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Sample records for proximal tubular basolateral

  1. Growth hormone activates phospholipase C in proximal tubular basolateral membranes from canine kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, S.A.; Hammerman, M.R. )

    1989-08-01

    To delineate pathways for signal transduction by growth hormone (GH) in proximal tubule, the authors incubated basolateral membranes isolated from canine kidney with human growth hormone (hGH) or human prolactin (hPrl) and measured levels of inositol trisphosphate (InsP{sub 3}) in suspensions and of diacylglycerol extractable from the membranes. Incubation with hGH, but not hPrl, increased levels of InsP{sub 3} and diacylglycerol in a concentration-dependent manner. Half-maximal effects occurred between 0.1 and 1 nM hGH. Increased levels of InsP{sub 3} were measured after as little as 5 sec of incubation with 1 nM hGH, and increase was maximal after 15 sec. Increases were no longer detectable after 60 sec because of dephosphorylation of InsP{sub 3} in membrane suspensions. hGH did not affect rates of dephosphorylation. hGH-stimulated increases in InsP{sub 3} were detectable in membranes suspended in 0, 0.1, and 0.2 {mu}M calcium but not in 0.3 or 1.0 {mu}M calcium. {sup 125}I-labeled hGH-receptor complexes with M{sub r} values of 66,000 and 140,000 were identified in isolated basolateral membranes. The findings establish that GH activates phospholipase C in isolated canine renal proximal tubular basolateral membranes, potentially after binding to a specific receptor. This process could mediate signal transmission by GH across the plasma membrane of the proximal tubular cell and elsewhere.

  2. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... References Krapf R, Seldin DW, Alpern RJ. Clinical syndromes of metabolic acidosis. In: Alpern RJ, Caplan M, Moe OW, ... 529. Read More Distal renal tubular acidosis Fanconi syndrome Low potassium level Metabolic acidosis Osteomalacia Respiratory acidosis Rickets Review Date 10/ ...

  3. Distribution of IGF receptors in the plasma membrane of proximal tubular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerman, M.R.; Rogers, S. )

    1987-11-01

    To characterize the distribution of receptors for insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF I and II) in the plasma membrane of the renal proximal tubular cell, the authors measured binding of {sup 125}I-labeled IGF I and {sup 125}I-labeled IGF II to proximal tubular basolateral and brush-border membranes and characterized IGF I-stimulated phosphorylation of detergent-solubilized membranes. {sup 125}I-IGF bound primarily to a 135,000 relative molecular weight (M{sub r}) protein and IGF II to a 260,000 M{sub r} protein in isolated membranes. Binding of {sup 125}I-IGF I was severalfold greater in basolateral than in brush-border membranes. IGF I-stimulated phosphorylation of the 92,000 M{sub r} {beta}-subunit of its receptors could be demonstrated only in basolateral membranes. These findings are consistent with an asymmetrical distribution of receptors for IGF I in the plasma membrane of the renal proximal tubular cell, localization being primary on the basolateral side. In contrast, binding of {sup 125}I-IGF II to isolated basolateral and brush-border membranes was equivalent, suggesting that receptors for this peptide are distributed more symmetrically in the plasma membrane. The findings suggest that the action of IGF I in proximal tubule are mediated via interaction of circulating peptide with specific receptors in the basolateral membrane. However, the findings established the potential for actions of IGF II to be exerted in proximal tubule via interaction with both basolateral and/or brush-border membrane receptors.

  4. Characterisation of human tubular cell monolayers as a model of proximal tubular xenobiotic handling

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Colin D.A. Sayer, Rachel; Windass, Amy S.; Haslam, Iain S.; Broe, Marc E. de; D'Haese, Patrick C.; Verhulst, Anja

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to determine whether primary human tubular cell monolayers could provide a powerful tool with which to investigate the renal proximal tubular handling of xenobiotics. Human proximal and distal tubule/collecting duct cells were grown as monolayers on permeable filter supports. After 10 days in culture, proximal tubule cells remained differentiated and expressed a wide palette of transporters at the mRNA level including NaPi-IIa, SGLT1, SGLT2, OCT2, OCTN2, OAT1, OAT3, OAT4, MDR1, MRP2 and BCRP. At the protein level, the expression of a subset of transporters including NaPi-IIa, OAT1 and OAT3 was demonstrated using immunohistochemistry. Analysis of the expression of the ATP binding cassette efflux pumps MDR1, MRP2 and BCRP confirmed their apical membrane localisation. At the functional level, tubule cell monolayers retain the necessary machinery to mediate the net secretion of the prototypic substrates; PAH and creatinine. PAH secretion across the monolayer consisted of the uptake of PAH across the basolateral membrane by OAT1 and OAT3 and the apical exit of PAH by a probenecid and MK571-sensitive route consistent with actions of MRP2 or MRP4. Creatinine secretion was by OCT2-mediated uptake at the basolateral membrane and via MDR1 at the apical membrane. Functional expression of MDR1 and BCRP at the apical membrane was also demonstrated using a Hoechst 33342 dye. Similarly, measurement of calcein efflux demonstrated the functional expression of MRP2 at the apical membrane of cell monolayers. In conclusion, human tubular cell monolayers provide a powerful tool to investigate renal xenobiotic handling.

  5. Luminal and basolateral uptake of insulin in isolated perfused, proximal tubules

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, S.; Nielsen, J.T.; Christensen, E.I. )

    1987-11-01

    The present study was performed to quantitate compare the luminal and the peritubular uptake of {sup 125}I-insulin in isolated, perfused, proximal tubules from rabbit kidneys. {sup 125}I-insulin was added in physiological concentrations to either the perfusate or the bath fluid for 30 min. The luminal uptake in 30 min averaged 0.76 pg/mm at physiological concentrations and 18.0 pg/mm at high insulin concentrations. About 15-41% of the absorbed insulin was digested and <5% was transported from the lumen to the peritubular space as intact insulin. The peritubular binding/uptake of {sup 125}I-insulin at physiological and high concentrations in the bath was 0.136 and 0.318 pg, respectively. The data indicates that insulin is bound/absorbed at the basolateral membranes both by a saturable specific mechanism and a nonspecific, nonsaturable mechanism. The basolateral absorption constituted 15.2 and 1.8% of the total tubular extraction of insulin at physiological and high insulin concentrations, respectively. Electron microscope autoradiography showed that, after luminal as well as basolateral endocytosis, insulin was exclusively accumulated in endocytic vacuoles and lysosomes.

  6. Factors affecting proximal tubular reabsorption during development

    SciTech Connect

    Kaskel, F.J.; Kumar, A.M.; Lockhart, E.A.; Evan, A.; Spitzer, A.

    1987-01-01

    Studies performed in several animal species have demonstrated that glomerulotubular balance is maintained throughout development despite the many changes that occur in the factors known to control it. In an attempt to understand the nature of this phenomenon the authors quantified the magnitude and described the profile of these changes in guinea pigs. The changes in physical forces were assessed from measurements of hydrostatic and oncotic pressures, whereas those in the permeability characteristics of the proximal tubule epithelium were estimated from permanence to radioactivity-labelled macromolecules of graded radii, histologic measurements of the intercellular channels, and measurements of end-proximal ratio of tubular fluid-to-plasma osmolality (TF/P/sub osm/). Between 1 and 50 days of age the net pressure for reabsorption increased from 15.0 to 30.9 mmHg with the major change occurring during the first 2-3 wk of postnatal life. The urinary recovery of (/sup 3/H)inulin, (/sup 14/C)sucrose, and (/sup 14/C)creatinine, injected in the early segment of proximal tubules did not vary with age. The urinary recovery of (/sup 14/C)mannitol increased from 92% at birth to 100% at 49 days of age. The length of the zonulae occludens and the width of the intercellular channels did not change during this period. The findings support the hypothesis that during early postnatal life glomerulotubular balance is made possible by a high permeability of the proximal tubule, which compensates for the low net reabsorptive pressure. As the animal matures and the proximal tubule epithelium becomes tighter, for glomerulotubular balance to be maintained, an increase in the number of intercellular channels and in the active transport of sodium need to be postulated.

  7. Proximal renal tubular acidosis: a not so rare disorder of multiple etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Syed K.; Ariceta, Gema; Batlle, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Proximal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) (Type II RTA) is characterized by a defect in the ability to reabsorb HCO3 in the proximal tubule. This is usually manifested as bicarbonate wastage in the urine reflecting that the defect in proximal tubular transport is severe enough that the capacity for bicarbonate reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop and more distal nephron segments is overwhelmed. More subtle defects in proximal bicarbonate transport likely go clinically unrecognized owing to compensatory reabsorption of bicarbonate distally. Inherited proximal RTA is more commonly autosomal recessive and has been associated with mutations in the basolateral sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1). Mutations in this transporter lead to reduced activity and/or trafficking, thus disrupting the normal bicarbonate reabsorption process of the proximal tubules. As an isolated defect for bicarbonate transport, proximal RTA is rare and is more often associated with the Fanconi syndrome characterized by urinary wastage of solutes like phosphate, uric acid, glucose, amino acids, low-molecular-weight proteins as well as bicarbonate. A vast array of rare tubular disorders may cause proximal RTA but most commonly it is induced by drugs. With the exception of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors which cause isolated proximal RTA, drug-induced proximal RTA is associated with Fanconi syndrome. Drugs that have been recently recognized to cause severe proximal RTA with Fanconi syndrome include ifosfamide, valproic acid and various antiretrovirals such as Tenofovir particularly when given to human immunodeficiency virus patients receiving concomitantly protease inhibitors such as ritonavir or reverse transcriptase inhibitors such as didanosine. PMID:23235953

  8. Luminal and basolateral mechanisms involved in the renal tubular uptake of inorganic mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Zalups, R.K.; Minor, K.H.

    1995-09-01

    The present study provides evidence for the existence of both a luminal and a basolateral mechanism involved in the renal tubular uptake of inorganic mercury. The researchers compared the disposition of inorganic mercury in groups of surgical control rats, rats that underwent a unilateral ureteral ligation, and rats that underwent a bilateral ureteral ligation that were pretreated with either normal saline or a 7.5 mmol/kg intravenous dose of PAH 5 min prior to receiving a nontoxic 0.5-{mu}mol/kg intravenous dose of mercuric chloride. The {open_quotes}stop-flow{close_quotes} conditions induced by either unilateral or bilateral ureteral ligation caused a significant reduction in the uptake and content of mercury in the kidneys (whose ureter was ligated) both at 1 h and 24 h after the intravenous injection of the nontoxic dose of mercuric chloride. This decreased renal uptake of mercury was due specifically to decreased uptake of mercury in the renal cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla. The amount of mercury has not taken up during ureteral ligation represents the portion of mercury that is presumably taken up by a luminal mechanism. Pretreatment with PAH also caused a significant reduction in the renal uptake of mercury in the cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla. When either unilateral or bilateral ureteral ligation was combined with PAH pretreatment, an additive inhibitory effect occurred with respect to the renal uptake of mercury. In fact, the renal uptake of mercury was reduced by approximately 85% at 1 h after the injection of mercuric chloride. Since the luminal uptake of mercury was blocked by ureteral ligation, the effect of PAH on the renal uptake of mercury must have occurred at the basolateral membrane. Two distinct mechanisms are involved in mercury uptake, with one mechanism located on the luminal membrane and another located on the basolateral membrane. 22 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Expression of a functional asialoglycoprotein receptor in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Seow, Ying-ying T; Tan, Michelle G K; Woo, Keng Thye

    2002-07-01

    The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) is a C lectin which binds and endocytoses serum glycoproteins. In humans, the ASGPR is shown mainly to occur in hepatocytes, but does occur extrahepatically in thyroid, in small and large intestines, and in the testis. In the kidney, there has been evidence both for and against its existence in mesangial cells. Standard light microscopy examination of renal tissue stained with an antibody against the ASGPR was performed. The mRNA expression for the ASGPR H1 and H2 subunits in primary human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC), in the human proximal tubular epithelial cell line HK2, and in human renal cortex was investigated using reverse-transcribed nested polymerase chain reaction. ASGPR protein expression as well as ligand binding and uptake were also examined using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry (fluorescence-activated cell sorting). Light microscopy of paraffin renal biopsy sections stained with a polyclonal antibody against the ASGPR showed proximal tubular epithelial cell staining of the cytoplasm and particularly in the basolateral region. Renal cortex and RPTEC specifically have mRNA for both H1 and H2 subunits of the ASGPR, but HK2 only expresses mRNA for H1. Using a monoclonal antibody, the presence of the ASGPR in RPTEC was shown by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and immunofluorescent staining. Specific binding and uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate labelled asialofetuin which is a specific ASGPR ligand was also demonstrated in RPTEC. Primary renal proximal tubular epithelial cells have a functional ASGPR, consisting of the H1 and H2 subunits, that is capable of specific ligand binding and uptake. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  10. Tubular Obstruction Leads to Progressive Proximal Tubular Injury and Atubular Glomeruli in Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Galarreta, Carolina I.; Grantham, Jared J.; Forbes, Michael S.; Maser, Robin L.; Wallace, Darren P.; Chevalier, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    In polycystic kidney disease (PKD), renal parenchyma is destroyed by cysts, hypothesized to obstruct nephrons. A signature of unilateral ureteral obstruction, proximal tubular atrophy leads to formation of atubular glomeruli. To determine whether this process occurs in PKD, kidneys from pcy mice (moderately progressive PKD), kidneys from cpk mice (rapidly progressive PKD), and human autosomal dominant PKD were examined in early and late stages. Integrity of the glomerulotubular junction and proximal tubular mass were determined in sections stained with Lotus tetragonolobus lectin. Development of proximal tubular atrophy and atubular glomeruli was determined in serial sections of individual glomeruli. In pcy mice, most glomerulotubular junctions were normal at 20 weeks, but by 30 weeks, 56% were atrophic and 25% of glomeruli were atubular; glomerulotubular junction integrity decreased with increasing cyst area (r = 0.83, P < 0.05). In cpk mice, all glomerulotubular junctions were normal at 10 days, but by 19 days, 26% had become abnormal. In early-stage autosomal dominant PKD kidneys, 50% of glomeruli were atubular or attached to atrophic tubules; in advanced disease, 100% were abnormal. Thus, proximal tubular injury in cystic kidneys closely parallels that observed with ureteral obstruction. These findings support the hypothesis that, in renal cystic disorders, cyst-dependent obstruction of medullary and cortical tubules initiates a process culminating in widespread destruction of proximal convoluted tubules at the glomerulotubular junction. PMID:24815352

  11. Autophagy Induces Prosenescent Changes in Proximal Tubular S3 Segments

    PubMed Central

    Baisantry, Arpita; Bhayana, Sagar; Rong, Song; Ermeling, Esther; Wrede, Christoph; Hegermann, Jan; Pennekamp, Petra; Sörensen-Zender, Inga; Haller, Hermann; Melk, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that autophagy promotes the development of cellular senescence. Because cellular senescence contributes to renal aging and promotes the progression from AKI to CKD, we investigated the potential effect of tubular autophagy on senescence induction. Compared with kidneys from control mice, kidneys from mice with conditional deletion of autophagy-related 5 (Atg5) for selective ablation of autophagy in proximal tubular S3 segments (Atg5Δflox/Δflox) presented with significantly less tubular senescence, reduced interstitial fibrosis, and superior renal function 30 days after ischemia/reperfusion injury. To correlate this long-term outcome with differences in the early injury process, kidneys were analyzed 2 hours and 3 days after reperfusion. Notably, compared with kidneys of control mice, Atg5Δflox/Δflox kidneys showed more cell death in outer medullary S3 segments at 2 hours but less tubular damage and inflammation at day 3. These data suggest that the lack of autophagy prevents early survival mechanisms in severely damaged tubular cells. However, if such compromised cells persist, then they may lead to maladaptive repair and proinflammatory changes, thereby facilitating the development of a senescent phenotype and CKD. PMID:26487561

  12. Iron repletion relocalizes hephaestin to a proximal basolateral compartment in polarized MDCK and Caco2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung-Min; Attieh, Zouhair K.; Son, Hee Sook; Chen, Huijun; Bacouri-Haidar, Mhenia; Vulpe, Chris D.

    2012-05-11

    cellular compartment in close proximity but not overlapping with the basolateral surface. Surface biotinylation studies indicate that hephaestin in the peri-basolateral location is accessible to the extra-cellular environment. These results support the hypothesis that hephaestin is involved in iron mobilization of iron from the intestine to circulation.

  13. Evidence for a role of claudin 2 as a proximal tubular stress responsive paracellular water channel

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmes, Anja Aschauer, Lydia; Limonciel, Alice; Pfaller, Walter; Jennings, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Claudins are the major proteins of the tight junctions and the composition of claudin subtypes is decisive for the selective permeability of the paracellular route and thus tissue specific function. Their regulation is complex and subject to interference by several factors, including oxidative stress. Here we show that exposure of cultured human proximal tubule cells (RPTEC/TERT1) to the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine A (CsA) induces an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), a decrease in dome formation (on solid growth supports) and a decrease in water transport (on microporous growth supports). In addition, CsA induced a dramatic decrease in the mRNA for the pore forming claudins -2 and -10, and the main subunits of the Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase. Knock down of claudin 2 by shRNA had no discernable effect on TEER or dome formation but severely attenuated apical to basolateral water reabsorption when cultured on microporous filters. Generation of an osmotic gradient in the basolateral compartment rescued water transport in claudin 2 knock down cells. Inhibition of Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase with ouabain prevented dome formation in both cell types. Taken together these results provide strong evidence that dome formation is primarily due to transcellular water transport following a solute osmotic gradient. However, in RPTEC/TERT1 cells cultured on filters under iso-osmotic conditions, water transport is primarily paracellular, most likely due to local increases in osmolarity in the intercellular space. In conclusion, this study provides strong evidence that claudin 2 is involved in paracellular water transport and that claudin 2 expression is sensitive to compound induced cellular stress. - Highlights: • Cyclosporine A increased TEER and decreased water transport in RPTEC/TERT1 cells. • Claudins 2 and 10 were decreased in response to cyclosporine A. • Knock down of claudin 2 inhibited water transport in proximal tubular cells. • We

  14. Sex Differences in Renal Proximal Tubular Cell Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Seppi, Thomas; Prajczer, Sinikka; Dörler, Maria-Magdalena; Eiter, Oliver; Hekl, Daniel; Nevinny-Stickel, Meinhard; Skvortsova, Iraida; Gstraunthaler, Gerhard; Lukas, Peter; Lechner, Judith

    2016-10-01

    Studies in human patients and animals have revealed sex-specific differences in susceptibility to renal diseases. Because actions of female sex hormones on normal renal tissue might protect against damage, we searched for potential influences of the female hormone cycle on basic renal functions by studying excretion of urinary marker proteins in healthy human probands. We collected second morning spot urine samples of unmedicated naturally ovulating women, postmenopausal women, and men daily and determined urinary excretion of the renal tubular enzymes fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and glutathione-S-transferase-α Additionally, we quantified urinary excretion of blood plasma proteins α1-microglobulin, albumin, and IgG. Naturally cycling women showed prominent peaks in the temporal pattern of urinary fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and glutathione-S-transferase-α release exclusively within 7 days after ovulation or onset of menses. In contrast, postmenopausal women and men showed consistently low levels of urinary fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase excretion over comparable periods. We did not detect changes in urinary α1-microglobulin, albumin, or IgG excretion. Results of this study indicate that proximal tubular tissue architecture, representing a nonreproductive organ-derived epithelium, undergoes periodical adaptations phased by the female reproductive hormone cycle. The temporally delimited higher rate of enzymuria in ovulating women might be a sign of recurring increases of tubular cell turnover that potentially provide enhanced repair capacity and thus, higher resistance to renal damage.

  15. Angiotensin II induces apoptosis in renal proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Bhaskaran, Madhu; Reddy, Krishna; Radhakrishanan, Neetu; Franki, Nicholas; Ding, Guohua; Singhal, Pravin C

    2003-05-01

    ANG II has been demonstrated to play a role in the progression of tubulointerstial injury. We studied the direct effect of ANG II on apoptosis of cultured rat renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTECs). ANG II promoted RPTEC apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This effect of ANG II was attenuated by anti-transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta antibody. Moreover, TGF-beta triggered RPTEC apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. ANG II also enhanced RPTEC expression of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL); furthermore, anti-FasL antibody attenuated ANG II-induced RPTEC apoptosis. In addition, ANG II increased RPTEC expression of Bax, a cell death protein. Both ANG II type 1 (AT(1)) and type 2 (AT(2)) receptor blockers inhibited ANG II-induced RPTEC apoptosis. SB-202190, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and caspase-3 inhibitor also attenuated ANG II-induced RPTEC apoptosis. ANG II enhanced RPTEC heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression. Interestingly, pretreatment with hemin as well as curcumin (inducers of HO-1) inhibited the ANG II-induced tubular cell apoptosis; conversely, pretreatment with zinc protoporphyrin, an inhibitor of HO-1 expression, promoted the effect of ANG II. These results suggest that ANG II-induced apoptosis is mediated via both AT(1) and AT(2) receptors through the generation of TGF-beta, followed by the transcription of cell death genes such as Fas, FasL, and Bax. Modulation of tubular cell expression of HO-1 has an inverse relationship with the ANG II-induced tubular cell apoptosis.

  16. Troglitazone stimulates basolateral rheogenic Na+/HCO3- cotransport activity in rabbit proximal straight tubules.

    PubMed

    Muto, S; Miyata, Y; Imai, M; Asano, Y

    2001-01-01

    Thiazolidinedione derivatives, new insulin-sensitizing antidiabetic agents, are expected to have potential clinical use. Since these drugs cause edema in a variable proportion of patients, we examined whether troglitazone (Tro) has direct action on Na+ transport of rabbit proximal straight tubule perfused in vitro. For this purpose, we measured basolateral membrane voltage (V(B)) by conventional microelectrode techniques and intracellular pH (pH(i)) by microscopic fluorescence spectrophotometry with a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye, 2', 7'-bis-2-carboxyethyl-5-carboxyfluorescein. Tro at 50 microM in the bath significantly depolarized both transepithelial voltage and V(B). To examine whether the basolateral rheogenic Na+/HCO3- cotransport activity is affected by Tro, we observed V(B) deflection upon abrupt 10-fold decrease in bath HCO3- in the absence and presence of Tro. The apparent transference number of HCO3- (tHCO3), as calculated from the V(B) deflection, was significantly greater in the presence of Tro (50 microM) than that seen in its absence. Tro caused cell acidification and increased the intracellular acidification rates (dpH(i)/dt) upon abrupt 10-fold decreases in bath HCO3- and Na+ concentrations. The stimulatory effects of Tro on tHCO3 and dpH(i)/dt were dose dependent between 5 and 50 miccroM, but they were unaffected at 0.5 microM. From these results, we conclude that Tro acts on the proximal straight tubule and stimulates the basolateral rheogenic Na+/HCO3- cotransport activity. The stimulatory action of Tro may partly account for edema formation. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Effect of electroneutral luminal and basolateral lactate transport on intracellular pH in salamander proximal tubules

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    We used microelectrodes to examine the effects of organic substrates, particularly lactate (Lac-), on the intracellular pH (pHi) and basolateral membrane potential (Vbl) in isolated, perfused proximal tubules of the tiger salamander. Exposure of the luminal and basolateral membranes to 3.6 mM Lac- caused pHi to increase by approximately 0.2, opposite to the decrease expected from nonionic diffusion of lactic acid (HLac) into the cell. Addition of Lac- to only the lumen also caused alkalinization, but only if Na+ was present. This alkalinization was not accompanied by immediate Vbl changes, which suggests that it involves luminal, electroneutral Na/Lac cotransport. Addition of Lac- to only the basolateral solution caused pHi to decrease by approximately 0.08. The initial rate of this acidification was a saturable function of [Lac-], was not affected by removal of Na+, and was reversibly reduced by alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (CHC). Thus, the pHi decrease induced by basolateral Lac- appears to be due to the basolateral entry of H+ and Lac-, mediated by an H/Lac cotransporter (or a Lac-base exchanger). Our data suggest that this transporter is electroneutral and is not present at the luminal membrane. A key question is how the addition of Lac- to the lumen increases pHi. We found that inhibition of basolateral H/Lac cotransport by basolateral CHC reduced the initial rate of pHi increase caused by luminal Lac-. On the other hand, luminal CHC had no effect on the luminal Lac(-)-induced alkalinization. These data suggest that when Lac- is present in the lumen, it enters the cell from the lumen via electroneutral Na/Lac cotransport and then exists with H+ across the basolateral membrane via electroneutral H/Lac cotransport. The net effect is transepithelial Lac- reabsorption, basolateral acid extrusion, and intracellular alkalinization. PMID:3440860

  18. Physiological pH. Effects on posthypoxic proximal tubular injury.

    PubMed

    Zager, R A; Schimpf, B A; Gmur, D J

    1993-04-01

    After O2 deprivation, tissue acidosis rapidly self-corrects. This study assessed the effect of this pH correction on the induction, and pathways, of posthypoxic proximal tubular injury. In addition, ways to prevent the resultant injury were explored. Isolated rat proximal tubular segments (PTSs) were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (50/30 or 30/50 minutes) under the following incubation conditions: 1) continuous pH 7.4, 2) continuous pH 6.8, or 3) hypoxia at pH 6.8 and reoxygenation at pH 7.4 (NaHCO3 or Tris base addition). Continuously oxygenated PTSs maintained under these same pH conditions served as controls. Lethal cell injury was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. pH effects on several purported pathways of hypoxia/reoxygenation injury were also assessed (ATP depletion, lipid peroxidation, and membrane deacylation). Acidosis blocked hypoxic LDH release (pH 7.4, 50 +/- 2%; pH 6.8, 6 +/- 1%) without mitigating membrane deacylation or ATP depletion. During reoxygenation, minimal LDH was released (3-5%) if pH was held constant. However, if posthypoxic pH was corrected, immediate (< or = 5 minutes) and marked cell death (e.g., 55 +/- 3% with Tris) occurred. This was dissociated from lipid peroxidation or new deacylation, and it was preceded by a depressed ATP/ADP ratio (suggesting an acidosis-associated defect in hypoxic/posthypoxic cell energetics). Realkalinization injury was not inevitable, since it could be substantially blocked by 1) posthypoxic glycine addition, 2) transient posthypoxic hypothermia, or 3) allowing a 10-minute reoxygenation (cell recovery) period before base addition. Neither mannitol nor graded buffer Ca2+ deletion conferred protection. Acute pH correction caused no injury to continuously oxygenated PTSs. Conclusions are as follows: 1) Posthypoxic "pH shock" causes virtually immediate cell death, not by causing de novo injury but, rather, by removing the cytoprotective effect of acidosis. 2) This injury can be prevented by a

  19. Responses of proximal tubular cells to injury in congenital renal disease: fight or flight.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Robert L; Forbes, Michael S; Galarreta, Carolina I; Thornhill, Barbara A

    2014-04-01

    Most chronic kidney disease in children results from congenital or inherited disorders, which can be studied in mouse models. Following 2 weeks of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in the adult mouse, nephron loss is due to proximal tubular mitochondrial injury and cell death. In neonatal mice, proximal tubular cell death is delayed beyond 2 weeks of complete UUO, and release of partial UUO allows remodeling of remaining nephrons. Progressive cyst expansion develops in polycystic kidney disease (PKD), a common inherited renal disorder. The polycystic kidney and fibrosis (pcy)-mutant mouse (which develops late-onset PKD) develops thinning of the glomerulotubular junction in parallel with growth of cysts in adulthood. Renal insufficiency in nephropathic cystinosis, a rare inherited renal disorder, results from progressive tubular cystine accumulation. In the Ctns knockout mouse (a model of cystinosis), proximal tubular cells become flattened, with loss of mitochondria and thickening of tubular basement membrane. In each model, persistent obstructive or metabolic stress leads ultimately to the formation of atubular glomeruli. The initial "fight" response (proximal tubular survival) switches to a "flight" response (proximal tubular cell death) with ongoing oxidative injury and mitochondrial damage. Therapies should be directed at reducing proximal tubular mitochondrial oxidative injury to enhance repair and regeneration.

  20. Responses of Proximal Tubular Cells to Injury in Congenital Renal Disease: Fight or Flight

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Robert L.; Forbes, Michael S.; Galarreta, Carolina I.; Thornhill, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Most chronic kidney disease in children results from congenital or inherited disorders, which can be studied in mouse models. Following 2 weeks of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in the adult mouse, nephron loss is due to proximal tubular mitochondrial injury and cell death. In neonatal mice, proximal tubular cell death is delayed beyond 2 weeks of complete UUO, and release of partial UUO allows remodeling of remaining nephrons. Progressive cyst expansion develops in polycystic kidney disease (PKD), a common inherited renal disorder. The PCY mutant mouse (which develops late-onset PKD) develops thinning of the glomerulotubular junction in parallel with growth of cysts in adulthood. Renal insufficiency in nephropathic cystinosis, a rare inherited renal disorder, results from progressive tubular cystine accumulation. In the Ctns knock out mouse (a model of cystinosis), proximal tubular cells become flattened, with loss of mitochondria and thickening of tubular basement membrane. In each model, persistent obstructive or metabolic stress leads ultimately to the formation of atubular glomeruli. The initial “fight” response (proximal tubular survival) switches to a “flight” response (proximal tubular cell death) with ongoing oxidative injury and mitochondrial damage. Therapies should be directed at reducing proximal tubular mitochondrial oxidative injury to enhance repair and regeneration. PMID:23949631

  1. Glucose-Induced Down Regulation of Thiamine Transporters in the Kidney Proximal Tubular Epithelium Produces Thiamine Insufficiency in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, James R.; Zhang, Fang; Godfrey, Lisa; Molostvov, Guerman; Zehnder, Daniel; Rabbani, Naila; Thornalley, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Increased renal clearance of thiamine (vitamin B1) occurs in experimental and clinical diabetes producing thiamine insufficiency mediated by impaired tubular re-uptake and linked to the development of diabetic nephropathy. We studied the mechanism of impaired renal re-uptake of thiamine in diabetes. Expression of thiamine transporter proteins THTR-1 and THTR-2 in normal human kidney sections examined by immunohistochemistry showed intense polarised staining of the apical, luminal membranes in proximal tubules for THTR-1 and THTR-2 of the cortex and uniform, diffuse staining throughout cells of the collecting duct for THTR-1 and THTR-2 of the medulla. Human primary proximal tubule epithelial cells were incubated with low and high glucose concentration, 5 and 26 mmol/l, respectively. In high glucose concentration there was decreased expression of THTR-1 and THTR-2 (transporter mRNA: −76% and −53% respectively, p<0.001; transporter protein −77% and −83% respectively, p<0.05), concomitant with decreased expression of transcription factor specificity protein-1. High glucose concentration also produced a 37% decrease in apical to basolateral transport of thiamine transport across cell monolayers. Intensification of glycemic control corrected increased fractional excretion of thiamine in experimental diabetes. We conclude that glucose-induced decreased expression of thiamine transporters in the tubular epithelium may mediate renal mishandling of thiamine in diabetes. This is a novel mechanism of thiamine insufficiency linked to diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23285265

  2. Chlorotrifluoroethylcysteine interaction with rabbit proximal tubule cell basolateral membrane organic anion transport and apical membrane amino acid transport.

    PubMed

    Groves, C E; Morales, M N

    1999-11-01

    The interaction of the cysteine conjugate S-(1-chloro-1,2,2, -trifluoroethyl)-L-cysteine (CTFC) with organic anion and amino acid transport in the basolateral and apical membranes was examined with rabbit renal proximal tubule suspensions and primary cultures of rabbit renal proximal tubule cells. The apparent K(i) for CTFC inhibition of the 1-min uptake of [(3)H]p-aminohippurate in tubule suspensions was 105+/-3 microM and suggests that CTFC interacts with basolateral organic anion transport. Also, the addition of 1 mM CTFC decreased the secretion and intracellular accumulation of fluorescein by approximately 70 to 75%. The addition of 1 mM CTFC to the apical compartment decreased the reabsorption and intracellular accumulation of the amino acid [(3)H]phenylalanine by approximately 60 to 70%. Similar to CTFC, saturating concentrations of the organic anion [(3)H]p-aminohippurate and the amino acid phenylalanine reduced by approximately 75% fluorescein secretion and [(3)H]phenylalanine reabsorption, respectively, by approximately 60 to 70%. Thus, the cysteine conjugate CTFC appears to be a potent inhibitor of basolateral organic anion and apical amino acid transepithelial transport. In contrast to its effects on apical phenylalanine uptake, CTFC had no effect on the basal uptake of [(3)H]phenylalanine by primary cultures. The presence of CTFC in the external bath did trans-stimulate the efflux of fluorescein and [(3)H]phenylalanine across the basal and apical membrane in tubule suspensions or primary cultures, respectively, grown on plastic. Collectively, these data demonstrate that CTFC interacts with, and is transported by, two anatomically and functionally distinct transporters, the basolateral organic anion and apical neutral amino acid pathways, in the rabbit renal proximal tubule cell.

  3. NaCl reflection coefficients in proximal tubule apical and basolateral membrane vesicles. Measurement by induced osmosis and solvent drag.

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, D; Verkman, A S

    1989-01-01

    Two independent methods, induced osmosis and solvent drag, were used to determine the reflection coefficients for NaCl (sigma NaCl) in brush border and basolateral membrane vesicles isolated from rabbit proximal tubule. In the induced osmosis method, vesicles loaded with sucrose were subjected to varying inward NaCl gradients in a stopped-flow apparatus. sigma NaCl was determined from the osmolality of the NaCl solution required to cause no initial osmotic water flux as measured by light scattering (null point). By this method sigma NaCl was greater than 0.92 for both apical and basolateral membranes with best estimates of 1.0. sigma NaCl was determined by the solvent drag method using the Cl-sensitive fluorescent indicator, 6-methoxy-N-[3-sulfopropyl]quinolinium (SPQ), to detect the drag of Cl into vesicles by inward osmotic water movement caused by an outward osmotic gradient. sigma NaCl was determined by comparing experimental data with theoretical curves generated using the coupled flux equations of Kedem and Katchalsky. By this method we found that sigma NaCl was greater than 0.96 for apical and greater than 0.98 for basolateral membrane vesicles, with best estimates of 1.0 for both membranes. These results demonstrate that sigma NaCl for proximal tubule apical and basolateral membranes are near unity. Taken together with previous results, these data suggest that proximal tubule water channels are long narrow pores that exclude NaCl. PMID:2765660

  4. Human embryonic stem cells differentiate into functional renal proximal tubular-like cells.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Karthikeyan; Schumacher, Karl M; Tasnim, Farah; Kandasamy, Karthikeyan; Schumacher, Annegret; Ni, Ming; Gao, Shujun; Gopalan, Began; Zink, Daniele; Ying, Jackie Y

    2013-04-01

    Renal cells are used in basic research, disease models, tissue engineering, drug screening, and in vitro toxicology. In order to provide a reliable source of human renal cells, we developed a protocol for the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into renal epithelial cells. The differentiated stem cells expressed markers characteristic of renal proximal tubular cells and their precursors, whereas markers of other renal cell types were not expressed or expressed at low levels. Marker expression patterns of these differentiated stem cells and in vitro cultivated primary human renal proximal tubular cells were comparable. The differentiated stem cells showed morphological and functional characteristics of renal proximal tubular cells, and generated tubular structures in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the differentiated stem cells contributed in organ cultures for the formation of simple epithelia in the kidney cortex. Bioreactor experiments showed that these cells retained their functional characteristics under conditions as applied in bioartificial kidneys. Thus, our results show that human embryonic stem cells can differentiate into renal proximal tubular-like cells. Our approach would provide a source for human renal proximal tubular cells that are not affected by problems associated with immortalized cell lines or primary cells.

  5. Tumor-promoting phorbol esters effect alkalinization of canine renal proximal tubular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mellas, J.; Hammerman, M.R.

    1986-03-01

    We have demonstrated the presence of specific receptors for tumor-promoting phorbol esters in the plasma membrane of the canine renal proximal tubular cell. These compounds affect proximal tubular metabolism in vitro. For example, we have shown that they inhibit gluconeogenesis in canine renal proximal tubular segments. Tumor-promoting phorbol esters have been shown to effect alkalinization of non-renal cells, by enhancing Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ exchange across the plasma membrane. To determine whether the actions of tumor-promoting phorbol esters in proximal tubular segments might be mediated by a similar process, we incubated suspensions of segments from dog kidney with these compounds and measured changes in intracellular pH using (/sup 14/C)-5,5-dimethoxazoladine-2-4-dione (DMO) and flow dialysis. Incubation of segments with phorbol 12,13 dibutyrate, but not inactive phorbol ester, 4 ..gamma.. phorbol, effected alkalinization of cells within the segments in a concentration-dependent manner. Alkalinization was dependent upon the presence of extracellular (Na/sup +/) > intracellular (Na/sup +/), was prevented by amiloride and was demonstrable in the presence of SITS. Our findings suggest that tumor-promoting esters stimulate the Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ exchanger known to be present in the brush border membrane of the renal proximal tubular cell. It is possible that the stimulation reflects a mechanism by which phorbol esters affect metabolic processes in these cells.

  6. Proximal renal tubular acidosis mediated by mutations in NBCe1-A: unraveling the transporter's structure-functional properties

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Ira; Zhu, Quansheng

    2013-01-01

    NBCe1 belongs to the SLC4 family of base transporting membrane proteins that plays a significant role in renal, extrarenal, and systemic acid-base homeostasis. Recent progress has been made in characterizing the structure-function properties of NBCe1 (encoded by the SLC4A4 gene), and those factors that regulate its function. In the kidney, the NBCe1-A variant that is expressed on the basolateral membrane of proximal tubule is the key transporter responsible for overall transepithelial bicarbonate absorption in this nephron segment. NBCe1 mutations impair transepithelial bicarbonate absorption causing the syndrome of proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA). Studies of naturally occurring NBCe1 mutant proteins in heterologous expression systems have been very helpful in elucidation the structure-functional properties of the transporter. NBCe1 mutations are now known to cause pRTA by various mechanisms including the alteration of the transporter function (substrate ion interaction, electrogenicity), abnormal processing to the plasma membrane, and a perturbation in its structural properties. The elucidation of how NBCe1 mutations cause pRTA in addition to the recent studies which have provided further insight into the topology of the transporter have played an important role in uncovering its critically important structural-function properties. PMID:24391589

  7. Changes in Proximal and Distal Tubular Reabsorption Produced by Rapid Expansion of Extracellular Fluid*

    PubMed Central

    Hayslett, John P.; Kashgarian, Michael; Epstein, Franklin H.

    1967-01-01

    Acute infusions of isotonic saline in the rat cause an increase in glomerular filtration rate and in the excretion of salt and water. The kidney swells, due to expansion of tubular and interstitial volume. Despite the increase in tubular diameter, transit time through the proximal tubules and loops of Henle is decreased, presumably owing to a greatly accelerated rate of tubular flow. Proximal tubular reabsorption, measured in blocked tubules, is inhibited in a way that cannot be ascribed to changes in tubular diameter. The prolongation of proximal reabsorptive half-time is not affected by the administration of aldosterone. It occurs equally in rats chronically loaded with or deprived of salt, and it is therefore not likely that it is influenced by the renal content of renin. In contrast, reabsorption from the distal convoluted tubule is enhanced by saline infusion. This change is observed in segments of tubules blocked with oil and isolated from their glomeruli and thus appears to occur independently of changes in glomerular filtration or tubular flow. Images PMID:6027087

  8. Intracellular pH regulation in the renal proximal tubule of the salamander. Basolateral HCO3- transport

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    We have used pH-, Na-, and Cl-sensitive microelectrodes to study basolateral HCO3- transport in isolated, perfused proximal tubules of the tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. In one series of experiments, we lowered basolateral pH (pHb) from 7.5 to 6.8 by reducing [HCO3-]b from 10 to 2 mM at a constant pCO2. This reduction of pHb and [HCO3-]b causes a large (approximately 0.35), rapid fall in pHi as well as a transient depolarization of the basolateral membrane. Returning pHb and [HCO3-]b to normal has the opposite effects. Similar reductions of luminal pH (pHl) and [HCO3-]l have only minor effects. The reduction of [HCO3-]b and pHb also produces a reversible fall in aiNa. In a second series of experiments, we reduced [Na+]b at constant [HCO3-]b and pHb, and also observed a rapid fall in pHi and a transient basolateral depolarization. These changes are reversed by returning [Na+]b to normal. The effects of altering [Na+]l in the presence of HCO3-, or of altering [Na+]b in the nominal absence of HCO3-, are substantially less. Although the effects on pHi and basolateral membrane potential of altering either [HCO3-]b or [Na+]b are largely blocked by 4-acetamido-4- isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (SITS), they are not affected by removal of Cl-, nor are there accompanying changes in aiCl consistent with a tight linkage between Cl- fluxes and those of Na+ and HCO3-. The aforementioned changes are apparently mediated by a single transport system, not involving Cl-. We conclude that HCO3- transport is restricted to the basolateral membrane, and that HCO3- fluxes are linked to those of Na+. The data are compatible with an electrogenic Na/HCO3 transporter that carries Na+, HCO3-, and net negative charge in the same direction. PMID:6833997

  9. The human NBCe1-A mutant R881C, associated with proximal renal tubular acidosis, retains function but is mistargeted in polarized renal epithelia.

    PubMed

    Toye, Ashley M; Parker, Mark D; Daly, Christopher M; Lu, Jing; Virkki, Leila V; Pelletier, Marc F; Boron, Walter F

    2006-10-01

    The human electrogenic renal Na-HCO(3) cotransporter (NBCe1-A; SLC4A4) is localized to the basolateral membrane of proximal tubule cells. Mutations in the SLC4A4 gene cause an autosomal recessive proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA), a disease characterized by impaired ability of the proximal tubule to reabsorb HCO(3)(-) from the glomerular filtrate. Other symptoms can include mental retardation and ocular abnormalities. Recently, a novel homozygous missense mutant (R881C) of NBCe1-A was reported from a patient with a severe pRTA phenotype. The mutant protein was described as having a lower than normal activity when expressed in Xenopus oocytes, despite having normal Na(+) affinity. However, without trafficking data, it is impossible to determine the molecular basis for the phenotype. In the present study, we expressed wild-type NBCe1-A (WT) and mutant NBCe1-A (R881C), tagged at the COOH terminus with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). This approach permitted semiquantification of surface expression in individual Xenopus oocytes before assay by two-electrode voltage clamp or measurements of intracellular pH. These data show that the mutation reduces the surface expression rather than the activity of the individual protein molecules. Confocal microscopy on polarized mammalian epithelial kidney cells [Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)I] expressing nontagged WT or R881C demonstrates that WT is expressed at the basolateral membrane of these cells, whereas R881C is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. In summary, the pathophysiology of pRTA caused by the R881C mutation is likely due to a deficit of NBCe1-A at the proximal tubule basolateral membrane, rather than a defect in the transport activity of individual molecules.

  10. Ionic requirements of proximal tubular sodium transport. II. Hydrogen ion.

    PubMed

    Green, R; Giebisch, G

    1975-11-01

    Simultaneous perfusion to proximal convoluted tubules and peritubular capillaries was used to study the effects of different perfusion fluids on sodium reabsorption and hydrogen secretion, which was calculated as bicarbonate reabsorption and titratable acid. Results show that sodium reabsorption was not tightly coupled to hydrogen secretion. Bicarbonate stimulates both sodium reabsorption and hydrogen secretion, but Tris stimulates only sodium reabsorption. Imposing an adverse chloride gradient across the proximal tubule (C1- peritubular greater than C1- luminal) decreased sodium reabsorption but did not diminish hydrogen secretion. Diamox inhibited both net sodium and hydrogen transport. It is concluded that there is not firm linkage between sodium reabsorption and hydrogen secretion and that bicarbonate probably stimulates sodium transport by a number of mechanisms, including an effect on the sodium transport unrelated to its ability to increase hydrogen ion secretion.

  11. Successful treatment of proximal renal tubular acidosis and Fanconi syndrome with vitamin D replacement.

    PubMed

    Ali, Syed Ahsan; Tariq, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Proximal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), also known as Type II RTA, is characterized by a defect in the ability to reabsorb bicarbonate (HCO 3 ) in the proximal tubule. It is usually associated with generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubule as part of Fanconi syndrome. Very few case reports in the literature support Vitamin D deficiency as a cause of proximal RTA. We present a case of a young female who presented with proximal RTA and Fanconi syndrome and excellently responded to Vitamin D replacement. Thus, work-up for the etiology of proximal RTA should include Vitamin D levels since replacement of this vitamin in those who are deficient can lead to cure of such patients.

  12. Characterization of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Ectodomain Shedding from Mouse Proximal Tubular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Fengxia; Zimpelmann, Joseph; Agaybi, Samih; Gurley, Susan B.; Puente, Lawrence; Burns, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is highly expressed in the kidney proximal tubule, where it cleaves angiotensin (Ang) II to Ang-(1-7). Urinary ACE2 levels increase in diabetes, suggesting that ACE2 may be shed from tubular cells. The aim of this study was to determine if ACE2 is shed from proximal tubular cells, to characterize ACE2 fragments, and to study pathways for shedding. Studies involved primary cultures of mouse proximal tubular cells, with ACE2 activity measured using a synthetic substrate, and analysis of ACE2 fragments by immunoblots and mass spectrometry. The culture media from mouse proximal tubular cells demonstrated a time-dependent increase in ACE2 activity, suggesting constitutive ACE2 shedding. ACE2 was detected in media as two bands at ∼90 kDa and ∼70 kDa on immunoblots. By contrast, full-length ACE2 appeared at ∼100 kDa in cell lysates or mouse kidney cortex. Mass spectrometry of the two deglycosylated fragments identified peptides matching mouse ACE2 at positions 18-706 and 18-577, respectively. The C-terminus of the 18-706 peptide fragment contained a non-tryptic site, suggesting that Met706 is a candidate ACE2 cleavage site. Incubation of cells in high D-glucose (25 mM) (and to a lesser extent Ang II) for 48–72 h increased ACE2 activity in the media (p<0.001), an effect blocked by inhibition of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)17. High D-glucose increased ADAM17 activity in cell lysates (p<0.05). These data indicate that two glycosylated ACE2 fragments are constitutively shed from mouse proximal tubular cells. ACE2 shedding is stimulated by high D-glucose, at least partly via an ADAM17-mediated pathway. The results suggest that proximal tubular shedding of ACE2 may increase in diabetes, which could enhance degradation of Ang II in the tubular lumen, and increase levels of Ang-(1-7). PMID:24454948

  13. Topological location and structural importance of the NBCe1-A residues mutated in proximal renal tubular acidosis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Quansheng; Kao, Liyo; Azimov, Rustam; Newman, Debra; Liu, Weixin; Pushkin, Alexander; Abuladze, Natalia; Kurtz, Ira

    2010-04-30

    NBCe1-A electrogenically cotransports Na(+) and HCO(3)(-) across the basolateral membrane of renal proximal tubule cells. Eight missense mutations and 3 nonsense mutations in NBCe1-A cause severe proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA). In this study, the topologic properties and structural importance of the 8 endogenous residues mutated in pRTA and the in situ topology of NBCe1-A were examined by the substituted cysteine accessibility method. Of the 55 analyzed individually introduced cysteines, 8 were labeled with both membrane permeant (biotin maleimide (BM)) and impermeant (2-((5(6)-tetramethylrhodamine)carboxylamino)ethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTS-TAMRA)) sulfhydryl reagents, 4 with only BM, and 3 with only MTS-TAMRA. The location of the labeled and unlabeled introduced cysteines clearly indicates that the transmembrane region of NBCe1-A contains 14 transmembrane segments (TMs). In this in situ based NBCe1-A topology, residues mutated in pRTA (pRTA residues) are assigned as: Ser(427), TM1; Thr(485) and Gly(486), TM3; Arg(510) and Leu(522), TM4; Ala(799), TM10; and Arg(881), TM12. Substitution of pRTA residues with cysteines impaired the membrane trafficking of R510C and R881C, the remaining membrane-processed constructs had various impaired transport function. Surprisingly, none of the membrane-processed constructs was accessible to labeling with BM and MTS-TAMRA, nor were they functionally sensitive to the inhibition by (2-aminoethyl)methanethiosulfonate. Functional analysis of Thr(485) with different amino acid substitutions indicated it resides in a unique region important for NBCe1-A function. Our findings demonstrate that the pRTA residues in NBCe1-A are buried in the protein complex/lipid bilayer where they perform important structural roles.

  14. Topological Location and Structural Importance of the NBCe1-A Residues Mutated in Proximal Renal Tubular Acidosis*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Quansheng; Kao, Liyo; Azimov, Rustam; Newman, Debra; Liu, Weixin; Pushkin, Alexander; Abuladze, Natalia; Kurtz, Ira

    2010-01-01

    NBCe1-A electrogenically cotransports Na+ and HCO3− across the basolateral membrane of renal proximal tubule cells. Eight missense mutations and 3 nonsense mutations in NBCe1-A cause severe proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA). In this study, the topologic properties and structural importance of the 8 endogenous residues mutated in pRTA and the in situ topology of NBCe1-A were examined by the substituted cysteine accessibility method. Of the 55 analyzed individually introduced cysteines, 8 were labeled with both membrane permeant (biotin maleimide (BM)) and impermeant (2-((5(6)-tetramethylrhodamine)carboxylamino)ethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTS-TAMRA)) sulfhydryl reagents, 4 with only BM, and 3 with only MTS-TAMRA. The location of the labeled and unlabeled introduced cysteines clearly indicates that the transmembrane region of NBCe1-A contains 14 transmembrane segments (TMs). In this in situ based NBCe1-A topology, residues mutated in pRTA (pRTA residues) are assigned as: Ser427, TM1; Thr485 and Gly486, TM3; Arg510 and Leu522, TM4; Ala799, TM10; and Arg881, TM12. Substitution of pRTA residues with cysteines impaired the membrane trafficking of R510C and R881C, the remaining membrane-processed constructs had various impaired transport function. Surprisingly, none of the membrane-processed constructs was accessible to labeling with BM and MTS-TAMRA, nor were they functionally sensitive to the inhibition by (2-aminoethyl)methanethiosulfonate. Functional analysis of Thr485 with different amino acid substitutions indicated it resides in a unique region important for NBCe1-A function. Our findings demonstrate that the pRTA residues in NBCe1-A are buried in the protein complex/lipid bilayer where they perform important structural roles. PMID:20197274

  15. Modulation of proximal tubular hydraulic conductivity by peritubular capillary oncotic pressure.

    PubMed

    Agerup, B; Persson, A E

    1982-07-01

    Fluid absorption from the proximal tubular lumen is probably a multifactorial process. Earlier studies from our laboratory have indicated that a transepithelial hydrostatic and oncotic pressure difference may be the driving force for as much as 30% of the reabsorbed fluid. During saline volume expansion proximal tubular reabsorption declines and the present experiments were undertaken to investigate whether this reduction could be caused by changes in the passively driven flux component. The hydraulic conductivity was therefore determined from the reabsorptive rate in split oil droplets with normal and high hydrostatic pressure gradients across the wall, at the same time as the peritubular capillary net-work was perfused with solutions containing a colloid of high or low concentration. In the reabsorption experiments the split oil droplet radius was measured and in a separate series of experiments the relationship between droplet radius and pressure was determined; this was found to be 7.3 mmHg pressure increase per 1 micrometer increase in radius. The increase in the rate of reabsorption from the droplets due to increased intraluminal hydrostatic pressure was 1.02 +/- 0.13 nl/min/mm tubular length when a solution with a high colloid concentration was perfused through the capillary net-work, compared with 0.41=0.11 nl/min/mm tubular length when a low colloid containing solution was used for perfusion. The hydraulic conductance in the proximal tubular wall at high colloid perfusion was calculated to be 0.54 nl/min.mm.mmHg while at a low capillary colloid oncotic pressure it was significantly lower 0.025 nl/min.mm.mmHg. This drop in hydraulic conductance might be one factor responsible for the decline in fluid absorption in animals exposed to saline volume expansion.

  16. p-Cresol mediates autophagic cell death in renal proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Hung; Huang, Chiu-Ching; Lin, Tze-Yi; Lin, Ching-Yuang

    2015-04-02

    Higher serum level of p-cresol (PC) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients has been linked with CKD progression. The toxic effect of PC on diverse cells has been reported by prior studies, except for renal tubular cells. Both autophagy and apoptosis contribute to renal tubular cell death, yet evidence of its response to PC is limited and their crosstalk is still unclear. Autophagy is an important cellular process involved in toxin-induced cell death. Renal tubular cell death in tubular injury is thought to be one of the key events causing the progression of CKD. Thus, we treated rat (NRK-52E) and human (HRPTEC) renal proximal tubular cells (RPTC) with PC and found the cell proliferation was significantly decreased. Cell apoptosis was significantly increased and accompanied with the activation of autophagy as evidenced by increases in LC3-II, beclin 1 and Atg 4. We also found an increase of p62 by c-Jun activation. p62 accumulation could mediate the activation of caspase 8-dependent cell apoptosis. Conversely, knockdown of p62 by siRNA of p62 had the opposite effect by arresting LC3-II accumulation and promoting increasing cell viability. We conclude that PC triggered autophagic RPTC death via JNK-mediated p62 accumulation and then activated caspase 8-dependent cell death pathway. PC can be considered as one of the key events causing progression of CKD, which might affect drug disposition in CKD cases.

  17. Endo-Lysosomal Dysfunction in Human Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells Deficient for Lysosomal Cystine Transporter Cystinosin

    PubMed Central

    Van Den Heuvel, Lambertus; Pastore, Anna; Dijkman, Henry; De Matteis, Maria Antonietta; Levtchenko, Elena N.

    2015-01-01

    Nephropathic cystinosis is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the CTNS gene encoding cystine transporter cystinosin that results in accumulation of amino acid cystine in the lysosomes throughout the body and especially affects kidneys. Early manifestations of the disease include renal Fanconi syndrome, a generalized proximal tubular dysfunction. Current therapy of cystinosis is based on cystine-lowering drug cysteamine that postpones the disease progression but offers no cure for the Fanconi syndrome. We studied the mechanisms of impaired reabsorption in human proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC) deficient for cystinosin and investigated the endo-lysosomal compartments of cystinosin-deficient PTEC by means of light and electron microscopy. We demonstrate that cystinosin-deficient cells had abnormal shape and distribution of the endo-lysosomal compartments and impaired endocytosis, with decreased surface expression of multiligand receptors and delayed lysosomal cargo processing. Treatment with cysteamine improved surface expression and lysosomal cargo processing but did not lead to a complete restoration and had no effect on the abnormal morphology of endo-lysosomal compartments. The obtained results improve our understanding of the mechanism of proximal tubular dysfunction in cystinosis and indicate that impaired protein reabsorption can, at least partially, be explained by abnormal trafficking of endosomal vesicles. PMID:25811383

  18. Binding of IGF I and IGF I-stimulated phosphorylation in canine renal basolateral membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerman, M.R.; Gavin, J.R. III

    1986-07-01

    To characterize the interaction of the renal proximal tubular cell with insulin like growth factor I (IGF I), we measured binding of /sup 125/I-IGF I to proximal tubular basolateral membranes from dog kidney and induced IGF I-stimulated phosphorylation of basolateral membranes. Specific binding of /sup 125/I-IGF I to basolateral membranes was observed that was half-maximal at between 10(-9) and 10(-8) M IGF I. /sup 125/I-IGF I was affinity cross-linked to a 135,000 Mr protein in basolateral membranes that was distinct from the alpha-subunit of the insulin receptor and from the IGF II receptor. IGF I-stimulated phosphorylation of a 92,000 Mr protein was effected in detergent-solubilized membranes incubated with 100 microM (gamma-/sup 32/P)ATP. The /sup 32/P-labeled protein was distinct from the beta-subunit of the insulin receptor, the /sup 32/P phosphorylation of which was stimulated by insulin. We conclude that specific receptors for IGF I are present in the basolateral membrane of the renal proximal tubular cell. Physiological actions of IGF I at this nephron site may occur through the binding of this peptide circulating in plasma, to specific basolateral membrane receptors, followed by IGF I stimulated phosphorylation.

  19. Polarity of response to transforming growth factor-beta1 in proximal tubular epithelial cells is regulated by beta-catenin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Lee, Chien-Hung; Luo, Dong Dong; Krupa, Aleksandra; Fraser, Donald; Phillips, Aled

    2007-09-28

    Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1)-mediated loss of proximal tubular epithelial cell-cell interaction is regulated in a polarized fashion. The aim of this study was to further explore the polarity of the TGF-beta1 response and to determine the significance of R-Smad-beta-catenin association previously demonstrated to accompany adherens junction disassembly. Smad3 signaling response to TGF-beta1 was assessed by activity of the Smad3-responsive reporter gene construct (SBE)(4)-Lux and by immunoblotting for phospho-Smad proteins. Similar results were obtained with both methods. Apical application of TGF-beta1 led to increased Smad3 signaling compared with basolateral stimulation. Association of Smad proteins with beta-catenin was greater following basolateral TGFbeta-1 stimulation, as was the expression of cytoplasmic Triton-soluble beta-catenin. Inhibition of beta-catenin expression by small interfering RNA augmented Smad3 signaling. Lithium chloride, a GSK-3 inhibitor, increased expression of beta-catenin and attenuated TGF-beta1-dependent Smad3 signaling. Lithium chloride did not influence degradation of Smad3 but resulted in decreased nuclear translocation. Smad2 activation as assessed by Western blot analysis and activity of the Smad2-responsive reporter constructs ARE/MF1 was also greater following apical as compared with basolateral TGFbeta-1 stimulation, suggesting that this is a generally applicable mechanism for the regulation of TGF-beta1-dependent R-Smads. Caco-2 cells are a colonic carcinoma cell line, with known resistance to the anti-proliferative effects of TGF-beta1 and increased expression of beta-catenin. We used this cell line to address the general applicability of our observations. Inhibition of beta-catenin in this cell line by small interfering RNA resulted in increased TGF-beta1-dependent Smad3 phosphorylation and restoration of TGF-beta1 anti-proliferative effects.

  20. Mitogenic action of lysophosphatidic acid in proximal tubular epithelial cells obtained from voided human urine.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, N; Inoue, C N; Kondo, Y; Iinuma, K

    2000-12-01

    Focal tubular cell multiplication at sites on an injured nephron is a critical event in the recovery phase following acute tubular necrosis. During this process, numerous viable tubular cells exfoliate and are shed into the urine. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is generated in the plasma membrane of injured cells and acts as an intercellular mediator of various biological processes, including inflammation, proliferation and repair. In the present study, exfoliated proximal tubule (PT) cells were isolated from human urine and the mitogenic effects of LPA were investigated as a model of repair and proliferation following renal injury. LPA stimulated a 23. 5% increase in DNA synthesis, a 29.4% increase in cell number and an 86.6% decrease in cAMP content. All of these responses were pertussis toxin sensitive, indicating the involvement of G(i)-type G-proteins in LPA signalling. Conversely, the LPA-induced DNA synthesis and the decrease in intracellular cAMP content were insensitive to wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), suggesting a mitogenic response via PI3K-independent mechanisms. Furthermore, we detected specific mRNA transcripts for the recently cloned human LPA-receptors, endothelial differentiation gene (Edg)-2 and Edg-4 (Edg-2>Edg-4) by reverse transcription-PCR in PT cells. Our data suggest that LPA may behave as a local growth factor in PT cells following tubular injury.

  1. Proximal renal tubular acidosis in pregnancy. A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Firmin, C J; Kruger, T F; Davids, R

    2007-01-01

    Renal tubular acidosis is usually associated with chronic renal conditions and is rarely encountered in pregnancy. It may be inherited causing osteomalacia and rickets in children or acquired following autoimmune diseases or following exposure to nephrotoxic agents. It is known to worsen during pregnancy and if left untreated may cause maternal and foetal morbidity or death. We report a 28-year-old woman, gravida 3 para 2, who presented at 30 weeks gestation with lethargy, weakness and generalized myalgia. Investigation revealed severe hypokalaemia and a systemic metabolic acidosis due to proximal renal tubular acidosis. Her previous pregnancies were both complicated by foetal losses at term. Following prompt correction of her electrolyte disturbance and metabolic acidosis, she went on to deliver a healthy female infant at term. Regular evaluation up to 1 year post-partum revealed mild persistence of her hypokalaemia. At 1 year, the infant showed no signs of the disorder and is growing normally.

  2. Angiotensin II stimulates vesicular H+-ATPase in rat proximal tubular cells

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Carsten A.; Giebisch, Gerhard; Lang, Florian; Geibel, John P.

    1998-01-01

    Two mechanisms of H+ ion secretion in the proximal tubule that mediate bicarbonate reabsorption have been identified: the brush border Na/H exchanger and electrogenic H+ ion secretion. Angiotensin II (AII) has been shown to be a regulator of the luminal Na+/H+ exchanger and the basolateral Na+/HCO3− cotransporter. In the present study, we examined the effects of AII on H+-ATPase activity in isolated proximal tubule fragments. H+-ATPase activity was assessed by monitoring intracellular pH after Na+ removal from the bath. In addition, we investigated the effects on pH recovery of the proton pump inhibitor bafilomycin A1, removal of Cl−, and of colchicine. pH was continuously measured with the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye 2′, 7′-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). Recovery of cell pH was observed in the absence of external Na+ and was significantly accelerated by AII. The AII-stimulated pH recovery was completely abolished by bafilomycin A1, by removal of Cl−, by NPPB [5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate; a potent Cl− channel blocker], and by colchicine. We conclude from these studies that AII stimulates proton extrusion via H+-ATPase by a Cl−-dependent process involving brush border insertion of vesicles. This process may contribute to up-regulation of HCO3− reabsorption along the proximal tubule when tubules are exposed to AII. PMID:9689138

  3. The swan-neck lesion: proximal tubular adaptation to oxidative stress in nephropathic cystinosis.

    PubMed

    Galarreta, Carolina I; Forbes, Michael S; Thornhill, Barbara A; Antignac, Corinne; Gubler, Marie-Claire; Nevo, Nathalie; Murphy, Michael P; Chevalier, Robert L

    2015-05-15

    Cystinosis is an inherited disorder resulting from a mutation in the CTNS gene, causing progressive proximal tubular cell flattening, the so-called swan-neck lesion (SNL), and eventual renal failure. To determine the role of oxidative stress in cystinosis, histologic sections of kidneys from C57BL/6 Ctns(-/-) and wild-type mice were examined by immunohistochemistry and morphometry from 1 wk to 20 mo of age. Additional mice were treated from 1 to 6 mo with vehicle or mitoquinone (MitoQ), an antioxidant targeted to mitochondria. The leading edge of the SNL lost mitochondria and superoxide production, and became surrounded by a thickened tubular basement membrane. Progression of the SNL as determined by staining with lectin from Lotus tetragonolobus accelerated after 3 mo, but was delayed by treatment with MitoQ (38 ± 4% vs. 28 ± 1%, P < 0.01). Through 9 mo, glomeruli had retained renin staining and intact macula densa, whereas SNL expressed transgelin, an actin-binding protein, but neither kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) nor cell death was observed. After 9 mo, clusters of proximal tubules exhibited localized oxidative stress (4-hydroxynonenal binding), expressed KIM-1, and underwent apoptosis, leading to the formation of atubular glomeruli and accumulation of interstitial collagen. We conclude that nephron integrity is initially maintained in the Ctns(-/-) mouse by adaptive flattening of cells of the SNL through loss of mitochondria, upregulation of transgelin, and thickened basement membrane. This adaptation ultimately fails in adulthood, with proximal tubular disruption, formation of atubular glomeruli, and renal failure. Antioxidant treatment targeted to mitochondria delays initiation of the SNL, and may provide therapeutic benefit in children with cystinosis.

  4. Basolateral membrane Na/base cotransport is dependent on CO2/HCO3 in the proximal convoluted tubule

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of basolateral membrane base transport was examined in the in vitro microperfused rabbit proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) in the absence and presence of ambient CO2/HCO3- by means of the microfluorometric measurement of cell pH. The buffer capacity of the cells measured using rapid NH3 washout was 42.8 +/- 5.6 mmol.liter-1.pH unit-1 in the absence and 84.6 +/- 7.3 mmol.liter-1.pH unit-1 in the presence of CO2/HCO3-. In the presence of CO2/HCO3-, lowering peritubular pH from 7.4 to 6.8 acidified the cell by 0.30 pH units and lowering peritubular Na from 147 to 0 mM acidified the cell by 0.25 pH units. Both effects were inhibited by peritubular 4-acetamido-4'- isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (SITS). In the absence of exogenous CO2/HCO3-, lowering peritubular pH from 7.4 to 6.8 acidified the cell by 0.25 pH units and lowering peritubular Na from 147 to 0 mM decreased cell pH by 0.20 pH units. Lowering bath pH from 7.4 to 6.8 induced a proton flux of 643 +/- 51 pmol.mm-1.min-1 in the presence of exogenous CO2/HCO3- and 223 +/- 27 pmol.mm-1.min-1 in its absence. Lowering bath Na from 147 to 0 mM induced proton fluxes of 596 +/- 77 pmol.mm-1.min-1 in its absence. The cell acidification induced by lowering bath pH or bath Na in the absence of CO2/HCO3- was inhibited by peritubular SITS or by acetazolamide, whereas peritubular amiloride had no effect. In the absence of exogenous CO2/HCO3-, cyanide blocked the cell acidification induced by bath Na removal, but was without effect in the presence of exogenous CO2/HCO3-. We reached the following conclusions. (a) The basolateral Na/base n greater than 1 cotransporter in the rabbit PCT has an absolute requirement for CO2/HCO3-. (b) In spite of this CO2 dependence, in the absence of exogenous CO2/HCO3-, metabolically produced CO2/HCO3- is sufficient to keep the transporter running at 30% of its control rate in the presence of ambient CO2/HCO3- . (c) There is no apparent amiloride-sensitive Na/H antiporter on

  5. IL-6 augments angiotensinogen in primary cultured renal proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Satou, Ryousuke; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A; Miyata, Kayoko; Ohashi, Naro; Urushihara, Maki; Acres, Omar W; Navar, L Gabriel; Kobori, Hiroyuki

    2009-11-13

    In human kidneys, the mechanisms underlying angiotensinogen (AGT) augmentation by interleukin 6 (IL-6) are poorly understood and the only information available is in HK-2, immortalized human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. Therefore, the present study was performed to elucidate the effects of IL-6 on AGT expression in primary cultured human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC) after characterization of HK-2 and RPTEC. RPTEC showed low basal AGT mRNA (11+/-1%) and protein (7.0+/-0.9%) expression, high IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) expression (282+/-17%), and low basal NF-kappaB (43+/-7%) and STAT3 (43+/-7%) activities compared to those in HK-2. In RPTEC, AGT mRNA and protein expressions were enhanced by IL-6 (172+/-31% and 378+/-39%, respectively). This AGT augmentation was attenuated by an IL-6R antibody. STAT3 phosphorylation (366+/-55% at 30min) and translocation were enhanced by IL-6. The AGT augmentation was attenuated by a STAT3 inhibitor. These data indicate that IL-6 increases AGT expression via STAT3 pathway in RPTEC.

  6. IL-6 Augments Angiotensinogen in Primary Cultured Renal Proximal Tubular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Satou, Ryousuke; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A.; Miyata, Kayoko; Ohashi, Naro; Urushihara, Maki; Acres, Omar W.; Navar, L. Gabriel; Kobori, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    In human kidneys, the mechanisms underlying angiotensinogen (AGT) augmentation by interleukin 6 (IL-6) are poorly understood and the only information available is in HK-2, immortalized human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. Therefore, the present study was performed to elucidate the effects of IL-6 on AGT expression in primary cultured human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC) after characterization of HK-2 and RPTEC. RPTEC showed low basal AGT mRNA (11±1%) and protein (7.0±0.9%) expression, high IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) expression (282±17%), and low basal NF-κB (43±7%) and STAT3 (43±7%) activities compared to those in HK-2. In RPTEC, AGT mRNA and protein expressions were enhanced by IL-6 (172±31% and 378±39%, respectively). This AGT augmentation was attenuated by an IL-6R antibody. STAT3 phosphorylation (366±55% at 30 min) and translocation were enhanced by IL-6. The AGT augmentation was attenuated by a STAT3 inhibitor. These data indicate that IL-6 increases AGT expression via STAT3 pathway in RPTEC. PMID:19583994

  7. Ketohexokinase-dependent metabolism of fructose induces proinflammatory mediators in proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Pietro; Gersch, Michael S; Mu, Wei; Scherer, Philip M; Kim, Kyung Mee; Gesualdo, Loreto; Henderson, George N; Johnson, Richard J; Sautin, Yuri Y

    2009-03-01

    Increased consumption of fructose may play an important role in the epidemic of metabolic syndrome and may presage the development of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Once in the cell, fructose is phosphorylated by ketohexokinase (KHK), leading to consumption of ATP, formation of AMP, and generation of uric acid through xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR). This study aimed to examine the direct effects of fructose in human kidney proximal tubular cells (HK-2) and whether they are mediated by the fructose metabolism via KHK. At a similar concentration to that observed in peripheral blood after a meal, fructose induced production of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and reactive oxygen species in HK-2 cells. Knockdown of KHK by stable transfection with small hairpin RNA demonstrated that these processes were KHK dependent. Several antioxidants, including specific inhibitors of NADPH oxidase and XOR, prevented MCP-1 secretion. We detected XOR mRNA in HK-2 cells and confirmed its activity by identifying uric acid by mass spectrometry. Fructose increased intracellular uric acid, and uric acid induced production of MCP-1 as well. In summary, postprandial concentrations of fructose stimulate redox- and urate-dependent inflammatory mediators in proximal tubular cells.

  8. Evidence for a role of claudin 2 as a proximal tubular stress responsive paracellular water channel.

    PubMed

    Wilmes, Anja; Aschauer, Lydia; Limonciel, Alice; Pfaller, Walter; Jennings, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Claudins are the major proteins of the tight junctions and the composition of claudin subtypes is decisive for the selective permeability of the paracellular route and thus tissue specific function. Their regulation is complex and subject to interference by several factors, including oxidative stress. Here we show that exposure of cultured human proximal tubule cells (RPTEC/TERT1) to the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine A (CsA) induces an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), a decrease in dome formation (on solid growth supports) and a decrease in water transport (on microporous growth supports). In addition, CsA induced a dramatic decrease in the mRNA for the pore forming claudins -2 and -10, and the main subunits of the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase. Knock down of claudin 2 by shRNA had no discernable effect on TEER or dome formation but severely attenuated apical to basolateral water reabsorption when cultured on microporous filters. Generation of an osmotic gradient in the basolateral compartment rescued water transport in claudin 2 knock down cells. Inhibition of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase with ouabain prevented dome formation in both cell types. Taken together these results provide strong evidence that dome formation is primarily due to transcellular water transport following a solute osmotic gradient. However, in RPTEC/TERT1 cells cultured on filters under iso-osmotic conditions, water transport is primarily paracellular, most likely due to local increases in osmolarity in the intercellular space. In conclusion, this study provides strong evidence that claudin 2 is involved in paracellular water transport and that claudin 2 expression is sensitive to compound induced cellular stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Proximal renal tubular function in myelomatosis: observations in the fourth Medical Research Council trial.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, E H; Forbes, M A; Crockson, R A; MacLennan, I C

    1984-01-01

    Proximal renal tubular function was studied in 522 consecutive patients entered into the Medical Research Council's fourth myelomatosis trial. Assessment was made at presentation after a 48 h period of hydration but before administration of chemotherapy. The most common abnormalities in the urine other than light chain proteinuria were raised concentrations of the low molecular weight proteins alpha 1-microglobulin and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. These were usually accompanied by increases in urinary beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase concentrations. The concentration of these substances in the urine directly correlated with urinary free light chain output. This tubular proteinuria was seen whether or not patients had impaired glomerular function, as assessed by a rise in serum creatinine concentration. Urinary concentrations of retinol binding protein, however, were generally increased only when serum creatinine concentrations were raised. This applied even when there were high concentrations of light chains, alpha 1-microglobulin, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, and beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase in the urine. There is therefore a selective tubular proteinuria in myelomatosis which is seen in almost all patients with urinary light chain values greater than 1 u/l. This proteinuria is generally reversible, when light chains no longer appear in the urine. Patients whose serum creatinine was greater than 200 mumol/l, however, had increased urinary output of retinol binding protein in addition to increased excretion of alpha 1-microglobulin, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, and beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase. Tubular proteinuria in many of these patients presenting in renal failure persisted even when light chain output was reduced after chemotherapy. PMID:6206095

  10. Proximal renal tubular injury in rats sub-chronically exposed to low fluoride concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Cárdenas-González, Mariana C.; Del Razo, Luz M.; Barrera-Chimal, Jonatan; Jacobo-Estrada, Tania; López-Bayghen, Esther; and others

    2013-11-01

    Fluoride is usually found in groundwater at a very wide range of concentration between 0.5 and 25 ppm. At present, few studies have assessed the renal effects of fluoride at environmentally relevant concentrations. Furthermore, most of these studies have used insensitive and nonspecific biomarkers of kidney injury. The aim of this study was to use early and sensitive biomarkers to evaluate kidney injury after fluoride exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations. Recently weaned male Wistar rats were exposed to low (15 ppm) and high (50 ppm) fluoride concentrations in drinking water for a period of 40 days. At the end of the exposure period, kidney injury biomarkers were measured in urine and renal mRNA expression levels were assessed by real time RT-PCR. Our results showed that the urinary kidney injury molecule (Kim-1), clusterin (Clu), osteopontin (OPN) and heat shock protein 72 excretion rate significantly increased in the group exposed to the high fluoride concentration. Accordingly, fluoride exposure increased renal Kim-1, Clu and OPN mRNA expression levels. Moreover, there was a significant dose-dependent increase in urinary β-2-microglobulin and cystatin-C excretion rate. Additionally, a tendency towards a dose dependent increase of tubular damage in the histopathological light microscopy findings confirmed the preferential impact of fluoride on the tubular structure. All of these changes occurred at early stages in which, the renal function was not altered. In conclusion using early and sensitive biomarkers of kidney injury, we were able to found proximal tubular alterations in rats sub-chronically exposed to fluoride. - Highlights: • Exposure to low concentrations of fluoride induced proximal tubular injury • Increase in urinary Kim-1, Clu, OPN and Hsp72 in 50 ppm fluoride-exposed group • Increase in urinary B2M and CysC in 15 and 50 ppm fluoride-exposed groups • Fluoride exposure increased renal Kim, Clu and OPN mRNA expression levels.

  11. The effect of maleate induced proximal tubular dysfunction on the renal handling of Tc-99m DMSA in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Provoost, A.P.; Van Aken, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the healthy kidney Tc-99m DMSA accumulates in the proximal tubular cells. Consequently, impairment of the reabsorptive function of these cells may alter the renal handling of this static renal imaging agent. The authors investigated in rats the effects of a sodiummaleate (Ma) (2mmol/kg iv) induced proximal tubular dysfunction on the renal accumulation and excretion of Tc-99m DMSA. Such a treatment results in a moderate fall of the glomerular filtration rate, glycosuria, aminoaciduria and a tubular proteinuria. In 7 adult male Wistar rats, Tc-99m DMSA scans were taken before Ma, on the day of treatment, and 1 week thereafter. The accumulation of Tc-99m DMSA in kidneys (Ki) and bladder (Bl) was determined at 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours after i.v. injection. The results, expressed as a percentage of the injected dose, are presented. The findings show that a reversible Ma induced impairment of the proximal reabsorptive capacity severely alters the renal tubular handling of Tc-99m DMSA. In contrast to the control situation, only a small fraction of the DMSA is retained in the kidney and the majority is transported directly to the urinary bladder. When similar alterations are observed in clinical Tc-99m DMSA scans, this may be an indication of an impairment of the proximal tubular function.

