improved fitness, is dependent on the virus induced preferential behaviour, consequently promoting multiplication and spread of the virus in a crop stand. The development of vector–based models could further help in elucidating the role of tri-trophic interactions in agricultural disease systems. Use of the model to examine the components of the disease process could also boost our understanding on how specific epidemiological characteristics interact to cause diseases in crops. With this level of understanding we can efficiently develop more precise control strategies for the virus and the vector. PMID:27159134

  14. Predictive Models for Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Spread Dynamics, Considering Frankliniella occidentalis Specific Life Processes as Influenced by the Virus.

    PubMed

    Ogada, Pamella Akoth; Moualeu, Dany Pascal; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Several models have been studied on predictive epidemics of arthropod vectored plant viruses in an attempt to bring understanding to the complex but specific relationship between the three cornered pathosystem (virus, vector and host plant), as well as their interactions with the environment. A large body of studies mainly focuses on weather based models as management tool for monitoring pests and diseases, with very few incorporating the contribution of vector's life processes in the disease dynamics, which is an essential aspect when mitigating virus incidences in a crop stand. In this study, we hypothesized that the multiplication and spread of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in a crop stand is strongly related to its influences on Frankliniella occidentalis preferential behavior and life expectancy. Model dynamics of important aspects in disease development within TSWV-F. occidentalis-host plant interactions were developed, focusing on F. occidentalis' life processes as influenced by TSWV. The results show that the influence of TSWV on F. occidentalis preferential behaviour leads to an estimated increase in relative acquisition rate of the virus, and up to 33% increase in transmission rate to healthy plants. Also, increased life expectancy; which relates to improved fitness, is dependent on the virus induced preferential behaviour, consequently promoting multiplication and spread of the virus in a crop stand. The development of vector-based models could further help in elucidating the role of tri-trophic interactions in agricultural disease systems. Use of the model to examine the components of the disease process could also boost our understanding on how specific epidemiological characteristics interact to cause diseases in crops. With this level of understanding we can efficiently develop more precise control strategies for the virus and the vector. PMID:27159134

  15. Effect of the sand grain specific surface area on the performance of the tube in-situ combustion process

    SciTech Connect

    Vossoughi, S.; Bartlett, G.; Wilhite, G.P.

    1982-09-01

    The influence of the porous matrix on in-situ combustion has been recognized by many investigators as an important part of the process. Clays are of particular interest because they are abundant in sandstones and affect the combustion process through two mechanisms: large surface area per unit mass and catalytic properties. This study concerns surface area effects on in-situ combustion. Catalytic effects were excluded by conducting experiments using silica sand with variable specific surface area as the porous medium. Studies were made using an in-situ combustion tube and thermogravimetric analysis. In-situ combustion tube runs were made with silica sands of different grain sizes. Specific surface area ranged from 76 to 3332 cm/sup 2//g. This corresponds to average sand particle diameters ranging from 210 to 7.3 microns respectively. All the other variables were kept constant. The combustion front was not self-sustained at low surface area. A strong, sustained combustion front was observed at high surface area. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) was applied to the samples taken at 1 to 2 inch intervals ahead of the front to study crude oil distribution. In the case of unsuccessful runs, the amount of the crude oil ahead of the front decreased to a level that sufficient fuel could not be laid down to sustain the front. In the self-sustained run (highest surface area) crude oil content immediately ahead of the front was even higher than the original sand/oil mixture. Therefore a minimum surface area is required to provide conditions for sufficient fuel to be laid down by coking process.

  16. 7 CFR 1720.6 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... application to the Secretary; (2) The application is screened by RUS pursuant to 7 CFR 1720.7(a) of this part... the selection criteria set forth in 7 CFR 1720.7(b) of this part; (4) If RUS provisionally approves... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application process. 1720.6 Section...

  17. Developing a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model Knowledgebase in Support of Provisional Model Construction - poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building new physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models requires a lot data, such as the chemical-specific parameters and in vivo pharmacokinetic data. Previously-developed, well-parameterized, and thoroughly-vetted models can be great resource for supporting the constr...

  18. From ergonomics to design specifications: contributions to the design of a processing machine in a tire company.

    PubMed

    Moraes, A S P; Arezes, P M; Vasconcelos, R

    2012-01-01

    The development of ergonomics' recommendations, guidelines and standards are attempts to promote the integration of ergonomics into industrial contexts. Such developments result from several sources and professionals and represent the effort that has been done to develop healthier and safer work environments. However, the availability of large amount of data and documents regarding ergonomics does not guarantee their applicability. The main goal of this paper is to use a specific case to demonstrate how ergonomics criteria were developed in order to contribute to the design of workplaces. Based on the obtained results from research undertaken in a tire company, it was observed that the ergonomics criteria should be presented as design specifications in order to be used by engineers and designers. In conclusion, it is observed that the multiple constraint environment impeded the appliance of the ergonomics criteria. It was also observed that the knowledge on technical design and the acquaintance with ergonomic standards, the level of integration in the design team, and the ability to communicate with workers and other technical staff have paramount importance in integrating ergonomics criteria into the design process.

  19. Does Structured Quizzing with Process Specific Feedback Lead to Learning Gains in an Active Learning Geoscience Classroom?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palsole, S.; Serpa, L. F.

    2013-12-01

    There is a great realization that efficient teaching in the geosciences has the potential to have far reaching effects in outreach to decision and policy makers (Herbert, 2006; Manduca & Mogk, 2006). This research in turn informs educators that the geosciences by the virtue of their highly integrative nature play an important role in serving as an entry point into STEM disciplines and helping developing a new cadre of geoscientists, scientists and a general population with an understanding of science. Keeping these goals in mind we set to design introductory geoscience courses for non-majors and majors that move away from the traditional lecture models which don't necessarily contribute well to knowledge building and retention ((Handelsman et al., 2007; Hake, 1997) to a blended active learning classroom where basic concepts and didactic information is acquired online via webquests, lecturettes and virtual field trips and the face to face portions of the class are focused on problem solving exercises. The traditional way to ensure that students are prepared for the in-class activity is to have the students take a quiz online to demonstrate basic competency. In the process of redesign, we decided to leverage the technology to build quizzes that are highly structured and map to a process (formation of divergent boundaries for example) or sets of earth processes that we needed the students to know before in-class activities. The quizzes can be taken multiple times and provide process specific feedback, thus serving as a heuristic to the students to ensure they have acquired the necessary competency. The heuristic quizzes were developed and deployed over a year with the student data driving the redesign process to ensure synchronicity. Preliminary data analysis indicates a positive correlation between higher student scores on in-class application exercises and time spent on the process quizzes. An assessment of learning gains also indicate a higher degree of self

  20. Sex-specific strategy use and global-local processing: a perspective toward integrating sex differences in cognition.

