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Sample records for przelozenie wielkich pni

  1. Low Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI) Predicts Unfavorable Distant Metastasis-Free Survival in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Shaodong; Chen, Haiyang; Liang, Shaobo; Peng, Peijian; Chen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Poor nutritional status is associated with progression and advanced disease in patients with cancer. The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) may represent a simple method of assessing host immunonutritional status. This study was designed to investigate the prognostic value of the PNI for distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods A training cohort of 1,168 patients with non-metastatic NPC from two institutions was retrospectively analyzed. The optimal PNI cutoff value for DMFS was identified using the online tool “Cutoff Finder”. DMFS was analyzed using stratified and adjusted analysis. Propensity score-matched analysis was performed to balance baseline characteristics between the high and low PNI groups. Subsequently, the prognostic value of the PNI for DMFS was validated in an external validation cohort of 756 patients with NPC. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) was calculated to compare the discriminatory ability of different prognostic scores. Results The optimal PNI cutoff value was determined to be 51. Low PNI was significantly associated with poorer DMFS than high PNI in univariate analysis (P<0.001) as well as multivariate analysis (P<0.001) before propensity score matching. In subgroup analyses, PNI could also stratify different risks of distant metastases. Propensity score-matched analyses confirmed the prognostic value of PNI, excluding other interpretations and selection bias. In the external validation cohort, patients with high PNI also had significantly lower risk of distant metastases than those with low PNI (Hazards Ratios, 0.487; P<0.001). The PNI consistently showed a higher AUC value at 1-year (0.780), 3-year (0.793) and 5-year (0.812) in comparison with other prognostic scores. Conclusion PNI, an inexpensive and easily assessable inflammatory index, could aid clinicians in developing individualized treatment and follow-up strategies for patients

  2. The Brazilian National Intercomparison Program (PNI/IRD/CNEN): evaluation of 15 years of data.

    PubMed

    Tauhata, Luiz; Vianna, Maria Elizabeth Couto M; de Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo; Ferreira, Ana Cristina; Bragança, Maura Julia C; Clain, Almir Faria; de Faria, Rute Quelvia

    2006-01-01

    The Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria has been coordinating the National Intercomparison Program (PNI) for 15 years, from 1991 to 2005. The objective is to evaluate the analytical performance of the laboratories in low-level activity concentration radionuclide assays in environmental samples. This work presents an evaluation of PNI data from 42 intercomparison runs, which distributed to 22 Brazilian laboratories 2511 samples evaluating 5768 radionuclide assays involving 32 radionuclides in the period from 1991 to 2004. The laboratory performance was evaluated using the Normalized Standard Deviation used by the U.S. EPA. For comparison aims, the Normalized Deviation, used by BIPM was also applied. Laboratory performance were grouped and evaluated in three periods of 5 years each. The first period shows, an average value of good performance of 71.2%, the second shows an average of 78.6% and the last an average of 82.3%. Performance for each kind of radionuclide is also presented.

  3. New aspects in the phase behaviour of poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide: systematic temperature dependent shrinking of PNiPAM assemblies well beyond the LCST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischofberger, Irmgard; Trappe, Veronique

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the phase behaviour of aqueous dispersions of poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide (PNiPAM) microgels above their lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and find that beyond a well-defined concentration the systems exhibit a peculiar behaviour: the microgels assemble into space-spanning gels that shrink in time while maintaining the shape of the container in which they have been formed. Over a wide range of concentrations this shrinking behaviour is independent of PNiPAM concentration, but systematically depends on temperature in a temperature range significantly exceeding the LCST. The overall shrinking characteristics are consistent with those expected for scaffolds made of materials that exhibit thermal contraction. However, for the PNiPAM assemblies contraction is irreversible and can be as large as 90%. Such characteristics disclose complex interactions between fully collapsed PNiPAM and water well beyond the LCST, the origin of which has yet to be elucidated.

  4. New aspects in the phase behaviour of poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide: systematic temperature dependent shrinking of PNiPAM assemblies well beyond the LCST.

    PubMed

    Bischofberger, Irmgard; Trappe, Veronique

    2015-10-23

    We investigate the phase behaviour of aqueous dispersions of poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide (PNiPAM) microgels above their lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and find that beyond a well-defined concentration the systems exhibit a peculiar behaviour: the microgels assemble into space-spanning gels that shrink in time while maintaining the shape of the container in which they have been formed. Over a wide range of concentrations this shrinking behaviour is independent of PNiPAM concentration, but systematically depends on temperature in a temperature range significantly exceeding the LCST. The overall shrinking characteristics are consistent with those expected for scaffolds made of materials that exhibit thermal contraction. However, for the PNiPAM assemblies contraction is irreversible and can be as large as 90%. Such characteristics disclose complex interactions between fully collapsed PNiPAM and water well beyond the LCST, the origin of which has yet to be elucidated.

  5. Hydrodésazotation de la pyridine sous pression atmosphérique catalysée par des oxynitrures de Ni, Mo, et des oxynitrures mixtes MoNi, MoPNi, AlNi et AlPNi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkamel, K.; Elidrissi, M.; Yacoubi, A.; Nadiri, A.; Abouarnadasse, S.

    1998-11-01

    Hydrodenitrogenation of pyridine has been realised, under atmospheric pressure, in the presence of oxynitride catalysts of molybdenum, nickel and their solid solutions as well as on mixed catalysts MoNi, MoPNi, AlNi and AlPNi. In all cases, the main reaction products are n-pentane and N-pentylpiperidine, at any conversion. Kinetic results suggest that the conversion of pyridine, on nickel oxynitride, proceeds through successive steps with hydrogenation as rate-limiting. Molybdenum oxynitride and Mo-Ni-N solid solutions tested in the temperature range 500 circC-450 circC, showed a good structural and catalytic stability, but a low catalytic activity. On the other hand, nickel oxynitride catalyst yielded higher activity at much lower temperatures (190 circC-250 circC). X-rays analysis indicates that the used catalyst was entirely reduced to metallic nickel, which is the active phase. Under the same experimental conditions, mixed catalysts are relatively less active but more selective than nickel oxynitride into n-pentane formation. La réaction d'hydrodésazotation de la pyridine a été réalisée, sous pression atmosphérique, en présence de catalyseurs oxynitrures de molybdène, de nickel et leurs solutions solides ainsi que sur les catalyseurs mixtes MoNi, MoPNi, AlNi et AlPNi. Dans tous les cas, les principaux produits de réaction observés sont le n-pentane et la N- pentylpipéridine, quel que soit le taux de conversion. Les résultats cinétiques obtenus en régime intégral, en présence de l'oxynitrure de nickel, suggèrent un schéma réactionnel successif où l'hydrogénation de la pyridine serait l'étape limitante. L'oxynitrure de molybdène et les solutions solides Mo-Ni-N, testés à des températures supérieures ou égales à 500 circC, ont montré une bonne stabilité catalytique et structurale mais une faible activité catalytique. En revanche, l'oxynitrure de nickel présente une activité catalytique plus importante à des températures de r

  6. Effects of P/Ni ratio and Ni content on performance of γ-Al2O3-supported nickel phosphides for deoxygenation of methyl laurate to hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhena; Tang, Mingxiao; Chen, Jixiang

    2016-01-01

    γ-Al2O3-supported nickel phosphides (mNi-Pn) were prepared by the TPR method and tested for the deoxygenation of methyl laurate to hydrocarbons. The effects of the P/Ni ratio (n = 1.0-2.5) and Ni content (m = 5-15 wt.%) in the precursors on their structure and performance were investigated. Ni/γ-Al2O3 was also studied for comparison. It was found that the formation of AlPO4 in the precursor inhibited the reduction of phosphate and so the formation of nickel phosphides. With increasing the P/Ni ratio and Ni content, the Ni, Ni3P, Ni12P5 and Ni2P phases orderly formed, accompanying with the increases of their particle size and the amount of weak acid sites (mainly due to P-OH group), while the CO uptake and the amount of medium strong acid sites (mainly related to Ni sites) reached maximum on 10%Ni-P1.5. In the deoxygenation reaction, compared with Ni/γ-Al2O3, the mNi-Pn catalysts showed much lower activities for decarbonylation, Csbnd C hydrogenolysis and methanation due to the ligand and ensemble effects of P. The conversion and the selectivity to n-C11 and n-C12 hydrocarbons achieved maximum on 10%Ni-P 2.0 for the 10%Ni-Pn catalysts and on 8%Ni-P2.0 for the mNi-P2.0 catalysts, while the turnover frequency (TOF) of methyl laurate mainly increased with the P/Ni ratio and Ni content. We propose that TOF was influenced by the nickel phosphide phases, the catalyst acidity and the particle size as well as the synergetic effect between the Ni site and acid site. Again, the hydrodeoxygenation pathway of methyl laurate was promoted with increasing P/Ni ratio and Ni content, ascribed to the phase change in the order of Ni, Ni3P, Ni12P5 and Ni2P in the prepared catalysts.

  7. Direct evidence of layer-by-layer assembly of polyelectrolyte multilayers on soft and porous temperature-sensitive PNiPAM microgel using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wong, John E; Müller, Claus B; Laschewsky, André; Richtering, Walter

    2007-07-26

    We describe the layer-by-layer assembly of polyelectrolyte multilayers on soft and porous temperature-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAM) microgel. Microgels are not hard and rigid but rather are soft and porous particles, and polyelectrolytes not only interdigitate with each other during multilayer formation but also with the microgel. Because of this difference, there could be concerns about the feasibility of the layer-by-layer technique on these systems. The argument is that the layer being deposited is stripping the underlying layer instead of anchoring to the latter, and common methods of characterizing film growth on particles such as zeta-potentials will still show "successful" charge reversal. To address this issue, we used two differently labeled polyelectrolytes during the deposition. Because of the small size of the microgel (400 nm) studied, we cannot distinguish between polyelectrolytes adsorbed on or in the microgel. However, with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we can clearly distinguish between free labeled polyelectrolytes and those that are bound to the microgel. Dual-color correlation confirms the presence of both polyelectrolytes bound to the same particle while fluorescence imaging (on a dry sample) provides the visual proof.