  12. Isoflurane alters proximal tubular cell susceptibility to toxic and hypoxic forms of attack.

    PubMed

    Zager, R A; Burkhart, K M; Conrad, D S

    1999-01-01

    Fluorinated anesthetics can profoundly alter plasma membrane structure and function, potentially impacting cell injury responses. Because major surgery often precipitates acute renal failure, this study assessed whether the most commonly used fluorinated anesthetic, isoflurane, alters tubular cell responses to toxic and hypoxic attack. Mouse proximal tubule segments were incubated under control conditions or with a clinically relevant isoflurane dose. Cell viability (lactate dehydrogenase release), deacylation (fatty acid, such as C20:4 levels), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations were assessed under one or more of the following conditions: (a) exogenous phospholipase A2 (PLA2) or C20:4 addition, (b) Ca2+ overload (A23187 ionophore), (c) increased metabolic work (Na ionophore), and (d) hypoxia- or antimycin A-induced attack. Isoflurane's effect on NBD phosphatidylserine uptake (an index of plasma membrane aminophospholipid translocase activity) was also assessed. Isoflurane alone caused trivial deacylation and no lactate dehydrogenase release. However, it strikingly sensitized to both PLA2- and A23187-induced deacylation and cell death. Isoflurane also exacerbated C20:4's direct membrane lytic effect. Under conditions of mild ATP depletion (Na ionophore-induced increased ATP consumption; PLA2-induced mitochondrial suppression), isoflurane provoked moderate/severe ATP reductions and cell death. Conversely, under conditions of maximal ATP depletion (hypoxia, antimycin), isoflurane conferred a modest cytoprotective effect. Isoflurane blocked aminophospholipid translocase activity, which normally maintains plasma membrane lipid asymmetry (that is, preventing its "flip flop"). Isoflurane profoundly and differentially affects tubular cell responses to toxic and hypoxic attack. Direct drug-induced alterations in lipid trafficking/plasma membrane orientation and in cell energy production are likely involved. Although the in vivo relevance of these findings

  13. Deferasirox-induced iron depletion promotes BclxL downregulation and death of proximal tubular cells

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Sanchez, Diego; Gallegos-Villalobos, Angel; Fontecha-Barriuso, Miguel; Carrasco, Susana; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Lopez-Hernandez, Francisco J; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto; Sanz, Ana Belén

    2017-01-01

    Iron deficiency has been associated with kidney injury. Deferasirox is an oral iron chelator used to treat blood transfusion-related iron overload. Nephrotoxicity is the most serious and common adverse effect of deferasirox and may present as an acute or chronic kidney disease. However, scarce data are available on the molecular mechanisms of nephrotoxicity. We explored the therapeutic modulation of deferasirox-induced proximal tubular cell death in culture. Deferasirox induced dose-dependent tubular cell death and AnexxinV/7AAD staining showed features of apoptosis and necrosis. However, despite inhibiting caspase-3 activation, the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk failed to prevent deferasirox-induced cell death. Moreover, zVAD increased deferasirox-induced cell death, a feature sometimes found in necroptosis. Electron microscopy identified mitochondrial injury and features of necrosis. However, neither necrostatin-1 nor RIP3 knockdown prevented deferasirox-induced cell death. Deferasirox caused BclxL depletion and BclxL overexpression was protective. Preventing iron depletion protected from BclxL downregulation and deferasirox cytotoxicity. In conclusion, deferasirox promoted iron depletion-dependent cell death characterized by BclxL downregulation. BclxL overexpression was protective, suggesting a role for BclxL downregulation in iron depletion-induced cell death. This information may be used to develop novel nephroprotective strategies. Furthermore, it supports the concept that monitoring kidney tissue iron depletion may decrease the risk of deferasirox nephrotoxicity. PMID:28139717

  14. Deferasirox-induced iron depletion promotes BclxL downregulation and death of proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Martin-Sanchez, Diego; Gallegos-Villalobos, Angel; Fontecha-Barriuso, Miguel; Carrasco, Susana; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Lopez-Hernandez, Francisco J; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto; Sanz, Ana Belén

    2017-01-31

    Iron deficiency has been associated with kidney injury. Deferasirox is an oral iron chelator used to treat blood transfusion-related iron overload. Nephrotoxicity is the most serious and common adverse effect of deferasirox and may present as an acute or chronic kidney disease. However, scarce data are available on the molecular mechanisms of nephrotoxicity. We explored the therapeutic modulation of deferasirox-induced proximal tubular cell death in culture. Deferasirox induced dose-dependent tubular cell death and AnexxinV/7AAD staining showed features of apoptosis and necrosis. However, despite inhibiting caspase-3 activation, the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk failed to prevent deferasirox-induced cell death. Moreover, zVAD increased deferasirox-induced cell death, a feature sometimes found in necroptosis. Electron microscopy identified mitochondrial injury and features of necrosis. However, neither necrostatin-1 nor RIP3 knockdown prevented deferasirox-induced cell death. Deferasirox caused BclxL depletion and BclxL overexpression was protective. Preventing iron depletion protected from BclxL downregulation and deferasirox cytotoxicity. In conclusion, deferasirox promoted iron depletion-dependent cell death characterized by BclxL downregulation. BclxL overexpression was protective, suggesting a role for BclxL downregulation in iron depletion-induced cell death. This information may be used to develop novel nephroprotective strategies. Furthermore, it supports the concept that monitoring kidney tissue iron depletion may decrease the risk of deferasirox nephrotoxicity.

  15. Engineered extracellular matrices with controlled mechanics modulate renal proximal tubular cell epithelialization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Evan; Putnam, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Recovery from many forms of AKI involves the proliferation of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTECs), but the influence of the microenvironment in which this recovery occurs remains poorly understood. Here we report the development of a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel platform to study the influence of substrate mechanical properties on the proliferation of human RPTECs as a model for recovery from AKI. PEG diacrylate based hydrogels were generated with orthogonal control of mechanics and cell-substrate interactions. Using this platform, we found that increased substrate stiffness promotes RPTEC spreading and proliferation. RPTECs showed similar degrees of apoptosis and Yes-associated protein (YAP) nuclear localization regardless of stiffness, suggesting these were not key mediators of the effect. However, focal adhesion formation, cytoskeletal organization, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation were all enhanced with increasing substrate stiffness. Inhibition of ERK activation substantially attenuated the effect of stiffness on proliferation. In long-term culture, hydrogel stiffness promoted the formation of more complete epithelial monolayers with tight junctions, cell polarity, and an organized basement membrane. These data suggest that increased stiffness potentially may have beneficial consequences for the renal tubular epithelium during recovery from AKI. PMID:28715434

  16. Engineered extracellular matrices with controlled mechanics modulate renal proximal tubular cell epithelialization.

    PubMed

    Beamish, Jeffrey A; Chen, Evan; Putnam, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Recovery from many forms of AKI involves the proliferation of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTECs), but the influence of the microenvironment in which this recovery occurs remains poorly understood. Here we report the development of a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel platform to study the influence of substrate mechanical properties on the proliferation of human RPTECs as a model for recovery from AKI. PEG diacrylate based hydrogels were generated with orthogonal control of mechanics and cell-substrate interactions. Using this platform, we found that increased substrate stiffness promotes RPTEC spreading and proliferation. RPTECs showed similar degrees of apoptosis and Yes-associated protein (YAP) nuclear localization regardless of stiffness, suggesting these were not key mediators of the effect. However, focal adhesion formation, cytoskeletal organization, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation were all enhanced with increasing substrate stiffness. Inhibition of ERK activation substantially attenuated the effect of stiffness on proliferation. In long-term culture, hydrogel stiffness promoted the formation of more complete epithelial monolayers with tight junctions, cell polarity, and an organized basement membrane. These data suggest that increased stiffness potentially may have beneficial consequences for the renal tubular epithelium during recovery from AKI.

  17. Effects of cumene hydroperoxide on cellular cation composition in frog kidney proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, S; Cemerikic, D

    2000-06-01

    Effects of cumene hydroperoxide were studied on the peritubular membrane potential and cellular cation composition in frog kidney proximal tubular cells. After perfusion of isolated frog kidneys for 30 min with 1.3x10(-4) mol l(-1) cumene hydroperoxide Ringer solution, the peritubular membrane potential gradually declined. The ouabain-like effects were demonstrated on cell Na and K activities after 1 h of perfusion with cumene hydroperoxide. The peritubular apparent transference number for potassium was decreased. Intracellular pH was not altered in the presence of cumene hydroperoxide. Intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration increased slowly and moderately. The concentration of the malondialdehyde in the kidney homogenates, measured as an index of lipid peroxidation, was increased. A previously observable effect of cumene hydroperoxide on the peritubular membrane potential was prevented by oxygen radical scavengers.

  18. Effects of inorganic iron and myoglobin on in vitro proximal tubular lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zager, R A; Foerder, C A

    1992-03-01

    Recent in vivo studies suggest that heme Fe causes proximal tubular lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of myoglobinuric (Mgb) acute renal failure. Because hydroxyl radical (.OH) scavengers [dimethylthiourea (DMTU), benzoate, mannitol] can mitigate this injury, it is postulated that .OH is a mediator of Mgb-induced renal damage. The present study has tested these hypotheses using an isolated rat proximal tubular segment (PTS) system. An equal mixture of Fe2+/Fe3+ (4 mM total), when added to PTS, caused marked cytotoxicity [as defined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release] and lipid peroxidation [assessed by malondialdehyde (MDA) increments]. Fe2+ or Fe3+ alone each induced massive MDA elevations, but only Fe2+ caused cytotoxicity. Although both DMTU and benzoate decreased LDH release during the Fe2+/Fe3+ challenge, mannitol and GSH did not, despite equivalent reductions in .OH (gauged by the salicylate trap method). GSH and catalase (but not DMTU, benzoate, or mannitol) decreased MDA concentrations, suggesting the Fe-driven lipid peroxidation was more H2O2 than .OH dependent. Deferoxamine totally blocked Fe-induced LDH release, even under conditions in which it caused an apparent increase in .OH generation. Mgb paradoxically protected against Fe-mediated PTS injury, an effect largely reproduced by albumin. In conclusion, these data suggest that: (a) Fe can cause PTS lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity by a non-.OH-dependent mechanism; (b) Fe-mediated cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation are not necessarily linked; and (c) Mgb paradoxically protects PTS against Fe-mediated injury, suggesting that: (i) Mgb Fe may require liberation from its porphyrin ring before exerting toxicity; and (ii) the protein residue may blunt the resulting injury.

  19. Cadmium activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 in HK-2 human renal proximal tubular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, Mio; Inamura, Hisako; Matsumura, Ken-ichi; Matsuoka, Masato

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium exposure induces ERK5 phosphorylation in HK-2 renal proximal tubular cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BIX02189 treatment suppresses cadmium-induced ERK5 but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BIX02189 treatment suppresses cadmium-induced CREB and c-Fos phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ERK5 activation by cadmium exposure may play an anti-apoptotic role in HK-2 cells. -- Abstract: We examined the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) exposure on the phosphorylation and functionality of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5), a recently identified member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, in HK-2 human renal proximal tubular cells. Following exposure to CdCl{sub 2}, ERK5 phosphorylation increased markedly, but the level of total ERK5 was unchanged. ERK5 phosphorylation following CdCl{sub 2} exposure was rapid and transient, similar to the time course of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Treatment of HK-2 cells with the MAPK/ERK kinase 5 inhibitor, BIX02189, suppressed CdCl{sub 2}-induced ERK5 but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The CdCl{sub 2}-induced increase of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and activating transcription factor-1 (ATF-1), as well as the accumulation of mobility-shifted c-Fos protein, were suppressed by BIX02189 treatment. Furthermore, BIX02189 treatment enhanced cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and increased the level of cytoplasmic nucleosomes in HK-2 cells exposed to CdCl{sub 2}. These findings suggest that ERK5 pathway activation by CdCl{sub 2} exposure might induce the phosphorylation of cell survival-transcription factors, such as CREB, ATF-1, and c-Fos, and may exert a partial anti-apoptotic role in HK-2 cells.

  20. Potent activation of multiple signalling pathways by C-peptide in opossum kidney proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Rasheed, N M; Meakin, F; Royal, E L; Lewington, A J; Brown, J; Willars, G B; Brunskill, N J

    2004-06-01

    Proinsulin C-peptide is generally believed to be inert without any appreciable biological functions. However, it has been shown to modulate a variety of cellular processes important in the pathophysiology of diabetic complications. We therefore investigated the ability of C-peptide to stimulate intracellular signalling pathways in kidney proximal tubular cells, the altered activation of which may possibly be related to the development of diabetic nephropathy. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt phosphorylation were evaluated by western blotting. ERK activity was measured by in vitro kinase assay. Intracellular Ca(2+) was evaluated by confocal imaging. The membrane and cytosol-associated fractions of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms were evaluated by western blotting. Proliferation was assessed by thymidine incorporation assay. Using the opossum proximal tubular kidney cell line as a model, we demonstrated that at high picomolar to low nanomolar concentrations, C-peptide stimulates extracellular signal-regulated mitogen-activated kinase (3.3+/-0.1-fold over basal at 3 minutes) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (4.1+/-0.05-fold over basal at 5 minutes). ERK activation was attenuated by pre-treatment with a PKC inhibitor and abolished by pertussis toxin. Elevations of intracellular [Ca(2+)] are seen in response to 5 nmol/l C-peptide with consequent activation of PKC-alpha. Pre-treatment with pertussis toxin abolished PKC-alpha. C-peptide is also a functional mitogen in this cell type, stimulating significantly increased cell proliferation. Proliferation was attenuated by wortmannin and pertussis toxin pre-treatments. None of these effects is reproduced by scrambled C-peptide. This study provides evidence that C-peptide, within physiological concentration ranges, stimulates many signalling pathways in opossum kidney cells.

  1. Zika virus infects renal proximal tubular epithelial cells with prolonged persistency and cytopathic effects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Yang, Yi-Feng; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Xiaohui; Dong, Zhaoguang; Chen, Tianyue; Yang, Yu; Zou, Peng; Jiang, Biao; Hu, Yunwen; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jia; Xu, Jianqing; Zhu, Tongyu

    2017-08-23

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection can cause fetal developmental abnormalities and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Although progress has been made in understanding the link between ZIKV infection and microcephaly, the pathology of ZIKV, particularly the viral reservoirs in human, remains poorly understood. Several studies have shown that compared to serum samples, patients' urine samples often have a longer duration of ZIKV persistency and higher viral load. This finding suggests that an independent viral reservoir may exist in the human urinary system. Despite the clinical observations, the host cells of ZIKV in the human urinary system are poorly characterized. In this study, we demonstrate that ZIKV can infect renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEpiCs) in immunodeficient mice in vivo and in both immortalized and primary human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (hRPTEpiCs) in vitro. Importantly, ZIKV infection in mouse kidneys caused caspase-3-mediated apoptosis of renal cells. Similarly, in vitro infection of immortalized and primary hRPTEpiCs resulted in notable cytopathic effects. Consistent with the clinical observations, we found that ZIKV infection can persist with prolonged duration in hRPTEpiCs. RNA-Seq analyses of infected hRPTEpiCs revealed a large number of transcriptional changes in response to ZIKV infection, including type I interferon signaling genes and anti-viral response genes. Our results suggest that hRPTEpiCs are a potential reservoir of ZIKV in the human urinary system, providing a possible explanation for the prolonged persistency of ZIKV in patients' urine.

  2. Characterization of ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport in the basolateral membrane vesicles from proximal and distal tubules of the rabbit kidney.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, C; Chan, M; Brunette, M G

    1991-01-01

    Basolateral membrane vesicles were prepared from purified proximal and distal tubules of the rabbit kidney. The properties of the ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport were investigated. In both membranes, there was a high affinity, ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport system (Km = 0.1 microM). The optimal concentration of Mg2+ was 0.5 mM and the optimal concentration of ATP was 1 mM. The nucleotide specificity and pH dependence of the Ca2+ transport in both membranes were similar. In basolateral membrane vesicles, calmodulin had no effect on Ca2+ transport. However, in basolateral membrane vesicles depleted of calmodulin, exogenous calmodulin increased the Ca2+ transport by increasing maximal velocity. There were no major differences in the properties of the ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport system in these two membranes. These findings are discussed in relation to why parathyroid hormone differentially modulates Ca2+ transport in these two segments of the nephron.

  3. Missense mutation T485S alters NBCe1-A electrogenicity causing proximal renal tubular acidosis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Quansheng; Shao, Xuesi M; Kao, Liyo; Azimov, Rustam; Weinstein, Alan M; Newman, Debra; Liu, Weixin; Kurtz, Ira

    2013-08-15

    Mutations in SLC4A4, the gene encoding the electrogenic Na(+)-HCO3(-) cotransporter NBCe1, cause severe proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA), growth retardation, decreased IQ, and eye and teeth abnormalities. Among the known NBCe1 mutations, the disease-causing mechanism of the T485S (NBCe1-A numbering) mutation is intriguing because the substituted amino acid, serine, is structurally and chemically similar to threonine. In this study, we performed intracellular pH and whole cell patch-clamp measurements to investigate the base transport and electrogenic properties of NBCe1-A-T485S in mammalian HEK 293 cells. Our results demonstrated that Ser substitution of Thr485 decreased base transport by ~50%, and importantly, converted NBCe1-A from an electrogenic to an electroneutral transporter. Aqueous accessibility analysis using sulfhydryl reactive reagents indicated that Thr485 likely resides in an NBCe1-A ion interaction site. This critical location is also supported by the finding that G486R (a pRTA causing mutation) alters the position of Thr485 in NBCe1-A thereby impairing its transport function. By using NO3(-) as a surrogate ion for CO3(2-), our result indicated that NBCe1-A mediates electrogenic Na(+)-CO3(2-) cotransport when functioning with a 1:2 charge transport stoichiometry. In contrast, electroneutral NBCe1-T485S is unable to transport NO3(-), compatible with the hypothesis that it mediates Na(+)-HCO3(-) cotransport. In patients, NBCe1-A-T485S is predicted to transport Na(+)-HCO3(-) in the reverse direction from blood into proximal tubule cells thereby impairing transepithelial HCO3(-) absorption, possibly representing a new pathogenic mechanism for generating human pRTA.

  4. Fight-or-flight: murine unilateral ureteral obstruction causes extensive proximal tubular degeneration, collecting duct dilatation, and minimal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Michael S; Thornhill, Barbara A; Minor, Jordan J; Gordon, Katherine A; Galarreta, Carolina I; Chevalier, Robert L

    2012-07-01

    Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) is the most widely used animal model of progressive renal disease. Although renal interstitial fibrosis is commonly used as an end point, recent studies reveal that obstructive injury to the glomerulotubular junction leads to the formation of atubular glomeruli. To quantitate the effects of UUO on the remainder of the nephron, renal tubular and interstitial responses were characterized in mice 7 and 14 days after UUO or sham operation under anesthesia. Fractional proximal tubular mass, cell proliferation, and cell death were measured by morphometry. Superoxide formation was identified by nitro blue tetrazolium, and oxidant injury was localized by 4-hydroxynonenol and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. Fractional areas of renal vasculature, interstitial collagen, α-smooth muscle actin, and fibronectin were also measured. After 14 days of UUO, the obstructed kidney loses 19% of parenchymal mass, with a 65% reduction in proximal tubular mass. Superoxide formation is localized to proximal tubules, which undergo oxidant injury, apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy, with widespread mitochondrial loss, resulting in tubular collapse. In contrast, mitosis and apoptosis increase in dilated collecting ducts, which remain patent through epithelial cell remodeling. Relative vascular volume fraction does not change, and interstitial matrix components do not exceed 15% of total volume fraction of the obstructed kidney. These unique proximal and distal nephron cellular responses reflect differential "fight-or-flight" responses to obstructive injury and provide earlier indexes of renal injury than do interstitial compartment responses. Therapies to prevent or retard progression of renal disease should include targeting proximal tubule injury as well as interstitial fibrosis.

  5. Ochratoxin A induced premature senescence in human renal proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuan; Liu, Sheng; Huang, Chuchu; Wang, Haomiao; Luo, Yunbo; Xu, Wentao; Huang, Kunlun

    2017-05-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) has many nephrotoxic effects and is a promising compound for the study of nephrotoxicity. Human renal proximal tubular cells (HKC) are an important model for the study of renal reabsorption, renal physiology and pathology. Since the induction of OTA in renal senescence is largely unknown, whether OTA can induce renal senescence, especially at a sublethal dose, and the mechanism of OTA toxicity remain unclear. In our study, a sublethal dose of OTA led to an enhanced senescent phenotype, β-galactosidase staining and senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Cell cycle arrest and cell shape alternations also confirmed senescence. In addition, telomere analysis by RT-qPCR allowed us to classify OTA-induced senescence as a premature senescence. Western blot assays showed that the p53-p21 and the p16-pRB pathways and the ezrin-associated cell spreading changes were activated during the OTA-induced senescence of HKC. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that OTA promotes the senescence of HKC through the p53-p21 and p16-pRB pathways. The understanding of the mechanisms of OTA-induced senescence is critical in determining the role of OTA in cytotoxicity and its potential carcinogenicity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The renoprotective role of autophagy activation in proximal tubular epithelial cells in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Liu, Lei; Xin, Wei; Zhao, Xu; Chen, Liyong; Zhen, Junhui; Wan, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    With intensive investigations recently, autophagy is hoped to be a potential therapeutic target to prevent or alleviate diabetic nephropathy (DN). Our previous study revealed that lipotoxicity participated in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) under diabetic conditions. Based on evidences that autophagy and lipid metabolism are closely related, we investigated autophagy under diabetic conditions and how it contributed in the lipotoxicity and EMT. In high-glucose-cultured PTECs, we found that Beclin1 and LC3-II were elevated, while p62 was decreased. These results indicate that autophagy activity was elevated under diabetic conditions. Autophagy deficiency induced by autophagy inhibitors, chloroquine diphosphate (CQ) and 3-Methyladenine (3-MA), and by Atg5 siRNA transfection exacerbated lipid accumulation and EMT. This supports that the elevated autophagy activity acts as a renoprotective response under diabetic conditions. Treatment of rapamycin, which is a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) receptor-specific inhibitor and a known autophagy activator, attenuated high-glucose-induced lipid accumulation and EMT. The Atg5 silence counteracted the protective effect of rapamycin. The present study deepens our understanding of the role of autophagy in DN, suggesting a complex interplay of autophagy, metabolic pathways, lipotoxicity and EMT.

  7. Novel human renal proximal tubular cell line for the production of complex proteins.

    PubMed

    Fliedl, Lukas; Manhart, Gabriele; Kast, Florian; Katinger, Hermann; Kunert, Renate; Grillari, Johannes; Wieser, Matthias; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina

    2014-04-20

    Human host cell lines for the production of biopharmaceutical proteins are of interest due to differences in the glycosylation patterns of human and animal cell lines. Specifically, sialylation, which has a major impact on half-life and immunogenicity of recombinant biopharmaceuticals, differs markedly. Here, we established and characterized an immortalized well documented and serum-free host cell line, RS, from primary human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC). In order to test its capacity to produce complex glycosylated proteins, stable recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEpo) producing clones were generated. The clone with highest productivity, RS-1C9 was further characterized and showed stable productivity. Biological activity was observed in in vitro assays and 28% of rhEpo glyco-isoforms produced by RS-1C9 were in range and distribution of the biological reference standard (BRP) isoform, as compared to 11.5% of a CHO based rhEpo. Additionally, cellular α-2,6 sialylation, Galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-Gal) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) patterns compare favourably to CHO cells. While productivity of RS still needs optimization, its amenability to upscaling in bioreactors, its production of glyco-isoforms that will increase yields after down-stream processing of about 2.5 fold, presence of sialylation and lack of Neu5Gc recommend RS as alternative human host cell line for production of biopharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Suppressive effects of iron on TGF-beta1 production by renal proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Horino, Taro; Ito, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Furihata, Mutsuo; Hashimoto, Kozo

    2005-01-01

    TGF-beta1, which is one of the profibrogenic cytokines, is considered essential for both the tubulointerstitial fibrosis found in chronic kidney diseases and the repair of tissue damage in acute renal injury. Iron plays an important part in inflammatory damage since it supplies cytotoxic hydroxyl radicals. The aim of the present study was to examine the direct effects of iron on TGF-beta1 production and the expression of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative stress, by human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC). Using human RPTEC, TGF-beta1 expression was studied by immunohistochemical staining, ELISA and RNase protection assays. 8-OHdG expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Ferric iron suppressed both TGF-beta1 secretion and mRNA expression, and enhanced 8-OHdG expression in RPTEC in a dose-dependent manner. Desferrioxamine, an iron chelator, eliminated the suppressive effect of ferric citrate on TGF-beta1 production. The results suggest that iron may delay the repair of kidney injury during the acute inflammatory phase via a reduction in TGF-beta1 production by RPTEC. Iron chelation may therefore be a useful strategy in the treatment of inflammatory kidney diseases.

  9. Gene expression profiles of human proximal tubular epithelial cells in proteinuric nephropathies.

    PubMed

    Rudnicki, M; Eder, S; Perco, P; Enrich, J; Scheiber, K; Koppelstätter, C; Schratzberger, G; Mayer, B; Oberbauer, R; Meyer, T W; Mayer, G

    2007-02-01

    In kidney disease renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC) actively contribute to the progression of tubulointerstitial fibrosis by mediating both an inflammatory response and via epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Using laser capture microdissection we specifically isolated RPTEC from cryosections of the healthy parts of kidneys removed owing to renal cell carcinoma and from kidney biopsies from patients with proteinuric nephropathies. RNA was extracted and hybridized to complementary DNA microarrays after linear RNA amplification. Statistical analysis identified 168 unique genes with known gene ontology association, which separated patients from controls. Besides distinct alterations in signal-transduction pathways (e.g. Wnt signalling), functional annotation revealed a significant upregulation of genes involved in cell proliferation and cell cycle control (like insulin-like growth factor 1 or cell division cycle 34), cell differentiation (e.g. bone morphogenetic protein 7), immune response, intracellular transport and metabolism in RPTEC from patients. On the contrary we found differential expression of a number of genes responsible for cell adhesion (like BH-protocadherin) with a marked downregulation of most of these transcripts. In summary, our results obtained from RPTEC revealed a differential regulation of genes, which are likely to be involved in either pro-fibrotic or tubulo-protective mechanisms in proteinuric patients at an early stage of kidney disease.

  10. BAG3 regulates ECM accumulation in renal proximal tubular cells induced by TGF-β1.

    PubMed

    Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Li, De-Tian; Du, Zhen-Xian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Wang, Yan-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Previously we have demonstrated that Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is increased in renal fibrosis using a rat unilateral ureteral obstruction model. The current study investigated the role of BAG3 in renal fibrosis using transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-treated human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells. An upregulation of BAG3 in vitro models was observed, which correlated with the increased synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and expression of tissue-type plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1. Blockade of BAG3 induction by shorting hairpin RNA suppressed the expression of ECM proteins but had no effect on PAI-1 expression induced by TGF-β1. Forced overexpression of BAG3 selectively increased collagens. TGF-β1-induced BAG3 expression in HK-2 cells was attenuated by ERK1/2 and JNK MAPK inhibitors. In addition, forced BAG3 overexpression blocked attenuation of collagens expression by ERK1/2 and JNK inhibitors. These data suggest that ERK1/2 and JNK signaling events are involved in modulating the expression of BAG3, which would ultimately contribute to renal fibrosis by enhancing the synthesis and deposition of ECM proteins.

  11. The effects of colloid solutions on renal proximal tubular cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Winfried; Schick, Martin A; Bruno, Raphael R; Schneiker, Bianca; Förster, Carola Y; Roewer, Norbert; Wunder, Christian

    2012-02-01

    Renal failure is a common complication of critically ill patients. Colloids such as hydroxyethyl starch (HES), gelatin, or albumin are regularly used for intravascular volume resuscitation, but there are increasing reports about the nephrotoxic side effects of synthetic colloids in septic patients. Therefore, we investigated the influence of colloids (HES130/0.4 (Voluven®), gelatin (Gelafundin®), human albumin, and the crystalloid Sterofundin® ISO on cell viability of human proximal tubular (HK-2) cells. HK-2 cells were incubated with colloids (0.1%-4%) and with equivalent volumes of the crystalloid solution Sterofundin ISO. After 21 hours, cell viability of HK-2 cells was measured by EZ4U assay (dye XTT). Application of HES130/0.4 decreased cell viability significantly in a concentration-dependent manner (86.80% ± 10.79% by 0.5% HES down to 24.02% ± 4.27% by 4% HES). Human albumin (>1.25%) as well as gelatin (>1%) also showed deleterious effects on HK-2 cells. Interestingly, in lower concentrations, human albumin and the crystalloid solution Sterofundin ISO were cytoprotective in comparison with the NaCl control. In conclusion, synthetic and natural colloids showed a harmful impact on HK-2 cells in higher concentrations without any prior proinflammatory stimulus. HES130/0.4 exhibited the most distinctive harmful impact, whereas the application of crystalloid Sterofundin ISO revealed cytoprotective effects.

  12. Cystinosin-LKG rescues cystine accumulation and decreases apoptosis rate in cystinotic proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Taranta, Anna; Bellomo, Francesco; Petrini, Stefania; Polishchuk, Elena; De Leo, Ester; Rega, Laura Rita; Pastore, Anna; Polishchuk, Roman; De Matteis, Maria Antonietta; Emma, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Nephropathic cystinosis is a lysosomal storage disease that is caused by mutations in the CTNS gene encoding a cystine/proton symporter cystinosin and an isoform cystinosin-LKG which is generated by an alternative splicing of exon 12. We have investigated the physiological role of the cystinosin-LKG that is widely expressed in epithelial tissues. We have analyzed the intracellular localization and the function of the cystinosin-LKG conjugated with DsRed (cystinosin-LKG-RFP) in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK II) and in proximal tubular epithelial cells carrying a deletion of the CTNS gene (cystinotic PTEC), respectively. Cystinosin-LKG-RFP colocalized with markers of lysosomes, late endosomes and was also expressed on the apical surface of polarized MDCK II cells. Moreover, immune-electron microscopy images of MDCK II cells overexpressing cystinosin-LKG-RFP showed stacked lamellar membranes inside perinuclear lysosomal structures. To study the role of LKG-isoform, we have investigated cystine accumulation and apoptosis that have been described in cystinotic cells. Cystinosin-LKG decreased cystine levels by approximately 10-fold similarly to cystinosin-RFP. The levels of TNFα- and actinomycin D-inducted apoptosis dropped in cystinotic cells expressing LKG-isoform. This effect was also similar to the main isoform. Our results suggest that cystinosin-LKG and cystinosin move similar functional activities in cells.

  13. Interleukin 2 mediates stimulation of complement C3 biosynthesis in human proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Brooimans, R A; Stegmann, A P; van Dorp, W T; van der Ark, A A; van der Woude, F J; van Es, L A; Daha, M R

    1991-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested the production of complement components C4, C2, and factor B by renal tissue. However, the cells involved in production of complement have not been identified. In this study metabolic labeling experiments demonstrated that human proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC) synthesize a 180-kD precursor of C3 that is secreted after proteolytic cleavage into a disulphide linked two-chain molecule as found in plasma. C3 present in culture supernatants of PTEC was functionally active, however, during the culture period there was a partial inactivation of the C3 molecule as assessed by hemolytic titration. Recombinant IL-2 enhances the rate of C3 synthesis in a dose-dependent manner reaching maximal stimulation at doses of 200-400 U/ml IL-2. Northern blot analysis demonstrated a 5.2-kb C3 mRNA species present in PTEC that was increased within 24 h of IL-2 treatment. IL-2-induced enhancement of C3 production by PTEC could be neutralized with specific antibodies to IL-2. This study demonstrates that C3 synthesis in PTEC is upregulated by IL-2, the major cytokine produced by activated T cells. Images PMID:1864952

  14. Puerarin protects against cadmium-induced proximal tubular cell apoptosis by restoring mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiang-Bin; Liu, Gang; Wang, Zhen-Yong; Wang, Lin

    2016-12-25

    Puerarin (PU) is a potent free radical scavenger with a protective effect in nephrotoxin-mediated oxidative damage. Here, we show a novel molecular mechanism by which PU exerts its anti-apoptotic effects in cadmium (Cd)-exposed primary rat proximal tubular (rPT) cells. Morphological assessment and flow cytometric analysis revealed that PU significantly decreased Cd-induced apoptotic cell death of rPT cells. Administration of PU protected cells against Cd-induced depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and lipid peroxidation. Cd-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening, disruption of mitochondrial ultrastructure, mitochondrial cytochrome c (cyt-c) release, caspase-3 activation and subsequently poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage could be effectively blocked by the addition of PU. Moreover, up-regulation of Bcl-2 and down-regulation of Bax and hence increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio were observed with the PU administration. In addition, PU reversed Cd-induced ATP depletion by restoring ΔΨm to affect ATP production and by regulating expression levels of ANT-1 and ANT-2 to improve ATP transport. In summary, PU inhibited Cd-induced apoptosis in rPT cells by ameliorating the mitochondrial dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Diabetes increases susceptibility of primary cultures of rat proximal tubular cells to chemically induced injury

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Qing; Terlecky, Stanley R.; Lash, Lawrence H.

    2009-11-15

    Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we prepared primary cultures of proximal tubular (PT) cells from diabetic rats 30 days after an ip injection of streptozotocin and compared their susceptibility to oxidants (tert-butyl hydroperoxide, methyl vinyl ketone) and a mitochondrial toxicant (antimycin A) with that of PT cells isolated from age-matched control rats, to test the hypothesis that PT cells from diabetic rats exhibit more cellular and mitochondrial injury than those from control rats when exposed to these toxicants. PT cells from diabetic rats exhibited higher basal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and higher mitochondrial membrane potential, demonstrating that the PT cells maintain the diabetic phenotype in primary culture. Incubation with either the oxidants or mitochondrial toxicant resulted in greater necrotic and apoptotic cell death, greater evidence of morphological damage, greater increases in ROS, and greater decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential in PT cells from diabetic rats than in those from control rats. Pretreatment with either the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine or a catalase mimetic provided equivalent protection of PT cells from both diabetic and control rats. Despite the greater susceptibility to oxidative and mitochondrial injury, both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial glutathione concentrations were markedly higher in PT cells from diabetic rats, suggesting an upregulation of antioxidant processes in diabetic kidney. These results support the hypothesis that primary cultures of PT cells from diabetic rats are a valid model in which to study renal cellular function in the diabetic state.

  16. [Effects of Rhein on the hypertrophy of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells induced by high glucose and angiotensin II in rats].

    PubMed

    Yu, De-Qian; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Xiao-Hong

    2010-04-01

    To explore the effect of Rhein on the hypertrophy of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells induced by high glucose and angiotensin II in rats. Studies were performed on anesthetized SD rats. Renal proximal tubular were gained by microdissection and cultured in RPMI-1640 medium. The cell types were identified by immunocytochemistry. The renal proximal tubular epithelial cells were incubated with high glucose (30 mmol/L) and angiotensin II (10(-7) mol/L) to induce the hypertrophy of cells. To observe the effect of Rhein on hypertrophy induced by high glucose and angiotensin II, renal proximal tubular epithelial cells were cultured with different concentrations of Rhein (30, 15, 5 mg/L) for 72 h, then cell size, 3H-leucine incorporation, and cellular protein content were detected to observe the changes. High glucose (30 mmol/L) and Ang II (10(-7) mol/L) induced hypertrophy of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells result in, cell size, 3H-leucine incorporation and cellular protein content increased significantly. On the contrary, Rhein inhibited the hypertrophy of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells induced by high glucose and Angiotensin II. Rhein 30 mg/L significantly decreased cell size, 3H-leucine incorporation and cellular protein content. Rhein 15 mg/L decreased 3H-leucine incorporation and cellular protein content. Rhein 5 mg/L decreased cellular protein content. Rhein can inhibit the hypertrophy of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells induced by high glucose and Angiotensin II in rats.

  17. Development of bioartificial renal tubule devices with lifespan-extended human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sanechika, Noriyuki; Sawada, Kaichiro; Usui, Yukio; Hanai, Kazuya; Kakuta, Takatoshi; Suzuki, Hajime; Kanai, Genta; Fujimura, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Tun Aung; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Terachi, Toshiro; Saito, Akira

    2011-09-01

    The bioartificial renal tubule device is a cell therapy system for renal failure. The major obstacle in the development of the bioartificial renal tubule device is the obtainment of a large number of viable renal tubule cells to seed on the inner surface of hollow fibers. Although our previous studies had used a transformed cell line, they may be dangerous for clinical uses. Therefore, different approaches to amplify renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC) in culture without oncogenes, vectors and carcinogens have been required. The limitation of the replicative lifespan of human RPTEC, which is ∼12 population doublings (PDs), was extended by invalidating messenger RNA of cell cycle-related genes with antisense oligonucleotide or small interfering RNA (siRNA). Periodic transfection of siRNA to a tumor suppressor p53 or a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16(INK4a) extended the lifespan by 33 and 63 PDs, respectively, in 3 months of culture. The siRNA-mediated lifespan extension was controllable because cell division ceased within 2 weeks after the transfection was discontinued. Expressions of γ-glutamyltransferase 1 and glucose transporter 1 were recovered in siRNA-transfected RPTEC cultured on porous membranes. Bioartificial renal tubule devices (0.8 m(2)) constructed with these cells showed reabsorption of water (122.3 ± 4.2 mL/30 min), sodium (18.1 ± 0.7 mEq/30 min) and glucose (121.7 ± 4.4 mg/30 min) after 1 week of circulation. Furthermore, β2-microglobulin and pentosidine were metabolized by RPTEC in mini-devices (65 cm(2)) within 48 h of circulation. These approaches enabled us to yield a high enough number of RPTEC for construction of bioartificial renal tubule devices repeatedly. Lifespan-extended RPTEC could recover their specific characteristics by culturing on porous membranes, and bioartificial renal tubule devices constructed with these cells showed good performances of reabsorption and metabolism. A large number of human renal tubular

  18. Osmotic nephrosis: acute kidney injury with accumulation of proximal tubular lysosomes due to administration of exogenous solutes.

    PubMed

    Dickenmann, Michael; Oettl, Tobias; Mihatsch, Michael J

    2008-03-01

    Osmotic nephrosis describes a morphological pattern with vacuolization and swelling of the renal proximal tubular cells. The term refers to a nonspecific histopathologic finding rather than defining a specific entity. Osmotic nephrosis can be induced by many different compounds, such as sucrose, hydroxyethyl starch, dextrans, and contrast media. It has a broad clinical spectrum that includes acute kidney injury and chronic kidney failure in rare cases. This article discusses the pathological characteristics, pathogenesis, and various clinical entities of osmotic nephrosis.

  19. Transport Mechanisms of Carnosine in SKPT Cells: Contribution of Apical and Basolateral Membrane Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Jappar, Dilara; Hu, Yongjun; Keep, Richard F.; Smith, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the transport properties of carnosine in kidney using SKPT cell cultures as a model of proximal tubular transport, and to isolate the functional activities of renal apical and basolateral transporters in this process. Methods The membrane transport kinetics of 10 µM [3H]carnosine was studied in SKPT cells as a function of time, pH, potential inhibitors and substrate concentration. A cellular compartment model was constructed in which the influx, efflux and transepithelial clearances of carnosine were determined. Peptide transporter expression was probed by RT-PCR. Results Carnosine uptake was 15-fold greater from the apical than basolateral surface of SKPT cells. However, the apical-to-basolateral transepithelial transport of carnosine was severely rate-limited by its cellular efflux across the basolateral membrane. The high-affinity, proton-dependence, concentration-dependence and inhibitor specificity of carnosine supports the contention that PEPT2 is responsible for its apical uptake. In contrast, the basolateral transporter is saturable, inhibited by PEPT2 substrates but non-concentrative, thereby, suggesting a facilitative carrier. Conclusions Carnosine is expected to have a substantial cellular accumulation in kidney but minimal tubular reabsorption in blood because of its high influx clearance across apical membranes by PEPT2 and very low efflux clearance across basolateral membranes. PMID:18820998

  20. Isolation and Characterization of a Primary Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cell Model from Human Kidney by CD10/CD13 Double Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Gnemmi, Viviane; Glowacki, François; Pottier, Nicolas; Bouillez, Audrey; Maboudou, Patrice; Zini, Laurent; Leroy, Xavier; Cauffiez, Christelle; Perrais, Michaël; Aubert, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Renal proximal tubular epithelial cells play a central role in renal physiology and are among the cell types most sensitive to ischemia and xenobiotic nephrotoxicity. In order to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of kidney injuries, a stable and well-characterized primary culture model of proximal tubular cells is required. An existing model of proximal tubular cells is hampered by the cellular heterogeneity of kidney; a method based on cell sorting for specific markers must therefore be developed. In this study, we present a primary culture model based on the mechanical and enzymatic dissociation of healthy tissue obtained from nephrectomy specimens. Renal epithelial cells were sorted using co-labeling for CD10 and CD13, two renal proximal tubular epithelial markers, by flow cytometry. Their purity, phenotypic stability and functional properties were evaluated over several passages. Our results demonstrate that CD10/CD13 double-positive cells constitute a pure, functional and stable proximal tubular epithelial cell population that displays proximal tubule markers and epithelial characteristics over the long term, whereas cells positive for either CD10 or CD13 alone appear to be heterogeneous. In conclusion, this study describes a method for establishing a robust renal proximal tubular epithelial cell model suitable for further experimentation. PMID:23799132

  1. Cysteamine restores glutathione redox status in cultured cystinotic proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wilmer, Martijn J; Kluijtmans, Leo A J; van der Velden, Thea J; Willems, Peter H; Scheffer, Peter G; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Monnens, Leo A; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P; Levtchenko, Elena N

    2011-06-01

    Recent evidence implies that impaired metabolism of glutathione has a role in the pathogenesis of nephropathic cystinosis. This recessive inherited disorder is characterized by lysosomal cystine accumulation and results in renal Fanconi syndrome progressing to end stage renal disease in the majority of patients. The most common treatment involves intracellular cystine depletion by cysteamine, delaying the development of end stage renal disease by a yet elusive mechanism. However, cystine depletion does not arrest the disease nor cures Fanconi syndrome in patients, indicating involvement of other yet unknown pathologic pathways. Using a newly developed proximal tubular epithelial cell model from cystinotic patients, we investigate the effect of cystine accumulation and cysteamine on both glutathione and ATP metabolism. In addition to the expected increase in cystine and defective sodium-dependent phosphate reabsorption, we observed less negative glutathione redox status and decreased intracellular ATP levels. No differences between control and cystinosis cell lines were observed with respect to protein turnover, albumin uptake, cytosolic and mitochondrial ATP production, total glutathione levels, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Cysteamine treatment increased total glutathione in both control and cystinotic cells and normalized cystine levels and glutathione redox status in cystinotic cells. However, cysteamine did not improve decreased sodium-dependent phosphate uptake. Our data implicate that cysteamine increases total glutathione and restores glutathione redox status in cystinosis, which is a positive side-effect of this agent next to cystine depletion. This beneficial effect points to a potential role of cysteamine as anti-oxidant for other renal disorders associated with enhanced oxidative stress.

  2. Reversal of radiocontrast medium toxicity in human renal proximal tubular cells by white grape juice extract.

    PubMed

    Andreucci, Michele; Faga, Teresa; Pisani, Antonio; Sabbatini, Massimo; Russo, Domenico; Mattivi, Fulvio; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Navarra, Michele; Michael, Ashour

    2015-03-05

    Radiocontrast media (RCM)-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN) is a major clinical problem accounting for 12% of all hospital-acquired cases of acute kidney injury. The pathophysiology of CIN is not well understood, but direct toxic effects on renal cells have been postulated as contributing to CIN. We have investigated the effect of a white grape (Vitis vinifera) juice extract (WGJe) on human renal proximal tubular (HK-2) cells treated with the radiocontrast medium (RCM) sodium diatrizoate. WGJe caused an increase in phosphorylation of the prosurvival kinases Akt and ERK1/2 in HK-2 cells. Treatment of HK-2 cells with 75 mgI/ml sodium diatrizoate for 2.5h and then further incubation (for 27.5h) after removal of the RCM caused a drastic decrease in cell viability. However, pre-treatment with WGJe, prior to incubation with diatrizoate, dramatically improved cell viability. Analysis of key signaling molecules by Western blotting showed that diatrizoate caused a drastic decrease in phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473), FOXO1 (Thr24) and FOXO3a (Thr32) during the initial 2.5h incubation period, and WGJe pre-treatment caused a reversal of these effects. Further analysis by Western blotting of samples from HK-2 cells cultured for longer periods of time (for up to 27.5h after an initial 2.5h exposure to diatrizoate with or without WGJe pre-treatment) showed that WGJe pre-treatment caused a negative effect on phosphorylation of p38, NF-κB (Ser276) and pERK1/2 whilst having a positive effect on the phosphorylation of Akt, FOXO1/FOXO3a and maintained levels of Pim-1 kinase. WGJe may alleviate RCM toxicity through modulation of signaling molecules that are known to be involved in cell death and cell survival and its possible beneficial effects should be further investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of hyaluronan cable structure and function in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Selbi, W; de la Motte, C A; Hascall, V C; Day, A J; Bowen, T; Phillips, A O

    2006-10-01

    Alteration in the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) has been demonstrated in numerous renal diseases. We have demonstrated that renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTCs) surround themselves in vitro with HA in an organized pericellular matrix or 'coat', which is associated with cell migration, and also form pericellular HA cable-like structures which modulate PTC-mononuclear leukocytes interactions. The aim of this study was to characterize potential regulatory mechanism in the assembly of PTC-HA into pericellular cables. HA cables are generated by PTCs in the absence of serum. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrates the incorporation of components of the inter-alpha-inhibitor (IalphaI) family of proteins and versican into HA cables. Addition of an antibody to IalphaI/PalphaI (pre-alpha-inhibitor) inhibits cable formation. In contrast, inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-stimulated gene 6 (TSG-6) has no effect on cable formation, suggesting that their generation is independent of the known heavy-chain transfer activity of TSG-6. Overexpression of HAS3 is associated with induction of HA cable formation, and also increased incorporation of HA into pericellular coats. Functionally, this resulted in enhanced HA-dependent monocyte binding and cell migration, respectively. Cell surface expression of CD44 and trypsin-released cell-associated HA were increased in HAS3-overexpressing cells. In addition, hyaluronidase (hyal1 and hyal2) and bikunin mRNA expression were increased, whereas PalphaI HC3 mRNA expression was unchanged in the transfected cells. The data demonstrate the importance of IalphaI/PalphaI in cable formation and suggest that expression of HAS3 may be critical for HA cable assembly.

  4. P-Glycoprotein Induction Ameliorates Colistin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Cultured Human Proximal Tubular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun-hyo; Kim, Jin-sun; Ravichandran, Kameswaran; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Song, Ho-yeon; Hong, Sae-yong

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of colistin induced nephrotoxicity is poorly understood. Currently there are no effective therapeutic or prophylactic agents available. This study was aimed to determine the mechanism of colistin induced nephrotoxicity and to determine whether P-glycoprotein (P-gp) induction could prevent colistin induced nephrotoxicity. Colistin induced cell toxicity in cultured human proximal tubular cells in both dose and time dependent manner. Colistin provoked ROS in a dose dependent manner as measured by DCF-DA. To investigate apoptosis, caspase 3/7 activity was determined. Caspase 3/7 activity was increased dose dependently (25, 50, 100 μg/ml) at 6 h. Autophagosome formation was assessed by measuring LC3- II/LC3-I ratio. The ratio of LC3-II to LC3- I was increased at 2 h (25 μg/ml). Suppression of autophagosome formation increased colistin induced nephrotoxicity. The expression of P-gp and the cell toxicity was determined in colistin with or without dexamethasone (P-gp inducer) and verapamil (selective P-gp inhibitor). Colistin itself suppressed the expression of P-gp. P-gp expression and activity decreased colistin induced nephrotoxicity with dexamethasone treatment. In addition induced P-gp transporter was shown to improve the efflux effect on colistin treated HK2 cell line, which was demonstrated by calcein-AM fluorescence accumulation assay. The increased activity could be blocked by N-acetylcysteine. In conclusion, colistin induces nephrotoxicity by suppressing P-gp. Induction of P-gp could ameliorate colistin induced nephrotoxicity by decreasing apoptosis. PMID:26287374

  5. Early detection of acute cisplatin nephrotoxicity: interest of urinary monitoring of proximal tubular biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Bunel, Valérian; Tournay, Yasmina; Baudoux, Thomas; De Prez, Eric; Marchand, Marie; Mekinda, Zita; Maréchal, Raphaël; Roumeguère, Thierry; Antoine, Marie-Hélène

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Renal toxicity induced by cisplatin (CisPt) is a clinical issue in patients with or without chronic kidney disease (CKD). Proximal tubular injury can result in acute kidney injury (AKI), which may compromise the course of chemotherapy and the prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the time course of urinary markers of acute tubulotoxicity and to assess the usefulness of such monitoring in a routine clinical setting. Methods This work is an open prospective pilot study carried out among 23 patients receiving a platinum-based chemotherapy. Individual comorbidities, plasma parameters of kidney function (urea, creatinine) and estimated glomerular filtration rate were registered. Urinary excretion of leucine aminopeptidase, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, cystatin C, liver fatty acid-binding protein and interleukin-18 were monitored during successive chemotherapy cycles. Episodes of AKI were identified according to KDIGO (Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes) 2012 guidelines. Results A total of 28 patients were recruited; among them 23 agreed to be part of the study, of whom 18 received CisPt and 5 carbo- or oxaliplatin. Of the 18 CisPt patients, 12 had a preexisting CKD. Sixteen AKI episodes were observed in 13 patients receiving CisPt with a pejorative evolution in seven cases (partial recovery of the renal function); a transient but dramatic increase in urinary biomarkers was observed 3 h after chemotherapy initiation, whereas plasma creatinine rise appeared 72 h after the end of CisPt treatment. Identified precipitating factors included: dehydration due to lack of fluid intake or diuretic use, exposure to high CisPt doses, regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and/or iodinated contrast agents and sepsis. Conclusion Even if numerous precipitating factors could be avoided, the monitoring of urinary markers seemed helpful for the early detection of subclinical AKI induced during CisPt chemotherapy

  6. Effects of SGLT2 inhibition in human kidney proximal tubular cells--renoprotection in diabetic nephropathy?

    PubMed

    Panchapakesan, Usha; Pegg, Kate; Gross, Simon; Komala, Muralikrishna Gangadharan; Mudaliar, Harshini; Forbes, Josephine; Pollock, Carol; Mather, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are oral hypoglycemic agents used to treat patients with diabetes mellitus. SGLT2 inhibitors block reabsorption of filtered glucose by inhibiting SGLT2, the primary glucose transporter in the proximal tubular cell (PTC), leading to glycosuria and lowering of serum glucose. We examined the renoprotective effects of the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin to determine whether blocking glucose entry into the kidney PTCs reduced the inflammatory and fibrotic responses of the cell to high glucose. We used an in vitro model of human PTCs. HK2 cells (human kidney PTC line) were exposed to control 5 mM, high glucose (HG) 30 mM or the profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ1; 0.5 ng/ml) in the presence and absence of empagliflozin for up to 72 h. SGLT1 and 2 expression and various inflammatory/fibrotic markers were assessed. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to determine the binding of phosphorylated smad3 to the promoter region of the SGLT2 gene. Our data showed that TGFβ1 but not HG increased SGLT2 expression and this occurred via phosphorylated smad3. HG induced expression of Toll-like receptor-4, increased nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid binding for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein 1, induced collagen IV expression as well as interleukin-6 secretion all of which were attenuated with empagliflozin. Empagliflozin did not reduce high mobility group box protein 1 induced NF-κB suggesting that its effect is specifically related to a reduction in glycotoxicity. SGLT1 and GLUT2 expression was not significantly altered with HG or empagliflozin. In conclusion, empagliflozin reduces HG induced inflammatory and fibrotic markers by blocking glucose transport and did not induce a compensatory increase in SGLT1/GLUT2 expression. Although HG itself does not regulate SGLT2 expression in our model, TGFβ increases SGLT2 expression through phosphorylated smad3.

  7. Elevated glycine betaine excretion in diabetes mellitus patients is associated with proximal tubular dysfunction and hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Dellow, W J; Chambers, S T; Lever, M; Lunt, H; Robson, R A

    1999-02-01

    In an ambulatory population of diabetic subjects (Type 1 and Type 2), the urine excretion of the renal osmolyte, glycine betaine, was compared to known markers of glycemic control, renal dysfunction and to the excretion of related betaines, including trigonelline, proline betaine, carnitine and acetyl-carnitine. Of the 85 subjects, 20 patients had urine glycine betaine concentrations above the reference range for normal subjects. Plasma glycine betaine concentrations were within reference ranges for normal subjects. Patients with elevated glycine betaine excretion tended to have lower plasma glycine betaine concentrations, but this did not reach statistical significance. One way analysis of variance found excretion is independent of treatment, duration of diagnosed diabetes, blood pressure and body mass index (BMI). An association between glycine betaine excretion and glycemic control was observed with statistically significant correlations occurring with both plasma glucose (r = 0.43, P < 0.001) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (r = 0.35, P < 0.005). The excretion of carnitine, acetyl-carnitine and proline betaine were related to glycine betaine excretion (r = 0.49, P < 0.001; r = 0.40, P < 0.001; r = 0.27, P < 0.05, respectively). Urine carnitine and acetyl-carnitine concentrations were also related to plasma glucose concentrations (r = 0.30, P < 0.01). Increased urine retinol binding protein concentrations (RBP), a marker of proximal tubular dysfunction, correlated with elevated urine glycine betaine excretion and plasma HbA1c (r = 0.28, P < 0.01). These results suggest poor glycemic control is associated with the increase in urine glycine betaine, carnitine, acetyl-carnitine and RBP excretion in diabetic patients. However, < 50% of the observed increase in glycine betaine excretion has been accounted for by the variables measured, suggesting other unidentified processes may also be involved.

  8. Effect of gentamicin on phospholipid metabolism in cultured rabbit proximal tubular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsammy, L.S.; Josepovitz, C.; Lane, B.; Kaloyanides, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that the accumulation of phospholipid in cells exposed to gentamicin is due to impaired degradation. Experiments were performed in rabbit proximal tubular cells grown in primary culture. Cells exposed to 10(-3) M gentamicin manifested myeloid body formation and a progressive increase in total phospholipid that by day 6 was 44% higher than that of control cells and reflected increases of phosphatidylinositol of 235%, phosphatidylcholine of 60%, phosphatidylethanolamine of 90%, and phosphatidylserine of 55% above control values. Gentamicin impaired the degradation of these phospholipids. The t1/2 of the phospholipid pool labeled with (3H)myoinositol increased 146% from 1.17 (control) to 2.88 days (gentamicin); the t1/2 of the (3H)choline pool increased 34% from 1.77 to 2.38 days; the t1/2 of the (3H)ethanolamine pool increased 57% from 3.14 to 4.93 days; the t1/2 of the (3H) serine pool increased 37% from 6.30 to 8.63 days. Exposure of cells to gentamicin for 2 days also stimulated increased incorporation of (3H)myoinositol (68%) and (3H)ethanolamine (59%) into phospholipid. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that gentamicin inhibits the activity of lysosomal phospholipases that results in the accumulation of phospholipid within the lysosome in the form of myeloid bodies. Increased phospholipid synthesis may represent a compensatory response to the impaired lysosomal degradation of phospholipid. We postulate that the preferential increase of phosphatidylinositol reflects the capacity of the polycationic gentamicin to interact electrostatically with the anionic phosphoinositides and inhibit their turnover.

  9. Protective Effects of Pistacia lentiscus L. fruit extract against calcium oxalate monohydrate induced proximal tubular injury.

    PubMed

    Cheraft-Bahloul, Nassima; Husson, Cécile; Ourtioualous, Meriam; Sinaeve, Sébastien; Atmani, Djebbar; Stévigny, Caroline; Nortier, Joëlle L; Antoine, Marie-Hélène

    2017-09-14

    The world prevalence of kidney stones is increasing and plants are frequently used to treat urolithiasis. Pistacia lentiscus L, a plant which freely grows around the Mediterranean basin areas, is widely used for various pathologies. P. lentiscus has an important impact as it has economical value on top of its pharmacological interest. Decoctions of its aerial parts and/or resin are used to treat kidney stones. To in vitro assess the potential nephroprotective effect of Pistacia lentiscus ethanolic fruit extract (PLEF) on proximal tubular cells in response to the adhesion of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Human Kidney [HK]-2 cells were incubated with and without COM in the presence or absence of PLEF. Cell viability was measured by the resazurin assay. The expression of E-cadherin was analyzed by PCR. The extracellular production of H2O2 was measured by Amplex® Red H2O2 Assay. The numbers of detached or non-adherent COM crystals in the presence of PLEF were microscopically captured and counted using ImageJ software. The interaction of PLEF with COM and the effect of PLEF on crystal size were analyzed by flow cytometry. The spectrophotometric measurement of turbidity was performed for assessing the COM concentration. PLEF incubated with COM was able to increase the cell viability. The decrease of E-cadherin expression after incubation with COM was counteracted by PLEF. Overproduction of H2O2 induced by COM was also inhibited by PLEF. Observations using flow cytometry showed that interactions between PLEF and the COM crystals occurred. PLEF was also effective in reducing the particles size and in lowering COM concentration. Our data show that COM tubulotoxicity can be significantly reversed by PLEF -at least in part- via an inhibition of COM crystals adhesion onto the apical membrane. This early beneficial effect of PLEF needs to be further investigated as a useful strategy in nephrolithiasis prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  10. Azilsartan Improves Salt Sensitivity by Modulating the Proximal Tubular Na+-H+ Exchanger-3 in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hatanaka, Masaki; Kaimori, Jun-Ya; Yamamoto, Satoko; Matsui, Isao; Hamano, Takayuki; Takabatake, Yoshitsugu; Ecelbarger, Carolyn M.; Takahara, Shiro; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    A potent angiotensin II type-1 receptor blocker, azilsartan, has been reported to reduce blood pressure more effectively than candesartan. Interestingly, azilsartan can also restore the circadian rhythm of blood pressure. We hypothesized that azilsartan could also improve salt sensitivity; thus, we examined the effect of azilsartan on sodium handling in renal tubules. Subtotal nephrectomized C57BL/6 mice received azilsartan (1.0 mg/kg/day), candesartan (0.3 mg/kg/day), or vehicle via the oral route in conjunction with a normal- (0.3%) or high-salt (8.0%) diet. Two weeks later, the azilsartan group showed significantly lower blood pressure during the light period than the candesartan and vehicle groups (azilsartan: 103.1 ± 1.0; candesartan: 111.7 ± 2.7; vehicle: 125.5 ± 2.5 mmHg; P < 0.05; azilsartan or candesartan vs. vehicle). The azilsartan group also showed higher urinary fractional excretion of sodium during the dark period than the candesartan and vehicle groups (azilsartan: 21.37 ± 3.69%; candesartan: 14.17 ± 1.42%; vehicle: 13.85 ± 5.30%; P < 0.05 azilsartan vs. candesartan or vehicle). A pressure—natriuresis curve demonstrated that azilsartan treatment restored salt sensitivity. Immunofluorescence and western blotting showed lower levels of Na+-H+ exchanger-3 (NHE3) protein (the major sodium transporter in renal proximal tubules) in the azilsartan group, but not in the candesartan or vehicle groups. However, azilsartan did not affect NHE3 transcription levels. Interestingly, we did not observe increased expression of downstream sodium transporters, which would have compensated for the increased flow of sodium and water due to non-absorption by NHE3. We also confirmed the mechanism stated above using cultured opossum kidney proximal tubular cells. Results revealed that a proteasomal inhibitor (but not a lysosomal inhibitor) blocked the azilsartan-induced decrease in NHE3 protein expression, suggesting that azilsartan increases NHE3 ubiquitination. In

  11. Azilsartan Improves Salt Sensitivity by Modulating the Proximal Tubular Na+-H+ Exchanger-3 in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Masaki; Kaimori, Jun-Ya; Yamamoto, Satoko; Matsui, Isao; Hamano, Takayuki; Takabatake, Yoshitsugu; Ecelbarger, Carolyn M; Takahara, Shiro; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    A potent angiotensin II type-1 receptor blocker, azilsartan, has been reported to reduce blood pressure more effectively than candesartan. Interestingly, azilsartan can also restore the circadian rhythm of blood pressure. We hypothesized that azilsartan could also improve salt sensitivity; thus, we examined the effect of azilsartan on sodium handling in renal tubules. Subtotal nephrectomized C57BL/6 mice received azilsartan (1.0 mg/kg/day), candesartan (0.3 mg/kg/day), or vehicle via the oral route in conjunction with a normal- (0.3%) or high-salt (8.0%) diet. Two weeks later, the azilsartan group showed significantly lower blood pressure during the light period than the candesartan and vehicle groups (azilsartan: 103.1 ± 1.0; candesartan: 111.7 ± 2.7; vehicle: 125.5 ± 2.5 mmHg; P < 0.05; azilsartan or candesartan vs. vehicle). The azilsartan group also showed higher urinary fractional excretion of sodium during the dark period than the candesartan and vehicle groups (azilsartan: 21.37 ± 3.69%; candesartan: 14.17 ± 1.42%; vehicle: 13.85 ± 5.30%; P < 0.05 azilsartan vs. candesartan or vehicle). A pressure-natriuresis curve demonstrated that azilsartan treatment restored salt sensitivity. Immunofluorescence and western blotting showed lower levels of Na+-H+ exchanger-3 (NHE3) protein (the major sodium transporter in renal proximal tubules) in the azilsartan group, but not in the candesartan or vehicle groups. However, azilsartan did not affect NHE3 transcription levels. Interestingly, we did not observe increased expression of downstream sodium transporters, which would have compensated for the increased flow of sodium and water due to non-absorption by NHE3. We also confirmed the mechanism stated above using cultured opossum kidney proximal tubular cells. Results revealed that a proteasomal inhibitor (but not a lysosomal inhibitor) blocked the azilsartan-induced decrease in NHE3 protein expression, suggesting that azilsartan increases NHE3 ubiquitination. In

  12. MIF-2/D-DT enhances proximal tubular cell regeneration through SLPI- and ATF4-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Akinobu; Chen, Dong; Schulte, Wibke; Leng, Lin; Moeckel, Nickolas; Piecychna, Marta; Averdunk, Luisa; Stoppe, Christian; Bucala, Richard; Moeckel, Gilbert

    2017-09-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine with pleiotropic actions that is produced by several organs and cell types. Depending on the target cell and the inflammatory context, MIF can engage its two component receptor complex CD74 and CD44 and the chemokine receptors CXCR2/4. MIF is constitutively expressed in renal proximal tubular cells, stored in intracellular preformed pools, and released at a low rate. Recently, a second MIF-like protein (i.e., MIF-2/D-DT) has been characterized in mammals. Our study was aimed at examining the role of MIF-2/D-DT, which mediates tissue protection in the heart, in tubular cell regeneration from ischemia-reperfusion injury. We found that Mif-/-, Mif-2-/-, and Cd74-/- mice had significantly worse tubular injury compared with wild-type (WT) control mice and that treatment with MIF-2/D-DT significantly improved recovery of injured epithelial cells. RNAseq analysis of kidney tissue from the ischemia-reperfusion injury model revealed that MIF-2/D-DT treatment stimulates secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) and cyclin D1 expression. MIF-2/D-DT additionally activates of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2α and activating transcription factor (ATF) 4, two transcription factors involved in the integrated stress response (ISR), which is a cellular stress response activated by hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, and oxygen radicals. MIF-2/D-DT also inhibited apoptosis and induced autophagy in hypoxia-treated mouse proximal tubular (MPT) cells. These results indicate that MIF-2/D-DT is an important factor in tubular cell regeneration and may be of therapeutic utility as a regenerative agent in the clinical setting of ischemic acute kidney injury. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Protein Kinase C-δ Mediates Shedding of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 from Proximal Tubular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Fengxia; Zimpelmann, Joseph; Burger, Dylan; Kennedy, Christopher; Hébert, Richard L.; Burns, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) degrades angiotensin (Ang) II to Ang-(1–7), and protects against diabetic renal injury. Soluble ACE2 fragments are shed from the proximal tubule, and appear at high levels in the urine with diabetes. High glucose-induced shedding of ACE2 from proximal tubular cells is mediated by the enzyme “a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-17″ (ADAM17). Here, we investigated the mechanism for constitutive shedding of ACE2. Mouse proximal tubular cells were cultured and ACE2 shedding into the media was assessed by enzyme activity assay and immunoblot analysis. Cells were incubated with pharmacologic inhibitors, or transfected with silencing (si) RNA. Incubation of proximal tubular cells with increasing concentrations of D-glucose stimulated ACE2 shedding, which peaked at 16 mM, while L-glucose (osmotic control) had no effect on shedding. In cells maintained in 7.8 mM D-glucose, ACE2 shedding was significantly inhibited by the pan-protein kinase C (PKC) competitive inhibitor sotrastaurin, but not by an inhibitor of ADAM17. Incubation of cells with the PKC-α and -β1-specific inhibitor Go6976, the PKC β1 and β2-specific inhibitor ruboxistaurin, inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases-2,-8, and -9, or an inhibitor of ADAM10 (GI250423X) had no effect on basal ACE2 shedding. By contrast, the PKC-δ inhibitor rottlerin significantly inhibited both constitutive and high glucose-induced ACE2 shedding. Transfection of cells with siRNA directed against PKC-δ reduced ACE2 shedding by 20%, while knockdown of PKC-ε was without effect. These results indicate that constitutive shedding of ACE2 from proximal tubular cells is mediated by PKC-δ, which is also linked to high glucose-induced shedding. Targeting PKC-δ may preserve membrane-bound ACE2 in proximal tubule in disease states and diminish Ang II-stimulated adverse signaling. PMID:27313531

  14. Regulation of G-protein signaling via Gnas is required to regulate proximal tubular growth in the Xenopus pronephros

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Romaker, Daniel; Ferrell, Nicholas; Wessely, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    In the kidney, proximal tubules are very important for the reabsorption of water, ions and organic solutes from the primary urine. They are composed of highly specialized epithelial cells that are characterized by an elaborate apical brush border to increase transport efficiency. Using the pronephric kidney of Xenopus laevis we discovered that the G-protein modulator cholera toxin resulted in a dramatic reduction of the proximal tubular size. This phenotype was accompanied by changes in the cytoarchitecture characterized by ectopic expression of the distal tubular marker 4A6 and an impairment of yolk platelet degradation. In addition, cholera toxin caused edema formation. However, this phenotype was not due to kidney defects, but rather due to impaired vasculature development. Based on experiments with antisense morpholino oligomers as well as pharmacological agonists and antagonists, we could show that the complex phenotype of cholera toxin in the pronephric kidney was caused by the hyperactivation of a single G-protein alpha subunit, Gnas. This—in turn—caused elevated cAMP levels, triggered a Rapgef4-dependent signaling cassette and perturbed exo- and endocytosis. This perturbation of the secretory pathway by Ctx was not only observed in Xenopus embryos. Also, in a human proximal tubular cell line, cholera toxin or a Rapgef4-specific agonist increased uptake and decreased secretion of FITC-labeled Albumin. Based on these data we propose that the Gnas/cAMP/Rapgef4 pathway regulates the signals inducing the proliferation of proximal tubules to acquire their final organ size. PMID:23352791

  15. HCO(3)(-)-independent conductance with a mutant Na(+)/HCO(3)(-) cotransporter (SLC4A4) in a case of proximal renal tubular acidosis with hypokalaemic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Parker, Mark D; Qin, Xue; Williamson, Rosalind C; Toye, Ashley M; Boron, Walter F

    2012-04-15

    The renal electrogenic Na(+)/HCO(3)(−) cotransporter (NBCe1-A) contributes to the basolateral step of transepithelial HCO(3)(−) reabsorption in proximal tubule epithelia, contributing to the buffering of blood pH. Elsewhere in the body (e.g. muscle cells) NBCe1 variants contribute to, amongst other processes, maintenance of intracellular pH. Others have described a homozygous mutation in NBCe1 (NBCe1-A p.Ala799Val) in an individual with severe proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA; usually associated with defective HCO(3)(−) reabsorption in proximal tubule cells) and hypokalaemic periodic paralysis (hypoPP; usually associated with leaky cation channels in muscle cells). Using biotinylation and two-electrode voltage-clamp on Xenopus oocytes expressing NBCe1, we demonstrate that the mutant NBCe1-A (A(A799V)) exhibits a per-molecule transport defect that probably contributes towards the observed pRTA. Furthermore, we find that A(A799V) expression is associated with an unusual HCO(3)(−)-independent conductance that, if associated with mutant NBCe1 in muscle cells, could contribute towards the appearance of hypokalaemic paralysis in the affected individual. We also study three novel lab mutants of NBCe1-A: p.Ala799Ile, p.Ala799Gly and p.Ala799Ser. All three exhibit a per-molecule transport defect, but only A(A799I) exhibits an A(A799V)-like ion conductance. A(A799G) and A(A799S) exhibit unusual outward rectification in their HCO(3)(−)-dependent conductance and A(A799G) exhibits reduced sensitivity to both DIDS and tenidap. A799G is the first mutation shown to affect the apparent tenidap affinity of NBCe1. Finally we show that A(A799V) and A(A799I), which accumulate poorly in the plasma membrane of oocytes, exhibit signs of abnormal intracellular accumulation in a non-polarized renal cell-line.

  16. Cadmium induces phosphorylation and stabilization of c-Fos in HK-2 renal proximal tubular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iwatsuki, Mamiko; Inageda, Kiyoshi; Matsuoka, Masato

    2011-03-15

    We examined the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) exposure on the expression and phosphorylation status of members of the Fos family, components of the activator protein-1 transcription factor, in HK-2 human renal proximal tubular cells. Following the exposure to CdCl{sub 2}, the expression of c-fos, fosB, fra-1, and fra-2 increased markedly, with different magnitudes and time courses. The levels of Fos family proteins (c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1, and Fra-2) also increased in response to CdCl{sub 2} exposure. Although the elevation of c-fos transcripts was transient, c-Fos protein levels increased progressively with lower electrophoretic mobility, suggesting stabilization of c-Fos through post-translational modifications. Consistently, we observed phosphorylation of c-Fos at Ser362 and Ser374 in HK-2 cells treated with CdCl{sub 2}. Phosphorylated forms of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)-including extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH{sub 2}-terminal kinase, and p38-increased after CdCl{sub 2} exposure, whereas treatment with the MAPK/ERK kinase inhibitor U0126 and the p38 inhibitor SB203580 suppressed the accumulation and phosphorylation of c-Fos. We mutated Ser362 to alanine (S362A), Ser374 to alanine (S374A), and both residues to alanines (S362A/S374A) to inhibit potential phosphorylation of c-Fos at these sites. S374A or double S362A/S374A mutations reduced c-Fos level markedly, but S362A mutation did not. On the other hand, S362A/S374A mutations induced a more pronounced reduction in c-Fos DNA-binding activity than S374A mutation. These results suggest that while Ser374 phosphorylation seems to play a role in c-Fos stabilization, phosphorylation at two C-terminal serine residues is required for the transcriptional activation of c-Fos in HK-2 cells treated with CdCl{sub 2}.

  17. Load dependence of proximal tubular fluid and bicarbonate reabsorption in the remnant kidney of the Munich-Wistar rat.

    PubMed Central

    Maddox, D A; Horn, J F; Famiano, F C; Gennari, F J

    1986-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to characterize the pattern of proximal tubular fluid (APRH2O) and bicarbonate reabsorption (APRHCO3) in the remnant kidney of euvolemic Munich-Wistar rats. The remnant kidney rats were placed on a diet containing either low or normal protein. Collections were obtained in the early, mid-, and late proximal convoluted tubule. Single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) increased from 40.2 nl/min in controls to 58.8 nl/min in low protein remnant kidney and 78.1 nl/min in normal protein remnant kidney rats. The filtered load of bicarbonate was 1,272, 1,641, and 2,013 pmol/min, in the three groups, respectively. APRH2O and APRHCO3 increased nearly in parallel. Most of the increase in reabsorption occurred in the early proximal tubule. Tubular hypertrophy could account for at least 20-40% of the increase in reabsorption, but the majority of the increase appeared to be a delivery-dependent response similar to that observed in normal rats after an acute increase in SNGFR. Images PMID:3009550

  18. Specific estrogen-induced cell proliferation of cultured Syrian hamster renal proximal tubular cells in serum-free chemically defined media

    SciTech Connect

    Oberley, T.D.; Lauchner, L.J.; Pugh, T.D.; Gonzalez, A.; Goldfarb, S. ); Li, S.A.; Li, J.J. )

    1989-03-01

    It has long been recognized that the renal proximal tubular epithelium of the hamster is a bona fide estrogen target tissue. The effect of estrogens on the growth of proximal tubule cell explants and dissociated single cells derived from these explant outgrowths has been studied in culture. Renal tubular cells were grown on a PF-HR-9 basement membrane under serum-free chemically defined culture conditions. At 7-14 days in culture, cell number was enhanced 3-fold in the presence of either 17{beta}-estradiol or diethylstilbestrol. A similar 3-fold increase in cell number was also seen at 1 nM 17{beta}-estradiol in subcultured dissociated single tubular cells derived from hamster renal tubular explant outgrowths at 21 days in culture. Concomitant exposure of tamoxifen at 3-fold molar excess in culture completely abolished the increase in cell number seen with 17{beta}-estradiol. The proliferation effect of estrogens on proximal tubular cell growth appears to be species specific since 17{beta}-estradiol did not alter the growth of either rat or guinea pig proximal tubules in culture. In addition, at 7-10 days in culture in the presence of 17{beta}-estradiol, ({sup 3}H)thymidine labeling of hamster tubular cells was enhanced 3-fold. These results clearly indicate that estrogens can directly induce primary epithelial cell proliferation at physiologic concentrations and provide strong additional evidence for an important hormonal role in the neoplastic transformation of the hamster kidney.

  19. Mechanism of basolateral membrane H+/OH-/HCO-3 transport in the rat proximal convoluted tubule. A sodium-coupled electrogenic process

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    In order to examine the mechanism of basolateral membrane H+/OH-/HCO-3 transport, a method was developed for the measurement of cell pH in the vivo doubly microperfused rat proximal convoluted tubule. A pH- sensitive fluorescein derivative, (2',7')-bis(carboxyethyl)-(5,6)- carboxyfluorescein, was loaded into cells and relative changes in fluorescence at two excitation wavelengths were followed. Calibration was accomplished using nigericin with high extracellular potassium concentrations. When luminal and peritubular fluids were pH 7.32, cell pH was 7.14 +/- 0.01. Decreasing peritubular pH from 7.32 to 6.63 caused cell pH to decrease from 7.16 +/- 0.02 to 6.90 +/- 0.03. This effect occurred at an initial rate of 2.4 +/- 0.3 pH units/min, and was inhibited by 0.5 mM SITS. Lowering the peritubular sodium concentration from 147 to 25 meq/liter caused cell pH to decrease from 7.20 +/- 0.03 to 6.99 +/- 0.01. The effect of peritubular sodium concentration on cell pH was inhibited by 0.5 mM SITS, but was unaffected by 1 mM amiloride. In addition, when peritubular pH was decreased in the total absence of luminal and peritubular sodium, the rate of cell acidification was 0.2 +/- 0.1 pH units/min, a greater than 90% decrease from that in the presence of sodium. Cell depolarization achieved by increasing the peritubular potassium concentration caused cell pH to increase, an effect that was blocked by peritubular barium or luminal and peritubular sodium removal. Lowering the peritubular chloride concentration from 128 to 0 meq/liter did not affect cell pH. These results suggest the existence of an electrogenic, sodium-coupled H+/OH- /HCO-3 transport mechanism on the basolateral membrane of the rat proximal convoluted tubule. PMID:2999293

  20. Toxicological significance of renal Bcrp: Another potential transporter in the elimination of mercuric ions from proximal tubular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, Christy C. Zalups, Rudolfs K.; Joshee, Lucy

    2015-06-01

    Secretion of inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) from proximal tubular cells into the tubular lumen has been shown to involve the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2). Considering similarities in localization and substrate specificity between Mrp2 and the breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), we hypothesize that Bcrp may also play a role in the proximal tubular secretion of mercuric species. In order to test this hypothesis, the uptake of Hg{sup 2+} was examined initially using inside-out membrane vesicles containing Bcrp. The results of these studies suggest that Bcrp may be capable of transporting certain conjugates of Hg{sup 2+}. To further characterize the role of Bcrp in the handling of mercuric ions and in the induction of Hg{sup 2+}-induced nephropathy, Sprague–Dawley and Bcrp knockout (bcrp{sup −/−}) rats were exposed intravenously to a non-nephrotoxic (0.5 μmol·kg{sup −1}), a moderately nephrotoxic (1.5 μmol·kg{sup −1}) or a significantly nephrotoxic (2.0 μmol·kg{sup −1}) dose of HgCl{sub 2}. In general, the accumulation of Hg{sup 2+} was greater in organs of bcrp{sup −/−} rats than in Sprague–Dawley rats, suggesting that Bcrp may play a role in the export of Hg{sup 2+} from target cells. Within the kidney, cellular injury and necrosis was more severe in bcrp{sup −/−} rats than in controls. The pattern of necrosis, which was localized in the inner cortex and the outer stripe of the outer medulla, was significantly different from that observed in Mrp2-deficient animals. These findings suggest that Bcrp may be involved in the cellular export of select mercuric species and that its role in this export may differ from that of Mrp2. - Highlights: • Bcrp may mediate transport of mercury out of proximal tubular cells. • Hg-induced nephropathy was more severe in Bcrp knockout rats. • Bcrp and Mrp2 may differ in their ability to transport Hg.