    PubMed

    Pletzer, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on sex-specific strategy use in cognitive tasks with the aim to carve out a link between sex differences in different cognitive tasks. I conclude that male strategies are commonly holistic and oriented toward global stimulus aspects, while female strategies are commonly decomposed and oriented toward local stimulus aspects. Thus, the strategies observed in different tasks, may depend on sex differences in attentional focus and hence sex differences in global-local processing. I hypothesize that strategy use may be sex hormone dependent and hence subject to change over the menstrual cycle as evidenced by findings in global-local processing and emotional memory. Furthermore, I propose sex hormonal modulation of hemispheric asymmetries as one possible neural substrate for this theory, thereby building on older theories, emphasizing the importance of sex differences in brain lateralization. The ideas described in the current article represent a perspective toward a unifying approach to the study of sex differences in cognition and their neural correlates.

  1. The adaptive metabolic response involves specific protein glutathionylation during the filamentation process in the pathogen Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Gergondey, R; Garcia, C; Serre, V; Camadro, J M; Auchère, F

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunist pathogen responsible for a large spectrum of infections, from superficial mycosis to the systemic disease candidiasis. Its ability to adopt various morphological forms, such as unicellular yeasts, filamentous pseudohyphae and hyphae, contributes to its ability to survive within the host. It has been suggested that the antioxidant glutathione is involved in the filamentation process. We investigated S-glutathionylation, the reversible binding of glutathione to proteins, and the functional consequences on C. albicans metabolic remodeling during the yeast-to-hyphae transition. Our work provided evidence for the specific glutathionylation of mitochondrial proteins involved in bioenergetics pathways in filamentous forms and a regulation of the main enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle, isocitrate lyase, by glutathionylation. Isocitrate lyase inactivation in the hyphal forms was reversed by glutaredoxin treatment, in agreement with a glutathionylation process, which was confirmed by proteomic data showing the binding of one glutathione molecule to the enzyme (data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003685). We also assessed the effect of alternative carbon sources on glutathione levels and isocitrate lyase activity. Changes in nutrient availability led to morphological flexibility and were related to perturbations in glutathione levels and isocitrate lyase activity, confirming the key role of the maintenance of intracellular redox status in the adaptive metabolic strategy of the pathogen.

  2. The adaptive metabolic response involves specific protein glutathionylation during the filamentation process in the pathogen Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Gergondey, R; Garcia, C; Serre, V; Camadro, J M; Auchère, F

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunist pathogen responsible for a large spectrum of infections, from superficial mycosis to the systemic disease candidiasis. Its ability to adopt various morphological forms, such as unicellular yeasts, filamentous pseudohyphae and hyphae, contributes to its ability to survive within the host. It has been suggested that the antioxidant glutathione is involved in the filamentation process. We investigated S-glutathionylation, the reversible binding of glutathione to proteins, and the functional consequences on C. albicans metabolic remodeling during the yeast-to-hyphae transition. Our work provided evidence for the specific glutathionylation of mitochondrial proteins involved in bioenergetics pathways in filamentous forms and a regulation of the main enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle, isocitrate lyase, by glutathionylation. Isocitrate lyase inactivation in the hyphal forms was reversed by glutaredoxin treatment, in agreement with a glutathionylation process, which was confirmed by proteomic data showing the binding of one glutathione molecule to the enzyme (data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003685). We also assessed the effect of alternative carbon sources on glutathione levels and isocitrate lyase activity. Changes in nutrient availability led to morphological flexibility and were related to perturbations in glutathione levels and isocitrate lyase activity, confirming the key role of the maintenance of intracellular redox status in the adaptive metabolic strategy of the pathogen. PMID:27083931

  3. Standards and Specifications for Ground Processing of Space Vehicles: From an Aviation-Based Shuttle Project to Global Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingalls, John; Cipolletti, John

    2011-01-01

    Proprietary or unique designs and operations are expected early in any industry's development, and often provide a competitive early market advantage. However, there comes a time when a product or industry requires standardization for the whole industry to advance...or survive. For the space industry, that time has come. Here, we will focus on standardization of ground processing for space vehicles and their ground systems. With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, and emergence of a new global space race, affordability and sustainability are more important now than ever. The growing commercialization of the space industry and current global economic environment are driving greater need for efficiencies to save time and money. More RLV's (Reusable Launch Vehicles) are being developed for the gains of reusability not achievable with traditional ELV's (Expendable Launch Vehicles). More crew/passenger vehicles are also being developed. All of this calls for more attention needed for ground processing-repeatedly before launch and after landing/recovery. RLV's should provide more efficiencies than ELV's, as long as MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul) is well-planned-even for the unplanned problems. NASA's Space Shuttle is a primary example of an RLV which was supposed to thrive on reusability savings with efficient ground operations, but lessons learned show that costs were (and still are) much greater than expected. International standards and specifications can provide the commonality needed to simplify design and manufacturing as well as to improve safety, quality, maintenance, and operability. There are standards organizations engaged in the space industry, but ground processing is one of the areas least addressed. Challenges are encountered due to various factors often not considered during development. Multiple vehicle elements, sites, customers, and contractors pose various functional and integration difficulties. Resulting technical publication structures

  4. A measure for provisional-and-urgent sanitary improvement in developing countries: septic-tank performance improvement.

    PubMed

    Harada, H; Dong, N T; Matsui, S

    2008-01-01

    Although many cities have planed to develop sewerages in developing countries, sewerage establishment still requires huge investment and engineering efforts. Improvement of existing sanitation facilities may contribute the betterment of urban sanitation before sewerage establishment. The purpose of this study is to propose a measure to improve urban sanitation in areas where a sewerage development plan is proposed but has not been yet established, based on a case study in Hanoi, Vietnam. We found that 90.5% of human excreta flowed into septic tanks. However, 89.6% of septic tanks have never been desludged in the past and their performance was observed to be at a low level. The study also showed that if they introduce regular desludging with a frequency of once a year, they can eliminate 72.8% of COD loads from septic tanks. It was indicated that the performance can be dramatically recovered by regular desludging, which could contribute urban sanitation improvement in Hanoi. In conclusion, the performance recovery of septic tanks by regular desludging was proposed as a provisional-and-urgent measure for urban sanitation improvement, together with the septage treatment in sewage sludge treatment facilities, which should be established earlier than other facilities of sewage treatment systems.

  5. Geographical distribution of indoor radon and related geological characteristics in Bonghwa County, a provisional radon-prone area in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, E R; Chang, B U; Kim, H J; Song, M H; Kim, Y J

    2015-12-01

    The detailed indoor radon survey was conducted during a year (from September 2012 to August 2013) quarterly in Bonghwa county, one of the provisional radon-prone areas in Korea. The surveyed area was selected on the basis of previously conducted nationwide radon survey results. In order to minimise statistical and environmental uncertainties, ∼3 % of the entire dwellings were carefully selected based on the statistical annual report of Bonghwa county. The measurement is carried out by using solid-state nuclear track detector. The range of indoor radon concentration in each dwelling was 4.36-858 Bq m(-3) and that of annual effective dose due to inhaled radon of the resident in each dwelling was 0.19-23.5 mSv y(-1). Each dwelling was determined for geology criterion using one-way Analysis of Variance for the purpose of comparing indoor radon distribution with geology. Geographical distribution of indoor radon is closely related to the geological characteristics of basement rocks. In addition, the comparison between geographical distribution of indoor radon and terrestrial gamma radiation was done.