  8. Specific Types of Coal Macerals from Orzesze and Ruda Beds from "Pniówek" Coal Mine (Upper Silesian Coal Basin - Poland) as a Manifestation of Thermal Metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, Zdzisław; Komorek, Joanna; Lewandowska, Małgorzata

    2014-03-01

    Subject of the research were coal samples from the seams of Orzesze and Ruda beds from "Pniówek" coal mine. All samples represent methabituminous coal B, which present high vitrinite content (V mmf > 60%). Optical character of vitrinite from all analyzed coal samples is biaxial negative and it is characterized by low differentiation of bireflectance. The experiments have shown that the coal rank of investigated samples is generally decreasing with increasing both depth of coal seams and the distance between sampling point and the Carboniferous roof. It may suggests inversion of coalification. Specific types of macerals, typical for thermally metamorphosed coals have been found for all analysed coal samples. It was found, presence of such components like: fluorescing bituminous substance (FBS) filling of cellular spaces in semifusinite, fusinite, and funginite; pseudomorphs after megaspores exhibiting strong bireflectance, and anisotropic semifusinite. Petrographic components with a structure similar to structure of coke and pyrolytic carbon were observed rarely. Presence of colotelinite grains which are visible darker, impregnated with bituminous substance and exhibiting weak fluorescence may be related with influence of temperature on coal. Carbonates occur as filling of cellular spaces in semifusinite, in examined coal samples and there are the effect of thermal alteration of coal. Przedmiotem badań były próbki węgla z pokładów warstw orzeskich i rudzkich KWK Pniówek. Badane próbki reprezentują węgiel średniouwęglony typu B (metabitumiczny), wysokowitrynitowy. Stwierdzono, że witrynit z badanych próbek ma dwuosiowy ujemny charakter optyczny i wykazuje małe zróżnicowanie w wartościach dwójodbicia. Przeprowadzone badania wykazały, że stopień uwęglenia badanych próbek generalnie maleje wraz ze wzrostem głębokości występowania pokładów węgla oraz ze wzrostem odległości miejsca opróbowania od stropu karbonu co może wskazywać na

  9. Drainage dynamics of thin liquid foam films containing soft PNiPAM microgels: influence of the cross-linking density and concentration.

    PubMed

    Keal, L; Lapeyre, V; Ravaine, V; Schmitt, V; Monteux, C

    2016-12-21

    We investigate the drainage dynamics of thin liquid foam films containing PNiPAM microgel suspensions with two cross-linking densities (1.5 and 5 mol% BIS) and at two microgel concentrations (0.1 and 1% wt). For this purpose, we use a thin-film pressure balance apparatus that can apply a controlled and sudden hydrostatic pressure on a film, and record the subsequent film thinning as a function of time. Once the film thickness has reached a stationary value, we test the adhesion between the interfaces of the film by reducing the pressure and measuring the angle between the film and the meniscus. This angle increases on reduction of pressure for adhesive films, which resists the separation of their interfaces. Non-adhesive films separate easily, and the meniscus angle stays constant. At a low microgel concentration, the more densely cross-linked microgels (5 mol% BIS) tend to drain into more adhesive films than the more loosely cross-linked particles (1.5 mol% BIS). The adhesion results from particles that bridge the two air-water interfaces of the film and are shared between them. In these cases, the film, which is initially stabilized by a bilayer of microgel particles, rearrange to a state where the microgels bridge the interfaces. These results are discussed and compared with previous studies at a low concentration of microgels, which have shown that emulsions stabilized with densely cross-linked microgels are more adhesive and less resistant to mechanical stresses than those obtained with lower cross-linking densities. In addition, micron-scale depleted zones with no microgels are observed in the films stabilized with the 5 mol% BIS particles, which eventually lead to the rupture of the films. At 1% wt, the films drain slowly, are not adhesive and have the thickness of a bilayer of microgel; while at 0.1% wt, the films have the thickness of a monolayer of microgel, are adhesive and show bridging. From the thin liquid foam film thicknesses we extract a rough

  10. 76 FR 3881 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; PNI Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Government-owned inventions described in U.S. Patent No. 6,820,025: Method and Apparatus for Motion Tracking of an Articulated Rigid Body, Navy Case No. 82,816.//U.S. Patent No. 7,089,148: Method and Apparatus...

  11. Prognosis and Progression of ESCC Patients with Perineural Invasion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guanghui; Feng, Fan; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Shushang; Zheng, Gaozan; Xiao, Shuao; Cai, Lei; Yang, Xuewen; Li, Guocai; Lian, Xiao; Guo, Man; Sun, Li; Yang, Jianjun; Fan, Daiming; Lu, Qun; Zhang, Hongwei

    2017-03-03

    Perineural invasion (PNI) has been recognized as a poor prognostic factor in several malignancies, but the definition and pathogenesis of PNI in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains to be defined. PNI was evaluated by H&E staining and S100 immunohistochemistry. The predictive value of PNI in the prognosis of ESCC patients was analyzed. PNI was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. A total of 54 specimens (17.88%) were defined as PNI-a and 99 specimens (32.78%) as PNI-b. S100 staining was superior to H&E staining for PNI detection (50.66% vs 27.15%, P < 0.001, κ = 0.506). Tumor depth (P = 0.001), tumor stage (P = 0.010), and vascular invasion (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with PNI. PIN-a and PNI-b had significant lower disease free survival (DFS) and disease specific survival (DSS) than PNI-0 patients, and the prognosis of PNI-b patients was significantly worse than PNI-a patients for DFS (P = 0.009). PNI was an independent predictor for DFS and DSS in ESCC as evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. ESCC cells could metastasize along the nerve in vitro and in vivo, and PNI was a dynamic process. S100 staining significantly improved the accuracy of PNI detection. PNI was associated with local recurrence and poor prognosis of ESCC patients.

  12. The Prognostic Nutritional Index Predicts Survival and Identifies Aggressiveness of Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Eo, Wan Kyu; Chang, Hye Jung; Suh, Jungho; Ahn, Jin; Shin, Jeong; Hur, Joon-Young; Kim, Gou Young; Lee, Sookyung; Park, Sora; Lee, Sanghun

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional status has been associated with long-term outcomes in cancer patients. The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) is calculated by serum albumin concentration and absolute lymphocyte count, and it may be a surrogate biomarker for nutritional status and possibly predicts overall survival (OS) of gastric cancer. We evaluated the value of the PNI as a predictor for disease-free survival (DFS) in addition to OS in a cohort of 314 gastric cancer patients who underwent curative surgical resection. There were 77 patients in PNI-low group (PNI ≤ 47.3) and 237 patients in PNI-high group (PNI > 47.3). With a median follow-up of 36.5 mo, 5-yr DFS rates in PNI-low group and PNI-high group were 63.5% and 83.6% and 5-yr OS rates in PNI-low group and PNI-high group were 63.5% and 88.4%, respectively (DFS, P < 0.0001; OS, P < 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, the only predictors for DFS were PNI, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, and perineural invasion, whereas the only predictors for OS were PNI, age, TNM stage, and perineural invasion. In addition, the PNI was independent of various inflammatory markers. In conclusion, the PNI is an independent prognostic factor for both DFS and OS, and provides additional prognostic information beyond pathologic parameters.

  13. Prognosis and Progression of ESCC Patients with Perineural Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guanghui; Feng, Fan; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Shushang; Zheng, Gaozan; Xiao, Shuao; Cai, Lei; Yang, Xuewen; Li, Guocai; Lian, Xiao; Guo, Man; Sun, Li; Yang, Jianjun; Fan, Daiming; Lu, Qun; Zhang, Hongwei

    2017-01-01

    Perineural invasion (PNI) has been recognized as a poor prognostic factor in several malignancies, but the definition and pathogenesis of PNI in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains to be defined. PNI was evaluated by H&E staining and S100 immunohistochemistry. The predictive value of PNI in the prognosis of ESCC patients was analyzed. PNI was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. A total of 54 specimens (17.88%) were defined as PNI-a and 99 specimens (32.78%) as PNI-b. S100 staining was superior to H&E staining for PNI detection (50.66% vs 27.15%, P < 0.001, κ = 0.506). Tumor depth (P = 0.001), tumor stage (P = 0.010), and vascular invasion (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with PNI. PIN-a and PNI-b had significant lower disease free survival (DFS) and disease specific survival (DSS) than PNI-0 patients, and the prognosis of PNI-b patients was significantly worse than PNI-a patients for DFS (P = 0.009). PNI was an independent predictor for DFS and DSS in ESCC as evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. ESCC cells could metastasize along the nerve in vitro and in vivo, and PNI was a dynamic process. S100 staining significantly improved the accuracy of PNI detection. PNI was associated with local recurrence and poor prognosis of ESCC patients. PMID:28256609

  14. An Exploration of Preference for Numerical Information in Relation to Math Self-Concept and Statistics Anxiety in a Graduate Statistics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current research was to investigate the relationship between preference for numerical information (PNI), math self-concept, and six types of statistics anxiety in an attempt to establish support for the nomological validity of the PNI. Correlations indicate that four types of statistics anxiety were strongly related to PNI, and…

  15. The Higher Order Factor Structure and Gender Invariance of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Conroy, David E.

    2010-01-01

    The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) is a recently developed multidimensional inventory for the assessment of pathological narcissism. The authors describe and report the results of two studies that investigate the higher order factor structure and gender invariance of the PNI. The results of the first study indicate that the PNI has a…

  16. An Exploration of Preference for Numerical Information in Relation to Math Self-Concept and Statistics Anxiety in a Graduate Statistics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current research was to investigate the relationship between preference for numerical information (PNI), math self-concept, and six types of statistics anxiety in an attempt to establish support for the nomological validity of the PNI. Correlations indicate that four types of statistics anxiety were strongly related to PNI, and…

  17. The Higher Order Factor Structure and Gender Invariance of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Conroy, David E.