  1. Fenofibrate reduces cisplatin-induced apoptosis of renal proximal tubular cells via inhibition of JNK and p38 pathways.

    PubMed

    Thongnuanjan, Penjai; Soodvilai, Sirima; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Soodvilai, Sunhapas

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin is widely used as a standard chemotherapy for solid tumors. The major adverse effect of cisplatin is nephrotoxicity in proximal tubular cells, via oxidative stress, DNA damage, cell apoptosis, and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacological effect and mechanism of fibrate drugs on cisplatin-induced renal proximal tubular cell death. Cisplatin decreased cell viability of LLC-PK1 and HK-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Cisplatin-induced apoptosis was attenuated by co-treatment with fenofibrate while less so with clofibrate and bezafibrate. Fenofibrate's protective effect was not complimented by co-treatment with GW6471, a PPARα antagonist, indicating the protective effect occurred via a PPARα-independent mechanism. Treating cells with cisplatin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 kinase (p38), but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Fenofibrate reversed cisplatin-induced JNK and p38 activation, but had no effect on ROS production. The findings suggest fenofibrate's protective effect on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by inhibition of JNK and p38. Moreover, fenofibrate did not alter cisplatin's antitumor effect on cancer cell lines including T84, SW-480, HepG2, and SK-LU-1 cells. Therefore, fenofibrate may be a candidate agent for further development as an adjuvant to cisplatin treatment.

  2. Renal expression of the C3a receptor and functional responses of primary human proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Braun, Michael C; Reins, Rose Y; Li, Tong-Bin; Hollmann, Travis J; Dutta, Ranjan; Rick, Wetsel A; Teng, Ba-Bie; Ke, Baozhen

    2004-09-15

    Although complement activation and deposition have been associated with a variety of glomerulopathies, the pathogenic mechanisms by which complement directly mediates renal injury remain to be fully elucidated. Renal parenchymal tissues express a limited repertoire of receptors that directly bind activated complement proteins. We report the renal expression of the receptor for the C3 cleavage product C3a, a member of the anaphylatoxin family. C3aR is highly expressed in normal human and murine kidney, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Its distribution is limited to epithelial cells only, as glomerular endothelial and mesangial cells showed no evidence of C3aR expression. The C3aR is also expressed by primary renal proximal tubular epithelial cells in vitro as demonstrated by FACS, Western blot, and RT-PCR. In vitro C3aR is functional in terms of its capacity to bind 125I-labeled C3a and generate inositol triphosphate. Finally, using microarray analysis, four novel genes were identified and confirmed as transcriptionally regulated by C3aR activation in proximal tubular cells. These studies define a new pathway by which complement activation may directly modulate the renal response to immunologic injury.

  3. Low micromolar concentrations of cadmium and mercury ions activate peritubular membrane K+ conductance in proximal tubular cells of frog kidney.

    PubMed

    Nesovic-Ostojic, Jelena; Cemerikic, Dusan; Dragovic, Simon; Milovanovic, Aleksandar; Milovanovic, Jovica

    2008-03-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the acute effects of extracellular low micromolar concentrations of cadmium and mercury ions on the peritubular cell membrane potential and its potassium selectivity in proximal tubular cells of the frog kidney. Peritubular exposure to 3 micromol/L Cd(2+) or 1 micromol/L Hg(2+) led to a rapid, sustained and reversible hyperpolarization of the peritubular cell membrane, paralleled by an increase in fractional K(+) conductance. Peritubular barium abolished hyperpolarization of the peritubular cell membrane to peritubular 3 micromol/L Cd(2+) or 1 micromol/L Hg(2+). Perfusing the lumen with 10 mmol/L l-alanine plus/minus 3 micromol/L Cd(2+) or Hg(2+) did not modify rapid depolarization and rate of slow repolarization of the peritubular cell membrane potential. In conclusion, low micromolar concentrations of Cd(2+) and Hg(2+) increase K(+) conductive pathway in the peritubular cell membrane and in this way can enhance ability of proximal renal tubular cells to maintain the driving force for electrogenic Na(+) and substrate reabsorption.

  4. Characterisation of the expression of the Renin-Angiotensin system in primary and immortalised human renal proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Shalamanova, Liliana; Wilkinson, Mark C; McArdle, Frank; Jackson, Malcolm J; Rustom, Rana

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) is pivotal in the pathogenesis of progressive kidney disease. We have recently shown that AngII induced an increase in markers of oxidative stress, adaptive responses and upregulated stress-related gene expression in immortalised human proximal tubular (HK-2) cells. However, these observed effects of AngII were not mediated solely via AngII type 1 receptor (ATR1). Both HK-2 cells and primary human renal proximal tubular cells (RPTEC) are useful tools to investigate the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), but data on the local expression of the RAS in these cells remain limited. We therefore characterised RAS expression in RPTEC and HK-2 cells. The mRNA and protein expression of RAS in RPTEC and HK-2 cells was examined by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunoprecipitation. In both cell lines, mRNA for angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and mRNA and protein expression for angiotensinogen, renin, ACE2, ATR1 and ATR4 were detected. Candesartan, a specific ATR1 blocker, effectively blocked the expression of 80% of the stress-related genes that were upregulated in HK-2 cells following exposure to AngII. These data support a role for AngII in mediating oxidative stress via other receptor types stimulated by AngII and confirm that it is possible to investigate ATR4 pathways of potential injury in RPTEC. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Toxicological Significance of Renal Bcrp: Another Potential Transporter in the Elimination of Mercuric Ions from Proximal Tubular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Christy C.; Zalups, Rudolfs K.; Joshee, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Secretion of inorganic mercury (Hg2+) from proximal tubular cells into the tubular lumen has been shown to involve the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2). Considering similarities in localization and substrate specificity between Mrp2 and the breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), we hypothesize that Bcrp may also play a role in the proximal tubular secretion of mercuric species. In order to test this hypothesis, the uptake of Hg2+ was examined initially using inside-out membrane vesicles containing Bcrp. The results of these studies suggest that Bcrp may be capable of transporting certain conjugates of Hg2+. To further characterize the role of Bcrp in the handling of mercuric ions and in the induction of Hg2+-induced nephropathy, Sprague-Dawley and Bcrp knockout (bcrp−/−) rats were exposed intravenously to a non-nephrotoxic (0.5 μmol • kg−1), a moderately nephrotoxic (1.5 μmol • kg−1) or a significantly nephrotoxic (2.0 μmol • kg−1) dose of HgCl2. In general, the accumulation of Hg2+ was greater in organs of bcrp−/− rats than in Sprague-Dawley rats, suggesting that Bcrp may play a role in the export of Hg2+ from target cells. Within the kidney, cellular injury and necrosis was more severe in bcrp−/− rats than in controls. The pattern of necrosis, which was localized in the inner cortex and the outer stripe of the outer medulla was significantly different from that observed in Mrp2-deficient animals. These findings suggest that Bcrp may be involved in the cellular export of select mercuric species and that its role in this export may differ from that of Mrp2. PMID:25868844

  6. Hypoxia response and VEGF-A expression in human proximal tubular epithelial cells in stable and progressive renal disease.

    PubMed

    Rudnicki, Michael; Perco, Paul; Enrich, Julia; Eder, Susanne; Heininger, Dorothea; Bernthaler, Andreas; Wiesinger, Martin; Sarközi, Rita; Noppert, Susie-Jane; Schramek, Herbert; Mayer, Bernd; Oberbauer, Rainer; Mayer, Gert

    2009-03-01

    Proteinuria, inflammation, chronic hypoxia, and rarefaction of peritubular capillaries contribute to the progression of renal disease by affecting proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs). To study the transcriptional response that separates patients with a stable course from those with a progressive course of disease, we isolated PTECs by laser capture microdissection from cryocut tissue sections of patients with proteinuric glomerulopathies (stable n=20, progressive n=11) with a median clinical follow-up of 26 months. Gene-expression profiling and a systems biology analysis identified activation of intracellular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling and hypoxia response pathways in progressive patients, which was associated with upregulation of hypoxia-inducible-factor (HIF)-1alpha and several HIF target genes, such as transferrin, transferrin-receptor, p21, and VEGF-receptor 1, but downregulation of VEGF-A. The inverse expression levels of HIF-1alpha and VEGF-A were significantly superior in predicting clinical outcome as compared with proteinuria, renal function, and degree of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis at the time of biopsy. Interactome analysis showed the association of attenuated VEGF-A expression with the downregulation of genes that usually stimulate VEGF-A expression, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and HIF-2alpha. In vitro experiments confirmed the positive regulatory effect of EGF and IGF-1 on VEGF-A transcription in human proximal tubular cells. Thus, in progressive but not in stable proteinuric kidney disease, human PTECs show an attenuated VEGF-A expression despite an activation of intracellular hypoxia response and VEGF signaling pathways, which might be due to a reduced expression of positive coregulators, such as EGF and IGF-1.

  7. Indoxyl sulfate downregulates expression of Mas receptor via OAT3/AhR/Stat3 pathway in proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Ng, Hwee-Yeong; Yisireyili, Maimaiti; Saito, Shinichi; Lee, Chien-Te; Adelibieke, Yelixiati; Nishijima, Fuyuhiko; Niwa, Toshimitsu

    2014-01-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a pivotal role in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Angiotensin converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis counteracts the deleterious actions of Ang II. ACE2 exerts its actions by cleaving Ang II into Ang-(1-7) which activates Mas receptor. This study aimed to determine if the expression of Mas receptor is altered in the kidneys of CKD rats, and if indoxyl sulfate (IS), a uremic toxin, affects the expression of Mas receptor in rat kidneys and cultured human proximal tubular cells (HK-2 cells). The expression of Mas receptor was examined in the kidneys of CKD and AST-120-treated CKD rats using immunohistochemistry. Further, the effects of IS on Mas receptor expression in the kidneys of normotensive and hypertensive rats were examined. The effects of IS on the expression of Mas receptor and phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in HK-2 cells were examined using immunoblotting. CKD rats showed reduced renal expression of Mas receptor, while AST-120 restored its expression. Administration of IS downregulated Mas receptor expression in the kidneys of normotensive and hypertensive rats. IS downregulated Mas receptor expression in HK-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) inhibited IS-induced downregulation of Mas receptor and phosphorylated eNOS. N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, also inhibited IS-induced downregulation of Mas receptor and phosphorylated eNOS. Ang-(1-7) attenuated IS-induced transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression. Mas receptor expression is reduced in the kidneys of CKD rats. IS downregulates renal expression of Mas receptor via OAT3/AhR/Stat3 pathway in proximal tubular cells. IS-induced downregulation of Mas receptor might be involved in upregulation of TGF-β1 in proximal tubular

  8. Tubular proteinuria in patients with HNF1α mutations: HNF1α drives endocytosis in the proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Terryn, Sara; Tanaka, Karo; Lengelé, Jean-Philippe; Olinger, Eric; Dubois-Laforgue, Danièle; Garbay, Serge; Kozyraki, Renata; Van Der Smissen, Patrick; Christensen, Erik I; Courtoy, Pierre J; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine; Timsit, José; Pontoglio, Marco; Devuyst, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α) is a transcription factor expressed in the liver, pancreas, and proximal tubule of the kidney. Mutations of HNF1α cause an autosomal dominant form of diabetes mellitus (MODY-HNF1A) and tubular dysfunction. To gain insights into the role of HNF1α in the proximal tubule, we analyzed Hnf1a-deficient mice. Compared with wild-type littermates, Hnf1a knockout mice showed low-molecular-weight proteinuria and a 70% decrease in the uptake of β2-microglobulin, indicating a major endocytic defect due to decreased expression of megalin/cubilin receptors. We identified several binding sites for HNF1α in promoters of Lrp2 and Cubn genes encoding megalin and cubilin, respectively. The functional interaction of HNF1α with these promoters was shown in C33 epithelial cells lacking endogenous HNF1α. Defective receptor-mediated endocytosis was confirmed in proximal tubule cells from these knockout mice and could be rescued by transfection of wild-type but not mutant HNF1α. Transfection of human proximal tubule HK2 cells with HNF1α was able to upregulate megalin and cubilin expression and to increase endocytosis of albumin. Low-molecular-weight proteinuria was consistently detected in individuals with HNF1A mutations compared with healthy controls and patients with non-MODY-HNF1A diabetes mellitus. Thus, HNF1α plays a key role in the constitutive expression of megalin and cubilin, hence regulating endocytosis in the proximal tubule of the kidney. These findings provide new insight into the renal phenotype of individuals with mutations of HNF1A.

  9. Identification and proximal tubular localization of the Mg2+ transporter, Slc41a1, in a seawater fish

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Zinia; Hayashi, Naoko; Yamamoto, Yoko; Doi, Hiroyuki; Romero, Michael F.; Hirose, Shigehisa

    2013-01-01

    The second most abundant cation in seawater (SW), Mg2+, is present at concentrations of ∼53 mM. Marine teleosts maintain plasma Mg2+ concentration at 1–2 mM by excreting Mg2+ into the urine. Urine Mg2+ concentrations of SW teleosts exceed 70 mM, most of which is secreted by the renal tubular epithelial cells. However, molecular mechanisms of the Mg2+ secretion have yet to be clarified. To identify transporters involved in Mg2+ secretion, we analyzed the expression of fish homologs of the Slc41 Mg2+ transporter family in various tissues of SW pufferfish torafugu (Takifugu rubripes) and its closely related euryhaline species mefugu (Takifugu obscurus). Takifugu genome contained five members of Slc41 genes, and only Slc41a1 was highly expressed in the kidney. Renal expression of Slc41a1 was markedly elevated when mefugu were transferred from fresh water (FW) to SW. In situ hybridization analysis and immunohistochemistry at the light and electron microscopic levels revealed that Slc41a1 is localized to vacuoles in the apical cytoplasm of the proximal tubules. These results suggest that pufferfish Slc41a1 is a Mg2+ transporter involved in renal tubular transepithelial Mg2+ secretion by mediating Mg2+ transport from the cytosol to the vacuolar lumen, and support the hypothesis that Mg2+ secretion is mediated by exocytosis of Mg2+-rich vacuoles to the lumen. PMID:23761638

  10. Calcium Dobesilate Prevents Diabetic Kidney Disease by Decreasing Bim and Inhibiting Apoptosis of Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tian; Wu, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Xiao-Qian; Shang, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Zhong-Wen; Liao, Lin; Dong, Jian-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Apoptosis of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) plays a vital role in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Calcium dobesilate is a vascular protective compound used for treatment of diabetic retinopathy and chronic venous insufficiency. The aim of this study was to determine whether calcium dobesilate can protect PTECs from glucose-induced apoptosis and the potential mechanism of this effect. It is indicated that high glucose promoted abnormal apoptosis of HK2 cells, which was inhibited by treatment of calcium dobesilate, while Bim expression decreased in response to calcium dobesilate in high-glucose-treated HK2 cells. These findings confirmed the therapeutic effects of calcium dobesilate on DKD and emphasized the importance of it as a potentially crucial drug in treatment of DKD.

  11. Cytoprotective effects of calbindin-D(28k) against antimycin-A induced hypoxic injury in proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Ju; Lai, Li-Wen; Lien, Yeong-Hau H

    2002-06-21

    Intracellular calcium plays an important role on the pathogenesis of hypoxia-induced cellular injury. Calbindin-D(28k), a cytosolic vitamin D-dependent calcium binding protein, can serve as a buffer to limit a surge in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) induced by various stimulations. To evaluate the possible cytoprotective effect of calbindin-D(28k) against hypoxic injury in proximal tubular cells, a plasmid containing calbindin-D(28k) cDNA under the control of CMV immediate-early gene promoter was transfected into the murine proximal tubular epithelial (MCT) cells. The expression of calbindin-D(28k) in the transfected cells was verified with Northern blot analysis, Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescent staining. The non-transfected and transfected MCT cells were subjected to chemical hypoxia induced by antimycin A (10 microM) and glucose deprivation for 30-120 min. The transfection of calbindin-D(28k) reduced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release by 41%, 41%, 24%, and 24%, respectively, at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after hypoxia when compared to the non-transfected cells (all p < 0.05). Cell viability after hypoxic injury was also significantly higher in transfected cells than non-transfected cells. Transfection with the plasmid without calbindin-D(28k) cDNA did not affect LDH release or cell viability after chemical hypoxic injury. [Ca+2]i was measured ratiometrically with fura-2 after exposure to chemical hypoxia. The rate of initial rise in [Ca2+]i and final [Ca+2]i at 30-120 min were significantly lowered in transfected cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that transfection of calbindin-D(28k) gene into MCT cells provide protective effects against chemical hypoxic injury probably through its buffering effects on [Ca+2]i.

  12. HCO3−-independent conductance with a mutant Na+/HCO3− cotransporter (SLC4A4) in a case of proximal renal tubular acidosis with hypokalaemic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Mark D; Qin, Xue; Williamson, Rosalind C; Toye, Ashley M; Boron, Walter F

    2012-01-01

    The renal electrogenic Na+/HCO3− cotransporter (NBCe1-A) contributes to the basolateral step of transepithelial HCO3− reabsorption in proximal tubule epithelia, contributing to the buffering of blood pH. Elsewhere in the body (e.g. muscle cells) NBCe1 variants contribute to, amongst other processes, maintenance of intracellular pH. Others have described a homozygous mutation in NBCe1 (NBCe1-A p.Ala799Val) in an individual with severe proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA; usually associated with defective HCO3− reabsorption in proximal tubule cells) and hypokalaemic periodic paralysis (hypoPP; usually associated with leaky cation channels in muscle cells). Using biotinylation and two-electrode voltage-clamp on Xenopus oocytes expressing NBCe1, we demonstrate that the mutant NBCe1-A (AA799V) exhibits a per-molecule transport defect that probably contributes towards the observed pRTA. Furthermore, we find that AA799V expression is associated with an unusual HCO3−-independent conductance that, if associated with mutant NBCe1 in muscle cells, could contribute towards the appearance of hypokalaemic paralysis in the affected individual. We also study three novel lab mutants of NBCe1-A: p.Ala799Ile, p.Ala799Gly and p.Ala799Ser. All three exhibit a per-molecule transport defect, but only AA799I exhibits an AA799V-like ion conductance. AA799G and AA799S exhibit unusual outward rectification in their HCO3−-dependent conductance and AA799G exhibits reduced sensitivity to both DIDS and tenidap. A799G is the first mutation shown to affect the apparent tenidap affinity of NBCe1. Finally we show that AA799V and AA799I, which accumulate poorly in the plasma membrane of oocytes, exhibit signs of abnormal intracellular accumulation in a non-polarized renal cell-line. PMID:22331414

  13. Exposure of cultured human proximal tubular cells to cadmium, mercury, zinc and bismuth: toxicity and metallothionein induction.

    PubMed

    Rodilla, V; Miles, A T; Jenner, W; Hawksworth, G M

    1998-08-14

    The kidney, in particular the proximal convoluted tubule, is a major target site for the toxic effects of various metals. However, little is known about the early effects of these metals after acute exposure in man. In the present study we have evaluated the toxicity of several inorganic metal compounds (CdCl2, HgCl2, ZnCl2, and Bi(NO3)3) and the induction of metallothionein by these compounds in cultured human proximal tubular (HPT) cells for up to 4 days. The results showed that bismuth was not toxic even at the highest dose (100 microM) used, while zinc, cadmium and mercury exhibited varying degrees of toxicity, zinc being the least toxic and mercury the most potent. A significant degree of interindividual variation between the different isolates used in these experiments was also observed. All metals used in the present study induced MT, as revealed by immunocytochemistry. All metals showed maximal induction between 1 and 3 days after treatment. Although a certain amount of constitutive MT was present in the cultures, the intensity of the staining varied with time in culture and between the different isolates studied. No correlation could be made between the intensity of the staining in control cultures (indicating total amount of constitutive MT) and the susceptibility of a given isolate to metal toxicity. Furthermore, no correlation could be made between metal-induced MT and the susceptibility of a given isolate to that particular metal.

  14. Nifedipine inhibits advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) interaction-mediated proximal tubular cell injury via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Takanori; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Ueda, Seiji; Fukami, Kei; Okuda, Seiya

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} Nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced up-regulation of RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells, which was prevented by GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}. {yields} GW9662 treatment alone increased RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells. {yields} Nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced reactive oxygen species generation, NF-{kappa}B activation and increases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and transforming growth factor-{beta} gene expression in tubular cells, all of which were blocked by GW9662. -- Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) interaction evokes oxidative stress generation and subsequently elicits inflammatory and fibrogenic reactions, thereby contributing to the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. We have previously found that nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker (CCB), inhibits the AGE-induced mesangial cell damage in vitro. However, effects of nifedipine on proximal tubular cell injury remain unknown. We examined here whether and how nifedipine blocked the AGE-induced tubular cell damage. Nifedipine, but not amlodipine, a control CCB, inhibited the AGE-induced up-regulation of RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells, which was prevented by the simultaneous treatment of GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}). GW9662 treatment alone was found to increase RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells. Further, nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced reactive oxygen species generation, NF-{kappa}B activation and increases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and transforming growth factor-beta gene expression in tubular cells, all of which were blocked by GW9662. Our present study provides a unique beneficial aspect of nifedipine on diabetic nephropathy; it could work as an anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory agent against AGEs in tubular cells by suppressing RAGE expression

  15. Influence of native and hypochlorite-modified low-density lipoprotein on gene expression in human proximal tubular epithelium.

    PubMed

    Porubsky, Stefan; Schmid, Holger; Bonrouhi, Mahnaz; Kretzler, Matthias; Malle, Ernst; Nelson, Peter J; Gröne, Hermann-Josef

    2004-06-01

    Inflammatory infiltrates can modify (lipo)proteins via hypochlorous acid/hypochlorite (HOCl/OCl(-)) an oxidant formed by the myeloperoxidase-H(2)O(2)-halide system. These oxidatively modified proteins emerge in tubuli in some proteinuric and interstitial diseases. Human proximal tubular cells (HK-2) were used to confirm the hypothesis of detrimental and differential impact of HOCl-modified low density lipoprotein (HOCl-LDL), an in vivo occurring lipoprotein modification exerting proatherogenic and proinflammatory capacity. HOCl-LDL showed dose-dependent antiproliferative effects in HK-2 cells. Small dedicated cDNA macroarrays were used to identify differentially regulated genes. A rapid increase in the expression of genes involved in reactive oxygen species metabolism and cell stress, eg, heme oxygenase-1, thioredoxin reductase, cytochrome b5 reductase, Gadd 153, amino acid transporter E16, and HSP70 was found after HOCl-LDL treatment of HK-2 cells. In parallel, genes involved in tissue remodeling and inflammation eg, CTGF, VCAM-1, IL-1beta, MMP7, and VEGF were up-regulated. Quantitative RT-PCR verified differential expression of a subset of these genes in microdissected tubulointerstitia from patients with acute tubular damage, progressive proteinuric renal disease, and membranous glomerulonephritis (with declining renal function), but not in stable patients with proteinuria caused by minimal change disease. The demonstration of selective up-regulation of a subgroup of genes if proteinuria is accompanied by the presence of HOCl-modified (lipo)proteins support the potential pathophysiological role of the myeloperoxidase-H(2)O(2)-halide system and HOCl-LDL in renal disease.

  16. Melamine induces Ca(2+)-sensing receptor activation and elicits apoptosis in proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Yiu, Allen J; Ibeh, Cliff-Lawrence; Roy, Sanjit K; Bandyopadhyay, Bidhan C

    2017-07-01

    Melamine causes renal tubular cell injury through inflammation, fibrosis, and apoptosis. Although melamine affects the rise in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and proapoptotic pathway activation, the mechanism of upstream Ca(2+) signaling is unknown. Because melamine has some structural similarities with l-amino acids, which endogenously activate Ca(2+)-sensing receptors (CSR), we examined the effect of melamine on CSR-induced Ca(2+) signaling and apoptotic cell death. We show here that melamine activates CSR, causing a sustained Ca(2+) entry in the renal epithelial cell line, LLC-PK1. Moreover, such CSR stimulation resulted in a rise in [Ca(2+)]i, leading to enhanced ROS production. Furthermore, melamine-induced elevated [Ca(2+)]i and ROS production caused a dose-dependent increase in apoptotic (by DAPI staining, DNA laddering, and annexin V assay) and necrotic (propidium iodide staining) cell death. Upon examining the downstream mechanism, we found that transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), which increases extracellular matrix genes and proapoptotic signaling, was also upregulated at lower doses of melamine, which could be due to an early event inducing apoptosis. Additionally, cells exposed to melamine displayed a rise in pERK activation and lactate dehydrogenase release resulting in cytotoxicity. These results offer a novel insight into the molecular mechanisms by which melamine exerts its effect on CSR, causing a sustained elevation of [Ca(2+)]i, leading to ROS generation, fibronectin production, proapoptotic pathway activation, and renal cell damage. Together, these results thus suggest that melamine-induced apoptosis and/or necrosis may subsequently result in acute kidney injury and promote kidney stone formation.

  17. Cre-mediated reversible immortalization of human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kowolik, Claudia M; Liang, Shujian; Yu, Ying; Yee, Jiing-Kuan

    2004-08-05

    Primary human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTECs) are of limited use for basic research and for clinical applications due to their limited lifespan in culture. Here we used two lentivirus vectors carrying the human telomerase (hTERT) and the SV40T antigen (Tag) flanked by loxP sites to reversibly immortalize RPTECs. Transduced RPTEC clones continued to proliferate while retaining biochemical and functional characteristics of primary cells. The clones exhibited contact-inhibited, anchorage- and growth factor-dependent growth and did not form tumors in nude mice, suggesting that the cells were not transformed. Transient Cre expression in these cells led to efficient proviral deletion, upregulation of some renal specific activities, and decreased growth rates. Ultimately, the cells underwent replicative senescence, indicating intact cell cycle control. Thus, reversible immortalization allows the expansion of human RPTECs, leading to large production of RPTECs that retain most tissue-specific properties.

  18. G418-mediated ribosomal read-through of a nonsense mutation causing autosomal recessive proximal renal tubular acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Azimov, Rustam; Abuladze, Natalia; Sassani, Pakan; Newman, Debra; Kao, Liyo; Liu, Weixin; Orozco, Nicholas; Ruchala, Piotr; Pushkin, Alexander; Kurtz, Ira

    2008-01-01

    Autosomal recessive proximal renal tubular acidosis is caused by mutations in the SLC4A4 gene encoding the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1-A. The mutations that have been characterized thus far result in premature truncation, mistargeting, or decreased function of the cotransporter. Despite bicarbonate treatment to correct the metabolic acidosis, extrarenal manifestations persist, including glaucoma, cataracts, corneal opacification, and mental retardation. Currently, there are no known therapeutic approaches that can specifically target mutant NBCe1-A proteins. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the NBCe1-A-Q29X mutation can be rescued in vitro by treatment with aminoglycoside antibiotics, which are known for their ability to suppress premature stop codons. As a model system, we cloned the NBCe1-A-Q29X mutant into a vector lacking an aminoglycoside resistance gene and transfected the mutant cotransporter in HEK293-H cells. Cells transfected with the NBCe1-A-Q29X mutant failed to express the cotransporter because of the premature stop codon. Treatment of the cells with G418 significantly increased the expression of the full-length cotransporter, as assessed by immunoblot analysis. Furthermore, immunocytochemical studies demonstrated that G418 treatment induced cotransporter expression on the plasma membrane whereas in the absence of G418, NBCe1-A-Q29X was not expressed. In HEK293-H cells transfected with the NBCe1-A-Q29X mutant not treated with G418, NBCe1-A-mediated flux was not detectable. In contrast, in cells transfected with the NBCe1-A-Q29X mutant, G418 treatment induced Na+- and HCO3−-dependent transport that did not differ from wild-type NBCe1-A function. G418 treatment in mock-transfected cells was without effect. In conclusion, G418 induces ribosomal read-through of the NBCe1-A-Q29X mutation in HEK293-H cells. These findings represent the first evidence that in the presence of the NBCe1-A-Q29X mutation that causes

  19. G418-mediated ribosomal read-through of a nonsense mutation causing autosomal recessive proximal renal tubular acidosis.

    PubMed

    Azimov, Rustam; Abuladze, Natalia; Sassani, Pakan; Newman, Debra; Kao, Liyo; Liu, Weixin; Orozco, Nicholas; Ruchala, Piotr; Pushkin, Alexander; Kurtz, Ira

    2008-09-01

    Autosomal recessive proximal renal tubular acidosis is caused by mutations in the SLC4A4 gene encoding the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1-A. The mutations that have been characterized thus far result in premature truncation, mistargeting, or decreased function of the cotransporter. Despite bicarbonate treatment to correct the metabolic acidosis, extrarenal manifestations persist, including glaucoma, cataracts, corneal opacification, and mental retardation. Currently, there are no known therapeutic approaches that can specifically target mutant NBCe1-A proteins. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the NBCe1-A-Q29X mutation can be rescued in vitro by treatment with aminoglycoside antibiotics, which are known for their ability to suppress premature stop codons. As a model system, we cloned the NBCe1-A-Q29X mutant into a vector lacking an aminoglycoside resistance gene and transfected the mutant cotransporter in HEK293-H cells. Cells transfected with the NBCe1-A-Q29X mutant failed to express the cotransporter because of the premature stop codon. Treatment of the cells with G418 significantly increased the expression of the full-length cotransporter, as assessed by immunoblot analysis. Furthermore, immunocytochemical studies demonstrated that G418 treatment induced cotransporter expression on the plasma membrane whereas in the absence of G418, NBCe1-A-Q29X was not expressed. In HEK293-H cells transfected with the NBCe1-A-Q29X mutant not treated with G418, NBCe1-A-mediated flux was not detectable. In contrast, in cells transfected with the NBCe1-A-Q29X mutant, G418 treatment induced Na(+)- and HCO(3)(-)-dependent transport that did not differ from wild-type NBCe1-A function. G418 treatment in mock-transfected cells was without effect. In conclusion, G418 induces ribosomal read-through of the NBCe1-A-Q29X mutation in HEK293-H cells. These findings represent the first evidence that in the presence of the NBCe1-A-Q29X mutation that

  20. Detailed investigations of proximal tubular function in Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Imerslund-Gräsbeck Syndrome (IGS) is a rare genetic disorder characterised by juvenile megaloblastic anaemia. IGS is caused by mutations in either of the genes encoding the intestinal intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 receptor complex, cubam. The cubam receptor proteins cubilin and amnionless are both expressed in the small intestine as well as the proximal tubules of the kidney and exhibit an interdependent relationship for post-translational processing and trafficking. In the proximal tubules cubilin is involved in the reabsorption of several filtered plasma proteins including vitamin carriers and lipoproteins. Consistent with this, low-molecular-weight proteinuria has been observed in most patients with IGS. The aim of this study was to characterise novel disease-causing mutations and correlate novel and previously reported mutations with the presence of low-molecular-weight proteinuria. Methods Genetic screening was performed by direct sequencing of the CUBN and AMN genes and novel identified mutations were characterised by in silico and/or in vitro investigations. Urinary protein excretion was analysed by immunoblotting and high-resolution gel electrophoresis of collected urines from patients and healthy controls to determine renal phenotype. Results Genetic characterisation of nine IGS patients identified two novel AMN frameshift mutations alongside a frequently reported AMN splice site mutation and two CUBN missense mutations; one novel and one previously reported in Finnish patients. The novel AMN mutations were predicted to result in functionally null AMN alleles with no cell-surface expression of cubilin. Also, the novel CUBN missense mutation was predicted to affect structural integrity of the IF-B12 binding site of cubilin and hereby most likely cubilin cell-surface expression. Analysis of urinary protein excretion in the patients and 20 healthy controls revealed increased urinary excretion of cubilin ligands including apolipoprotein A

  1. Proximal Tubular Secretion of Creatinine by Organic Cation Transporter OCT2 in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ciarimboli, Giuliano; Lancaster, Cynthia S.; Schlatter, Eberhard; Franke, Ryan M.; Sprowl, Jason A.; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Massmann, Vivian; Guckel, Denise; Mathijssen, Ron H. J.; Yang, Wenjian; Pui, Ching-Hon; Relling, Mary V.; Herrmann, Edwin; Sparreboom, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Knowledge of transporters responsible for the renal secretion of creatinine is key to a proper interpretation of serum creatinine and/or creatinine clearance as markers of renal function in cancer patients receiving chemotherapeutic agents. Experimental Design Creatinine transport was studied in transfected HEK293 cells in vitro and in wildtype mice and age-matched organic cation transporter 1 and 2-deficient [Oct1/2(−/−)] mice ex vivo and in vivo. Clinical pharmacogenetic and transport inhibition studies were done in two separate cohorts of cancer patients. Results Compared to wildtype mice, creatinine clearance was significantly impaired in Oct1/2(−/−) mice. Furthermore, creatinine inhibited organic cation transport in freshly-isolated proximal tubules from wild-type mice and humans, but not in those from Oct1/2(−/−) mice. In a genetic-association analysis (n=590), several polymorphisms around the OCT2/SLC22A2 gene locus, including rs2504954 (P=0.000873), were significantly associated with age-adjusted creatinine levels. Furthermore, in cancer patients (n=68), the OCT2 substrate cisplatin caused an acute elevation of serum creatinine (P=0.0083), consistent with inhibition of an elimination pathway. Conclusions Collectively, this study shows that OCT2 plays a decisive role in the renal secretion of creatinine. This process can be inhibited by OCT2 substrates, which impair the usefulness of creatinine as a marker of renal function. PMID:22223530

  2. Activation of liver X receptor inhibits OCT2-mediated organic cation transport in renal proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Wongwan, Teerasak; Kittayaruksakul, Suticha; Asavapanumas, Nithi; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Soodvilai, Sunhapas

    2017-07-25

    Liver X receptor (LXR) is transcriptional factor that plays an important role in the regulation of energy metabolism such as cholesterol, lipid, and glucose metabolism as well as membrane transporters and channels. Using both in vitro and in vivo models, LXR regulation of the expression and function of renal organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) was observed. Synthetic LXR agonist (GW3965) and endogenous LXR agonist (22R-hydroxycholesterol) significantly reduced the uptake of (3)H-MPP(+), a prototypic substrate of OCT2, in both OCT2- Chinese hamster ovary K1 and human renal proximal tubular cells (RPTEC/TERT1). GW3965 decreased transport activity of OCT2 via a reduction of the maximal transport rate of MPP(+) without affecting transporter affinity. The inhibitory effect of GW3965 was attenuated by co-treatment with LXR antagonist (fenofibrate) indicating the inhibition was LXR-dependent mechanism. In addition, co-treatment with a retinoic X receptor (RXR) ligand, 9-cis retinoic acid enhanced the inhibitory effect of GW3965, indicating negative regulation of OCT2 transport activity by the LXR/RXR complex. Treatment RPTEC/TERT1 cells with GW3965 significantly reduced OCT2 protein expression without changing mRNA expression. In parallel, the effect of LXR activation on OCT2 function was investigated in intact mouse kidney. Treating mice with 50 mg/kg BW T0901317 for 14 days significantly decreased (3)H-MPP(+) uptake into renal cortical slices, correlating with decreased OCT2 protein expression in renal cortex without changes in mRNA expression levels. Taken together, LXR/RXR activation downregulates the protein expression and function of OCT2 in renal proximal tubule, suggesting LXR might affect the total profile of renal excretion of cationic compounds.

  3. Distinct Requirements for Vacuolar Protein Sorting 34 Downstream Effector Phosphatidylinositol 3-Phosphate 5-Kinase in Podocytes Versus Proximal Tubular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Venkatareddy, Madhusudan; Verma, Rakesh; Kalinowski, Anne; Patel, Sanjeevkumar R.; Shisheva, Assia

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the glomerular filtration barrier prevents the loss of large macromolecules and simultaneously, maintains the filter remain poorly understood. Recent studies proposed that podocytes have an active role in both the endocytosis of filtered macromolecules and the maintenance of the filtration barrier. Deletion of a key endosomal trafficking regulator, the class 3 phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3-kinase vacuolar protein sorting 34 (Vps34), in podocytes results in aberrant endosomal membrane morphology and podocyte dysfunction. We recently showed that the vacuolation phenotype in cultured Vps34–deficient podocytes is caused by the absence of a substrate for the Vps34 downstream effector PtdIns 3-phosphate 5-kinase (PIKfyve), which phosphorylates Vps34-generated PtdIns(3)P to produce PtdIns (3,5)P2. PIKfyve perturbation and PtdIns(3,5)P2 reduction result in massive membrane vacuolation along the endosomal system, but the cell-specific functions of PIKfyve in vivo remain unclear. We show here that the genetic deletion of PIKfyve in endocytically active proximal tubular cells resulted in the development of large cytoplasmic vacuoles caused by arrested endocytic traffic progression at a late-endosome stage. In contrast, deletion of PIKfyve in glomerular podocytes did not significantly alter the endosomal morphology, even in age 18-month-old mice. However, on culturing, the PIKfyve-deleted podocytes developed massive cytoplasmic vacuoles. In summary, these data suggest that glomerular podocytes and proximal tubules have different requirements for PIKfyve function, likely related to distinct in vivo needs for endocytic flux. PMID:26825532

  4. Mitochondrial Fission Increases Apoptosis and Decreases Autophagy in Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells Treated with High Glucose.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Chin; Chiu, Chien-Hua; Chen, Jin-Bor; Chen, Chiu-Hua; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of mitochondrial morphogenesis changes on apoptosis and autophagy of high-glucose-treated proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK2). Cell viability, apoptosis, and mitochondrial morphogenesis were examined using crystal violet, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL), and mitotracker staining, respectively. High glucose inhibited cell viability and induced mitochondrial fission in HK2 cells. After depleting mitofusin 1 (MFN1), the MFN1(-) HK2 cells (fission type) became more susceptible to high-glucose-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial fragmentation observed by TUNEL and mitotracker assays. In siMFN2 HK2 cells (fission type), mitochondria were highly fragmented (>80% fission rate) with or without high-glucose treatment; however, siFIS1 (mitochondrial fission protein 1) HK2 cells (fusion type) exhibited little fragmentation (<13%). High-glucose treatment induced autophagy, characterized by the formation of autophagosome and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) B-II, as observed by transmission electron microscopy and western blotting, respectively. LC3B-II levels decreased in both MFN1(-) and siMFN2 HK2 cells, but increased in siFIS1 HK2 cells. Moreover, autophagy displays a protective role against high-glucose-induced cell death based on cotreatment with autophagy inhibitors (3-methyladenine and chloroquine). Mitochondrial fission may increase apoptosis and decrease autophagy of high-glucose-treated HK2 cells.

  5. Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase-1 Protects Cells against Lipotoxicity-Mediated Apoptosis in Proximal Tubular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Iwai, Tamaki; Kume, Shinji; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Kuwagata, Shogo; Araki, Hisazumi; Takeda, Naoko; Sugaya, Takeshi; Uzu, Takashi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Araki, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Saturated fatty acid (SFA)-related lipotoxicity is a pathogenesis of diabetes-related renal proximal tubular epithelial cell (PTEC) damage, closely associated with a progressive decline in renal function. This study was designed to identify a free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism-related enzyme that can protect PTECs from SFA-related lipotoxicity. Among several enzymes involved in FFA metabolism, we identified stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), whose expression level significantly decreased in the kidneys of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice, compared with non-diabetic mice. SCD1 is an enzyme that desaturates SFAs, converting them to monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), leading to the formation of neutral lipid droplets. In culture, retrovirus-mediated overexpression of SCD1 or MUFA treatment significantly ameliorated SFA-induced apoptosis in PTECs by enhancing intracellular lipid droplet formation. In contrast, siRNA against SCD1 exacerbated the apoptosis. Both overexpression of SCD1 and MUFA treatment reduced SFA-induced apoptosis via reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured PTECs. Thus, HFD-induced decrease in renal SCD1 expression may play a pathogenic role in lipotoxicity-induced renal injury, and enhancing SCD1-mediated desaturation of SFA and subsequent formation of neutral lipid droplets may become a promising therapeutic target to reduce SFA-induced lipotoxicity. The present study provides a novel insight into lipotoxicity in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:27834856

  6. Endotoxin Uptake by S1 Proximal Tubular Segment Causes Oxidative Stress in the Downstream S2 Segment

    PubMed Central

    Kalakeche, Rabih; Hato, Takashi; Rhodes, Georges; Dunn, Kenneth W.; El-Achkar, Tarek M.; Plotkin, Zoya; Sandoval, Ruben M.

    2011-01-01

    Gram-negative sepsis carries high morbidity and mortality, especially when complicated by acute kidney injury (AKI). The mechanisms of AKI in sepsis remain poorly understood. Here we used intravital two-photon fluorescence microscopy to investigate the possibility of direct interactions between filtered endotoxin and tubular cells as a possible mechanism of AKI in sepsis. Using wild-type (WT), TLR4-knockout, and bone marrow chimeric mice, we found that endotoxin is readily filtered and internalized by S1 proximal tubules through local TLR4 receptors and through fluid-phase endocytosis. Only receptor-mediated interactions between endotoxin and S1 caused oxidative stress in neighboring S2 tubules. Despite significant endotoxin uptake, S1 segments showed no oxidative stress, possibly as a result of the upregulation of cytoprotective heme oxygenase-1 and sirtuin-1 (SIRT1). Conversely, S2 segments did not upregulate SIRT1 and exhibited severe structural and functional peroxisomal damage. Taken together, these data suggest that the S1 segment acts as a sensor of filtered endotoxin, which it takes up. Although this may limit the amount of endotoxin in the systemic circulation and the kidney, it results in severe secondary damage to the neighboring S2 segments. PMID:21784899

  7. Nitro-Arachidonic Acid Prevents Angiotensin II-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a Cell Line of Kidney Proximal Tubular Cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Cassina, Adriana; Rios, Natalia; Peluffo, Gonzalo; Boggia, José; Radi, Rafael; Rubbo, Homero; Trostchansky, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Nitro-arachidonic acid (NO2-AA) is a cell signaling nitroalkene that exerts anti-inflammatory activities during macrophage activation. While angiotensin II (ANG II) produces an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial dysfunction in renal tubular cells, little is known regarding the potential protective effects of NO2-AA in ANG II-mediated kidney injury. As such, this study examines the impact of NO2-AA on ANG II-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in an immortalized renal proximal tubule cell line (HK-2 cells). Treatment of HK-2 cells with ANG II increases the production of superoxide (O2●-), nitric oxide (●NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) expression, peroxynitrite (ONOO-) and mitochondrial dysfunction. Using high-resolution respirometry, it was observed that the presence of NO2-AA prevented ANG II-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Attempting to address mechanism, we treated isolated rat kidney mitochondria with ONOO-, a key mediator of ANG II-induced mitochondrial damage, in the presence or absence of NO2-AA. Whereas the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and ATP synthase (ATPase) were diminished upon exposure to ONOO-, they were restored by pre-incubating the mitochondria with NO2-AA. Moreover, NO2-AA prevents oxidation and nitration of mitochondrial proteins. Combined, these data demonstrate that ANG II-mediated oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction is abrogated by NO2-AA, identifying this compound as a promising pharmacological tool to prevent ANG II-induced renal disease.

  8. Hypoxia reduces constitutive and TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human proximal renal tubular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xuan; Kimura, Hideki . E-mail: hkimura@fmsrsa.fukui-med.ac.jp; Hirota, Kiichi; Sugimoto, Hidehiro; Yoshida, Haruyoshi

    2005-10-07

    Chronic hypoxia has been reported to be associated with macrophage infiltration in progressive forms of kidney disease. Here, we investigated the regulatory effects of hypoxia on constitutive and TNF-{alpha}-stimulated expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in cultured human proximal renal tubular cells (HPTECs). Hypoxia reduced constitutive MCP-1 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in a time-dependent fashion for up to 48 h. Hypoxia also inhibited MCP-1 up-regulation by TNF-{alpha}. Treatment with actinomycin D showed that hypoxic down-regulation of MCP-1 expression resulted mainly from a decrease in the transcription but not the mRNA stability. Immunoblot and immunofluorescence analyses revealed that treatment with hypoxia or an iron chelator, desferrioxamine, induced nuclear accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) in HPTECs. Desferrioxamine mimicked hypoxia in the reduction of MCP-1 expression. However, overexpression of a dominant negative form of HIF-1{alpha} did not abolish the hypoxia-induced reduction of MCP-1 expression in HPTECs. These results suggest that hypoxia is an important negative regulator of monocyte chemotaxis to the renal inflamed interstitium, by reducing MCP-1 expression partly via hypoxia-activated signals other than the HIF-1 pathway.

  9. Proliferation and intracellular pH in cultured proximal tubular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, S.H.; Fukuda, Y.; Koelare, S.A.; Aperia, A. )

    1990-03-01

    Renal proximal tubule (PT) cells from adult rats will maintain much of their functional characteristics in short-term primary culture. This study examines the growth regulation of these highly differentiated cells with particular reference to cell density, intracellular pH (pHi), and the expression of the Na(+)-H+ exchanger. PT cells were obtained from young adult rats and studied after 48 h in culture. The mitotic rate was determined as the labeling index (LI) after (3H)thymidine autoradiography, and pHi was determined by 2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein quantitative fluorescence microscopy in single cells. Cells were grown either continuously in serum (S) or were serum deprived after 24 h (D). The cells were nonconfluent and grew in colonies. We defined the two peripheral layers of cells in a colony as peripheral (P) cells and the remaining cells as central (C). In C cells LI/h and pHi were in the range of what has been observed under in vivo conditions. In S condition LI/h was 2.2 +/- 0.3% and in D condition was 0.3 +/- 0.1%. LI was significantly higher in P than in C cells both under S (2.5 +/- 0.4-fold) and D conditions (5.6 +/- 0.8-fold). The rapidly growing P cells had a significantly lower pHi than the growth-retarded C cells both under S (7.25 +/- 0.02 vs. 7.30 +/- 0.01, P less than 0.05) and D conditions (7.21 +/- 0.02 vs. 7.28 +/- 0.01, P less than 0.05).

  10. Tofogliflozin, A Highly Selective Inhibitor of SGLT2 Blocks Proinflammatory and Proapoptotic Effects of Glucose Overload on Proximal Tubular Cells Partly by Suppressing Oxidative Stress Generation.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Y; Matsui, T; Yamagishi, S

    2016-03-01

    Ninety percent of glucose filtered by the glomerulus is reabsorbed by a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), which is mainly expressed on S1 and S2 segment of renal proximal tubules. Since SGLT-2-mediated glucose reabsorption is increased under diabetic conditions, selective inhibition of SGLT2 is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetes. We have recently shown that an inhibitor of SGLT2 has anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects on experimental diabetic nephropathy partly by suppressing advanced glycation end products formation and oxidative stress generation in the kidney. However, the direct effects of SGLT2 inhibitor on tubular cell damage remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of tofogliflozin, a highly selective inhibitor of SGLT2 on oxidative stress generation, inflammatory and proapoptotic reactions in cultured human proximal tubular cells exposed to high glucose. Tofogliflozin dose-dependently suppressed glucose entry into tubular cells. High glucose exposure (30 mM) for 4 and 24 h significantly increased oxidative stress generation in tubular cells, which were suppressed by the treatment of tofogliflozin or an antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) gene expression and apoptotic cell death were induced by 4 h- and 8 day-exposure to high glucose, respectively, both of which were also blocked by tofogliflozin or NAC. The present study suggests that SGLT2-mediated glucose entry into tubular cells could stimulate oxidative stress and evoke inflammatory and proapoptotic reactions in this cell type. Blockade of glucose reabsorption in tubular cells by SGLT2 inhibitor might exert beneficial effects on tubulointerstitial damage in diabetic nephropathy.

  11. Angiotensin II receptor blocker inhibits tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced cell damage in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Toru; Takao, Toshihiro; Horino, Taro; Matsumoto, Reiko; Inoue, Kousuke; Morita, Tatsuhito; Hashimoto, Kozo

    2008-06-01

    We investigated the effect of angiotensin II (AII) type 1 (AT1) and angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor blockers on tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced cell damage in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC). The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG) release into the medium after TNF-alpha treatment in RPTEC were determined using modified commercial procedures. In addition, the levels of caspase 3/7 activity in RPTEC were measured after TNF-alpha treatment with AlphaTau1 or AT2 receptor blockers. Finally we investigated the change of p22phox protein levels after TNF-alpha with AlphaTau1 or AT2 receptor blockers in RPTEC. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (10(-8) mol/L) significantly increased LDH and NAG release into the medium from RPTEC. AlphaTau1 receptor blockers, olmesartan and valsartan (10(-9)-10(-6) mol/L) showed a significant reduction on TNF-alpha-induced LDH and NAG release in RPTEC. AT2 receptor blocker, PD123319 (10(-7)-10(-5) mol/L) also decreased TNF-alpha-induced LDH and NAG release in RPTEC. Blockade of both AlphaTau1 and AT2 receptor indicated additional reduction on TNF-alpha-induced LDH and NAG release. TNF-alpha (10(-8) mol/L) treatment showed small but significant increases of caspase 3/7 activity in RPTEC, and AT1 and AT2 receptor blockers (10(-8) mol/L) comparably decreased TNF-alpha-induced caspase 3/7 activity. Significant increases of p22phox protein levels were observed in TNF-alpha-treated group in RPTEC. However, only AlphaTau1 (10(-8) mol/L) but not AT2 (10(-5) mol/L) receptor blocker significantly decreased TNF-alpha-induced p22phox protein levels. The present study demonstrates that TNF-alpha induces renal tubular cell damage in RPTEC and AT1/AT2 receptor blockers showed cytoprotective effects probably via at least partly different mechanism.

  12. NKT cell modulates NAFLD potentiation of metabolic oxidative stress-induced mesangial cell activation and proximal tubular toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Alhasson, Firas; Dattaroy, Diptadip; Das, Suvarthi; Chandrashekaran, Varun; Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Schnellmann, Rick G.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are associated with the development and progression of chronic kidney disease. We recently showed that NAFLD induces liver-specific cytochrome P-450 (CYP)2E1-mediated metabolic oxidative stress after administration of the CYP2E1 substrate bromodichloromethane (BDCM) (Seth RK, Das S, Kumar A, Chanda A, Kadiiska MB, Michelotti G, Manautou J, Diehl AM, Chatterjee S. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 274: 42–54, 2014; Seth RK, Kumar A, Das S, Kadiiska MB, Michelotti G, Diehl AM, Chatterjee S. Toxicol Sci 134:291–303, 2013). The present study examined the effects of CYP2E1-mediated oxidative stress in NAFLD leading to kidney toxicity. Mice were fed a high-fat diet for 12 wk to induce NAFLD. NAFLD mice were exposed to BDCM, a CYP2E1 substrate, for 4 wk. NAFLD + BDCM increased CYP2E1-mediated lipid peroxidation in proximal tubular cells compared with mice with NAFLD alone or BDCM-treated lean mice, thus ruling out the exclusive role of BDCM. Lipid peroxidation increased IL-1β, TNF-α, and interferon-γ. In parallel, mesangial cell activation was observed by increased α-smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor-β, which was blocked by the CYP2E1 inhibitor diallyl sulphide both in vivo and in vitro. Mice lacking natural killer T cells (CD1d knockout mice) showed elevated (>4-fold) proinflammatory mediator release, increased Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 and PDGF2 mRNA, and mesangial cell activation in the kidney. Finally, NAFLD CD1D knockout mice treated with BDCM exhibited increased high mobility group box 1 and Fas ligand levels and TUNEL-positive nuclei, indicating that higher cell death was attenuated in TLR4 knockout mice. Tubular cells showed increased cell death and cytokine release when incubated with activated mesangial cells. In summary, an underlying condition of progressive NAFLD causes renal immunotoxicity and aberrant glomerular function possibly through high mobility group box 1-dependent TLR4 signaling

  13. Pravastatin inhibits advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced proximal tubular cell apoptosis and injury by reducing receptor for AGEs (RAGE) level.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yuji; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Matsui, Takanori; Ohta, Keisuke; Tanoue, Ryuichiro; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Ueda, Seiji; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro; Okuda, Seiya

    2012-08-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) axis play a role in diabetic nephropathy. Statins have been shown to ameliorate renal function and reduce proteinuria in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, the effects of statin on AGEs-induced tubular cell damage remain unknown. We examined here whether and how pravastatin could block the AGEs-RAGE-elicited tubular cell injury in vitro. Gene expression level was evaluated by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured with dihydroethidium staining. Apoptosis was analyzed in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) expression was evaluated by immunostaining. Pravastatin dose-dependently inhibited the AGEs-induced up-regulation of RAGE mRNA level, ROS generation and apoptosis in human renal proximal tubular cells. Further, AGEs decreased mRNA level of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-2, an enzyme that mainly degrades asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase and subsequently increased ADMA generation in tubular cells, both of which were also prevented by pravastatin. Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) treatment blocked all of the effects of pravastatin on tubular cells. We found that rosuvastatin also significantly blocked the AGEs-induced increase in RAGE mRNA level and ROS generation, both of which were prevented by GGPP. Our present study suggests that pravastatin could inhibit the AGEs-induced apoptosis and ADMA generation in tubular cells by suppressing RAGE expression probably via inhibition of GGPP synthesis. Pravastatin may exert beneficial effects on tubular damage in diabetic nephropathy by blocking the AGEs-RAGE axis.

  14. Glomerular hyperfiltration in type 1 diabetes mellitus results from primary changes in proximal tubular sodium handling without changes in volume expansion.

    PubMed

    Vervoort, G; Veldman, B; Berden, J H M; Smits, P; Wetzels, J F M

    2005-05-01

    Glomerular hyperfiltration plays a role in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. An increase in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) could result from primary actions at the glomerular/vascular level or could be the consequence of a primary increase in proximal tubular sodium reabsorption resulting in systemic volume expansion. Recently it was hypothesized that an increase in sodium reabsorption may lead to glomerular hyperfiltration through the tubulo-glomerular feedback mechanism (tubular-hypothesis) without volume expansion. We have studied 54 normoalbuminuric patients with type 1 diabetes. The GFR was measured by inulin clearance. Proximal and distal sodium reabsorption were calculated according to standard formulas using the free water clearance technique. Plasma volume, measured by the (125)I-albumin method, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and the second messenger cyclic guanosine-3,5-monophosphate (c-GMP) were used as markers of extracellular volume expansion. Glomerular hyperfiltration (GFR >or= 130 mL min(-1) 1.73 m(-2)) was present in 14 out of 55 patients with diabetes (25%). There were no differences in plasma volume between normo-(NF) and hyper-filtrating (HF) patients (2933 +/- 423 in NF vs. 3026 +/- 562 mL in HF, NS). Also plasma ANP and c-GMP levels were not significantly different between the groups. The fractional proximal reabsorption of sodium was significantly increased in HF [fPRNa(+) (%) 90.1 +/- 2.0 vs. 91.5 +/- 1.6, P = 0.02]. There were no differences in distal sodium reabsorption or distal sodium load (approximately macula densa concentration of NaCl) in both groups. Our data suggest that the primary event in diabetic glomerular hyperfiltration is an increase in proximal tubular sodium reabsorption. They do not support the hypothesis that systemic volume expansion or ANP mediate glomerular hyperfiltration in patients with normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetes. As such, changes in tubular sodium handling most probably influence tubulo

  15. Cobalt Chloride Induces Expression and Function of Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2) in Human Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cell Line HK-2.

    PubMed

    Nishihashi, Katsuki; Kawashima, Kei; Nomura, Takami; Urakami-Takebayashi, Yumiko; Miyazaki, Makoto; Takano, Mikihisa; Nagai, Junya

    2017-01-01

    The human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family, is a drug transporter restricting absorption and enhancing excretion of many compounds including anticancer drugs. The cis-regulatory elements in the BCRP promoter include a hypoxia response element, i.e., the DNA binding site for hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). In this study, we investigated the effect of cobalt chloride, a chemical inducer of HIF-1α, on the expression and function of BCRP in human renal proximal tubular cell line HK-2. Cobalt chloride treatment significantly increased the mRNA expression of not only glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), a typical HIF-1 target gene mRNA, but also ABCG2 mRNA in HK-2 cells. The BCRP inhibitor Ko143-sensitive accumulation of BCRP substrates such as Hoechst33342 and mitoxantrone was significantly enhanced by cobalt chloride treatment. In addition, treatment with cobalt chloride significantly increased the Ko143-sensitive accumulation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled methotrexate in HK-2 cells. Furthermore, cobalt chloride treatment attenuated the cytotoxicity induced by mitoxantrone and methotrexate, which might be, at least in part, due to the increase in BCRP-mediated transport activity via HIF-1 activation. These findings indicate that HIF-1 activation protects renal proximal tubular cells against BCRP substrate-induced cytotoxicity by enhancing the expression and function of BCRP in renal proximal tubular cells.

  16. Microparticles released by vascular endothelial cells increase hypoxia inducible factor expression in human proximal tubular HK-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Martínez, Ana Belen; Torija, Ana Valdehita; Carracedo, Julia; Ramirez, Rafael; de Lucio-Cazaña, Francisco Javier

    2014-08-01

    Microparticles are produced by vesiculation of the cell plasma membrane and serve as vectors of cell-to-cell communication. Co-culture experiments have shown that hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIF-α)-regulated-genes are up-regulated in human renal proximal tubular HK-2 cells by endothelial cell factors which might be transported inside endothelial microparticles (EMP). Here we aimed to study in HK-2 cells the effect of EMP, produced by activated endothelial cells, on HIF-α and HIF-α-regulated vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). EMP, at a concentration much lower than that found in plasma, increased the expression of HIF-α/VEGF-A in a COX-2/EP2 receptor dependent manner. Since the EMP/cells ratio was ∼1/1000, we hypothesized that paracrine mediators produced by HK-2 cells amplified the initial signal. This hypothesis was confirmed by two facts which also suggested that the mediators were conveyed by particles released by HK-2 cells: (i) HIF-α was up-regulated in HK-2 cells treated with the pellet obtained from the conditioned medium of the EMP-treated HK-2 cells. (ii) In transwell experiments, EMP-treated cells increased the expression of HIF-α in untreated HK-2 cells. Interestingly, we detected these cells, particles that were released by EMP-treated HK-2 cells. Depending on the pathological context, activation of HIF-α and VEGF-A signaling in renal tissue/cells may have either beneficial or harmful effects. Therefore, our results suggest that their presence in the urinary space of EMP produced by activated endothelial cells may influence the outcome of a number of renal diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Overexpression of RGPR-p117 enhances regucalcin gene expression in cloned normal rat kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Natsumi; Yamaguchi, Masayoshi

    2005-12-01

    A novel protein RGPR-p117 was discovered as a regucalcin gene promoter region-related protein that binds to the TTGGC motif using a yeast one-hybrid system. Whether overexpression of RGPR-p117 can modulate gene expression in the cloned normal rat kidney proximal tubular epithelial NRK52E cells was investigated. NRK52E cells (wild-type) or HA-RGPR-p117/phCMV2-transfected NRK52E cells were cultured in Dulbecco's minimum essential medium (DMEM) containing 5% bovine serum (BS). Proliferation of NRK52E cells (wild-type) was not significantly altered by overexpression of HA-RGPR-p117. The expression of rat regucalcin, alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, glucokinase, 11beta-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, which contains TTGGC motif in the promoter region of their genes, was seen in NRK52E cells (wild-type) by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Of these genes, regucalcin mRNA levels were significantly enhanced in transfectants. The expression of p21 or glycero-aldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA was not significantly changed in transfectants. The results of Western blot analysis showed that regucalcin protein was significantly increased in transfectants. The enhancement of regucalcin mRNA expression in transfectants was significantly suppressed in the presence of staurosporine (10(-10) M), an inhibitor of protein kinase C. This enhancement was not significantly changed in the presence of dibucaine (10(-8) M), PD98059 (10(-8) M) or vanadate (10(-6) M). This study demonstrates that overexpression of RGPR-p117 enhances the expression of regucalcin mRNA and its protein level in NRK52E cells. RGPR-p117 may play a role as a transcriptional factor.

  18. V-ATPase promotes transforming growth factor-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of rat proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xueqin; Yang, Qiongqiong; Qin, Jing; Zhao, Shili; Li, Xiaoyan; Fan, Jinjin; Chen, Wenfang; Zhou, Yi; Mao, Haiping; Yu, Xueqing

    2012-05-01

    The ubiquitous vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit proton pump, is essential for intraorganellar acidification. Here, we hypothesized that V-ATPase is involved in the pathogenesis of kidney tubulointerstitial fibrosis. We first examined its expression in the rat unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model of kidney fibrosis and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in rat proximal tubular epithelial cells (NRK52E). Immunofluorescence experiments showed that UUO resulted in significant upregulation of V-ATPase subunits (B2, E, and c) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in areas of tubulointerstitial injury. We further observed that TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml) treatment resulted in EMT of NRK52E (upregulation of α-SMA and downregulation of E-cadherin) in a time-dependent manner and significant upregulation of V-ATPase B2 and c subunits after 48 h and the E subunit after 24 h, by real-time PCR and immunoblot analyses. The ATP hydrolysis activity tested by an ATP/NADH-coupled assay was increased after 48-h TGF-β1 treatment. Using intracellular pH measurements with the SNARF-4F indicator, Na(+)-independent pH recovery was significantly faster after an NH(4)Cl pulse in 48-h TGF-β1-treated cells than controls. Furthermore, the V-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 partially protected the cells from EMT. TGF-β1 induced an increase in the cell surface expression of the B2 subunit, and small interfering RNA-mediated B2 subunit knockdown partially reduced the V-ATPase activity and attenuated EMT induced by TGF-β1. Together, these findings show that V-ATPase may promote EMT and chronic tubulointerstitial fibrosis due to increasing its activity by either overexpression or redistribution of its subunits.

  19. Antioxidant treatment induces transcription and expression of transforming growth factor beta in cultured renal proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Wolf, G; Hannken, T; Schroeder, R; Zahner, G; Ziyadeh, F N; Stahl, R A

    2001-01-19

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) plays an important role in the development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis in chronic renal disease. We were interested whether interference with oxygen radicals may modulate TGF-beta expression. Unexpectedly, we discovered that diphenylene iodine (DIP), an inhibitor of NADP(H) oxidase, induces a robust increase in TGF-beta transcript expression in cultured mouse proximal tubular cells (MCT cells). A similar increase was seen with EUK-8, a synthetic salen-manganese complex with high oxyradical scavenger activities. This induction of TGF-beta1 mRNA was paralleled by increasing protein expression. Transient transfection of MCT cells with a reporter construct in which murine TGF-beta1 enhancer/promoter elements were cloned in front of the luciferase gene, revealed that DIP, EUK-8, and Tiron all stimulated transcription of the TGF-beta1 gene whereas exogenous H2O2 suppressed transcription. Antisense oligonucleotides against p22phox, but not sense oligonucleotides, also increased transcriptional activity of TGF-beta1. Mutagenesis of Sp1 binding sites in the mouse TGF-beta1 enhancer/promoter abolished the stimulatory effect of the antioxidants. Gel shift experiments revealed that DIP as well as EUK-8 activated binding of nuclear proteins to Sp1 consensus sequence. Our data provide evidence that TGF-beta1 transcription is negatively regulated in MCT cells under basal conditions by NADP(H) oxidase-mediated oxygen radicals. Thus, antioxidant therapy may increase local synthesis of TGF-beta1 in the tubulointerstitium.

  20. Bilirubin activates transcription of HIF-1α in human proximal tubular cells cultured in the physiologic oxygen content.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Gyun; Ahn, Shin-Young; Lee, Eun Seong; Kim, Sejoong; Na, Ki Young; Chae, Dong-Wan; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is influenced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Effect of bilirubin on HIF-1 expression in proximal tubular cells was investigated under physiological oxygen concentration, which is relative hypoxic condition mimicking oxygen content in the medulla of renal tissue. The human kidney (HK2) cells were cultured in 5% oxygen with or without bilirubin. HIF-1α protein expression was increased by bilirubin treatment at 0.01-0.2 mg/dL concentration. The messenger RNA expression of HIF-1α was increased by 1.69±0.05 folds in the cells cultured with 0.1 mg/dL bilirubin, compared to the control cells. The inhibitors of PI3K/mTOR, PI3K/AKT, and ERK 1/2 pathways did not attenuate increased HIF-1α expression by bilirubin. HIF-1α expression decreased by 10 µM exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); scavenger of ROS with or without bilirubin in the HK2 cells increased HIF-1α concentration more than that in the cells without bilirubin. Exogenous H2O2 decreased the phosphorylation of P70S6 kinase, which was completely reversed by bilirubin treatment. Knockdown of NOX4 gene by small interfering RNA (siRNA) increased HIF-1α mRNA expression. In coonclusion, bilirubin enhances HIF-1α transcription as well as the up-regulation of HIF-1α protein translation through the attenuation of ROS and subunits of NADPH oxidase.

  1. Possible roles of tumor necrosis factor-α and angiotensin II type 1 receptor on high glucose-induced damage in renal proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Takao, Toshihiro; Horino, Taro; Matsumoto, Reiko; Shimamura, Yoshiko; Ogata, Koji; Inoue, Kousuke; Taniguchi, Yoshinori; Taguchi, Takafumi; Terada, Yoshio

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies have identified that high glucose-induced renal tubular cell damage. We previously demonstrated that high glucose treatment induced oxidative stress in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTECs), and angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers reduce high glucose-induced oxidative stress in RPTEC possibly via blockade of intracellular as well as extracellular AT1 receptor. However, exact roles of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and AT1 receptor on high glucose-induced renal tubular function remain unclear. N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG), concentrations of TNF-α/angiotensin II and p22(phox) protein levels after high glucose treatment with or without AT1 receptor blocker or thalidomide, an inhibitor of TNF-α protein synthesis, were measured in immortalized human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK2 cells). AT1 receptor knockdown was performed with AT1 receptor small interfering RNA (siRNA). High glucose treatment (30 mM) significantly increased NAG release, TNF-α/angiotensin II concentrations in cell media and p22(phox) protein levels compared with those in regular glucose medium (5.6 mM). Candesartan, an AT1R blocker, showed a significant reduction on high glucose-induced NAG release, TNF-α concentrations and p22(phox) protein levels in HK2 cells. In addition, significant decreases of NAG release, TNF-α concentrations and p22(phox) protein levels in HK2 cells were observed in high glucose-treated group with thalidomide. AT1R knockdown with siRNA markedly reversed high glucose, angiotensin II or TNF-α-induced p22(phox) protein levels in HK2 cells. TNF-α may be involved in high glucose-induced renal tubular damage in HK2 cells possibly via AT1 receptor signaling.

  2. Macrophage-stimulating protein attenuates gentamicin-induced inflammation and apoptosis in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ko Eun; Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Chang Seong; Choi, Joon Seok; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Kim, Kyung Keun; Lee, Jong Un; Kim, Soo Wan

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •MSP/RON system is activated in rat kidney damaged by gentamicin. •MSP inhibits GM-induced cellular apoptosis and inflammation in HK-2 cells. •MSP attenuates GM-induced activation of MAPKs and NF-κB pathways in HK-2 cells. -- Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate whether macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP) treatment attenuates renal apoptosis and inflammation in gentamicin (GM)-induced tubule injury and its underlying molecular mechanisms. To examine changes in MSP and its receptor, recepteur d’origine nantais (RON) in GM-induced nephropathy, rats were injected with GM for 7 days. Human renal proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells were incubated with GM for 24 h in the presence of different concentrations of MSP and cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry of cells stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated annexin V protein and propidium iodide. Expression of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), IκB-α, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was analyzed by semiquantitative immunoblotting. MSP and RON expression was significantly greater in GM-treated rats, than in untreated controls. GM-treatment reduced HK-2 cell viability, an effect that was counteracted by MSP. Flow cytometry and DAPI staining revealed GM-induced apoptosis was prevented by MSP. GM reduced expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and induced expression of Bax and cleaved caspase 3; these effects and GM-induced expression of COX-2 and iNOS were also attenuated by MSP. GM caused MSP-reversible induction of phospho-ERK, phospho-JNK, and phospho-p38. GM induced NF-κB activation and degradation of IκB-α; the increase in nuclear NF-κB was blocked by inhibitors of ERK, JNK, p-38, or MSP pretreatment. These findings suggest that MSP attenuates GM-induced inflammation and apoptosis by inhibition of the MAPKs

  3. Serum level of proximal renal tubular epithelial cell-binding immunoglobulin G in patients with lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Yap, D Y H; Yung, S; Zhang, Q; Tang, C; Chan, T M

    2016-01-01

    In vitro data showed that immunoglobulin G (IgG) from lupus nephritis (LN) patients could bind to proximal renal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC), but the clinical relevance of such binding remained unclear. Binding of IgG and subclasses to PTEC was measured by cellular ELISA (expressed as OD index) in 189 serial serum samples from 23 Class III/IV ± V LN patients who had repeated renal flares (48 during renal flares, 141 during low level disease activity (LLDA)), and compared with 64 patients with non-lupus glomerular diseases (NLGD) and 23 healthy individuals. Total IgG PTEC-binding index was 0.34 ± 0.16, 0.29 ± 0.16, 0.62 ± 0.27 and 0.83 ± 0.38 in healthy controls, NLGD, LN patients during LLDA, and LN patients during nephritic flare, respectively (p < 0.001, LLDA vs. renal flare; p < 0.001, healthy controls or NLGD vs. LN during LLDA or renal flare). PTEC-binding index for IgG1 was 0.09 ± 0.05, 0.16 ± 0.12, 0.44 ± 0.34 and 0.71 ± 0.46 for the corresponding groups (p < 0.001, LLDA vs. renal flare; p < 0.001, healthy controls or NLGD vs. LN during LLDA or renal flare). Sixteen of 48 episodes (33.3%) of nephritic flare showed persistent PTEC-binding IgG seropositivity for more than 9.4 ± 3.1 months, despite clinical response to immunosuppressive treatment. Total IgG and IgG1 PTEC-binding correlated with anti-dsDNA level (r = 0.34 and 0.52, respectively, p < 0.001 for both), and inversely with C3 level (r = -0.26 and -0.50, respectively, p = 0.002 and<0.001). Sensitivity/specificity of PTEC-binding index in detecting renal flares was 45.8%/80.1% for total IgG (ROC AUC 0.630, p = 0.007) and 87.5%/35.5% for IgG1 (ROC AUC 0.615, p = 0.018). IgG1 PTEC-binding index correlated with tubulo-interstitial inflammation score in renal biopsy from corresponding patients. Our data suggested that total IgG and IgG1 PTEC-binding index in serum of LN patients correlate with serological activity, and in combination could predict renal flares. The correlation between IgG1

  4. Osteopontin: correlation with interstitial fibrosis in human diabetic kidney and PI3-kinase-mediated enhancement of expression by glucose in human proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Junaid, A; Amara, F M

    2004-02-01

    To examine the expression and localization of osteopontin (OPN), a secreted phosphoprotein implicated in the development of tubulointerstitial inflammation in various models of renal disease, in human diabetic kidneys, and to study the regulation of OPN expression in primary cultures of human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC). Differential gene expression profiling through subtractive hybridization demonstrated increased renal OPN mRNA expression in a patient with diabetic nephropathy. Immunohistochemical staining of normal and diabetic human kidney samples confirmed that OPN was localized to cortical tubular, interstitial and juxtaglomerular compartments. Quantification of OPN immunostaining revealed a marked increase in the percentage of OPN-positive tubular profiles in diabetic kidneys (47 +/- 9% versus 5 +/- 3%, diabetic versus minimal change disease) that correlated strongly with the degree of cortical scarring (r2 = 0.91). Results of Northern hybridization, flow cytometry and Western blotting indicated that glucose up-regulates OPN mRNA and protein expression in primary cultures of human RPTECs. This effect was independent of the osmotic effects of glucose and independent of insulin. Finally, glucose-stimulated OPN expression was inhibited by LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity, in a dose-dependent manner. OPN is expressed in human diabetic kidneys and regulation of OPN expression is via a glucose-mediated, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway.

  5. Overexpression of E2A proteins induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells suggesting a potential role in renal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Craig; McMorrow, Tara; Ryan, Michael P

    2006-07-24

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process whereby renal tubular epithelial cells lose phenotype and gain fibroblast-like characteristics, has been demonstrated to contribute significantly to the development of renal fibrosis. The immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) has been shown to induce renal fibrosis, a major complication of CsA therapy. The mechanisms that drive CsA-induced fibrosis remain undefined, however, CsA has been demonstrated to induce EMT in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC). E2A transcription factors were identified as being upregulated by CsA treatment. To further examine the role of E2A proteins in EMT, E12 and E47 were overexpressed, alone and in combination, in human RPTEC. Both E12 and E47 elicited EMT effects on tubular epithelial cells with E47 more potent in inducing the fibroblast-like phenotype. These results indicate the important role of the E2A gene products in the progression of CsA-induced EMT and provide novel insights into CsA-induced renal fibrosis.

  6. Beneficial effects of metformin and irbesartan on advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-RAGE-induced proximal tubular cell injury.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yuji; Matsui, Takanori; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi

    2012-03-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) axis contributes to diabetic nephropathy. An oral hypoglycemic agent, metformin may have a potential effect on the inhibition of glycation reactions. Further, since a pathophysiological crosstalk between renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and AGEs-RAGE axis is involved in diabetic nephropathy, it is conceivable that metformin and irbesartan additively could protect against the AGEs-RAGE-induced tubular cell injury. In this study, we addressed the issues. Metformin dose-dependently inhibited the formation of AGEs modification of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Compared with AGEs-modified BSA prepared without metformin (AGEs-MF0), those prepared in the presence of 30 mM or 100 mM metformin (AGEs-MF30 or AGEs-MF100) significantly reduced RAGE mRNA level, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, apoptosis, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and transforming growth factor-β mRNA level in tubular cells. Irbesartan further inhibited the harmful effects of AGEs-MF0 or AGEs-MF30 on tubular cells. Our present study suggests that combination therapy with metformin and irbesartan may have therapeutic potential in diabetic nephropathy; it could play a protective role against tubular injury in diabetes not only by inhibiting AGEs formation, but also by attenuating the deleterious effects of AGEs via down-regulating RAGE expression and subsequently suppressing ROS generation.