  6. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INSULIN-RESISTANCE PROCESSING SPEED AND SPECIFIC EXECUTIVE FUNCTION PROFILES IN NEUROLOGICALLY-INTACT OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Darvis T.; Bettcher, Brianne M.; Dutt, Shubir; Patel, Nihar; Mungas, Dan; Miller, Joshua; Green, Ralph; Kramer, Joel H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the relationship between insulin-resistance and constituent components of executive function in a sample of neurologically-intact older adult subjects using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and latent factors of working memory, cognitive control and processing speed derived from confirmatory factor analysis. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), along with body mass index (BMI) and white matter hypointensity (WMH) were used to control for vascular risk factors, adiposity and cerebrovascular injury. Methods The study included 119 elderly subjects recruited from the University of California, San Francisco Memory and Aging Center. Subjects underwent neuropsychological assessment, fasting blood draw and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Partial correlations and linear regression models were used to examine the HOMA-IR-executive function relationship. Results Pearson correlation adjusting for age showed a significant relationship between HOMA-IR and working memory (rp=−.18, p=.047), a trend with cognitive control (rp=−.17, p=.068), and no relationship with processing speed (rp=.013, p=.892). Linear regression models adjusting for demographic factors (age, education and gender), LDL, MAP, BMI and WMH indicated that HOMA-IR was negatively associated with cognitive control (r=−.256; p=.026) and working memory (r=−.234; p=.054). Conclusions These results suggest a greater level of peripheral insulin-resistance is associated with decreased cognitive control and working memory. After controlling for demographic factors, vascular risk, adiposity and cerebrovascular injury, HOMA-IR remained significantly associated with cognitive control, with working memory showing a trend. These findings substantiate the insulin-resistance-executive function hypothesis and suggest a complex interaction, demonstrated by the differential impact of insulin-resistance on processing speed and specific aspects of

  7. Comparison of temperature rise in pulp chamber during polymerization of materials used for direct fabrication of provisional restorations: An in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Khajuria, Rajat R.; Madan, Ravi; Agarwal, Swatantra; Gupta, Reecha; Vadavadgi, Sunil V.; Sharma, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose is to compare temperature rise in the pulp chamber during fabrication of provisional crowns using different materials and on different types of teeth using direct technique. Materials and Methods: An extracted, sound, caries free maxillary central incisor and a mandibular molar were selected for the study and crown preparations of all ceramic and all metal were done on central incisor and mandibular molar, respectively. Materials tested were DPI tooth molding self-curing material and protemp-4. Addition silicone putty was used as a matrix and 80 provisional crowns were fabricated, of which 40 were on central incisor and 40 on mandibular molar. Depending on the type of material used, they were further divided into two subgroups: Each comprising 20 provisional crowns. Temperature readings were recorded using K type of thermocouple with 0.1°C precision digital thermometer. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis of variance, Tukey honest significant difference and Kruskall–Wallis H-test. Results: Statistically significant difference exists between two materials tested on the basis of peak temperature achieved and time taken by a particular material to reach peak temperature. Peak temperature achieved was highest for provisional crowns with DPI tooth molding self-curing material on maxillary central incisor (40.39 + 0.46), followed by DPI tooth molding self-curing material on mandibular molar (40.03 + 0.32), protemp-4 on maxillary central incisor (39.46 + 0.26) and least with protemp-4 on mandibular molar (39.09 + 0.33). The time taken to reach peak temperature was almost double in DPI tooth molding self-curing material (5 min) than in protemp-4. Conclusion: Polymethyl methacrylate resin produced higher intra-pulpal rise when compared to newer generation bis-acrylic composite. PMID:26038649

  8. A historical review of nomenclature and high-level classification of praying mantises (Mantodea), including a provisional checklist of the names associated to suprageneric ranks.

    PubMed

    Roy, Roger

    2014-05-21

    The history of high-level classification of praying mantids is presented. The various historical stages that helped to construct our current knowledge on Mantodea taxonomy and systematic are highlighted through an extensive literature review, from pre-Linnaean times to the present. A provisional checklist of the names associated to suprageneric ranks (family, subfamily and tribe) is also provided, in addition to some remarks on the future efforts that need to be conducted in Mantodea research.

  9. Derivation of a Provisional, Age-dependent, AIS2+ Thoracic Risk Curve for the THOR50 Test Dummy via Integration of NASS Cases, PMHS Tests, and Simulation Data.

    PubMed

    Laituri, Tony R; Henry, Scott; El-Jawahri, Raed; Muralidharan, Nirmal; Li, Guosong; Nutt, Marvin

    2015-11-01

    A provisional, age-dependent thoracic risk equation (or, "risk curve") was derived to estimate moderate-to-fatal injury potential (AIS2+), pertaining to men with responses gaged by the advanced mid-sized male test dummy (THOR50). The derivation involved two distinct data sources: cases from real-world crashes (e.g., the National Automotive Sampling System, NASS) and cases involving post-mortem human subjects (PMHS). The derivation was therefore more comprehensive, as NASS datasets generally skew towards younger occupants, and PMHS datasets generally skew towards older occupants. However, known deficiencies had to be addressed (e.g., the NASS cases had unknown stimuli, and the PMHS tests required transformation of known stimuli into THOR50 stimuli). For the NASS portion of the analysis, chest-injury outcomes for adult male drivers about the size of the THOR50 were collected from real-world, 11-1 o'clock, full-engagement frontal crashes (NASS, 1995-2012 calendar years, 1985-2012 model-year light passenger vehicles). The screening for THOR50-sized men involved application of a set of newly-derived "correction" equations for self-reported height and weight data in NASS. Finally, THOR50 stimuli were estimated via field simulations involving attendant representative restraint systems, and those stimuli were then assigned to corresponding NASS cases (n=508). For the PMHS portion of the analysis, simulation-based closure equations were developed to convert PMHS stimuli into THOR50 stimuli. Specifically, closure equations were derived for the four measurement locations on the THOR50 chest by cross-correlating the results of matched-loading simulations between the test dummy and the age-dependent, Ford Human Body Model. The resulting closure equations demonstrated acceptable fidelity (n=75 matched simulations, R2≥0.99). These equations were applied to the THOR50-sized men in the PMHS dataset (n=20). The NASS and PMHS datasets were combined and subjected to survival

  10. Derivation of a Provisional, Age-dependent, AIS2+ Thoracic Risk Curve for the THOR50 Test Dummy via Integration of NASS Cases, PMHS Tests, and Simulation Data.