    2010-01-01

    The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) is a recently developed multidimensional inventory for the assessment of pathological narcissism. The authors describe and report the results of two studies that investigate the higher order factor structure and gender invariance of the PNI. The results of the first study indicate that the PNI has a…

  18. Evaluation of the association between perineural invasion and clinical and histopathological features of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Wei, You-Sheng; Yao, De-Sheng; Long, Ying

    2016-09-01

    Perineural invasion (PNI) has been investigated as a new prognostic factor in a number of carcinomas. However, studies on PNI in cervical cancer are limited, and inconsistent conclusions have been reported by different groups. The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between perineural invasion (PNI) and clinical and histopathological features of cervical cancer, and to evaluate the clinical significance of PNI of cervical cancer. Retrospective review identified 206 patients with cervical cancer who underwent radical hysterectomy plus pelvic lymphadenectomy between December 2012 and August 2014. The association between PNI and clinical and histopathological features of cervical cancer and post-operative radiotherapy was evaluated based on univariate and multivariate analyses. PNI of cervical cancer was identified in 33 of 206 (16%) cervical cancer patients. Univariate analysis demonstrated that PNI was associated with clinical stage, tumor grade, tumor size, depth of invasion, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05), but not associated with age and histopathological types (P>0.05). Multivariate analysis suggests that LVSI and lymph node metastasis were associated with PNI of cervical cancer (P<0.05). In addition, post-operative radiotherapy was significantly more recommended for patients with PNI than those without PNI (P<0.001). In conclusion, PNI of cervical cancer is associated with LVSI and lymph node metastasis and can be used as an index for the determination of post-operative radiotherapy for cervical cancer patients.

  19. Prognostic nutritional index predicts short-term outcomes after liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma within the Milan criteria

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Ren, Yifan; Shi, Aihua; Lv, Yi; He, Haiqi

    2016-01-01

    Background The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) is calculated based on the serum albumin concentration and the total lymphocyte count. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic ability of the PNI for postoperative complications after liver resection to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within the Milan criteria. Results Postoperative complications were observed in 166 (44.6%) patients. The optimal cutoff value of the PNI was set at 45.6 for postoperative complications. Patients in the PNI-low (PNI < 45.6) group were more likely to have postoperative complications, more blood loss, a longer surgery time and a longer hospital stay than patients in the PNI-high group (PNI > 45.6). Our regression analysis demonstrated that the preoperative PNI and albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) score were significantly associated with postoperative complications (Pearson correlation coefficient, -0.865, p < 0.001). The multivariate analysis revealed that the PNI was an independent predictor of postoperative complications. Materials and Methods Three-hundred and seventy-two patients who underwent partial hepatectomy for HCC from 2003 to 2014 were identified. The cutoff value of the PNI was determined by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify clinicopathological features associated with postoperative complications. Conclusion The PNI may be a significant prognostic factor for evaluating short-term outcomes of patients with HCC after partial hepatectomy. PMID:27835570

  20. Preoperative albumin-to-globulin ratio and prognostic nutrition index predict prognosis for glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wen-Zhe; Li, Feng; Xu, Zhen-Kuan; Chen, Xuan; Sun, Bin; Cao, Jing-Wei; Liu, Yu-Guang

    2017-01-01

    Objective Impaired immunonutritional status has disadvantageous effects on outcomes for cancer patients. Preoperative albumin-to-globulin ratio (AGR) and the prognostic nutrition index (PNI) have been used as prognostic factors in various cancers. We aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of the AGR and PNI in glioblastoma. Materials and methods This retrospective analysis involved 166 patients. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected. AGR and the PNI were calculated as AGR = albumin/(total serum protein − albumin) and PNI = albumin (g/L) + 5 × total lymphocyte count (109/L). Overall survival (OS) was estimated by Kaplan–Meier analysis. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the predictive ability of AGR and the PNI. Cox proportional-hazard models estimating hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used for univariable and multivariable survival analyses. Results The cutoff values of AGR and PNI were 1.75 and 48. OS was enhanced, with high AGR (>1.75) and the PNI (>48) (P<0.001 for both). Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for AGR and the PNI were 0.68 and 0.631 for 1-year survival and 0.651 and 0.656 for 2-year survival (P<0.05 for all), respectively. On multivariable analyses, both AGR and the PNI were independent predictors of OS (AGR, HR 0.785, 95% CI 0.357–0.979 [P=0.04]; PNI, HR 0.757, 95% CI 0.378–0.985 [P=0.039]). On subgroup analysis, AGR and the PNI were significant prognostic factors for OS in patients with adjuvant therapy (AGR P<0.001; PNI P=0.001). Conclusion Preoperative AGR and the PNI may be easy-to-perform and inexpensive indices for predicting OS with glioblastoma. AGR and the PNI could also help in developing good adjuvant-therapy schedules. PMID:28223828

  1. Prognostic significance of preoperative prognostic nutritional index in colorectal cancer: results from a retrospective cohort study and a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaowan; Song, Yongxi; Shi, Jinxin; Zhao, Junhua; Sun, Jingxu; Xu, Yingying; Wang, Zhenning

    2016-01-01

    The preoperative prognostic nutritional index (PNI) may forecast colorectal cancer (CRC) outcomes, but the evidence is not conclusive. Here, we retrospectively analyzed a cohort of patients from the Department of Surgical Oncology at the First Hospital of China Medical University (CMU-SO). We also conducted a meta-analysis of eleven cohort studies. Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) was used to determine the optimal PNI cut-off values for classifying prognosis in the patients from the CMU-SO. The result from CMU-SO and meta-analysis both confirmed that low PNI was significantly associated with a poor prognosis and advanced TNM stages. Among the patients from the CMU-SO, the optimal cut-off values were “41-45-58” (PNI < 41, 41 ≤ PNI < 45, 45 ≤ PNI < 58, PNI ≥ 58), which divided patients into 4 stages. The BIC value for TNM staging combined with the PNI was smaller than that of TNM staging alone (−325.76 vs. −310.80). In conclusion, low PNI was predictive of a poor prognosis and was associated with clinicopathological features in patients with CRC, and the 41-45-58 four-stage division may be suitable for determining prognosis. PNI may thus provide an additional index for use along with the current TNM staging system to determine more accurate CRC prognoses. PMID:27344182

  2. Prognostic significance of preoperative prognostic nutritional index in colorectal cancer: results from a retrospective cohort study and a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuchong; Gao, Peng; Chen, Xiaowan; Song, Yongxi; Shi, Jinxin; Zhao, Junhua; Sun, Jingxu; Xu, Yingying; Wang, Zhenning

    2016-09-06

    The preoperative prognostic nutritional index (PNI) may forecast colorectal cancer (CRC) outcomes, but the evidence is not conclusive. Here, we retrospectively analyzed a cohort of patients from the Department of Surgical Oncology at the First Hospital of China Medical University (CMU-SO). We also conducted a meta-analysis of eleven cohort studies. Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) was used to determine the optimal PNI cut-off values for classifying prognosis in the patients from the CMU-SO. The result from CMU-SO and meta-analysis both confirmed that low PNI was significantly associated with a poor prognosis and advanced TNM stages. Among the patients from the CMU-SO, the optimal cut-off values were "41-45-58" (PNI < 41, 41 ≤ PNI < 45, 45 ≤ PNI < 58, PNI ≥ 58), which divided patients into 4 stages. The BIC value for TNM staging combined with the PNI was smaller than that of TNM staging alone (-325.76 vs. -310.80). In conclusion, low PNI was predictive of a poor prognosis and was associated with clinicopathological features in patients with CRC, and the 41-45-58 four-stage division may be suitable for determining prognosis. PNI may thus provide an additional index for use along with the current TNM staging system to determine more accurate CRC prognoses.

  3. The chemokine (CCL2-CCR2) signaling axis mediates perineural invasion

    PubMed Central

    He, Shizhi; He, Shuangba; Chen, Chun-Hao; Deborde, Sylvie; Bakst, Richard L.; Chernichenko, Natalya; McNamara, William F.; Lee, Sei Young; Barajas, Fernando; Yu, Zhenkun; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat A.; Wong, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Perineural invasion (PNI) is a form of cancer progression where cancer cells invade along nerves. This behavior is associated with poor clinical outcomes; therefore, it is critical to identify novel ligand-receptor interactions between nerves and cancer cells that support the process of PNI. A proteomic profiler chemokine array was used to screen for nerve-derived factors secreted from tissue explants of dorsal root ganglion (DRG), and CCL2 was identified as a lead candidate. Prostate cancer cell line expression of CCR2, the receptor to CCL2, correlated closely with MAPK and Akt pathway activity and cell migration towards CCL2 and DRG. In vitro nerve and cancer co-culture invasion assays of PNI demonstrated that cancer cell CCR2 expression facilitates PNI. PNI is significantly diminished in co-culture assays when using DRG harvested from CCL2−/− knockout mice as compared with control CCL2+/+ mice, indicating that CCR2 is required for PNI in this murine model of PNI. Furthermore, 20/21 (95%) of patient specimens of prostate adenocarcinoma with PNI exhibited CCR2 expression by immunohistochemistry, while just 3/13 (23%) lacking PNI expressed CCR2. In summary, nerve-released CCL2 supports prostate cancer migration and PNI though CCR2-mediated signaling. PMID:25312961

  4. Perineural Infiltration of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Basal Cell Carcinoma Without Clinical Features

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Charles; Tripcony, Lee; Keller, Jacqui; Poulsen, Michael; Martin, Jarad; Jackson, James; Dickie, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To review the factors that influence outcome and patterns of relapse in patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with perineural infiltration (PNI) without clinical or radiologic features, treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2004, 222 patients with SCC or BCC with PNI on pathologic examination but without clinical or radiologic PNI features were identified. Charts were reviewed retrospectively and relevant data collected. All patients were treated with curative intent; all had radiotherapy, and most had surgery. The primary endpoint was 5-year relapse-free survival from the time of diagnosis. Results: Patients with SCC did significantly worse than those with BCC (5-year relapse-free survival, 78% vs. 91%; p < 0.01). Squamous cell carcinoma with PNI at recurrence did significantly worse than de novo in terms of 5-year local failure (40% vs. 19%; p < 0.01) and regional relapse (29% vs. 5%; p < 0.01). Depth of invasion was also a significant factor. Of the PNI-specific factors for SCC, focal PNI did significantly better than more-extensive PNI, but involved nerve diameter or presence of PNI at the periphery of the tumor were not significant factors. Conclusions: Radiotherapy in conjunction with surgery offers an acceptable outcome for cutaneous SCC and BCC with PNI. This study suggests that focal PNI is not an adverse feature.