  7. Effect of betamethasone on Na-K-ATPase activity and basal and lateral cell membranes in proximal tubular cells during early development.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Y; Aperia, A; Larsson, L; Zetterström, R

    1983-08-01

    The mechanism by which betamethasone induces Na-K-ATPase activity in developing tissue was studied in homogenates of proximal tubular cells from 10-day-old rats. A significant increase in Na-K-ATPase activity occurred after 5 micrograms . 100 g-1 . 12 h-1 X 2 beta-methasone and a maximal increase after 15-60 micrograms . 100 g-1 . 12 h-1 X 2. Following a single dose of 60 micrograms . 100 g-1 betamethasone Na-K-ATPase activity increased significantly after 16 h and maximally after 24-30 h. The 16-h time lag suggests that betamethasone does not act only directly on Na-K-ATPase synthesis. Betamethasone 60 micrograms . 100 g-1 increases Na-K-ATPase activity significantly in kidneys in which glomerular filtration rate is reduced by ureteral ligation, but the increase is significantly less pronounced than in kidneys with intact ureters, suggesting that the induction is not mediated only by alterations in sodium supply. Twenty-four hours after 10-60 micrograms . 100 g-1 betamethasone there was no significant increase in glucose-6-phosphatase and Mg-ATPase activity in 10-day-old rats or in Na-K-ATPase activity in 40-day-old rats. The basal and lateral cell membranes of the proximal tubular cells were not significantly increased 24 h after 60 micrograms . 100 g-1 betamethasone. Accordingly, structural development is not a prerequisite for enzymatic differentiation.

  8. Analysis of Altered MicroRNA Expression Profiles in Proximal Renal Tubular Cells in Response to Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Crystal Adhesion: Implications for Kidney Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bohan; Wu, Bolin; Liu, Jun; Yao, Weimin; Xia, Ding; Li, Lu; Chen, Zhiqiang; Ye, Zhangqun; Yu, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Background Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) is the major crystalline component in kidney stones and its adhesion to renal tubular cells leads to tubular injury. However, COM-induced toxic effects in renal tubular cells remain ambiguous. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in gene regulation at the posttranscriptional levels. Objective The present study aimed to assess the potential changes in microRNAs of proximal renal tubular cells in response to the adhesion of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Methodology Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and DAPI staining were used to measure the toxic effects of HK-2 cells exposed to COM crystals. MicroRNA microarray and mRNA microarray were applied to evaluate the expression of HK-2 cells exposed to COM crystals. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) technology was used to validate the microarray results. Target prediction, Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and pathway analysis were applied to predict the potential roles of microRNAs in biological processes. Principal Findings Our study showed that COM crystals significantly altered the global expression profile of miRNAs in vitro. After 24 h treatment with a dose (1 mmol/L), 25 miRNAs were differentially expressed with a more than 1.5-fold change, of these miRNAs, 16 were up-regulated and 9 were down-regulated. A majority of these differentially expressed miRNAs were associated with cell death, mitochondrion and metabolic process. Target prediction and GO analysis suggested that these differentially expressed miRNAs potentially targeted many genes which were related to apoptosis, regulation of metabolic process, intracellular signaling cascade, insulin signaling pathway and type 2 diabetes. Conclusion Our study provides new insights into the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis associated with nephrolithiasis. PMID:24983625

  9. Nucleotide Analogue-Related Proximal Renal Tubular Dysfunction during Long-Term Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Sobhonslidsuk, Abhasnee; Wanichanuwat, Jirachaya; Numthavaj, Pawin; Sophonsritsuk, Areepan; Petraksa, Supanna; Pugasub, Alongkorn; Jittorntam, Paisan; Kongsomgan, Anucha; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Phakdeekitcharoen, Bunyong

    2016-01-01

    Background. There have been few reports of nucleotide analogue-related renal tubular dysfunction (RTD) in CHB patients. We assessed the prevalence and presentation of nucleotide analogue-related proximal RTD. Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed in CHB patients taking nucleotide analogues. Inclusion criteria were patients who were on adefovir or tenofovir as mono- or add-on therapy with lamivudine (LAM) >1 year. Serum and urine were collected. Fractional excretion of phosphate (FEPO4), uric acid (FEUA), and potassium was calculated. Renal losses were defined based on the criteria: protein (24-hour urine protein >150 mg), glucose (glycosuria with normoglycemia), phosphate (FEPO4 >18%), uric acid (FEUA >15%), potassium (renal potassium losses with hypokalemia), and bicarbonate (normal gap acidosis). Subclinical and overt proximal RTD were defined when 2 and ≥3 criteria presented. Results. Ninety-two patients were enrolled. The mean duration of nucleotide analogue taking was 55.1 ± 29.6 months. Proximal RTD was found in 24 (26.1%) patients (subclinical 15 (16.3%) and overt 9 (9.8%)). The severity of RTD was associated with the duration of nucleotide analogue (P = 0.01). Conclusions. The prevalence of proximal RTD in CHB patients taking nucleotide analogues was 26%. The severity of RTD was associated with the treatment duration. Comprehensive testing is necessary for early detecting nucleotide analogue-related nephrotoxicity.

  10. Beta ig-h3 promotes renal proximal tubular epithelial cell adhesion, migration and proliferation through the interaction with alpha3beta1 integrin.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun-Woo; Bae, Jong-Sup; Kim, Ki-San; Park, Sun-Hee; Lee, Byung-Heon; Choi, Je-Yong; Park, Jae-Yong; Ha, Sung-Woo; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kwon, Tae-Hwan; Kim, In-San; Park, Rang-Woon

    2004-06-30

    Betaig-h3 (betaig-h3) is a secretory protein composed of fasciclin I-like repeats containing sequences that allows binding of integrins and glycosaminoglycans in vivo. Expression of betaig-h3 is responsive to TGF-Beta and the protein is found to be associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, implicating betaig-h3 as an ECM adhesive protein of developmental processes. We previously observed predominant expression of betaig-h3 expression in the basement membrane of proximal tubules of kidney. In this study, the physiological relevance of such localized expression of betaig-h3 was examined in the renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC). RPTEC constitutively expressed betaig-h3 and the expression was dramatically induced by exogenous TGF-Beta1 treatment. betaig-h3 and its second and fourth FAS1 domain were able to mediate RPTEC adhesion, spreading and migration. Two known alpha3beta1 integrin-interaction motifs including aspartatic acid and isoleucine residues, NKDIL and EPDIM in betaig-h3 were responsible to mediate RPTEC adhesion, spreading, and migration. By using specific antibodies against integrins, we confirmed that alpha3beta1 integrin mediates the adhesion and migration of RPTECs on betaig-h3. In addition, it also enhanced proliferation of RPTECs through NKDIL and EPDIM. These results indicate that betaig-h3 mediates adhesion, spreading, migration and proliferation of RPTECs through the interaction with alpha3beta1 integrin and is intimately involved in the maintenance and the regeneration of renal proximal tubular epithelium.

  11. Indoxyl sulfate-induced activation of (pro)renin receptor is involved in expression of TGF-β1 and α-smooth muscle actin in proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shinichi; Shimizu, Hidehisa; Yisireyili, Maimaiti; Nishijima, Fuyuhiko; Enomoto, Atsushi; Niwa, Toshimitsu

    2014-05-01

    Activation of (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is involved in the progression of chronic kidney disease. However, the role of indoxyl sulfate, a uremic toxin, in the activation of PRR is not clear. The present study aimed to clarify the role of indoxyl sulfate in activation of PRR, in relation to renal expression of fibrotic genes. Renal expression of PRR and renin/prorenin was up-regulated in chronic kidney disease rats compared with normal rats, whereas AST-120 suppressed these expression by reducing serum levels of indoxyl sulfate. Furthermore, administration of indoxyl sulfate to normotensive and hypertensive rats increased renal expression of PRR and renin/prorenin. Indoxyl sulfate induced expression of PRR and prorenin in cultured human proximal tubular cells (HK-2 cells). Indoxyl sulfate-induced PRR expression was inhibited by small interfering RNAs of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) and nuclear factor-κB p65 in proximal tubular cells. N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, and diphenyleneiodonium, an inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, suppressed indoxyl sulfate-induced PRR expression in proximal tubular cells. N-acetylcysteine prevented indoxyl sulfate-induced phosphorylation of Stat3 in proximal tubular cells. PRR small interfering RNA inhibited indoxyl sulfate-induced expression of TGF-β1 and α-smooth muscle actin in proximal tubular cells. Taken together, indoxyl sulfate-induced up-regulation of prorenin expression and activation of PRR through production of reactive oxygen species and activation of Stat3 and nuclear factor-κB play an important role in the expression of TGF-β1 and α-smooth muscle actin in proximal tubular cells. Thus, indoxyl sulfate-induced activation of prorenin/PRR might be involved in renal fibrosis.

  12. Upregulation of TLR4 via PKC activation contributes to impaired wound healing in high-glucose-treated kidney proximal tubular cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jianping; Zheng, Hang; Wang, Xia; Cheng, Zhixiang

    2017-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) leads to a worse prognosis in diabetic patients compared with prognoses in non-diabetic patients, but whether and how diabetes affects kidney repair after AKI remains unknown. Here, we used scratch-wound healing and transwell migration models to examine whether and how wound healing is affected by high glucose levels in cultured kidney proximal tubular cells (RPTC). The results show that scratch-wound healing and transwell migration were significantly slower in high-glucose-treated kidney tubular cells (30 mM glucose) than in low-glucose-treated cells (5.5 mM). Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), MyD88, phospho-protein kinase C (PKC), phospho-p38 MAPK and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA levels were upregulated after high glucose treatments. Staurosporine, a selective PKC inhibitor, inhibited TLR4, MyD88 and p-p38 upregulation in the high-glucose-treated cells, indicating the involvement of PKC in high-glucose-induced TLR4 upregulation. The pharmacological inhibition of TLR4 or shRNA-mediated TLR4 knockdown improved wound healing and transwell migration in high-glucose-treated RPTC. In contrast, the overexpression of TLR4 in low-glucose-treated RPTC suppressed wound healing, mimicking the effects of high glucose levels. These results suggest that the upregulation of TLR4 expression via PKC activation contributes to defective wound healing in high-glucose-treated kidney tubular cells. PMID:28542370

  13. Fenofibrate, a PPARα agonist, protect proximal tubular cells from albumin-bound fatty acids induced apoptosis via the activation of NF-kB

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Nan; Zheng, Xiaoyu; Liu, Hanzhe; Ma, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Albumin-bound fatty acids is the main cause of renal damage, PPARα is responsible in the metabolism of fatty acids. Previous study found that PPARα played a protective role in fatty acids overload associated tubular injury. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether fenofibrate, a PPARα ligands, could contribute to the renoprotective action in fatty acids overload proximal tubule epithelial cells. We observed in HK-2 cells that fenofibrate significantly inhibited fatty acids bound albumin (FA-BSA) induced up-regulation of MCP-1 and IL-8. Treatment with fenofibrate attenuated renal oxidative stress induced by FA-BSA as evidenced by decreased MDA level, increased SOD activity and catalase, GPx-1 expression. FA-BSA induced apoptosis of HK-2 cells were also obviously prevented by fenofibrate. Furthermore, fenofibrate significantly increased the expression of PPARα mRNA and protein in FA-BSA treated cells. Finally, the activation of NF-kB induced by FA-BSA was markedly suppressed by fenofibrate. Taken together, our study describes a renoprotective role of fenofibrate in fatty acids associated tubular toxicity, and the transcriptional activation of PPARα and suppression of NF-kB were at least partially involved. PMID:26617775

  14. Fenofibrate, a PPARα agonist, protect proximal tubular cells from albumin-bound fatty acids induced apoptosis via the activation of NF-kB.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Nan; Zheng, Xiaoyu; Liu, Hanzhe; Ma, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Albumin-bound fatty acids is the main cause of renal damage, PPARα is responsible in the metabolism of fatty acids. Previous study found that PPARα played a protective role in fatty acids overload associated tubular injury. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether fenofibrate, a PPARα ligands, could contribute to the renoprotective action in fatty acids overload proximal tubule epithelial cells. We observed in HK-2 cells that fenofibrate significantly inhibited fatty acids bound albumin (FA-BSA) induced up-regulation of MCP-1 and IL-8. Treatment with fenofibrate attenuated renal oxidative stress induced by FA-BSA as evidenced by decreased MDA level, increased SOD activity and catalase, GPx-1 expression. FA-BSA induced apoptosis of HK-2 cells were also obviously prevented by fenofibrate. Furthermore, fenofibrate significantly increased the expression of PPARα mRNA and protein in FA-BSA treated cells. Finally, the activation of NF-kB induced by FA-BSA was markedly suppressed by fenofibrate. Taken together, our study describes a renoprotective role of fenofibrate in fatty acids associated tubular toxicity, and the transcriptional activation of PPARα and suppression of NF-kB were at least partially involved.

  15. Interferon-γ biphasically regulates angiotensinogen expression via a JAK-STAT pathway and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) in renal proximal tubular cells

    PubMed Central

    Satou, Ryousuke; Miyata, Kayoko; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A.; Ingelfinger, Julie R.; Navar, L. Gabriel; Kobori, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Renal inflammation modulates angiotensinogen (AGT) production in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) via inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor α, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Among these, the effects of IFN-γ on AGT regulation in RPTCs are incompletely delineated. This study aimed to elucidate mechanisms by which IFN-γ regulates AGT expression in RPTCs. RPTCs were incubated with or without IFN-γ up to 48 h. AGT expression, STAT1 and STAT3 activities, and SOCS1 expression were evaluated. RNA interference studies against STAT1, SOCS1, and STAT3 were performed to elucidate a signaling cascade. IFN-γ decreased AGT expression at 6 h (0.61±0.05, ratio to control) and 12 h (0.47±0.03). In contrast, longer exposure for 24 and 48 h increased AGT expression (1.76±0.18, EC50=3.4 ng/ml, and 1.45±0.08, respectively). IFN-γ treatment for 6 h strongly induced STAT1 phosphorylation and SOCS1 augmentation, and decreased STAT3 activity. However, STAT1 phosphorylation and SOCS1 augmentation waned at 24 h, while STAT3 activity increased. RNA interference studies revealed that activation of STAT1-SOCS1 axis decreased STAT3 activity. Thus, IFN-γ biphasically regulates AGT expression in RPTCs via STAT3 activity modulated by STAT1-SOCS1 axis, suggesting the STAT1-SOCS1 axis is important in IFN-γ-induced activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system.—Satou, R., Miyata, K., Gonzalez-Villalobos, R. A., Ingelfinger, J. R., Navar, L. G., Kobori, H. Interferon-γ biphasically regulates angiotensinogen expression via a JAK-STAT pathway and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) in renal proximal tubular cells. PMID:22302831

  16. Transcriptomic alterations induced by Ochratoxin A in rat and human renal proximal tubular in vitro models and comparison to a rat in vivo model.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Paul; Weiland, Christina; Limonciel, Alice; Bloch, Katarzyna M; Radford, Robert; Aschauer, Lydia; McMorrow, Tara; Wilmes, Anja; Pfaller, Walter; Ahr, Hans J; Slattery, Craig; Lock, Edward A; Ryan, Michael P; Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Heidrun

    2012-04-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widely studied compound due to its role in renal toxicity and carcinogenicity. However, there is still no consensus on the exact mechanisms of toxicity or carcinogenicity. In the current study, we analysed the effect of OTA on three human renal proximal tubular models (human primary, RPTEC/TERT1 and HK-2 cells) and two rat renal proximal tubular models (rat primary and NRK-52E cells). Global transcriptomics analysis at two exposure times was performed to generate a set of 756 OTA sensitive genes. This gene set was then compared in more detail across all models and additionally to a rat in vivo renal cortex model. The results demonstrate a well-conserved response across all models. OTA resulted in deregulation of a number of pathways including cytoskeleton, nucleosome regulation, translation, transcription, ubiquitination and cell cycle pathways. Interestingly, the oxidative stress activated Nrf2 pathway was not enriched. These results point to an epigenetic action of OTA, perhaps initiated by actin binding as the actin remodelling gene, advillin was the highest up-regulated in all models. The largest model differences were observed between the human and the rat in vitro models. However, since the human in vitro models were more similar to the rat in vivo model, it is more likely that these differences are model-specific rather than species-specific per se. This study demonstrates the usefulness of in vitro cell culture models combined with transcriptomic analysis for the investigation of mechanisms of toxicity and carcinogenicity. In addition, these results provide further evidence supporting a non-genotoxic mechanism of OTA-induced carcinogenicity.

  17. A critical synopsis: Continuous growth of proximal tubular kidney epithelial cells in hormone-supplemented serum-free medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuman, L. M.; FINE; COHEN; Saier, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The kidney forms urine and reabsorbs electrolytes and water. Kidney cell lines and hormone supplemented serum free medium were used for growth. The hormones were insulin, transferrin, vasopressin, cholesterol, prostaglandins, hydrocortisone, and triidothyronine. Epithelial cell lines are polar and form hemicysts. The Madin-Darby canine kidney(MDCK) cell line used is distal tubulelike. LLC-PK sub 1 cells are derived from pig kidneys and have the properties of different kidney segments. The LLC-PK sub 1 cells with proximal tubule properties were maintained in hormone-supplemented serum free medium. Seven factors (the aforementioned homrones and selenium) were needed for growth. Hormone-defined medium supported LLC-PK sub 1 cell growth, allowed transport (as seen by hemicyst formation), and influenced cell morphology. Vasopressin (used for growth and morphology) could be partially replaced by isobutylmethylxanthine or dibutyryl cAMP. The defined medium was used to isolate rabbit proximal tubule kidney epithelial cells free of fibroblasts.

  18. A critical synopsis: Continuous growth of proximal tubular kidney epithelial cells in hormone-supplemented serum-free medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuman, L. M.; FINE; COHEN; Saier, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The kidney forms urine and reabsorbs electrolytes and water. Kidney cell lines and hormone supplemented serum free medium were used for growth. The hormones were insulin, transferrin, vasopressin, cholesterol, prostaglandins, hydrocortisone, and triidothyronine. Epithelial cell lines are polar and form hemicysts. The Madin-Darby canine kidney(MDCK) cell line used is distal tubulelike. LLC-PK sub 1 cells are derived from pig kidneys and have the properties of different kidney segments. The LLC-PK sub 1 cells with proximal tubule properties were maintained in hormone-supplemented serum free medium. Seven factors (the aforementioned homrones and selenium) were needed for growth. Hormone-defined medium supported LLC-PK sub 1 cell growth, allowed transport (as seen by hemicyst formation), and influenced cell morphology. Vasopressin (used for growth and morphology) could be partially replaced by isobutylmethylxanthine or dibutyryl cAMP. The defined medium was used to isolate rabbit proximal tubule kidney epithelial cells free of fibroblasts.

  19. A mouse model for distal renal tubular acidosis reveals a previously unrecognized role of the V-ATPase a4 subunit in the proximal tubule

    PubMed Central

    Hennings, J Christopher; Picard, Nicolas; Huebner, Antje K; Stauber, Tobias; Maier, Hannes; Brown, Dennis; Jentsch, Thomas J; Vargas-Poussou, Rosa; Eladari, Dominique; Hübner, Christian A

    2012-01-01

    The V-ATPase is a multisubunit complex that transports protons across membranes. Mutations of its B1 or a4 subunit are associated with distal renal tubular acidosis and deafness. In the kidney, the a4 subunit is expressed in intercalated cells of the distal nephron, where the V-ATPase controls acid/base secretion, and in proximal tubule cells, where its role is less clear. Here, we report that a4 KO mice suffer not only from severe acidosis but also from proximal tubule dysfunction with defective endocytic trafficking, proteinuria, phosphaturia and accumulation of lysosomal material and we provide evidence that these findings may be also relevant in patients. In the inner ear, the a4 subunit co-localized with pendrin at the apical side of epithelial cells lining the endolymphatic sac. As a4 KO mice were profoundly deaf and displayed enlarged endolymphatic fluid compartments mirroring the alterations in pendrin KO mice, we propose that pendrin and the proton pump co-operate in endolymph homeostasis. Thus, our mouse model gives new insights into the divergent functions of the V-ATPase and the pathophysiology of a4-related symptoms. PMID:22933323

  20. In vivo evidence for a limited role of proximal tubular Klotho in renal phosphate handling.

    PubMed

    Ide, Noriko; Olauson, Hannes; Sato, Tadatoshi; Densmore, Michael Joseph; Wang, Hao; Hanai, Jun-Ichi; Larsson, Tobias E; Lanske, Beate

    2016-08-01

    Klotho is a transmembrane protein expressed in the renal tubules where it acts as a permissive coreceptor for fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). FGF23 signaling reduces the abundance of CYP27b1 and phosphate cotransporters NPT2a and NPT2c, leading to a decrease in 1,25(OH)2D3 synthesis and a rise in urinary phosphate excretion, respectively. Systemic or whole-nephron deletion of Klotho in mice results in renal FGF23 resistance characterized by high 1,25(OH)2D3 and phosphate levels and premature aging. Expression of Klotho is highest in the distal tubules, whereas 25OH vitamin D 1α hydroxylation and phosphate reabsorption predominantly occur in the proximal tubules. Currently, the segment-specific roles of Klotho in renal tubules are not fully understood. Here we have generated mice with Klotho specifically ablated from the proximal tubules using 3 different Cre mouse strains. All 3 models displayed impaired urinary phosphate excretion and increased abundance of NPT2a in the brush border membrane. Notably, hyperphosphatemia in knockout mice was mild or nonexistent under basal conditions but occurred upon high phosphate loading, indicating the presence of compensatory mechanisms. Effects on 1,25(OH)2D3 varied between mouse strains but were modest overall. Thus, Klotho expressed in the proximal tubules has a defined but limited role in renal phosphate handling in vivo. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Uptake of [3H]PAH and [14C]urate into isolated proximal tubular segments of the pig kidney.

    PubMed

    Schäli, C; Roch-Ramel, F

    1981-12-01

    Segments of proximal convoluted (PCT) and proximal straight (PST) tubules of minipigs and normal-sized pigs were microdissected (without collagenase treatment) and incubated (30 min, 37 degrees C, pH 7.4) in Ringer solution (under O2) containing [3H]PAH (3.10(-5) M) or [14C]urate (9.10(-5) M) and, in inhibitor studies, probenecid, pyrazinoic acid (PZA), urate or PAH, all at 1 mM. In both strains the uptake of [3H]PAH expressed as means T/M ratio (cpm per ml tissue water/cpm per ml incubation medium) was significantly higher (P less than 0.001) in PCT than in PST. T/M was 34.7 +/- 5.6 (SE) in 34 PCT and 2.4 +/- 0.3 in 24 PST of eight minipigs. In two normal-sized pigs the T/M was 14.1 +/- 3.6 in 15 PCT and 1.4 +/- 0.1 in six PST. Similar results were obtained for [14C]urate. In eight minipigs the T/M was 4.9 +/- 0.5 in 24 PCT and 2 +/- 0.2 in 25 PST. In normal-sized pigs the T/M was 3.8 +/- 0.3 in 35 PCT (five pigs) and 1.9 +/- 0.4 in eight PST (two pigs). In inhibitor studies urate significantly depressed the uptake of [3H]PAH, and unlabeled PAH depressed the uptake of [14C]urate. PZA significantly inhibited the uptake of [14C]urate but not that of [3H]PAH, whereas probenecid had a strong inhibitory effect on the uptake of both compounds. These results suggest that [14C]urate and [3H]PAH are transported by a transport system located mainly in the proximal convoluted tubule. These findings are in contrast to the findings obtained in rabbits in which the transport system of PAH and urate is mainly located in the proximal part of the pars recta.

  2. Inhibition of Kidney Proximal Tubular Glucose Reabsorption Does Not Prevent against Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 1 Diabetic eNOS Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gangadharan Komala, Muralikrishna; Gross, Simon; Mudaliar, Harshini; Huang, Chunling; Pegg, Katherine; Mather, Amanda; Shen, Sylvie; Pollock, Carol A.; Panchapakesan, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) is the main luminal glucose transporter in the kidney. SGLT2 inhibition results in glycosuria and improved glycaemic control. Drugs inhibiting this transporter have recently been approved for clinical use and have been suggested to have potential renoprotective benefits by limiting glycotoxicity in the proximal tubule. We aimed to determine the renoprotective benefits of empagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, independent of its glucose lowering effect. Research Design and Methods We induced diabetes using a low dose streptozotocin protocol in 7–8 week old endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS) synthase knockout mice. We measured fasting blood glucose on a monthly basis, terminal urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. Renal histology was assessed for inflammatory and fibrotic changes. Renal cortical mRNA transcription of inflammatory and profibrotic cytokines, glucose transporters and protein expression of SGLT2 and GLUT1 were determined. Outcomes were compared to diabetic animals receiving the angiotensin receptor blocker telmisartan (current best practice). Results Diabetic mice had high matched blood glucose levels. Empagliflozin did not attenuate diabetes-induced albuminuria, unlike telmisartan. Empagliflozin did not improve glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy, tubulointerstitial inflammation or fibrosis, while telmisartan attenuated these. Empagliflozin did not modify tubular toll-like receptor-2 expression in diabetic mice. Empagliflozin did not reduce the upregulation of macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), transforming growth factor β1 and fibronectin mRNA observed in the diabetic animals, while telmisartan decreased transcription of MCP-1 and fibronectin. Empagliflozin increased GLUT1 mRNA expression and telmisartan increased SGLT2 mRNA expression in comparison to untreated diabetic mice. However no significant difference was found in protein expression of GLUT1 or SGLT2 among the different groups

  3. Effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker on albumin-induced cell damage in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Takao, Toshihiro; Horino, Taro; Kagawa, Toru; Matsumoto, Reiko; Inoue, Kousuke; Taguchi, Takafumi; Morita, Tatsuhito; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Hashimoto, Kozo; Terada, Yoshio

    2009-01-01

    Proteinuria is not merely a marker of chronic nephropathies, but may also be involved in the progression to end-stage renal failure. We investigated the effect of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) on albumin-induced cell damage in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC). The N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in the medium after albumin treatment with ARBs were determined by commercially available kits. The levels of p22(phox) protein in RPTEC were measured using Western blotting after albumin treatment with ARBs. Angiotensin II concentrations in cell media and cell lysates were assayed with a commercially available kit. Human albumin (0.1-10 mg/ml) dose-dependently increased NAG release and olmesartan or valsartan (10(-9)-10(-7) mol/l) showed a significant reduction on albumin (1 mg/ml)-induced NAG release in RPTEC. Albumin treatment (1 mg/ml) showed significant increases in p22(phox) protein levels in RPTEC and ARBs significantly decreased albumin-induced p22(phox) protein levels. Significant increases in 8-OHdG levels were observed in the albumin (1 mg/ml)-treated group and ARBs markedly reduced albumin-induced 8-OHdG levels in RPTEC. Human albumin dose-dependently increased angiotensin II concentrations in both cell media and lysates. These observations suggest renal tubular cell-protective properties of ARBs related to decreased oxidative stress during proteinuria. Copyright (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Cobalt chloride attenuates oxidative stress and inflammation through NF-κB inhibition in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Se Won; Lee, Yun-Mi; Kim, Sejoong; Chin, Ho Jun; Chae, Dong-Wan; Na, Ki Young

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated the effect of cobalt chloride (CoCl2) on TNF-α and IFN-γ-induced-inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cells). We treated HK-2 cells with CoCl2 before the administration of TNF-α/IFN-γ. To regulate hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, the cells were treated CoCl2 or HO-1 siRNA. CoCl2 reduced the generation of ROS induced by TNF-α/IFN-γ. TNF-α/IFN-γ-treated-cells showed an increase in the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated NF-κBp65 protein, the DNA-binding activity of NF-κBp50 and NF-κB transcriptional activity and a decrease in IκBα protein expression. These changes were restored by CoCl2. We noted an intense increase in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) production in TNF-α/IFN-γ-treated cells. We demonstrated that this effect was mediated through NF-κB signaling because an NF-κB inhibitor significantly reduced MCP-1 and RANTES production. CoCl2 effectively reduced MCP-1 and RANTES production. The expression of HO-1 was increased by CoCl2 and decreased by HO-1 siRNA. However, knockdown of HO-1 by RNA interference did not affect MCP-1 or RANTES production. We suggest that CoCl2 has a protective effect on TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced inflammation through the inhibition of NF-κB and ROS in HK-2 cells. However, CoCl2 appears to act in an HO-1-independent manner.

  5. Receptor-Associated Protein Blocks Internalization and Cytotoxicity of Myeloma Light Chain in Cultured Human Proximal Tubular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sengul, Sule; Erturk, Sehsuvar; Khan, Altaf M.; Batuman, Vecihi

    2013-01-01

    Background Free light chains (LCs) are among the many ligands that bind to cubilin/megalin for endocytosis via the clathrin-dependent endosomal/lysosomal pathway. Receptor associated protein (RAP), is a 39 kDA high-affinity, chaperone-like ligand for megalin that assists in the proper folding and functioning of megalin/cubilin. Although RAP is known to inhibit ligand binding to megalin/cubilin, its effect on LC endocytosis has not been shown directly. Methods and Principal Findings We investigated whether RAP can block the endocytosis of LC in cultured human proximal tubule cells and whether this can prevent LC cytotoxicity. Immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry showed that fluorescently labeled LC endocytosis was markedly inhibited in HK-2 cells pretreated with human RAP. The effect of RAP was dose-dependent, and was predominantly on endocytosis as it had no effect on the small acid-washable fraction of LC bound to cell membrane. RAP significantly inhibited LC induced cytokine production and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Prolonged exposure to LC for 48 h resulted in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation in HK-2 cells as evidenced by marked reduction in the expression of the epithelial cell marker E-cadherin, and increased the expression of the mesenchymal marker α-SMA, which was also prevented by RAP in the endocytosis medium. Conclusions RAP inhibited LC endocytosis by ∼88% and ameliorated LC-induced cytokine responses and EMT in human PTCs. The results not only provide additional evidence that LCs endocytosis occurs via the megalin/cubilin endocytic receptor system, but also show that blocking LC endocytosis by RAP can protect proximal tubule cells from LC cytotoxicity. PMID:23894629

  6. Role of metabolites in MDMA (ecstasy)-induced nephrotoxicity: an in vitro study using rat and human renal proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Márcia; Hawksworth, Gabrielle; Milhazes, Nuno; Borges, Fernanda; Monks, Terrence J; Fernandes, Eduarda; Carvalho, Félix; Bastos, Maria Lourdes

    2002-10-01

    The metabolism of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) has recently been implicated in the mechanisms underlying ecstasy-induced neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. However, its potential role in ecstasy-induced kidney toxicity has yet to be investigated. Thus, primary cultures of rat and human renal proximal tubular cells (PTCs) were used to investigate the cytotoxicity induced by MDMA and its metabolites methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), alpha-methyldopamine (alpha-MeDA), and the glutathione (GSH) conjugates 5-(glutathion- S-yl)-alpha-MeDA and 2,5- bis(glutathion- S-yl)-alpha-MeDA. Cell viability was evaluated using the mitochondrial MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. MDMA and MDA were not found to be toxic to either rat or human PTCs at any concentration tested (100-800 micro M). In contrast, 800 micro M alpha-MeDA caused 60% and 40% cell death in rat and human PTCs, respectively. Conjugation of alpha-MeDA with GSH resulted in the formation of even more potent nephrotoxicants. Thus, exposure of rat and human PTC monolayers to 400 micro M 5-(glutathion- S-yl)-alpha-MeDA caused approximately 80% and 70% cell death, respectively. 5-(Glutathion- S-yl)-alpha-MeDA (400 micro M) was more toxic than 2,5- bis(glutathion- S-yl)-alpha-MeDA to rat renal PTCs but equally potent in human renal PTCs. Pre-incubation of rat PTCs with either acivicin, an inhibitor of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT), or bestatin, an inhibitor of aminopeptidase M, resulted in increased toxicity of 5-(glutathion- S-yl)-alpha-MeDA but had no effect on 2,5- bis(glutathion- S-yl)-alpha-MeDA-mediated cytotoxicity. The present data provide evidence that metabolism is required for the expression of MDMA-induced renal toxicity in vitro. In addition, metabolism of 5-(glutathion- S-yl)-alpha-MeDA by gamma-GT and aminopeptidase M to the corresponding cystein- S-yl-glycine and/or cystein- S-yl conjugates is likely to be associated with detoxication of

  7. Renal cysteine conjugate C-S lyase mediated toxicity of halogenated alkenes in primary cultures of human and rat proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    McGoldrick, Trevor A; Lock, Edward A; Rodilla, Vicente; Hawksworth, Gabrielle M

    2003-07-01

    Proximal tubular cells from human (HPT) and rat (RPT) kidneys were isolated, grown to confluence and incubated with S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)- l-cysteine (DCVC), S-(1,2,2-trichlorovinyl)- l-cysteine (TCVC), S-(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)- l-cysteine (TFEC) and S-(2-chloro-1,1-difluorethyl)- l-cysteine (CDFEC), the cysteine conjugates of nephrotoxicants. The cultures were exposed to the conjugates for 12, 24 and 48 h and the toxicity determined using the MTT assay. All four conjugates caused dose-dependent toxicity to RPT cells over the range 50-1,000 microM, the order of toxicity being DCVC>TCVC>TFEC=CDFEC. The inclusion of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA; 250 microM), an inhibitor of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzymes such as C-S lyase, afforded protection, indicating that C-S lyase has a role in the bioactivation of these conjugates. In HPT cultures only DCVC caused significant time- and dose-dependent toxicity. Exposure to DCVC (500 microM) for 48 h decreased cell viability to 7% of control cell values, whereas co-incubation of DCVC (500 microM) with AOAA (250 microM) resulted in cell viability of 71%. Human cultures were also exposed to S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-glutathione (DCVG). DCVG was toxic to HPT cells, but the onset of toxicity was delayed compared with the corresponding cysteine conjugate. AOAA afforded almost complete protection from DCVG toxicity. Acivicin (250 microM), an inhibitor of gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma-GT), partially protected against DCVG (500 microM)-induced toxicity at 48 h (5% viability and 53% viability in the absence and presence of acivicin, respectively). These results suggest that DCVG requires processing by gamma-GT prior to bioactivation by C-S lyase in HPT cells. The activity of C-S lyase, using TFEC as a substrate, and glutamine transaminase K (GTK) was measured in rat and human cells with time in culture. C-S lyase activity in RPT and HPT cells decreased to approximately 30% of fresh cell values by the time the cells reached

  8. Carcinogens induce loss of the primary cilium in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells independently of effects on the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Radford, Robert; Slattery, Craig; Jennings, Paul; Blacque, Oliver; Pfaller, Walter; Gmuender, Hans; Van Delft, Joost; Ryan, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    The primary cilium is an immotile sensory and signaling organelle found on the majority of mammalian cell types. Of the multitude of roles that the primary cilium performs, perhaps some of the most important include maintenance of differentiation, quiescence, and cellular polarity. Given that the progression of cancer requires disruption of all of these processes, we have investigated the effects of several carcinogens on the primary cilium of the RPTEC/TERT1 human proximal tubular epithelial cell line. Using both scanning electron microscopy and immunofluorescent labeling of the ciliary markers acetylated tubulin and Arl13b, we confirmed that RPTEC/TERT1 cells express primary cilium upon reaching confluence. Treatment with the carcinogens ochratoxin A (OTA) and potassium bromate (KBrO3) caused a significant reduction in the number of ciliated cells, while exposure to nifedipine, a noncarcinogenic renal toxin, had no effect on primary cilium expression. Flow cytometric analysis of the effects of all three compounds on the cell cycle revealed that only KBrO3 resulted in an increase in the proportion of cells entering the cell cycle. Microarray analysis revealed dysregulation of multiple pathways affecting ciliogenesis and ciliary maintenance following OTA and KBrO3 exposure, which were unaffected by nifedipine exposure. The primary cilium represents a unique physical checkpoint with relevance to carcinogenesis. We have shown that the renal carcinogens OTA and KBrO3 cause significant deciliation in a model of the proximal tubule. With KBrO3, this was followed by reentry into the cell cycle; however, deciliation was not found to be associated with reentry into the cell cycle following OTA exposure. Transcriptomic analysis identified dysregulation of Wnt signaling and ciliary trafficking in response to OTA and KBrO3 exposure. PMID:22262483

  9. Carcinogens induce loss of the primary cilium in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells independently of effects on the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Radford, Robert; Slattery, Craig; Jennings, Paul; Blacque, Oliver; Blaque, Oliver; Pfaller, Walter; Gmuender, Hans; Van Delft, Joost; Ryan, Michael P; McMorrow, Tara

    2012-04-15

    The primary cilium is an immotile sensory and signaling organelle found on the majority of mammalian cell types. Of the multitude of roles that the primary cilium performs, perhaps some of the most important include maintenance of differentiation, quiescence, and cellular polarity. Given that the progression of cancer requires disruption of all of these processes, we have investigated the effects of several carcinogens on the primary cilium of the RPTEC/TERT1 human proximal tubular epithelial cell line. Using both scanning electron microscopy and immunofluorescent labeling of the ciliary markers acetylated tubulin and Arl13b, we confirmed that RPTEC/TERT1 cells express primary cilium upon reaching confluence. Treatment with the carcinogens ochratoxin A (OTA) and potassium bromate (KBrO(3)) caused a significant reduction in the number of ciliated cells, while exposure to nifedipine, a noncarcinogenic renal toxin, had no effect on primary cilium expression. Flow cytometric analysis of the effects of all three compounds on the cell cycle revealed that only KBrO(3) resulted in an increase in the proportion of cells entering the cell cycle. Microarray analysis revealed dysregulation of multiple pathways affecting ciliogenesis and ciliary maintenance following OTA and KBrO(3) exposure, which were unaffected by nifedipine exposure. The primary cilium represents a unique physical checkpoint with relevance to carcinogenesis. We have shown that the renal carcinogens OTA and KBrO(3) cause significant deciliation in a model of the proximal tubule. With KBrO(3), this was followed by reentry into the cell cycle; however, deciliation was not found to be associated with reentry into the cell cycle following OTA exposure. Transcriptomic analysis identified dysregulation of Wnt signaling and ciliary trafficking in response to OTA and KBrO(3) exposure.

  10. Caspase-Dependent and Caspase-Independent Pathways Are Involved in Cadmium-Induced Apoptosis in Primary Rat Proximal Tubular Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Long, Mengfei; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Xuezhong; Gu, Jianhong; Yuan, Yan; Song, Ruilong; Wang, Yi; Zhu, Jiaqiao; Liu, Zongping

    2016-01-01

    We designed this study to investigate whether cadmium induces caspase-independent apoptosis and to investigate the relationship between the caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptotic pathways. Cadmium (1.25–2.5 μM) induced oxidative stress in rat proximal tubular (rPT) cells, as seen in the reactive oxygen species levels; N-acetylcysteine prevented this. Cyclosporin A (CsA) prevented mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening and apoptosis; there was mitochondrial ultrastructural disruption, mitochondrial cytochrome c (cyt c) translocation to the cytoplasm, and subsequent caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. Z-VAD-FMK prevented caspase-3 activation and apoptosis and decreased BNIP-3 (Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa interacting protein 3) expression levels and apoptosis-inducing factor/endonuclease G (AIF/Endo G) translocation. Simultaneously, cadmium induced prominent BNIP-3 expression in the mitochondria and cytoplasmic AIF/Endo G translocation to the nucleus. BNIP-3 silencing significantly prevented AIF and Endo G translocation and decreased the apoptosis rate, cyt c release, and caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that BNIP-3 is involved in the caspase-independent apoptotic pathway and is located upstream of AIF/Endo G; both the caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways are involved in cadmium-induced rPT cell apoptosis and act synergistically. PMID:27861627

  11. Restoration of autophagy by puerarin in lead-exposed primary rat proximal tubular cells via regulating AMPK-mTOR signaling.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiangbin; Li, Zifa; Liu, Fei; Wang, Zhenyong; Wang, Lin

    2017-03-01

    Previous study has demonstrated that puerarin (PU) exerts nephroprotective effect against Pb-induced cytotoxicity in primary rat proximal tubular (rPT) cells. Autophagy can protect cells from various cytotoxic stimuli, but its role in the process of PU against Pb-induced nephrotoxicity is still unknown. This study aims to investigate whether PU can alleviate Pb-induced renal damage by recovering autophagy. Data showed that Pb inhibited the autophagic flux, as evidenced by the accumulation of LC3-II and p62 as well as the confocal microscopy analysis of GFP-LC3 puncta and punctate spots of monodansylcadaverine staining, whereas coadministration of PU could restore Pb-induced autophagy inhibition. Moreover, PU dramatically enhanced the phosphorylation of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibited the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its target proteins p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) and 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) in Pb-exposed rPT cells. Collectively, these evidence suggested that PU restored the impaired autophagic flux in Pb-treated rPT cells partly by activating autophagy via AMPK/mTOR-mediated signaling pathway.

  12. Parathyroid hormone induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in human renal proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yunshan; Li, Zhen; Ding, Raohai; Li, Hongdong; Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Weijie; Wang, Yanxia

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been shown to play an important role in renal fibrogenesis. Recent studies suggested parathyroid hormone (PTH) could accelerate EMT and subsequent organ fibrosis. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying PTH-induced EMT remain unknown. The present study was to investigate whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is involved in PTH-induced EMT in human renal proximal tubular cells (HK-2 cells) and to determine the profile of gene expression associated with PTH-induced EMT. PTH could induce morphological changes and gene expression characteristic of EMT in cultured HK-2 cells. Suppressing β-catenin expression or DKK1 limited gene expression characteristic of PTH-induced EMT. Based on the PCR array analysis, PTH treatment resulted in the up-regulation of 18 genes and down-regulation of 9 genes compared with the control. The results were further supported by a western blot analysis, which showed the increased Wnt4 protein expression. Wnt4 overexpression also promotes PTH-induced EMT in HK-2 cells. The findings demonstrated that PTH-induced EMT in HK-2 cells is mediated by Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway, and Wnt4 might be a key gene during PTH-induced EMT.

  13. Boiogito Increases the Metabolism of Fatty Acids in Proximal Tubular Cells through Peroxisome Proliferators-Activated Receptor (PPAR) α Agonistic Activity.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kyoko; Matsuyama, Wakana; Arai, Yuhei; Koizumi, Saho; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Tomioka, Rie; Sasaki, Kenroh

    2016-01-01

    The promotion of fatty acid metabolism, to which peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) α contributes, has been suggested to participate in maintaining the function of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs). The loading of fatty acids to PTECs could result in cell inflammation and cell death. A "Kampo" medicine, Boiogito (BO), is used to treat overweight women exhibiting chronic fatigue and edema in the lower extremities or knees. BO improves renal function by reducing the portion of fatty acids, thereby preventing damage to PTECs. In this study, BO and Astragalus Root (AsR), a constituent crude drug of BO, were administered orally to intravenously bovine serum albumin (BSA)-administered mice to evaluate the PPARα-cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) binding protein (CBP) complex binding activity and/or mRNA expression of PPARα, as quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increases in PPARα-CBP complex binding activity and the expression of PPARα mRNA were observed not only in BO-administered mice but also in AsR-administered mice, accompanied by a decrease in the amount of renal fatty acid.

  14. Iodinated contrast media inhibit oxygen consumption in freshly isolated proximal tubular cells from elderly humans and diabetic rats: Influence of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Liss, Per; Hansell, Peter; Fasching, Angelica; Palm, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Mechanisms underlying contrast medium (CM)-induced nephropathy remain elusive, but recent attention has been directed to oxygen availability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the low-osmolar CM iopromide and the iso-osmolar CM iodixanol on oxygen consumption (QO2) in freshly isolated proximal tubular cells (PTC) from kidneys ablated from elderly humans undergoing nephrectomy for renal carcinomas and from normoglycemic or streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Materials PTC were isolated from human kidneys, or kidneys of normoglycemic or streptozotocin-diabetic rats. QO2 was measured with Clark-type microelectrodes in a gas-tight chamber with and without each CM (10 mg I/mL medium). L-NAME was used to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production caused by nitric oxide synthase. Results Both CM reduced QO2 in human PTC (about -35%) which was prevented by L-NAME. PTC from normoglycemic rats were unaffected by iopromide, whereas iodixanol decreased QO2 (-34%). Both CM decreased QO2 in PTC from diabetic rats (-38% and -36%, respectively). L-NAME only prevented the effect of iopromide in the diabetic rat PTC. Conclusions These observations demonstrate that CM can induce NO release from isolated PTC in vitro, which affects QO2. Our results suggest that the induction of NO release and subsequent effect on the cellular oxygen metabolism are dependent on several factors, including CM type and pre-existing risk factors for the development of CM-induced nephropathy.

  15. Differential roles of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical in cisplatin-induced cell death in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Baek, Su Mi; Kwon, Chae Hwa; Kim, Jae Ho; Woo, Jae Suk; Jung, Jin Sup; Kim, Yong Keun

    2003-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been suggested as important mediators of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure in vivo. However, our previous studies have shown that cisplatin-induced cell death in vitro could not be prevented by scavengers of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical in rabbit renal cortical slices. This discrepancy may be attributed to differential roles of ROS in necrotic and apoptotic cell death. We therefore examined, in this study, the roles of ROS in necrosis and apoptosis induced by cisplatin in primary cultured rabbit proximal tubule. Cisplatin induced necrosis at high concentrations over a few hours and apoptosis at much lower concentrations over longer periods. Necrosis induced by high concentration of cisplatin was prevented by a cell-permeable superoxide scavenger (tiron), hydrogen peroxide scavengers (catalase and pyruvate), and antioxidants (Trolox and deferoxamine), whereas hydroxyl radical scavengers (dimethythiourea and thiourea) did not affect the cisplatin-induced necrosis. However, apoptosis induced by lower concentration of cisplatin was partially prevented by tiron and hydroxyl radical scavengers but not by hydrogen peroxide scavengers and antioxidants. Cisplatin-induced apoptosis was mediated by the signaling pathway that is associated with cytochrome c release from mitochondria and caspase-3 activation. These effects were prevented by tiron and dimethylthiourea but not by catalase. Dimethylthiourea produced a significant protection against cisplatin-induced acute renal failure, and the effect was associated with an inhibition of apoptosis. These results suggest that hydrogen peroxide is involved in the cisplatin-induced necrosis, whereas hydroxyl radical is responsible for the cisplatin-induced apoptosis. The protective effects of hydroxyl radical scavengers are associated with an inhibition of cytochrome c release and caspase activation.

  16. Kidney Proximal Tubular Epithelial-Specific Overexpression of Netrin-1 Suppresses Inflammation and Albuminuria through Suppression of COX-2-Mediated PGE2 Production in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Riyaz; Jayakumar, Calpurnia; Ranganathan, Punithavathi V.; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Ramesh, Ganesan

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation plays a key role in the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease; however, the role of the anti-inflammatory molecule netrin-1 in diabetic kidney disease is unknown. We examined the role of netrin-1 in diabetes-induced kidney inflammation and injury using tubule-specific netrin-1 transgenic mice. Diabetes was induced using streptozotocin in wild-type and netrin-1 transgenic animals. Kidney function, fibrosis, glucose excretion, albuminuria, and inflammation were evaluated. The mechanism of netrin-1-induced suppression of inflammation was studied in vitro using a proximal tubular epithelial cell line. Diabetes was associated with increased infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages, chemokine expression, and tubular epithelial cell apoptosis in kidney. These changes were minimal in kidney of netrin-1 transgenic mice. In addition, diabetes induced a large increase in the excretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in urine, which was suppressed in netrin-1 transgenic mice. Netrin-1-induced suppression of PGE2 production was mediated through suppression of NFκB-mediated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in renal tubular epithelial cells. Furthermore, netrin-1 also increased albumin uptake by proximal tubular epithelial cells through the PI3K and ERK pathways without increasing glucose uptake. These findings suggest that netrin-1 is a major regulator of inflammation and apoptosis in diabetic nephropathy and may be a useful therapeutic molecule for treating chronic kidney diseases such as diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23041393

  17. Exaggerated natriuretic response to isotonic volume expansion in hypertensive renal transplant recipients: evaluation of proximal and distal tubular reabsorption by simultaneous determination of renal plasma clearance of lithium and 51Cr-EDTA.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, A H; Knudsen, F; Danielsen, H; Pedersen, E B; Fjeldborg, P; Madsen, M; Brøchner-Mortensen, J; Kornerup, H J

    1987-02-01

    In fourteen hypertensive and fourteen normotensive renal transplant recipients, and in a group of thirteen healthy controls, changes in natriuresis, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and tubular reabsorption of sodium were determined in relation to intravenous infusion of 2 mmol isotonic sodium chloride per kg body weight. An exaggerated natriuresis was demonstrated in the hypertensive renal transplant recipients. This new finding indicates that the augmented natriuresis following plasma volume expansion, which is a characteristic finding in subjects with arterial hypertension, is not mediated by the renal nerves. Investigation of the tubular reabsorption rates of sodium by simultaneous determination of the renal clearance of 51Cr-EDTA and lithium showed that in the hypertensives the changes in tubular handling of sodium were different from those registered in the normotensive subjects. The increased sodium excretion in the hypertensive renal transplant recipients was caused by an increased output of sodium from the proximal tubules which was not fully compensated for by an increased distal reabsorption. Whether this increased delivery of sodium to the distal segments was caused by changes in GFR or in the proximal tubular reabsorption of sodium could not be clarified in the present study and warrants further investigations.

  18. Effect of exogenous TGF-β1 on the cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity by inhibiting apoptosis of proximal tubular cells through PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Minyi; Su, Li; Yang, Limin; Zhu, Liangliang; Liu, Zhaowen; Duan, Renyan

    2017-05-01

    Heavy metal polluted soils have been a serious problem for the global ecological balance and people's health. Cadmium (Cd), one of the heavy metals, could induce apoptosis of proximal tubular cells in many experimental models and lead to damage the human kidney. Here, we reported a potent chemokine TGF-β1 which could ameliorate cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity. Interestingly, western blotting and TUNEL staining assays indicated that PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway was involved in the protective mechanism of TGF-β1 in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, TGF-β1 could alleviate Cd-induced nephrotoxicity by inhibiting apoptosis of proximal tubular cells through detecting the level of caspase 3, 8 and 9. Therefore, up-regulation of exogenous TGF-β1 may be a potential strategy to reverse cadumium-induced nephrotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Greater effect of dietary potassium tripolyphosphate than of potassium dihydrogenphosphate on the nephrocalcinosis and proximal tubular function in female rats from the intake of a high-phosphorus diet.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, H; Masuyama, R; Uehara, M; Nakamura, K; Suzuki, K

    2001-04-01

    We examined whether a difference in potassium dihydrogenphosphate (KH2PO4) and potassium tripolyphosphate (K5P3O10) as dietary phosphorus sources could differentially effect the nephrocalcinosis and proximal tubular function in female rats. Rats were fed on a diet containing KH2PO4 or K5P3O10, at the normal phosphorus level (normal phosphorus diet) or at a high phosphorus level (high-phosphorus diet) for 21 d. Nephrocalcinosis, as confirmed by a histological examination, was apparent in all rats fed on the high-phosphorus diet, and this condition was more severe in those rats fed on K5P3O10 than in those fed on KH2PO4. As indicators of the proximal tubular function, the N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity in urine and the urinary beta2-microglobulin excretion were significantly increased in those rats fed on the high-phosphorus diet containing K5P3O10. These results indicate that the intake of a high-phosphorus diet, more strongly influenced the nephrocalcinosis and proximal tubular function when K5P3O10 rather than KH2PO4 was used as the dietary phosphorus source.

  20. Alisol A 24-Acetate and Alisol B 23-Acetate Induced Autophagy Mediates Apoptosis and Nephrotoxicity in Human Renal Proximal Tubular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunfei; Feng, Liang; Ma, Liang; Chen, Haifeng; Tan, Xiaobin; Hou, Xuefeng; Song, Jie; Cui, Li; Liu, Dan; Chen, Juan; Yang, Nan; Wang, Jing; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Bingjie; Wang, Gang; Zhou, Yuanli; Jia, Xiaobin

    2017-01-01

    Two natural compounds alisol A 24-acetate (24A) and alisol B 23-acetate (23B) are abundant in Rhizoma alismatis. In the present study, we evaluated the induction of 24A and 23B on apoptosis and possible nephrotoxicity of human renal proximal tubular (HK-2) cells by activating autophagy and also explored its regulation on PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Presently, Clusterin, Kim-1, and TFF-3 were considered to be new bioindicators of nephrotoxicity. Interestingly, the protein expression and mRNA levels of Clusterin, Kim-1 and TFF-3 could be significantly increased by 23B and 24A in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, cell apoptosis could be triggered by 23B and 24A via significantly decreasing the protein expression and mRNA levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl. Autophagy of HK-2 cells could be induced by both 23B and 24A via significantly enhancing the ratio of LC3II/LC3I, the protein expression of Beclin-1 as well as the mRNA levels of LC3 and Beclin-1. Meanwhile, PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway could be inhibited by these two compounds. An autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine, could partially reverse cell viability and conversely change the ratio of LC3II/LC3I and the protein expression of Bcl-2 and Kim-1. Thus this study helped to understand that 23B and 24A induced autophagy resulted in apoptosis and nephrotoxicity through inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, facilitating further studies for nephrotoxicity induced by these two compounds and could be beneficial for safe use of Rhizoma alismatis in clinic. PMID:28408883

  1. TGF-β1 stimulates movement of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells in a three-dimensional cell culture via an autocrine TGF-β2 production.

    PubMed

    Luo, Deyi; Guan, Qiunong; Wang, Kunjie; Nguan, Christopher Y C; Du, Caigan

    2017-01-01

    TGF-βs are multifunctional cytokines, but their roles in human renal homeostasis are not fully understood. This study investigated the role of TGF-β1 in the movement of human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) in a three-dimensional (3D) model. HKC-8 cells, a human PTEC line, were grown in a 3D collagen culture system. Cell movement was observed under a microscope. The gene expression was examined using PCR Arrays or qRT-PCR, and protein levels by Western blot. Here, we showed that the tight junction structure formed between adjacent cells of a HKC-8 cell colony in 3D cultures, and TGF-β1 stimulated their movement, evidenced by the appearance of fingerlike pseudopodia in the leader cells at the edge of the colonies. The cell movement of these human PTECs was correlated with up-regulation of both MMP2 and MMP9 and down-regulation or inactivation of PLAUR and PTK2B. Analysis of TGF-β signaling targets confirmed autocrine production of TGF-β2 and its cleaving enzyme furin as well as SNAI1 by TGF-β1stimulation. Knockdown of TGF-β2 expression disrupted TGF-β1-stimulated PTEC invasiveness, which was correlated with the down-regulation of MMP2 and MMP9. In conclusion, the activation of TGF-β receptor autocrine signaling by up-regulated TGF-β2 may play a pivotal role in TGF-β1-induced human PTEC movement, which could be mediated at least by both MMP2 and MMP9. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Stimulation of transforming growth factor-beta-1 and contact with type I collagen cooperatively facilitate irreversible transdifferentiation in proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chieh-Li; Li, Yi-Jung; Wu, Hsin-Hsu; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Chen, Yung-Chang; Chang, Ming-Yang; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Hsu, Hsiang-Hao; Hung, Cheng-Chieh; Yang, Chih-Wei; Tian, Ya-Chung

    2016-02-01

    By transdifferentiation, proximal tubular cells (PTC) have been considered as a source of interstitial myofibroblasts. We examined the combined effect of transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-β1) stimulation and contact with type I collagen on PTC transdifferentiation. Human kidney-2 cells were grown on type I substratum with the concurrent stimulation of TGF-β1. Following addition of TGF-β1, cells acquired an elongated fibroblastic appearance and an increase in α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression, a myofibroblastic marker. Upon addition of TGF-β1, E-cadherin expression, an epithelial marker, was reduced, while cytokeratin expression, another epithelial marker, remained unaltered. Following removal of TGF-β1, PTC regained an epithelial appearance and E-cadherin expression reverted to the unstimulated level, suggesting incomplete and reversible transdifferentiation. Addition of TGF-β1 to cells grown on type I collagen demonstrated a cooperatively increased α-SMA expression and decreased E-cadherin and cytokeratin expressions, suggesting more complete transdifferentiation. Co-stimulation of TGF-β1 and contact with type I collagen led to a stable cell phenotype and persistently decreased E-cadherin, which was not reversed upon removal of TGF-β1, indicating irreversible transdifferentiation. Addition of TGF-β1 or type I collagen caused a 4-fold increase in migratory cell number as compared to the control, whereas addition of both TGF-β1 and type I collagen led to an 11-fold increase. TGF-β1 alone results in a reversible and incomplete transdifferentiation. The combination of TGF-β1 and exposure to type I collagen leads to an irreversible and complete PTC transdifferentiation. Copyright © 2016 Chang Gung University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Spleen tyrosine kinase mediates high glucose-induced transforming growth factor-{beta}1 up-regulation in proximal tubular epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Won Seok; Chang, Jai Won; Han, Nam Jeong; Lee, Sang Koo; Park, Su-Kil

    2012-09-10

    The role of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) in high glucose-induced intracellular signal transduction has yet to be elucidated. We investigated whether Syk is implicated in high glucose-induced transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) up-regulation in cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cell). High glucose increased TGF-{beta}1 gene expression through Syk, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B. High glucose-induced AP-1 DNA binding activity was decreased by Syk inhibitors and U0126 (an ERK inhibitor). Syk inhibitors suppressed high glucose-induced ERK activation, whereas U0126 had no effect on Syk activation. High glucose-induced NF-{kappa}B DNA binding activity was also decreased by Syk inhibitors. High glucose increased nuclear translocation of p65 without serine phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and without degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, but with an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} that may account for the activation of NF-{kappa}B. Both Syk inhibitors and Syk-siRNA attenuated high glucose-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} tyrosine phosphorylation and p65 nuclear translocation. Depletion of p21-activated kinase 2 (Pak2) by transfection of Pak2-siRNA abolished high glucose-induced Syk activation. In summary, high glucose-induced TGF-{beta}1 gene transcription occurred through Pak2, Syk and subsequent ERK/AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B pathways. This suggests that Syk might be implicated in the diabetic kidney disease.

  4. Proximal Nephron

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Jia L.; Li, Xiao C.

    2013-01-01

    The kidney plays a fundamental role in maintaining body salt and fluid balance and blood pressure homeostasis through the actions of its proximal and distal tubular segments of nephrons. However, proximal tubules are well recognized to exert a more prominent role than distal counterparts. Proximal tubules are responsible for reabsorbing approximately 65% of filtered load and most, if not all, of filtered amino acids, glucose, solutes, and low molecular weight proteins. Proximal tubules also play a key role in regulating acid-base balance by reabsorbing approximately 80% of filtered bicarbonate. The purpose of this review article is to provide a comprehensive overview of new insights and perspectives into current understanding of proximal tubules of nephrons, with an emphasis on the ultrastructure, molecular biology, cellular and integrative physiology, and the underlying signaling transduction mechanisms. The review is divided into three closely related sections. The first section focuses on the classification of nephrons and recent perspectives on the potential role of nephron numbers in human health and diseases. The second section reviews recent research on the structural and biochemical basis of proximal tubular function. The final section provides a comprehensive overview of new insights and perspectives in the physiological regulation of proximal tubular transport by vasoactive hormones. In the latter section, attention is particularly paid to new insights and perspectives learnt from recent cloning of transporters, development of transgenic animals with knockout or knockin of a particular gene of interest, and mapping of signaling pathways using microarrays and/or physiological proteomic approaches. PMID:23897681

  5. Gallic acid ameliorates renal functions by inhibiting the activation of p38 MAPK in experimentally induced type 2 diabetic rats and cultured rat proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ahad, Amjid; Ahsan, Haseeb; Mujeeb, Mohd; Siddiqui, Waseem Ahmad

    2015-10-05

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients that accounts for about 40% of deaths in type 2 diabetes. p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), a serine-threonine kinase, plays an important role in tissue inflammation and is known to be activated under conditions of oxidative stress and hyperglycemia. The role of p38 MAPK has been demonstrated in DN, and its inhibition has been suggested as an alternative approach in the treatment of DN. In the present study, we investigated the nephroprotective effects of an anti-inflammatory phenolic compound, gallic acid (GA, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), in high fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD/STZ) induce type 2 diabetic wistar albino rats. GA (25 mg/kgbw and 50 mg/kgbw, p.o.) treatment for 16 weeks post induction of diabetes led to a significant reduction in the levels of blood glucose, HbA1c, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and proteinuria as well as a significant reduction in the levels of creatinine clearance. GA significantly inhibited the renal p38 MAPK and nuclear factor kappa B (N-κB) activation as well as significantly reduced the levels of renal transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and fibronectin. Treatment with GA resulted in a significant reduction in the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines viz. interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Moreover, GA significantly lowered renal pathology and attenuated renal oxidative stress. In cultured rat NRK 52E proximal tubular epithelial cells, GA treatment inhibited high glucose induced activation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB as well as suppressed proinflammatory cytokine synthesis. The results of the present study provide in vivo and in vitro evidences that the p38 MAPK pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DN, and GA attenuates the p38 MAPK-mediated renal dysfunction in HFD/STZ induced type 2 diabetic rats.

  6. Protective effect of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on effector CD4+ T cell induced injury in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Byung Ha; Kim, Bo-Mi; Doh, Kyoung Chan; Cho, Mi-La

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] on effector CD4+ T cells or on inflammatory cytokine-induced injury in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (HRPTEpiC). Methods First, we investigated the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on CD4+ T cell proliferation. Second, we examined the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on inflammatory cytokine secretion or fibrosis in HRPTEpiC induced by inflammatory cytokines or activated CD4+ T cells using ELISA and real-time PCR. Lastly, we compared urine inflammatory-cytokine (IL-6, IL-8) or KIM-1 levels in kidney transplant recipients low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) group (< 20 ng/mL) (n = 40) and normal 25(OH)D group (n = 50). Results Pre-incubation with 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly reduced the percentages of Th1 and Th17 cells compared to that of Th0 condition (P < 0.05 for each). In contrast, 1,25(OH)2D3 increased the proportion of Th2 and Treg cells in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05 for each). Treatment of HRPTEpiC with inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-17, and TGF-β) or effector CD4+ T cells resulted in increased production of IL-6, IL-8, or KIM-1 from HRPTEpiC in a dose-dependent manner. However, treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly reduced the level of these cytokines (P < 0.05 for all). Western blot analysis demonstrated that the mTOR/STAT3/ERK pathway was downregulated by 1,25(OH)2D3 in HRPTEpiC. Furthermore, the concentrations of urine IL-6/creatinine (P < 0.05) and Kim-1/creatinine (P < 0.05) were higher in the low 25(OH)D group than in the normal 25(OH)D group in kidney transplant recipients. Conclusion The results of this study suggests that vitamin D may have a significant role in the regulation of inflammation in allograft tissue in kidney transplant recipients. Trial registration All participants provided written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of

  7. Comparison of Transverse Island Flap Onlay and Tubularized Incised-Plate Urethroplasties for Primary Proximal Hypospadias: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Dongdong; Nie, Xin; Wang, Wenyue; Zhou, Juan; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Zhe; Zhao, Yang; Gu, Meng; Wang, Zhong; Lu, Mujun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This meta-analysis was conducted to compare postoperative outcomes between transverse island flap (TVIF) onlay and tubularized incised-plate (TIP) urethroplasties for primary proximal hypospadias. Materials and Methods A comprehensive literature search updated to 21st May 2014 was carried out for relevant studies. After literature identification and data extraction, odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidential interval (CI) was calculated to compare postoperative complication rate between TVIF onlay and TIP. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were applied to find potential affective factors. Results A total of 6 studies including 309 patients receiving TVIF onlay and 262 individuals subjected to TIP met inclusion criteria. The synthetic data suggested that TVIF onlay and TIP were comparable in terms of total complication rate (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.56–1.30, p = 0.461), fistula (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.38–1.21, p = 0.194), recurrent curvature (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.43–3.12, p = 0.766), dehiscence (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.33–2.74, p = 0.920), diverticulum (OR 1.90, 95% CI 0.53–6.78, p = 0.321), meatal stenosis (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.20–2.77, p = 0.651) and urethral stricture (OR 1.49, 95% CI 0.41–5.50, p = 0.545), without significant heterogeneity for each comparison group. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses revealed no significant findings. One-way sensitivity analysis indicated that the results were stable. No publication bias was detected using both funnel plot and Egger’s test. Also, there were no obvious differences observed in cosmetic and functional outcomes. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that TVIF onlay and TIP urethroplasties are clinically equivalent. Given the inherent limitations of included studies, this conclusion should be interpreted with caution and wait to be confirmed by more well-designed randomized controlled trials with high quality in the future. PMID:25197970

  8. Protein kinase C-α interaction with iHSP70 in mitochondria promotes recovery of mitochondrial function after injury in renal proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Grazyna; Soundararajan, Sridharan; Mestril, Ruben

    2013-09-01

    This study determined the role of PKC-α and associated inducible heat shock protein 70 (iHSP70) in the repair of mitochondrial function in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) after oxidant injury. Wild-type PKC-α (wtPKC-α) and an inactive PKC-α [dominant negative dn; PKC-α] mutant were overexpressed in primary cultures of RPTCs, and iHSP70 levels and RPTC regeneration were assessed after treatment with the oxidant tert-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP). TBHP exposure increased ROS production and induced RPTC death, which was prevented by ferrostatin and necrostatin-1 but not by cyclosporin A. Overexpression of wtPKC-α maintained mitochondrial levels of active PKC-α, reduced cell death, and accelerated proliferation without altering ROS production in TBHP-injured RPTCs. In contrast, dnPKC-α blocked proliferation and monolayer regeneration. Coimmunoprecipitation and proteomic analysis demonstrated an association between inactive, but not active, PKC-α and iHSP70 in mitochondria. Mitochondrial iHSP70 levels increased as levels of active PKC-α decreased after injury. Overexpression of dnPKC-α augmented, whereas overexpression of wtPKC-α abrogated, oxidant-induced increases in mitochondrial iHSP70 levels. iHSP70 overexpression (1) maintained mitochondrial levels of phosphorylated PKC-α, (2) improved the recovery of state 3 respiration and ATP content, (3) decreased RPTC death (an effect abrogated by cyclosporine A), and (4) accelerated proliferation after oxidant injury. In contrast, iHSP70 inhibition blocked the recovery of ATP content and exacerbated RPTC death. Inhibition of PKC-α in RPTC overexpressing iHSP70 blocked the protective effects of iHSP70. We conclude that active PKC-α maintains mitochondrial function and decreases cell death after oxidant injury. iHSP70 is recruited to mitochondria in response to PKC-α dephosphorylation and associates with and reactivates inactive PKC-α, which promotes the recovery of mitochondrial function, decreases RPTC

  9. The role of HIF-1 in up-regulating MICA expression on human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells during hypoxia/reoxygenation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Human major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A (MICA) plays a dual role in adaptive and innate immune responses. Increasing evidence demonstrates that MICA is closely correlated with acute and chronic kidney allograft rejection. Therefore, understanding the activation mechanisms of MICA is important in kidney transplantation. We previously demonstrated that ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) could up-regulate MICA expression on mouse kidney allografts. Since hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is the master regulator of cellular adaptive responses to hypoxia during IRI, here we investigate whether HIF-1 could up-regulate MICA expression and its influence on NK cell cytotoxicity. Results We find that HIF-1alpha plays an important role in up-regulating MICA expression, inducing IFNgamma secretion and NK cell cytotoxicity during hypoxia/reoxygenation. First, we generated a HIF-1alphaDELTAODD-expressing adenovirus to stably and functionally express HIF-1alpha in human renal proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells under normoxia conditions. HIF-1alpha over-expression in HK-2 cells induces MICA expression and enhances NK cell cytotoxic activity towards cells that express HIF-1alpha. Second, we used a hypoxia/reoxygenation cell model to simulate IRI in vitro and found that the suppression of HIF-1alpha by RNAi induces down-regulation of MICA expression and inhibits NK cytotoxicity. In antibody blocking experiments, an anti-MICA mAb was able to down-regulate NK cell cytotoxic activity towards HK-2 cells that over-expressed HIF-1alpha. Moreover, when NK cells were co-cultured with the HK-2 cells expressing MICA, which was up-regulated by over-expression of HIF-1alpha, there was a significant increase in the secretion of IFNgamma. In the presence of the blocking MICA mAb, IFNgamma secretion was significantly decreased. Conclusions These results demonstrate that hypoxia/reoxygenation-promoted MICA expression on HK-2 cells is through a HIF-1 pathway

  10. Cell-specific delivery of a transforming growth factor-beta type I receptor kinase inhibitor to proximal tubular cells for the treatment of renal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jai; de Borst, Martin H; van Loenen-Weemaes, Annemiek M; Lacombe, Marie; Opdam, Frank; van Goor, Harry; Meijer, Dirk K F; Moolenaar, Frits; Poelstra, Klaas; Kok, Robbert J

    2008-10-01

    Activation of tubular epithelial cells by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. We developed a renally accumulating conjugate of a TGF-beta type-I receptor kinase inhibitor (TKI) and evaluated its efficacy in vitro and in vivo. TKI was conjugated to the protein Lysozyme (LZM) via a platinum-based linker. TKI-LZM was evaluated in human tubular cells (HK-2) for its anti-fibrotic activity. Plasma, kidney and urine drug levels after a single intravenous dose of TKI-LZM in rats were determined by HPLC or immunodetection. Anti-fibrotic effects of TKI-LZM were examined in the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model. TKI-LZM conjugate was successfully synthesized at an 1:1 drug/carrier ratio, and inhibited TGF-beta1-induced procollagen-1alpha1 gene expression in HK-2 cells. In vivo, TKI-LZM accumulated rapidly in tubular cells and provided a local depot for 3 days. Interestingly, a single dose of TKI-LZM inhibited the activation of tubular cells and fibroblasts in UUO rats and reduced renal inflammation. In contrast, free TKI at an equimolar (low) dosage exhibited little effects. Inhibition of TGF-beta signaling by local drug delivery is a promising antifibrotic strategy, and demonstrated the important role of tubular activation in renal fibrosis.

  11. Mechanism of cisplatin proximal tubule toxicity revealed by integrating transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and biokinetics.

    PubMed

    Wilmes, Anja; Bielow, Chris; Ranninger, Christina; Bellwon, Patricia; Aschauer, Lydia; Limonciel, Alice; Chassaigne, Hubert; Kristl, Theresa; Aiche, Stephan; Huber, Christian G; Guillou, Claude; Hewitt, Philipp; Leonard, Martin O; Dekant, Wolfgang; Bois, Frederic; Jennings, Paul

    2015-12-25

    Cisplatin is one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of solid tumours. The major dose-limiting factor is nephrotoxicity, in particular in the proximal tubule. Here, we use an integrated omics approach, including transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics coupled to biokinetics to identify cell stress response pathways induced by cisplatin. The human renal proximal tubular cell line RPTEC/TERT1 was treated with sub-cytotoxic concentrations of cisplatin (0.5 and 2 μM) in a daily repeat dose treating regime for up to 14 days. Biokinetic analysis showed that cisplatin was taken up from the basolateral compartment, transported to the apical compartment, and accumulated in cells over time. This is in line with basolateral uptake of cisplatin via organic cation transporter 2 and bioactivation via gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase located on the apical side of proximal tubular cells. Cisplatin affected several pathways including, p53 signalling, Nrf2 mediated oxidative stress response, mitochondrial processes, mTOR and AMPK signalling. In addition, we identified novel pathways changed by cisplatin, including eIF2 signalling, actin nucleation via the ARP/WASP complex and regulation of cell polarization. In conclusion, using an integrated omic approach together with biokinetics we have identified both novel and established mechanisms of cisplatin toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Inherited tubular renal acidosis].

    PubMed

    Bouzidi, Hassan; Hayek, Donia; Nasr, Dhekra; Daudon, Michel; Fadhel Najjar, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a tubulopathy characterized by metabolic acidosis with normal anion gap secondary to abnormalities of renal acidification. RTA can be classified into four main subtypes: distal RTA, proximal RTA, combined proximal and distal RTA, and hyperkalemic RTA. Distal RTA (type 1) is caused by the defect of H(+) secretion in the distal tubules and is characterized by the inability to acidify the urine below pH 5.5 during systemic acidemia. Proximal RTA (type 2) is caused by an impairment of bicarbonate reabsorption in the proximal tubules and characterized by a decreased renal bicarbonate threshold. Combined proximal and distal RTA (type 3) secondary to a reduction in tubular reclamation of bicarbonate and an inability to acidify the urine in the face of severe acidemia. Hyperkalemic RTA (type 4) may occur as a result of aldosterone deficiency or tubular insensitivity to aldosterone. Clinicians should be alert to the presence of RTA in patients with an unexplained normal anion gap acidosis, hypokalemia, recurrent nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. The mainstay of treatment of RTA remains alkali replacement.

  13. Telmisartan, a possible PPAR-δ agonist, reduces TNF-α-stimulated VEGF-C production by inhibiting the p38MAPK/HSP27 pathway in human proximal renal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hideki; Mikami, Daisuke; Kamiyama, Kazuko; Sugimoto, Hidehiro; Kasuno, Kenji; Takahashi, Naoki; Yoshida, Haruyoshi; Iwano, Masayuki

    2014-11-14

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) is a main inducer of inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis in various inflammatory disorders including chronic progressive kidney diseases, for which angiotensin II receptor type 1 blockers (ARBs) are widely used as the main treatment. Although proximal renal tubular cells may affect the formation of lymphatic vessels in the interstitial area by producing VEGF-C, the molecular mechanisms of VEGF-C production and its manipulation by ARB have not yet been examined in human proximal renal tubular epithelial cells (HPTECs). In the present study, TNF-α dose-dependently induced the production of VEGF-C in HPTECs. The TNF-α-induced production of VEGF-C was mediated by the phosphorylation of p38MAPK and HSP27, but not by that of ERK or NFkB. Telmisartan, an ARB that can activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), served as a PPAR-δ activator and reduced the TNF-α-stimulated production of VEGF-C. This reduction was partially attributed to a PPAR-δ-dependent decrease in p38MAPK phosphorylation. Our results indicate that TNF-α induced the production of VEGF-C in HPTECs by activating p38MAPK/HSP27, and this was partially inhibited by telmisartan in a PPAR-δ dependent manner. These results provide a novel insight into inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis.

  14. [Tubular renal acidosis].

    PubMed

    Seidowsky, A; Moulonguet-Doleris, L; Hanslik, T; Yattara, H; Ayari, H; Rouveix, E; Massy, Z A; Prinseau, J

    2014-01-01

    Renal tubular acidosis (RTAs) are a group of metabolic disorders characterized by metabolic acidosis with normal plasma anion gap. There are three main forms of RTA: a proximal RTA called type II and a distal RTA (type I and IV). The RTA type II is a consequence of the inability of the proximal tubule to reabsorb bicarbonate. The distal RTA is associated with the inability to excrete the daily acid load and may be associated with hyperkalaemia (type IV) or hypokalemia (type I). The most common etiology of RTA type IV is the hypoaldosteronism. The RTAs can be complicated by nephrocalcinosis and obstructive nephrolithiasis. Alkalinization is the cornerstone of treatment.

  15. Telmisartan, a possible PPAR-δ agonist, reduces TNF-α-stimulated VEGF-C production by inhibiting the p38MAPK/HSP27 pathway in human proximal renal tubular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Hideki; Mikami, Daisuke; Kamiyama, Kazuko; Sugimoto, Hidehiro; Kasuno, Kenji; Takahashi, Naoki; Yoshida, Haruyoshi; Iwano, Masayuki

    2014-11-14

    Highlights: • TNF-α increased VEGF-C expression by enhancing phosphorylation of p38MAPK and HSP27. • Telmisartan decreased TNF-α-stimulated expression of VEGF-C. • Telmisartan suppressed TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of p38MAPK and HSP27. • Telmisartan activated endogenous PPAR-δ protein. • Telmisartan suppressed p38MAPK phosphorylation in a PPAR-δ-dependent manner. - Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) is a main inducer of inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis in various inflammatory disorders including chronic progressive kidney diseases, for which angiotensin II receptor type 1 blockers (ARBs) are widely used as the main treatment. Although proximal renal tubular cells may affect the formation of lymphatic vessels in the interstitial area by producing VEGF-C, the molecular mechanisms of VEGF-C production and its manipulation by ARB have not yet been examined in human proximal renal tubular epithelial cells (HPTECs). In the present study, TNF-α dose-dependently induced the production of VEGF-C in HPTECs. The TNF-α-induced production of VEGF-C was mediated by the phosphorylation of p38MAPK and HSP27, but not by that of ERK or NFkB. Telmisartan, an ARB that can activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), served as a PPAR-δ activator and reduced the TNF-α-stimulated production of VEGF-C. This reduction was partially attributed to a PPAR-δ-dependent decrease in p38MAPK phosphorylation. Our results indicate that TNF-α induced the production of VEGF-C in HPTECs by activating p38MAPK/HSP27, and this was partially inhibited by telmisartan in a PPAR-δ dependent manner. These results provide a novel insight into inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis.