    PubMed

    Laituri, Tony R; Henry, Scott; El-Jawahri, Raed; Muralidharan, Nirmal; Li, Guosong; Nutt, Marvin

    2015-11-01

    A provisional, age-dependent thoracic risk equation (or, "risk curve") was derived to estimate moderate-to-fatal injury potential (AIS2+), pertaining to men with responses gaged by the advanced mid-sized male test dummy (THOR50). The derivation involved two distinct data sources: cases from real-world crashes (e.g., the National Automotive Sampling System, NASS) and cases involving post-mortem human subjects (PMHS). The derivation was therefore more comprehensive, as NASS datasets generally skew towards younger occupants, and PMHS datasets generally skew towards older occupants. However, known deficiencies had to be addressed (e.g., the NASS cases had unknown stimuli, and the PMHS tests required transformation of known stimuli into THOR50 stimuli). For the NASS portion of the analysis, chest-injury outcomes for adult male drivers about the size of the THOR50 were collected from real-world, 11-1 o'clock, full-engagement frontal crashes (NASS, 1995-2012 calendar years, 1985-2012 model-year light passenger vehicles). The screening for THOR50-sized men involved application of a set of newly-derived "correction" equations for self-reported height and weight data in NASS. Finally, THOR50 stimuli were estimated via field simulations involving attendant representative restraint systems, and those stimuli were then assigned to corresponding NASS cases (n=508). For the PMHS portion of the analysis, simulation-based closure equations were developed to convert PMHS stimuli into THOR50 stimuli. Specifically, closure equations were derived for the four measurement locations on the THOR50 chest by cross-correlating the results of matched-loading simulations between the test dummy and the age-dependent, Ford Human Body Model. The resulting closure equations demonstrated acceptable fidelity (n=75 matched simulations, R2≥0.99). These equations were applied to the THOR50-sized men in the PMHS dataset (n=20). The NASS and PMHS datasets were combined and subjected to survival

  11. Effect of meal size and body size on specific dynamic action and gastric processing in decapod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    McGaw, Iain J; Curtis, Daniel L

    2013-11-01

    Meal size and animal size are important factors affecting the characteristics of the specific dynamic action (SDA) response across a variety of taxa. The effects of these two variables on the SDA of decapod crustaceans are based on just a couple of articles, and are not wholly consistent with the responses reported for other aquatic ectotherms. Therefore, the effects of meal size and animal size on the characteristics of SDA response were investigated in a variety of decapod crustaceans from different families. A 6 fold increase in meal size (0.5%-3% body mass) resulted a pronounced increase in the duration of increased oxygen consumption, resulting in an increase in the SDA of Callinectes sapidus, Cancer gracilis, Hemigrapsus nudus, Homarus americanus, Pugettia producta and Procambarus clarkii. Unlike many other aquatic ectotherms a substantial increase between meal sizes was required, with meal size close to their upper feeding limit (3% body mass), before changes were evident. In many organisms increases in both duration and scope contribute to the overall SDA, here changes in scope as a function of meal size were weak, suggesting that a similar amount of energy is required to upregulate gastric processes, regardless of meal size. The SDA characteristics were less likely to be influenced by the size of the animal, and there was no difference in the SDA (kJ) as a function of size in H. americanus or Cancer irroratus when analysed as mass specific values. In several fish species characteristics of the SDA response are more closely related to the transit times of food, rather than the size of a meal. To determine if a similar trend occurred in crustaceans, the transit rates of different sized meals were followed through the digestive system using a fluoroscope. Although there was a trend towards larger meals taking longer to pass through the gut, this was only statistically significant for P. clarkii. There were some changes in transit times as a function of animal

  12. Insight into the impact of dietary saturated fat on tissue-specific cellular processes underlying obesity-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Enos, Reilly T; Velázquez, Kandy T; Murphy, E Angela

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the influence of three high-fat diets (HFDs), differing in the percentage of total calories from saturated fat (SF) (6%, 12%, 24%) but identical in total fat (40%), for a 16-week period in mice on a variety of tissue-specific cellular processes believed to be at the root of obesity-related diseases. Specifically, we examined ectopic lipid accumulation, oxidative capacity [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) mRNA and protein; mtDNA; Cox IV and cytochrome C protein; citrate synthase activity; and gene expression of fission 1, mitofusin (Mfn) 1 and Mfn2], oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (binding immunoglobulin protein, activating transcription factor 6-p50, p-eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha and x-box binding protein 1 spliced protein), inflammatory [p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p-nuclear factor kappa-B, p-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase) and insulin signaling (p-Akt), and inflammation [tumor necrosis factor-alpha, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6, F4/80, toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 gene expression] in various tissues, including the adipose tissue, liver, skeletal muscle and heart. In general, adipose and hepatic tissues were the only tissues which displayed evidence of dysfunction. All HFDs down-regulated adipose, cardiac and hepatic PGC-1α mRNA and hepatic citrate synthase activity, and induced adipose tissue oxidative stress, whereas only the 6%-SF and 12%-SF diet produced hepatic steatosis. However, compared to the 6%-SF and 24%-SF diets, consumption of the 12%-SF diet resulted in the greatest degree of dysregulation (hepatic ER and oxidative stress, JNK activation, increased F4/80 gene expression and down-regulation of adipose tissue Akt signaling). These findings suggest that the saturated fatty acid composition of an HFD can greatly influence the processes responsible for obesity-related diseases - nonalcoholic fatty

  13. Comprehensive assessment of the specific compounds present in combustion processes. Volume 4. National estimates of emission of specific compounds from coal fired utility boiler plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, R.M.; Kircher, G.W.

    1985-08-01

    Specimens were acquired from influents and effluents from seven coal-fired utility boilers. The specimens were chemically analyzed for toxic compounds in the polycyclic organic matter group. The specific target compounds were polychlorinated dibenzo(p)-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), selected polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selected phthalates. Twelve PAH compounds and six phthalate compounds were included among the targetted compounds. Naphthalene was the most prevalent PAH compound detected. It was found in the flue gas emissions from all seven facilities. Other PAHs were also detected in the coal at all seven facilities but were only rarely detected in the other media. No PCDDs or PCDFs were detected in any of the acquired specimens. PCBs were only detected in one other media, the influent combustion air.

  14. Developing a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model Knowledgebase in Support of Provisional Model Construction

    PubMed Central

    Grulke, Christopher M.; Chang, Daniel T.; Brooks, Raina D.; Leonard, Jeremy A.; Phillips, Martin B.; Hypes, Ethan D.; Fair, Matthew J.; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Johnson, Jeffre; Dary, Curtis C.; Tan, Yu-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Developing physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for chemicals can be resource-intensive, as neither chemical-specific parameters nor in vivo pharmacokinetic data are easily available for model construction. Previously developed, well-parameterized, and thoroughly-vetted models can be a great resource for the construction of models pertaining to new chemicals. A PBPK knowledgebase was compiled and developed from existing PBPK-related articles and used to develop new models. From 2,039 PBPK-related articles published between 1977 and 2013, 307 unique chemicals were identified for use as the basis of our knowledgebase. Keywords related to species, gender, developmental stages, and organs were analyzed from the articles within the PBPK knowledgebase. A correlation matrix of the 307 chemicals in the PBPK knowledgebase was calculated based on pharmacokinetic-relevant molecular descriptors. Chemicals in the PBPK knowledgebase were ranked based on their correlation toward ethylbenzene and gefitinib. Next, multiple chemicals were selected to represent exact matches, close analogues, or non-analogues of the target case study chemicals. Parameters, equations, or experimental data relevant to existing models for these chemicals and their analogues were used to construct new models, and model predictions were compared to observed values. This compiled knowledgebase provides a chemical structure-based approach for identifying PBPK models relevant to other chemical entities. Using suitable correlation metrics, we demonstrated that models of chemical analogues in the PBPK knowledgebase can guide the construction of PBPK models for other chemicals. PMID:26871706