  5. Dorsal horn neurons release extracellular ATP in a VNUT-dependent manner that underlies neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Takahiro; Ozono, Yui; Mikuriya, Satsuki; Kohro, Yuta; Tozaki-Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Iwatsuki, Ken; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Ichikawa, Reiko; Salter, Michael W; Tsuda, Makoto; Inoue, Kazuhide

    2016-08-12

    Activation of purinergic receptors in the spinal cord by extracellular ATP is essential for neuropathic hypersensitivity after peripheral nerve injury (PNI). However, the cell type responsible for releasing ATP within the spinal cord after PNI is unknown. Here we show that PNI increases expression of vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) in the spinal cord. Extracellular ATP content ([ATP]e) within the spinal cord was increased after PNI, and this increase was suppressed by exocytotic inhibitors. Mice lacking VNUT did not show PNI-induced increase in [ATP]e and had attenuated hypersensitivity. These phenotypes were recapitulated in mice with specific deletion of VNUT in spinal dorsal horn (SDH) neurons, but not in mice lacking VNUT in primary sensory neurons, microglia or astrocytes. Conversely, ectopic VNUT expression in SDH neurons of VNUT-deficient mice restored PNI-induced increase in [ATP]e and pain. Thus, VNUT is necessary for exocytotic ATP release from SDH neurons which contributes to neuropathic pain.

  6. Galanin modulates the neural niche to favour perineural invasion in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, Christina Springstead; Banerjee, Rajat; Inglehart, Ronald C; Liu, Min; Russo, Nickole; Hariharan, Amirtha; van Tubergen, Elizabeth A; Corson, Sara L; Asangani, Irfan A; Mistretta, Charlotte M; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; D’Silva, Nisha J

    2015-01-01

    Perineural invasion (PNI) is an indicator of poor survival in multiple cancers. Unfortunately, there is no targeted treatment for PNI since the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. PNI is an active process, suggesting that cancer cells communicate with nerves. However, nerve-tumour crosstalk is understudied due to the lack of in vivo models to investigate the mechanisms. Here, we developed an in vivo model of PNI to characterise this interaction. We show that the neuropeptide galanin (GAL) initiates nerve-tumour crosstalk via activation of its G-protein-coupled receptor, GALR2. Our data reveal a novel mechanism by which GAL from nerves stimulates GALR2 on cancer cells to induce NFATC2-mediated transcription of cyclooxygenase-2 and GAL. Prostaglandin E2 promotes cancer invasion, and in a feedback mechanism, GAL released by cancer induces neuritogenesis, facilitating PNI. This study describes a novel in vivo model for PNI and reveals the dynamic interaction between nerve and cancer. PMID:25917569

  7. [Psychoneuroimmunology: an update].

    PubMed

    Schubert, Christian; Schüssler, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is closely associated with the bidirectional pathways between mind/brain and the immune system. PNI research represents a rapidly growing area within psychosomatic research. Recent studies in PNI are based mainly on the immunological concepts of Th1/Th2 dichotomy and inflammation. This review covers human PNI studies dealing with stress-associated changes in cytokine (Th1, Th2) levels in immune-related processes such as wound healing, atopic diseases as well as autoimmune and other inflammatory diseases. It is shown that PNI studies measuring immune activity near the site of the disease (e. g. woundhealing) and dealing with objective stressors show more consistent findings (stress-associated Th1/Th2 shift, stress-associated proinflammatory activation) than those dealing with chronic and complex diseases (e. g., autoimmune disease). This warrants the expansion of the methodological repertoire in future PNI research toward designs allowing for the investigation of complex psychosomatic phenomena.

  8. The higher order factor structure and gender invariance of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory.

    PubMed

    Wright, Aidan G C; Lukowitsky, Mark R; Pincus, Aaron L; Conroy, David E

    2010-12-01

    The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) is a recently developed multidimensional inventory for the assessment of pathological narcissism. The authors describe and report the results of two studies that investigate the higher order factor structure and gender invariance of the PNI. The results of the first study indicate that the PNI has a higher order factor structure that conforms to the theoretical structure of pathological narcissism with one factor representing narcissistic grandiosity and the other capturing narcissistic vulnerability. These results uniquely place the PNI as the only measure to broadly assess the two phenotypic themes of pathological narcissism. In the second study, results from tests of measurement invariance indicate that the PNI performs similarly in large samples of men (n = 488) and women (n = 495). These results further establish the psychometric properties of the PNI and suggest that it is well suited for the assessment of pathological narcissism.

  9. Prognostic nutritional index is an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients with peritoneal dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Runcong; Yuan, Shuqiang; Chen, Shi; Chen, Xiaojiang; Chen, Yongming; Zhu, Baoyan; Qiu, Haibo; Zhou, Zhiwei; Peng, Junsheng; Chen, Yingbo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The predictive and prognostic role of prognostic nutritional index (PNI) in gastric cancer patients with peritoneal dissemination remains unclear. This study aims to explore the role of the PNI in predicting outcomes of gastric cancer patients with peritoneal dissemination. Methods A total of 660 patients diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma with peritoneal metastasis between January 2000 and April 2014 at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center and the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were retrospectively analyzed. The clinicopathologic characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with peritoneal dissemination were analyzed. Results Compared with PNI-high group, PNI-low group was correlated with advanced age (P=0.036), worse performance status (P<0.001), higher frequency of ascites (P<0.001) and higher frequency of multisite distant metastasis (P<0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that PNI-high group had a significantly longer median overall survival than PNI-low group (13.13 vs. 9.03 months, P<0.001). Multivariate survival analysis revealed that Borrmann type IV (P=0.014), presence of ascites (P=0.017) and lower PNI (P=0.041) were independent poor prognostic factors, and palliative surgery (P<0.001) and first-line chemotherapy (P<0.001) were good prognostic factors. For patients receiving palliative surgery, the postoperative morbidity rates in the PNI-low group and PNI-high group were 9.1% and 9.9%, respectively (P=0.797). The postoperative mortality rate was not significantly different between PNI-low and PNI-high groups (2.3% vs. 0.9%, P=0.362). Conclusions PNI is a useful and practical tool for evaluating the nutritional status of gastric cancer patients with peritoneal dissemination, and is an independent prognostic factor for these patients. PMID:28174485

  10. Prognostic nutritional index serves as a predictive marker of survival and associates with systemic inflammatory response in metastatic intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenyue; Wang, Haiyong; Ning, Zhouyu; Xu, Litao; Zhuang, Liping; Wang, Peng; Meng, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The significance of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) has been widely reported and confirmed in many types of cancers. However, few studies are available indicating its prognostic power in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Thus, we investigated its relationship with overall survival (OS) to evaluate its role in predicting survival in patients with ICC. Patients and methods Between October 2011 and October 2015, 173 consecutive patients with pathologically confirmed locally advanced or metastatic ICC were enrolled. First, the correlations between PNI and clinical factors were analyzed among these patients. Next, univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate the association between PNI and OS among these patients with ICC. In addition, the relationships between PNI and three typical systemic inflammatory response (SIR) markers – the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), the platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and the lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (LMR) – were also assessed. Results A lower PNI was linked with a shorter OS in patients with ICC, as reflected obviously in the Kaplan–Meier analyses. The patients with ICC were divided into the locally advanced group and the metastatic group. Further analyses revealed that PNI is not associated with OS in the locally advanced group. However, in the subgroup of patients with metastatic ICC, a lower PNI significantly correlated with a worsened OS. The OS for patients with a low PNI is 5 months, whereas the OS is 10.17 months for patients with a high PNI. Multivariate analyses revealed that PNI is independently correlated with OS. We finally proved that PNI is negatively proportional to NLR and PLR and positively proportional to LMR. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that decreased PNI signifies a poor OS and is associated with SIR in patients with metastatic ICC. Therefore, it may serve as a valuable predictive marker in patients with metastatic ICC. PMID:27799789

  11. Prognostic Impact of Immunonutritional Status Changes During Preoperative Chemoradiation in Patients With Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Joon; Kim, Woo Ram; Han, Jeonghee; Han, Yoon Dae; Cho, Min Soo; Hur, Hyuk; Lee, Kang Young; Kim, Nam Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have demonstrated the prognostic impact of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), a proposed indicator of immunonutritional statuses of surgical patients, on patients with various gastrointestinal cancers. Although the prognostic impact of the PNI on patients with colorectal cancer has been well established, its value has not been studied in patients treated with preoperative chemoradiation (pCRT). This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic impact of PNI on patients receiving pCRT for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Methods Patients with LARC who underwent curative pCRT followed by surgical resection were enrolled. The PNI was measured in all patients before and after pCRT, and the difference in values was calculated as the PNI difference (dPNI). Patients were classified according to dPNI (<5, 5–10, and >10). Clinicopathologic parameters and long-term oncologic outcomes were assessed according to dPNI classification. Results No significant intergroup differences were observed in clinicopathologic parameters such as age, histologic grade, tumor location, tumor-node-metastasis stage, and postoperative complications. Approximately 53% of the patients had a mild dPNI (<5); only 15% had a high dPNI (>10). Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the dPNI as an independent prognostic factor for disease-free status (P < 0.01; hazard ratio [HR], 2.792; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.577–4.942) and for cancer-specific survival (P = 0.012; HR, 2.469; 95%CI, 1.225–4.978). Conclusion The dPNI is predictive of long-term outcomes in pCRT-treated patients with LARC. Further prospective studies should investigate whether immune-nutritional status correction during pCRT would improve oncologic outcomes. PMID:28119863