  16. Role of Organic Anion and Amino Acid Carriers in Transport of Inorganic Mercury in Rat Renal Basolateral Membrane Vesicles: Influence of Compensatory Renal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Lash, Lawrence H.; Hueni, Sarah E.; Putt, David A.; Zalups, Rudolfs K.

    2006-01-01

    Susceptibility to renal injury induced by inorganic mercury (Hg2+) increases significantly as a result of compensatory renal growth (following reductions of renal mass). We hypothesize that this phenomenon is related in part to increased basolateral uptake of Hg2+ by proximal tubular cells. To determine the mechanistic roles of various transporters, we studied uptake of Hg2+, in the form of biologically relevant Hg2+-thiol conjugates, using baso-lateral membrane (BLM) vesicles isolated from the kidney(s) of control and uninephrectomized (NPX) rats. Binding of Hg2+ to membranes, accounted for 52–86% of total Hg2+ associated with membrane vesicles exposed to HgCl2, decreased with increasing concentrations of HgCl2, and decreased slightly in the presence of sodium ions. Conjugation of Hg2+ with thiols (glutathione, l-cysteine (Cys), N-acetyl-l-cysteine) reduced binding by more than 50%. Under all conditions, BLM vesicles from NPX rats exhibited a markedly lower proportion of binding. Of the Hg2+-thiol conjugates studied, transport of Hg-(Cys)2 was fastest. Selective inhibition of BLM carriers implicated the involvement of organic anion transporter(s) (Oat1 and/or Oat3; Slc22a6 and Slc22a8), amino acid transporter system ASC (Slc7a10), the dibasic amino acid transporter (Slc3a1), and the sodium-dicarboxylate carrier (SDCT2 or NADC3; Slc13a3). Uptake of each mercuric conjugate, when factored by membrane protein content, was higher in BLM vesicles from uninephrectomized (NPX) rats, with specific increases in transport by the carriers noted above. These results support the hypothesis that compensatory renal growth is associated with increased uptake of Hg2+ in proximal tubular cells and we have identified specific transporters involved in the process. PMID:16162843

  17. Bio-maleimide-stained plasma microparticles can be purified in a native state and target human proximal tubular HK2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Alkhatatbeh, Mohammad J.; Lincz, Lisa F.; Thorne, Rick F.

    2017-01-01

    Plasma microparticles (MPs) are heterogeneously sized submicron extracellular vesicles that originate from the cell membrane as a result of cell activation or apoptosis. Circulating MPs express cell-specific molecules that reflect their cell of origin and they are increasingly investigated for their potential role in intercellular communication. The aim of the current study was to determine if size exclusion chromatography could be used to purify fluorescent-labeled MPs in sufficient concentrations to be used experimentally in cell binding assays. Bio-maleimide was used to stain plasma MPs in platelet free plasma before applying to size exclusion chromatography. Collected fractions were analyzed for protein content and MPs were enumerated by flow cytometry. Fractions were ultracentrifuged and MPs further confirmed by western blotting for the putative diabetic marker, cluster of differentiation (CD)36 and platelet-specific CD41 proteins. Fractions that contained MPs were incubated with HK2 cells to determine MP-cell binding. Bio-maleimide-stained MPs were detected across various fractions of size exclusion, and pellets of these fractions confirmed positivity for the MP markers, CD41 and CD36. The addition of the isolated MPs to HK2 renal tubular cells and analysis by epi-fluorescent imaging demonstrated that, in principle, the labeled MPs are able to bind to cells in vitro. Notably, only the first eluted MP fraction bound HK2 cells indicating a possible association between MP size and cell-targeting properties. PMID:28123709

  18. Tumor Cell-Derived Microvesicles Induced Not Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition but Apoptosis in Human Proximal Tubular (HK-2) Cells: Implications for Renal Impairment in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Aiqi; Kong, Fancong; Liu, Chun-Jie; Yan, Guoxin; Gao, Fei; Guo, Hao; Guo, An-Yuan; Chen, Zhichao; Li, Qiubai

    2017-01-01

    Renal impairment (RI) is one of the hallmarks of multiple myeloma (MM) and carries a poor prognosis. Microvesicles (MVs) are membrane vesicles and play an important role in disease progression. Here, we investigated the role of MVs derived from MM cells (MM-MVs) in RI of MM. We found that MM-MVs significantly inhibited viability and induced apoptosis, but not epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human kidney-2 (HK-2), a human renal tubular epithelial cell line. The protein levels of cleaved caspase-3, 8, and 9, and E-cadherin, were increased, but vementin levels were decreased in the HK-2 cells treated with MM-MVs. Through a comparative sequencing and analysis of RNA content between the MVs from RPMI8226 MM cells (RPMI8226-MVs) and K562 leukemia cells, RPMI8226-MVs were enriched with more renal-pathogenic miRNAs, in which the selective miRNAs may participate in the up-regulation of the levels of cleaved caspase-3. Furthermore, the levels of CD138+ circulating MVs (cirMVs) in the peripheral blood were positively correlated with the severity of RI in newly-diagnosed MM. Our study supports MM-MVs representing a previously undescribed factor and playing a potential role in the development of RI of MM patients, and sheds light on the potential application of CD138+ cirMV counts in precise diagnosis of RI in MM and exploring MM-MVs as a therapeutic target. PMID:28264449

  19. Markers of tubular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Piscator, M

    1989-03-01

    Since the first description of tubular proteinuria in 1958, much progress has been made with regard to diagnostic means for detecting small changes in the function of the proximal tubule. Small increases in the excretion of low-molecular-weight proteins can now be determined with great accuracy. Determination of total protein is an economic way of screening large populations but does not give specific information on the type of damage. Determinations of glucose, phosphate and amino acids are relatively insensitive methods, since their excretion is also dependent on diet and nutritional status. Determination of high-molecular-weight enzymes released from damaged tubular cells may be of use for studies of acute as well as chronic effects of nephrotoxic agents, but more data are needed.

  20. Calcium oxalate crystals and oxalate induce an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in the proximal tubular epithelial cells: Contribution to oxalate kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Convento, Marcia Bastos; Pessoa, Edson Andrade; Cruz, Edgar; da Glória, Maria Aparecida; Schor, Nestor; Borges, Fernanda Teixeira

    2017-01-01

    TGF-β1 is the main mediator of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Hyperoxaluria induces crystalluria, interstitial fibrosis, and progressive renal failure. This study analyzed whether hyperoxaluria is associated with TGF-β1 production and kidney fibrosis in mice and if oxalate or calcium oxalate (CaOx) could induce EMT in proximal tubule cells (HK2) and therefore contribute to the fibrotic process. Hyperoxaluria was induced by adding hydroxyproline and ethylene glycol to the mice’s drinking water for up to 60 days. Renal function and oxalate and urinary crystals were evaluated. Kidney collagen production and TGF-β1 expression were assessed. EMT was analyzed in vitro according to TGF-β1 production, phenotypic characterization, invasion, cell migration, gene and protein expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Hyperoxaluric mice showed a decrease in renal function and an increase in CaOx crystals and Ox urinary excretion. The deposition of collagen in the renal interstitium was observed. HK2 cells stimulated with Ox and CaOx exhibited a decreased expression of epithelial as well as increased expression mesenchymal markers; these cells presented mesenchymal phenotypic changes, migration, invasiveness capability and TGF-β1 production, characterizing EMT. Treatment with BMP-7 or its overexpression in HK2 cells was effective at preventing it. This mechanism may contribute to the fibrosis observed in hyperoxaluria. PMID:28387228

  1. Differential Response of the Human Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cell Line HK-2 to Shiga Toxin Types 1 and 2 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, Erin K.; Leyva-Illades, Dinorah; Lee, Moo-Seung; Cherla, Rama P.; Tesh, Vernon L.

    2011-01-01

    Shiga toxins (Stxs) are expressed by the enteric pathogens Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and certain serotypes of Escherichia coli. Stx-producing bacteria cause bloody diarrhea with the potential to progress to acute renal failure. Stxs are potent protein synthesis inhibitors and are the primary virulence factors responsible for renal damage that may follow diarrheal disease. We explored the use of the immortalized human proximal tubule epithelial cell line HK-2 as an in vitro model of Stx-induced renal damage. We showed that these cells express abundant membrane Gb3 and are differentially susceptible to the cytotoxic action of Stxs, being more sensitive to Shiga toxin type 1 (Stx1) than to Stx2. At early time points (24 h), HK-2 cells were significantly more sensitive to Stxs than Vero cells; however, by 72 h, Vero cell monolayers were completely destroyed while some HK-2 cells survived toxin challenge, suggesting that a subpopulation of HK-2 cells are relatively toxin resistant. Fluorescently labeled Stx1 B subunits localized to both lysosomal and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) compartments in HK-2 cells, suggesting that differences in intracellular trafficking may play a role in susceptibility to Stx-mediated cytotoxicity. Although proinflammatory cytokines were not upregulated by toxin challenge, Stx2 selectively induced the expression of two chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) and MIP-1β. Stx1 and Stx2 differentially activated components of the ER stress response in HK-2 cells. Finally, we demonstrated significant poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage after exposure to Stx1 or Stx2. However, procaspase 3 cleavage was undetectable, suggesting that HK-2 cells may undergo apoptosis in response to Stxs in a caspase 3-independent manner. PMID:21708996

  2. Relationship between expression of drug-resistance factors and drug sensitivity in normal human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells in comparison with renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Tadashi; Imai, Akiko; Ohkubo-Uraoka, Noriko; Kuroda, Mayuko; Iidaka, Yoko; Uchida, Kumiko; Shibasaki, Toshiaki; Ohkawa, Kiyoshi

    2005-09-01

    The relationship between the expression level of putative drug resistance factors and sensitivity to anticancer drugs in human normal renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC) and 3 kinds of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells, VMRC-RCW (RCW), OS-RC-2 (OS2), TUHR14TKB (14TKB), was examined. RPTEC exhibited high expression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp), gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (gammaGCS) and cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (CDDP) resistance-related gene 9 (CRR9), low expression of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) and no expression of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1). 14TKB exhibited high expression of gammaGCS and CRR9, low expression of Pgp and V-ATPase, and no expression of MRP1. OS2 showed high expression of CRR9, low expression of Pgp, gammaGCS and MRP1, and no expression of V-ATPase. RCW exhibited high expression of Pgp, MRP1 and CRR9 and low expression of gammaGCS and V-ATPase. The level of expression of the resistance factors varied among the cells. GST activity and GST-pi expression level of each cell were correlated, and there were high levels in OS2 and RPTEC. When the cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs against each cell was measured at 96 h, the sensitivity to CDDP and Doxorubicin (DXR) in RPTEC and RCW was lower than that in the other cells. Sensitivity to DXR was enhanced by treatment with the Pgp inhibitor, Verapamil, in proportion to the Pgp expression level, and the sensitivity to CDDP was increased by the gammaGCS inhibitor, Buthionine sulfoximine, in proportion to the gammaGCS expression level (corresponding to GSH content). Although a significant increase in sensitivity to CDDP was not observed by treatment of RCC with the V-ATPase inhibitor, Bafilomycin, the sensitivity to DXR in Bafilomycin-treated cells increased about 2-fold. However, no relation between drug sensitivity and V-ATPase expression was observed. The features (such as degree of resistance) varied among the RCC cell lines manifesting many resistance factors or to

  3. Evaluation of biomarkers for in vitro prediction of drug-induced nephrotoxicity: comparison of HK-2, immortalized human proximal tubule epithelial, and primary cultures of human proximal tubular cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Johnny X; Kaeslin, Geraldine; Ranall, Max V; Blaskovich, Mark A; Becker, Bernd; Butler, Mark S; Little, Melissa H; Lash, Lawrence H; Cooper, Matthew A

    2015-01-01

    There has been intensive effort to identify in vivo biomarkers that can be used to monitor drug-induced kidney damage and identify injury before significant impairment occurs. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and human macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) have been validated as urinary and plasma clinical biomarkers predictive of acute and chronic kidney injury and disease. Similar validation of a high throughput in vitro assay predictive of nephrotoxicity could potentially be implemented early in drug discovery lead optimization to reduce attrition at later stages of drug development. To assess these known in vivo biomarkers for their potential for in vitro screening of drug-induced nephrotoxicity, we selected a panel of nephrotoxic agents and examined their effects on the overexpression of nephrotoxicity biomarkers in immortalized (HK-2) and primary (commercially available and freshly in-house produced) human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. Traditional cytotoxicity was contrasted with expression levels of KIM-1, NGAL, and M-CSF assessed using ELISA and real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Traditional cytotoxicity assays and biomarker assays using HK-2 cells were both unsuitable for prediction of nephrotoxicity. However, increases in protein levels of KIM-1 and NGAL in primary cells were well correlated with dose levels of known nephrotoxic compounds, with limited correlation seen in M-CSF protein and mRNA levels. These results suggest that profiling compounds against primary cells with monitoring of biomarker protein levels may have potential as in vitro predictive assays of drug-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:26171227

  4. Hepatocyte growth factor preferentially activates the anti-inflammatory arm of NF-κB signaling to induce A20 and protect renal proximal tubular epithelial cells from inflammation.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cleide G; Maccariello, Elizabeth R; Wilson, Szuhuei Wu; Putheti, Prabhakar; Daniel, Soizic; Damrauer, Scott M; Peterson, Clayton R; Siracuse, Jeffrey J; Kaczmarek, Elzbieta; Ferran, Christiane

    2012-04-01

    Inflammation induces the NF-κB dependent protein A20 in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC), which secondarily contains inflammation by shutting down NF-κB activation. We surmised that inducing A20 without engaging the pro-inflammatory arm of NF-κB could improve outcomes in kidney disease. We showed that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) increases A20 mRNA and protein levels in RPTEC without causing inflammation. Upregulation of A20 by HGF was NF-κB/RelA dependent as it was abolished by overexpressing IκBα or silencing p65/RelA. Unlike TNFα, HGF caused minimal IκBα and p65/RelA phosphorylation, with moderate IκBα degradation. Upstream, HGF led to robust and sustained AKT activation, which was required for p65 phosphorylation and A20 upregulation. While HGF treatment of RPTEC significantly increased A20 mRNA, it failed to induce NF-κB dependent, pro-inflammatory MCP-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 mRNA. This indicates that HGF preferentially upregulates protective (A20) over pro-inflammatory NF-κB dependent genes. Upregulation of A20 supported the anti-inflammatory effects of HGF in RPTEC. HGF pretreatment significantly attenuated TNFα-mediated increase of ICAM-1, a finding partially reversed by silencing A20. In conclusion, this is the first demonstration that HGF activates an AKT-p65/RelA pathway to preferentially induce A20 but not inflammatory molecules. This could be highly desirable in acute and chronic renal injury where A20-based anti-inflammatory therapies are beneficial. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Hepatocyte Growth Factor preferentially activates the anti-inflammatory arm of NF-κB signaling to induce A20 and protect renal proximal tubular epithelial cells from inflammation

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Cleide G.; Maccariello, Elizabeth R.; Wilson, Szuhuei Wu; Putheti, Prabhakar; Daniel, Soizic; Damrauer, Scott M.; Peterson, Clayton; Siracuse, Jeffrey J.; Kaczmarek, Elzbieta; Ferran, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation induces the NF-κB dependent protein A20 in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC), which secondarily contains inflammation by shutting down NF-κB activation. We surmised that inducing A20 without engaging the pro-inflammatory arm of NF-κB could improve outcomes in kidney disease. We showed that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) increases A20 mRNA and protein levels in RPTEC without causing inflammation. Upregulation of A20 by HGF was NF-κB/RelA dependent as it was abolished by overexpressing IκBα or silencing p65/RelA. Unlike TNFα, HGF caused minimal IκBα and p65/RelA phosphorylation, with moderate IκBα degradation. Upstream, HGF led to robust and sustained AKT activation, which was required for p65 phosphorylation and A20 upregulation. While HGF treatment of RPTEC significantly increased A20 mRNA, it failed to induce NF-κB dependent, pro-inflammatory MCP-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 mRNA. This indicates that HGF preferentially upregulates protective (A20) over pro-inflammatory NF-κB dependent genes. Upregulation of A20 supported the anti-inflammatory effects of HGF in RPTEC. HGF pretreatment significantly attenuated TNFα-mediated increase of ICAM-1, a finding partially reversed by silencing A20. In conclusion, this is the first demonstration that HGF activates an AKT-p65/RelA pathway to preferentially induce A20 but not inflammatory molecules. This could be highly desirable in acute and chronic renal injury where A20-based anti-inflammatory therapies are beneficial. PMID:21618526

  6. Licorice and its active compound glycyrrhizic acid ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity through inactivation of p53 by scavenging ROS and overexpression of p21 in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ju, S-M; Kim, M-S; Jo, Y-S; Jeon, Y-M; Bae, J-S; Pae, H-O; Jeon, B-H

    2017-02-01

    Nephrotoxicity is one of the major side effects that limit the use of cisplatin in cancer therapy. Cisplatin-induced apoptosis in renal cells is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated p53 activation. Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fischer) is one of the most widely used medicinal herbs in Korea, China and Japan. The aim of the study was to evaluate the protective effects of licorice extract (LE) and its active compound glycyrrhizic acid (GA) against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in human renal proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells. HK-2 cells were pretreated with LE or GA for 1 h and then treated with 40 μM of cisplatin for indicated times under the serum-free condition. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometric analysis and caspase-3 activity. The intracellular ROS levels were determined by DCFH-DA assay. The expression and phosphorylation levels of protein were evaluated by Western blot and densitometry analysis. When treating HK-2 cells with LE or GA, both of them alleviated cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. LE and GA inhibited caspase-3 activity and polymerase (PARP) cleavage in cisplatin-treated cells. LE and GA also inhibited p53 expression and its phosphorylation as well as ROS production in cells exposed to cisplatin. Meanwhile, LE and GA enhanced cisplatin-induced p21 expression, which then led to S-phase arrest in cell cycle and limited cell growth. Presumably, increased p21 expression may contribute to cellular prevention from cisplatin-induced apoptosis, because p21 is the key molecule to cytoprotection during cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. These results suggest that LE and GA ameliorate cisplatin-induced apoptosis through reduction of ROS-mediating p53 activation and promotion of p21 expression in HK-2 cells.

  7. Papillary tubular adenoma with marked tubular vacuolization.

    PubMed

    Hattori, N; Imakado, S; Kikuchi, K; Murakami, T; Furue, M

    1997-12-01

    We report a case of papillary tubular adenoma, arising on the knee joint. The overall histologic structure of the tumor is consistent with that of papillary tubular adenoma with slight interluminal papillary changes, but most of the tumor cells present vacuolization outlined by carcinoembryonic antigen staining, suggesting that this adenoma may have resulted from microlumen formation. This is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of a papillary tubular adenoma with marked tubular vacuolization.

  8. 30-MM Tubular Projectile

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    Suiza tubular projectile 20 9. Inspection of Hispano Suiza sabot 21 10. Inspection of GAU-8 sabot 22 11. Firing data - 30-rn tubular projectile (Hispano... Suiza 23 copper banded) 12. Firing data - 30-m tubular projectile (GAU-8 plastic 24 banded) 13. Firing data - 30-m tubular projectile (GAU-8 copper 25...42 13. In-flight Hispano Suiza tubular projectiles 43 14. In-flight C4U-8 (plastic) tubular projectile 44 15. In-flight GCU-8 (copper) tubular

  9. 2,3,5,6-Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) down-regulated arsenic-induced heme oxygenase-1 and ARS2 expression by inhibiting Nrf2, NF-κB, AP-1 and MAPK pathways in human proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xuezhong; Ivanov, Vladimir N; Hei, Tom K

    2016-09-01

    Our recent study demonstrated that sodium arsenite at a clinically relevant dose induced nephrotoxicity in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cell line HK-2, which could be inhibited by natural product 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) with antioxidant activity. The present study demonstrated that arsenic exposure resulted in protein and enzymatic induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in dose- and time-dependent manners in HK-2 cells. Blocking HO-1 enzymatic activity by zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) augmented arsenic-induced apoptosis, ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction, suggesting a critical role for HO-1 as a renal protectant in this procession. On the other hand, TMP, upstream of HO-1, inhibited arsenic-induced ROS production and ROS-dependent HO-1 expression. TMP also prevented mitochondria dysfunction and suppressed activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in HK-2 cells. Our results revealed that the regulation of arsenic-induced HO-1 expression was performed through multiple ROS-dependent signal pathways and the corresponding transcription factors, including p38 MAPK and JNK (but not ERK), AP-1, Nrf2 and NF-κB. TMP inhibited arsenic-induced activations of JNK, p38 MAPK, ERK, AP-1 and Nrf2 and block HO-1 protein expression. The present study, furthermore, demonstrated arsenic-induced expression of arsenic response protein 2 (ARS2) that was regulated by p38 MAPK, ERK and NF-κB. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that ARS2 involved in arsenic-induced nephrotoxicity, while TMP pretreatment prevented such an up-regulation of ARS2 in HK-2 cells. Given ARS2 and HO-1 sharing the similar regulation mechanism, we speculated that ARS2 might also mediate cell survival in this procession. In summary, our study highlighted a role of HO-1 in the protection against arsenic-induced cytotoxicity downstream from the primary targets of TMP and further indicated that TMP may be used as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of arsenic

  10. Role of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on the kinetics of low-affinity high-capacity Na{sup +}-dependent alanine transport in SHR proximal tubular epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, Vanda; Pinho, Maria Joao; Jose, Pedro A.; Soares-da-Silva, Patricio

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in excess is required for the presence of a low-affinity high-capacity component for the Na{sup +}-dependent [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake in SHR PTE cells only. {yields} It is suggested that Na{sup +} binding in renal ASCT2 may be regulated by ROS in SHR PTE cells. -- Abstract: The presence of high and low sodium affinity states for the Na{sup +}-dependent [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake in immortalized renal proximal tubular epithelial (PTE) cells was previously reported (Am. J. Physiol. 293 (2007) R538-R547). This study evaluated the role of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on the Na{sup +}-dependent [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake of ASCT2 in immortalized renal PTE cells from Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Na{sup +} dependence of [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake was investigated replacing NaCl with an equimolar concentration of choline chloride in vehicle- and apocynin-treated cells. Na{sup +} removal from the uptake solution abolished transport activity in both WKY and SHR PTE cells. Decreases in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels in the extracellular medium significantly reduced Na{sup +}-K{sub m} and V{sub max} values of the low-affinity high-capacity component in SHR PTE cells, with no effect on the high-affinity low-capacity state of the Na{sup +}-dependent [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake. After removal of apocynin from the culture medium, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels returned to basal values within 1 to 3 h in both WKY and SHR PTE cells and these were found stable for the next 24 h. Under these experimental conditions, the Na{sup +}-K{sub m} and V{sub max} of the high-affinity low-capacity state were unaffected and the low-affinity high-capacity component remained significantly decreased 1 day but not 4 days after apocynin removal. In conclusion, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in excess is required for the presence of a low-affinity high-capacity component for the Na{sup +}-dependent [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake in SHR PTE cells only

  11. Active lucifer yellow secretion in renal proximal tubule: evidence for organic anion transport system crossover.

    PubMed

    Masereeuw, R; Moons, M M; Toomey, B H; Russel, F G; Miller, D S

    1999-05-01

    Recent studies show that organic anion secretion in renal proximal tubule is mediated by distinct sodium-dependent and sodium-independent transport systems. Here we investigated the possibility that organic anions entering the cells on one system can exit into the lumen on a transporter associated with the other system. In isolated rat kidneys perfused with 10 microM lucifer yellow (LY, a fluorescent organic anion) plus 100 micrograms/ml inulin, the LY-to-inulin clearance ratio averaged 1.6 +/- 0.2, indicating net tubular secretion. Probenecid significantly reduced both LY clearance and LY accumulation in kidney tissue. In intact killifish proximal tubules, confocal microscopy was used to measure steady-state LY uptake into cells and secretion into the tubular lumen. Probenecid, p-aminohippurate, and ouabain nearly abolished both uptake and secretion. To this point, the data indicated that LY was handled by the sodium-dependent and ouabain-sensitive organic anion transport system. However, leukotriene C4, an inhibitor of the luminal step for the sodium-independent and ouabain-insensitive organic anion system, reduced luminal secretion of LY by 50%. Leukotriene C4 did not affect cellular accumulation of LY or the transport of fluorescein on the sodium-dependent system. A similar inhibition pattern was found for another fluorescent organic anion, a mercapturic acid derivative of monochlorobimane. Thus, both organic anions entered the cells on the basolateral transporter for the classical, sodium-dependent system, but about half of the transport into the lumen was handled by the luminal carrier for the sodium-independent system, which is most likely the multidrug resistance-associated protein. This is the first demonstration that xenobiotics can enter renal proximal tubule cells on the carrier associated with one organic anion transport system and exit into the tubular lumen on multiple carriers, one of which is associated with a second system.

  12. Tubular Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenbaum, Bernard J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system for coupling a vascular overflow graft or cannula to a heart pump. A pump pipe outlet is provided with an external tapered surface which receives the end of a compressible connula. An annular compression ring with a tapered internal bore surface is arranged about the cannula with the tapered internal surface in a facing relationship to the external tapered surface. The angle of inclination of the tapered surfaces is converging such that the spacing between the tapered surfaces decreases from one end of the external tapered surface to the other end thereby providing a clamping action of the tapered surface on a cannula which increases as a function of the length of cannula segment between the tapered surfaces. The annular compression ring is disposed within a tubular locking nut which threadedly couples to the pump and provides a compression force for urging the annular ring onto the cannula between the tapered surfaces. The nut has a threaded connection to the pump body. The threaded coupling to the pump body provides a compression force for the annular ring. The annular ring has an annular enclosure space in which excess cannula material from the compression between the tapered surfaces to "bunch up" in the space and serve as an enlarged annular ring segment to assist holding the cannula in place. The clamped cannula provides a seamless joint connection to the pump pipe outlet where the clamping force is uniformly applied to the cannula because of self alignment of the tapered surfaces. The nut can be easily disconnected to replace the pump if necessary.

  13. Modeling oxygen consumption in the proximal tubule: effects of NHE and SGLT2 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Vallon, Volker; Edwards, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how physiological, pharmacological, and pathological conditions that alter sodium reabsorption (TNa) in the proximal tubule affect oxygen consumption (QO2) and Na+ transport efficiency (TNa/QO2). To do so, we expanded a mathematical model of solute transport in the proximal tubule of the rat kidney. The model represents compliant S1, S2, and S3 segments and accounts for their specific apical and basolateral transporters. Sodium is reabsorbed transcellularly, via apical Na+/H+ exchangers (NHE) and Na+-glucose (SGLT) cotransporters, and paracellularly. Our results suggest that TNa/QO2 is 80% higher in S3 than in S1–S2 segments, due to the greater contribution of the passive paracellular pathway to TNa in the former segment. Inhibition of NHE or Na-K-ATPase reduced TNa and QO2, as well as Na+ transport efficiency. SGLT2 inhibition also reduced proximal tubular TNa but increased QO2; these effects were relatively more pronounced in the S3 vs. the S1–S2 segments. Diabetes increased TNa and QO2 and reduced TNa/QO2, owing mostly to hyperfiltration. Since SGLT2 inhibition lowers diabetic hyperfiltration, the net effect on TNa, QO2, and Na+ transport efficiency in the proximal tubule will largely depend on the individual extent to which glomerular filtration rate is lowered. PMID:25855513

  14. Short-term functional adaptation of aquaporin-1 surface expression in the proximal tubule, a component of glomerulotubular balance.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Marcus; Shan, Qixian; Petsch, Thomas; Styp-Rekowska, Beata; Matthey, Patricia; Bleich, Markus; Bachmann, Sebastian; Theilig, Franziska

    2015-06-01

    Transepithelial water flow across the renal proximal tubule is mediated predominantly by aquaporin-1 (AQP1). Along this nephron segment, luminal delivery and transepithelial reabsorption are directly coupled, a phenomenon called glomerulotubular balance. We hypothesized that the surface expression of AQP1 is regulated by fluid shear stress, contributing to this effect. Consistent with this finding, we found that the abundance of AQP1 in brush border apical and basolateral membranes was augmented >2-fold by increasing luminal perfusion rates in isolated, microperfused proximal tubules for 15 minutes. Mouse kidneys with diminished endocytosis caused by a conditional deletion of megalin or the chloride channel ClC-5 had constitutively enhanced AQP1 abundance in the proximal tubule brush border membrane. In AQP1-transfected, cultured proximal tubule cells, fluid shear stress or the addition of cyclic nucleotides enhanced AQP1 surface expression and concomitantly diminished its ubiquitination. These effects were also associated with an elevated osmotic water permeability. In sum, we have shown that luminal surface expression of AQP1 in the proximal tubule brush border membrane is regulated in response to flow. Cellular trafficking, endocytosis, an intact endosomal compartment, and controlled protein stability are the likely prerequisites for AQP1 activation by enhanced tubular fluid shear stress, serving to maintain glomerulotubular balance.

  15. Early detection of tubular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Piscator, M

    1991-11-01

    The determination of low-molecular-weight proteins in urine as a tool for early detection of damage to the proximal tubules is briefly discussed. Beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein and alpha 1-microglobulin are at present the most widely used markers for tubular dysfunction. The determination of beta 2-microglobulin has earlier been the method of choice, but due to its instability at low pH there are certain disadvantages. Available data indicate that alpha 1-microglobulin may replace beta 2-microglobulin for screening purposes. The low-molecular-weight proteins are at present the best markers for early detection of tubular dysfunction; other constituents are not as well suited for this, even if the determination of urine enzymes has its supporters.

  16. Phosphoinositide binding differentially regulates NHE1 Na+/H+ exchanger-dependent proximal tubule cell survival.

    PubMed

    Abu Jawdeh, Bassam G; Khan, Shenaz; Deschênes, Isabelle; Hoshi, Malcolm; Goel, Monu; Lock, Jeffrey T; Shinlapawittayatorn, Krekwit; Babcock, Gerald; Lakhe-Reddy, Sujata; DeCaro, Garren; Yadav, Satya P; Mohan, Maradumane L; Naga Prasad, Sathyamangla V; Schilling, William P; Ficker, Eckhard; Schelling, Jeffrey R

    2011-12-09

    Tubular atrophy predicts chronic kidney disease progression, and is caused by proximal tubular epithelial cellcaused by proximal tubular epithelial cell (PTC) apoptosis. The normally quiescent Na(+)/H(+) exchanger-1 (NHE1) defends against PTC apoptosis, and is regulated by PI(4,5)P(2) binding. Because of the vast array of plasma membrane lipids, we hypothesized that NHE1-mediated cell survival is dynamically regulated by multiple anionic inner leaflet phospholipids. In membrane overlay and surface plasmon resonance assays, the NHE1 C terminus bound phospholipids with low affinity and according to valence (PIP(3) > PIP(2) > PIP = PA > PS). NHE1-phosphoinositide binding was enhanced by acidic pH, and abolished by NHE1 Arg/Lys to Ala mutations within two juxtamembrane domains, consistent with electrostatic interactions. PI(4,5)P(2)-incorporated vesicles were distributed to apical and lateral PTC domains, increased NHE1-regulated Na(+)/H(+) exchange, and blunted apoptosis, whereas NHE1 activity was decreased in cells enriched with PI(3,4,5)P(3), which localized to basolateral membranes. Divergent PI(4,5)P(2) and PI(3,4,5)P(3) effects on NHE1-dependent Na(+)/H(+) exchange and apoptosis were confirmed by selective phosphoinositide sequestration with pleckstrin homology domain-containing phospholipase Cδ and Akt peptides, PI 3-kinase, and Akt inhibition in wild-type and NHE1-null PTCs. The results reveal an on-off switch model, whereby NHE1 toggles between weak interactions with PI(4,5)P(2) and PI(3,4,5)P(3). In response to apoptotic stress, NHE1 is stimulated by PI(4,5)P(2), which leads to PI 3-kinase activation, and PI(4,5)P(2) phosphorylation. The resulting PI(3,4,5)P(3) dually stimulates sustained, downstream Akt survival signaling, and dampens NHE1 activity through competitive inhibition and depletion of PI(4,5)P(2).

  17. Rheogenic transport in the renal proximal tubule

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    The electrophysiology of the renal Na-K ATPase was studied in isolated perfused amphibian proximal tubules during alterations in bath (serosal) potassium. Intracellular and extracellular ionic activity measurements permitted continuous evaluation of the Nernst potentials for Na+, K+, and Cl- across the basolateral membrane. The cell membrane and transepithelial potential differences and resistances were also determined. Return of K to the basal (serosal) solution after a 20-min incubation in K-free solution hyperpolarized the basolateral membrane to an electrical potential that was more negative than the Nernst potential for either Na, Cl, or K. This constitutes strong evidence that at least under stimulated conditions the Na-K ATPase located at the basolateral membrane of the renal proximal tubule mediates a rheogenic process which directly transfers net charge across the cell membrane. Interpretation of these data in terms of an electrical equivalent circuit permitted calculation of both the rheogenic current and the Na/K coupling ratio of the basolateral pump. During the period between 1 and 3 min after pump reactivation by return of bath K, the basolateral rheogenic current was directly proportional to the intracellular Na activity, and the pump stoichiometry transiently exceeded the coupling ratio of 3Na to 2K reported in other preparations. PMID:6319539

  18. Renal tubular acidosis.

    PubMed

    Rothstein, M; Obialo, C; Hruska, K A

    1990-12-01

    Renal tubular acidosis refers to a group of disorders that result from pure tubular damage without concomitant glomerular damage. They could be hereditary (primary) or acquired (secondary to various disease states like sickle cell disease, obstructive uropathy, postrenal transplant, autoimmune disease, or drugs). The hallmark of the disorder is the presence of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with, or without, associated defects in potassium homeostasis, a UpH greater than 5.5 in the presence of systemic acidemia, and absence of an easily identifiable cause of the acidemia. There are three physiologic types whose basic defects are impairment of or a decrease in acid excretion, i.e., type 1 (dRTA); a failure in bicarbonate reabsorption, i.e., type 2 (pRTA); and deficiency of buffer or impaired generation of NH4+, i.e., type 4 RTA. Several pathophysiologic mechanisms have been postulated for these various types. pRTA is the least common of all in the adult population. It rarely occurs as an isolated defect. It is frequently accompanied by diffuse proximal tubule transport defects with aminoaciduria, glycosuria, hyperphosphaturia, and so forth (Fanconi syndrome). dRTA is associated with a high incidence of nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, osteodystrophy, and growth retardation (in children). Osteodystrophy also occurs in pRTA to a lesser degree and is believed to be secondary to hypophosphatemia. Patients with type 4 RTA usually have mild renal insufficiency from either diabetes mellitus or interstitial nephritis. Acute bicarbonate loading will result in a high fractional excretion of bicarbonate greater than 15% (FEHCO3- greater than 15%) in patients with pRTA, but FEHCO3- less than 3% in patients with dRTA. Type I patients will also have a low (U - B) PCO2 with bicarbonate loading. They are also unable to lower their urine pH to less than 5.5 with NH4Cl loading. The treatment of these patients involves avoidance of precipitating factors when possible, treatment

  19. Antigen retrieval reveals widespread basolateral expression of syntaxin 3 in renal epithelia.

    PubMed

    Breton, Sylvie; Inoue, Takeaki; Knepper, Mark A; Brown, Dennis

    2002-03-01

    Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins play a key role in docking and fusion of intracellular transport vesicles and may regulate apical and basolateral membrane protein delivery in epithelial cells. In a previous study, syntaxin 3 (a target SNARE) protein was detectable in the kidney only in intercalated cells. We now report a more widespread distribution of syntaxin 3 in a variety of renal epithelial cells after antigen retrieval. Sections of rat kidney were treated with SDS and incubated with antisyntaxin 3 antibodies. Strong basolateral membrane staining was seen in descending and ascending thin limbs of Henle, thick ascending limbs of Henle, the macula densa, distal and connecting tubules, and all cells of the collecting duct including A- and B-intercalated cells. The papillary surface epithelium and the transitional epithelium of the ureter were also stained, but proximal tubules were negative. Western blotting revealed a strong signal at 37 kDa in all regions, and the antigen was restricted to membrane fractions. SDS treatment was not necessary to reveal syntaxin 3 in intercalated cells. These data show that syntaxin 3 might be involved in basolateral trafficking pathways in most renal epithelial cell types. The exclusive basolateral location of syntaxin 3 in situ, however, contrasts with the apical location of this SNARE protein in some kidney epithelial cells in culture.

  20. Tubular Colonic Duplication Presenting as Rectovestibular Fistula.

    PubMed

    Karkera, Parag J; Bendre, Pradnya; D'souza, Flavia; Ramchandra, Mukunda; Nage, Amol; Palse, Nitin

    2015-09-01

    Complete colonic duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly that may have different presentations according to its location and size. Complete colonic duplication can occur in about 15% of all gastrointestinal duplications. Double termination of tubular colonic duplication in the perineum is even more uncommon. We present a case of a Y-shaped tubular colonic duplication which presented with a rectovestibular fistula and a normal anus. Radiological evaluation and initial exploration for sigmoidostomy revealed duplicated colons with a common vascular supply. Endorectal mucosal resection of theduplicated distal segment till the colostomy site with division of the septum of the proximal segment and colostomy closure proved curative without compromise of the continence mechanism. Tubular colonic duplication should always be ruled out when a diagnosis of perineal canal is considered in cases of vestibular fistula alongwith a normal anus.

  1. Tubular Colonic Duplication Presenting as Rectovestibular Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Bendre, Pradnya; D'souza, Flavia; Ramchandra, Mukunda; Nage, Amol; Palse, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Complete colonic duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly that may have different presentations according to its location and size. Complete colonic duplication can occur in about 15% of all gastrointestinal duplications. Double termination of tubular colonic duplication in the perineum is even more uncommon. We present a case of a Y-shaped tubular colonic duplication which presented with a rectovestibular fistula and a normal anus. Radiological evaluation and initial exploration for sigmoidostomy revealed duplicated colons with a common vascular supply. Endorectal mucosal resection of theduplicated distal segment till the colostomy site with division of the septum of the proximal segment and colostomy closure proved curative without compromise of the continence mechanism. Tubular colonic duplication should always be ruled out when a diagnosis of perineal canal is considered in cases of vestibular fistula alongwith a normal anus. PMID:26473141

  2. Characterization of Organic Anion Transporter 2 (SLC22A7): A Highly Efficient Transporter for Creatinine and Species-Dependent Renal Tubular Expression.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hong; Liu, Tongtong; Morse, Bridget L; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Yueping; Qiu, Xi; Chen, Cliff; Lewin, Anne C; Wang, Xi-Tao; Liu, Guowen; Christopher, Lisa J; Marathe, Punit; Lai, Yurong

    2015-07-01

    The contribution of organic anion transporter OAT2 (SLC22A7) to the renal tubular secretion of creatinine and its exact localization in the kidney are reportedly controversial. In the present investigation, the transport of creatinine was assessed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells that stably expressed human OAT2 (OAT2-HEK) and isolated human renal proximal tubule cells (HRPTCs). The tubular localization of OAT2 in human, monkey, and rat kidney was characterized. The overexpression of OAT2 significantly enhanced the uptake of creatinine in OAT2-HEK cells. Under physiologic conditions (creatinine concentrations of 41.2 and 123.5 µM), the initial rate of OAT2-mediated creatinine transport was approximately 11-, 80-, and 80-fold higher than OCT2, multidrug and toxin extrusion protein (MATE)1, and MATE2K, respectively, resulting in approximately 37-, 1850-, and 80-fold increase of the intrinsic transport clearance when normalized to the transporter protein concentrations. Creatinine intracellular uptake and transcellular transport in HRPTCs were decreased in the presence of 50 µM bromosulfophthalein and 100 µM indomethacin, which inhibited OAT2 more potently than other known creatinine transporters, OCT2 and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins MATE1 and MATE2K (IC50: 1.3 µM vs. > 100 µM and 2.1 µM vs. > 200 µM for bromosulfophthalein and indomethacin, respectively) Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that OAT2 protein was localized to both basolateral and apical membranes of human and cynomolgus monkey renal proximal tubules, but appeared only on the apical membrane of rat proximal tubules. Collectively, the findings revealed the important role of OAT2 in renal secretion and possible reabsorption of creatinine and suggested a molecular basis for potential species difference in the transporter handling of creatinine.

  3. Expression of basolateral organic anion and cation transporters in experimental cadmium nephrotoxicity in rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Ljubojević, Marija; Breljak, Davorka; Herak-Kramberger, Carol M; Anzai, Naohiko; Sabolić, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd)-intoxicated experimental animals exhibit impaired renal secretion of organic anions (OA) and cations (OC), indicating their transporters (Oats and Octs) in the proximal tubule (PT) basolateral membrane as possible targets of Cd. To correlate transport data from the literature with the expression of relevant transporters, we performed immunochemical and RT-PCR studies of renal Oats and Octs in the subchronic (treatment with CdCl2; 2 mg Cd/kg b.m./day, for 2 weeks) and acute (treatment with Cd-metallothionein (CdMT); 0.4 mg Cd/kg b.m., 6 or 12 h before killing) models of Cd nephrotoxicity. In the subchronic model, PT exhibited a minor loss of basolateral invaginations and overall unchanged expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and GAPDH proteins and mRNAs, while the expression of Oat and Oct proteins and their mRNAs was strongly downregulated. In the acute model, a time-related redistribution of basolateral transporters to the intracellular vesicular compartment was a major finding. However, 6 h following CdMT treatment, the total abundance of Oat and Oct proteins in the renal tissue remained unchanged, the expression of mRNAs decreased only for Oats, while a limited Oat1 and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase immunoreactivity in the PT apical membrane indicated loss of cell polarity. As tested in rats treated with colchicine, the observed loss/redistribution of basolateral transporters in both models may be independent on microtubules. Therefore, the diminished renal secretion of OA and OC via PT in Cd nephrotoxicity may result from (a) limited loss of secretory surface (basolateral invaginations), (b) selective loss of Oats and Octs, and

  4. Klinefelter's syndrome with renal tubular acidosis: impact on height.

    PubMed

    Jebasingh, F; Paul, T V; Spurgeon, R; Abraham, S; Jacob, J J

    2010-02-01

    A 19-year-old Indian man presented with a history of proximal muscle weakness, knock knees and gynaecomastia. On examination he had features of rickets and bilateral small testes. Karyotyping revealed a chromosomal pattern of 47,XXX, confirming the diagnosis of Klinefelter's syndrome. He was also found to have hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis with hypokalaemia, hypophosphataemia, phosphaturia and glycosuria, which favoured a diagnosis of proximal renal tubular acidosis. Patients with Klinefelter's syndrome typically have a tall stature due to androgen deficiency, resulting in unfused epiphyses and an additional X chromosome. However, this patient had a short stature due to associated proximal renal tubular acidosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case of Klinefelter's syndrome with short stature due to associated renal tubular acidosis reported in the literature. This report highlights the need to consider other causes when patients with Klinefelter's syndrome present with a short stature.

  5. Distal renal tubular acidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... get better with treatment. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of distal renal tubular acidosis. Get medical help right away if you develop emergency symptoms ...

  6. A case of distal renal tubular acidosis, Southeast Asian ovalocytosis and possible fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Vithanage, J P; Ekanayake, M

    2009-03-01

    A 39-year old man had periodic paralysis due to hypokalaemia. Investigations led to the diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) and Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO). Both can originate in mutations of the anion-exchanger 1 gene (AE1), which codes for band 3, the bicarbonate/chloride exchanger in both the red cell membrane and the basolateral membrane of the collecting tubule alpha-intercalated cell. The finding of diffuse osteosclerosis led to the suspicion of coexisting fluorosis.

  7. Mechanisms of renal tubular defects in old age.

    PubMed Central

    Dontas, A. S.; Marketos, S. G.; Papanayiotou, P.

    1972-01-01

    The mechanisms of renal tubular dysfunction in old age have been examined in twenty-eight clinically healthy elderly subjects without infection, and in fourteen subjects of similar age with laboratory evidence of intrarenal infection. The data were compared with those from thirteen clinically healthy young subjects. Studied were: proximal tubular (Tm(PAH)) and distal tubular (CH2O) activity, minimal and maximal osmolal U/P ratios, maximal osmolal excretion in hydropenia, and GFR levels under standard hydration and under water-loading. The reduction of GFR in old age is evident particularly in men under conditions of standard hydration: it is accentuated in the presence of renal infection. Proximal tubular activity is also significantly lower in elderly men, especially if they have chronic bacteriuria. The reduction is closely related to GFR levels, with identical Tm(PAH):C(in) ratios in all groups. This supports the intact nephron hypothesis for this part of the nephron. Distal tubular activity is depressed in old age in both sexes proportionately more than proximal tubular activity or the GFR. The lower CH2O: GFR ratios imply a selective distal tubular damage. Maximal osmolal U/P ratios in hydropenia are significantly higher in the young (mean 367) than in either the elderly non-infected (mean 279) or the elderly infected subjects (mean 212). Conversely, minimal U/P ratios in water-loading are lower in the young (mean 0.247) than in either elderly group (means 0.418 and 0.668). Osmolal excretion in hydropenia is not different between the groups, but urine flows in water-loading clearly separate them. The data indicate that simple functions of the distal-collecting tubule (e.g. the CH2O), are less affected in old age than are functions involving several medullary structures (as is the maximal U(osm) or U/P ratio). They suggest that the main impairment of the distal tubular cell involves the failure to achieve a proper osmotic gradient between tubular fluid and

  8. Protein Carbonylation of an Amino Acid Residue of the Na/K-ATPase α1 Subunit Determines Na/K-ATPase Signaling and Sodium Transport in Renal Proximal Tubular Cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yanling; Shapiro, Anna P; Mopidevi, Brahma R; Chaudhry, Muhammad A; Maxwell, Kyle; Haller, Steven T; Drummond, Christopher A; Kennedy, David J; Tian, Jiang; Malhotra, Deepak; Xie, Zi-Jian; Shapiro, Joseph I; Liu, Jiang

    2016-09-09

    We have demonstrated that cardiotonic steroids, such as ouabain, signaling through the Na/K-ATPase, regulate sodium reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule. By direct carbonylation modification of the Pro222 residue in the actuator (A) domain of pig Na/K-ATPase α1 subunit, reactive oxygen species are required for ouabain-stimulated Na/K-ATPase/c-Src signaling and subsequent regulation of active transepithelial (22)Na(+) transport. In the present study we sought to determine the functional role of Pro222 carbonylation in Na/K-ATPase signaling and sodium handling. Stable pig α1 knockdown LLC-PK1-originated PY-17 cells were rescued by expressing wild-type rat α1 and rat α1 with a single mutation of Pro224 (corresponding to pig Pro222) to Ala. This mutation does not affect ouabain-induced inhibition of Na/K-ATPase activity, but abolishes the effects of ouabain on Na/K-ATPase/c-Src signaling, protein carbonylation, Na/K-ATPase endocytosis, and active transepithelial (22)Na(+) transport. Direct carbonylation modification of Pro224 in the rat α1 subunit determines ouabain-mediated Na/K-ATPase signal transduction and subsequent regulation of renal proximal tubule sodium transport. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  9. Cell Volume Regulation in the Proximal Tubule of Rat Kidney : Proximal Tubule Cell Volume Regulation.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Aurélie; Layton, Anita T

    2017-09-12

    We developed a dynamic model of a rat proximal convoluted tubule cell in order to investigate cell volume regulation mechanisms in this nephron segment. We examined whether regulatory volume decrease (RVD), which follows exposure to a hyposmotic peritubular solution, can be achieved solely via stimulation of basolateral K[Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] channels and [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] cotransporters. We also determined whether regulatory volume increase (RVI), which follows exposure to a hyperosmotic peritubular solution under certain conditions, may be accomplished by activating basolateral [Formula: see text]/H[Formula: see text] exchangers. Model predictions were in good agreement with experimental observations in mouse proximal tubule cells assuming that a 10% increase in cell volume induces a fourfold increase in the expression of basolateral K[Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] channels and [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] cotransporters. Our results also suggest that in response to a hyposmotic challenge and subsequent cell swelling, [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] cotransporters are more efficient than basolateral K[Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] channels at lowering intracellular osmolality and reducing cell volume. Moreover, both RVD and RVI are predicted to stabilize net transcellular [Formula: see text] reabsorption, that is, to limit the net [Formula: see text] flux decrease during a hyposmotic challenge or the net [Formula: see text] flux increase during a hyperosmotic challenge.

  10. The MARVEL transmembrane motif of occludin mediates oligomerization and targeting to the basolateral surface in epithelia.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, Yakey; Shepshelovitch, Jeanne; Nevo-Yassaf, Inbar; Yeheskel, Adva; Shmerling, Hedva; Kwiatek, Joanna M; Gaus, Katharina; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Hirschberg, Koret

    2012-08-01

    Occludin (Ocln), a MARVEL-motif-containing protein, is found in all tight junctions. MARVEL motifs are comprised of four transmembrane helices associated with the localization to or formation of diverse membrane subdomains by interacting with the proximal lipid environment. The functions of the Ocln MARVEL motif are unknown. Bioinformatics sequence- and structure-based analyses demonstrated that the MARVEL domain of Ocln family proteins has distinct evolutionarily conserved sequence features that are consistent with its basolateral membrane localization. Live-cell microscopy, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) were used to analyze the intracellular distribution and self-association of fluorescent-protein-tagged full-length human Ocln or the Ocln MARVEL motif excluding the cytosolic C- and N-termini (amino acids 60-269, FP-MARVEL-Ocln). FP-MARVEL-Ocln efficiently arrived at the plasma membrane (PM) and was sorted to the basolateral PM in filter-grown polarized MDCK cells. A series of conserved aromatic amino acids within the MARVEL domain were found to be associated with Ocln dimerization using BiFC. FP-MARVEL-Ocln inhibited membrane pore growth during Triton-X-100-induced solubilization and was shown to increase the membrane-ordered state using Laurdan, a lipid dye. These data demonstrate that the Ocln MARVEL domain mediates self-association and correct sorting to the basolateral membrane.

  11. Tubular cell apoptosis and cidofovir-induced acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Alberto; Justo, Pilar; Sanz, Ana; Melero, Rosa; Caramelo, Carlos; Guerrero, Manuel Fernández; Strutz, Frank; Müller, Gerhard; Barat, Antonio; Egido, Jesus

    2005-01-01

    Cidofovir is an antiviral drug with activity against a wide array of DNA viruses including poxvirus. The therapeutic use of cidofovir is marred by a dose-limiting side effect, nephrotoxicity, leading to proximal tubular cell injury and acute renal failure. Treatment with cidofovir requires the routine use of prophylactic measures. A correct knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of cidofovir toxicity may lead to the development of alternative prophylactic strategies. We recently cared for a patient with irreversible acute renal failure due to cidofovir. Renal biopsy showed tubular cell apoptosis. Cidofovir induced apoptosis in primary cultures of human proximal tubular cells in a temporal (peak apoptosis at 7 days) and concentration (10-40 microg/ml) pattern consistent with that of clinical toxicity. Apoptosis was identified by the presence of hypodiploid cells, by the exposure of annexin V binding sites and by morphological features and was associated with the appearance of active caspase-3 fragments. Cell death was specific as it was also present in a human proximal tubular epithelial cell line (HK-2), but not in a human kidney fibroblast cell line, and was prevented by probenecid. An inhibitor of caspase-3 (DEVD) prevented cidofovir apoptosis. The survival factors present in serum, insulin-like growth factor-1 and hepatocyte growth factor, were also protective. The present data suggest that apoptosis induction is a mechanism contributing to cidofovir nephrotoxicity. The prophylactic administration of factors with survival activity for tubular epithelium should be further explored in cidofovir renal injury.

  12. Renal tubular acidosis.

    PubMed

    Chan, J C

    1983-03-01

    In the past decade major advances in our understanding of renal tubular hydrogen ion secretion and bicarbonate reabsorption have provided new insight into the pathophysiology of renal tubular acidosis. Thus "fragment to fragment clings" and the number of disorders categorized within the syndrome grows, until we have come to know and name four types, with many subtypes. We hope this new perspective provides a basis for the physician to recognize renal tubular acidosis in its several forms so that an informed decision may be arrived at in choosing the best therapy. The physician may also be prepared to reasonably project the prognosis for each patient. We also hope that our detailed examination of renal acidification will provide a reference for delineation of new clinical expressions of acid-base disorders and kidney malfunction certain to be described in the years ahead.

  13. Mechanism mediating basolateral transport of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, A R; Dunnick, C A; Pritchard, J B

    1996-08-01

    The organic anions, p-aminohippurate (PAH) and fluorescein, are transported across the basolateral membrane of the renal proximal tubule in exchange for intracellular alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha KG), a mechanism indirectly coupled to sodium via Na+/alpha KG cotransport. To determine whether this mechanism mediates the basolateral transport of other organic anions, transport of the herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), was examined in rat renal cortical slices and basolateral membrane vesicles. In slices, uptake of 2,4-D increased steadily over time, approaching steady-state tissue/medium ratios of approximately 8 after 60 min. Probenecid, PAH and chlorophenol red inhibited steady-state uptake of 2,4-D. Accumulation of 10 microM 2,4-D was stimulated 2-fold by 60 microM glutarate; other dicarboxylic acids failed to stimulate uptake. In the presence of sodium, the addition of 5 mM LiCl or 2 mM ouabain to the bathing medium abolished glutarate stimulation. Removal of sodium from the bathing medium reversibly inhibited uptake as much as 75%. Furthermore, PAH inhibited 2,4-D uptake by slices in a dose-dependent manner, and increasing the external 2,4-D concentration decreased the inhibitory potency of PAH. In basolateral membrane vesicles, unlabeled 2,4-D inhibited sodium glutarate-coupled uptake of 3H-labeled PAH and 2,4-D in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, concentrative uptake of 2,4-D into vesicles could be driven by an outwardly directed gradient of glutarate or alpha KG that was generated by lithium-sensitive Na+/dicarboxylate cotransport or imposed experimentally. An outwardly directed gradient of unlabeled 2,4-D or PAH also stimulated uptake of 2,4-D. Based on these data, basolateral accumulation of 2,4-D by the renal proximal tubule is mediated by 2,4-D/alpha KG exchange, a mechanism energetically coupled to Na+/alpha KG cotransport and shared with PAH.

  14. Isolation and genetic characterization of human coronavirus NL63 in primary human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells obtained from a commercial supplier, and confirmation of its replication in two different types of human primary kidney cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cryopreserved primary human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC) were obtained from a commercial supplier for studies of Simian virus 40 (SV40). Within twelve hrs after cell cultures were initiated, cytoplasmic vacuoles appeared in many of the RPTEC. The RPTEC henceforth deteriorated rapidly. Since SV40 induces the formation of cytoplasmic vacuoles, this batch of RPTEC was rejected for the SV40 study. Nevertheless, we sought the likely cause(s) of the deterioration of the RPTEC as part of our technology development efforts. Methods Adventitious viruses in the RPTEC were isolated and/or detected and identified by isolation in various indicator cell lines, observation of cytopathology, an immunoflurorescence assay, electron microscopy, PCR, and sequencing. Results Cytomegalovirus (CMV) was detected in some RPTEC by cytology, an immunofluorescence assay, and PCR. Human Herpesvirus 6B was detected by PCR of DNA extracted from the RPTEC, but was not isolated. Human coronavirus NL63 was isolated and identified by RT-PCR and sequencing, and its replication in a fresh batch of RPTEC and another type of primary human kidney cells was confirmed. Conclusions At least 3 different adventitious viruses were present in the batch of contaminated RPTEC. Whereas we are unable to determine whether the original RPTEC were pre-infected prior to their separation from other kidney cells, or had gotten contaminated with HCoV-NL63 from an ill laboratory worker during their preparation for commercial sale, our findings are a reminder that human-derived biologicals should always be considered as potential sources of infectious agents. Importantly, HCoV-NL63 replicates to high titers in some primary human kidney cells. PMID:23805916

  15. Isolation and genetic characterization of human coronavirus NL63 in primary human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells obtained from a commercial supplier, and confirmation of its replication in two different types of human primary kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Lednicky, John A; Waltzek, Thomas B; McGeehan, Elizabeth; Loeb, Julia C; Hamilton, Sara B; Luetke, Maya C

    2013-06-27

    Cryopreserved primary human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC) were obtained from a commercial supplier for studies of Simian virus 40 (SV40). Within twelve hrs after cell cultures were initiated, cytoplasmic vacuoles appeared in many of the RPTEC. The RPTEC henceforth deteriorated rapidly. Since SV40 induces the formation of cytoplasmic vacuoles, this batch of RPTEC was rejected for the SV40 study. Nevertheless, we sought the likely cause(s) of the deterioration of the RPTEC as part of our technology development efforts. Adventitious viruses in the RPTEC were isolated and/or detected and identified by isolation in various indicator cell lines, observation of cytopathology, an immunoflurorescence assay, electron microscopy, PCR, and sequencing. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) was detected in some RPTEC by cytology, an immunofluorescence assay, and PCR. Human Herpesvirus 6B was detected by PCR of DNA extracted from the RPTEC, but was not isolated. Human coronavirus NL63 was isolated and identified by RT-PCR and sequencing, and its replication in a fresh batch of RPTEC and another type of primary human kidney cells was confirmed. At least 3 different adventitious viruses were present in the batch of contaminated RPTEC. Whereas we are unable to determine whether the original RPTEC were pre-infected prior to their separation from other kidney cells, or had gotten contaminated with HCoV-NL63 from an ill laboratory worker during their preparation for commercial sale, our findings are a reminder that human-derived biologicals should always be considered as potential sources of infectious agents. Importantly, HCoV-NL63 replicates to high titers in some primary human kidney cells.

  16. Worse Prognosis in Papillary, Compared to Tubular, Early Gastric Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Huiping; Fang, Cheng; Chen, Lin; Shi, Jiong; Fan, Xianshan; Zou, Xiaoping; Huang, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Papillary early gastric carcinoma (EGC) is uncommon but shows worse prognosis in our most recent study in a Chinese population with unknown reasons. The aim of the present study was to further investigate risk factors for worse prognosis in patients with papillary adenocarcinoma, compared to those with tubular adenocarcinoma. Methods: We searched the electronic pathology databank for radical gastrectomy cases over an 8-year period at a single medical center in Nanjing, China, and identified consecutive 240 EGC cases that were classified as either papillary (n=59) or tubular (n=181) EGC tumors in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) gastric cancer diagnosis criteria. We investigated and compared clinicopathologic risk factors for prognosis between papillary and tubular EGC groups. All patients were followed up and their 5-year survival rate was compared statistically with the Kaplan-Meier method with a log rank test. Results: Compared to tubular EGCs, papillary EGCs were significantly more common in elderly patients, more frequently occurred in the proximal stomach with protruding/elevated growth patterns, submucosal invasion, and a micropapillary component. Although lymphovascular invasion (16.9%), nodal (13.6%) and distant (11.8%) metastases in papillary EGCs were more frequent than those (8.3%, 7.2%, and 3.7%, respectively) in tubular EGCs, the differences approached but did not reach statistically significant levels. Significant risk factors for nodal metastasis included lymphovascular invasion in both EGC groups, but the ulcerative pattern and submucosal invasion only in tubular EGCs. The 5-year survival rate was significantly worse in papillary (80.5%) than in tubular (96.8%) EGCs. Conclusions: Compared to tubular EGCs, papillary EGCs diagnosed with the WHO criteria in Chinese patients were more frequent in elderly patients, proximal stomach and showed the significantly worse 5-year survival rate with more protruding/elevated growth

  17. Tubular Epithelial NF-κB Activity Regulates Ischemic AKI.

    PubMed

    Markó, Lajos; Vigolo, Emilia; Hinze, Christian; Park, Joon-Keun; Roël, Giulietta; Balogh, András; Choi, Mira; Wübken, Anne; Cording, Jimmi; Blasig, Ingolf E; Luft, Friedrich C; Scheidereit, Claus; Schmidt-Ott, Kai M; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Müller, Dominik N

    2016-09-01

    NF-κB is a key regulator of innate and adaptive immunity and is implicated in the pathogenesis of AKI. The cell type-specific functions of NF-κB in the kidney are unknown; however, the pathway serves distinct functions in immune and tissue parenchymal cells. We analyzed tubular epithelial-specific NF-κB signaling in a mouse model of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI)-induced AKI. NF-κB reporter activity and nuclear localization of phosphorylated NF-κB subunit p65 analyses in mice revealed that IRI induced widespread NF-κB activation in renal tubular epithelia and in interstitial cells that peaked 2-3 days after injury. To genetically antagonize tubular epithelial NF-κB activity, we generated mice expressing the human NF-κB super-repressor IκBαΔN in renal proximal, distal, and collecting duct epithelial cells. Compared with control mice, these mice exhibited improved renal function, reduced tubular apoptosis, and attenuated neutrophil and macrophage infiltration after IRI-induced AKI. Furthermore, tubular NF-κB-dependent gene expression profiles revealed temporally distinct functional gene clusters for apoptosis, chemotaxis, and morphogenesis. Primary proximal tubular cells isolated from IκBαΔN-expressing mice and exposed to hypoxia-mimetic agent cobalt chloride exhibited less apoptosis and expressed lower levels of chemokines than cells from control mice did. Our results indicate that postischemic NF-κB activation in renal tubular epithelia aggravates tubular injury and exacerbates a maladaptive inflammatory response.

  18. PAH clearance after renal ischemia and reperfusion is a function of impaired expression of basolateral Oat1 and Oat3.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Ariane; Bucher, Michael; Gekle, Michael; Sauvant, Christoph

    2014-02-01

    Determination of renal plasma flow (RPF) by para-aminohippurate (PAH) clearance leads to gross underestimation of this respective parameter due to impaired renal extraction of PAH after renal ischemia and reperfusion injury. However, no mechanistic explanation for this phenomenon is available. Based on our own previous studies we hypothesized that this may be due to impairment of expression of the basolateral rate limiting organic anion transporters Oat1 and Oat3. Thus, we investigated this phenomenon in a rat model of renal ischemia and reperfusion by determining PAH clearance, PAH extraction, PAH net secretion, and the expression of rOat1 and rOat3. PAH extraction was seriously impaired after ischemia and reperfusion which led to a threefold underestimation of RPF when PAH extraction ratio was not considered. PAH extraction directly correlated with the expression of basolateral Oat1 and Oat3. Tubular PAH secretion directly correlated with PAH extraction. Consequently, our data offer an explanation for impaired renal PAH extraction by reduced expression of the rate limiting basolateral organic anion transporters Oat1 and Oat3. Moreover, we show that determination of PAH net secretion is suitable to correct PAH clearance for impaired extraction after ischemia and reperfusion in order to get valid results for RPF.

  19. Mesangial cells initiate compensatory tubular cell hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Sinuani, I; Beberashvili, I; Averbukh, Z; Cohn, M; Gitelman, I; Weissgarten, J

    2010-01-01

    Unilateral nephrectomy results in compensatory renal growth, in which both the size and the functional capacity of the remaining kidney are increased. The functional adaptation to the removal of the contralateral kidney consists mostly of an increase in the glomerular filtration rate of the remaining kidney, and hypertrophy of cells comprising the nephron, mainly of the proximal tubular cells. Although the phenomenon of single kidney hypertrophy has been known for the past thousand years and despite intensive research over the past century, the mechanism of this process still remains unclear. The present article reviews the role of mesangial cells in compensatory renal hypertrophy. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Renal tubular vasopressin receptors downregulated by dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, M.; Phillips, M.I. )

    1988-03-01

    Receptors for arginine vasopressin (AVP) were characterized in tubular epithelial basolateral membranes (BL membranes) prepared from the kidneys of male Spraque-Dawley rats. Association of ({sup 3}H)AVP was rapid, reversible, and specific. Saturation studies revealed a single class of saturable binding sites with a maximal binding (B{sub max}) of 184 {plus minus} 15 fmol/mg protein. The V{sub 2} receptor antagonist was more than 3,700 times as effective in displacing ({sup 3}H)AVP than was the V{sub 1} antagonist. To investigate the physiological regulation of vasopressin receptors, the effects of elevated levels of circulating AVP on receptor characteristics were studied. Seventy-two-hour water deprivation significantly elevated plasma osmolality and caused an 11.5-fold increase in plasma (AVP). Scatchard analysis revealed a 38% decreased in the number of AVP receptors on the BL membranes from dehydrated animals. The high-affinity binding sites on the BL membranes fit the pharmacological profile for adenylate cyclase-linked vasopressin receptors (V{sub 2}), which mediate the antidiuretic action of the hormone. The authors conclude that physiologically elevated levels of AVP can downregulate vasopressin receptors in the kidney.

  1. Sugar uptake by intestinal basolateral membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Wright, E M; van Os, C H; Mircheff, A K

    1980-03-27

    A high yield of membrane vesicles was prepared from the basolateral surface of rat intestinal cells using an N2 cavitation bomb and density gradient centrifugation. The membranes were enriched 10-fold and were free of significatn contamination by brush border membranes and mitochondria. The rate of D-E114C]glucose and L-E13H]glucose uptake into the vesicle was measured using a rapid filtration technique. D-Glucose equilibrated within the vesicles with a half-time 1/25th that for L-glucose. The stereospecific uptake exhibited saturation kinetics with a Km of approx. 44 mM and a V of approx. 110 nmol . mg-1 min-1 at 10 degrees C. The activation energy for the process was 14 kcal . mol-1 below 15 degrees C and it approached 3 kcal . mol-1 above 22 degrees C. Carrier-mediated uptake was eliminated in the presence of 1 mM HgCl2 and 0.5 mM phloretin. The rate of transport was unaffected by the absence or presence of sodium concentration gradients. Competition studies demonstrated that all sugars with the D-glucose pyranose ring chair conformation shared the transport system, and that, with the possible exception of the -OH group at carbon No. 1, there were no specific requirements for an equatorial -OH group at any position in the pyranose ring. In the case of alpha-methyl-D-glucoside its inability to share the D-glucose transport system may be due to steric hindrance posed by the -OCH3 group rather than by a specific requirement for a free hydroxyl group at the position in the ring. It is concluded that sugars are transported across the basolateral membrane of the intestinal epithelium by a facilitated diffusion system reminiscent of that in human red blood cells.

  2. The human sodium-dependent ascorbic acid transporters SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 do not mediate ascorbic acid release in the proximal renal epithelial cell

    PubMed Central

    Eck, Peter; Kwon, Oran; Chen, Shenglin; Mian, Omar; Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Sodium-dependent ascorbic acid membrane transporters SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 mediate ascorbic acid (vitamin C) transport into cells. However, it is unknown how ascorbic acid undergoes cellular release, or efflux. We hypothesized that SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 could serve a dual role, mediating ascorbic acid cellular efflux as well as uptake. Renal reabsorption is required for maintaining systemic vitamin C concentrations. Because efflux from nephron cells is necessary for reabsorption, we studied whether SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 mediate efflux of ascorbic acid in the human renal nephron. We found high gene expression of SLC23A1 but no expression of SLC23A2 in the proximal convoluted and straight tubules of humans. These data rule out SLC23A2 as the ascorbic acid release protein in the renal proximal tubular epithelia cell. We utilized a novel dual transporter-based Xenopus laevis oocyte system to investigate the function of the SLC23A1 protein, and found that no ascorbate release was mediated by SLC23A1. These findings were confirmed in mammalian cells overexpressing SLC23A1. Taken together, the data for SLC23A1 show that it too does not have a role in cellular release of ascorbic acid across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubular epithelial cell, and that SLC23A1 alone is responsible for ascorbic acid uptake across the apical membrane. These findings reiterate the physiological importance of proper functioning of SLC23A1 in maintaining vitamin C levels for health and disease prevention. The ascorbate efflux mechanism in the proximal tubule of the kidney remains to be characterized. PMID:24400138

  3. Catalase overexpression prevents hypertension and tubular apoptosis in angiotensinogen transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Godin, Nicolas; Liu, Fang; Lau, Garnet J; Brezniceanu, Marie-Luise; Chénier, Isabelle; Filep, Janos G; Ingelfinger, Julie R; Zhang, Shao-Ling; Chan, John S D

    2010-06-01

    Transgenic mice that overexpress angiotensinogen, the sole precursor of angiotensins, in their renal proximal tubular cells develop hypertension, albuminuria, and tubular apoptosis. These pathological changes are due to enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species in the proximal tubule cells. Here, we determined whether overexpression of catalase to decrease oxidant injury in the proximal tubular cells could reverse these abnormalities. Double-transgenic mice specifically overexpressing angiotensinogen and catalase in their renal proximal tubular cells were created by cross-breeding the single transgenics. Non-transgenic littermates served as controls. Overexpression of catalase prevented hypertension, albuminuria, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and tubular apoptosis in the angiotensinogen transgenic mice. Furthermore, the double transgenics had lower reactive oxygen species generation and reduced pro-fibrotic and apoptotic gene expression in the renal proximal tubular cells. Renal angiotensin converting enzyme-2 expression and urinary angiotensin 1-7 levels were downregulated in the single but normal in the double-transgenic mice. Thus, we suggest that the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system and reactive oxygen species generation have an important role in the development of hypertension and renal injury.

  4. Albumin Is Recycled from the Primary Urine by Tubular Transcytosis

    PubMed Central

    Tenten, Verena; Menzel, Sylvia; Kunter, Uta; Sicking, Eva-Maria; van Roeyen, Claudia R. C.; Sanden, Silja K.; Kaldenbach, Michaela; Boor, Peter; Fuss, Astrid; Uhlig, Sandra; Lanzmich, Regina; Willemsen, Brigith; Dijkman, Henry; Grepl, Martin; Wild, Klemens; Kriz, Wilhelm; Smeets, Bart; Floege, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Under physiologic conditions, significant amounts of plasma protein pass the renal filter and are reabsorbed by proximal tubular cells, but it is not clear whether the endocytosed protein, particularly albumin, is degraded in lysosomes or returned to the circulatory system intact. To resolve this question, a transgenic mouse with podocyte-specific expression of doxycycline-inducible tagged murine albumin was developed. To assess potential glomerular backfiltration, two types of albumin with different charges were expressed. On administration of doxycycline, podocytes expressed either of the two types of transgenic albumin, which were secreted into the primary filtrate and reabsorbed by proximal tubular cells, resulting in serum accumulation. Renal transplantation experiments confirmed that extrarenal transcription of transgenic albumin was unlikely to account for these results. Genetic deletion of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), which rescues albumin and IgG from lysosomal degradation, abolished transcytosis of both types of transgenic albumin and IgG in proximal tubular cells. In summary, we provide evidence of a transcytosis within the kidney tubular system that protects albumin and IgG from lysosomal degradation, allowing these proteins to be recycled intact. PMID:23970123

  5. Cell swelling, co-transport activation and potassium conductance in isolated perfused rabbit kidney proximal tubules.

    PubMed Central

    Beck, J S; Potts, D J

    1990-01-01

    1. Isolated, perfused rabbit proximal tubules were used to study the effects of activation of the apical membrane sodium co-transporters, and of the effects of osmotically induced cell swelling, upon cell volume, basolateral membrane potential and apparent partial conductance of potassium. 2. Activation of electrogenic apical sodium co-transport caused a depolarization of the basolateral membrane and a reduction of the basolateral apparent potassium transference number. This was followed by a spontaneous partial recovery of potential and increase in apparent potassium transference number. 3. Stimulation of apical sodium co-transport led to a sustained increase in cell volume. 4. A sustained increase in cell volume (of similar magnitude to that seen after activation of apical membrane sodium co-transporters) was also caused by reduction of bath and perfusate osmolality by removal of 89 mmol l-1 mannitol from both lumen and bath solutions. 5. This reduction in bath and perfusate osmolality also led to a basolateral membrane hyperpolarization and an increase in basolateral apparent potassium transference number. 6. These observations support the possibility that some of the partial recovery of basolateral membrane potential (Vb1) during apical sodium co-transport stimulation is due to a cell volume sensitive change in basolateral potassium conductance. PMID:2213582

  6. Generous economic investments after basolateral amygdala damage

    PubMed Central

    van Honk, Jack; Eisenegger, Christoph; Terburg, David; Stein, Dan J.; Morgan, Barak

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary economic models hold that instrumental and impulsive behaviors underlie human social decision making. The amygdala is assumed to be involved in social-economic behavior, but its role in human behavior is poorly understood. Rodent research suggests that the basolateral amygdala (BLA) subserves instrumental behaviors and regulates the central-medial amygdala, which subserves impulsive behaviors. The human amygdala, however, typically is investigated as a single unit. If these rodent data could be translated to humans, selective dysfunction of the human BLA might constrain instrumental social-economic decisions and result in more impulsive social-economic choice behavior. Here we show that humans with selective BLA damage and a functional central-medial amygdala invest nearly 100% more money in unfamiliar others in a trust game than do healthy controls. We furthermore show that this generosity is not caused by risk-taking deviations in nonsocial contexts. Moreover, these BLA-damaged subjects do not expect higher returns or perceive people as more trustworthy, implying that their generous investments are not instrumental in nature. These findings suggest that the human BLA is essential for instrumental behaviors in social-economic interactions. PMID:23341614

  7. Cystinosis (ctns) zebrafish mutant shows pronephric glomerular and tubular dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Elmonem, Mohamed A.; Khalil, Ramzi; Khodaparast, Ladan; Khodaparast, Laleh; Arcolino, Fanny O.; Morgan, Joseph; Pastore, Anna; Tylzanowski, Przemko; Ny, Annelii; Lowe, Martin; de Witte, Peter A.; Baelde, Hans J.; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P.; Levtchenko, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The human ubiquitous protein cystinosin is responsible for transporting the disulphide amino acid cystine from the lysosomal compartment into the cytosol. In humans, Pathogenic mutations of CTNS lead to defective cystinosin function, intralysosomal cystine accumulation and the development of cystinosis. Kidneys are initially affected with generalized proximal tubular dysfunction (renal Fanconi syndrome), then the disease rapidly affects glomeruli and progresses towards end stage renal failure and multiple organ dysfunction. Animal models of cystinosis are limited, with only a Ctns knockout mouse reported, showing cystine accumulation and late signs of tubular dysfunction but lacking the glomerular phenotype. We established and characterized a mutant zebrafish model with a homozygous nonsense mutation (c.706 C > T; p.Q236X) in exon 8 of ctns. Cystinotic mutant larvae showed cystine accumulation, delayed development, and signs of pronephric glomerular and tubular dysfunction mimicking the early phenotype of human cystinotic patients. Furthermore, cystinotic larvae showed a significantly increased rate of apoptosis that could be ameliorated with cysteamine, the human cystine depleting therapy. Our data demonstrate that, ctns gene is essential for zebrafish pronephric podocyte and proximal tubular function and that the ctns-mutant can be used for studying the disease pathogenic mechanisms and for testing novel therapies for cystinosis. PMID:28198397

  8. Expression of cleaved caspase-3 in renal tubular cells in Plasmodium falciparum malaria patients.

    PubMed

    Wichapoon, Benjamas; Punsawad, Chuchard; Viriyavejakul, Parnpen

    2017-01-01

    In Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the clinical manifestation of acute kidney injury (AKI) is commonly associated with acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in the kidney tissues. Renal tubular cells often exhibit various degrees of cloudy swelling, cell degeneration, and frank necrosis. To study individual cell death, this study evaluates the degree of renal tubular necrosis in association with apoptosis in malarial kidneys. Kidney tissues from P. falciparum malaria with AKI (10 cases), and without AKI (10 cases) were evaluated for tubular pathology. Normal kidney tissues from 10 cases served as controls. Tubular necrosis was assessed quantitatively in kidney tissues infected with P. falciparum malaria, based on histopathological evaluation. In addition, the occurrence of apoptosis was investigated using cleaved caspase-3 marker. Correlation between tubular necrosis and apoptosis was analyzed. Tubular necrosis was found to be highest in P. falciparum malaria patients with AKI (36.44% ± 3.21), compared to non-AKI (15.88% ± 1.63) and control groups (2.58% ± 0.39) (all p < 0.001). In the AKI group, the distal tubules showed a significantly higher degree of tubular necrosis than the proximal tubules (p = 0.021) and collecting tubules (p = 0.033). Tubular necrosis was significantly correlated with the level of serum creatinine (r = 0.596, p = 0.006), and the occurrence of apoptosis (r = 0.681, p = 0.001). In malarial AKI, the process of apoptosis occurs in ATN. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  9. Tapered, tubular polyester fabric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapointe, Donat J. E. (Inventor); Wright, Lawrence T. (Inventor); Vincent, Laurence J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A tapered tubular polyester sleeve is described to serve as the flexible foundation for a spacesuit limb covering. The tube has a large end and a small end with a length to be determined. The ratio of taper is also determined by scale factors. All the warp yarns extend to the large end. A requisite number of warp yarns extend the full length of the sleeve. Other warp yarns extend from the large end but are terminated along the length of the sleeve. It is then woven with a filling yarn which extends in a full circle along the full length of the sleeve to thereby define the tapered sleeve. The sleeve after fabrication is then placed on a mandrel, heated in an oven, and then attached to the arm or other limb of the spacesuit.