  15. Mitosis-specific phosphorylation of amyloid precursor protein at Threonine 668 leads to its altered processing and association with centrosomes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Atypical expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the molecular mechanisms by which they induce neurodegeneration are not well understood. We examined transgenic mice expressing human amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1) for changes in cell cycle regulatory proteins to determine whether there is a correlation between cell cycle activation and pathology development in AD. Results Our studies in the AD transgenic mice show significantly higher levels of cyclin E, cyclin D1, E2F1, and P-cdc2 in the cells in the vicinity of the plaques where maximum levels of Threonine 668 (Thr668)-phosphorylated APP accumulation was observed. This suggests that the cell cycle regulatory proteins might be influencing plaque pathology by affecting APP phosphorylation. Using neuroglioma cells overexpressing APP we demonstrate that phosphorylation of APP at Thr668 is mitosis-specific. Cells undergoing mitosis show altered cellular distribution and localization of P-APP at the centrosomes. Also, Thr668 phosphorylation in mitosis correlates with increased processing of APP to generate Aβ and the C-terminal fragment of APP, which is prevented by pharmacological inhibitors of the G1/S transition. Conclusions The data presented here suggests that cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of APP may affect its normal cellular function. For example, association of P-APP with the centrosome may affect spindle assembly and cell cycle progression, further contributing to the development of pathology in AD. The experiments with G1/S inhibitors suggest that cell cycle inhibition may impede the development of Alzheimer's pathology by suppressing modification of βAPP, and thus may represent a novel approach to AD treatment. Finally, the cell cycle regulated phosphorylation and processing of APP into Aβ and the C-terminal fragment suggest that these proteins may have a normal function during mitosis. PMID:22112898

  16. Position-specific automated processing of V3 env ultra-deep pyrosequencing data for predicting HIV-1 tropism

    PubMed Central

    Jeanne, Nicolas; Saliou, Adrien; Carcenac, Romain; Lefebvre, Caroline; Dubois, Martine; Cazabat, Michelle; Nicot, Florence; Loiseau, Claire; Raymond, Stéphanie; Izopet, Jacques; Delobel, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 coreceptor usage must be accurately determined before starting CCR5 antagonist-based treatment as the presence of undetected minor CXCR4-using variants can cause subsequent virological failure. Ultra-deep pyrosequencing of HIV-1 V3 env allows to detect low levels of CXCR4-using variants that current genotypic approaches miss. However, the computation of the mass of sequence data and the need to identify true minor variants while excluding artifactual sequences generated during amplification and ultra-deep pyrosequencing is rate-limiting. Arbitrary fixed cut-offs below which minor variants are discarded are currently used but the errors generated during ultra-deep pyrosequencing are sequence-dependant rather than random. We have developed an automated processing of HIV-1 V3 env ultra-deep pyrosequencing data that uses biological filters to discard artifactual or non-functional V3 sequences followed by statistical filters to determine position-specific sensitivity thresholds, rather than arbitrary fixed cut-offs. It allows to retain authentic sequences with point mutations at V3 positions of interest and discard artifactual ones with accurate sensitivity thresholds. PMID:26585833

  17. Development of a highly specific and productive process for n-caproic acid production: applying lessons from methanogenic microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Agler, M T; Spirito, C M; Usack, J G; Werner, J J; Angenent, L T

    2014-01-01

    High productivity and specificity in anaerobic digesters arise because complex microbiomes organize into a metabolic cascade to maximize energy recovery and to utilize the advantage that the gaseous end product methane freely bubbles out of the system. These lessons were applied to ascertain whether a reactor microbiome could be shaped to produce a different end product. The liquid product n-caproic acid was chosen, which is a 6-carbon-chain carboxylic acid that is valuable and that has a relatively low maximum solubility concentration for product recovery. Acetoclastic methanogenesis was inhibited by pH control and a route was provided for n-caproic acid extraction by implementing selective, in-line recovery. Next, ethanol was supplemented to promote chain elongation, which is a pathway in which short-chain carboxylic acids are elongated sequentially into medium-chain carboxylic acids with two-carbon units derived from ethanol. The reactor microbiome developed accordingly with the terminal process catalyzed by chain-elongating bacteria. As a result, n-caproic acid production rates increased to levels comparable to anaerobic digestion systems for solid waste treatment. PMID:24434969

  18. Category-specific neural processing for naming pictures of animals and naming pictures of tools: an ALE meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chouinard, Philippe A; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2010-01-01

    Using activation-likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis, we identified brain areas that are invoked when people name pictures of animals and pictures of tools. We found that naming animals and naming tools invoked separate distributed networks in the brain. Specifically, we found that naming animals invoked greater responses than naming tools in frontal lobe structures that are typically modulated by emotional content and task demands, and in a number of visual areas in the ventral stream. In contrast, naming tools invoked greater responses in a different set of areas in the ventral stream than those invoked by naming animals. Naming tools also invoked greater responses than naming animals in motor areas in the frontal lobe as well as in sensory areas in the parietal lobe. The only overlapping sites of activation that we found for naming these two categories of objects were in the left pars triangularis, the left inferior temporal gyrus, and the left parahippocampal gyrus. Taken together, our meta-analysis reveals that animals and tools are categorically represented in visual areas but show convergence in higher-order associative areas in the temporal and frontal lobes in regions that are typically regarded as being involved in memory and/or semantic processing. Our results also reveal that naming tools not only engages visual areas in the ventral stream but also a fronto-parietal network associated with tool use. Whether or not this network associated with tool use contributes directly to recognition will require further investigation.

  19. Roles of pollen-specific boron efflux transporter, OsBOR4, in the rice fertilization process.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Uraguchi, Shimpei; Saito, Akihiro; Kajikawa, Masataka; Kasai, Koji; Sato, Yutaka; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Fujiwara, Toru

    2013-12-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana BOR1 was the first boron (B) transporter identified in living systems. There are four AtBOR1-like genes, OsBOR1, 2, 3 and 4, present in the rice genome. We characterized the activity, expression and physiological function of OsBOR4. OsBOR4 is an active efflux transporter of B. Quantitative PCR analysis and OsBOR4 promoter-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion revealed that OsBOR4 was both highly and specifically expressed in pollen. We obtained five Tos17 insertion mutants of osbor4. The pollen grains were viable and development of floral organs was normal in the homozygous osbor4 mutants. We observed that in all Tos17 insertion lines tested, the frequency of osbor4 homozygous plants was lower than expected in the progeny of self-fertilized heterozygous plants. These results establish that OsBOR4 is essential for normal reproductive processes. Pollen from osbor4 homozygous plants elongated fewer tubes on wild-type stigmas, and tube elongation of mutant pollen was less efficient compared with the wild-type pollen, suggesting reduced competence of osbor4 mutant pollen. The reduced competence of mutant pollen was further supported by the crosses of independent Tos17-inserted alleles of OsBOR4. Our results suggest that OsBOR4, a boron efflux transporter, is required for normal pollen germination and/or tube elongation.