  12. Growth and Survival Mechanisms Associated with Perineural Invasion in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    CANCER RESEARCH 64, 6082–6090, September 1, 2004] Growth and Survival Mechanisms Associated with Perineural Invasion in Prostate Cancer Gustavo E...Departments of 1Pathology, 2Urology, and 3Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas ABSTRACT Perineural invasion (PNI) is...PNI. Cancer cells in a perineural location acquire a survival and growth advantage using a NFB survival pathway. Targeting PNI might help detain local

  13. The optimal cut-off value of the preoperative prognostic nutritional index for the survival differs according to the TNM stage in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Yukiyasu; Sugiura, Teiichi; Ito, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Ashida, Ryo; Uesaka, Katsuhiko

    2017-08-01

    To establish the optimal cut-off value of the preoperative prognostic nutritional index (PNI) for prognosis according to the Tumor Node Metastasis (TNM) stage of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative resection. This retrospective study reviewed the records of 375 patients. The optimal cut-off value of the PNI was established according to the TNM stage, and overall survival was compared between the low and high PNI groups. The optimal cut-off value of the PNI decreased with increasing TNM stage, with 52, 47, and 43 patients having stage I, II, and III HCC, respectively. A low preoperative PNI predicted a poorer overall survival than did a high PNI for stage I (P < 0.001) and II (P = 0.002), but not stage III disease (P = 0.052). Multivariate analysis revealed that the preoperative PNI was an independent predictor of overall survival for stage I and II HCC (hazard ratios: 6.96 and 3.57, P = 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). The findings of this study show that the optimal cut-off value for the PNI for prognosis differs among the TNM stages and that the preoperative PNI is a favorable prognostic factor for stage I HCC.

  14. Expression profiling of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma with perineural invasion implicates the p53 pathway in the process

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Timothy A.; Broit, Natasa; Simmons, Jacinta L.; Pierce, Carly J.; Chawla, Sharad; Lambie, Duncan L. J.; Quagliotto, Gary; Brown, Ian S.; Parsons, Peter G.; Panizza, Benedict J.; Boyle, Glen M.

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common cancer worldwide and accounts for approximately 30% of all keratinocyte cancers. The vast majority of cutaneous SCCs of the head and neck (cSCCHN) are readily curable with surgery and/or radiotherapy unless high-risk features are present. Perineural invasion (PNI) is recognized as one of these high-risk features. The molecular changes during clinical PNI in cSCCHN have not been previously investigated. In this study, we assessed the global gene expression differences between cSCCHN with or without incidental or clinical PNI. The results of the analysis showed signatures of gene expression representative of activation of p53 in tumors with PNI compared to tumors without, amongst other alterations. Immunohistochemical staining of p53 showed cSCCHN with clinical PNI to be more likely to exhibit a diffuse over-expression pattern, with no tumors showing normal p53 staining. DNA sequencing of cSCCHN samples with clinical PNI showed no difference in mutation number or position with samples without PNI, however a significant difference was observed in regulators of p53 degradation, stability and activity. Our results therefore suggest that cSCCHN with clinical PNI may be more likely to contain alterations in the p53 pathway, compared to cSCCHN without PNI. PMID:27665737

  15. Predictive Potential of Preoperative Nutritional Status in Long-Term Outcome Projections for Patients with Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Katsunobu; Ohira, Masaichi; Tamura, Tatsuro; Toyokawa, Takahiro; Amano, Ryosuke; Kubo, Naoshi; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Muguruma, Kazuya; Yashiro, Masakazu; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2016-02-01

    Preoperative nutritional status not only correlates with the incidence of postoperative complications but also may be indicative of long-term outcomes for patients with cancer. The impact of preoperative nutritional status on outcomes for patients undergoing gastrectomy for gastric cancer (GC) was investigated. The study reviewed 594 patients treated for GC by gastrectomy at the authors' hospital between January, 2004 and December, 2010. Onodera's prognostic nutritional index (PNI) was invoked, using an optimal cut point to group patients as having high (PNI > 45; n = 449) or low (PNI ≤ 45; n = 145) nutritional status. Clinicopathologic features, perioperative results, and long-term outcomes, including cause of death, were compared. Multivariate analysis of 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) indicated that low PNI was independently associated with unfavorable outcomes for patients with GC. In subgroup analysis, the 5-year OS and DSS rates for patients with GC at stages 1 and 2 were significantly worse in the low PNI group than in the high PNI group. Although wound and extrasurgical field infections also tended to be more frequent in the low PNI group, postoperative intraabdominal infections did not differ significantly by group. Preoperative PNI may have merit as a gauge of prognosis for patients with GC at stages 1 and 2, but PNI and postoperative morbidity showed no correlation in this setting.

  16. Prognostic nutritional index before adjuvant chemotherapy predicts chemotherapy compliance and survival among patients with non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Katsuhiko; Okita, Riki; Saisho, Shinsuke; Yukawa, Takuro; Maeda, Ai; Nojima, Yuji; Nakata, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Background Adjuvant chemotherapy after the complete resection of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is now the standard of care. To improve survival, it is important to identify risk factors for the continuation of adjuvant chemotherapy. In this study, we analyzed chemotherapy compliance and magnitude of the prognostic impact of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) before adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of data from 106 patients who had received adjuvant chemotherapy. The adjuvant chemotherapy consisted of an oral tegafur agent (OT) or platinum-based chemotherapy (PB). The correlations between the PNI values and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were then evaluated. Results In the PB group, the percentage of patients who completed the four planned cycles of chemotherapy was not correlated with the PNI. In the OT group, however, a significant difference was observed in the percentage of patients who completed the planned chemotherapy according to the PNI before adjuvant chemotherapy. The RFS of patients with a PNI <50 before adjuvant chemotherapy was significantly poorer than that of the patients with a PNI ≥50. A multivariate analysis showed that nodal metastasis and PNI before chemotherapy were independent predictors of the RFS. However, PNI before surgery was not a predictor of the RFS. In the subgroup analysis, PNI before chemotherapy was independent predictor of the RFS in the OT group (P=0.019), but not in the PB group (P=0.095). Conclusion The PNI before adjuvant chemotherapy influenced the treatment compliance with the planned chemotherapy in the OT group, but not the PB group. In addition, a low PNI before adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with a poor RFS in a multivariate analysis, especially in the OT group. PMID:26504397

  17. Adjuvant properties of a biocompatible thermo-responsive polymer of N-isopropylacrylamide in autoimmunity and arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Shakya, Akhilesh Kumar; Kumar, Ashok; Nandakumar, Kutty Selva

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAAm) polymer as an adjuvant, we synthesized PNiPAAm through free radical polymerization and characterized it both in vitro and in vivo. The polymer when mixed with collagen type II (CII) induced antigen-specific autoimmunity and arthritis. Mice immunized with PNiPAAm–CII developed significant levels of CII-specific IgG response comprising major IgG subclasses. Antigen-specific cellular recall response was also enhanced in these mice, while negligible level of IFN-γ was detected in splenocyte cultures, in vitro. PNiPAAm–CII-immunized arthritic mouse paws showed massive infiltration of immune cells and extensive damage to cartilage and bone. As determined by immunostaining, most of the CII protein retained its native configuration after injecting it with PNiPAAm in naive mice. Physical adsorption of CII and the high-molecular-weight form of moderately hydrophobic PNiPAAm induced a significant anti-CII antibody response. Similar to CII, mice immunized with PNiPAAm and ovalbumin (PNiPAAm–Ova) induced significant anti-ovalbumin antibody response. Comparable levels of serum IFN-γ, IL-1β and IL-17 were observed in ovalbumin-immunized mice with complete Freund, incomplete Freund (CFA and IFA) or PNiPAAm adjuvants. However, serum IL-4 levels were significantly higher in PNiPAAm–Ova and CFA–Ova groups compared with the IFA–Ova group. Thus, we show for the first time, biocompatible and biodegradable thermo-responsive PNiPAAm can be used as an adjuvant in several immunological applications as well as in better understanding of the autoimmune responses against self-proteins. PMID:21543351

  18. Interobserver Variation Among Pathologists in Evaluating Perineural Invasion for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chi, Angela C; Katabi, Nora; Chen, Huey-Shys; Cheng, Yi-Shing Lisa

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study are as follows: (1) to assess variations among pathologists in evaluating perineural invasion (PNI) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), (2) to survey PNI criteria used by pathologists and how they came to adopt those criteria. An electronic survey was sent to 363 oral and/or surgical pathologists. Eligibility criteria included pathology board certification. The survey participants were asked to rate whether PNI was present, absent, or uncertain for 15 provided photomicrographs, which depicted various types of tumor-nerve relationships without excessive desmoplasia or lymphocytic host response. The survey obtained information regarding demographics, whether PNI criteria were taught during residency, criteria used by participants to evaluate PNI, how the participants developed their criteria, and agreement with six proposed PNI definitions. 88 pathologists completed the survey. The participants included 47 males and 41 females, with average age = 49 years and average practice experience = 17 years. Practice settings included dental school (40 %), medical school (36 %), private pathology lab (13 %), and other (11 %). Agreement between participants in rating PNI status for the provided images was fair (κ = .38, 95 % CI .37-.39). 56 % of respondents indicated that they were taught PNI criteria during residency training. The basis for criteria currently used by participants included residency training (n = 42), published literature (n = 29), and own experience/views (n = 32). Agreement regarding six proposed PNI definitions was slight (κ = .10, 95 % CI .08-.11). In conclusion, interobserver agreement in assessing PNI status was fair. Our results suggest that more widely accepted, objective, and reproducible criteria are needed for evaluating PNI in OSCC.