  10. Tapered, tubular polyester fabric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPointe, Donat J. E. (Inventor); Vincent, Laurence J. (Inventor); Wright, Lawrence T. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A tapered tubular polyester sleeve as set forth. It has a large end 12 and a small end 14 with a length to be determined. The ratio of taper is also determined by scale factors. All the warp yarns extend to the large end 12. A requisite number of warp yarns 16 extend the full length of the sleeve. Other warp yarns exemplified at 18, 22, 26, 28, 30 and 32 extend from the large end but are terminated along the length of the sleeve. It is then woven with a filling yarn 40 which extends in a full circle along the full length of the sleeve to thereby define the tapered sleeve. The sleeve after fabrication is then placed on a mandrel 42, heated in an oven 44 and is thereafter placed on the arm or other limb of a space suit exemplified at 50.

  11. Expandable tubulars for use in geologic structures

    DOEpatents

    Spray, Jeffery A.; Svedeman, Steven; Walter, David; Mckeighan, Peter; Siebanaler, Shane; Dewhurst, Peter; Hobson, Steven; Foss, Doug; Wirz, Holger; Sharpe, Aaron; Apostal, Michael

    2014-08-12

    An expandable tubular includes a plurality of leaves formed from sheet material that have curved surfaces. The leaves extend around a portion or fully around the diameter of the tubular structure. Some of the adjacent leaves of the tubular are coupled together. The tubular is compressed to a smaller diameter so that it can be inserted through previously deployed tubular assemblies. Once the tubular is properly positioned, it is deployed and coupled or not coupled to a previously deployed tubular assembly. The tubular is useful for all types of wells and boreholes.

  12. Urinary proteins of tubular origin: basic immunochemical and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Scherberich, J E

    1990-01-01

    A variety of tubular marker proteins, as compared to healthy controls, are excreted at an increased rate in the urine of patients with renal damage. Beside cytoplasmic glutathione-S-transferase and lysosomal beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (beta-NAG) the majority of kidney-related urine proteins derives from membrane surface components of the most vulnerable proximal tubule epithelia, among them ala-(leu-gly)-aminopeptidase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), the tubular portion of angiotensinase A, the major brush border glycoprotein 'SGP-240' and adenosine-deaminase-binding protein. Urinary tissue proteins, e.g. brush border (BB) microvilli, are immunologically identical with those antigens prepared from cell membranes of the human kidney itself. BB antigens are shed into the urine of patients with glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, systemic diseases, e.g. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), diabetes mellitus and multiple myeloma, arterial hypertension, infectious diseases (malaria, AIDS) and after operations, renal grafting and administration of X-ray contrast media, aminoglycosides or certain cytostatics (cis-platinum). Tissue proteinuria of tubular proteins is determined by enzyme-kinetic or quantitative immunological assays applying either poly- or monoclonal antikidney antibodies. Clinical, ultrastructural and histochemical studies support the idea that both 'soluble' and high-molecular-weight membrane particles (vacuolar blebs, greater than 10(6) dalton) as well as microfilamental components of the epithelial cytoskeleton contribute to tubular 'histuria' which appears as a sensitive parameter in monitoring tubular damage under clinical conditions at a very early phase.

  13. The rebirth of interest in renal tubular function.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, Jerome; Grantham, Jared J

    2016-06-01

    The measurement of glomerular filtration rate by the clearance of inulin or creatinine has evolved over the past 50 years into an estimated value based solely on plasma creatinine concentration. We have examined some of the misconceptions and misunderstandings of the classification of renal disease and its course, which have followed this evolution. Furthermore, renal plasma flow and tubular function, which in the past were estimated by the clearance of the exogenous aryl amine, para-aminohippurate, are no longer measured. Over the past decade, studies in experimental animals with reduced nephron mass and in patients with reduced renal function have identified small gut-derived, protein-bound uremic retention solutes ("uremic toxins") that are poorly filtered but are secreted into the lumen by organic anion transporters (OATs) in the proximal renal tubule. These are not effectively removed by conventional hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Residual renal function, urine produced in patients with advanced renal failure or undergoing dialysis treatment, may represent, at least in part, secretion of fluid and uremic toxins, such as indoxyl sulfate, mediated by proximal tubule OATs and might serve as a useful survival function. In light of this new evidence of the physiological role of proximal tubule OATs, we suggest that measurement of renal tubular function and renal plasma flow may be of considerable value in understanding and managing chronic kidney disease. Data obtained in normal subjects indicate that renal plasma flow and renal tubular function might be measured by the clearance of the endogenous aryl amine, hippurate.

  14. Postsynaptic targets of somatostatin-containing interneurons in the rat basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Muller, Jay F; Mascagni, Franco; McDonald, Alexander J

    2007-01-20

    The basolateral amygdala contains several subpopulations of inhibitory interneurons that can be distinguished on the basis of their content of calcium-binding proteins or peptides. Although previous studies have shown that interneuronal subpopulations containing parvalbumin (PV) or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) innervate distinct postsynaptic domains of pyramidal cells as well as other interneurons, very little is known about the synaptic outputs of the interneuronal subpopulation that expresses somatostatin (SOM). The present study utilized dual-labeling immunocytochemical techniques at the light and electron microscopic levels to analyze the innervation of pyramidal cells, PV+ interneurons, and VIP+ interneurons in the anterior basolateral amygdalar nucleus (BLa) by SOM+ axon terminals. Pyramidal cell somata and dendrites were selectively labeled with antibodies to calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK); previous studies have shown that the vast majority of dendritic spines, whether CAMK+ or not, arise from pyramidal cells. Almost all SOM+ axon terminals formed symmetrical synapses. The main postsynaptic targets of SOM+ terminals were small-caliber CaMK+ dendrites and dendritic spines, some of which were CaMK+. These SOM+ synapses with dendrites were often in close proximity to asymmetrical (excitatory) synapses to these same structures formed by unlabeled terminals. Few SOM+ terminals formed synapses with CaMK+ pyramidal cell somata or large-caliber (proximal) dendrites. Likewise, only 15% of SOM+ terminals formed synapses with PV+, VIP+, or SOM+ interneurons. These findings suggest that inhibitory inputs from SOM+ interneurons may interact with excitatory inputs to pyramidal cell distal dendrites in the BLa. These interactions might affect synaptic plasticity related to emotional learning.

  15. MDM2 prevents spontaneous tubular epithelial cell death and acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Thomasova, Dana; Ebrahim, Martrez; Fleckinger, Kristina; Li, Moying; Molnar, Jakob; Popper, Bastian; Liapis, Helen; Kotb, Ahmed M; Siegerist, Florian; Endlich, Nicole; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Murine double minute-2 (MDM2) is an E3-ubiquitin ligase and the main negative regulator of tumor suppressor gene p53. MDM2 has also a non-redundant function as a modulator of NF-kB signaling. As such it promotes proliferation and inflammation. MDM2 is highly expressed in the unchallenged tubular epithelial cells and we hypothesized that MDM2 is necessary for their survival and homeostasis. MDM2 knockdown by siRNA or by genetic depletion resulted in demise of tubular cells in vitro. This phenotype was completely rescued by concomitant knockdown of p53, thus suggesting p53 dependency. In vivo experiments in the zebrafish model demonstrated that the tubulus cells of the larvae undergo cell death after the knockdown of mdm2. Doxycycline-induced deletion of MDM2 in tubular cell-specific MDM2-knockout mice Pax8rtTa-cre; MDM2f/f caused acute kidney injury with increased plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen and sharp decline of glomerular filtration rate. Histological analysis showed massive swelling of renal tubular cells and later their loss and extensive tubular dilation, markedly in proximal tubules. Ultrastructural changes of tubular epithelial cells included swelling of the cytoplasm and mitochondria with the loss of cristae and their transformation in the vacuoles. The pathological phenotype of the tubular cell-specific MDM2-knockout mouse model was completely rescued by co-deletion of p53. Tubular epithelium compensates only partially for the cell loss caused by MDM2 depletion by proliferation of surviving tubular cells, with incomplete MDM2 deletion, but rather mesenchymal healing occurs. We conclude that MDM2 is a non-redundant survival factor for proximal tubular cells by protecting them from spontaneous p53 overexpression-related cell death. PMID:27882940

  16. Tubular organ epithelialisation

    PubMed Central

    Saksena, Rhea; Gao, Chuanyu; Wicox, Mathew; de Mel, Achala

    2016-01-01

    Hollow, tubular organs including oesophagus, trachea, stomach, intestine, bladder and urethra may require repair or replacement due to disease. Current treatment is considered an unmet clinical need, and tissue engineering strategies aim to overcome these by fabricating synthetic constructs as tissue replacements. Smart, functionalised synthetic materials can act as a scaffold base of an organ and multiple cell types, including stem cells can be used to repopulate these scaffolds to replace or repair the damaged or diseased organs. Epithelial cells have not yet completely shown to have efficacious cell–scaffold interactions or good functionality in artificial organs, thus limiting the success of tissue-engineered grafts. Epithelial cells play an essential part of respective organs to maintain their function. Without successful epithelialisation, hollow organs are liable to stenosis, collapse, extensive fibrosis and infection that limit patency. It is clear that the source of cells and physicochemical properties of scaffolds determine the successful epithelialisation. This article presents a review of tissue engineering studies on oesophagus, trachea, stomach, small intestine, bladder and urethral constructs conducted to actualise epithelialised grafts. PMID:28228931

  17. Tubular organ epithelialisation.

    PubMed

    Saksena, Rhea; Gao, Chuanyu; Wicox, Mathew; de Mel, Achala

    2016-01-01

    Hollow, tubular organs including oesophagus, trachea, stomach, intestine, bladder and urethra may require repair or replacement due to disease. Current treatment is considered an unmet clinical need, and tissue engineering strategies aim to overcome these by fabricating synthetic constructs as tissue replacements. Smart, functionalised synthetic materials can act as a scaffold base of an organ and multiple cell types, including stem cells can be used to repopulate these scaffolds to replace or repair the damaged or diseased organs. Epithelial cells have not yet completely shown to have efficacious cell-scaffold interactions or good functionality in artificial organs, thus limiting the success of tissue-engineered grafts. Epithelial cells play an essential part of respective organs to maintain their function. Without successful epithelialisation, hollow organs are liable to stenosis, collapse, extensive fibrosis and infection that limit patency. It is clear that the source of cells and physicochemical properties of scaffolds determine the successful epithelialisation. This article presents a review of tissue engineering studies on oesophagus, trachea, stomach, small intestine, bladder and urethral constructs conducted to actualise epithelialised grafts.

  18. Mars Life? - Microscopic Tubular Structures

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-08-09

    This electron microscope image shows tubular structures of likely Martian origin. These structures are very similar in size and shape to extremely tiny microfossils found in some Earth rocks. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00287

  19. Congenital myopathy with tubular aggregates and tubulofilamentous IBM-type inclusions.

    PubMed

    Fidziańska, A; Kamińska, A; Ryniewicz, B

    2005-02-01

    We report on a 16-year-old girl with a unique neuromuscular disorder characterised by progressive proximal muscle weakness and numerous tubular aggregates, intracytoplasmic, as well as intranuclear inclusions of the IBM type in her muscle biopsy. The clinical features of the presented case, as manifested by the early childhood onset of the disease, proximal weakness, lumbar hyperlordosis, and bilateral Achilles tendon contractures, were suggestive of congenital myopathy. To the best of our knowledge, the coexistence of tubular aggregates and tubulofilamentous inclusions of the IBM type in a child has never been described.

  20. Rap1 Ameliorates Renal Tubular Injury in Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Li; Zhu, Xuejing; Yang, Shikun; Liu, Fuyou; Zhou, Zhiguang; Zhan, Ming; Xie, Ping; Zhang, Dongshan; Li, Jun; Song, Panai; Kanwar, Yashpal S.; Sun, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Rap1b ameliorates high glucose (HG)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in tubular cells. However, its role and precise mechanism in diabetic nephropathy (DN) in vivo remain unclear. We hypothesize that Rap1 plays a protective role in tubular damage of DN by modulating primarily the mitochondria-derived oxidative stress. The role and precise mechanisms of Rap1b on mitochondrial dysfunction and of tubular cells in DN were examined in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes that have Rap1b gene transfer using an ultrasound microbubble-mediated technique as well as in renal proximal epithelial tubular cell line (HK-2) exposed to HG ambiance. The results showed that Rap1b expression decreased significantly in tubules of renal biopsies from patients with DN. Overexpression of a constitutively active Rap1b G12V notably ameliorated renal tubular mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in the kidneys of STZ-induced rats, which was accompanied with increased expression of transcription factor C/EBP-β and PGC-1α. Furthermore, Rap1b G12V also decreased phosphorylation of Drp-1, a key mitochondrial fission protein, while boosting the expression of genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidants in HK-2 cells induced by HG. These effects were imitated by transfection with C/EBP-β or PGC-1α short interfering RNA. In addition, Rap1b could modulate C/EBP-β binding to the endogenous PGC-1α promoter and the interaction between PGC-1α and catalase or mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, indicating that Rap1b ameliorates tubular injury and slows the progression of DN by modulation of mitochondrial dysfunction via C/EBP-β–PGC-1α signaling. PMID:24353183

  1. The Role of the Basolateral Amygdala in Punishment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dit-Bressel, Philip Jean-Richard; McNally, Gavan P.

    2015-01-01

    Aversive stimuli not only support fear conditioning to their environmental antecedents, they also punish behaviors that cause their occurrence. The amygdala, especially the basolateral nucleus (BLA), has been critically implicated in Pavlovian fear learning but its role in punishment remains poorly understood. Here, we used a within-subjects…

  2. The Basolateral Amygdalae and Frontotemporal Network Functions for Threat Perception

    PubMed Central

    Hortensius, Ruud; Terburg, David; Morgan, Barak; Stein, Dan J.; van Honk, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Although the amygdalae play a central role in threat perception and reactions, the direct contributions of the amygdalae to specific aspects of threat perception, from ambiguity resolution to reflexive or deliberate action, remain ill understood in humans. Animal studies show that a detailed understanding requires a focus on the different subnuclei, which is not yet achieved in human research. Given the limits of human imaging methods, the crucial contribution needs to come from individuals with exclusive and selective amygdalae lesions. The current study investigated the role of the basolateral amygdalae and their connection with associated frontal and temporal networks in the automatic perception of threat. Functional activation and connectivity of five individuals with Urbach–Wiethe disease with focal basolateral amygdalae damage and 12 matched controls were measured with functional MRI while they attended to the facial expression of a threatening face–body compound stimuli. Basolateral amygdalae damage was associated with decreased activation in the temporal pole but increased activity in the ventral and dorsal medial prefrontal and medial orbitofrontal cortex. This dissociation between the prefrontal and temporal networks was also present in the connectivity maps. Our results contribute to a dynamic, multirole, subnuclei-based perspective on the involvement of the amygdalae in fear perception. Damage to the basolateral amygdalae decreases activity in the temporal network while increasing activity in the frontal network, thereby potentially triggering a switch from resolving ambiguity to dysfunctional threat signaling and regulation, resulting in hypersensitivity to threat. PMID:28374005

  3. Calcium transport by rat duodenal villus and crypt basolateral membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, J.R.F.; Weiser, M.M.

    1987-02-01

    Rat duodenal cells were isolated sequentially to give fractions enriched for villus and crypt cells. From each of these fractions, basolateral-enriched membrane vesicles were prepared and ATP-dependent calcium uptake was studied. Calcium uptake was sensitive to temperature, was inhibited by vanadate and by A23187, and was lower in vitamin D-deficient animals. In normal animals, (UVCa)-transport was approximately twofold greater in villus-tip than in crypt cell-fraction basolateral membranes though the affinity of the uptake for calcium was similar (K/sub m/ = 0.3 M). In vitamin D-deficient animals, the crypt-to-villus gradient was reduced, and in all fractions, calcium transport was similar to or lower than that in the crypts of normal animals. Six hours after vitamin D-deficient animals were repleted with 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, a significant increase in calcium transport by everted gut sacs was present; however, basolateral calcium transport was significantly increased in only the mid-villus fractions, and no change was seen in the villus-tip fractions. Thus vitamin D appears necessary for the development of increased basolateral membrane calcium pump activity in duodenal villus cells, but not all cells in vitamin D-deficient rats are able to respond to 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol.

  4. The Role of the Basolateral Amygdala in Punishment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dit-Bressel, Philip Jean-Richard; McNally, Gavan P.

    2015-01-01

    Aversive stimuli not only support fear conditioning to their environmental antecedents, they also punish behaviors that cause their occurrence. The amygdala, especially the basolateral nucleus (BLA), has been critically implicated in Pavlovian fear learning but its role in punishment remains poorly understood. Here, we used a within-subjects…

  5. Severity and Frequency of Proximal Tubule Injury Determines Renal Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Takaori, Koji; Nakamura, Jin; Yamamoto, Shinya; Nakata, Hirosuke; Sato, Yuki; Takase, Masayuki; Nameta, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Economides, Aris N.; Kohno, Kenji; Haga, Hironori; Sharma, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    AKI increases the risk of developing CKD, but the mechanisms linking AKI to CKD remain unclear. Because proximal tubule injury is the mainstay of AKI, we postulated that proximal tubule injury triggers features of CKD. We generated a novel mouse model to induce proximal tubule–specific adjustable injury by inducing the expression of diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor with variable prevalence in proximal tubules. Administration of high-dose DT in mice expressing the DT receptor consistently caused severe proximal tubule–specific injury associated with interstitial fibrosis and reduction of erythropoietin production. Mild proximal tubule injury from a single injection of low-dose DT triggered reversible fibrosis, whereas repeated mild injuries caused sustained interstitial fibrosis, inflammation, glomerulosclerosis, and atubular glomeruli. DT–induced proximal tubule–specific injury also triggered distal tubule injury. Furthermore, injured tubular cells cocultured with fibroblasts stimulated induction of extracellular matrix and inflammatory genes. These results support the existence of proximal-distal tubule crosstalk and crosstalk between tubular cells and fibroblasts. Overall, our data provide evidence that proximal tubule injury triggers several features of CKD and that the severity and frequency of proximal tubule injury determines the progression to CKD. PMID:26701981

  6. Clinical approach to renal tubular acidosis in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P

    2011-03-01

    Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a group of disorders observed in patients with normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. There are three major forms of RTA: A proximal (type II) RTA and two types of distal RTAs (type I and type IV). Proximal (type II) RTA originates from the inability to reabsorb bicarbonate normally in the proximal tubule. Type I RTA is associated with inability to excrete the daily acid load and may present with hyperkalaemia or hypokalaemia. The most prominent abnormality in type IV RTA is hyperkalaemia caused by hypoaldosteronism. This article extensively reviews the mechanism of hydrogen ion generation from metabolism of normal diet and various forms of RTA leading to disruptions of normal acid-base handling by the kidneys.

  7. CFTR mediated chloride secretion in the avian renal proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Gary; Anttila, Ashley; Carty, Jenava; Reddy, Varudhini; Yum, Jamie; Arnason, Sighvatur S

    2012-01-01

    In primary cell cultures of the avian (Gallus gallus) renal proximal tubule parathyroid hormone and cAMP activation generate a Cl(-)-dependent short circuit current (I(SC)) response, consistent with net transepithelial Cl(-) secretion. In this study we investigated the expression and physiological function of the Na-K-2Cl (NKCC) transporter and CFTR chloride channel, both associated with Cl(-) secretion in a variety of tissues, in these proximal tubule cells. Using both RT-PCR and immunoblotting approaches, we showed that NKCC and CFTR are expressed, both in proximal tubule primary cultures and in a proximal tubule fraction of non-cultured (native tissue) fragments. We also used electrophysiological methods to assess the functional contribution of NKCC and CFTR to forskolin-activated I(SC) responses in filter grown cultured monolayers. Bumetanide (10 μM), a specific blocker of NKCC, inhibited forskolin activated I(SC) by about 40%, suggesting that basolateral uptake of Cl(-) is partially mediated by NKCC transport. In monolayers permeabilized on the basolateral side with nystatin, forskolin activated an apical Cl(-) conductance, manifested as bidirectional diffusion currents in the presence of oppositely directed Cl(-) gradients. Under these conditions the apical conductance appeared to show some bias towards apical-to-basolateral Cl(-) current. Two selective CFTR blockers, CFTR Inhibitor 172 and GlyH-101 (both at 20 μM) inhibited the forskolin activated diffusion currents by 38-68%, with GlyH-101 having a greater effect. These data support the conclusion that avian renal proximal tubules utilize an apical CFTR Cl(-) channel to mediate cAMP-activated Cl(-) secretion.

  8. Purification of basolateral integral membrane proteins by cationic colloidal silica-based apical membrane subtraction.

    PubMed

    Goode, Robert J A; Simpson, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    Epithelial cell polarity mediates many essential biological functions and perturbation of the apical/basolateral divide is a hallmark of epithelial to mesenchymal transition in carcinoma. Therefore, correct targeting of proteins to the apical and basolateral surfaces is essential to proper epithelial cell function. However, proteomic characterisation of apical/basolateral sorting has been largely ignored, due to ineffectual separation techniques and contamination of plasma-membrane preparations with housekeeping proteins. Here we describe a method that strips the apical membrane from the adherent cells and releases the intracellular contents, thereby leaving the basolateral membrane available for stringent washes and collection. Analysis of the basolateral membrane of an adherent colon adenocarcinoma cell line resulted in 66% of identified proteins being integral membrane proteins, which possessed either a transmembrane domain or lipid modification, including 35 CD antigens. Based on the abundance of peptides from basolateral marker proteins, this method efficiently captures basolateral integral membrane proteins, with minimal contamination from other membranes and basic proteins.

  9. Renal tubular function in hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed Central

    van 't Hoff, W.; Bicknell, E. J.

    1989-01-01

    Renal tubular function was assessed in a group of patients with mild hyperparathyroidism before and after a mean period of 2.7 years conservative management. It was also assessed, before and after a mean of 3.3 years following surgery in a group of patients with initially higher plasma calcium concentration. Mean maximum urine osmolality was within the accepted range as was the maximum urine plasma hydrogen ion gradient in both groups at the time of diagnosis. No significant change in renal tubular function was observed in either group over the periods of this study. Although deterioration after a long period cannot be excluded, we do not consider that regular assessment of renal tubular function is necessary in the conservative management of primary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:2616415

  10. Endocytotic Uptake of Zoledronic Acid by Tubular Cells May Explain Its Renal Effects in Cancer Patients Receiving High Doses of the Compound

    PubMed Central

    Verhulst, Anja; Sun, Shuting; McKenna, Charles E.; D’Haese, Patrick C.

    2015-01-01

    Zoledronic acid, a highly potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate used for the treatment of pathological bone loss, is excreted unmetabolized via the kidney if not bound to the bone. In cancer patients receiving high doses of the compound renal excretion may be associated with acute tubular necrosis. The question of how zoledronic acid is internalized by renal tubular cells has not been answered until now. In the current work, using a primary human tubular cell culture system, the pathway of cellular uptake of zoledronic acid (fluorescently/radiolabeled) and its cytotoxicity were investigated. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that this primary cell culture model consistently mimics the physiological characteristics of molecular uptake/transport of the epithelium in vivo. Zoledronic acid was found to be taken up by tubular cells via fluid-phase-endocytosis (from apical and basolateral side) as evidenced by its co-localization with dextran. Cellular uptake and the resulting intracellular level was twice as high from the apical side compared to the basolateral side. Furthermore, the intracellular zoledronic acid level was found to be dependent on the administered concentration and not saturable. Cytotoxic effects however, were only seen at higher administration doses and/or after longer incubation times. Although zoledronic acid is taken up by tubular cells, no net tubular transport could be measured. It is concluded that fluid-phase-endocytosis of zoledronic acid and cellular accumulation at high doses may be responsible for the acute tubular necrosis observed in some cancer patients receiving high doses of the compound. PMID:25756736

  11. Proximity fuze

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, T.R.

    1989-08-22

    A proximity fuze system is described. It includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation circuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal depending upon the light pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance from the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation.

  12. Proximity fuze

    DOEpatents

    Harrison, T.R.

    1987-07-10

    A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation circuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal depending upon the light pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance from the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation. 3 figs.

  13. Proximity fuze

    DOEpatents

    Harrison, Thomas R.

    1989-08-22

    A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation cirtcuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal depending upon the light pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance form the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation.

  14. GABAergic cell type diversity in the basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Capogna, Marco

    2014-06-01

    Here I review the diversity of GABAergic neurons in the rodent basolateral amygdala (BLA). In spite of the recent identification of the role played by certain neurons of BLA in learning and memory of fear, the diversity of GABAergic neurons has not been fully explored. I describe analogies and differences between GABAergic neurons in BLA and cerebral cortex. Emphasis is given to a comprehensive functional, neurochemical and anatomical classification of GABAergic neuron types. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dopaminergic innervation of interneurons in the rat basolateral amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Pinard, Courtney R.; Muller, Jay F.; Mascagni, Franco; McDonald, Alexander J.

    2008-01-01

    The basolateral nuclear complex of the amygdala (BLC) receives a dense dopaminergic innervation that plays a critical role in the formation of emotional memory. Dopamine has been shown to influence the activity of BLC GABAergic interneurons, which differentially control the activity of pyramidal cells. However, little is known about how dopaminergic inputs interface with different interneuronal subpopulations in this region. To address this question, dual-labeling immunohistochemical techniques were used at the light and electron microscopic levels to examine inputs from tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH+) dopaminergic terminals to two different interneuronal populations in the rat basolateral nucleus labeled using antibodies to parvalbumin (PV) or calretinin (CR). The basolateral nucleus exhibited a dense innervation by TH+ axons. Partial serial section reconstruction of TH+ terminals found that at least 43–50% of these terminals formed synaptic junctions in the basolateral nucleus. All of the synapses examined were symmetrical. In both TH/PV and TH/CR preparations the main targets of TH+ terminals were spines and distal dendrites of unlabeled cells. In sections dual-labeled for TH/PV 59% of the contacts of TH+ terminals with PV+ neurons were synapses, whereas in sections dual-labeled for TH/CR only 13% of the contacts of TH+ terminals with CR+ cells were synapses. In separate preparations examined in complete serial sections for TH+ basket-like innervation of PV+ perikarya, most (76.2%) of TH+ terminal contacts with PV+ perikarya were synapses. These findings suggest that PV+ interneurons, but not CR+ interneurons, are prominent synaptic targets of dopaminergic terminals in the BLC. PMID:18948174

  16. Basolateral Cl channels in primary airway epithelial cultures.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Horst; Illek, Beate; Finkbeiner, Walter E; Widdicombe, Jonathan H

    2007-06-01

    Salt and water absorption and secretion across the airway epithelium are important for maintaining the thin film of liquid lining the surface of the airway epithelium. Movement of Cl across the apical membrane involves the CFTR Cl channel; however, conductive pathways for Cl movement across the basolateral membrane have been little studied. Here, we determined the regulation and single-channel properties of the Cl conductance (G(Cl)) in airway surface epithelia using epithelial cultures from human or bovine trachea and freshly isolated ciliated cells from the human nasal epithelium. In Ussing chamber studies, a swelling-activated basolateral G(Cl) was found, which was further stimulated by forskolin and blocked by N-phenylanthranilic acid (DPC) = sucrose > flufenamic acid = niflumic acid = glibenclamide > CdCl(2) = 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB) = DIDS = ZnCl(2) > tamoxifen > 4,4'-dinitro-2,2'-stilbene-disulfonate disodium salt (DNDS). In whole cell patch-clamp experiments, three types of G(Cl) were identified: 1) a voltage-activated, DIDS- (but not Cd-) blockable and osmosensitive G(Cl); 2) an inwardly rectifying, hyperpolarization-activated and Cd-sensitive G(Cl); and 3) a forskolin-activated, linear G(Cl), which was insensitive to Cd and DIDS. In cell-attached patch-clamp recordings, the basolateral pole of isolated ciliated cells expressed three types of Cl channels: 1) an outwardly rectifying, swelling-activated Cl channel; 2) a strongly inwardly rectifying Cl channel; and 3) a forskolin-activated, low-conductance channel. We propose that, depending on the driving force for Cl across the apical membrane, basolateral Cl channels confine Cl(-) secretion or support transcellular Cl(-) absorption.

  17. Mars Life? - Microscopic Tubular Structures

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-08-09

    This electron microscope image shows extremely tiny tubular structures that are possible microscopic fossils of bacteria-like organisms that may have lived on Mars more than 3.6 billion years ago. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00285

  18. A Simple Tubular Reactor Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudgins, Robert R.; Cayrol, Bertrand

    1981-01-01

    Using the hydrolysis of crystal violet dye by sodium hydroxide as an example, the theory, apparatus, and procedure for a laboratory demonstration of tubular reactor behavior are described. The reaction presented can occur at room temperature and features a color change to reinforce measured results. (WB)

  19. METHOD OF FABRICATING TUBULAR UNITS

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1961-06-20

    A process is described for making a fuel element comprising a tubular jacket and fuel slugs held by the jacket in longitudinally spaced relation to one another. The jacket is lengthened as a result of being drawn down to grip the fuel slugs. As an intentional incident to this operation, the fuel slugs become longitudinally spaced from one another.

  20. A Simple Tubular Reactor Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudgins, Robert R.; Cayrol, Bertrand

    1981-01-01

    Using the hydrolysis of crystal violet dye by sodium hydroxide as an example, the theory, apparatus, and procedure for a laboratory demonstration of tubular reactor behavior are described. The reaction presented can occur at room temperature and features a color change to reinforce measured results. (WB)

  1. Phosphate transport by rat intestinal basolateral-membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Ghishan, F K; Kikuchi, K; Arab, N

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of phosphate transport across intestinal basolateral membranes of the rat were determined by using enriched preparations in which uphill Na+-dependent D-glucose transport could not be demonstrated, but ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport was present. Phosphate transport was saturable, Na+-dependent and exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Vmax. was 51.1 +/- 4.2 pmol/10 s per mg of protein and Km was 14 +/- 3.9 microM. The transport process was electroneutral. Tracer-exchange experiments and counter-transport studies confirmed the presence of a Na+-Pi carrier at the basolateral membrane. The presence of inside-positive membrane potential did not enhance phosphate uptake, indicating that the Na+ effect is secondary to the presence of the Na+-Pi carrier rather than an induction of positive membrane potential. The stoichiometry of this carrier at pH 7.4 was 2 Na+:1 phosphate, as shown by direct studies utilizing the static-head method. These studies are the first to determine the presence of a phosphate carrier at the basolateral membrane. PMID:3663094

  2. Basolateral amygdala lesions abolish mutual reward preferences in rats.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Lallement, Julen; van Wingerden, Marijn; Schäble, Sandra; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In a recent study, we demonstrated that rats prefer mutual rewards in a Prosocial Choice Task. Here, employing the same task, we show that the integrity of basolateral amygdala was necessary for the expression of mutual reward preferences. Actor rats received bilateral excitotoxic (n=12) or sham lesions (n=10) targeting the basolateral amygdala and were subsequently tested in a Prosocial Choice Task where they could decide between rewarding ("Both Reward") or not rewarding a partner rat ("Own Reward"), either choice yielding identical reward to the actors themselves. To manipulate the social context and control for secondary reinforcement sources, actor rats were paired with either a partner rat (partner condition) or with an inanimate rat toy (toy condition). Sham-operated animals revealed a significant preference for the Both-Reward-option in the partner condition, but not in the toy condition. Amygdala-lesioned animals exhibited significantly lower Both-Reward preferences than the sham group in the partner but not in the toy condition, suggesting that basolateral amygdala was required for the expression of mutual reward preferences. Critically, in a reward magnitude discrimination task in the same experimental setup, both sham-operated and amygdala-lesioned animals preferred large over small rewards, suggesting that amygdala lesion effects were restricted to decision making in social contexts, leaving self-oriented behavior unaffected.

  3. Basolateral Cl- uptake mechanisms in Xenopus laevis lung epithelium.

    PubMed

    Berger, Jens; Hardt, Martin; Clauss, Wolfgang G; Fronius, Martin

    2010-07-01

    A thin liquid layer covers the lungs of air-breathing vertebrates. Active ion transport processes via the pulmonary epithelial cells regulate the maintenance of this layer. This study focuses on basolateral Cl(-) uptake mechanisms in native lungs of Xenopus laevis and the involvement of the Na(+)/K(+)/2 Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) and HCO(3)(-)/Cl(-) anion exchanger (AE), in particular. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining revealed the expression of the NKCC protein in the Xenopus lung. Ussing chamber experiments demonstrated that the NKCC inhibitors (bumetanide and furosemide) were ineffective at blocking the cotransporter under basal conditions, as well as under pharmacologically stimulated Cl(-)-secreting conditions (forskolin and chlorzoxazone application). However, functional evidence for the NKCC was detected by generating a transepithelial Cl(-) gradient. Further, we were interested in the involvement of the HCO(3)(-)/Cl(-) anion exchanger to transepithelial ion transport processes. Basolateral application of DIDS, an inhibitor of the AE, resulted in a significantly decreased the short-circuit current (I(SC)). The effect of DIDS was diminished by acetazolamide and reduced by increased external HCO(3)(-) concentrations. Cl(-) secretion induced by forskolin was decreased by DIDS, but this effect was abolished in the presence of HCO(3)(-). These experiments indicate that the AE at least partially contributes to Cl(-) secretion. Taken together, our data show that in Xenopus lung epithelia, the AE, rather than the NKCC, is involved in basolateral Cl(-) uptake, which contrasts with the common model for Cl(-) secretion in pulmonary epithelia.

  4. Levamisole inhibits intestinal Cl- secretion via basolateral K+ channel blockade.

    PubMed

    Mun, E C; Mayol, J M; Riegler, M; O'Brien, T C; Farokhzad, O C; Song, J C; Pothoulakis, C; Hrnjez, B J; Matthews, J B

    1998-06-01

    Phenylimidazothiazoles have recently been shown to activate wild-type and mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channels in transfected cells and were proposed as therapy for cystic fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of phenylimidazothiazoles on regulated transepithelial Cl- transport in intact epithelia. T84 intestinal epithelial cells grown on permeable supports and stripped human colonic mucosal sheets were studied by conventional current-voltage clamping. Selective permeabilization of apical or basolateral membranes with the monovalent ionophore nystatin was used to isolate basolateral K+ and apical Cl- channel activity, respectively. 86Rb+ uptake was assessed for Na/K/2Cl cotransporter and Na+,K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase activity. In T84 monolayers and human colon, levamisole and its brominated derivative bromotetramisole failed to activate transepithelial secretion. In fact, these compounds dose-dependently inhibited secretory responses to the cyclic adenosine monophosphate agonist forskolin and the Ca2+ agonist carbachol. In permeabilized T84 monolayers, phenylimidazothiazoles weakly activated apical Cl- currents (consistent with their reported action on CFTR) and did not affect bumetanide-sensitive or bumetanide-insensitive 86+Rb+ uptake. Instead, they profoundly inhibited the basolateral Ba(2+)-sensitive and Ba(2+)-insensitive K+ currents. Phenylimidazothiazoles block K+ channels required for Cl(-)-secretory responses elicited by diverse pathways in model epithelia and native colon, an effect that outweighs their ability to activate apical Cl- channels.

  5. Micro-Tubular Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Michael C.; Anderson, Everett B.; Jayne, Karen D.; Woodman, Alan S.

    2004-01-01

    Micro-tubular fuel cells that would operate at power levels on the order of hundreds of watts or less are under development as alternatives to batteries in numerous products - portable power tools, cellular telephones, laptop computers, portable television receivers, and small robotic vehicles, to name a few examples. Micro-tubular fuel cells exploit advances in the art of proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells. The main advantage of the micro-tubular fuel cells over the plate-and-frame fuel cells would be higher power densities: Whereas the mass and volume power densities of low-pressure hydrogen-and-oxygen-fuel plate-and-frame fuel cells designed to operate in the targeted power range are typically less than 0.1 W/g and 0.1 kW/L, micro-tubular fuel cells are expected to reach power densities much greater than 1 W/g and 1 kW/L. Because of their higher power densities, micro-tubular fuel cells would be better for powering portable equipment, and would be better suited to applications in which there are requirements for modularity to simplify maintenance or to facilitate scaling to higher power levels. The development of PEMFCs has conventionally focused on producing large stacks of cells that operate at typical power levels >5 kW. The usual approach taken to developing lower-power PEMFCs for applications like those listed above has been to simply shrink the basic plate-and-frame configuration to smaller dimensions. A conventional plate-and-frame fuel cell contains a membrane/electrode assembly in the form of a flat membrane with electrodes of the same active area bonded to both faces. In order to provide reactants to both electrodes, bipolar plates that contain flow passages are placed on both electrodes. The mass and volume overhead of the bipolar plates amounts to about 75 percent of the total mass and volume of a fuel-cell stack. Removing these bipolar plates in the micro-tubular fuel cell significantly increases the power density.

  6. Better understanding of tubular helical buckling

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.

    1996-09-01

    Tubular buckling is a significant problem within the oil industry. Although it has been studied for many years, methods to analyze tubular helical buckling continues to appear in the literature. Several criteria have been derived and presented leading to confusion in understanding and correctly predicting tubular helical buckling. The prediction of tubular helical buckling is complicated by the fact that the tubular is confined within the wellbore. The tubular initially buckles sinusoidally, and then changes into the shape of a helix (helical buckling) as the axial load increases. Different approaches in modeling the helical buckling process and the use of energy methods resulted in those different helical buckling criteria. Helical buckling criteria proposed in the literature, as well as their derivations are discussed in this paper, to help better understand and effectively predict tubular helical buckling in engineering operations.

  7. Double breasting spongioplasty in tubularized/tubularized incise plate urethroplasty: A new technique

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Amilal; Bhat, Mahakshit; Kumar, Rajeev; Bhat, Akshita

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The main disadvantage of currently described techniques of spongioplasty is superimposition of 3 suture lines (neourethra, spongioplasty, and skin closure) which is likely to increase the chances of a fistula. We describe and evaluate the results of a double breasting spongioplasty in urethroplasty. Methods: A prospective study of 60 primary hypospadias was undertaken by double breasting spongioplasty from August 2012 to March 2014. Mobilization of the urethral plate and the spongiosum is done by creating a plane just proximal to the meatus. Double breasting spongioplasty is done after tubularization of urethral plate. First layer of spongiosum is sutured toward lateral side of the neourethra covering the suture line. A second double breasting layer is sutured over the first layer with its suture line toward the opposite side covering the suture line of the first layer; thus avoiding overlapping of suture lines of all the three layers. Results: Age of the patients varied from 10 months to 16 years with a mean and median of 3.73 and 3.50 years, respectively. Hypospadias was distal, mid, and proximal in 38, 10, and 12 cases, respectively. Chordee was noticed in 35 cases and torque in 28 cases. Overall complication rate was 5% and fistula rate was 1.66%. Conclusions: Double breasting spongioplasty avoids superimposition of suture line and adds two layers of spongiosum over neourethra, thus decreases the chances of urethral fistula and gives cylindrical shape to neourethra. PMID:28197032

  8. Tubular Dysfunction Mimicking Dent's Disease in 2 Infants Born with Extremely Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Awazu, Midori; Arai, Mie; Ohashi, Shoko; Takahashi, Hirotaka; Sekine, Takashi; Ikeda, Kazushige

    2017-01-01

    Two preterm infants, with extremely low birth weight born at gestational weeks 24 and 25, showed generalized proximal tubular dysfunction during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit, including glucosuria, low molecular weight proteinuria, phosphaturia, uricosuria, enzymuria (elevated urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase), panaminoaciduria, and hypercalciuria, associated with renal calcification. Renal tubular acidosis was not present in either patient. DNA mutation analysis for Dent's disease, performed in patient 1, was negative. Although both patients had rickets of prematurity, tubular dysfunction persisted after its resolution. Patient 2, who had severe chronic lung disease, also had elevated serum creatinine, proteinuria, and hypertension, suggesting glomerular damage. In patient 1, low molecular weight proteinuria, enzymuria, panaminoaciduria, hypercalciuria, and renal calcification were still present at the age of 8 years. In patient 2, tubular dysfunction resolved except for β2 microglobulinuria at the age of 5 years. While a reduced nephron number resulting in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is well-known, generalized proximal tubular dysfunction can also occur in infants born preterm and/or with extremely low birth weight. PMID:28203565

  9. Shear Stress-Induced Alteration of Epithelial Organization in Human Renal Tubular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Belloy, Marcy; Saulnier-Blache, Jean-Sébastien; Casemayou, Audrey; Ducasse, Laure; Grès, Sandra; Bellière, Julie; Caubet, Cécile; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Schanstra, Joost P.; Buffin-Meyer, Bénédicte

    2015-01-01

    Tubular epithelial cells in the kidney are continuously exposed to urinary fluid shear stress (FSS) generated by urine movement and recent in vitro studies suggest that changes of FSS could contribute to kidney injury. However it is unclear whether FSS alters the epithelial characteristics of the renal tubule. Here, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo the influence of FSS on epithelial characteristics of renal proximal tubular cells taking the organization of junctional complexes and the presence of the primary cilium as markers of epithelial phenotype. Human tubular cells (HK-2) were subjected to FSS (0.5 Pa) for 48h. Control cells were maintained under static conditions. Markers of tight junctions (Claudin-2, ZO-1), Par polarity complex (Pard6), adherens junctions (E-Cadherin, β-Catenin) and the primary cilium (α-acetylated Tubulin) were analysed by quantitative PCR, Western blot or immunocytochemistry. In response to FSS, Claudin-2 disappeared and ZO-1 displayed punctuated and discontinuous staining in the plasma membrane. Expression of Pard6 was also decreased. Moreover, E-Cadherin abundance was decreased, while its major repressors Snail1 and Snail2 were overexpressed, and β-Catenin staining was disrupted along the cell periphery. Finally, FSS subjected-cells exhibited disappeared primary cilium. Results were confirmed in vivo in a uninephrectomy (8 months) mouse model where increased FSS induced by adaptive hyperfiltration in remnant kidney was accompanied by both decreased epithelial gene expression including ZO-1, E-cadherin and β-Catenin and disappearance of tubular cilia. In conclusion, these results show that proximal tubular cells lose an important number of their epithelial characteristics after long term exposure to FSS both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the changes in urinary FSS associated with nephropathies should be considered as potential insults for tubular cells leading to disorganization of the tubular epithelium. PMID:26146837

  10. Shear Stress-Induced Alteration of Epithelial Organization in Human Renal Tubular Cells.

    PubMed

    Maggiorani, Damien; Dissard, Romain; Belloy, Marcy; Saulnier-Blache, Jean-Sébastien; Casemayou, Audrey; Ducasse, Laure; Grès, Sandra; Bellière, Julie; Caubet, Cécile; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Schanstra, Joost P; Buffin-Meyer, Bénédicte

    2015-01-01

    Tubular epithelial cells in the kidney are continuously exposed to urinary fluid shear stress (FSS) generated by urine movement and recent in vitro studies suggest that changes of FSS could contribute to kidney injury. However it is unclear whether FSS alters the epithelial characteristics of the renal tubule. Here, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo the influence of FSS on epithelial characteristics of renal proximal tubular cells taking the organization of junctional complexes and the presence of the primary cilium as markers of epithelial phenotype. Human tubular cells (HK-2) were subjected to FSS (0.5 Pa) for 48 h. Control cells were maintained under static conditions. Markers of tight junctions (Claudin-2, ZO-1), Par polarity complex (Pard6), adherens junctions (E-Cadherin, β-Catenin) and the primary cilium (α-acetylated Tubulin) were analysed by quantitative PCR, Western blot or immunocytochemistry. In response to FSS, Claudin-2 disappeared and ZO-1 displayed punctuated and discontinuous staining in the plasma membrane. Expression of Pard6 was also decreased. Moreover, E-Cadherin abundance was decreased, while its major repressors Snail1 and Snail2 were overexpressed, and β-Catenin staining was disrupted along the cell periphery. Finally, FSS subjected-cells exhibited disappeared primary cilium. Results were confirmed in vivo in a uninephrectomy (8 months) mouse model where increased FSS induced by adaptive hyperfiltration in remnant kidney was accompanied by both decreased epithelial gene expression including ZO-1, E-cadherin and β-Catenin and disappearance of tubular cilia. In conclusion, these results show that proximal tubular cells lose an important number of their epithelial characteristics after long term exposure to FSS both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the changes in urinary FSS associated with nephropathies should be considered as potential insults for tubular cells leading to disorganization of the tubular epithelium.

  11. Decreased renal uptake of (99m)Tc-DMSA in patients with tubular proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Beom Hee; Lee, So Hee; Choi, Hyun Jin; Kang, Hee Gyung; Oh, So Won; Lee, Dong Soo; Ha, Il Soo; Choi, Yong; Cheong, Hae Il

    2009-11-01

    Although technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA) renal scans are widely used to evaluate renal tubular mass function, the mechanism by which renal uptake of DMSA occurs is still the subject of debate. Patients with various proximal tubular disorders show markedly decreased renal DMSA uptake, even when there is normal creatinine clearance. We measured the renal uptake of (99m)Tc-DMSA 3 h after its injection in 13 patients with Dent disease or Lowe syndrome, both of which are typical proximal tubular disorders with defective megalin and cubilin-mediated endocytosis. Serial images of three patients were also obtained at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 h post-injection. The correlations between renal uptake of (99m)Tc-DMSA and creatinine clearance and the degrees of acidemia and tubular proteinuria were then evaluated. The renal uptake of (99m)Tc-DMSA was markedly decreased in all patients, and the decreased uptake was detected in all serial images. In contrast, bladder radioactivity was higher than normal in all of the serial images when compared to renal radioactivity. Additionally, the uptake of (99m)Tc-DMSA was inversely proportional to the amount of urine beta(2)-microglobulin. These results strongly suggest that DMSA is filtered in the glomeruli and subsequently undergoes megalin- and cubilin-mediated endocytosis in the proximal tubules.

  12. Mechanisms of calcium transport in human colonic basolateral membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Saksena, Seema; Ammar, Mohammad S; Tyagi, Sangeeta; Elsharydah, Ahmed; Gill, Ravinder K; Ramaswamy, Krishnamurthy; Dudeja, Pradeep K

    2002-10-01

    Human colon has been suggested to play an important role in calcium absorption especially after extensive disease or resection of the small intestine. We have previously demonstrated the presence of a carrier-mediated calcium uptake mechanism in the human colonic luminal membrane vesicles. Current studies were, therefore, undertaken to investigate the mechanism(s) of calcium exit across the basolateral membrane domain of the human colon. Human colonic basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMVs) were isolated and purified from mucosal scrapings of organ donor colons, utilizing a technique developed in our laboratory. 45Ca uptake was measured by a rapid filtration technique. 45Ca uptake represented transport into the intravesicular space as evidenced by an osmolarity study and by the demonstration of Ca2' efflux from calcium preloaded vesicles by Ca2+ ionophore A23187. Calcium uptake was stimulated by Mg2+ ATP. The kinetic parameters for ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake revealed saturation kinetics with Michaelis constant (Km) of 0.22 +/- 0.04 microM and a maximum rate of uptake (Vmax) of 0.38 +/- 0.12 nmol/mg protein/min. The Km of ATP concentration required for half maximal Ca2+ uptake was 0.39 +/- 0.04 mM. ATP-stimulated calcium uptake into these vesicles was further stimulated in the presence of calmodulin and was inhibited by calmodulin antagonist, trifluoperazine. Uptake of 45Ca into BLMVs was markedly inhibited by cis-Na+ but was significantly stimulated by trans-Na+ (40-50% stimulation). Our results demonstrate the presence of a Mg2+/ATP-dependent calmodulin-regulated Ca2+ transport system and a Na+-Ca2+ exchange process in the human colonic basolateral membranes.

  13. Differential expression of Kv3.1b and Kv3.2 potassium channel subunits in interneurons of the basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    McDonald, A J; Mascagni, F

    2006-01-01

    The expression of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 voltage-gated potassium channel subunits appears to be critical for high-frequency firing of many neuronal populations. In the cortex these subunits are mainly associated with fast-firing GABAergic interneurons containing parvalbumin or somatostatin. Since the basolateral nuclear complex of the amygdala contains similar interneurons, it is of interest to determine if these potassium channel subunits are expressed in these same interneuronal subpopulations. To investigate this issue, peroxidase and dual-labeling fluorescence immunohistochemistry combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to determine which interneuronal subpopulations in the basolateral nuclear complex of the rat amygdala express Kv3.1b and Kv3.2 subunits. Antibodies to parvalbumin, somatostatin, calretinin, and cholecystokinin were used to label separate subsets of basolateral amygdalar interneurons. Examination of immunoperoxidase preparations suggested that the expression of both channels was restricted to nonpyramidal interneurons in the basolateral amygdala. Somata and proximal dendrites were intensely-stained, and axon terminals arising from presumptive basket cells and chandelier cells were lightly stained. Immunofluorescence observations revealed that parvalbumin+ neurons were the main interneuronal subpopulation expressing the Kv3.1b potassium channel subunit in the basolateral amygdala. More than 92-96% of parvalbumin+ neurons were Kv3.1b+, depending on the nucleus. These parvalbumin+/Kv3.1b+ double-labeled cells constituted 90-99% of all Kv3.1b+ neurons. Parvalbumin+ neurons were also the main interneuronal subpopulation expressing the Kv3.2 potassium channel subunit. More than 67-78% of parvalbumin+ neurons were Kv3.2+, depending on the nucleus. However, these parvalbumin+/Kv3.2+ double-labeled cells constituted only 71-81% of all Kv3.2+ neurons. Most of the remaining neurons with significant levels of the Kv3.2 subunit were somatostatin

  14. The effect of acyclovir on the tubular secretion of creatinine in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background While generally well tolerated, severe nephrotoxicity has been observed in some children receiving acyclovir. A pronounced elevation in plasma creatinine in the absence of other clinical manifestations of overt nephrotoxicity has been frequently documented. Several drugs have been shown to increase plasma creatinine by inhibiting its renal tubular secretion rather than by decreasing glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Creatinine and acyclovir may be transported by similar tubular transport mechanisms, thus, it is plausible that in some cases, the observed increase in plasma creatinine may be partially due to inhibition of tubular secretion of creatinine, and not solely due to decreased GFR. Our objective was to determine whether acyclovir inhibits the tubular secretion of creatinine. Methods Porcine (LLC-PK1) and human (HK-2) renal proximal tubular cell monolayers cultured on microporous membrane filters were exposed to [2-14C] creatinine (5 μM) in the absence or presence of quinidine (1E+03 μM), cimetidine (1E+03 μM) or acyclovir (22 - 89 μM) in incubation medium. Results Results illustrated that in evident contrast to quinidine, acyclovir did not inhibit creatinine transport in LLC-PK1 and HK-2 cell monolayers. Conclusions The results suggest that acyclovir does not affect the renal tubular handling of creatinine, and hence, the pronounced, transient increase in plasma creatinine is due to decreased GFR, and not to a spurious increase in plasma creatinine. PMID:21192814

  15. Development and physiology of GABAergic feedback excitation in parvalbumin expressing interneurons of the mouse basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Spampanato, Jay; Sullivan, Robert K P; Perumal, Madhusoothanan B; Sah, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), action potentials in one type of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing GABAergic interneuron can evoke a disynaptic feedback excitatory postsynaptic potential (fbEPSP) onto the same presynaptic interneuron. Here, using whole-cell recordings from PV-expressing interneurons in acute brain slices we expand on this finding to show that this response is first detectable at 2-week postnatal, and is most prevalent in animals beyond 3 weeks of age (>P21). This circuit has a very high fidelity, and single action potential evoked fbEPSPs display few failures. Reconstruction of filled neurons, and electron microscopy show that interneurons that receive feedback excitation make symmetrical synapses on both the axon initial segments (AIS), as well as the soma and proximal dendrites of local pyramidal neurons, suggesting fbEPSP interneurons are morphologically distinct from the highly specialized chandelier neurons that selectively target the axon initial segment of pyramidal neurons. Single PV interneurons could trigger very large (~ 1 nA) feedback excitatory postsynaptic currents (fbEPSCs) suggesting that these neurons are heavily reciprocally connected to local glutamatergic principal cells. We conclude that in the BLA, a subpopulation of PV interneurons forms a distinct neural circuit in which a single action potential can recruit multiple pyramidal neurons to discharge near simultaneously and feed back onto the presynaptic interneuron.

  16. Relative osmotic effects of raffinose, KCl, and NaCl across basolateral cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Welling, L W; Welling, D J; Ochs, T

    1990-10-01

    Lumen-collapsed segments of rabbit S2 proximal tubule were bathed in isotonic medium and then exposed acutely to a medium made hypertonic by the addition of raffinose, NaCl, KCl, Na gluconate, K gluconate, or choline Cl. The result was a rapid efflux of water and a shrinking of the tubule, which could be measured by video techniques within the first 0.1 s. After reequilibration in isotonic medium, each tubule was then exposed to a second hypertonic medium to provide a direct comparison between two different solutes, either NaCl vs. KCl or raffinose vs. any one of the other solutes. Because raffinose is impermeant across the basolateral cell membrane, the ratio of its effect to that of another solute is a measure of the reflection coefficient (sigma) of that other solute. The following results were obtained: sigma KCl = 0.70 +/- 0.02, sigma K gluconate = 0.97 +/- 0.07, sigma Na gluconate = 0.84 +/- 0.06, and sigma choline Cl = 0.75 +/- 0.06. We previously have reported sigma NaCl = 0.56 +/- 0.07. If sigma of each salt is considered to be the arithmetic average of its component parts, and if gluconate and choline are considered to be impermeant, we also obtain sigma Na+ = 0.68, sigma K+ = 0.94, and sigma Cl- = 0.50.

  17. Renal phenotypic investigations of megalin-deficient patients: novel insights into tubular proteinuria and albumin filtration.

    PubMed

    Storm, Tina; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Frykholm, Carina; Birn, Henrik; Verroust, Pierre J; Nevéus, Tryggve; Sundelin, Birgitta; Hertz, Jens Michael; Holmström, Gerd; Ericson, Katharina; Christensen, Erik I; Nielsen, Rikke

    2013-03-01

    The reabsorption of filtered plasma proteins, hormones and vitamins by the renal proximal tubules is vital for body homeostasis. Studies of megalin-deficient mice suggest that the large multi-ligand endocytic receptor megalin plays an essential role in this process. In humans, dysfunctional megalin causes the extremely rare Donnai-Barrow/Facio-Oculo-Acustico-Renal (DB/FOAR) syndrome characterized by a characteristic and multifaceted phenotype including low-molecular-weight proteinuria. In this study, we examined the role of megalin for tubular protein reabsorption in humans through analysis of proximal tubular function in megalin-deficient patients. Direct sequencing of the megalin-encoding gene (LRP2) was performed in a family in which three children presented with classical DB/FOAR manifestations. Renal consequences of megalin deficiency were investigated through immunohistochemical analyses of renal biopsy material and immunoblotting of urine samples. In the patients, a characteristic urinary protein profile with increased urinary excretion of vitamin D-binding protein, retinol-binding protein and albumin was associated with absence of, or reduced, proximal tubular endocytic uptake as shown by renal immunohistochemistry. In the absence of tubular uptake, urinary albumin excretion was in the micro-albuminuric range suggesting that limited amounts of albumin are filtered in human glomeruli. This study demonstrated that megalin plays an essential role for human proximal tubular protein reabsorption and suggests that only limited amounts of albumin is normally filtered in the human glomeruli. Finally, we propose that the characteristic urinary protein profile of DB/FOAR patients may be utilized as a diagnostic marker of megalin dysfunction.

  18. Luminal angiotensin II stimulates rat medullary thick ascending limb chloride transport in the presence of basolateral norepinephrine.

    PubMed

    Baum, Michel

    2016-02-15

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) is secreted by the proximal tubule resulting in a luminal concentration that is 100- to 1,000-fold greater than that in the blood. Luminal ANG II has been shown to stimulate sodium transport in the proximal tubule and distal nephron. Surprisingly, luminal ANG II inhibits NaCl transport in the medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL), a nephron segment responsible for a significant amount of NaCl absorption from the glomerular ultrafiltrate. We confirmed that addition of 10(-8) M ANG II to the lumen inhibited mTAL chloride transport (220 ± 19 to 165 ± 25 pmol·mm(-1)·min(-1), P < 0.01) and examined whether an interaction with basolateral norepinephrine existed to simulate the in vivo condition of an innervated tubule. We found that in the presence of a 10(-6) M norepinephrine bath, luminal ANG II stimulated mTAL chloride transport from 298 ± 18 to 364 ± 42 pmol·mm(-1)·min(-1) (P < 0.05). Stimulation of chloride transport by luminal ANG II was also observed with 10(-3) M bath dibutyryl cAMP in the bathing solution and bath isoproterenol. A bath of 10(-5) H-89 blocked the stimulation of chloride transport by norepinephrine and prevented the effect of luminal ANG II to either stimulate or inhibit chloride transport. Bath phentolamine, an α-adrenergic agonist, also prevented the decrease in mTAL chloride transport by luminal ANG II. Thus luminal ANG II increases chloride transport with basolateral norepinephrine; an effect likely mediated by stimulation of cAMP. Alpha-1 adrenergic stimulation prevents the inhibition of chloride transport by luminal ANG II.

  19. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Proximal Tibial Bone Graft Page Content What is a bone graft? Bone grafts may be needed for various ... the proximal tibia. What is a proximal tibial bone graft? Proximal tibial bone graft (PTBG) is a ...

  20. Deletion of the Chloride Transporter Slc26a7 Causes Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis and Impairs Gastric Acid Secretion*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jie; Song, Penghong; Nakamura, Suguru; Miller, Marian; Barone, Sharon; Alper, Seth L.; Riederer, Brigitte; Bonhagen, Janina; Arend, Lois J.; Amlal, Hassane; Seidler, Ursula; Soleimani, Manoocher

    2009-01-01

    SLC26A7 (human)/Slc26a7 (mouse) is a recently identified chloride-base exchanger and/or chloride transporter that is expressed on the basolateral membrane of acid-secreting cells in the renal outer medullary collecting duct (OMCD) and in gastric parietal cells. Here, we show that mice with genetic deletion of Slc26a7 expression develop distal renal tubular acidosis, as manifested by metabolic acidosis and alkaline urine pH. In the kidney, basolateral Cl−/HCO3− exchange activity in acid-secreting intercalated cells in the OMCD was significantly decreased in hypertonic medium (a normal milieu for the medulla) but was reduced only mildly in isotonic medium. Changing from a hypertonic to isotonic medium (relative hypotonicity) decreased the membrane abundance of Slc26a7 in kidney cells in vivo and in vitro. In the stomach, stimulated acid secretion was significantly impaired in isolated gastric mucosa and in the intact organ. We propose that SLC26A7 dysfunction should be investigated as a potential cause of unexplained distal renal tubular acidosis or decreased gastric acid secretion in humans. PMID:19723628

  1. Evaluation of water and electrolyte transport of tubular epithelial cells under osmotic and hydraulic pressure for development of bioartificial tubules.

    PubMed

    Terashima, M; Fujita, Y; Sugano, K; Asano, M; Kagiwada, N; Sheng, Y; Nakamura, S; Hasegawa, A; Kakuta, T; Saito, A

    2001-03-01

    Our aim was to develop bioartificial tubules using tubular epithelial cells and artificial membranes and evaluate the function of water and electrolyte transport by various tubular epithelial cells. The cells were cultivated onto extracellular matrix (ProNectin F) coating polycarbonate membrane. Water transport from the apical to the basolateral site of cells was examined using a modified Ussing chamber module. Water transport under colloidal osmotic pressure on the apical site and hydraulic pressure on the basolateral site were higher in JTC-12, LLC-PK1 cells than in MDCK cells. Water transport under osmotic plus hydraulic pressure was highest in LLC-PK1 cells. We made bioartificial tubules using LLC-PK1 cells and polysulfone hollow fiber cartridges. Water and Na ion transport function was high, and BUN and creatinine passage was recognized in these bioartificial tubules. BUN and creatinine concentrations of reabsorption fluid in these bioartificial tubules were significantly lower than those concentrations of control media and of noncell attached polysulfone hollow fiber cartridges. Though LLC-PK1 cells were more preferable cells for the use of bioartificial tubules in terms of water and electrolyte transport, the passage of BUN and creatinine was not appropriate for clinical use. To select more preferable cells for bioartificial tubules which transport water and electrolytes and do not induce passage of uremic toxins is necessary.

  2. Tubular aggregates: their association with myalgia.

    PubMed Central

    Niakan, E; Harati, Y; Danon, M J

    1985-01-01

    Three thousand consecutive muscle biopsies were reviewed for the presence of tubular aggregates and their association with clinical symptomatology. Tubular aggregates were detected in 19 patients (0.6%). Twelve of these nineteen patients had severe myalgia, and the most abundant tubular aggregates were found in biopsies of patients with myalgia. Seven patients had only myalgia as their clinical symptomatology with normal physical examination. An additional five patients with tubular aggregates and myalgia had concomitant amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (2) or neuropathy (3). The high incidence of myalgia associated with tubular aggregates in our patients and the fact that tubular aggregates originate from sarcoplasmic reticulum suggest a role played by this structure in the pathogenesis of myalgia. Images PMID:2995591

  3. Basolateral Na+/HCO3– cotransport activity is regulated by the dissociable Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo, Angelito A.; Kear, Felicidad T.; Santos, Anna V.P.; Ma, Jianfei; Steplock, Debra; Robey, R. Brooks; Weinman, Edward J.

    1999-01-01

    In the renal proximal tubule, the activities of the basolateral Na+/HCO3– cotransporter (NBC) and the apical Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE3) uniformly vary in parallel, suggesting that they are coordinately regulated. PKA-mediated inhibition of NHE3 is mediated by a PDZ motif–containing protein, the Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor (NHE-RF). Given the common inhibition of these transporters after protein kinase A (PKA) activation, we sought to determine whether NHE-RF also plays a role in PKA-regulated NBC activity. Renal cortex immunoblot analysis using anti-peptide antibodies directed against rabbit NHE-RF demonstrated the presence of this regulatory factor in both brush-border membranes (BBMs) and basolateral membranes (BLMs). Using a reconstitution assay, we found that limited trypsin digestion of detergent solubilized rabbit renal BLM preparations resulted in NBC activity that was unaffected by PKA activation. Co-reconstitution of these trypsinized preparations with a recombinant protein corresponding to wild-type rabbit NHE-RF restored the inhibitory effect of PKA on NBC activity in a concentration-dependent manner. NBC activity was inhibited 60% by 10–8M NHE-RF; this effect was not observed in the absence of PKA. Reconstitution with heat-denatured NHE-RF also failed to attenuate NBC activity. To establish further a physiologic role for NHE-RF in NBC regulation, the renal epithelial cell line B-SC-1, which lacks detectable endogenous NHE-RF expression, was engineered to express stably an NHE-RF transgene. NHE-RF–expressing B-SC-1 cells (B-SC-RF) exhibited markedly lower basal levels of NBC activity than did wild-type controls. Inhibition of NBC activity in B-SC-RF cells was enhanced after 10 μM of forskolin treatment, consistent with a postulated role for NHE-RF in mediating the inhibition of NBC activity by PKA. These findings not only suggest NHE-RF involvement in PKA-regulated NBC activity, but also provide a unique molecular mechanism whereby

  4. ABCC6 is a Basolateral Plasma Membrane Protein

    PubMed Central

    Pomozi, Viola; Le Saux, Olivier; Brampton, Christopher; Apana, Ailea; Iliás, Attila; Szeri, Flóra; Martin, Ludovic; Monostory, Katalin; Paku, Sándor; Sarkadi, Balázs; Szakács, Gergely; Váradi, András

    2013-01-01

    Rationale ABCC6 plays a crucial role in ectopic calcification; mutations of the gene cause pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) and general arterial calcification of infancy (GACI). To elucidate the role of ABCC6 in cellular physiology and disease, it is crucial to establish the exact subcellular localization of the native ABCC6 protein. Objective In a recent paper in Circulation Research, ABCC6 was reported to localize to the mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM) and not the plasma membrane. Since the suggested mitochondrial localization is inconsistent with published data and the presumed role of ABCC6, we performed experiments to determine the cellular localization of ABCC6 in its physiological environment. Methods and Results We performed immunofluorescent labeling of frozen mouse and human liver sections as well as primary hepatocytes. We used several different antibodies recognizing human and mouse ABCC6. Our results unequivocally show that ABCC6 is in the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes and is not associated with the mitochondria, MAM or the ER. Conclusion Our findings support the model that ABCC6 is in the basolateral membrane, mediating the sinusoidal efflux of a metabolite from the hepatocytes to the systemic circulation. PMID:23625951

  5. The Effects of Basolateral Amygdala Lesions on Unblocking

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Stephen E.; McDannald, Michael A.; Wheeler, Daniel S.; Holland, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Prior reinforcement of a neutral stimulus often blocks subsequent conditioning of a new stimulus if a compound of the original and new cues is paired with the same reinforcer. However, if the value of the reinforcer is altered when the compound is presented, the new cue typically acquires conditioning, a result called unblocking. Blocking, unblocking and related phenomena have been attributed to variations in processing of either the reinforcer, for example, the Rescorla-Wagner (1972) model, or cues, for example, the Pearce-Hall (1980) model. Here, we examined the effects of lesions of the basolateral amygdala on the occurrence of unblocking when the food reinforcer was increased in quantity at the time of introduction of the new cue. The lesions had no effects on unblocking in a simple design (Experiment 1), which did not distinguish between unblocking produced by variations in reward or cue processing. However, in a procedure that distinguished between unblocking due to direct conditioning by the added reinforcer, consistent with the Rescorla-Wagner (1972) model, and that due to increases in conditioning to the original reinforcer, consistent with the Pearce-Hall (1980) and other models of learning, the lesions prevented unblocking of the latter type. These results were discussed in the context of roles of the basolateral amygdala in coding and using reward prediction error information in associative learning. PMID:22448857

  6. Somatostatin peptides inhibit basolateral potassium channels in human colonic crypts.

    PubMed

    Sandle, G I; Warhurst, G; Butterfield, I; Higgs, N B; Lomax, R B

    1999-11-01

    Somatostatin is a powerful inhibitor of intestinal Cl(-) secretion. We used patch-clamp recording techniques to investigate the effects of somatostatin on low-conductance (23-pS) K(+) channels in the basolateral membrane of human colonic crypts, which are an important component of the Cl(-) secretory process. Somatostatin (2 microM) elicited a >80% decrease in "spontaneous" K(+) channel activity in cell-attached patches in nonstimulated crypts (50% inhibition = approximately 8 min), which was voltage-independent and was prevented by pretreating crypts for 18 h with pertussis toxin (200 ng/ml), implicating a G protein-dependent mechanism. In crypts stimulated with 100-200 microM dibutyryl cAMP, 2 microM somatostatin and its synthetic analog octreotide (2 microM) both produced similar degrees of K(+) channel inhibition to that seen in nonstimulated crypts, which was also present under low-Cl(-) (5 mM) conditions. In addition, 2 microM somatostatin abolished the increase in K(+) channel activity stimulated by 2 microM thapsigargin but had no effect on the thapsigargin-stimulated rise in intracellular Ca(2+). These results indicate that somatostatin peptides inhibit 23-pS basolateral K(+) channels in human colonic crypt cells via a G protein-dependent mechanism, which may result in loss of the channel's inherent Ca(2+) sensitivity.

  7. Renal tubular acidosis type 4 in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jakes, Adam Daniel; Baynes, Kevin; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine

    2016-03-17

    We describe the clinical course of renal tubular acidosis (RTA) type 4 in pregnancy, which has not been previously published. Renal tubular acidosis type 4 is a condition associated with increased urinary ammonia secondary to hypoaldosteronism or pseudohypoaldosteronism. Pregnancy may worsen the hyperkalaemia and acidosis of renal tubular acidosis type 4, possibly through an antialdosterone effect. We advise regular monitoring of potassium and pH throughout pregnancy to ensure safe levels are maintained.

  8. Renal tubular secretion of pramipexole.

    PubMed

    Knop, Jana; Hoier, Eva; Ebner, Thomas; Fromm, Martin F; Müller, Fabian

    2015-11-15

    The dopamine agonist pramipexole is cleared predominantly by the kidney with a major contribution of active renal secretion. Previously the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) was shown to be involved in the uptake of pramipexole by renal tubular cells, while the mechanism underlying efflux into tubular lumen remains unclear. Cimetidine, a potent inhibitor of multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins 1 (MATE1) and 2-K (MATE2-K), decreases renal pramipexole clearance in humans. We hypothesized that, in addition to OCT2, pramipexole may be a substrate of MATE-mediated transport. Pramipexole uptake was investigated using MDCK or HEK cells overexpressing OCT2, MATE1 or MATE2-K and the respective vector controls (Co). Transcellular pramipexole transport was investigated in MDCK cells single- or double-transfected with OCT2 and/or MATE1 and in Co cells, separating a basal from an apical compartment in a model for renal tubular secretion. Pramipexole uptake was 1.6-, 1.1-, or 1.6-folds in cells overexpressing OCT2, MATE1 or MATE2-K, respectively as compared to Co cells (p<0.05). In transcellular transport experiments, intracellular pramipexole accumulation was 1.7-folds in MDCK-OCT2 (p<0.001), and transcellular pramipexole transport was 2.2- and 4.0-folds in MDCK-MATE1 and MDCK-OCT2-MATE1 cells as compared to Co cells (p<0.001). Transcellular pramipexole transport was pH dependent and inhibited by cimetidine with IC50 values of 12μM and 5.5μM in MATE1 and OCT2-MATE1 cells, respectively. Taken together, coordinate activity of OCT2-mediated uptake and MATE-mediated efflux determines pramipexole renal secretion. Reduced OCT2 or MATE transport activity due to genetic variation or drug-drug interactions may affect pramipexole renal secretion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Persistent activation of autophagy in kidney tubular cells promotes renal interstitial fibrosis during unilateral ureteral obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Man J.; Ding, Han-Fei; Huang, Shuang; Hill, Joseph A.; Yin, Xiao-Ming; Dong, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Renal fibrosis is the final, common pathway of end-stage renal disease. Whether and how autophagy contributes to renal fibrosis remains unclear. Here we first detected persistent autophagy in kidney proximal tubules in the renal fibrosis model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in mice. UUO-associated fibrosis was suppressed by pharmacological inhibitors of autophagy and also by kidney proximal tubule-specific knockout of autophagy-related 7 (PT-Atg7 KO). Consistently, proliferation and activation of fibroblasts, as indicated by the expression of ACTA2/α-smooth muscle actin and VIM (vimentin), was inhibited in PT-Atg7 KO mice, so was the accumulation of extracellular matrix components including FN1 (fibronectin 1) and collagen fibrils. Tubular atrophy, apoptosis, nephron loss, and interstitial macrophage infiltration were all inhibited in these mice. Moreover, these mice showed a specific suppression of the expression of a profibrotic factor FGF2 (fibroblast growth factor 2). In vitro, TGFB1 (transforming growth factor β 1) induced autophagy, apoptosis, and FN1 accumulation in primary proximal tubular cells. Inhibition of autophagy suppressed FN1 accumulation and apoptosis, while enhancement of autophagy increased TGFB1-induced-cell death. These results suggest that persistent activation of autophagy in kidney proximal tubules promotes renal interstitial fibrosis during UUO. The profibrotic function of autophagy is related to the regulation on tubular cell death, interstitial inflammation, and the production of profibrotic factors. PMID:27123926

  10. The coupled movements of sodium and chloride across the basolateral membrane of frog skin epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, P L; Ferreira, H G; Ferreira, K T

    1989-01-01

    1. When frog skin epithelium was exposed to a chloride-free solution bathing the basolateral side of the frog skin preparation the short-circuit current fell and there was a simultaneous loss of chloride and water from its cells. This effect was partially blocked by furosemide when this drug was added to the basolateral bathing solution. 2. Under control conditions and when added to the solution bathing the basolateral side of the preparation furosemide had no effect on the ion and water contents of the frog skin epithelium. 3. Furosemide but not SITS (4-acetamide-4'-isothiocyanate-stilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid) or amiloride blocked the recovery of short-circuit current and the reuptake of chloride and water by preparations pre-incubated with chloride-free solution on the basolateral side. The recovery of the short-circuit current was also blocked by the replacement of basolateral potassium by sodium. 4. The effect on the short-circuit current of graded replacements by impermeant ions of sodium or chloride did not show saturation for concentrations of these ions up to their control values. 5. Replacement of basolateral potassium by sodium inhibited the short-circuit current and the recovery observed when potassium was reintroduced in the basolateral bathing solution was blocked by furosemide. 6. The replacement of basolateral sodium or chloride by impermeant ions induced an immediate fall in the intracellular concentrations of both sodium and chloride suggesting that the transport system coupling the movements of the two ions across the basolateral membrane is operative under control conditions. 7. It is proposed that the coupled movements of sodium and chloride across the basolateral membrane of the frog skin epithelium are mediated by a sodium-potassium-2 chloride co-transport system which under control conditions is very near equilibrium. PMID:2607456

  11. Hydrodynamic drive of tubular centrifuges

    SciTech Connect

    Tsybul'nik, A.P.

    1986-07-01

    A drive has been developed for a tubular centrifuge having a 10 kW ASTs-10-504 high-frequency electric motor with a synchronous rotation speed of 15,000 rpm. Despite a few demerits, the drive met the basic production requirements; simplicity and reliability of design, admissable rotation speed, and explosion resistance. However, this drive for tubular centrifuges had to be abandoned because experimental prototypes of high-frequency motors were used for the industrial tests and lot production of such motors is not probable in the near future. Industrial tests of a new hydrodynamic drive were performed, and the schematic diagram is shown. The hydrodrive was tested during centrifuge operation with polyester lac. It was found that the hydodynamic drive is distinguished by operational reliability and easy serviceability, holds promise for increased centrifuge speed, ensures smooth start of the centrifuge and satisfactory stability of the rotor rotation speed in the steady regime, reliably protects the motor from overloading and is fully explosion-proof.

  12. Design of hybrid composite tubulars

    SciTech Connect

    Ochoa, O.O.; Ross, G.R.; Liggett, G.M.

    1996-12-01

    Hybrid composite tubulars are one of the unique structures that illustrate the tailorability of composites to offshore operating conditions. Herein, the focus is on filament wound composite tubulars that have glass and carbon as reinforcing fibers within the same thermoset matrix. In the present research program, the multiple scales associated with the material constituents and the geometric configuration are analytically and experimentally examined. The first scale is at the micromechanics level where the interaction between the two different fiber types and the matrix are studied in terms of moisture absorption and potential debonds. Experiments are conducted on sea water saturated coupons to capture the aging effect on the material properties. The second scale is at the structural level and focuses on the optimization of the filament wound hybrid composite tube geometry. The global tube response efforts focus on the recommended stacking sequence as well as the degree of hybridization to carry combined axial and pressure loads. ABAQUS{copyright} is used to model the tube subjected to moisture and thermomechanical loads with composite shell elements. The mechanical loads considered are axial tension and internal pressure. The results to date indicate that the implementation of a progressive failure criteria in the finite element procedure accurately captures the response observed in testing of pressurized composite tubes. Structural similitude is used to relate the behavior of model tubes to candidate prototypes capable of withstanding the dynamic loads associated with currents and waves.