  20. Implementation processes associated with a home-based phonological awareness intervention for children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Skibbe, Lori E; Justice, Laura M; Bowles, Ryan P

    2011-04-01

    The implementation processes associated with a home-based phonological awareness intervention were observed for mothers and their 4-year-old children with specific language impairment (SLI). Mother-child dyads (n = 13) read books four times per week over 12 weeks; each book contained nine embedded phonological awareness (PA) tasks. Four hundred and ninety-eight book reading sessions were coded for three variables of interest: maternal support of concept development, quantity of maternal instructional support, and accuracy of children's responses to the PA tasks. Using growth curve modelling, results indicate that maternal support of concept development decreased over the course of the 12-week program, and the quantity of maternal supports changed considerably reflecting intra-individual differences among mothers. Both support of concept development and quantity of support decreased over the course of a given week. In addition, children's responses to the phonological awareness tasks significantly increased over the 12-week intervention. Overall, mothers did not provide support that consistently supported children's learning over time, and the increases in children's correct responses, although significant, were less than anticipated given the length of the intervention. These findings indicate that mothers may need additional supports when implementing emergent literacy programs with their children. PMID:21480808

  1. [Examination of cause of failure to taxon-specific DNA was not detected from bifun (rice vermicelli) using processing model experiment].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kunihiko; Ishii, Rie; Matsumoto, Ryuji; Horie, Masakazu

    2010-01-01

    In the inspection of genetically modified rice, rice taxon-specific DNA could not be detected in processed rice food (bifun: rice vermicelli). The effects of using PCR the ratio of rice powder content and temperature of processing on the detection of taxon-specific DNA were examined by means of processing model experiments using cornstarch with 0, 2, 5, 10% rice powder by weight. Cornstarch and rice powder were blended with water and subjected to heating, steam-treatment, and autoclaving. The rice taxon-specific DNA was detectable in 2% rice powder following heat and steam treatments. After autoclaving, rice taxon-specific DNA was detected only in the 10% rice powder product. In the processing model experiment using rice powder, it was found that autoclaving caused severe DNA degradation.

  2. Interaction of Drosophila melanogaster prohormone convertase 2 and 7B2. Insect cell-specific processing and secretion.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J R; Siekhaus, D E; Fuller, R S; Taghert, P H; Lindberg, I

    2000-06-01

    The prohormone convertases (PCs) are an evolutionarily ancient group of proteases required for the maturation of neuropeptide and peptide hormone precursors. In Drosophila melanogaster, the homolog of prohormone convertase 2, dPC2 (amontillado), is required for normal hatching behavior, and immunoblotting data indicate that flies express 80- and 75-kDa forms of this protein. Because mouse PC2 (mPC2) requires 7B2, a helper protein for productive maturation, we searched the fly data base for the 7B2 signature motif PPNPCP and identified an expressed sequence tag clone encoding the entire open reading frame for this protein. dPC2 and d7B2 cDNAs were subcloned into expression vectors for transfection into HEK-293 cells; mPC2 and rat 7B2 were used as controls. Although active mPC2 was detected in medium in the presence of either d7B2 or r7B2, dPC2 showed no proteolytic activity upon coexpression of either d7B2 or r7B2. Labeling experiments showed that dPC2 was synthesized but not secreted from HEK-293 cells. However, when dPC2 and either d7B2 or r7B2 were coexpressed in Drosophila S2 cells, abundant immunoreactive dPC2 was secreted into the medium, coincident with the appearance of PC2 activity. Expression and secretion of dPC2 enzyme activity thus appears to require insect cell-specific posttranslational processing events. The significant differences in the cell biology of the insect and mammalian enzymes, with 7B2 absolutely required for secretion of dPC2 and zymogen conversion occurring intracellularly in the case of dPC2 but not mPC2, support the idea that the Drosophila enzyme has specific requirements for maturation and secretion that can be met only in insect cells. PMID:10749852

  3. A neuron-specific deletion of the microRNA-processing enzyme DICER induces severe but transient obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Mang, Géraldine M; Pradervand, Sylvain; Du, Ngoc-Hien; Arpat, Alaaddin Bulak; Preitner, Frédéric; Wigger, Leonore; Gatfield, David; Franken, Paul

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. MiRNAs are implicated in various biological processes associated with obesity, including adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism. We used a neuronal-specific inhibition of miRNA maturation in adult mice to study the consequences of miRNA loss on obesity development. Camk2a-CreERT2 (Cre+) and floxed Dicer (Dicerlox/lox) mice were crossed to generate tamoxifen-inducible conditional Dicer knockouts (cKO). Vehicle- and/or tamoxifen-injected Cre+;Dicerlox/lox and Cre+;Dicer+/+ served as controls. Four cohorts were used to a) measure body composition, b) follow food intake and body weight dynamics, c) evaluate basal metabolism and effects of food deprivation, and d) assess the brain transcriptome consequences of miRNA loss. cKO mice developed severe obesity and gained 18 g extra weight over the 5 weeks following tamoxifen injection, mainly due to increased fat mass. This phenotype was highly reproducible and observed in all 38 cKO mice recorded and in none of the controls, excluding possible effects of tamoxifen or the non-induced transgene. Development of obesity was concomitant with hyperphagia, increased food efficiency, and decreased activity. Surprisingly, after reaching maximum body weight, obese cKO mice spontaneously started losing weight as rapidly as it was gained. Weight loss was accompanied by lowered O2-consumption and respiratory-exchange ratio. Brain transcriptome analyses in obese mice identified several obesity-related pathways (e.g. leptin, somatostatin, and nemo-like kinase signaling), as well as genes involved in feeding and appetite (e.g. Pmch, Neurotensin) and in metabolism (e.g. Bmp4, Bmp7, Ptger1, Cox7a1). A gene cluster with anti-correlated expression in the cerebral cortex of post-obese compared to obese mice was enriched for synaptic plasticity pathways. While other studies have identified a role for miRNAs in obesity, we here

  4. The relationships between activation of non-specific inflammatory process and malnutrition in patients on peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, Katarina; Stompór, Tomasz; Krzanowski, Marcin; Miarka, Przemysław; Zdzienicka, Anna; Sułowicz, Wladyslaw

    2007-01-01

    Malnutrition is a frequent complication among patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis and early recognition of malnutrition can be a key factor in successful treatment. The aim of the study was to assess the nutritional status of patients on peritoneal dialysis and to search for the relationships between activation of non-specific inflammatory process and progression of malnutrition. The study group included 60 patients (age 50.4+/-14 years) on peritoneal dialysis for 17.6+/-20 months. Fourty-six patients completed the entire 24-month observation period. Nutritional status was assessed using SGA scale, anthropometric measures, bioimpendance, and several biochemical parameters. Inflammatory markers included: IL-6, TNFalpha, fibrinogen and CRP. Severe malnutrition was observed in the range between 8.4% (5 subjects, group C in SGA scale) to 11.7% (7 subjects, BMI <20 kg/m2) of patients. The nutritional status of the entire cohort was constant over 2 years of observation (based on SGA scale), although the mean albumin level decreased significantly after 24 months of observation (from 39.55+/-3.5 to 37.63+/-3.7 g/l; p<0.01). The mean concentrations of CRP (4.8 and 5.25 mg/l), IL-6 (3.45 and 6.8 pg/ml) and leptin (22.95 and 22.2 ng/ml) were above reference ranges both at the initial and final assessment. Moreover, the concentration of IL-6 significantly increased (p<0.001) after 24 months of observation. Patients treated with PD are frequently affected by malnutrition. Our results indicate a strong association between nutritional indices and markers of inflammation. PMID:18928174

  5. Position-specific isotope analysis of the methyl group carbon in methylcobalamin for the investigation of biomethylation processes.