  19. Evaluation of Prognostic Nutritional Index in Patients Undergoing Radical Surgery with Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chen; Qu, Xiao; Shen, Hongchang; Zheng, Chunlong; Zhu, Linhai; Meng, Long; Du, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) has been reported to be a prognostic indicator in some malignant tumors. However, its prognostic value in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been fully investigated. A retrospective review of 1416 patients with NSCLC who underwent radical surgery between January 2006 and December 2011 was conducted. To obtain optimal cutoff levels of PNI, running log-rank statistics was applied. Survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The prognostic significance of PNI, together with various clinicopathological factors, was evaluated by multivariate analysis. The optimal cutoff point for PNI was 52. The 1-, 3-, and 5-yr survival rates in patients with PNI of less than 52 were 80.0%, 61.3%, and 50.4%, respectively, and were significantly more unfavorable than those in patients with PNI 52 or higher (84.7%, 71.5%, and 60.3%, respectively, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis suggested that gender (P = 0.026), age (P < 0.001), PNI (P = 0.005), differentiation (P = 0.024), pathology T category (P = 0.003), and pathology N category (P < 0.001) were revealed to be independent prognostic factors. Our results indicate that PNI is an independent predictor of survival for patients undergoing radical surgery with NSCLC.

  20. Sympathetic Nerves in Breast Cancer: Angiogenesis and Antiangiogenic Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society Annual Meeting, PNI Mechanisms of Disease: From Pathophysiology to Prevention and Treatment, June 8-11, 2011; Chicago...MICROSCOPY (MPLSM). Kelley S. Madden, Mercedes J. Szpunar, Echoe M. Bouta, Edward B. Brown. Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society Annual Meeting, PNI

  1. Bone marrow-derived cells in the population of spinal microglia after peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Tashima, Ryoichi; Mikuriya, Satsuki; Tomiyama, Daisuke; Shiratori-Hayashi, Miho; Yamashita, Tomohiro; Kohro, Yuta; Tozaki-Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Kazuhide; Tsuda, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that peripheral nerve injury (PNI) activates spinal microglia that are necessary for neuropathic pain. Recent studies using bone marrow (BM) chimeric mice have reported that after PNI, circulating BM-derived cells infiltrate into the spinal cord and differentiate into microglia-like cells. This raises the possibility that the population of spinal microglia after PNI may be heterogeneous. However, the infiltration of BM cells in the spinal cord remains controversial because of experimental adverse effects of strong irradiation used for generating BM chimeric mice. In this study, we evaluated the PNI-induced spinal infiltration of BM-derived cells not only by irradiation-induced myeloablation with various conditioning regimens, but also by parabiosis and mice with genetically labelled microglia, models without irradiation and BM transplantation. Results obtained from these independent approaches provide compelling evidence indicating little contribution of circulating BM-derived cells to the population of spinal microglia after PNI. PMID:27005516

  2. Low Prognostic Nutritional Index Correlates with Worse Survival in Patients with Advanced NSCLC following EGFR-TKIs

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Tao; Hu, Zhi-Huang; Hong, Shao-Dong; Zhou, Ting; Huang, Yan; Zhao, Hong-Yun; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to demonstrate the prognostic value of prognostic nutritional index (PNI), a reflection systemic immunonutritional status, on the long-term survival of patients taking epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Methods In this retrospective study, eligible advanced NSCLC patients with sensitive EGFR mutations (exon 19 deletion or L858R in exon 21) were included to investigate the correlation between the PNI and overall survival (OS). The PNI was calculated as 10 x serum albumin value (g/dl) + 0.005 x peripheral lymphocyte count (per mm3). The prognostic significance of PNI and other clinicopathologic factors was identified by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Finally, 144 patients met the inclusion criteria. The optimal cut-off value of PNI for survival stratification was 48.78. Compared with high PNI group (n = 81), low PNI (n = 63) was significantly associated with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) level and non-response to TKIs. Overall survival was superior in the high PNI group (HR, 0.44, p = 0.004), especially for patient with L858R (HR, 0.37, p = 0.009) rather than 19 deletion (HR, 0.69, p = 0.401). The independent prognostic value of PNI was validated by multivariate analysis. Conclusion This pilot investigation demonstrated that low prognostic nutritional index correlates with worse survival for patients with advanced NSCLC and taking EGFR-TKIs. The assessment of a convenient index, known as PNI, worth attention in routine clinical practice for patients following EGFR-TKIs treatment. PMID:26784943

  3. Clinical Significance of the Prognostic Nutritional Index for Predicting Short- and Long-Term Surgical Outcomes After Gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jee Youn; Kim, Hyoung-Il; Kim, You-Na; Hong, Jung Hwa; Alshomimi, Saeed; An, Ji Yeong; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Hyung, Woo Jin; Noh, Sung Hoon; Kim, Choong-Bai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the predictive and prognostic significance of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) in a large cohort of gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy. Assessing a patient's immune and nutritional status, PNI has been reported as a predictive marker for surgical outcomes in various types of cancer. We retrospectively reviewed data from a prospectively maintained database of 7781 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy from January 2001 to December 2010 at a single center. From this data, we analyzed clinicopathologic characteristics, PNI, and short- and long-term surgical outcomes for each patient. We used the PNI value for the 10th percentile (46.70) of the study cohort as a cut-off for dividing patients into low and high PNI groups. Regarding short-term outcomes, multivariate analysis showed a low PNI (odds ratio [OR] = 1.505, 95% CI = 1.212–1.869, P <0.001), old age, male sex, high body mass index, medical comorbidity, total gastrectomy, and combined resection to be independent predictors of postoperative complications. Among these, only low PNI (OR = 4.279, 95% CI = 1.760–10.404, P = 0.001) and medical comorbidity were independent predictors of postoperative mortality. For long-term outcomes, low PNI was a poor prognostic factor for overall survival, but not recurrence (overall survival: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.383, 95% CI = 1.221–1.568, P < 0.001; recurrence-free survival: HR = 1.142, 95% CI = 0.985–1.325, P = 0.078). PNI can be used to predict patients at increased risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Although PNI was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival, the index was not associated with cancer recurrence. PMID:27149460

  4. [Clinical application value of prognostic nutritional index for predicting survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Xu, W J; Kang, Y M; Zhou, L; Chen, F F; Song, Y H; Zhang, C Q

    2017-02-23

    Objective: To explore the clinical application value of prognostic nutritional index(PNI) for predicting overall survival(OS) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: 123 patients with histologically confirmed non-small cell lung cancer were enrolled in this study, and their clinical and laboratory data were reviewed. The PNI was calculated as 10×serum albumin value+ 5×total lymphocyte countin peripheral blood.Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify the potential prognostic factors for advanced NSCLC. Results: PNI of the 123 NSCLC patients was 46.24±6.56. PNI was significantly associated with age, weight loss and pleural effusion (P<0.05). However, it showed no relationship with sex, smoking, hemoptysis, chest pain, dyspnea, histological type, clinical stage, and administration of chemotherapy (P>0.05). The median OS of the 123 patients was 19.5 months. The median OS in the higher PNI group (PNI≥46.24) and lower PNI group(PNI<46.24) were 25.2 months and 16.4 months, respectively.The 1-year survival rates were 80.6% and 63.9%, and 2-year survival rates were 54.8% and 19.6%, respectively (P<0.01). Univariate analysis showed that PNI, age, dyspnea, and weight loss were related to the OS of the advanced NSCLC patients (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis identified PNI as an independent prognostic factor for OS of advanced NSCLC (P<0.001). Conclusion: PNI can be easily calculated, and may be used as a relatively new prognostic indicator for advanced NSCLC in clinical practice.

  5. Clinical Significance of the Prognostic Nutritional Index for Predicting Short- and Long-Term Surgical Outcomes After Gastrectomy: A Retrospective Analysis of 7781 Gastric Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee Youn; Kim, Hyoung-Il; Kim, You-Na; Hong, Jung Hwa; Alshomimi, Saeed; An, Ji Yeong; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Hyung, Woo Jin; Noh, Sung Hoon; Kim, Choong-Bai

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the predictive and prognostic significance of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) in a large cohort of gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy.Assessing a patient's immune and nutritional status, PNI has been reported as a predictive marker for surgical outcomes in various types of cancer.We retrospectively reviewed data from a prospectively maintained database of 7781 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy from January 2001 to December 2010 at a single center. From this data, we analyzed clinicopathologic characteristics, PNI, and short- and long-term surgical outcomes for each patient. We used the PNI value for the 10th percentile (46.70) of the study cohort as a cut-off for dividing patients into low and high PNI groups.Regarding short-term outcomes, multivariate analysis showed a low PNI (odds ratio [OR] = 1.505, 95% CI = 1.212-1.869, P <0.001), old age, male sex, high body mass index, medical comorbidity, total gastrectomy, and combined resection to be independent predictors of postoperative complications. Among these, only low PNI (OR = 4.279, 95% CI = 1.760-10.404, P = 0.001) and medical comorbidity were independent predictors of postoperative mortality. For long-term outcomes, low PNI was a poor prognostic factor for overall survival, but not recurrence (overall survival: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.383, 95% CI = 1.221-1.568, P < 0.001; recurrence-free survival: HR = 1.142, 95% CI = 0.985-1.325, P = 0.078).PNI can be used to predict patients at increased risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Although PNI was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival, the index was not associated with cancer recurrence.

  6. Nutritional predictors for postoperative short-term and long-term outcomes of patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Mitsuro; Mizuno, Akira; Tanaka, Chie; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Iwata, Naoki; Hayashi, Masamichi; Yamada, Suguru; Nakayama, Goro; Fujii, Tsutomu; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Koike, Masahiko; Takami, Hideki; Niwa, Yukiko; Murotani, Kenta; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Evidence indicates that impaired immunocompetence and nutritional status adversely affect short-term and long-term outcomes of patients with cancer. We aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of preoperative immunocompetence and nutritional status according to Onodera's prognostic nutrition index (PNI) among patients who underwent curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer (GC).This study included 260 patients with stage II/III GC who underwent R0 resection. The predictive values of preoperative nutritional status for postoperative outcome (morbidity and prognosis) were evaluated. Onodera's PNI was calculated as follows: 10 × serum albumin (g/dL) + 0.005 × lymphocyte count (per mm).The mean preoperative PNI was 47.8. The area under the curve for predicting complications was greater for PNI compared with the serum albumin concentration or lymphocyte count. Multivariate analysis identified preoperative PNI < 47 as an independent predictor of postoperative morbidity. Moreover, patients in the PNI < 47 group experienced significantly shorter overall and disease-free survival compared with those in the PNI ≥ 47 group, notably because of a higher prevalence of hematogenous metastasis as the initial recurrence. Subgroup analysis according to disease stage and postoperative adjuvant treatment revealed that the prognostic significance of PNI was more apparent in patients with stage II GC and in those who received adjuvant chemotherapy.Preoperative PNI is easy and inexpensive to determine, and our findings indicate that PNI served as a significant predictor of postoperative morbidity, prognosis, and recurrence patterns of patients with stage II/III GC.