  13. The basolateral vesicle sorting machinery and basolateral proteins are recruited to the site of enteropathogenic E. coli microcolony growth at the apical membrane

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Gitte A.; Jensen, Helene H.; Schelde, Anne-Sofie B.; Toft, Charlotte; Pedersen, Hans N.; Ulrichsen, Maj; Login, Frédéric H.; Amieva, Manuel R.

    2017-01-01

    Foodborne Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infections of the small intestine cause diarrhea especially in children and are a major cause of childhood death in developing countries. EPEC infects the apical membrane of the epithelium of the small intestine by attaching, effacing the microvilli under the bacteria and then forming microcolonies on the cell surface. We first asked the question where on epithelial cells EPEC attaches and grows. Using models of polarized epithelial monolayers, we evaluated the sites of initial EPEC attachment to the apical membrane and found that EPEC preferentially attached over the cell-cell junctions and formed microcolonies preferentially where three cells come together at tricellular tight junctions. The ability of EPEC to adhere increased when host cell polarity was compromised yielding EPEC access to basolateral proteins. EPEC pedestals contain basolateral cytoskeletal proteins. Thus, we asked if attached EPEC causes reorganization the protein composition of the host cell plasma membrane at sites of microcolony formation. We found that EPEC microcolony growth at the apical membrane resulted in a local accumulation of basolateral plasma membrane proteins surrounding the microcolony. Basolateral marker protein aquaporin-3 localized to forming EPEC microcolonies. Components of the basolateral vesicle targeting machinery were re-routed. The Exocyst (Exo70) was recruited to individual EPEC as was the basolateral vesicle SNARE VAMP-3. Moreover, several Rab variants were also recruited to the infection site, and their dominant-negative equivalents were not. To quantitatively study the recruitment of basolateral proteins, we created a pulse of the temperature sensitive basolateral VSVG, VSVG3-SP-GFP, from the trans-Golgi Network. We found that after release from the TGN, significantly more VSVG3-SP-GFP accumulated at the site of microcolony growth than on equivalent membrane regions of uninfected cells. This suggests that

  14. The basolateral vesicle sorting machinery and basolateral proteins are recruited to the site of enteropathogenic E. coli microcolony growth at the apical membrane.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Gitte A; Jensen, Helene H; Schelde, Anne-Sofie B; Toft, Charlotte; Pedersen, Hans N; Ulrichsen, Maj; Login, Frédéric H; Amieva, Manuel R; Nejsum, Lene N

    2017-01-01

    Foodborne Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infections of the small intestine cause diarrhea especially in children and are a major cause of childhood death in developing countries. EPEC infects the apical membrane of the epithelium of the small intestine by attaching, effacing the microvilli under the bacteria and then forming microcolonies on the cell surface. We first asked the question where on epithelial cells EPEC attaches and grows. Using models of polarized epithelial monolayers, we evaluated the sites of initial EPEC attachment to the apical membrane and found that EPEC preferentially attached over the cell-cell junctions and formed microcolonies preferentially where three cells come together at tricellular tight junctions. The ability of EPEC to adhere increased when host cell polarity was compromised yielding EPEC access to basolateral proteins. EPEC pedestals contain basolateral cytoskeletal proteins. Thus, we asked if attached EPEC causes reorganization the protein composition of the host cell plasma membrane at sites of microcolony formation. We found that EPEC microcolony growth at the apical membrane resulted in a local accumulation of basolateral plasma membrane proteins surrounding the microcolony. Basolateral marker protein aquaporin-3 localized to forming EPEC microcolonies. Components of the basolateral vesicle targeting machinery were re-routed. The Exocyst (Exo70) was recruited to individual EPEC as was the basolateral vesicle SNARE VAMP-3. Moreover, several Rab variants were also recruited to the infection site, and their dominant-negative equivalents were not. To quantitatively study the recruitment of basolateral proteins, we created a pulse of the temperature sensitive basolateral VSVG, VSVG3-SP-GFP, from the trans-Golgi Network. We found that after release from the TGN, significantly more VSVG3-SP-GFP accumulated at the site of microcolony growth than on equivalent membrane regions of uninfected cells. This suggests that

  15. SEC-10 and RAB-10 coordinate basolateral recycling of clathrin-independent cargo through endosomal tubules in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sanyou; Li, Lei; Li, Jiangli; Liu, Bei; Zhu, Xinyu; Zheng, Li; Zhang, Rongying; Xu, Tao

    2014-10-28

    Despite the increasing number of regulatory proteins identified in clathrin-independent endocytic (CIE) pathways, our understanding of the exact functions of these proteins and the sequential manner in which they function remains limited. In this study, using the Caenorhabditis elegans intestine as a model, we observed a unique structure of interconnected endosomal tubules, which is required for the basolateral recycling of several CIE cargoes including hTAC, GLUT1, and DAF-4. SEC-10 is a subunit of the octameric protein complex exocyst. Depleting SEC-10 and several other exocyst components disrupted the endosomal tubules into various ring-like structures. An epistasis analysis further suggested that SEC-10 operates at the intermediate step between early endosomes and recycling endosomes. The endosomal tubules were also sensitive to inactivation of the Rab GTPase RAB-10 and disruption of microtubules. Taken together, our data suggest that SEC-10 coordinates with RAB-10 and microtubules to form the endosomal tubular network for efficient recycling of particular CIE cargoes.

  16. SEC-10 and RAB-10 coordinate basolateral recycling of clathrin-independent cargo through endosomal tubules in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sanyou; Li, Lei; Li, Jiangli; Liu, Bei; Zhu, Xinyu; Zheng, Li; Zhang, Rongying; Xu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Despite the increasing number of regulatory proteins identified in clathrin-independent endocytic (CIE) pathways, our understanding of the exact functions of these proteins and the sequential manner in which they function remains limited. In this study, using the Caenorhabditis elegans intestine as a model, we observed a unique structure of interconnected endosomal tubules, which is required for the basolateral recycling of several CIE cargoes including hTAC, GLUT1, and DAF-4. SEC-10 is a subunit of the octameric protein complex exocyst. Depleting SEC-10 and several other exocyst components disrupted the endosomal tubules into various ring-like structures. An epistasis analysis further suggested that SEC-10 operates at the intermediate step between early endosomes and recycling endosomes. The endosomal tubules were also sensitive to inactivation of the Rab GTPase RAB-10 and disruption of microtubules. Taken together, our data suggest that SEC-10 coordinates with RAB-10 and microtubules to form the endosomal tubular network for efficient recycling of particular CIE cargoes. PMID:25301900

  17. Basolateral amygdala encodes upcoming errors but not response conflict.

    PubMed

    Kashtelyan, Vadim; Tobia, Steven C; Burton, Amanda C; Bryden, Daniel W; Roesch, Matthew R

    2012-03-01

    Adaptive behavior depends on the detection of potential errors so that ongoing behavior might be corrected. Here, we ask whether basolateral amygdala (ABL) might serve this function by examining activity in rats performing a task in which errors were induced by pitting two behavioral responses against each other. This response competition or conflict was created by forcing rats to respond away from the direction in which they were freely choosing on the majority of trials. Rats were slower and less accurate on these incongruent trial types. We found that activity in ABL fired more strongly prior to errant responses, but did not signal the potential for errors on correctly performed incongruent trials. These data support a role for ABL in processing errors prior to their occurrence and suggest that ABL is not involved in monitoring conflict so that ongoing behavior might be corrected. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Tubular inverse opal scaffolds for biomimetic vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ze; Wang, Jie; Lu, Jie; Yu, Yunru; Fu, Fanfan; Wang, Huan; Liu, Yuxiao; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze

    2016-07-01

    There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially oriented elliptical pattern microstructures on their surfaces. It is demonstrated that these tailored tubular scaffolds can effectively make endothelial cells to form an integrated hollow tubular structure on their inner surface and induce smooth muscle cells to form a circumferential orientation on their outer surface. These features of our tubular scaffolds make them highly promising for the construction of biomimetic blood vessels.There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially

  19. Basolateral Cl- channels in the larval bullfrog skin epithelium.

    PubMed

    Hillyard, Stanley D; Rios, Karina; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    2002-10-01

    The addition of 150 U/ml nystatin to the mucosal surface of isolated skin from larval bullfrogs increases apical membrane permeability and allows a voltage clamp to be applied to the basolateral membrane. With identical Ringer's solutions bathing either side of the tissue the short-circuit current (I(SC)) averaged 7.60+/-0.78 micro A/cm2, and this current could be increased or decreased by imposing a Cl- concentration gradient. Fluctuation analysis of the I(SC) gave power spectra that could be fit with low- and high-frequency Lorentzian functions having corner frequencies of 1.48+/-0.06 Hz and 48.5+/-11.4 Hz, respectively. The Lorentzian plateau was minimal at the lowest I(SC) and increased as the I(SC) became greater in the positive or negative direction. Current-voltage plots with identical Ringer's on either side of the tissue showed a pattern of outward rectification. Cell attached patches of cells isolated from the skin with collagenase-trypsin treatment showed spontaneous channel activity with a conductance of 20.9 pS at a pipette potential, -Vp=20 mV. Current-voltage plots of single channels showed a similar pattern of rectification to that of the intact skin, and partial replacement of Cl- by gluconate in the pipette solution shifted the reversal potential from zero to about 40 mV, which is close to the expected shift of the reversal potential of the chloride current through a Cl- selective ion channel. These results suggest that the basolateral Cl- conductance of the larval skin is mediated by a channel with properties that resemble a volume-sensing outward-rectifier anion channel that has been described in a variety of cell types

  20. Paradoxical Facilitation of Working Memory after Basolateral Amygdala Damage

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Barak; Terburg, David; Thornton, Helena B.; Stein, Dan J.; van Honk, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Working memory is a vital cognitive capacity without which meaningful thinking and logical reasoning would be impossible. Working memory is integrally dependent upon prefrontal cortex and it has been suggested that voluntary control of working memory, enabling sustained emotion inhibition, was the crucial step in the evolution of modern humans. Consistent with this, recent fMRI studies suggest that working memory performance depends upon the capacity of prefrontal cortex to suppress bottom-up amygdala signals during emotional arousal. However fMRI is not well-suited to definitively resolve questions of causality. Moreover, the amygdala is neither structurally or functionally homogenous and fMRI studies do not resolve which amygdala sub-regions interfere with working memory. Lesion studies on the other hand can contribute unique causal evidence on aspects of brain-behaviour phenomena fMRI cannot “see”. To address these questions we investigated working memory performance in three adult female subjects with bilateral basolateral amygdala calcification consequent to Urbach-Wiethe Disease and ten healthy controls. Amygdala lesion extent and functionality was determined by structural and functional MRI methods. Working memory performance was assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III digit span forward task. State and trait anxiety measures to control for possible emotional differences between patient and control groups were administered. Structural MRI showed bilateral selective basolateral amygdala damage in the three Urbach-Wiethe Disease subjects and fMRI confirmed intact functionality in the remaining amygdala sub-regions. The three Urbach-Wiethe Disease subjects showed significant working memory facilitation relative to controls. Control measures showed no group anxiety differences. Results are provisionally interpreted in terms of a ‘cooperation through competition’ networks model that may account for the observed paradoxical functional

  1. Tubular cross talk in acute kidney injury: a story of sense and sensibility.

    PubMed

    El-Achkar, Tarek M; Dagher, Pierre C

    2015-06-15

    The mammalian kidney is an organ composed of numerous functional units or nephrons. Beyond the filtering glomerulus of each nephron, various tubular segments with distinct populations of epithelial cells sequentially span the kidney from cortex to medulla. The highly organized folding of the tubules results in a spatial distribution that allows intimate contact between various tubular subsegments. This unique arrangement can promote a newly recognized type of horizontal epithelial-to-epithelial cross talk. In this review, we discuss the importance of this tubular cross talk in shaping the response of the kidney to acute injury in a sense and sensibility model. We propose that injury-resistant tubules such as S1 proximal segments and thick ascending limbs (TAL) can act as "sensors" and thus modulate the responsiveness or "sensibility" of the S2-S3 proximal segments to injury. We also discuss new findings that highlight the importance of tubular cross talk in regulating homeostasis and inflammation not only in the kidney, but also systemically.

  2. Basolateral K channels in an insect epithelium. Channel density, conductance, and block by barium

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, JW; Wills, NK; Phillips, JE; Lewis, SA

    1986-01-01

    K channels in the basolateral membrane of insect hindgut were studied using current fluctuation analysis and microelectrodes. Locust recta were mounted in Ussing-type chambers containing Cl-free saline and cyclic AMP (cAMP). A transepithelial K current was induced by raising serosal [K] under short-circuit conditions. Adding Ba to the mucosal (luminal) side under these conditions had no effect; however, serosal Ba reversibly inhibited the short-circuit current (Isc), increased transepithelial resistance (Rt), and added a Lorentzian component to power density spectra of the Isc. A nonlinear relationship between corner frequency and serosal [Ba] was observed, which suggests that the rate constant for Ba association with basolateral channels increased as [Ba] was elevated. Microelectrode experiments revealed that the basolateral membrane hyperpolarized when Ba was added: this change in membrane potential could explain the nonlinearity of the 2 pi fc vs. [Ba] relationship if external Ba sensed about three-quarters of the basolateral membrane field. Conventional microelectrodes were used to determine the correspondence between transepithelially measured current noise and basolateral membrane conductance fluctuations, and ion-sensitive microelectrodes were used to measure intracellular K activity (acK). From the relationship between the net electrochemical potential for K across the basolateral membrane and the single channel current calculated from noise analysis, we estimate that the conductance of basolateral K channels is approximately 60 pS, and that there are approximately 180 million channels per square centimeter of tissue area. PMID:2420918

  3. Mars Life? - Microscopic Tubular Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This electron microscope image shows tubular structures of likely Martian origin. These structures are very similar in size and shape to extremely tiny microfossils found in some Earth rocks. This photograph is part of a report by a NASA research team published in the Aug. 16, 1996, issue of the journal Science. A two-year investigation by the team found organic molecules, mineral features characteristic of biological activity and possible microscopic fossils such as these inside of an ancient Martian rock that fell to Earth as a meteorite. The largest possible fossils are less than 1/100th the diameter of a human hair in size while most are ten times smaller.

  4. Mars Life? - Microscopic Tubular Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This electron microscope image shows extremely tiny tubular structures that are possible microscopic fossils of bacteria-like organisms that may have lived on Mars more than 3.6 billion years ago. A two-year investigation by a NASA research team found organic molecules, mineral features characteristic of biological activity and possible microscopic fossils such as these inside of an ancient Martian rock that fell to Earth as a meteorite. The largest possible fossils are less than 1/100th the diameter of a human hair in size while most are ten times smaller. The fossil-like structures were found in carbonate minerals formed along pre-existing fractures in the meteorite in a fashion similar to the way fossils occur in limestone on Earth, although on a microscopic scale.

  5. Response of human renal tubular cells to cyclosporine and sirolimus: a toxicogenomic study.

    PubMed

    Pallet, Nicolas; Rabant, Marion; Xu-Dubois, Yi-Chun; Lecorre, Delphine; Mucchielli, Marie-Hélène; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Agier, Nicolas; Hertig, Alexandre; Thervet, Eric; Legendre, Christophe; Beaune, Philippe; Anglicheau, Dany

    2008-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms involved in the potentially nephrotoxic response of tubular cells to immunosuppressive drugs remain poorly understood. Transcriptional profiles of human proximal tubular cells exposed to cyclosporine A (CsA), sirolimus (SRL) or their combination, were established using oligonucleotide microarrays. Hierarchical clustering of genes implicated in fibrotic processes showed a clear distinction between expression profiles with CsA and CsA+SRL treatments on the one hand and SRL treatment on the other. Functional analysis found that CsA and CsA+SRL treatments preferentially alter biological processes located at the cell membrane, such as ion transport or signal transduction, whereas SRL modifies biological processes within the nucleus and related to transcriptional activity. Genome wide expression analysis suggested that CsA may induce an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in tubular cells in vitro. Moreover we found that CsA exposure in vivo is associated with the upregulation of the ER stress marker BIP in kidney transplant biopsies. In conclusion, this toxicogenomic study highlights the molecular interaction networks that may contribute to the tubular response to CsA and SRL. These results may also offer a new working hypothesis for future research in the field of CsA nephrotoxicity. Further studies are needed to evaluate if ER stress detection in tubular cells in human biopsies can predict CsA nephrotoxicity.

  6. Drp1 dephosphorylation in ATP depletion-induced mitochondrial injury and tubular cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Gyu; Du, Quansheng; Huang, Shuang; Dong, Zheng

    2010-07-01

    Recent studies revealed a striking morphological change of mitochondria during apoptosis. Mitochondria become fragmented and notably, the fragmentation contributes to mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and consequent release of apoptotic factors. In renal tubular cells, mitochondrial fragmentation involves the activation of Drp1, a key mitochondrial fission protein. However, it is unclear how Drp1 is regulated during tubular cell apoptosis. In this study, we examined Drp1 regulation during tubular cell apoptosis following ATP depletion. Rat kidney proximal tubular cells (RPTC) were subjected to azide treatment or severe hypoxia in glucose-free medium to induce ATP depletion. During ATP depletion, Drp1 was shown to be dephosphorylated at serine-637. Drp1 dephosphorylation could be suppressed by cyclosporine A and FK506, two calcineurin inhibitors. Importantly, cyclosporine A and FK506 could also prevent mitochondrial fragmentation, Bax accumulation, cytochrome c release, and apoptosis following ATP depletion in RPTC. The results suggest that calcineurin-mediated serine-637 dephosphorylation is involved in Drp1 activation during ATP depletion in renal tubular cells. Upon activation, Drp1 contributes to mitochondrial fragmentation and outer membrane permeabilization, resulting in the release of apoptogenic factors and apoptosis.

  7. Cellular Uptake and Localization of Polymyxins in Renal Tubular Cells Using Rationally Designed Fluorescent Probes

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Bo; Azad, Mohammad A. K.; Nowell, Cameron J.; Nation, Roger L.; Thompson, Philip E.; Roberts, Kade D.

    2015-01-01

    Polymyxins are cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics that serve as a last line of defense against Gram-negative bacterial superbugs. However, the extensive accumulation of polymyxins in renal tubular cells can lead to nephrotoxicity, which is the major dose-limiting factor in clinical use. In order to gain further insights into the mechanism of polymyxin-induced nephrotoxicity, we have rationally designed novel fluorescent polymyxin probes to examine the localization of polymyxins in rat renal tubular (NRK-52E) cells. Our design strategy focused on incorporating a dansyl fluorophore at the hydrophobic centers of the polymyxin core structure. To this end, four novel regioselectively labeled monodansylated polymyxin B probes (MIPS-9541, MIPS-9542, MIPS-9543, and MIPS-9544) were designed, synthesized, and screened for their antimicrobial activities and apoptotic effects against rat kidney proximal tubular cells. On the basis of the assessment of antimicrobial activities, cellular uptake, and apoptotic effects on renal tubular cells, incorporation of a dansyl fluorophore at either position 6 or 7 (MIPS-9543 and MIPS-9544, respectively) of the polymyxin core structure appears to be an appropriate strategy for generating representative fluorescent polymyxin probes to be utilized in intracellular imaging and mechanistic studies. Furthermore, confocal imaging experiments utilizing these probes showed evidence of partial colocalization of the polymyxins with both the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in rat renal tubular cells. Our results highlight the value of these new fluorescent polymyxin probes and provide further insights into the mechanism of polymyxin-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:26392495

  8. Response of human renal tubular cells to cyclosporine and sirolimus: A toxicogenomic study

    SciTech Connect

    Pallet, Nicolas Rabant, Marion; Xu-Dubois, Yi-Chun; LeCorre, Delphine; Mucchielli, Marie-Helene; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Agier, Nicolas; Thervet, Eric; Legendre, Christophe; Beaune, Philippe; Anglicheau, Dany

    2008-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms involved in the potentially nephrotoxic response of tubular cells to immunosuppressive drugs remain poorly understood. Transcriptional profiles of human proximal tubular cells exposed to cyclosporine A (CsA), sirolimus (SRL) or their combination, were established using oligonucleotide microarrays. Hierarchical clustering of genes implicated in fibrotic processes showed a clear distinction between expression profiles with CsA and CsA + SRL treatments on the one hand and SRL treatment on the other. Functional analysis found that CsA and CsA + SRL treatments preferentially alter biological processes located at the cell membrane, such as ion transport or signal transduction, whereas SRL modifies biological processes within the nucleus and related to transcriptional activity. Genome wide expression analysis suggested that CsA may induce an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in tubular cells in vitro. Moreover we found that CsA exposure in vivo is associated with the upregulation of the ER stress marker BIP in kidney transplant biopsies. In conclusion, this toxicogenomic study highlights the molecular interaction networks that may contribute to the tubular response to CsA and SRL. These results may also offer a new working hypothesis for future research in the field of CsA nephrotoxicity. Further studies are needed to evaluate if ER stress detection in tubular cells in human biopsies can predict CsA nephrotoxicity.

  9. Role of proximal tubules in the pathogenesis of kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Nakhoul, Nazih; Batuman, Vecihi

    2011-01-01

    The proximal tubules make up a significant portion of the kidneys; proximal tubule epithelial cells are the most populous cell type in the kidney, and carry out diverse regulatory and endocrine functions where numerous transporters are located. Under normal circumstances, more than two thirds of filtered salt and water, and all filtered bicarbonate is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. A number of inherited and acquired acid-base and tubule disorders are linked to impaired transporters in the proximal tubule cells. Equally important is the intrinsic immune characteristics of proximal tubule cells that give them the ability to also function as immune responders to a wide range of immunologic, ischemic or toxic injury. It is therefore not surprising that proximal tubule-related phenomena are closely related to the pathogenesis of a vast array of kidney diseases. Many kidney diseases, acute and chronic, first manifest with proximal tubule disorders. Recent insight into molecular characteristics of transport functions in the proximal tubules, and the recognition that proximal tubule cells possess intrinsic immune responses have contributed to an improved understanding of important areas in nephrology, such as Fanconi's syndrome, renal tubular acidosis, phosphate wasting syndromes, Dent's disease, cystinuria and other amino acid transport disorders, acute kidney injury, and the role of proximal tubules in progressive kidney disease. Megalin/ cubilin-mediated endocytosis by proximal tubule cells of increased quantities of filtered proteins (protein overloading) in glomerular diseases appears to evoke cell stress responses resulting in increased inflammatory cytokines leading to tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis. Finally, the proximal tubule may be the site of both active vitamin D synthesis through the action of 1-α-hydroxylase, and the site where erythropoietin synthesis takes place. Thus, proximal tubule injury also contributes to two distressing

  10. HIV-1 vpr inhibits cytokinesis in human proximal tubule cells

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstiel, Paul; Gruosso, Tina; Letourneau, Audrey; Chan, Justin; LeBlanc, Amanda; Husain, Mohammad; Najfeld, Vesna; Planelles, Vicente; D’Agati, Vivette; Klotman, Mary; Klotman, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    HIV associated nephropathy (HIVAN) afflicts an estimated 1–3 million people worldwide and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Murine transgenic models have demonstrated that expression of HIV-1 genes in kidney cells results in characteristic HIVAN pathology: collapsing FSGS and microcystic tubular disease. While we have gained significant understanding of the podocyte disease, less is known about the tubular epithelial responses to infection. HIV-1 vpr plays an important role in the FSGS of HIVAN particularly in association with nef expression in podocytes. In addition, Vpr is reported to exacerbate tubular pathology. Therefore, we explored the effect of vpr expression on renal tubular epithelial cell function. Proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTEC) were transduced in vitro using a pseudotyped lentivirus vector carrying HIV-1 vpr and control genes. HIV-1 vpr expression in cultured PTECs impaired cytokinesis causing cell enlargement and multinucleation. Because the in vitro phenotype was so profound, we re-examined the HIVAN murine model and human HIVAN biopsies to see if similar changes could be seen in vivo. Surprisingly, both the transgenic murine HIVAN model and human HIVAN biopsies showed abundant hypertrophic tubule cells consistent with the in vitro findings. The extent of the tubular cell hypertrophy was particularly impressive and represents a previously unappreciated aspect of the disease. Additionally, multinucleated tubular cells were identified in the murine HIVAN model and increased chromosome number was detected in tubular cells in HIVAN biopsies. This study provides evidence of a new clinical phenotype in HIVAN that may result from Vpr’s ability to impair cytokinesis. PMID:18614999

  11. Cubilin is an albumin binding protein important for renal tubular albumin reabsorption.

    PubMed

    Birn, H; Fyfe, J C; Jacobsen, C; Mounier, F; Verroust, P J; Orskov, H; Willnow, T E; Moestrup, S K; Christensen, E I

    2000-05-01

    Using affinity chromatography and surface plasmon resonance analysis, we have identified cubilin, a 460-kDa receptor heavily expressed in kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells, as an albumin binding protein. Dogs with a functional defect in cubilin excrete large amounts of albumin in combination with virtually abolished proximal tubule reabsorption, showing the critical role for cubilin in the uptake of albumin by the proximal tubule. Also, by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry we show that previously identified low-molecular-weight renal albumin binding proteins are fragments of cubilin. In addition, we find that mice lacking the endocytic receptor megalin show altered urinary excretion, and reduced tubular reabsorption, of albumin. Because cubilin has been shown to colocalize and interact with megalin, we propose a mechanism of albumin reabsorption mediated by both of these proteins. This process may prove important for understanding interstitial renal inflammation and fibrosis caused by proximal tubule uptake of an increased load of filtered albumin.

  12. RAB-10 Promotes EHBP-1 Bridging of Filamentous Actin and Tubular Recycling Endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Liu, Ou; Zhang, Jing; Gleason, Adenrele; Yang, Zhenrong; Wang, Hui; Shi, Anbing; Grant, Barth D.

    2016-01-01

    EHBP-1 (Ehbp1) is a conserved regulator of endocytic recycling, acting as an effector of small GTPases including RAB-10 (Rab10). Here we present evidence that EHBP-1 associates with tubular endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] enriched membranes through an N-terminal C2-like (NT-C2) domain, and define residues within the NT-C2 domain that mediate membrane interaction. Furthermore, our results indicate that the EHBP-1 central calponin homology (CH) domain binds to actin microfilaments in a reaction that is stimulated by RAB-10(GTP). Loss of any aspect of this RAB-10/EHBP-1 system in the C. elegans intestinal epithelium leads to retention of basolateral recycling cargo in endosomes that have lost their normal tubular endosomal network (TEN) organization. We propose a mechanism whereby RAB-10 promotes the ability of endosome-bound EHBP-1 to also bind to the actin cytoskeleton, thereby promoting endosomal tubulation. PMID:27272733

  13. Tubular inverse opal scaffolds for biomimetic vessels.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ze; Wang, Jie; Lu, Jie; Yu, Yunru; Fu, Fanfan; Wang, Huan; Liu, Yuxiao; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze

    2016-07-14

    There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially oriented elliptical pattern microstructures on their surfaces. It is demonstrated that these tailored tubular scaffolds can effectively make endothelial cells to form an integrated hollow tubular structure on their inner surface and induce smooth muscle cells to form a circumferential orientation on their outer surface. These features of our tubular scaffolds make them highly promising for the construction of biomimetic blood vessels.

  14. Tubular Overexpression of Gremlin Induces Renal Damage Susceptibility in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Droguett, Alejandra; Krall, Paola; Burgos, M. Eugenia; Valderrama, Graciela; Carpio, Daniel; Ardiles, Leopoldo; Rodriguez-Diez, Raquel; Kerr, Bredford; Walz, Katherina; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Mezzano, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of patients are recognized worldwide to have chronic kidney disease. Glomerular and interstitial fibrosis are hallmarks of renal progression. However, fibrosis of the kidney remains an unresolved challenge, and its molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. Gremlin is an embryogenic gene that has been shown to play a key role in nephrogenesis, and its expression is generally low in the normal adult kidney. However, gremlin expression is elevated in many human renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy, pauci-immune glomerulonephritis and chronic allograft nephropathy. Several studies have proposed that gremlin may be involved in renal damage by acting as a downstream mediator of TGF-β. To examine the in vivo role of gremlin in kidney pathophysiology, we generated seven viable transgenic mouse lines expressing human gremlin (GREM1) specifically in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells under the control of an androgen-regulated promoter. These lines demonstrated 1.2- to 200-fold increased GREM1 expression. GREM1 transgenic mice presented a normal phenotype and were without proteinuria and renal function involvement. In response to the acute renal damage cause by folic acid nephrotoxicity, tubule-specific GREM1 transgenic mice developed increased proteinuria after 7 and 14 days compared with wild-type treated mice. At 14 days tubular lesions, such as dilatation, epithelium flattening and hyaline casts, with interstitial cell infiltration and mild fibrosis were significantly more prominent in transgenic mice than wild-type mice. Tubular GREM1 overexpression was correlated with the renal upregulation of profibrotic factors, such as TGF-β and αSMA, and with increased numbers of monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes compared to wild-type mice. Taken together, our results suggest that GREM1-overexpressing mice have an increased susceptibility to renal damage, supporting the involvement of gremlin in renal damage progression. This

  15. Tubular overexpression of gremlin induces renal damage susceptibility in mice.

    PubMed

    Droguett, Alejandra; Krall, Paola; Burgos, M Eugenia; Valderrama, Graciela; Carpio, Daniel; Ardiles, Leopoldo; Rodriguez-Diez, Raquel; Kerr, Bredford; Walz, Katherina; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Mezzano, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of patients are recognized worldwide to have chronic kidney disease. Glomerular and interstitial fibrosis are hallmarks of renal progression. However, fibrosis of the kidney remains an unresolved challenge, and its molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. Gremlin is an embryogenic gene that has been shown to play a key role in nephrogenesis, and its expression is generally low in the normal adult kidney. However, gremlin expression is elevated in many human renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy, pauci-immune glomerulonephritis and chronic allograft nephropathy. Several studies have proposed that gremlin may be involved in renal damage by acting as a downstream mediator of TGF-β. To examine the in vivo role of gremlin in kidney pathophysiology, we generated seven viable transgenic mouse lines expressing human gremlin (GREM1) specifically in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells under the control of an androgen-regulated promoter. These lines demonstrated 1.2- to 200-fold increased GREM1 expression. GREM1 transgenic mice presented a normal phenotype and were without proteinuria and renal function involvement. In response to the acute renal damage cause by folic acid nephrotoxicity, tubule-specific GREM1 transgenic mice developed increased proteinuria after 7 and 14 days compared with wild-type treated mice. At 14 days tubular lesions, such as dilatation, epithelium flattening and hyaline casts, with interstitial cell infiltration and mild fibrosis were significantly more prominent in transgenic mice than wild-type mice. Tubular GREM1 overexpression was correlated with the renal upregulation of profibrotic factors, such as TGF-β and αSMA, and with increased numbers of monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes compared to wild-type mice. Taken together, our results suggest that GREM1-overexpressing mice have an increased susceptibility to renal damage, supporting the involvement of gremlin in renal damage progression. This

  16. Synaptic Organization of Perisomatic GABAergic Inputs onto the Principal Cells of the Mouse Basolateral Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Vereczki, Viktória K.; Veres, Judit M.; Müller, Kinga; Nagy, Gergö A.; Rácz, Bence; Barsy, Boglárka; Hájos, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Spike generation is most effectively controlled by inhibitory inputs that target the perisomatic region of neurons. Despite the critical importance of this functional domain, very little is known about the organization of the GABAergic inputs contacting the perisomatic region of principal cells (PCs) in the basolateral amygdala. Using immunocytochemistry combined with in vitro single-cell labeling we determined the number and sources of GABAergic inputs of PCs at light and electron microscopic levels in mice. We found that the soma and proximal dendrites of PCs were innervated primarily by two neurochemically distinct basket cell types expressing parvalbumin (PVBC) or cholecystokinin and CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CCK/CB1BC). The innervation of the initial segment of PC axons was found to be parceled out by PVBCs and axo-axonic cells (AAC), as the majority of GABAergic inputs onto the region nearest to the soma (between 0 and 10 μm) originated from PVBCs, while the largest portion of the axon initial segment was innervated by AACs. Detailed morphological investigations revealed that the three perisomatic region-targeting interneuron types significantly differed in dendritic and axonal arborization properties. We found that, although individual PVBCs targeted PCs via more terminals than CCK/CB1BCs, similar numbers (15–17) of the two BC types converge onto single PCs, whereas fewer (6–7) AACs innervate the axon initial segment of single PCs. Furthermore, we estimated that a PVBC and a CCK/CB1BC may target 800–900 and 700–800 PCs, respectively, while an AAC can innervate 600–650 PCs. Thus, BCs and AACs innervate ~10 and 20% of PC population, respectively, within their axonal cloud. Our results collectively suggest, that these interneuron types may be differently affiliated within the local amygdalar microcircuits in order to fulfill specific functions in network operation during various brain states. PMID:27013983

  17. Hyperammonaemia with distal renal tubular acidosis.

    PubMed

    Miller, S G; Schwartz, G J

    1997-11-01

    The case is reported of an infant with hyperammonaemia secondary to severe distal renal tubular acidosis. A clinical association between increased concentrations of ammonia in serum and renal tubular acidosis has not previously been described. In response to acidosis the infant's kidneys presumably increased ammonia synthesis but did not excrete ammonia, resulting in hyperammonaemia. The patient showed poor feeding, frequent vomiting, and failure to thrive, but did not have an inborn error of metabolism. This case report should alert doctors to consider renal tubular acidosis in the differential diagnosis of severely ill infants with metabolic acidosis and hyperammonaemia.

  18. Differential uptake of Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC in renal tubular disorders: Report of two cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Reddy Gorla, Arun Kumar; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2014-01-01

    Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC studies are invaluable functional imaging modalities for renal structural and functional assessment. Normally, the relative renal function estimated by the two methods correlates well with each other. We here present two patients with renal tubular acidosis who showed impaired/altered DMSA uptake with normal EC renal dynamic study depicting the pitfall of DMSA imaging in tubular disorders. The two presented cases also depict distinct pattern of Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphic findings in patients with proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis, thus highlighting the factors affecting DMSA kinetics. PMID:25210282

  19. Differential uptake of Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC in renal tubular disorders: Report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Reddy Gorla, Arun Kumar; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2014-07-01

    Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC studies are invaluable functional imaging modalities for renal structural and functional assessment. Normally, the relative renal function estimated by the two methods correlates well with each other. We here present two patients with renal tubular acidosis who showed impaired/altered DMSA uptake with normal EC renal dynamic study depicting the pitfall of DMSA imaging in tubular disorders. The two presented cases also depict distinct pattern of Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphic findings in patients with proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis, thus highlighting the factors affecting DMSA kinetics.

  20. [Renal tubular acidosis with severe hypokalemic tetraparesis after ibuprofen intake].

    PubMed

    Gaul, C; Heckmann, J G; Druschky, A; Schöcklmann, H; Neundörfer, B; Erbguth, F

    1999-04-23

    A 72-year-old woman was admitted because of severe acute tetraparesis, more marked proximally. For six months she had been taking ibuprofen, up to 4800 mg daily, for a painful ulcer of the lower leg. Biochemical tests revealed marked hypokalaemia (serum potassium 1.4 mmol/l) with a metabolic acidosis (pH 7.29). The ECG showed changes of hypokalaemia (ST-segment depression and U wave). Within two days of administering potassium and bicarbonate the pareses completely regressed. Transitorily abnormal renal functions also rapidly normalized after ibuprofen had been discontinued. The biochemical findings suggest renal tubular acidosis, type 2, most likely caused by the excess intake of ibuprofen, a drug which can cause renal dysfunctions with life-threatening electrolyte abnormalities.

  1. Inhibitory Gating of Basolateral Amygdala Inputs to the Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    McGarry, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) regulate emotional behaviors. However, a circuit-level understanding of functional connections between these brain regions remains incomplete. The BLA sends prominent glutamatergic projections to the PFC, but the overall influence of these inputs is predominantly inhibitory. Here we combine targeted recordings and optogenetics to examine the synaptic underpinnings of this inhibition in the mouse infralimbic PFC. We find that BLA inputs preferentially target layer 2 corticoamygdala over neighboring corticostriatal neurons. However, these inputs make even stronger connections onto neighboring parvalbumin and somatostatin expressing interneurons. Inhibitory connections from these two populations of interneurons are also much stronger onto corticoamygdala neurons. Consequently, BLA inputs are able to drive robust feedforward inhibition via two parallel interneuron pathways. Moreover, the contributions of these interneurons shift during repetitive activity, due to differences in short-term synaptic dynamics. Thus, parvalbumin interneurons are activated at the start of stimulus trains, whereas somatostatin interneuron activation builds during these trains. Together, these results reveal how the BLA impacts the PFC through a complex interplay of direct excitation and feedforward inhibition. They also highlight the roles of targeted connections onto multiple projection neurons and interneurons in this cortical circuit. Our findings provide a mechanistic understanding for how the BLA can influence the PFC circuit, with important implications for how this circuit participates in the regulation of emotion. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) interact to control emotional behaviors. Here we show that BLA inputs elicit direct excitation and feedforward inhibition of layer 2 projection neurons in infralimbic PFC. BLA inputs are much stronger at

  2. Basolateral glycylsarcosine (Gly-Sar) transport in Caco-2 cell monolayers is pH dependent.

    PubMed

    Berthelsen, Ragna; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

    2013-07-01

    Transepithelial di/tripeptide transport in enterocytes occurs via the apical proton-coupled peptide transporter, hPEPT1 (SLC15A1) and a basolateral peptide transporter, which has only been characterized functionally. In this study we examined the pH dependency, substrate uptake kinetics and substrate specificity of the transporter. We studied the uptake of [(14) C]Gly-Sar from basolateral solution into Caco-2 cell monolayers grown for 17-22 days on permeable supports, at a range of basolateral pH values. Basolateral Gly-Sar uptake was pH dependent, with a maximal uptake rate at a basolateral pH of 5.5. Uptake of Gly-Sar decreased in the presence of the protonophore nigericin, indicating that the uptake was proton-coupled. The uptake was saturable, with a maximal flux (Vmax ) of 408 ± 71, 307 ± 25 and 188 ± 19 pmol/cm(2) /min (mean ± S.E., n = 3) at basolateral pH 5.0, 6.0 and 7.4, respectively. The compounds Gly-Asp, Glu-Phe-Tyr, Gly-Glu-Gly, Gly-Phe-Gly, lidocaine and, to a smaller degree, para-aminohippuric acid were all shown to inhibit the basolateral uptake of Gly-Sar. The study showed that basolateral Gly-Sar transport in the intestinal cell line Caco-2 is proton-coupled. The inhibitor profile indicated that the transporter has broad substrate specificity. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. Reduction of Tubular Flow Rate as a Mechanism of Oliguria in the Early Phase of Endotoxemia Revealed by Intravital Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Kent; Kitamura, Hiroaki; Kuwabara, Takashige; Mori, Kiyoshi; Mukoyama, Masashi; Nishiyama, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Urine output is widely used as a criterion for the diagnosis of AKI. Although several potential mechanisms of septic AKI have been identified, regulation of urine flow after glomerular filtration has not been evaluated. This study evaluated changes in urine flow in mice with septic AKI. The intratubular urine flow rate was monitored in real time by intravital imaging using two-photon laser microscopy. The tubular flow rate, as measured by freely filtered dye (FITC-inulin or Lucifer yellow), time-dependently declined after LPS injection. At 2 hours, the tubular flow rate was slower in mice injected with LPS than in mice injected with saline, whereas BP and GFR were similar in the two groups. Importantly, fluorophore-conjugated LPS selectively accumulated in the proximal tubules that showed reduced tubular flow at 2 hours and luminal obstruction with cell swelling at 24 hours. Delipidation of LPS or deletion of Toll-like receptor 4 in mice abolished these effects, whereas neutralization of TNF-α had little effect on LPS-induced tubular flow retention. Rapid intravenous fluid resuscitation within 6 hours improved the tubular flow rate only when accompanied by the dilation of obstructed proximal tubules with accumulated LPS. These findings suggest that LPS reduces the intratubular urine flow rate during early phases of endotoxemia through a Toll-like receptor 4–dependent mechanism, and that the efficacy of fluid resuscitation may depend on the response of tubules with LPS accumulation. PMID:25855781

  4. The role of the basolateral amygdala in the perception of faces in natural contexts

    PubMed Central

    Hortensius, Ruud; Terburg, David; Morgan, Barak; Stein, Dan J.; van Honk, Jack; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    The amygdala is a complex structure that plays its role in perception and threat-related behaviour by activity of its specific nuclei and their separate networks. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the role of the basolateral amygdala in face and context processing. Five individuals with focal basolateral amygdala damage and 12 matched controls viewed fearful or neutral faces in a threatening or neutral context. We tested the hypothesis that basolateral amygdala damage modifies the relation between face and threatening context, triggering threat-related activation in the dorsal stream. The findings supported this hypothesis. First, activation was increased in the right precentral gyrus for threatening versus neutral scenes in the basolateral amygdala damage group compared with the control group. Second, activity in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus, and left anterior inferior parietal lobule was enhanced for neutral faces presented in a threatening versus neutral scene in the group with basolateral amygdala damage compared with controls. These findings provide the first evidence for the neural consequences of basolateral amygdala damage during the processing of complex emotional situations. PMID:27069053

  5. The role of the basolateral amygdala in the perception of faces in natural contexts.

    PubMed

    Hortensius, Ruud; Terburg, David; Morgan, Barak; Stein, Dan J; van Honk, Jack; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2016-05-05

    The amygdala is a complex structure that plays its role in perception and threat-related behaviour by activity of its specific nuclei and their separate networks. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the role of the basolateral amygdala in face and context processing. Five individuals with focal basolateral amygdala damage and 12 matched controls viewed fearful or neutral faces in a threatening or neutral context. We tested the hypothesis that basolateral amygdala damage modifies the relation between face and threatening context, triggering threat-related activation in the dorsal stream. The findings supported this hypothesis. First, activation was increased in the right precentral gyrus for threatening versus neutral scenes in the basolateral amygdala damage group compared with the control group. Second, activity in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus, and left anterior inferior parietal lobule was enhanced for neutral faces presented in a threatening versus neutral scene in the group with basolateral amygdala damage compared with controls. These findings provide the first evidence for the neural consequences of basolateral amygdala damage during the processing of complex emotional situations. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Tubular discharge in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Karasev, V.Yu.; Semenov, R.I.; Chaika, M.P.

    1995-04-01

    Visual observations of Xe discharge glow in an axial magnetic field are described. Tubular discharge is detected in a narrow range of the parameters p, I, and H. A qualitative explanation of this effect is proposed.

  7. Treatment of well tubulars with gelatin

    SciTech Connect

    Lowther, F.E.

    1992-08-04

    This patent describes a method for treating a tubular in a well. It comprises: passing a mass of gelatin downward through the tubular; and passing the mass of gelating, upward in the well tubular toward the surface. This patent also describes a method of treating tubulars in a cased well having at least one string of tubing therein. It comprises positioning a mass in the annulus formed between the casing and the at least one string of tubing; and passing the mass downward in the annulus and in contact with both the inner wall of the casing and the outer wall of the tubing to deposit a protective layer on each of the walls.

  8. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FABRICATING TUBULAR UNITS

    DOEpatents

    Haldeman, G.W.

    1959-02-24

    A method and apparatus are described for fabricating tubular assemblies such as clad fuel elements for nuclear reactors. According to this method, a plurality of relatively short cylindrical slug-shaped members are inserted in an outer protective tubular jacket, and the assembly is passed through a reducing die to draw the outer tubular member into tight contact with the slug members, the slugs being automatically spaced with respect to each other and helium being inserted during the drawing operation to fill the spaces. The apparatus includes a pusher rod which functions to space the slugelements equidistantly by pushing on them in the direction of drawing but traveling at a slower rate than that of the tubular member.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: tubular aggregate myopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in both type I and type II fibers, forming clumps of tube-like structures called tubular aggregates. ... Hyun C, Woo JS, Park CS, Kim do H, Lee EH. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) regulates ...

  10. Increased renal tubular sodium reabsorption during exercise-induced hypervolemia in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagashima, K.; Wu, J.; Kavouras, S. A.; Mack, G. W.

    2001-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that renal tubular Na(+) reabsorption increased during the first 24 h of exercise-induced plasma volume expansion. Renal function was assessed 1 day after no-exercise control (C) or intermittent cycle ergometer exercise (Ex, 85% of peak O(2) uptake) for 2 h before and 3 h after saline loading (12.5 ml/kg over 30 min) in seven subjects. Ex reduced renal blood flow (p-aminohippurate clearance) compared with C (0.83 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.49 +/- 0.24 l/min, P < 0.05) but did not influence glomerular filtration rates (97 +/- 10 ml/min, inulin clearance). Fractional tubular reabsorption of Na(+) in the proximal tubules was higher in Ex than in C (P < 0.05). Saline loading decreased fractional tubular reabsorption of Na(+) from 99.1 +/- 0.1 to 98.7 +/- 0.1% (P < 0.05) in C but not in Ex (99.3 +/- 0.1 to 99.4 +/- 0.1%). Saline loading reduced plasma renin activity and plasma arginine vasopressin levels in C and Ex, although the magnitude of decrease was greater in C (P < 0.05). These results indicate that, during the acute phase of exercise-induced plasma volume expansion, increased tubular Na(+) reabsorption is directed primarily to the proximal tubules and is associated with a decrease in renal blood flow. In addition, saline infusion caused a smaller reduction in fluid-regulating hormones in Ex. The attenuated volume-regulatory response acts to preserve distal tubular Na(+) reabsorption during saline infusion 24 h after exercise.

  11. Increased renal tubular sodium reabsorption during exercise-induced hypervolemia in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagashima, K.; Wu, J.; Kavouras, S. A.; Mack, G. W.

    2001-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that renal tubular Na(+) reabsorption increased during the first 24 h of exercise-induced plasma volume expansion. Renal function was assessed 1 day after no-exercise control (C) or intermittent cycle ergometer exercise (Ex, 85% of peak O(2) uptake) for 2 h before and 3 h after saline loading (12.5 ml/kg over 30 min) in seven subjects. Ex reduced renal blood flow (p-aminohippurate clearance) compared with C (0.83 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.49 +/- 0.24 l/min, P < 0.05) but did not influence glomerular filtration rates (97 +/- 10 ml/min, inulin clearance). Fractional tubular reabsorption of Na(+) in the proximal tubules was higher in Ex than in C (P < 0.05). Saline loading decreased fractional tubular reabsorption of Na(+) from 99.1 +/- 0.1 to 98.7 +/- 0.1% (P < 0.05) in C but not in Ex (99.3 +/- 0.1 to 99.4 +/- 0.1%). Saline loading reduced plasma renin activity and plasma arginine vasopressin levels in C and Ex, although the magnitude of decrease was greater in C (P < 0.05). These results indicate that, during the acute phase of exercise-induced plasma volume expansion, increased tubular Na(+) reabsorption is directed primarily to the proximal tubules and is associated with a decrease in renal blood flow. In addition, saline infusion caused a smaller reduction in fluid-regulating hormones in Ex. The attenuated volume-regulatory response acts to preserve distal tubular Na(+) reabsorption during saline infusion 24 h after exercise.

  12. Mesencephalic basolateral domain specification is dependent on Sonic Hedgehog

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Lopez, Jesus E.; Moreno-Bravo, Juan A.; Madrigal, M. Pilar; Martinez, Salvador; Puelles, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In the study of central nervous system morphogenesis, the identification of new molecular markers allows us to identify domains along the antero-posterior and dorso-ventral (DV) axes. In the past years, the alar and basal plates of the midbrain have been divided into different domains. The precise location of the alar-basal boundary is still under discussion. We have identified Barhl1, Nhlh1 and Six3 as appropriate molecular markers to the adjacent domains of this transition. The description of their expression patterns and the contribution to the different mesencephalic populations corroborated their role in the specification of these domains. We studied the influence of Sonic Hedgehog on these markers and therefore on the specification of these territories. The lack of this morphogen produced severe alterations in the expression pattern of Barhl1 and Nhlh1 with consequent misspecification of the basolateral (BL) domain. Six3 expression was apparently unaffected, however its distribution changed leading to altered basal domains. In this study we confirmed the localization of the alar-basal boundary dorsal to the BL domain and demonstrated that the development of the BL domain highly depends on Shh. PMID:25741244

  13. Altered Basolateral Amygdala Encoding in an Animal Model of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Alex; Burton, Amanda C.; O'Donnell, Patricio; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that schizophrenia results, in part, from the inappropriate or spurious attribution of salience to cues in the environment. We have recently reported neural correlates of salience in the basolateral amygdala (ABL) of rats during learning in an odor-guided discrimination task. Here we tested whether this dopamine-dependent salience signal is altered in rats with neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions (NVHLs), a rodent model of schizophrenia. We found that ABL signals related to violations in reward prediction were only mildly affected by NVHL; however, neurons in rats with NVHLs showed significantly stronger selectivity during odor sampling, particularly for the more salient large-reward cue. The elevated cue-evoked activity in NVHL rats was correlated with heightened orienting behavior and also with changes in firing to the shifts in reward, suggesting that it reflected abnormal signaling of the large reward-predicting cue's salience. These results are broadly consistent with the proposal that schizophrenics suffer from enhanced signaling of salience. PMID:25904791

  14. Altered basolateral amygdala encoding in an animal model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Alex; Burton, Amanda C; O'Donnell, Patricio; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey; Roesch, Matthew R

    2015-04-22

    It has been proposed that schizophrenia results, in part, from the inappropriate or spurious attribution of salience to cues in the environment. We have recently reported neural correlates of salience in the basolateral amygdala (ABL) of rats during learning in an odor-guided discrimination task. Here we tested whether this dopamine-dependent salience signal is altered in rats with neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions (NVHLs), a rodent model of schizophrenia. We found that ABL signals related to violations in reward prediction were only mildly affected by NVHL; however, neurons in rats with NVHLs showed significantly stronger selectivity during odor sampling, particularly for the more salient large-reward cue. The elevated cue-evoked activity in NVHL rats was correlated with heightened orienting behavior and also with changes in firing to the shifts in reward, suggesting that it reflected abnormal signaling of the large reward-predicting cue's salience. These results are broadly consistent with the proposal that schizophrenics suffer from enhanced signaling of salience. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/356394-07$15.00/0.

  15. The basolateral amygdala in reward learning and addiction

    PubMed Central

    Wassum, Kate M.; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Sophisticated behavioral paradigms partnered with the emergence of increasingly selective techniques to target the basolateral amygdala (BLA) have resulted in an enhanced understanding of the role of this nucleus in learning and using reward information. Due to the wide variety of behavioral approaches many questions remain on the circumscribed role of BLA in appetitive behavior. In this review, we integrate conclusions of BLA function in reward-related behavior using traditional interference techniques (lesion, pharmacological inactivation) with those using newer methodological approaches in experimental animals that allow in vivo manipulation of cell type-specific populations and neural recordings. Secondly, from a review of appetitive behavioral tasks in rodents and monkeys and recent computational models of reward procurement, we derive evidence for BLA as a neural integrator of reward value, history, and cost parameters. Taken together, BLA codes specific and temporally dynamic outcome representations in a distributed network to orchestrate adaptive responses. We provide evidence that experiences with opiates and psychostimulants alter these outcome representations in BLA, resulting in long-term modified action. PMID:26341938

  16. Hypervigilance for fear after basolateral amygdala damage in humans

    PubMed Central

    Terburg, D; Morgan, B E; Montoya, E R; Hooge, I T; Thornton, H B; Hariri, A R; Panksepp, J; Stein, D J; van Honk, J

    2012-01-01

    Recent rodent research has shown that the basolateral amygdala (BLA) inhibits unconditioned, or innate, fear. It is, however, unknown whether the BLA acts in similar ways in humans. In a group of five subjects with a rare genetic syndrome, that is, Urbach–Wiethe disease (UWD), we used a combination of structural and functional neuroimaging, and established focal, bilateral BLA damage, while other amygdala sub-regions are functionally intact. We tested the translational hypothesis that these BLA-damaged UWD-subjects are hypervigilant to facial expressions of fear, which are prototypical innate threat cues in humans. Our data indeed repeatedly confirm fear hypervigilance in these UWD subjects. They show hypervigilant responses to unconsciously presented fearful faces in a modified Stroop task. They attend longer to the eyes of dynamically displayed fearful faces in an eye-tracked emotion recognition task, and in that task recognize facial fear significantly better than control subjects. These findings provide the first direct evidence in humans in support of an inhibitory function of the BLA on the brain's threat vigilance system, which has important implications for the understanding of the amygdala's role in the disorders of fear and anxiety. PMID:22832959

  17. 78 FR 37584 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Employment and Training Administration U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, Pennsylvania; Notice of Amended... workers of U.S. Steel Tubular Products, McKeesport Tubular Operations Division, a subsidiary of...

  18. Nonequilibrium thermodynamic model of the rat proximal tubule epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, A M

    1983-01-01

    The rat proximal tubule epithelium is represented as well-stirred, compliant cellular and paracellular compartments bounded by mucosal and serosal bathing solutions. With a uniform pCO2 throughout the epithelium, the model variables include the concentrations of Na, K, Cl, HCO3, H2PO4, HPO4, and H, as well as hydrostatic pressure and electrical potential. Except for a metabolically driven Na-K exchanger at the basolateral cell membrane, all membrane transport within the epithelium is passive and is represented by the linear equations of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. In particular, this includes the cotransport of Na-Cl and Na-H2PO4 and countertransport of Na-H at the apical cell membrane. Experimental constraints on the choice of ionic conductivities are satisfied by allowing K-Cl cotransport at the basolateral membrane. The model equations include those for mass balance of the nonreacting species, as well as chemical equilibrium for the acidification reactions. Time-dependent terms are retained to permit the study of transient phenomena. In the steady state the energy dissipation is computed and verified equal to the sum of input from the Na-K exchanger plus the Gibbs free energy of mass addition to the system. The parameter dependence of coupled water transport is studied and shown to be consistent with the predictions of previous analytical models of the lateral intercellular space. Water transport in the presence of an end-proximal (HCO3-depleted) luminal solution is investigated. Here the lower permeability and higher reflection coefficient of HCO3 enhance net sodium and water transport. Due to enhanced flux across the tight junction, this process may permit proximal tubule Na transport to proceed with diminished energy dissipation. PMID:6652211

  19. Renal tubular dysfunction and abnormalities of calcium metabolism in cadmium workers

    PubMed Central

    Kazantzis, George

    1979-01-01

    Tubular proteinuria is generally accepted as the critical effect following long-term, low-level exposure to cadmium as seen in an industrial environment. This effect may not be of immediate importance to the health of the individual, but the significance, in terms of long-term morbidity and mortality, of the renal tubular defect of which it is an indicator is not fully understood, and certain sequelae may have remained unrecognized due to inadequate follow-up. Follow-up studies have been performed in nine of 12 workers who were initially investigated in 1962. In six of the men exposures ranged from 28 to 45 years to cadmium sulfide dust and for shorter periods in the earlier years to cadmium oxide fume and dust. These six men had tubular proteinuria when first seen, and this has persisted in the five survivors. All six men had hypercalciuria, and two of them became recurrent stone formers. One man whose urinary calcium excretion later fell to a low level more recently developed vitamin D resistant osteomalacia. In addition, each of the six men had exhibited some, but not all, of a variety of biochemical abnormalities related to other proximal renal tubular defects, and the worker who developed osteomalacia had additional evidence of a distal tubular defect. The five survivors also have evidence of slowly progressive deterioration in glomerular function. Follow-up of this small group has shown that renal tubular dysfunction in cadmium workers may continue symptom-free for long intervals, but in a proportion of cases serious clinical effects may develop after a number of years. ImagesFIGURE 1. PMID:488032

  20. Immunolocalization of Na+/K+-ATPase and Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter in the tubular epithelia of sea snake salt glands.

    PubMed

    Babonis, L S; Hyndman, K A; Lillywhite, H B; Evans, D H

    2009-12-01

    The sublingual salt gland is the primary site of salt excretion in sea snakes; however, little is known about the mechanisms mediating ion excretion. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) are two proteins known to regulate membrane potential and drive salt secretion in most vertebrate secretory cells. We hypothesized that NKA and NKCC would localize to the basolateral membranes of the principal cells comprising the tubular epithelia of sea snake salt glands. Although there is evidence of NKA activity in salt glands from several species of sea snake, the localization of NKA and NKCC and other potential ion transporters remains unstudied. Using histology and immunohistochemistry, we localized NKA and NKCC in salt glands from three species of laticaudine sea snake: Laticauda semifasciata, L. laticaudata, and L. colubrina. Antibody specificity was confirmed using Western blots. The compound tubular glands of all three species were found to be composed of serous secretory epithelia, and NKA and NKCC were abundant in the basolateral membranes. These results are consistent with the morphology of secretory epithelia found in the rectal salt glands of marine elasmobranchs, the nasal glands of marine birds and the gills of teleost fishes, suggesting a similar function in regulating ion secretion.

  1. Localization of the calcium-regulated citrate transport process in proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Hering-Smith, Kathleen S; Mao, Weibo; Schiro, Faith R; Coleman-Barnett, Joycelynn; Pajor, Ana M; Hamm, L Lee

    2014-06-01

    Urinary citrate is an important inhibitor of calcium-stone formation. Most of the citrate reabsorption in the proximal tubule is thought to occur via a dicarboxylate transporter NaDC1 located in the apical membrane. OK cells, an established opossum kidney proximal tubule cell line, transport citrate but the characteristics change with extracellular calcium such that low calcium solutions stimulate total citrate transport as well as increase the apparent affinity for transport. The present studies address several fundamental properties of this novel process: the polarity of the transport process, the location of the calcium-sensitivity and whether NaDC1 is present in OK cells. OK cells grown on permeable supports exhibited apical >basolateral citrate transport. Apical transport of both citrate and succinate was sensitive to extracellular calcium whereas basolateral transport was not. Apical calcium, rather than basolateral, was the predominant determinant of changes in transport. Also 2,3-dimethylsuccinate, previously identified as an inhibitor of basolateral dicarboxylate transport, inhibited apical citrate uptake. Although the calcium-sensitive transport process in OK cells is functionally not typical NaDC1, NaDC1 is present in OK cells by Western blot and PCR. By immunolocalization studies, NaDC1 was predominantly located in discrete apical membrane or subapical areas. However, by biotinylation, apical NaDC1 decreases in the apical membrane with lowering calcium. In sum, OK cells express a calcium-sensitive/regulated dicarboxylate process at the apical membrane which responds to variations in apical calcium. Despite the functional differences of this process compared to NaDC1, NaDC1 is present in these cells, but predominantly in subapical vesicles.

  2. The Basolateral Amygdala GABAergic System in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Prager, Eric M; Bergstrom, Hadley C; Wynn, Gary H; Braga, Maria F. M.

    2015-01-01

    The brain comprises an excitatory/inhibitory neuronal network that maintains a finely tuned balance of activity critical for normal functioning. Excitatory activity in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a brain region that plays a central role in emotion and motivational processing, is tightly regulated by a relatively small population of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibitory neurons. Disruption in GABAergic inhibition in the BLA can occur when there is a loss of local GABAergic interneurons, alterations in GABAA receptor activation, or dysregulation of mechanisms that modulate BLA GABAergic inhibition. Disruptions in GABAergic control of the BLA emerge during development, in aging populations, or after a trauma, ultimately resulting in hyperexcitability. BLA hyperexcitability manifests behaviorally as an increase in anxiety, emotional dysregulation, or the development of seizure activity. This article reviews the anatomy, development, and physiology of the GABAergic system in the BLA, and circuits that modulate GABAergic inhibition, including the dopaminergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, and cholinergic systems. We highlight how alterations in various neurotransmitter receptors, including the acid sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a), cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), and glutamate receptor subtypes, expressed on BLA interneurons, modulate GABAergic transmission and how defects of these systems affects inhibitory tonus within the BLA. Finally, we discuss alterations in the BLA GABAergic system in neurodevelopmental (autism/Fragile X syndrome) and neurodegenerative (Alzheimer’s disease) diseases, and after the development of epilepsy, anxiety, and traumatic brain injury. A more complete understanding of the intrinsic excitatory/inhibitory circuit balance of the amygdala and how imbalances in inhibitory control contribute to excessive BLA excitability will guide the development of novel therapeutic approaches in neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:26586374

  3. Two distinct representations of social vocalizations in the basolateral amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Gadziola, Marie A.; Shanbhag, Sharad J.

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic communication signals carry information related to the types of social interactions by means of their “acoustic context,” the sequencing and temporal emission pattern of vocalizations. Here we describe responses to natural vocal sequences in adult big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). We first assessed how vocal sequences modify the internal affective state of a listener (via heart rate). The heart rate of listening bats was differentially modulated by vocal sequences, showing significantly greater elevation in response to moderately aggressive sequences than appeasement or neutral sequences. Next, we characterized single-neuron responses in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) of awake, restrained bats to isolated syllables and vocal sequences. Two populations of neurons distinguished by background firing rates also differed in acoustic stimulus selectivity. Low-background neurons (<1 spike/s) were highly selective, responding on average to one tested stimulus. These may participate in a sparse code of vocal stimuli, in which each neuron responds to one or a few stimuli and the population responds to the range of vocalizations across behavioral contexts. Neurons with higher background rates (≥1 spike/s) responded broadly to tested stimuli and better represented the timing of syllables within sequences. We found that spike timing information improved the ability of these neurons to discriminate among vocal sequences and among the behavioral contexts associated with sequences compared with a rate code alone. These findings demonstrate that the BLA contains multiple robust representations of vocal stimuli that can provide the basis for emotional/physiological responses to these stimuli. PMID:26538612

  4. Riboflavin transport by rabbit renal basolateral membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, N; Jo, O D; Said, H M

    1998-12-09

    The present study examined riboflavin (RF) uptake by isolated rabbit renal basolateral membrane (BLM). RF uptake was linear during the initial 10 seconds and leveled off thereafter with longer incubation. Studies on RF uptake as a function of incubation medium osmolarity indicated that the BLM RF uptake was the results of transport (approximately 45%) into the intravesicular space as well as binding (approximately 55%) to membrane surfaces. The RF binding to BLM was Na+-dependent so that replacement of Na+ by other cations eliminated the binding component of RF uptake. The process of BLM RF uptake was saturable as a function of substrate concentration and was significantly inhibited by cis-addition of its structural analogs, lumiflavin and lumichrome, indicating the involvement of a carrier-mediated process. The BLM RF uptake was affected by changes in extravesicular pH so that, as compared to pH 7.5, RF uptake was lower at pH 6.5 and higher at pH 8.5. The effect of extravesicular pH persisted when the transmembrane H+ gradient was dissipated by FCCP, indicating the direct effect of pH on BLM RF uptake. The BLM RF uptake was not affected by alterations of the transmembrane electrical potential, induced by either the presence of anions with different membrane permeability (Cl-=NO-3>SO-4>gluconate-) or using nigericin (10 microg/mg protein) with an outwardly or inwardly directed transmembrane K+ gradient. The BLM RF uptake was, however, inhibited by probenecid and p-aminohippurate, and was enhanced by trans-RF. In summary, these results demonstrate the existence of a Na+-dependent BLM binding of RF and a membrane-associated carrier system for RF uptake by renal BLM.

  5. The role of the basolateral amygdala in punishment.

    PubMed

    Jean-Richard-Dit-Bressel, Philip; McNally, Gavan P

    2015-02-01

    Aversive stimuli not only support fear conditioning to their environmental antecedents, they also punish behaviors that cause their occurrence. The amygdala, especially the basolateral nucleus (BLA), has been critically implicated in Pavlovian fear learning but its role in punishment remains poorly understood. Here, we used a within-subjects punishment task to assess the role of the BLA in the acquisition and expression of punishment as well as aversive choice. Rats that pressed two individually presented levers for pellet rewards rapidly suppressed responding to one lever if it also caused footshock deliveries (punished lever) but continued pressing a second lever that did not cause footshock (unpunished lever). Infusions of GABA agonists baclofen and muscimol (BM) into the BLA significantly impaired the acquisition of this suppression. BLA inactivations using BM also reduced the expression of well-trained punishment. There was anatomical segregation within the BLA so that caudal, not rostral, BLA was implicated in punishment. However, when presented with punished and unpunished levers simultaneously in a choice test without deliveries of shock punisher, rats expressed a preference for unpunished over the punished lever and BLA inactivations had no effect on this preference. Taken together, these findings indicate that the BLA is important for both the acquisition and expression of punishment but not for aversive choice. This role appears to be linked to neurons in the caudal BLA, rather than rostral BLA, although the circuitry that contributes to this functional segregation is currently unknown, and is most parsimoniously interpreted as a role for caudal BLA in determining the aversive value of the shock punisher.

  6. Renal tubular Notch signaling triggers a prosenescent state after acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Sörensen-Zender, Inga; Rong, Song; Susnik, Nathan; Zender, Steffen; Pennekamp, Petra; Melk, Anette; Haller, Hermann; Schmitt, Roland

    2014-04-15

    The aging kidney has a diminished regenerative potential and an increased tendency to develop tubular atrophy and fibrosis after acute injury. In this study, we found that activation of tubular epithelial Notch1 signaling was prolonged in the aging kidney after ischemia/reperfusion (IR) damage. To analyze the consequences of sustained Notch activation, we generated mice with conditional inducible expression of Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD) in proximal tubules. NICD kidneys were analyzed 1 and 4 wk after renal IR. Conditional NICD expression was associated with aggravated tubular damage, a fibrotic phenotype, and the expression of cellular senescence markers p21 and p16(INK4a). In wild-type mice pharmacological inhibition of Notch using the γ-secretase inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT) improved tubulo-interstitial damage and antagonized the prosenescent pathway activation after IR. In vitro, activation of Notch signaling with delta-like-ligand-4 caused prosenescent changes in tubular cells while inhibition with DAPT attenuated these changes. In conclusion, our data suggest that sustained epithelial Notch activation after IR might contribute to the inferior outcome of old kidneys after injury. Sustained epithelial activation of Notch is associated with a prosenescent phenotype and maladaptive repair.

  7. Kidney injury molecule-1: more than just an injury marker of tubular epithelial cells?

    PubMed

    Lim, Ai Ing; Tang, Sydney C W; Lai, Kar Neng; Leung, Joseph C K

    2013-05-01

    Regardless of the original causes and etiology, the progression to renal function declines follows a final common pathway associated with tubulointerstitial injury, in which the proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC) are instrumental. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is an emerging biomarker, and its expression and release are induced in PTEC upon injury. KIM-1 plays the role as a double-edged sword and implicates in the process of kidney injury and healing. Expression of KIM-1 is also associated with tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis. More importantly, KIM-1 expressing PTEC play the role as the residential phagocytes, contribute to the removal of apoptotic cells and facilitate the regeneration of injured tubules. The precise mechanism of KIM-1 and its sheded ectodomain on restoration of tubular integrity after injury is not fully understood. Other than PTEC, macrophages (Mø) also implicate in tubular repair. Understanding the crosstalk between Mø and the injured PTEC is essential for designing appropriate methods for controlling the sophisticated machinery in tubular regeneration and healing. This article will review the current findings of KIM-1, beginning with its basic structure, utility as a biomarker, and possible functions, with focus on the role of KIM-1 in regeneration and healing of injured PTEC.

  8. Tubular kidney damage and centrilobular liver injury after intratracheal instillation of dimethyl selenide.

    PubMed

    Cherdwongcharoensuk, Duangrudee; Henrique, Rui; Upatham, Suchart; Pereira, António Sousa; Aguas, Artur P

    2005-01-01

    Accidental inhalation of selenium (Se) derivatives, such as dimethyl selenide (DMSe), has been associated with damage of respiratory tissues. However, systemic effects of inhaled Se have not been thoroughly established. We have investigated whether mouse kidney and liver show cellular pathology as a result of a single intratracheal instillation of two different doses of DMSe (0.05 and 0.1 mg Se/kg BW). The animals were sacrificed 1, 7, 14, and 28 days after either 1 of the 2 DMSe treatments; samples were studied by light microscopy. Instillation of the low DMSe dose resulted in acute and transient tubular disease of the kidney expressed by swelling and vacuolation of epithelial cells of proximal tubules; in some mice, tubular necrosis was observed. After 14 days of the DMSe treatment, these lesions were ameliorated and, by day 28, the kidney tubular epithelium depicted a normal morphology. The same low dose of DMSe caused sustained damage to centrilobular hepatocytes characterized by swollen and vacuolized liver cells. After the instillation of the high DMSe dose, the mice presented sustained liver and kidney focal necrosis. Our data suggest that inhalation of DMSe results in: (i) acute tubular injury of the kidney and damage to centrilobular liver cells and (ii) this systemic pathology induced by DMSe is a dose-dependent phenomenon.

  9. Norepinephrines effect on adenosine transport in the proximal straight tubule

    SciTech Connect

    Barfuss, D.W.; McCann, W.P.; Katholi, R.E.

    1986-03-01

    The effect of norepinephrine on C/sup 14/-adenosine transport in the rabbit proximal tubule (S/sub 2/) was studied. The transepithelial transport of adenosine (0.02 mM0 from lumin to bathing solution was measured by its rate of appearance (J/sub A/) in the bathing solution and by its disappearances (J/sub D/) from the luminal fluid. Norepinephrine (0.24 ..mu..M) was added to the bathing solution after a control flux period. After three samples from the experiment period the tubules were quickly harvested and the cellular concentration of C/sup 14/-adenosine was determined. The high cellular adenosine concentration and th marked difference in adenosine appearance rate in the bathing solution compared to the luminal disappearance rate indicates the absorbed adenosine is trapped in the cells. This trapping may be due to adenosine metabolism or difficulty of crossing the basolateral membrane. Whichever is the case, norepinephrine appears to stimulate movement of adenosine or its metabolites into the bathing solution across the basolateral membrane.

  10. Buckling and lockup of tubulars in inclined wellbores

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Juvkam-Wold, H.C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes sinusoidal and helical buckling of tubulars in inclined wellbores and the ``lockup`` of tubulars due to buckling. The results show that tubular buckling starts from the tubular bottom in low-inclination wellbores, where axial compressive load is largest due to tubular weight. In high inclination wellbores it may start from the top portion of the tubular, where axial compressive load is largest due to frictional drag. This clarifies the confusion about whether or not tubulars buckle all at once, in the entire inclined wellbore. New sinusoidal and helical buckling load equations are presented to give better tubular buckling prediction in inclined wellbores (0--90 degrees). They show that the lower the wellbore inclination angle, the smaller the axial compressive load to initiate tubular buckling. But a certain non-zero axial compressive load is still needed to buckle the tubulars in vertical wellbores. When tubulars buckle helically, a large wall contact force will be generated. The `slack-off` weight at the surface will not be fully transmitted to the bottom of the tubulars due to the large resultant frictional drag. The ``lockup`` of tubulars, where the bottom load (bit weight) cannot be increased by slacking-off weight at the surface, usually is approached when a large portion of the tubular buckles helically in the wellbore.

  11. Buckling and lockup of tubulars in inclined wellbores

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Juvkam-Wold, H.C.

    1995-09-01

    This paper studies sinusoidal and helical buckling of tubulars in inclined wellbores and the ``lockup`` of tubulars due to buckling. The results show that tubular buckling starts from the tubular bottom in low-inclination wellbores, where the axial compressive load is largest due to tubular weight. In high-inclination wellbores it may start from the top portion of the tubular, where the axial compressive load is largest due to frictional drag. This clarifies the confusion on whether or not the tubular buckles at once on it entire length in inclined wellbores. New sinusoidal and helical buckling load equations are presented to better predict tubular buckling in inclined wellbores (0--90 deg). The lower the wellbore inclination angle, the smaller the axial compressive load required to initiate tubular buckling. However, a certain nonzero axial compressive load is still needed to buckle the tubulars in vertical wellbores. When tubulars buckle helically, a large wall contact force will be generated, and the ``slack-off`` weight at the surface will not be fully transmitted to the tubular bottom due to large resultant frictional drag. The ``lockup`` of tubulars may even occur, where the tubular bottom load cannot be increased by slacking-off weight at the surface.

  12. Proximal humerus fractures.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew C; Horn, Pamela L; Latshaw, James C

    2013-01-01

    Proximal humerus fractures are among the most common fractures associated with osteoporosis. With an aging population, incidence of these fractures will only increase. The proximal humerus not only forms the lateral portion of the shoulder articulation but also has significant associations with musculoskeletal and neurovascular structures. As a result, fractures of the proximal humerus can significantly impact not only the function of the shoulder joint, but the health and function of the entire upper extremity as well. Understanding of these fractures, the management options, and associated nursing care, can help reduce morbidity rate and improve functional outcomes.

  13. Characterization of basolateral chloride/bicarbonate exchange in macula densa cells.

    PubMed

    Komlosi, Peter; Frische, Sebastian; Fuson, Amanda L; Fintha, Attila; Zsembery, Akos; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Bell, P Darwin

    2005-02-01

    Functional and immunohistological studies were performed to identify basolateral chloride/bicarbonate exchange in macula densa cells. Using the isolated, perfused thick ascending limb with attached glomerulus preparation dissected from rabbit kidney, macula densa intracellular pH (pH(i)) was measured with fluorescence microscopy and BCECF. For these experiments, basolateral chloride was reduced, resulting in reversible macula densa cell alkalinization. Anion exchange activity was assessed by measuring the maximal net base efflux on readdition of bath chloride. Anion exchange activity required the presence of bicarbonate, was independent of changes in membrane potential, did not require the presence of sodium, and was inhibited by high concentrations of DIDS. Inhibition of macula densa anion exchange activity by basolateral DIDS increased luminal NaCl concentration-induced elevations in pH(i). Immunohistochemical studies using antibodies against AE2 demonstrated expression of AE2 along the basolateral membrane of macula densa cells of rabbit kidney. These results suggest that macula densa cells functionally and immunologically express a chloride/bicarbonate exchanger at the basolateral membrane. This transporter likely participates in the regulation of pH(i) and might be involved in macula densa signaling.

  14. Basolateral potassium (IKCa) channel inhibition prevents increased colonic permeability induced by chemical hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, A; Linley, J E; Rajput, I; Hunter, M; Lodge, J P A; Sandle, G I

    2011-01-01

    Major liver resection is associated with impaired intestinal perfusion and intestinal ischemia, resulting in decreased mucosal integrity, increased bacterial translocation, and an increased risk of postoperative sepsis. However, the mechanism by which ischemia impairs intestinal mucosal integrity is unclear. We therefore evaluated the role of Ca(2+)-sensitive, intermediate-conductance (IK(Ca)) basolateral potassium channels in enhanced intestinal permeability secondary to chemical hypoxia. The effects of chemical hypoxia induced by 100 μM dinitrophenol (DNP) and 5 mM deoxyglucose (DG) on basolateral IK(Ca) channel activity and whole cell conductance in intact human colonic crypts, and paracellular permeability (G(S)) in isolated colonic sheets, were determined by patch-clamp recording and transepithelial electrical measurements, respectively. DNP and DG rapidly stimulated IK(Ca) channels in cell-attached basolateral membrane patches and elicited a twofold increase (P = 0.004) in whole cell conductance in amphotericin B-permeabilized membrane patches, changes that were inhibited by the specific IK(Ca) channel blockers TRAM-34 (100 nM) and clotrimazole (CLT; 10 μM). In colonic sheets apically permeabilized with nystatin, DNP elicited a twofold increase (P = 0.005) in G(S), which was largely inhibited by the serosal addition of 50 μM CLT. We conclude that, in intestinal epithelia, chemical hypoxia increases G(S) through a mechanism involving basolateral IK(Ca) channel activation. Basolateral IK(Ca) channel inhibition may prevent or limit increased intestinal permeability during liver surgery.