    PubMed

    Wuerfel, Oliver; Greule, Markus; Keppler, Frank; Jochmann, Maik A; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2013-03-01

    In the environment, the methylation of metal(loid)s is a widespread phenomenon, which enhances both biomobility as well as mostly the toxicity of the precursory metal(loid)s. Different reaction mechanisms have been proposed for arsenic, but not really proven yet. Here, carbon isotope analysis can foster our understanding of these processes, as the extent of the isotopic fractionation allows to differentiate between different types of reaction, such as concerted (SN2) or stepwise nucleophilic substitution (SN1) as well as to determine the origin of the methyl group. However, for the determination of the kinetic isotope effect the initial isotopic value of the transferred methyl group has to be determined. To that end, we used hydroiodic acid for abstraction of the methyl group from methylcobalamin (CH3Cob) or S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) and subsequent analysis of the formed methyl iodide by gas chromatography (GC) isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). In addition, three further independent methods have been investigated to determine the position-specific δ (13)C value of CH3Cob involving photolytic cleavage with different additives or thermolytic cleavage of the methyl-cobalt bonding and subsequent measurement of the formed methane by GC-IRMS. The thermolytic cleavage gave comparable results as the abstraction using HI. In contrast, photolysis led to an isotopic fractionation of about 7 to 9 ‰. Furthermore, we extended a recently developed method for the determination of carbon isotope ratios of organometal(loid)s in complex matrices using hydride generation for volatilization and matrix separation before heart-cut GC and IRMS to the analysis of the low boiling partly methylated arsenicals, which are formed in the course of arsenic methylation. Finally, we demonstrated the applicability of this methodology by investigation of carbon fractionation due to the methyl transfer from CH3Cob to arsenic induced by glutathione.

  6. Sex-Specific Brain Deficits in Auditory Processing in an Animal Model of Cocaine-Related Schizophrenic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Patricia A.; Rosenbaum, Taylor

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine is a psychostimulant in the pharmacological class of drugs called Local Anesthetics. Interestingly, cocaine is the only drug in this class that has a chemical formula comprised of a tropane ring and is, moreover, addictive. The correlation between tropane and addiction is well-studied. Another well-studied correlation is that between psychosis induced by cocaine and that psychosis endogenously present in the schizophrenic patient. Indeed, both of these psychoses exhibit much the same behavioral as well as neurochemical properties across species. Therefore, in order to study the link between schizophrenia and cocaine addiction, we used a behavioral paradigm called Acoustic Startle. We used this acoustic startle paradigm in female versus male Sprague-Dawley animals to discriminate possible sex differences in responses to startle. The startle method operates through auditory pathways in brain via a network of sensorimotor gating processes within auditory cortex, cochlear nuclei, inferior and superior colliculi, pontine reticular nuclei, in addition to mesocorticolimbic brain reward and nigrostriatal motor circuitries. This paper is the first to report sex differences to acoustic stimuli in Sprague-Dawley animals (Rattus norvegicus) although such gender responses to acoustic startle have been reported in humans (Swerdlow et al. 1997 [1]). The startle method monitors pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) as a measure of the loss of sensorimotor gating in the brain's neuronal auditory network; auditory deficiencies can lead to sensory overload and subsequently cognitive dysfunction. Cocaine addicts and schizophrenic patients as well as cocaine treated animals are reported to exhibit symptoms of defective PPI (Geyer et al., 2001 [2]). Key findings are: (a) Cocaine significantly reduced PPI in both sexes. (b) Females were significantly more sensitive than males; reduced PPI was greater in females than in males. (c) Physiological saline had no effect on startle in either sex

  7. Sex-specific brain deficits in auditory processing in an animal model of cocaine-related schizophrenic disorders.

    PubMed

    Broderick, Patricia A; Rosenbaum, Taylor

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine is a psychostimulant in the pharmacological class of drugs called Local Anesthetics. Interestingly, cocaine is the only drug in this class that has a chemical formula comprised of a tropane ring and is, moreover, addictive. The correlation between tropane and addiction is well-studied. Another well-studied correlation is that between psychosis induced by cocaine and that psychosis endogenously present in the schizophrenic patient. Indeed, both of these psychoses exhibit much the same behavioral as well as neurochemical properties across species. Therefore, in order to study the link between schizophrenia and cocaine addiction, we used a behavioral paradigm called Acoustic Startle. We used this acoustic startle paradigm in female versus male Sprague-Dawley animals to discriminate possible sex differences in responses to startle. The startle method operates through auditory pathways in brain via a network of sensorimotor gating processes within auditory cortex, cochlear nuclei, inferior and superior colliculi, pontine reticular nuclei, in addition to mesocorticolimbic brain reward and nigrostriatal motor circuitries. This paper is the first to report sex differences to acoustic stimuli in Sprague-Dawley animals (Rattus norvegicus) although such gender responses to acoustic startle have been reported in humans (Swerdlow et al. 1997 [1]). The startle method monitors pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) as a measure of the loss of sensorimotor gating in the brain's neuronal auditory network; auditory deficiencies can lead to sensory overload and subsequently cognitive dysfunction. Cocaine addicts and schizophrenic patients as well as cocaine treated animals are reported to exhibit symptoms of defective PPI (Geyer et al., 2001 [2]). Key findings are: (a) Cocaine significantly reduced PPI in both sexes. (b) Females were significantly more sensitive than males; reduced PPI was greater in females than in males. (c) Physiological saline had no effect on startle in either sex

  8. Procedural Due Process in the Context of Public Higher Education: The Identification of Specific Due Process Components Impacting the Termination of Tenured Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habecker, Eugene B.

    Due process procedures that are judicially required in public colleges and universities when tenured faculty are involuntarily terminated for cause were identified through analysis of federal case law. Other areas of case law pertaining to due process were reviewed, including student dismissals from public colleges and universities, and property…

  9. Concentration dependent selection of targets by an SR splicing regulator results in tissue-specific RNA processing.

    PubMed

    Qi, Junlin; Su, Shihuang; McGuffin, M Elaine; Mattox, William

    2006-01-01

    The splicing factor Transformer-2 (Tra2) is expressed almost ubiquitously in Drosophila adults, but participates in the tissue-specific regulation of splicing in several RNAs. In somatic tissues Tra2 participates in the activation of sex-specific splice sites in doublesex and fruitless pre-mRNAs. In the male germline it affects splicing of other transcripts and represses removal of the M1 intron from its own pre-mRNA. Here we test the hypothesis that the germline specificity of M1 repression is determined by tissue-specific differences in Tra2 concentration. We find that Tra2 is expressed at higher levels in primary spermatocytes of males than in other cell types. Increased Tra2 expression in other tissues reduces viability in a manner consistent with known dose-dependent effects of excessive Tra2 expression in the male germline. Somatic cells were found to be competent to repress M1 splicing if the level of Tra2 transcription was raised above endogenous concentrations. This suggests not only that M1 repression is restricted to the germline by a difference in Tra2 transcription levels but also that the protein's threshold concentration for M1 regulation differs from that of doublesex and fruitless RNAs. We propose that quantitative differences in regulator expression can give rise to cell-type-specific restrictions in splicing.