  7. Nutritional predictors for postoperative short-term and long-term outcomes of patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Mitsuro; Mizuno, Akira; Tanaka, Chie; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Iwata, Naoki; Hayashi, Masamichi; Yamada, Suguru; Nakayama, Goro; Fujii, Tsutomu; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Koike, Masahiko; Takami, Hideki; Niwa, Yukiko; Murotani, Kenta; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Evidence indicates that impaired immunocompetence and nutritional status adversely affect short-term and long-term outcomes of patients with cancer. We aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of preoperative immunocompetence and nutritional status according to Onodera's prognostic nutrition index (PNI) among patients who underwent curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer (GC). This study included 260 patients with stage II/III GC who underwent R0 resection. The predictive values of preoperative nutritional status for postoperative outcome (morbidity and prognosis) were evaluated. Onodera's PNI was calculated as follows: 10 × serum albumin (g/dL) + 0.005 × lymphocyte count (per mm3). The mean preoperative PNI was 47.8. The area under the curve for predicting complications was greater for PNI compared with the serum albumin concentration or lymphocyte count. Multivariate analysis identified preoperative PNI < 47 as an independent predictor of postoperative morbidity. Moreover, patients in the PNI < 47 group experienced significantly shorter overall and disease-free survival compared with those in the PNI ≥ 47 group, notably because of a higher prevalence of hematogenous metastasis as the initial recurrence. Subgroup analysis according to disease stage and postoperative adjuvant treatment revealed that the prognostic significance of PNI was more apparent in patients with stage II GC and in those who received adjuvant chemotherapy. Preoperative PNI is easy and inexpensive to determine, and our findings indicate that PNI served as a significant predictor of postoperative morbidity, prognosis, and recurrence patterns of patients with stage II/III GC. PMID:27310954

  8. Perineural Invasion Predicts Increased Recurrence, Metastasis, and Death From Prostate Cancer Following Treatment With Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Felix Y.; Qian Yushen; Stenmark, Matthew H.; Halverson, Schuyler; Blas, Kevin; Vance, Sean; Sandler, Howard M.; Hamstra, Daniel A.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the prognostic value of perineural invasion (PNI) for patients treated with dose-escalated external-beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed for 651 men treated for prostate cancer with EBRT to a minimum dose {>=}75 Gy. We assessed the impact of PNI as well as pretreatment and treatment-related factors on freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF), freedom from metastasis (FFM), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival. Results: PNI was present in 34% of specimens at biopsy and was significantly associated with higher Gleason score (GS), T stage, and prostate-specific antigen level. On univariate and multivariate analysis, the presence of PNI was associated with worse FFBF (hazard ratio = 1.7, p <0.006), FFM (hazard ratio = 1.8, p <0.03), and CSS (HR = 1.4, p <0.05) compared with absence of PNI; there was no difference in overall survival. Seven-year rates of FFBF, FFM, and CCS were 64% vs. 80%, 84% vs. 92%, and 91% vs. 95% for those patients with and without PNI, respectively. On recursive partitioning analysis, PNI predicted for worse FFM and CSS in patients with GS 8-10, with FFM of 67% vs. 89% (p <0.02), and CSS of 69% vs. 91%, (p <0.04) at 7 years for those with and without PNI, respectively. Conclusions: The presence of PNI in the prostate biopsy predicts worse clinical outcome for patients treated with dose-escalated external-beam radiation therapy. Particularly in patients with GS 8-10 disease, the presence of PNI suggests an increased risk of metastasis and prostate cancer death.

  9. Collagen Type II and a Thermo-Responsive Polymer of N-Isopropylacrylamide Induce Arthritis Independent of Toll-Like Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Shakya, Akhilesh Kumar; Kumar, Ashok; Klaczkowska, Dorota; Hultqvist, Malin; Hagenow, Kristin; Holmdahl, Rikard; Nandakumar, Kutty Selva

    2011-01-01

    We established and characterized an arthritis mouse model using collagen type II (CII) and a thermo-responsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAAm). The new PNiPAAm adjuvant is TLR-independent, as all immunized TLR including MyD88-deficient mice developed an anti-CII response. Unlike other adjuvants, PNiPPAm did not skew the cytokine response (IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17), as there was no immune deviation towards any one type of immune spectrum after immunization with CII/PNiPPAm. Hence, using PNiPAAm, we studied the actual immune response to the self-protein, CII. We observed arthritis and autoimmunity development in several murine strains having different major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes after CII/PNiPAAm immunization but with a clear MHC association pattern. Interestingly, C57Bl/6 mice did not develop CII-induced arthritis, with PNiPAAm demonstrating absolute requirement for a classical adjuvant. Presence of a gene (Ncf1) mutation in the NADPH oxidation complex has a profound influence in arthritis and using PNiPAAm we could show that the high CIA severity in Ncf1 mutated mice is independent of any classical adjuvant. Macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, and osteoclasts but not mast cells dominated the inflamed joints. Furthermore, arthritis induction in the adjuvant-free, eosinophil-dependent Vβ12 DBA/1 mice could be shown to develop arthritis independent of eosinophils using CII/PNiPAAm. Thus, biocompatible and biodegradable PNiPAAm offers unique opportunities to study actual autoimmunity independent of TLR and a particular cytokine phenotype profile. PMID:21933654

  10. Phrenic nerve injury after atrial fibrillation catheter ablation: characterization and outcome in a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Sacher, Frédéric; Monahan, Kristi H; Thomas, Stuart P; Davidson, Neil; Adragao, Pedro; Sanders, Prashanthan; Hocini, Mélèze; Takahashi, Yoshihide; Rotter, Martin; Rostock, Thomas; Hsu, Li-Fern; Clémenty, Jacques; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Ross, David L; Packer, Douglas L; Jaïs, Pierre

    2006-06-20

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the occurrence of phrenic nerve injury (PNI) and its outcome after radiofrequency (RF) ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). It is recognized that extra-myocardial damage may develop owing to penetration of ablative energy. Between 1997 and 2004, 3,755 consecutive patients underwent AF ablation at five centers. Among them, 18 patients (0.48%; 9 male, 54 +/- 10 years) had PNI (16 right, 2 left). The procedure consisted of pulmonary vein (PV) isolation in 15 patients and anatomic circumferential ablation in 3 patients, with additional left atrial lesions (n = 11) and/or superior vena cava (SVC) disconnection (n = 4). Right PNI occurred during ablation of right superior PV (n = 12) or SVC disconnection (n = 3). Left PNI occurred during ablation at the left atrial appendage. Immediate features were dyspnea, cough, hiccup, and/or sudden diaphragmatic elevation in 9, and in the remaining the diagnosis was made after ablation owing to dyspnea (n = 7) or on routine radiographic evaluation (n = 2). Four patients (22%) were asymptomatic. Complete recovery occurred in 12 patients (66%). Recovery occurred within 24 h in the two patients with left PNI and in one patient with right PNI occurring with SVC disconnection. In the other nine patients, right PNI recovery occurred after 4 +/- 5 months (1 to 12 months) with respiratory rehabilitation. After a mean follow-up of 36 +/- 33 months, six patients have persistent PNI (three with partial and three with no recovery). In this multicenter experience, PNI was a rare complication (0.48%) of AF ablation. Ablation of the right superior PV, SVC, and left atrial appendage were associated with PNI. Complete (66%) or partial (17%) recovery was observed in the majority.

  11. Preliminary study correlating CX3CL1/CX3CR1 expression with gastric carcinoma and gastric carcinoma perineural invasion.

    PubMed

    Lv, Cheng-Yu; Zhou, Tao; Chen, Wei; Yin, Xin-Dao; Yao, Jian-Hong; Zhang, Yi-Fan

    2014-04-21

    To study the relationship between the CX3CL1 chemokine, its receptor CX3CR1, and gastric carcinoma/gastric carcinoma perineural invasion (PNI). Thirty cases of gastric carcinoma were surgically resected (radical resection or palliative resection) between February 2012 and July 2012. Tumour and tumour-adjacent tissues were evaluated for the presence of CX3CL1 (ELISA) and CX3CR1 (immunohistochemistry and Western blotting) in an effort to analyse the relationship between CX3CL1/CX3CR1 and gastric carcinoma/gastric carcinoma PNI. Of these 30 cases, 14 were PNI-positive (46.7%). No significant differences in CX3CL and CX3CR1 expression in tumour-adjacent tissues were found between the PNI positive and negative groups. Expression levels of CX3CL and CX3CR1 in tumour tissues were significantly higher than those in adjacent tissues (P < 0.01), and were significantly higher in tumour tissues from the PNI-positive group compared to the PNI-negative group (P < 0.01). CX3CL1/CX3CR1 expression may be associated with the occurrence and development of gastric carcinoma as well as gastric carcinoma PNI.