  15. Deployable and retractable telescoping tubular structure development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    A new deployable and retractable telescoping boom capable of high deployed stiffness and strength is described. Deployment and retraction functions are controlled by simple, reliable, and fail-safe latches between the tubular segments. The latch and a BI-STEM (Storable Tubular Extendible Member) actuator work together to eliminate the need for the segments to overlap when deployed. This yields an unusually lightweight boom and compact launch configuration. An aluminum space-flight prototype with three joints displays zero structural deadband, low hysteresis, and high damping. The development approach and difficulties are discussed. Test results provide a joint model for sizing flight booms of any diameter and length.

  16. Tubular membrane bioreactors for biotechnological processes.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Christoph; Beutel, Sascha; Scheper, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    This article is an overview of bioreactors using tubular membranes such as hollow fibers or ceramic capillaries for cultivation processes. This diverse group of bioreactor is described here in regard to the membrane materials used, operational modes, and configurations. The typical advantages of this kind of system such as environments with low shear stress together with high cell densities and also disadvantages like poor oxygen supply are summed up. As the usage of tubular membrane bioreactors is not restricted to a certain organism, a brief overview of various applications covering nearly all types of cells from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells is also given here.

  17. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell current collector

    DOEpatents

    Bischoff, Brian L.; Sutton, Theodore G.; Armstrong, Timothy R.

    2010-07-20

    An internal current collector for use inside a tubular solid oxide fuel cell (TSOFC) electrode comprises a tubular coil spring disposed concentrically within a TSOFC electrode and in firm uniform tangential electrical contact with the electrode inner surface. The current collector maximizes the contact area between the current collector and the electrode. The current collector is made of a metal that is electrically conductive and able to survive under the operational conditions of the fuel cell, i.e., the cathode in air, and the anode in fuel such as hydrogen, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O or H.sub.2S.

  18. Dynamic Behavior Analysis of the Glomerulo-Tubular Balance Mediated by the Efferent Blood Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinel, Andrea; Rivadeneira, Pablo S.; Costanza, Vicente; Amorena, Carlos

    In this paper, a mathematical model of the dynamics of a single-nephron function relating glomerulo-tubular balance, tubule-glomerular feedback, and peritubular blood viscosity is developed. Based upon experimental data, the model shows that complex behaviors of the nephron can be modulated by changes in the efferent arteriole blood viscosity. The main hypothesis is that the reabsorbed mass flow is modulated by the hematocrit of the efferent arteriole, in addition to the Starling forces. From a mathematical perspective, these behaviors can be explained by a bifurcation diagram analysis where the efferent blood viscosity is taken as the bifurcation parameter. This analytical description allows to predict changes in proximal convoluted tubule reabsorption, following changes in peritubular capillary viscosity generated by periodic changes in the glomerular filtration rate. Thus, the model links the tubule-glomerular feedback with the glomerular tubular balance.

  19. Muscarinic responses of rat basolateral amygdaloid neurons recorded in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, M S; Moises, H C

    1992-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings were obtained from pyramidal-type neurons in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (BLA) in slices of rat ventral forebrain and used to compare the actions of exogenously applied cholinomimetics to the effects produced by electrical stimulation of amygdalopetal cholinergic afferents from basal forebrain. 2. Bath application of carbachol depolarized pyramidal cells with an associated increase in input resistance (Ri), reduced the slow after-hyperpolarization (AHP) that followed a series of current-evoked action potentials and blocked spike frequency accommodation. All of these effects were reversed by the muscarinic antagonist atropine but not by the nicotinic antagonist hexamethonium. 3. Electrical stimulation of amygdaloid afferents within the external capsule evoked a series of synaptic potentials consisting of a non-cholinergic fast excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP), followed by early and late inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs). Each of these synaptic potentials was reduced by carbachol in an atropine-sensitive manner. 4. Local application of carbachol to pyramidal cells produced a short-latency hyperpolarization followed by a prolonged depolarization. The hyperpolarization and depolarization to carbachol were blocked by atropine but not hexamethonium. 5. The carbachol-induced hyperpolarization was associated with a decrease in Ri and had a reversal potential nearly identical to that of the early IPSP. The inhibitory response was blocked by perfusion of medium containing tetrodotoxin (TTX), bicuculline or picrotoxin, while the subsequent depolarization was unaffected. On the basis of these data, it is concluded that the muscarinic hyperpolarization is mediated through the rapid excitation of presynaptic GABAergic interneurons in the slice. 6. The findings that the carbachol-induced depolarization was associated with an increase in Ri, often had a reversal potential below -80 mV, was sensitive to changes in extracellular

  20. Cation Activation of the Basolateral Sodium-Potassium Pump in Turtle Colon

    PubMed Central

    Halm, D R; Dawson, D C

    1983-01-01

    The current generated by electrogenic sodium-potassium exchange at the basolateral membrane of the turtle colon can be measured directly in tissues that have been treated with serosal barium (to block the basolateral potassium conductance) and mucosal amphotericin B (to reduce the cation selectivity of the apical membrane). We studied the activation of this pump current by mucosal sodium and serosal potassium, rubidium, cesium, and ammonium. The kinetics of sodium activation were consistent with binding to three independent sites on the cytoplasmic side of the pump. The pump was not activated by cellular lithium ions. The kinetics of serosal cation activation were consistent with binding to two independent sites with the selectivity Rb > K > Cs > NH4. The properties and kinetics of the basolateral Na/K pump in the turtle colon are at least qualitatively similar to those ofthe well-characterized Na/K-ATPase of the human red blood cell . PMID:24244010

  1. Proximal Tubule Cell Hypothesis for Cardiorenal Syndrome in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Akihiko; Kaseda, Ryohei; Hosojima, Michihiro; Sato, Hiroyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is remarkably high among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), even in the early microalbuminuric stages with normal glomerular filtration rates. Proximal tubule cells (PTCs) mediate metabolism and urinary excretion of vasculotoxic substances via apical and basolateral receptors and transporters. These cells also retrieve vasculoprotective substances from circulation or synthesize them for release into the circulation. PTCs are also involved in the uptake of sodium and phosphate, which are critical for hemodynamic regulation and maintaining the mineral balance, respectively. Dysregulation of PTC functions in CKD is likely to be associated with the development of CVD and is linked to the progression to end-stage renal disease. In particular, PTC dysfunction occurs early in diabetic nephropathy, a leading cause of CKD. It is therefore important to elucidate the mechanisms of PTC dysfunction to develop therapeutic strategies for treating cardiorenal syndrome in diabetes. PMID:21197105

  2. The diagnostic value of the urine to blood carbon dioxide tension gradient for the assessment of distal tubular hydrogen secretion in pediatric patients with renal tubular disorders.

    PubMed

    Donckerwolcke, R A; Valk, C; van Wijngaarden-Penterman, M J; van Stekelenburg, G J

    1983-05-01

    The urine to blood carbon dioxide tension gradient (U-B PCO2) following alkalinization of the urine (pH = 7.8) has been widely used to assess distal tubular hydrogen secretion. The magnitude of the U-B PCO2 is influenced not only by the rate of hydrogen secretion but also by bicarbonate concentration and water abstraction. Simultaneous administration of sodium bicarbonate and dDAVP improve the reliability of the test in healthy children. Children with distal renal tubular acidosis were not able to increase urinary PCO2, while a normal increase was found in patients with proximal renal tubular acidosis and the Fanconi Syndrome. Four out of nine patients with urolithiasis failed to increase urinary PCO2 following NaHCO3 and dDAVP-administration, despite a normal ability to acidify the urine following NH4Cl administration. To assess the effect of acute alterations in urinary concentration on urinary PCO2, the test was carried out in children with central diabetes insipidus. Despite sharp increase in urinary bicarbonate concentration these patients failed to increase urinary PCO2.

  3. [Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic nephropathy and urinary diagnostic indices: the utility of measuring tubular enzymes (NAG and AAP)].

    PubMed

    Bertotti, A; De Marchi, S; Brovedani, P; Gaeta, G; Peratoner, L; Mangiarotti, M A

    1990-01-01

    Feto-neonatal hypoxia can cause a functional kidney impairment, which is often temporary and not clinically overt, but sometimes leading to acute renal failure. Hypoxic stress may result in a tubulo-interstitial damage, and kidney tubular enzymes determination has proved to be an easy, early, and non invasive method to define a tubular interstitial lesion. A major target of nephrotoxicity is the proximal tubular cell: alterations in brush-border membrane and cytoplasm result in increased turnover processes in the kidney cortex, following by a corresponding increased excretion of alanine-aminopeptidase (AAP) and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG) from the proximal tubular cells, long before glomerular or tubular functions are impaired. AAP and NAG excretion is directly correlated with the strength and the duration of toxic alteration of the proximal tubule. NAG and AAP have been already studied in the adults and the children; they have been chosen for this investigation with a double aim: 1) to define the amount of their urinary excretion in relation with gestational age at birth; 2) to evaluate if in the newborn, independently of the gestational age, their urinary concentration may be increased by ischaemic conditions caused by hypoxia. We studied 52 healthy newborns (7 preterm of 33-36 weeks and 45 full-term) and 16 newborns with feto-neonatal hypoxia (8 preterm of 26-36 weeks and full-term) at the forth day of life. Urinary NAG and AAP were assayed by colorimetric methods and the results expressed as mU/mg. creatininuria.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Angiotensin II stimulates basolateral 50-pS K channels in the thick ascending limb.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingxiao; Luan, Haiyan; Wu, Peng; Fan, Lili; Wang, Lijun; Duan, Xinpeng; Zhang, Dandan; Wang, Wen-Hui; Gu, Ruimin

    2014-03-01

    We used the patch-clamp technique to examine the effect of angiotensin II (ANG II) on the basolateral K channels in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the rat kidney. Application of ANG II increased the channel activity and the current amplitude of the basolateral 50-pS K channel. The stimulatory effect of ANG II on the K channels was completely abolished by losartan, an inhibitor of type 1 angiotensin receptor (AT1R), but not by PD123319, an AT2R antagonist. Moreover, inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) also abrogated the stimulatory effect of ANG II on the basolateral K channels in the TAL. This suggests that the stimulatory effect of ANG II on the K channels was induced by activating PLC and PKC pathways. Western blotting demonstrated that ANG II increased the phosphorylation of c-Src at tyrosine residue 416, an indication of c-Src activation. This effect was mimicked by PKC stimulator but abolished by calphostin C. Moreover, inhibition of NADPH oxidase (NOX) also blocked the effect of ANG II on c-Src tyrosine phosphorylation. The role of Src-family protein tyrosine kinase (SFK) in mediating the effect of ANG II on the basolateral K channel was further suggested by the experiments in which inhibition of SFK abrogated the stimulatory effect of ANG II on the basolateral 50-pS K channel. We conclude that ANG II increases basolateral 50-pS K channel activity via AT1R and that activation of AT1R stimulates SFK by a PLC-PKC-NOX-dependent mechanism.

  5. [The role of disorders in the tubular transport of water and osmotically active substances in the progression of chronic kidney failure].

    PubMed

    Esaian, A M; Kaiukov, I G

    1993-01-01

    Lithium clearance served the criterion for measuring proximal and distal tubular transport of water, sodium and osmotically active substances (OAS) in 41 patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) of various degree. Distal reabsorption of water and sodium occurs early in CRF. In moderate disease the authors observed a drastic rise in distal excreted fraction of OAS which surpassed that of sodium threefold. Proximal fractional excretion of water acquired defects in advanced CRF only. In the range of creatinine clearance 30-65 ml/min an inverse relationship appeared between the clearance and the ratio of urea of OAS concentrations to chlorine concentrations. Distal fractional OAS excretion correlated with relevant parameters directly. It is suggested that a decline in relative chlorine ions content in the tubular fluid at the site of the thick spot entails hypoactivity of the tubular-glomerular feedback mechanisms resultant in hypertension and hyperfiltration in the intact nephrons which start to perish because of overloading.

  6. Multiple anxiogenic drugs recruit a parvalbumin-containing subpopulation of GABAergic interneurons in the basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Hale, Matthew W; Johnson, Philip L; Westerman, Alex M; Abrams, Jolane K; Shekhar, Anantha; Lowry, Christopher A

    2010-10-01

    The basolateral amygdala is a nodal structure within a distributed and interconnected network that regulates anxiety states and anxiety-related behavior. Administration of multiple anxiogenic drugs increases cellular responses (i.e., increases c-Fos expression) in a subregion of the basolateral amygdala, but the neurochemical phenotypes of these cells are not known. The basolateral amygdala contains glutamatergic projection neurons and several populations of γ-aminobutyric acid-synthesizing (GABAergic) interneurons, including a population of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing GABAergic interneurons that co-express the excitatory 5-HT(2A) receptor. The role for these PV-expressing GABAergic interneurons in anxiety-states is unclear. In this experiment we examined the effects of multiple anxiogenic drugs including the 5-HT(2C/2A) receptor agonist m-chlorophenyl piperazine (mCPP), the adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine, the α(2)-adrenoreceptor antagonist yohimbine and the partial inverse agonist at the benzodiazepine allosteric site on the GABA(A) receptor, N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142), on c-Fos expression in PV-immunoreactive (PV-ir) interneurons in subdivisions of the basolateral amygdala. All drugs with the exception of mCPP increased c-Fos expression in PV-ir neurons in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, anterior part (BLA). The numbers of c-Fos-immunoreactive (c-Fos-ir)/PV-ir GABAergic interneurons in the BLA were positively correlated with the numbers of c-Fos-ir serotonergic neurons in the mid-rostrocaudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) and with a measure of anxiety-related behavior. All four drugs increased c-Fos expression in non-PV-ir cells in most of the subdivisions of the basolateral amygdala that were sampled, compared with vehicle-injected controls. Together, these data suggest that the PV/5-HT(2A) receptor expressing GABAergic interneurons in the basolateral amygdala are part of a DR-basolateral amygdala neuronal circuit modulating

  7. Rab5a is a common component of the apical and basolateral endocytic machinery in polarized epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, C; Wandinger-Ness, A; Lütcke, A; Chiariello, M; Bruni, C B; Zerial, M

    1994-01-01

    In nonpolarized cells, the small GTPase Rab5a is localized to the plasma membrane, clathrin-coated vesicles, and early endosomes. Rab5a is required for early endosome fusion in vitro and regulates transport between the plasma membrane and early endosomes, in vivo. In polarized epithelial cells endocytosis occurs from separate apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains. Internalized molecules are initially delivered to distinct apical or basolateral early endosomes. In vitro, apical early endosomes can readily fuse with one another but not with the basolateral endosomes and vice versa, thereby indicating that the apical and basolateral early endocytic pathways are controlled by distinct machineries. Here, we have investigated the localization and function of Rab5a in polarized epithelial cells. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy on mouse kidney sections revealed association of the protein with the apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains and underlying structures. In polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney I cells, endogenous and overexpressed Rab5a have the same distribution. Moreover, overexpression of the protein causes a 2-fold increase in fluid-phase uptake from both domains of the cell, thus showing that Rab5a functions in apical and basolateral endocytosis. Our data indicate that the apical and basolateral endocytic machineries of epithelial cells share common regulatory components and that Rab5a per se is not sufficient to target endocytic vesicles to apical or basolateral early endosomes. Images PMID:8197185

  8. Apical Polarity of N-CAM and EMMPRIN in Retinal Pigment Epithelium Resulting from Suppression of Basolateral Signal Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Marmorstein, Alan D.; Gan, Yunbo C.; Bonilha, Vera L.; Finnemann, Silvia C.; Csaky, Karl G.; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

    1998-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells apically polarize proteins that are basolateral in other epithelia. This reversal may be generated by the association of RPE with photoreceptors and the interphotoreceptor matrix, postnatal expansion of the RPE apical surface, and/or changes in RPE sorting machinery. We compared two proteins exhibiting reversed, apical polarities in RPE cells, neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM; 140-kD isoform) and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), with the cognate apical marker, p75-neurotrophin receptor (p75-NTR). N-CAM and p75-NTR were apically localized from birth to adulthood, contrasting with a basolateral to apical switch of EMMPRIN in developing postnatal rat RPE. Morphometric analysis demonstrated that this switch cannot be attributed to expansion of the apical surface of maturing RPE because the basolateral membrane expanded proportionally, maintaining a 3:1 apical/basolateral ratio. Kinetic analysis of polarized surface delivery in MDCK and RPE-J cells showed that EMMPRIN has a basolateral signal in its cytoplasmic tail recognized by both cell lines. In contrast, the basolateral signal of N-CAM is recognized by MDCK cells but not RPE-J cells. Deletion of N-CAM's basolateral signal did not prevent its apical localization in vivo. The data demonstrate that the apical polarity of EMMPRIN and N-CAM in mature RPE results from suppressed decoding of specific basolateral signals resulting in randomized delivery to the cell surface. PMID:9700159

  9. The effect of wellbore curvature on tubular buckling and lockup

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Juvkam-Wold, H.C.

    1995-09-01

    This paper studies tubular buckling in curved wellbores (such as the build section of horizontal wells) and its effect on tubular ``lockup`` in horizontal or extended-reach wells. New buckling load equations are derived to properly predict tubular sinusoidal and helical buckling in such wellbores. The results show that the buckling loads to initiate sinusoidal and helical buckling to tubulars in curved wellbores are usually much larger than those in straight wellbores. This is because the curved wellbore tends to hold the axially compressed tubular against the outer-curve side of the wellbore. The tubular becomes less easy to buckle until higher axial compressive loads are applied. Less tubular lockup risk is then predicted for tubulars in horizontal or extended-reach wells by using the new buckling load equations. The new buckling loads in curved wellbores agree with those in straight wellbores when wellbore curvature approaches zero. Small-scale laboratory experiments also confirmed these theoretically derived buckling loads.

  10. Piezo1-dependent stretch-activated channels are inhibited by Polycystin-2 in renal tubular epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Peyronnet, Rémi; Martins, Joana R; Duprat, Fabrice; Demolombe, Sophie; Arhatte, Malika; Jodar, Martine; Tauc, Michel; Duranton, Christophe; Paulais, Marc; Teulon, Jacques; Honoré, Eric; Patel, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical forces associated with fluid flow and/or circumferential stretch are sensed by renal epithelial cells and contribute to both adaptive or disease states. Non-selective stretch-activated ion channels (SACs), characterized by a lack of inactivation and a remarkably slow deactivation, are active at the basolateral side of renal proximal convoluted tubules. Knockdown of Piezo1 strongly reduces SAC activity in proximal convoluted tubule epithelial cells. Similarly, overexpression of Polycystin-2 (PC2) or, to a greater extent its pathogenic mutant PC2-740X, impairs native SACs. Moreover, PC2 inhibits exogenous Piezo1 SAC activity. PC2 coimmunoprecipitates with Piezo1 and deletion of its N-terminal domain prevents both this interaction and inhibition of SAC activity. These findings indicate that renal SACs depend on Piezo1, but are critically conditioned by PC2. PMID:24157948

  11. In vivo measurement of tubular fluid ferrocyanide with carbon-fiber microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Moore, L C; Clausen, C; Bowden, E F; Birzgalis, A

    1987-06-01

    Techniques to construct carbon-fiber microelectrodes and to measure ferrocyanide ion concentration in single nephrons are described. The measurement involves polarizing an inert carbon-fiber microelectrode 500 mV positive with respect to a Ag-AgCl reference, while measuring the faradic current produced by the oxidation of ferrocyanide. A carbon fiber (5-7 micron diam) is heat sealed into a glass micropipette that is then sharpened, silanized, and electrochemically pretreated to minimize electrode degradation by protein. Circuit diagrams for an inexpensive voltage clamp-current monitor and a data sampling device are presented. The electrodes show a linear response to changes in ferrocyanide concentration in large and very small (20 nl) volumes in vitro. The electrodes were used in an electrochemical microassay to determine tubular fluid-to-plasma ferrocyanide concentration ratios and nephron filtration rates with proximal micropuncture samples. The results show excellent agreement with paired determinations using [3H]inulin. In vivo proximal tubule perfusion experiments show a rapid linear response to changes in tubular fluid ferrocyanide concentration. These electrodes permit rapid quantitative measurements of ferrocyanide concentration and water transport in the proximal tubule and may be useful in other biological systems.

  12. Albumin impairs renal tubular tight junctions via targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yibo; Hu, Caiyu; Ding, Guixia; Zhang, Yue; Huang, Songming; Jia, Zhanjun; Zhang, Aihua

    2015-05-01

    Proteinuria is, not only a hallmark of glomerular disease, but also a contributor to kidney injury. However, its pathogenic mechanism is still elusive. In the present study, the effects of albumin on renal tubular tight junctions and the potential molecular mechanisms of those effects were investigated. In mouse proximal tubular cells (mPTCs), albumin treatment resulted in a significant loss of the cellular tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-1 in a time- and dose-dependent manner, indicating a severe impairment of the tight junctions. On the basis of our previous study showing that albumin stimulated NLRP3 [neuronal apoptosis inhibitor protein, major histocompatibility complex class 2 transcription activator, incompatibility locus protein from Podospora anserina, and telomerase-associated protein (NACHT); leucine-rich repeat (LRR); and pyrin domain (PYD) domains-containing protein 3] inflammasome activation in mPTCs, we pretreated mPTCs with NLRP3 siRNA (siNLRP3) and found that NLRP3 knockdown significantly blocked the downregulation of ZO-1 and claudin-1 induced by albumin. Similarly, in albumin-overloaded wild-type mice, both ZO-1 and claudin-1 were downregulated at the protein and mRNA levels in parallel with the impaired formation of the tight junctions on transmission electron microscopy and the abnormal renal tubular morphology on periodic acid-Schiff staining, which contrasted with the stimulation of NLRP3 in the renal tubules. In contrast, NLRP3 knockout (NLRP3(-/-)) mice preserved normal ZO-1 and claudin-1 expression as well as largely normal tight junctions and tubular morphology. More importantly, deletion of the NLRP3 pathway downstream component caspase-1 similarly blocked the albumin overload-induced downregulation of ZO-1 and claudin-1. Taken together, these findings demonstrated an important role of the albumin-NLRP3 inflammasome axis in mediating the impairment of renal tubular tight junctions and integrity. Copyright

  13. Glomerular filtration and tubular secretion of MAG-3 in the rat kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller-Suur, R.M.; Mueller-Suur, C. )

    1989-12-01

    Technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG-3) has recently been introduced as a new radiopharmaceutical for dynamic renal scintigraphy. To elucidate the mechanism of renal excretion, micropuncture experiments were performed in rat kidneys for direct measurements of glomerular filtration and tubular secretory capacity. Fluid of Bowman space was collected from superficial glomeruli and analyzed for its contents of (99mTc)MAG-3, (125I)hippurate and (3H)inulin during constant infusion of these compounds. The ratio of activity of ultrafiltrate to that of arterial plasma was 0.23 for MAG-3, 0.68 for hippurate and 1.04 for inulin which demonstrates that the filtrated amount of MAG-3 is only 23% of that of inulin, presumably because of higher plasma protein binding which was also measured in vitro and found to be 80 +/- 1.5% for MAG-3 and 32 +/- 2% for (125I)hippurate. Proximal and distal tubules were also micropunctured and their tubular fluid as well as the final urine analyzed for the activity of hippurate and MAG-3. The tubular fluid to plasma ratio values along the nephron and in the final urine were all lower for MAG-3 than for hippurate, indicating a lower secretory capacity. From measurements of whole renal clearance, GFR and plasma protein binding the filtered amount of MAG-3 was 0.26 and of hippurate 0.87 ml/min.g kidney weight (p less than 0.001) and the secreted amount 2.01 and 2.38 ml/min.g kidney weight (p less than 0.05), respectively. We conclude that MAG-3 is predominantly excreted by tubular secretion and that the lower renal clearance of MAG-3 as compared with that of hippurate is a result both of a substantially decreased glomerular filtration and of a lower tubular secretion.

  14. Urinary loss of glucose, phosphate, and protein by diffusion into proximal straight tubules injured by D-serine and maleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Carone, F.A.; Nakamura, S.; Goldman, B.

    1985-06-01

    In several models of acute renal failure leakage of glomerular filtrate out of the tubule is an important pathogenetic mechanism; however, bidirectional diffusion of solute to account for certain pathophysiologic features of acute renal failure has received meager attention. Using micropuncture and clearance methods, the authors assessed sequentially leakage of solutes and inulin across proximal straight tubules (PST) injured by two nephrotoxins. In d-serine-treated rats with extensive necrosis of PST, the basis for glucosuria and tubular leakage of inulin was studied. Glucose absorption by the proximal convoluted tubule and glucose delivery to the PST were normal, but glucose delivery to the distal tubule was increased nearly 8-fold, indicating diffusion of glucose from interstitial to tubular luminal fluid across the necrotic PST. Total kidney inulin clearance was greatly reduced, but single nephron glomerular filtration rate, based on proximal convoluted tubule samples, was normal, indicating tubular loss of inulin. Urinary recovery of (/sup 14/C)inulin infused into tubular lumina revealed that proximal convoluted tubule and distal tubule were impermeable to inulin and that inulin diffused out of the necrotic PST. The progressive return over 6 days of tubular impermeability for inulin correlated with relining of PST with new cells. In maleic acid-treated rats the site and extent of tubular necrosis and the nature of urinary loss of solutes were studied. Microdissection revealed that maleic acid caused limited necrosis of PST which averaged 7.4% of total proximal tubular length. Increased urinary excretion of protein, phosphate, and glucose and increased tubular permeability to microinfused (/sup 14/C)inulin occurred with the onset of PST necrosis, and return of these abnormalities to normal correlated with the degree of cellular repair of the PST.

  15. Comparative physiology of renal tubular transport mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Long, S.; Giebisch, G.

    1979-01-01

    This manuscript discusses current concepts of glomerular filtration and tubular transport of sodium, water, potassium, and urinary acidification by vertebrate kidneys in a comparative context. Work in mammalian and amphibian nephrons receives major emphasis due to our interest in application of new techniques for investigation of cellular mechanisms; when available, data from other vertebrate classes are discussed. Images FIG. 3 PMID:395765

  16. Tubular copper thrust chamber design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, A. I.; Galler, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The use of copper tubular thrust chambers is particularly important in high performance expander cycle space engines. Tubular chambers have more surface area than flat wall chambers, and this extra surface area provides enhanced heat transfer for additional energy to power the cycle. This paper was divided into two sections: (1) a thermal analysis and sensitivity study; and (2) a preliminary design of a selected thrust chamber configuration. The thermal analysis consisted of a statistical optimization to determine the optimum tube geometry, tube booking, thrust chamber geometry, and cooling routing to achieve the maximum upper limit chamber pressure for a 25,000 pound thrust engine. The preliminary design effort produced a layout drawing of a tubular thrust chamber that is three inches shorter than the Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) milled channel chamber but is predicted to provide a five percent increase in heat transfer. Testing this chamber in the AETB would confirm the inherent advantages of tubular chamber construction and heat transfer.

  17. Tubular Membrane Plant-Growth Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Hydroponic system controls nutrient solution for growing crops in space. Pump draws nutrient solution along inside of tubular membrane in pipe from reservoir, maintaining negative pressure in pipe. Roots of plants in slot extract nutrient through membrane within pipe. Crop plants such as wheat, rice, lettuce, tomatoes, soybeans, and beans grown successfully with system.

  18. Boron--epoxy tubular structure members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakespeare, W. B. J.; Nelson, P. T.; Lindkvist, E. C.

    1973-01-01

    Composite materials fabricate thin-walled tubular members which have same load-carrying capabilities as aluminum, titanium, or other metals, but are lighter. Interface between stepped end fitting and tube lends itself to attachments by primary as well as secondary bonding. Interlaminar shear and hoop stress buildup in attachment at end fitting is avoided.

  19. Tubular Membrane Plant-Growth Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Hydroponic system controls nutrient solution for growing crops in space. Pump draws nutrient solution along inside of tubular membrane in pipe from reservoir, maintaining negative pressure in pipe. Roots of plants in slot extract nutrient through membrane within pipe. Crop plants such as wheat, rice, lettuce, tomatoes, soybeans, and beans grown successfully with system.

  20. Drill pipes and casings utilizing multi-conduit tubulars

    SciTech Connect

    Curlett, H.B.

    1989-01-24

    A seal adapted for use with a multi-conduit well tubular, or the like, is described which consists of: a plate with fluid passages, each passage corresponding to an opening of a conduit of the multiconduit tubular, and a groove on the plate around each passage; and elastomer means partially embeddable into each groove for sealing each conduit of a tubular to a corresponding conduit of another similar tubular.

  1. Tubular cell dedifferentiation and peritubular inflammation are coupled by the transcription regulator Id1 in renal fibrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingjian; Wen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Youhua

    2011-01-01

    During renal fibrogenesis, tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition is closely associated with peritubular inflammation; however, it is not clear whether these two processes are connected. We previously identified the inhibitor of differentiation-1 (Id1), a dominant negative antagonist of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, as a major trigger of tubular cell dedifferentiation after injury. Id1 was induced selectively in degenerated proximal tubule and collecting duct epithelia after injury and was present in both the cytoplasm and nucleus, suggesting shuttling between these two compartments. Interestingly, the upregulation of Id1 was associated with peritubular inflammation in mouse and human nephropathies. In vitro, Id1 potentiated NF-κB signaling and augmented RANTES expression in kidney epithelial cells, which led to an enhanced recruitment of inflammatory cells. Id1 also induced Snail1 expression and triggered tubular epithelial dedifferentiation. In vivo, genetic ablation of Id1 in mice reduced peritubular inflammation and decreased tubular expression of RANTES following ureteral obstruction. Mice lacking Id1 were also protected against myofibroblast activation and matrix expression, leading to a reduced total collagen deposition in obstructive nephropathy. Thus, these results indicate that Id1 shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm and promotes peritubular inflammation and tubular epithelial dedifferentiation, suggesting that these two events are intrinsically coupled during renal fibrogenesis. PMID:22278018

  2. Effect of alphatocopherol on diameter of proximal convoluted tubules of kidney in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Saadia

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of alphatocopherol supplement on proximal convoluted tubular diameter of kidney in diabetic mice. The randomised controlled trials was conducted partly at the National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad, and partly in Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from November 2009 to November 2010. Thirty adult female mice BALB/C were randomly divided into three equal groups. Group A served as the control group. Group B was made diabetic by the intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Group C received injection streptozotocin and was fed with alphatocopherol (vitamin E) supplemented diet. After 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and their kidneys were removed for histomorphological study. Diabetes caused significant changes in the diameter of proximal tubule of Experimental Group B (diabetic) compared to the controls in Group A, but these changes were prevented in alphatocopherol treated Group C. Tubular diameter in Group B was significantly reduced compared to theControl Group A (p <0.05), but there was no statistical difference in tubular diameter of Group C and Group A (p > 0.05). Significant difference in proximal tubular diameter of kidneys between diabetic and alphatocopherol treated diabetic mice confirm that vitamin E does extend a protective role in improving diabetic nephropathy.

  3. Surgical Treatment of Tubular Breast Type II

    PubMed Central

    Dabizha, Oleksii Y.; Kostenko, Alona A.; Gomolyako, Irina V.; Samko, Kristina A.; Borovyk, Denys V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tubular breasts are caused by connective tissue malformation and occur in puberty. The main clinical characteristics of the tubular breast are breast asymmetry, dense fibrous ring around the areola, hernia bulging of the areola, megaareola, and hypoplasia of quadrants of the breast. Pathology causes great psychological discomfort to patients. Methods: This study included 17 patients, aged 18 to 34 years, with tubular breast type II who had bilateral pathology and were treated from 2013 to 2016. They had surgical treatment by method of the clinic. Correction technique consisted of mobilization of the central part of the gland and formation of a glandular flap with vertical and horizontal scorings, which looks like a “chessboard,” that was sufficient to cover the lower pole of the implant. The flap was fixed to the submammary folds with stitches that prevented its reduction and accented a new submammary fold. To underscore the importance of the method and to study the structural features of the vascular bed of tubular breast tissue, a morphological study was conducted. Results: Mean follow-up time was 25 months (range between 13 and 37 mo). The proposed technique achieved good results. Complications (hematoma, circumareolar scarring, and “double-bubble” deformity) were identified in 4 patients. Conclusions: Our morphological study confirmed that tubular breast tissue has increased vascularity due to the vessels with characteristic minor malformation and due to the high restorative potential of the vascular bed. Therefore, an extended glandular flap could be freely mobilized without damaging its blood supply; thus, the flap in most cases covered the implant completely and good aesthetic results were achieved. PMID:27826461

  4. Serotonergic modulation of neurotransmission in the rat basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Rainnie, D G

    1999-07-01

    Whole cell patch-clamp recordings were obtained from projection neurons and interneurons of the rat basolateral amygdala (BLA) to understand local network interactions in morphologically identified neurons and their modulation by serotonin. Projection neurons and interneurons were characterized morphologically and electrophysiologically according to their intrinsic membrane properties and synaptic characteristics. Synaptic activity in projection neurons was dominated by spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) that were multiphasic, reached 181 +/- 38 pA in amplitude, lasted 296 +/- 27 mS, and were blocked by the GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline methiodide (30 microM). In interneurons, spontaneous synaptic activity was characterized by a burst-firing discharge patterns (200 +/- 40 Hz) that correlated with the occurrence of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione-sensitive, high-amplitude (260 +/- 42 pA), long-duration (139 +/- 19 mS) inward excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). The interevent interval of 831 +/- 344 mS for compound inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs), and 916 +/- 270 mS for EPSC bursts, suggested that spontaneous IPSP/Cs in projection neurons are driven by burst of action potentials in interneurons. Hence, BLA interneurons may regulate the excitability of projection neurons and thus determine the degree of synchrony within ensembles of BLA neurons. In interneurons 5-hydroxytryptamine oxalate (5-HT) evoked a direct, dose-dependent, membrane depolarization mediated by a 45 +/- 6.9 pA inward current, which had a reversal potential of -90 mV. The effect of 5-HT was mimicked by the 5-HT2 receptor agonist, alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (alpha-methyl-5-HT), but not by the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, (+/-) 8-hydroxydipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT), or the 5-HT1B agonist, CGS 12066A. In projection neurons, 5-HT evoked an indirect membrane hyperpolarization ( approximately 2 mV) that was associated with a 75 +/- 42 p

  5. Glutamate Receptor Antagonist Infusions into the Basolateral and Medial Amygdala Reveal Differential Contributions to Olfactory vs. Context Fear Conditioning and Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David L.; Paschall, Gayla Y.; Davis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The basolateral amygdala's involvement in fear acquisition and expression to visual and auditory stimuli is well known. The involvement of the basolateral and other amygdala areas in fear acquisition and expression to stimuli of other modalities is less certain. We evaluated the contribution of the basolateral and medial amygdala to olfactory and…

  6. Glutamate Receptor Antagonist Infusions into the Basolateral and Medial Amygdala Reveal Differential Contributions to Olfactory vs. Context Fear Conditioning and Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David L.; Paschall, Gayla Y.; Davis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The basolateral amygdala's involvement in fear acquisition and expression to visual and auditory stimuli is well known. The involvement of the basolateral and other amygdala areas in fear acquisition and expression to stimuli of other modalities is less certain. We evaluated the contribution of the basolateral and medial amygdala to olfactory and…

  7. Capacitive proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

  8. Capacitive proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit is disclosed. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change. 14 figs.

  9. Tight junctions of the proximal tubule and their channel proteins.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Michael; Piontek, Jörg; Rosenthal, Rita; Günzel, Dorothee; Krug, Susanne M

    2017-08-01

    The renal proximal tubule achieves the majority of renal water and solute reabsorption with the help of paracellular channels which lead through the tight junction. The proteins forming such channels in the proximal tubule are claudin-2, claudin-10a, and possibly claudin-17. Claudin-2 forms paracellular channels selective for small cations like Na(+) and K(+). Independently of each other, claudin-10a and claudin-17 form anion-selective channels. The claudins form the paracellular "pore pathway" and are integrated, together with purely sealing claudins and other tight junction proteins, in the belt of tight junction strands surrounding the tubular epithelial cells. In most species, the proximal tubular tight junction consists of only 1-2 (pars convoluta) to 3-5 (pars recta) horizontal strands. Even so, they seal the tubule very effectively against leak passage of nutrients and larger molecules. Remarkably, claudin-2 channels are also permeable to water so that 20-25% of proximal water absorption may occur paracellularly. Although the exact structure of the claudin-2 channel is still unknown, it is clear that Na(+) and water share the same pore. Already solved claudin crystal structures reveal a characteristic β-sheet, comprising β-strands from both extracellular loops, which is anchored to a left-handed four-transmembrane helix bundle. This allowed homology modeling of channel-forming claudins present in the proximal tubule. The surface of cation- and anion-selective claudins differ in electrostatic potentials in the area of the proposed ion channel, resulting in the opposite charge selectivity of these claudins. Presently, while models of the molecular structure of the claudin-based oligomeric channels have been proposed, its full understanding has only started.

  10. Proximal Hamstring Repair Strength

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Margaret Ann; Singh, Hardeep; Obopilwe, Elifho; Charette, Ryan; Miller, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Background: Proximal hamstring repair for complete ruptures has become a common treatment. There is no consensus in the literature about postoperative rehabilitation protocols following proximal hamstring repair. Some protocols describe bracing to prevent hip flexion or knee extension while others describe no immobilization. There are currently no biomechanical studies evaluating proximal hamstring repairs; nor are there any studies evaluating the effect of different hip flexion angles on these repairs. Hypothesis: As hip flexion increases from 0° to 90°, there will be a greater gap with cyclical loading. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Proximal hamstring insertions were detached from the ischial tuberosity in 24 cadavers and were repaired with 3 single-loaded suture anchors in the hamstring footprint with a Krakow suture technique. Cyclic loading from 10 to 125 N at 1 Hz was then performed for 0°, 45°, and 90° of hip flexion for 1500 cycles. Gap formation, stiffness, yield load, ultimate load, and energy to ultimate load were compared between groups using paired t tests. Results: Cyclic loading demonstrated the least amount of gap formation (P < .05) at 0° of hip flexion (2.39 mm) and most at 90° of hip flexion (4.19 mm). There was no significant difference in ultimate load between hip flexion angles (326, 309, and 338 N at 0°, 45°, and 90°, respectively). The most common mode of failure occurred with knot/suture failure (n = 17). Conclusion: Increasing hip flexion from 0° to 90° increases the displacement across proximal hamstring repairs. Postoperative bracing that limits hip flexion should be considered. Clinical Relevance: Repetitive motion involving hip flexion after a proximal hamstring repair may cause compromise of the repair. PMID:26665049

  11. 78 FR 14361 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Employment and Training Administration U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, PA; Notice of Initiation of...) filed on December 20, 2012 on behalf of workers of U.S. Steel Tubular Products, McKeesport...

  12. Lasting Increases in Basolateral Amygdala Activity after Emotional Arousal: Implications for Facilitated Consolidation of Emotional Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Joe Guillaume; Likhtik, Ekaterina; Filali, Mohammed; Pare, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Manipulations that reduce or enhance the activity of basolateral amygdala (BLA) neurons in the minutes to hours after training have been shown to respectively impair or facilitate retention on the inhibitory avoidance task. Although this suggests that BLA activity is altered after emotional arousal, such changes have not been directly…

  13. Orphanin FQ/Nociceptin Interacts with the Basolateral Amygdala Noradrenergic System in Memory Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roozendaal, Benno; Lengvilas, Ray; McGaugh, James L.; Civelli, Olivier; Reinscheid, Rainer K.

    2007-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) mediates hormonal and neurotransmitter effects on the consolidation of emotionally influenced memory and that such modulatory influences involve noradrenergic activation of the BLA. As the BLA also expresses a high density of receptors for orphanin FQ/nociceptin…

  14. A carrier-mediated transport for folate in basolateral membrane vesicles of rat small intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Said, H M; Redha, R

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of exit of folate from the enterocyte, i.e. transport across the basolateral membrane, is not known. In this study we examined, using basolateral membrane vesicles, the transport of folic acid across the basolateral membrane of rat intestine. Uptake of folic acid by these vesicles represents transport of the substrate into the intravesicular compartment and not binding to the membrane surface. The rate of folic acid transport was linear for the first 1 min of incubation but decreased thereafter, reaching equilibrium after 5 min of incubation. The transport of folic acid was: (1) saturable as a function of concentration with an apparent Km of 0.6 +/- 0.17 microM and Vmax. of 1.01 +/- 0.11 pmol/30 s per mg of protein; (2) inhibited in a competitive manner by the structural analogues 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and methotrexate (Ki = 2 and 1.4 microM, respectively); (4) electroneutral; (5) Na+-independent; (6) sensitive to the effect of the anion exchange inhibitor 4,4'-di-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS). These data indicate the existence of a carrier-mediated transport system for folic acid in rat intestinal basolateral membrane and demonstrate that the transport process is electroneutral, Na+-independent and sensitive to the effect of anion exchange inhibition. PMID:3689340

  15. Lasting Increases in Basolateral Amygdala Activity after Emotional Arousal: Implications for Facilitated Consolidation of Emotional Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Joe Guillaume; Likhtik, Ekaterina; Filali, Mohammed; Pare, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Manipulations that reduce or enhance the activity of basolateral amygdala (BLA) neurons in the minutes to hours after training have been shown to respectively impair or facilitate retention on the inhibitory avoidance task. Although this suggests that BLA activity is altered after emotional arousal, such changes have not been directly…

  16. Orphanin FQ/Nociceptin Interacts with the Basolateral Amygdala Noradrenergic System in Memory Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roozendaal, Benno; Lengvilas, Ray; McGaugh, James L.; Civelli, Olivier; Reinscheid, Rainer K.

    2007-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) mediates hormonal and neurotransmitter effects on the consolidation of emotionally influenced memory and that such modulatory influences involve noradrenergic activation of the BLA. As the BLA also expresses a high density of receptors for orphanin FQ/nociceptin…

  17. Temporary Basolateral Amygdala Lesions Disrupt Acquisition of Socially Transmitted Food Preferences in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontanini, Alfredo; Katz, Donald B.; Wang, Yunyan

    2006-01-01

    Lesions of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) have long been associated with abnormalities of taste-related behaviors and with failure in a variety of taste- and odor-related learning paradigms, including taste-potentiated odor aversion, conditioned taste preference, and conditioned taste aversion. Still, the general role of the amygdala in…

  18. Temporary Basolateral Amygdala Lesions Disrupt Acquisition of Socially Transmitted Food Preferences in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontanini, Alfredo; Katz, Donald B.; Wang, Yunyan

    2006-01-01

    Lesions of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) have long been associated with abnormalities of taste-related behaviors and with failure in a variety of taste- and odor-related learning paradigms, including taste-potentiated odor aversion, conditioned taste preference, and conditioned taste aversion. Still, the general role of the amygdala in…

  19. The Basolateral Amygdala Is Necessary for the Encoding and the Expression of Odor Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevelinges, Yannick; Desgranges, Bertrand; Ferreira, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Conditioned odor avoidance (COA) results from the association between a novel odor and a delayed visceral illness. The present experiments investigated the role of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in acquisition and retrieval of COA memory. To address this, we used the GABAA agonist muscimol to temporarily inactivate the BLA during COA acquisition…

  20. Calcium uptake by brush-border and basolateral membrane vesicles in chick duodenum

    SciTech Connect

    Takito, J.; Shinki, T.; Sasaki, T.; Suda, T. )

    1990-01-01

    Calcium uptake was compared between duodenal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) and basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) isolated from vitamin D-deficient chicks and those injected with 625 ng of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1 alpha,25(OH)2D3). The uptake by BBMV in the 1 alpha,25-(OH)2D3-treated birds attained a maximum (280% of the control) at 12 h and was maintained at an elevated level (210%) at 24 h after the injection of the vitamin. In contrast, ATP-dependent calcium uptake by BLMV reached a maximum (185% of the control) at 6 h and decreased to the control level at 24 h. The kinetic analysis revealed that 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 increased Vmax values without any changes in apparent Km values in both BBMV and BLMV. The activity of ATP-dependent calcium uptake was localized exclusively in the basolateral membrane, and the activity was inhibited by vanadate (IC50, 1 microM), but not by oligomycin, theophylline, calmodulin, trifluoperazine, or calbindin D28K. These results indicate that calcium transport through both the brush-border and basolateral membranes is involved in the 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3-dependent intestinal calcium absorption. The initiation of calcium absorption by 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 appears to be due to an increase in the rate of calcium efflux at the basolateral membrane rather than the rate at the brush-border membrane.

  1. Lidocaine blockage of basolateral potassium channels in the amphibian urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Van Driessche, W

    1986-01-01

    1. Basolateral membranes of the frog urinary bladder were investigated after increasing the cationic conductance of the apical membrane by the incorporation of nystatin. 2. K+ currents were recorded in the presence of a mucosa to serosa oriented K+ gradient (SO4(2-) Ringer solution). Nystatin caused a rapid rise of the short-circuit current (Isc) followed by a slow increase over a period of 1-2 h. 3. Impedance analysis showed that the apical membrane resistance was drastically reduced by nystatin. The slow increase in Isc was accompanied by a progressive increase in basolateral conductance. 4. The transepithelial current and conductance recorded in the presence of nystatin could be depressed with lidocaine added to the mucosal and serosal solution. The effects of lidocaine were completely reversible. 5. Noise analysis showed that lidocaine induced additional fluctuations in Isc. The spectrum of these fluctuations was of the Lorentzian type. This noise component is caused by the random interruption of the current through the basolateral K+ channels. The Lorentzian parameters were used to calculate the microscopic parameters of the basolateral K+ channels. PMID:2442354

  2. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  3. Traumatic proximal tibiofibular dislocation.

    PubMed

    Burgos, J; Alvarez-Montero, R; Gonzalez-Herranz, P; Rapariz, J M

    1997-01-01

    Proximal tibiofibular dislocation is an exceptional lesion. Rarer still is its presentation in childhood. We describe the clinical case of a 6-year-old boy, the victim of a road accident. He had a tibiofibular dislocation associated with a metaphyseal fracture of the tibia.

  4. Steerable Capacitive Proximity Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenstrom, Del T.; Mcconnell, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Steerable capacitive proximity sensor of "capaciflector" type based partly on sensing units described in GSC-13377 and GSC-13475. Position of maximum sensitivity adjusted without moving sensor. Voltage of each driven shield adjusted separately to concentrate sensing electric field more toward one side or other.

  5. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  6. Apical and basolateral transferrin receptors in polarized BeWo cells recycle through separate endosomes

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Contrary to most other epithelia, trophoblasts in the human placenta, which form the physical barrier between the fetal and the maternal blood circulation, express high numbers of transferrin receptors on their apical cell surface. This study describes the establishment of a polarized trophoblast-like cell line BeWo, which exhibit a high expression of transferrin receptors on the apex of the cells. Cultured on permeable filter supports, BeWo cells formed a polarized monolayer with microvilli on their apical cell surface. Across the monolayer a transepithelial resistance developed of approximately 600 omega.cm2 within 4 d. Depletion of Ca2+ from the medium decreased the resistance to background levels, showing its dependence on the integrity of tight junctions. Within the same period of time the secretion of proteins became polarized. In addition, the compositions of integral membrane proteins at the apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains were distinct as determined by domain-selective iodination. Similar to placental trophoblasts, binding of 125I-labeled transferrin to BeWo monolayers revealed that the transferrin receptor was expressed at both plasma membrane domains. Apical and basolateral transferrin receptors were found in a 1:2 surface ratio and exhibited identical dissociation constants and molecular weights. After uptake, transferrin recycled predominantly to the domain of administration, indicating separate recycling pathways from the apical and basolateral domain. This was confirmed by using diaminobenzidine cytochemistry, a technique by which colocalization of endocytosed 125I-labeled and HRP-conjugated transferrin can be monitored. No mixing of the two types of ligands was observed, when both ligands were simultaneously internalized for 10 or 60 min from opposite domains, demonstrating that BeWo cells possess separate populations of apical and basolateral early endosomes. In conclusion, the trophoblast-like BeWo cell line can serve as a unique

  7. 65Zn2+ transport by lobster hepato-pancreatic baso-lateral membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Capo, J A; Mandal, P K; Eyyunni, S; Ahearn, G A

    2005-01-01

    The lobster (Homarus americanus) hepato-pancreatic epithelial baso-lateral cell membrane possesses three transport proteins that transfer calcium between the cytoplasm and hemolymph: an ATP-dependent calcium ATPase, a sodium-calcium exchanger, and a verapamil-sensitive cation channel. We used standard centrifugation methods to prepare purified hepato-pancreatic baso-lateral membrane vesicles and a rapid filtration procedure to investigate whether (65)Zn(2+) transfer across this epithelial cell border occurs by any of these previously described transporters for calcium. Baso-lateral membrane vesicles were osmotically reactive and exhibited a time course of uptake that was linear for 10-15 s and approached equilibrium by 120 s. In the absence of sodium, (65)Zn(2+) influx was a hyperbolic function of external zinc concentration and followed the Michaelis-Menten equation for carrier transport. This carrier transport was stimulated by the addition of 150 microM ATP (increase in K(m) and J(max)) and inhibited by the simultaneous presence of 150 micromol l(-1) ATP+250 micromol l(-1) vanadate (decrease in both K(m) and J(max)). In the absence of ATP, (65)Zn(2+) influx was a sigmoidal function of preloaded vesicular sodium concentration (0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, and 75 mmol l(-1)) and exhibited a Hill Coefficient of 4.03+/-1.14, consistent with the exchange of 3 Na(+)/1Zn(2+). Using Dixon analysis, calcium was shown to be a competitive inhibitor of baso-lateral membrane vesicle (65)Zn(2+) influx by both the ATP-dependent (K(i)=205 nmol l(-1) Ca(2+)) and sodium-dependent (K(i)=2.47 micromol l(-1) Ca(2+)) transport processes. These results suggest that zinc transport across the lobster hepato-pancreatic baso-lateral membrane largely occurred by the ATP-dependent calcium ATPase and sodium-calcium exchanger carrier proteins.

  8. Subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pascoe, M. K.; Low, P. A.; Windebank, A. J.; Litchy, W. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical, electrophysiologic, autonomic, and neuropathologic characteristics and the natural history of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy and its response to immunotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the 12-year period from 1983 to 1995, we conducted a retrospective review of medical records of Mayo Clinic patients with diabetes who had subacute onset and progression of proximal weakness. The responses of treated versus untreated patients were compared statistically. RESULTS: During the designated study period, 44 patients with subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy were encountered. Most patients were middle-aged or elderly, and no sex preponderance was noted. The proximal muscle weakness often was associated with reduced or absent lower extremity reflexes. Associated weight loss was a common finding. Frequently, patients had some evidence of demyelination on nerve conduction studies, but it invariably was accompanied by concomitant axonal degeneration. The cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration was usually increased. Diffuse and substantial autonomic failure was generally present. In most cases, a sural nerve biopsy specimen suggested demyelination, although evidence of an inflammatory infiltrate was less common. Of 12 patients who received treatment (with prednisone, intravenous immune globulin, or plasma exchange), 9 had improvement of their conditions, but 17 of 29 untreated patients (59%) with follow-up also eventually had improvement, albeit at a much slower rate. Improvement was usually incomplete. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the entity of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy is an extensive and severe variant of bilateral lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy, with some features suggestive of an immune-mediated cause. It differs from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in that most cases have a more restricted distribution and seem to be monophasic and self-limiting. The efficacy of immunotherapy is unproved

  9. Subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pascoe, M. K.; Low, P. A.; Windebank, A. J.; Litchy, W. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical, electrophysiologic, autonomic, and neuropathologic characteristics and the natural history of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy and its response to immunotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the 12-year period from 1983 to 1995, we conducted a retrospective review of medical records of Mayo Clinic patients with diabetes who had subacute onset and progression of proximal weakness. The responses of treated versus untreated patients were compared statistically. RESULTS: During the designated study period, 44 patients with subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy were encountered. Most patients were middle-aged or elderly, and no sex preponderance was noted. The proximal muscle weakness often was associated with reduced or absent lower extremity reflexes. Associated weight loss was a common finding. Frequently, patients had some evidence of demyelination on nerve conduction studies, but it invariably was accompanied by concomitant axonal degeneration. The cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration was usually increased. Diffuse and substantial autonomic failure was generally present. In most cases, a sural nerve biopsy specimen suggested demyelination, although evidence of an inflammatory infiltrate was less common. Of 12 patients who received treatment (with prednisone, intravenous immune globulin, or plasma exchange), 9 had improvement of their conditions, but 17 of 29 untreated patients (59%) with follow-up also eventually had improvement, albeit at a much slower rate. Improvement was usually incomplete. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the entity of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy is an extensive and severe variant of bilateral lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy, with some features suggestive of an immune-mediated cause. It differs from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in that most cases have a more restricted distribution and seem to be monophasic and self-limiting. The efficacy of immunotherapy is unproved

  10. Different roles of TiR8/Sigirr on toll-like receptor signaling in intrarenal antigen-presenting cells and tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lech, M; Garlanda, C; Mantovani, A; Kirschning, C J; Schlöndorff, D; Anders, H-J

    2007-07-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) exist on both myeloid and intrinsic renal cells contributing to the initiation of innate immunity during renal infection with uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Toll-interleukin 1 receptor (IL-1R) (TIR)8/SIGIRR is an orphan receptor of the TLR/IL-1R family, which suppresses TLR signaling of immune cells and is highly expressed in the kidney. Lack of TIR8/SIGIRR is associated with enhanced renal chemokine signaling upon exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This was because of TIR8/SIGIRR expression on resident intrarenal myeloid cells rather than tubular epithelial cells which express it on basolateral and luminal membranes. The lack of TIR8/SIGIRR does not enhance TLR/IL-1R signaling in tubular epithelial cells as was observed in monocytes. TIR8/SIGIRR is induced in monocytes treated with LPS or tumor necrosis factor and interferon-gamma in a dose-dependent manner but was downregulated in treated tubule epithelial cells. This cell type-specific regulation and function did not relate to mRNA splice variants but was associated with N- and O-glycosylation of the receptor in renal cells of myeloid and nonmyeloid origin. Our studies show that resident myeloid cells contribute to TLR-mediated antimicrobial immunity in the kidney and that this function is controlled by Tir8/sigirr. TIR8/SIGIRR does not suppress TLR signaling in tubular epithelial cells, which supports their role as sensors of microbial infection in the kidney.

  11. MRP2 involvement in renal proximal tubular elimination of methylmercury mediated by DMPS or DMSA

    SciTech Connect

    Zalups, Rudolfs K. Bridges, Christy C.

    2009-02-15

    2, 3-Dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonic acid (DMPS) and meso-2, 3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) are dithiols used to treat humans exposed to methylmercury (CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}). After treatment, significant amounts of mercury are eliminated rapidly from the kidneys and are excreted in urine. In the present study, we extended our previous studies by testing the hypothesis that MRP2 mediates the secretion of DMPS or DMSA S-conjugates of CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}. To test this hypothesis, the disposition of mercury was assessed in control and Mrp2-deficient (TR{sup -}) rats exposed intravenously to a 5.0-mg/kg dose of CH{sub 3}HgCl. Twenty-four and 28 h after exposure, groups of four control and four TR{sup -} rats were injected with saline, DMPS, or DMSA. Tissues were harvested 48 h later. Renal and hepatic contents of mercury were greater in saline-injected TR{sup -} rats than in controls. In contrast, the amounts of mercury excreted in urine and feces by TR{sup -} rats were less than those by controls. DMPS and DMSA significantly reduced the renal and hepatic content of mercury in both groups of rats, with the greatest reduction in controls. A significant increase in urinary and fecal excretion of mercury (which was greater in the controls) was also observed. Our findings in inside-out membrane vesicles prepared from hMRP2-transfected Sf9 cells show that uptake of DMPS and DMSA S-conjugates of CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +} was greater in the vesicles containing hMRP2 than in control vesicles. Overall, these dispositional findings indicate that MRP2 does play a role in DMPS- and DMSA-mediated elimination of mercury from the kidney.

  12. MRP2 involvement in renal proximal tubular elimination of methylmercury mediated by DMPS or DMSA.

    PubMed

    Zalups, Rudolfs K; Bridges, Christy C

    2009-02-15

    2, 3-Dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonic acid (DMPS) and meso-2, 3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) are dithiols used to treat humans exposed to methylmercury (CH(3)Hg(+)). After treatment, significant amounts of mercury are eliminated rapidly from the kidneys and are excreted in urine. In the present study, we extended our previous studies by testing the hypothesis that MRP2 mediates the secretion of DMPS or DMSA S-conjugates of CH(3)Hg(+). To test this hypothesis, the disposition of mercury was assessed in control and Mrp2-deficient (TR(-)) rats exposed intravenously to a 5.0-mg/kg dose of CH(3)HgCl. Twenty-four and 28 h after exposure, groups of four control and four TR(-) rats were injected with saline, DMPS, or DMSA. Tissues were harvested 48 h later. Renal and hepatic contents of mercury were greater in saline-injected TR(-) rats than in controls. In contrast, the amounts of mercury excreted in urine and feces by TR(-) rats were less than those by controls. DMPS and DMSA significantly reduced the renal and hepatic content of mercury in both groups of rats, with the greatest reduction in controls. A significant increase in urinary and fecal excretion of mercury (which was greater in the controls) was also observed. Our findings in inside-out membrane vesicles prepared from hMRP2-transfected Sf9 cells show that uptake of DMPS and DMSA S-conjugates of CH(3)Hg(+) was greater in the vesicles containing hMRP2 than in control vesicles. Overall, these dispositional findings indicate that MRP2 does play a role in DMPS- and DMSA-mediated elimination of mercury from the kidney.

  13. Fear extinction deficits following acute stress associate with increased spine density and dendritic retraction in basolateral amygdala neurons

    PubMed Central

    Maroun, Mouna; Ioannides, Pericles J.; Bergman, Krista L.; Kavushansky, Alexandra; Holmes, Andrew; Wellman, Cara L.

    2013-01-01

    Stress-sensitive psychopathologies such as post-traumatic stress disorder are characterized by deficits in fear extinction and dysfunction of corticolimbic circuits mediating extinction. Chronic stress facilitates fear conditioning, impairs extinction, and produces dendritic proliferation in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a critical site of plasticity for extinction. Acute stress impairs extinction, alters plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex-to-BLA circuit, and causes dendritic retraction in the medial prefrontal cortex. Here, we examined extinction learning and basolateral amygdala pyramidal neuron morphology in adult male rats following a single elevated platform stress. Acute stress impaired extinction acquisition and memory, and produced dendritic retraction and increased mushroom spine density in basolateral amygdala neurons in the right hemisphere. Unexpectedly, irrespective of stress, rats that underwent fear and extinction testing showed basolateral amygdala dendritic retraction and altered spine density relative to non-conditioned rats, particularly in the left hemisphere. Thus, extinction deficits produced by acute stress are associated with increased spine density and dendritic retraction in basolateral amygdala pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, the finding that conditioning and extinction as such was sufficient to alter basolateral amygdala morphology and spine density illustrates the sensitivity of basolateral amygdala morphology to behavioral manipulation. These findings may have implications for elucidating the role of the amygdala in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. PMID:23714419

  14. Involvement of the basolateral complex and central nucleus of amygdala in the omission effects of different magnitudes of reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Judice-Daher, Danielle M; Tavares, Tatiane F; Bueno, José Lino O

    2012-07-15

    Evidence from appetitive Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning studies suggest that the amygdala is involved in modulation of responses correlated with motivational states, and therefore, to the modulation of processes probably underlying reinforcement omission effects. The present study aimed to clarify whether or not the mechanisms related to reinforcement omission effects of different magnitudes depend on basolateral complex and central nucleus of amygdala. Rats were trained on a fixed-interval 12s with limited hold 6s signaled schedule in which correct responses were always followed by one of two reinforcement magnitudes. Bilateral lesions of the basolateral complex and central nucleus were made after acquisition of stable performance. After postoperative recovery, the training was changed from 100% to 50% reinforcement schedules. The results showed that lesions of the basolateral complex and central nucleus did not eliminate or reduce, but interfere with reinforcement omission effects. The response from rats of both the basolateral complex and central nucleus lesioned group was higher relative to that of the rats of their respective sham-lesioned groups after reinforcement omission. Thus, the lesioned rats were more sensitive to the omission effect. Moreover, the basolateral complex lesions prevented the magnitude effect on reinforcement omission effects. Basolateral complex lesioned rats showed no differential performance following omission of larger and smaller reinforcement magnitude. Thus, the basolateral complex is involved in incentive processes relative to omission of different reinforcement magnitudes. Therefore, it is possible that reinforcement omission effects are modulated by brain circuitry which involves amygdala.

  15. alpha. - and. beta. -adrenergic receptors in proximal tubules of rat kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaresan, P.R.; Fortin, T.L.; Kelvie, S.L. )

    1987-11-01

    Proximal tubules were isolated from the rat kidney by collagenase digestion of the cortical tissue followed by Percoll gradient centrifugation. Microscopic and hormone-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity studies proved the purity of the preparation. ({sup 3}H)Prazosin, ({sup 3}H)rauwolscine, and ({sup 125}I)iodocyanopindolol were used to identify and quantitate respectively the {alpha}{sub 1}-, {alpha}{sub 2}- and {beta}-adrenergic receptors. Proximal tubular (F{sub 4}) particulate fraction was compared against other cortical nephron segment (F{sub 1},F{sub 2}) fractions and the total collagenase-digested cortex particulate suspension (F{sub t}). Proximal tubules were enriched in {alpha}{sub 1}- and {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptors compared with. The fractions enriched in glomeruli and distal tubular segments had relatively low concentrations of {alpha}{sub 1}- and {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptors. Isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activities in the different fractions corroborated well with the pattern suggested by the ({sup 125}I)iodocyanopindolol binding studies. The results suggest that whole-cortex preparation radioligand binding studies may reflect proximal tubular {alpha}{sub 1}- and {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor changes quite well. They may, however, miss or give erroneous impressions about {beta}-adrenergic receptor changes occurring in different cortical nephron segments.

  16. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratton, R. J.; Singh, P.

    An overview of the tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) development at Westinghouse is presented in this paper. The basic operating principles of SOFC's, evolution in tubular cell design and performance improvement, selection criteria for cell component materials, and cell processing techniques are discussed. The commercial goal is to develop a cell that can operate for 5 to 10 years. Results of cell test operated for more than 50,000 hours are presented. Since 1986, significant progress has been made in the evolution of cells with higher power, lower cost and improved thermal cyclic capability. Also in this period, successively larger multi-kilowatt electrical generators systems have been built and successfully operated for more than 7000 hours.

  17. Tubular Heart Pumping Mechanisms in Ciona Intestinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battista, Nicholas; Miller, Laura

    2015-11-01

    In vertebrate embryogenesis, the first organ to form is the heart, beginning as a primitive heart tube. However, many invertebrates have tubular hearts from infancy through adulthood. Heart tubes have been described as peristaltic and impedance pumps. Impedance pumping assumes a single actuation point of contraction, while traditional peristalsis assumes a traveling wave of actuation. In addition to differences in flow, this inherently implies differences in the conduction system. It is possible to transition from pumping mechanism to the other with a change in the diffusivity of the action potential. In this work we consider the coupling between the fluid dynamics and electrophysiology of both mechanisms, within a basal chordate, the tunicate. Using CFD with a neuro-mechanical model of tubular pumping, we discuss implications of the both mechanisms. Furthermore, we discuss the implications of the pumping mechanism on evolution and development.

  18. Optical analysis of solar energy tubular absorbers.

    PubMed

    Saltiel, C; Sokolov, M

    1982-11-15

    The energy absorbed by a solar energy tubular receiver element for a single incident ray is derived. Two types of receiver elements were analyzed: (1) an inner tube with an absorbing coating surrounded by a semitransparent cover tube, and (2) a semitransparent inner tube filled with an absorbing fluid surrounded by a semitransparent cover tube. The formation of ray cascades in the semitransparent tubes is considered. A numerical simulation to investigate the influence of the angle of incidence, sizing, thickness, and coefficient of extinction of the tubes was performed. A comparison was made between receiver elements with and without cover tubes. Ray tracing analyses in which rays were followed within the tubular receiver element as well as throughout the rest of the collector were performed for parabolic and circular trough concentrating collectors.

  19. Study of hydrodynamic characteristics in tubular photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghua; Wu, Xia; Xue, Shengzhang; Liang, Kehong; Cong, Wei

    2013-02-01

    In this work, the hydrodynamic characteristics in tubular photobioreactors with a series of helical static mixers built-in were numerically investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The influences of height and screw pitch of the helical static mixer and fluid inlet velocity on the cell trajectories, swirl numbers and energy consumption were examined. In order to verify the actual results for cultivation of microalgae, cultivation experiments of freshwater Chlorella sp. were carried out in photobioreactor with and without helical static mixer built-in at the same time. It was shown that with built-in helical static mixer, the mixing of fluid could be intensified, and the light/dark cycle could also be achieved which is of benefit for the growth of microalgae. The biomass productivity of Chlorella sp. in tubular photobioreactor with helical static mixer built-in was 37.26 % higher than that in the photobioreactor without helical static mixer.

  20. Targeting apoptosis in acute tubular injury.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Alberto; Justo, Pilar; Sanz, Ana; Lorz, Corina; Egido, Jesús

    2003-10-15

    Recent research has shown that apoptosis and its regulatory mechanisms contribute to cell number regulation in acute renal failure. Acute tubular necrosis is the most frequent form of parenchymal acute renal failure. The main causes are ischemia-reperfusion, sepsis and nephrotoxic drugs. Exogenous factors such as nephrotoxic drugs and bacterial products, and endogenous factors such as lethal cytokines promote tubular cell apoptosis. Such diverse stimuli engage intracellular death pathways that in some cases are stimulus-specific. We now review the role of apoptosis in acute renal failure, the potential molecular targets of therapeutic intervention, the therapeutic weapons to modulate the activity of these targets and the few examples of therapeutic intervention on apoptosis.

  1. Pattern Selection in Growing Tubular Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarletta, P.; Balbi, V.; Kuhl, E.

    2014-12-01

    Tubular organs display a wide variety of surface morphologies including circumferential and longitudinal folds, square and hexagonal undulations, and finger-type protrusions. Surface morphology is closely correlated to tissue function and serves as a clinical indicator for physiological and pathological conditions, but the regulators of surface morphology remain poorly understood. Here, we explore the role of geometry and elasticity on the formation of surface patterns. We establish morphological phase diagrams for patterns selection and show that increasing the thickness or stiffness ratio between the outer and inner tubular layers induces a gradual transition from circumferential to longitudinal folding. Our results suggest that physical forces act as regulators during organogenesis and give rise to the characteristic circular folds in the esophagus, the longitudinal folds in the valves of Kerckring, the surface networks in villi, and the crypts in the large intestine.

  2. Tubular lap joints for wind turbine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, E.D. Jr.; Guess, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    A combined analytical/experimental study of the strength of thick- walled, adhesively bonded PMMA-to-aluminum and E-glass/epoxy composite-to-aluminum tubular lap joints under axial load has been conducted. Test results include strength and failure mode data. Moreover, strain gages placed along the length of the outer tubular adherend characterize load transfer from one adherend to the other. The strain gage data indicate that load transfer is nonuniform and that the relatively compliant PMMA has the shorter load transfer length. Strains determined by a finite element analysis of the tested joints are in excellent agreement with those measured. Calculated bond stresses are highest in the region of observed failure, and extensive bond yielding is predicted in the E- glass/epoxy composite-to-aluminum joint prior to joint failure. 4 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell developments

    SciTech Connect

    Bratton, R.J.; Singh, P.

    1995-08-01

    An overview of the tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) development at Westinghouse is presented in this paper. The basic operating principles of SOFCs, evolution in tubular cell design and performance improvement, selection criteria for cell component materials, and cell processing techniques are discussed. The commercial goal is to develop a cell that can operate for 5 to 10 years. Results of cell test operated for more than 50,000 hours are presented. Since 1986, significant progress has been made in the evolution of cells with higher power, lower cost and improved thermal cyclic capability. Also in this period, successively larger multi-kilowatt electrical generators systems have been built and successfully operated for more than 7000 hours.

  4. Mechanisms in hyperkalemic renal tubular acidosis.

    PubMed

    Karet, Fiona E

    2009-02-01

    The form of renal tubular acidosis associated with hyperkalemia is usually attributable to real or apparent hypoaldosteronism. It is therefore a common feature in diabetes and a number of other conditions associated with underproduction of renin or aldosterone. In addition, the close relationship between potassium levels and ammonia production dictates that hyperkalemia per se can lead to acidosis. Here I describe the modern relationship between molecular function of the distal portion of the nephron, pathways of ammoniagenesis, and hyperkalemia.

  5. Self-Cleaning Tubular-Membrane Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarbolouki, M. N.

    1983-01-01

    Tubular membranes made self-cleaning with aid of flow reversing valve. Sponge balls scrub membrane surfaces as they travel inside membrane tubes. A four-way flow-reversal valve automatically reverses flow in tubes at preset intervals so sponge balls reciprocate along tubes. Baskets at ends of tubes prevent sponges from escaping. Automatic cleaning feature added to existing membrane processing equipment with minimal modifications.

  6. Self-Cleaning Tubular-Membrane Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarbolouki, M. N.

    1983-01-01

    Tubular membranes made self-cleaning with aid of flow reversing valve. Sponge balls scrub membrane surfaces as they travel inside membrane tubes. A four-way flow-reversal valve automatically reverses flow in tubes at preset intervals so sponge balls reciprocate along tubes. Baskets at ends of tubes prevent sponges from escaping. Automatic cleaning feature added to existing membrane processing equipment with minimal modifications.

  7. Stress concentration factors for dented tubular members

    SciTech Connect

    Buitrago, J.; Hsu, T.M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents results of a finite element (FE) study conducted on /tubular members with dents of various geometries, including dents with circular and elliptical cross-sectional shapes. The modeling and analysis procedures are discussed, and stress concentration factors (SCFs) are generated for axial and bending loads in the member. Equations that give SCFs as function of the member size and dent geometry are developed for both load conditions. Then, simplified equations are proposed for structural assessment purposes.

  8. Tubular electric heater with a thermocouple assembly

    DOEpatents

    House, R.K.; Williams, D.E.

    1975-08-01

    This patent relates to a thermocouple or other instrumentation which is installed within the walls of a tubular sheath surrounding a process device such as an electric heater. The sheath comprises two concentric tubes, one or both of which have a longitudinal, concave crease facing the other tube. The thermocouple is fixedly positioned within the crease and the outer tube is mechanically reduced to form an interference fit onto the inner tube. (auth)

  9. Distal renal tubular acidosis with hereditary spherocytosis.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajiv; Agarwal, Indira; Bawazir, Waleed M; Bruce, Lesley J

    2013-07-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), although distinct entities, share the same protein i.e. the anion exchanger1 (AE1) protein. Despite this, their coexistence has been rarely reported. We hereby describe the largest family to date with co-existence of dRTA and HS and discuss the molecular basis for the co-inheritance of these conditions.

  10. GDF11 improves tubular regeneration after acute kidney injury in elderly mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Qinggang; Liu, Dong; Huang, Qi; Cai, Guangyan; Cui, Shaoyuan; Sun, Xuefeng; Chen, Xiangmei

    2016-01-01

    The GDF11 expression pattern and its effect on organ regeneration after acute injury in the elderly population are highly controversial topics. In our study, GDF11/8 expression increased after kidney ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI), and the relatively lower level of GDF11/8 in the kidneys of aged mice was associated with a loss of proliferative capacity and a decline in renal repair, compared to young mice. In vivo, GDF11 supplementation in aged mice increased vimentin and Pax2 expression in the kidneys as well as the percentage of 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU)-positive proximal tubular epithelial cells. GDF11 improved the renal repair, recovery of renal function, and survival of elderly mice at 72 h after IRI. Moreover, the addition of recombinant GDF11 to primary renal epithelial cells increased proliferation, migration, and dedifferentiation by upregulating the ERK1/2 pathway in vitro. Our study indicates that GDF11/8 in the kidney decreases with age and that GDF11 can increase tubular cell dedifferentiation and proliferation as well as improve tubular regeneration after acute kidney injury (AKI) in old mice. PMID:27703192

  11. NADPH oxidase 4 deficiency increases tubular cell death during acute ischemic reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Nlandu-Khodo, Stellor; Dissard, Romain; Hasler, Udo; Schäfer, Matthias; Pircher, Haymo; Jansen-Durr, Pidder; Krause, Karl Heinz; Martin, Pierre-Yves; de Seigneux, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) is highly expressed in kidney proximal tubular cells. NOX4 constitutively produces hydrogen peroxide, which may regulate important pro-survival pathways. Renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is a classical model mimicking human ischemic acute tubular necrosis. We hypothesized that NOX4 plays a protective role in kidney IRI. In wild type (WT) animals subjected to IRI, NOX4 protein expression increased after 24 hours. NOX4 KO (knock-out) and WT littermates mice were subjected to IRI. NOX4 KO mice displayed decreased renal function and more severe tubular apoptosis, decreased Bcl-2 expression and higher histologic damage scores compared to WT. Activation of NRF2 was decreased in NOX4 KO mice in response to IRI. This was related to decreased KEAP1 oxidation leading to decreased NRF2 stabilization. This resulted in decreased glutathione levels. In vitro silencing of NOX4 in cells showed an enhanced propensity to apoptosis, with reduced expression of NRF2, glutathione content and Bcl-2 expression, similar to cells derived from NOX4 KO mice. Overexpression of a constitutively active form of NRF2 (caNRF2) in NOX4 depleted cells rescued most of this phenotype in cultured cells, implying that NRF2 regulation by ROS issued from NOX4 may play an important role in its anti-apoptotic property. PMID:27924932

  12. Nebivolol Attenuates Redox-Sensitive Glomerular and Tubular Mediated Proteinuria in Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Javad; Hayden, Melvin R.; Sowers, James R.; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Tilmon, Roger D.; Manrique, Camila; Lastra, Guido; DeMarco, Vincent G.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance-related proteinuria is associated with oxidative stress and impaired tissue bioavailable nitric oxide. Recent data suggest that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-mediated oxidative injury to the proximal tubule, like that seen in the glomerulus, contributes to proteinuria in insulin-resistant states. The vasodilator β-blocker nebivolol reduces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity, increases bioavailable nitric oxide, and improves insulin sensitivity. To test the hypothesis that a treatment strategy that reduces oxidative stress and attenuates obesity-associated increases in glomerular and proximal tubule derived protein, we treated young Zucker obese (ZO) and age-matched Zucker lean male rats with nebivolol (10 mg · kg−1 · d−1) for 21 d. Compared with Zucker lean, ZO controls exhibited increased proteinuria and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, reductions in systemic insulin sensitivity in association with increased renal renin, (pro)renin receptor, angiotensin II type 1 receptor, and mineralocorticoid receptor immunostaining, oxidative stress, and glomerular tubular structural abnormalities that were substantially improved with in vivo nebivolol treatment. Nebivolol treatment also led to improvements in glomerular podocyte foot-process effacement and improvement in podocyte-specific proteins (nephrin and synaptopodin) as well as proximal tubule-specific proteins (megalin and lysosomal-associated membrane protein-2) and proximal tubule ultrastructural remodeling in the ZO kidney. Our findings support the notion that obesity and insulin resistance lead to increased glomerulotubular oxidative stress and resultant glomerular and tubular sources of excess urine protein. Furthermore, the results of this study suggest the beneficial effect of nebivolol on proteinuria was derived from improvements in weight and insulin sensitivity and reductions in renal oxidative stress in a state of obesity and

  13. Proximity Networks and Epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guclu, Hasan; Toroczkai, Zoltán

    2007-03-01

    We presented the basis of a framework to account for the dynamics of contacts in epidemic processes, through the notion of dynamic proximity graphs. By varying the integration time-parameter T, which is the period of infectivity one can give a simple account for some of the differences in the observed contact networks for different diseases, such as smallpox, or AIDS. Our simplistic model also seems to shed some light on the shape of the degree distribution of the measured people-people contact network from the EPISIM data. We certainly do not claim that the simplistic graph integration model above is a good model for dynamic contact graphs. It only contains the essential ingredients for such processes to produce a qualitative agreement with some observations. We expect that further refinements and extensions to this picture, in particular deriving the link-probabilities in the dynamic proximity graph from more realistic contact dynamics should improve the agreement between models and data.