  10. Infant Information Processing and Family History of Specific Language Impairment: Converging Evidence for RAP Deficits from Two Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choudhury, Naseem; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.; Leevers, Hilary J.; Benasich, April A.

    2007-01-01

    An infant's ability to process auditory signals presented in rapid succession (i.e. rapid auditory processing abilities [RAP]) has been shown to predict differences in language outcomes in toddlers and preschool children. Early deficits in RAP abilities may serve as a behavioral marker for language-based learning disabilities. The purpose of this…

  11. Real-time monitoring of the mitophagy process by a photostable fluorescent mitochondrion-specific bioprobe with AIE characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijie; Kwok, Ryan T K; Chen, Yilong; Chen, Sijie; Zhao, Engui; Yu, Chris Y Y; Lam, Jacky W Y; Zheng, Qichang; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2015-05-28

    An isothiocyanate-functionalized tetraphenylethene is synthesized and used as a fluorescent bioprobe for mitochondrion imaging with high specificity and photostability. The covalent conjugation of the bioprobe to mitochondrial proteins endows it with high resistance to microenvironmental changes, enabling it for real-time monitoring of mitophagy.

  12. Self-Advocacy from the Perspective of Young Adults with Specific Learning Disabilities during the Transition Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreifels, Julie M.

    2013-01-01

    High school graduates with specific learning disabilities (SLD) often lack sufficient skills to advocate for themselves in adult situations. This limited advocacy ability of young adults with SLD contributes to their higher postsecondary school drop-out rate, lower paying jobs, and a greater dependence on family and public assistance programs for…

  13. ERPs Reveal Atypical Processing of Subject versus Object "Wh"-Questions in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Baila; Hestvik, Arild; Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show particular difficulty comprehending and producing object ("Who did the bear follow?") relative to subject ("Who followed the tiger?") "wh"-questions. Aims: To determine if school-age children with SLI, relative to children with typical development (TD),…

  14. Information Processing by School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence from a Modality Effect Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Ronald B.; Cowan, Nelson; Marler, Jeffrey A.

    1998-01-01

    Sixteen school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 16 age-matched controls were tested for immediate recall of digits presented visually, auditorily, or audiovisually. Recall tasks compared speaking and pointing response modalities. SLI children showed small recency effects as well as an unusually poor recall when visually…

  15. Response to Intervention and the Identification of Specific Learning Disabilities: Why We Need Comprehensive Evaluations as Part of the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofiesh, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to underscore why we need to maintain the presence of comprehensive evaluations in the identification of students with specific learning disabilities (SLDs). Response to intervention (RTI) models hold great hope for early instruction, and the reduction of the overrepresentation of students in special education who…

  16. Effects of Onset- and Rhyme-Related Distractors on Phonological Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiger-Gardner, Liat; Brooks, Patricia J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study used the cross-modal picture-word interference task of P. J. Brooks and B. MacWhinney (2000) to compare effects of phonologically related words on lexical access in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Children (7;1 [years;months]-11;2) named pictures while ignoring auditory distractors. Three stimulus…

  17. Rapid Naming and Phonemic Awareness in Children with Reading Disabilities and/or Specific Language Impairment: Differentiating Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Groot, Bartholomeus J. A.; Van den Bos, Kees P.; Van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.; Minnaert, Alexander E. M. G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess and compare the predictive values of group membership for rapid automatized naming (RAN) and phonemic awareness (PA) in Dutch school children with and without reading disabilities (RD) or specific language impairment (SLI). Method: A composite word reading index and a formal SLI diagnosis were…

  18. Site-specific analysis of radiological and physical parameters for cobbly soils at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The remedial action at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site is being performed under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. Under UMTRCA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with the responsibility of developing appropriate and applicable standards for the cleanup of radiologically contaminated land and buildings at 24 designated sites, including the Gunnison, Colorado, inactive processing site. Section 108 of Public Law 95-604 states that the US Department of Energy (DOE) shall ``select and perform remedial actions at the designated processing sites and disposal sites in accordance with the general standards`` prescribed by the EPA. Regulations governing the required remedial action at inactive uranium processing sites were promulgated by the EPA in 1983 and are contained in 40 CFR Part 192 (1993), Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings. This document describes the radiological and physical parameters for the remedial action of the soil.

  19. Does non-invasive brain stimulation applied over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex non-specifically influence mood and emotional processing in healthy individuals?

    PubMed Central

    Mondino, Marine; Thiffault, François; Fecteau, Shirley

    2015-01-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is often targeted with non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) to modulate in vivo human behaviors. This brain region plays a key role in mood, emotional processing, and attentional processing of emotional information. In this article, we ask the question: when we target the DLPFC with NIBS, do we modulate these processes altogether, non-specifically, or can we modulate them selectively? We thus review articles investigating the effects of NIBS applied over the DLPFC on mood, emotional processing, and attentional processing of emotional stimuli in healthy subjects. We discuss that NIBS over the DLPFC can modulate emotional processing and attentional processing of emotional stimuli, without specifically influencing mood. Indeed, there seems to be a lack of evidence that NIBS over the DLPFC influences mood in healthy individuals. Finally, there appears to be a hemispheric lateralization: when applied over the left DLPFC, NIBS improved processing of positive stimuli and reduced selective attention for stimuli expressing anger, whereas when applied over the right DLPFC, it increased selective attention for stimuli expressing anger. PMID:26528131

  20. Evaluation of the effect of various beverages and food material on the color stability of provisional materials – An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Gaurav; Gupta, Tina

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluated the color stability of four provisional materials: 1) Poly-methyl methacrylates (DPI); 2) Bis-acryl composite (ProtempTM II – 3M ESPE); 3) Bis-acryl composite (Systemp® c and b – Ivoclar Vivadent) and 4) Light polymerized composite resin (Revotek LC- GC). Materials and Methods: The color and color difference of each specimen after immersion in different staining solutions i.e. 1) tea and artificial saliva, 2) coffee and artificial saliva, 3) Pepsi and artificial saliva, 4) turmeric solution and artificial saliva was measured using reflectance spectrophotometer with CIELAB system before immersion and after immersion at 2, 5 ,7 , 10 and 15 days. Results: Revotek LC- GC (light polymerized composite resin) was found to be the most color stable provisional restorative material followed by Protemp II (Bis-acryl composite), Systemp (Bis-acryl composite) and DPI (Methylmethacrylate resin). Turmeric solution had the maximum staining potential followed by coffee, tea and Pepsi. PMID:22025835