  12. A novel inflammation-based prognostic score for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: the c-reactive protein/prognostic nutritional index ratio

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng; Yang, Xun; Feng, Ji-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background Inflammation plays a critical role in cancer prognosis. In the current study, we proposed a novel inflammation-based prognostic score, named c-reactive protein/prognostic nutritional index ratio (CRP/PNI ratio), for predicting the prognosis for patients with resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Results The optimal cut-off value was 0.10 for CRP/PNI ratio according to the ROC curve. Patients with CRP/PNI ratio ≤0.10 had a significantly better 5-year CSS compared to CRP/PNI ratio >0.10 (44.5% vs. 15.7%, P<0.001). On multivariate analyses, we revealed that CRP/PNI ratio was a significant predictive factor of CSS (P=0.009). A nomogram could be more accuracy for CSS. The Harrell's c-index for CSS prediction was 0.688. Materials and Methods A total of 308 patients with resectable ESCC were enrolled in this retrospective study. The optimal cuf-off value for CRP/PNI ratio was calculated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to analyse the cancer-specific survival (CSS). Univariate and multivariate analyses were evaluated for CSS. A nomogram was also established to predict the prognosis for CSS. Conclusion The CRP/PNI ratio is a novel and useful prognostic score for CSS in patients with resectable ESCC. PMID:27557504

  13. Initial construction and validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Aaron L; Ansell, Emily B; Pimentel, Claudia A; Cain, Nicole M; Wright, Aidan G C; Levy, Kenneth N

    2009-09-01

    The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Two problems were identified that impede integration of research and clinical findings regarding narcissistic personality pathology: (a) ambiguity regarding the assessment of pathological narcissism vs. normal narcissism and (b) insufficient scope of existing narcissism measures. Four studies are presented documenting the initial derivation and validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI). The PNI is a 52-item self-report measure assessing 7 dimensions of pathological narcissism spanning problems with narcissistic grandiosity (Entitlement Rage, Exploitativeness, Grandiose Fantasy, Self-sacrificing Self-enhancement) and narcissistic vulnerability (Contingent Self-esteem, Hiding the Self, Devaluing). The PNI structure was validated via confirmatory factor analysis. The PNI correlated negatively with self-esteem and empathy, and positively with shame, interpersonal distress, aggression, and borderline personality organization. Grandiose PNI scales were associated with vindictive, domineering, intrusive, and overly-nurturant interpersonal problems, and vulnerable PNI scales were associated with cold, socially avoidant, and exploitable interpersonal problems. In a small clinical sample, PNI scales exhibited significant associations with parasuicidal behavior, suicide attempts, homicidal ideation, and several aspects of psychotherapy utilization.

  14. The Significance of the Prognostic Nutritional Index for All Stages of Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Chung, Moon Jae; Kim, Bun; Lee, Hee Seung; Lee, Hyun Jik; Heo, Ja Yoon; Kim, Yeong Jin; Park, Jeong Youp; Bang, Seungmin; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young; Chung, Jae Bock

    2017-04-01

    Nutritional status affects the prognosis of various tumors. The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) is the known predictor of postoperative outcome in resectable pancreatic cancer patients. This study aimed to validate the prognostic value of PNI in all stages of pancreatic cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 499 patients with pancreatic cancer who were diagnosed at Severance Hospital between January 2006 and December 2011. The PNI value was calculated as 10 × serum albumin (g/dL) + 0.005 × total lymphocyte count (/mm(3)) at initial diagnosis. The median patient age was 62 yr, and 289 were men. The study group comprised resectable disease (n = 121), locally advanced disease (n = 118), and metastatic disease (n = 260). Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that PNI ≤ 49.5 at initial diagnosis, together with performance status, platelet count, and clinical stage, was significantly associated with overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.562; all P < 0.05). Patients with PNI ≤ 49.5 (n = 208) had shorter median overall survival compared to patients with high PNI (9.8 vs. 14.2 mo; log rank, P < 0.001). In clinical stage subgroup analysis, initial PNI ≤49.5 independently predicted shorter overall survival, especially in resectable and metastatic disease (P = 0.041, P = 0.002, respectively).

  15. Pleiotrophin promotes perineural invasion in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jun; Hu, Xiu-Feng; Feng, Xiao-Shan; Gao, She-Gan

    2013-01-01

    Perineural invasion (PNI) in pancreatic cancer is an important cause of local recurrence, but little is known about its mechanism. Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an important neurotrophic factor. It is of interest that our recent experimental data showed its involvement in PNI of pancreatic cancer. PTN strongly presents in the cytoplasm of pancreatic cancer cells, and high expression of PTN and its receptor may contribute to the high PNI of pancreatic cancer. Correspondingly, PNI is prone to happen in PTN-positive tumors. We thus hypothesize that, as a neurite growth-promoting factor, PTN may promote PNI in pancreatic cancer. PTN is released at the time of tumor cell necrosis, and binds with its high-affinity receptor, N-syndecan on pancreatic nerves, to promote neural growth in pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, neural destruction leads to a distorted neural homeostasis. Neurons and Schwann cells produce more N-syndecan in an effort to repair the pancreatic nerves. However, the abundance of N-syndecan attracts further PTN-positive cancer cells to the site of injury, creating a vicious cycle. Ultimately, increased PTN and N-syndecan levels, due to the continuous nerve injury, may promote cancer invasion and propagation along the neural structures. Therefore, it is meaningful to discuss the relationship between PTN/N-syndecan signaling and PNI in pancreatic cancer, which may lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of PNI in pancreatic cancer. PMID:24151381

  16. Pleiotrophin promotes perineural invasion in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Hu, Xiu-Feng; Feng, Xiao-Shan; Gao, She-Gan

    2013-10-21

    Perineural invasion (PNI) in pancreatic cancer is an important cause of local recurrence, but little is known about its mechanism. Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an important neurotrophic factor. It is of interest that our recent experimental data showed its involvement in PNI of pancreatic cancer. PTN strongly presents in the cytoplasm of pancreatic cancer cells, and high expression of PTN and its receptor may contribute to the high PNI of pancreatic cancer. Correspondingly, PNI is prone to happen in PTN-positive tumors. We thus hypothesize that, as a neurite growth-promoting factor, PTN may promote PNI in pancreatic cancer. PTN is released at the time of tumor cell necrosis, and binds with its high-affinity receptor, N-syndecan on pancreatic nerves, to promote neural growth in pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, neural destruction leads to a distorted neural homeostasis. Neurons and Schwann cells produce more N-syndecan in an effort to repair the pancreatic nerves. However, the abundance of N-syndecan attracts further PTN-positive cancer cells to the site of injury, creating a vicious cycle. Ultimately, increased PTN and N-syndecan levels, due to the continuous nerve injury, may promote cancer invasion and propagation along the neural structures. Therefore, it is meaningful to discuss the relationship between PTN/N-syndecan signaling and PNI in pancreatic cancer, which may lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of PNI in pancreatic cancer.

  17. A novel role of BELL1-like homeobox genes, PENNYWISE and POUND-FOOLISH, in floral patterning.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lifeng; Patibanda, Varun; Smith, Harley M S

    2009-02-01

    Flowers are determinate shoots comprised of perianth and reproductive organs displayed in a whorled phyllotactic pattern. Floral organ identity genes display region-specific expression patterns in the developing flower. In Arabidopsis, floral organ identity genes are activated by LEAFY (LFY), which functions with region-specific co-regulators, UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) and WUSCHEL (WUS), to up-regulate homeotic genes in specific whorls of the flower. PENNYWISE (PNY) and POUND-FOOLISH (PNF) are redundant functioning BELL1-like homeodomain proteins that are expressed in shoot and floral meristems. During flower development, PNY functions with a co-repressor complex to down-regulate the homeotic gene, AGAMOUS (AG), in the outer whorls of the flower. However, the function of PNY as well as PNF in regulating floral organ identity in the central whorls of the flower is not known. In this report, we show that combining mutations in PNY and PNF enhance the floral patterning phenotypes of weak and strong alleles of lfy, indicating that these BELL1-like homeodomain proteins play a role in the specification of petals, stamens and carpels during flower development. Expression studies show that PNY and PNF positively regulate the homeotic genes, APETALA3 and AG, in the inner whorls of the flower. Moreover, PNY and PNF function in parallel with LFY, UFO and WUS to regulate homeotic gene expression. Since PNY and PNF interact with the KNOTTED1-like homeodomain proteins, SHOOTMERISTEMLESS (STM) and KNOTTED-LIKE from ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA2 (KNAT2) that regulate floral development, we propose that PNY/PNF-STM and PNY/PNF-KNAT2 complexes function in the inner whorls to regulate flower patterning events.

  18. GFRα1 released by nerves enhances cancer cell perineural invasion through GDNF-RET signaling.

    PubMed

    He, Shuangba; Chen, Chun-Hao; Chernichenko, Natalya; He, Shizhi; Bakst, Richard L; Barajas, Fernando; Deborde, Sylvie; Allen, Peter J; Vakiani, Efsevia; Yu, Zhenkun; Wong, Richard J

    2014-05-13

    The ability of cancer cells to invade along nerves is associated with aggressive disease and diminished patient survival rates. Perineural invasion (PNI) may be mediated by nerve secretion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) attracting cancer cell migration through activation of cell surface Ret proto-oncogene (RET) receptors. GDNF family receptor (GFR)α1 acts as coreceptor with RET, with both required for response to GDNF. We demonstrate that GFRα1 released by nerves enhances PNI, even in the absence of cancer cell GFRα1 expression. Cancer cell migration toward GDNF, RET phosphorylation, and MAPK pathway activity are increased with exposure to soluble GFRα1 in a dose-dependent fashion. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) release soluble GFRα1, which potentiates RET activation and cancer cell migration. In vitro DRG coculture assays of PNI show diminished PNI with DRG from GFRα1(+/-) mice compared with GFRα1(+/+) mice. An in vivo murine model of PNI demonstrates that cancer cells lacking GFRα1 maintain an ability to invade nerves and impair nerve function, whereas those lacking RET lose this ability. A tissue microarray of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas demonstrates wide variance of cancer cell GFRα1 expression, suggesting an alternate source of GFRα1 in PNI. These findings collectively demonstrate that GFRα1 released by nerves enhances PNI through GDNF-RET signaling and that GFRα1 expression by cancer cells enhances but is not required for PNI. These results advance a mechanistic understanding of PNI and implicate the nerve itself as a key facilitator of this adverse cancer cell behavior.

  19. Continuous Low-dose-rate Irradiation of Iodine-125 Seeds Inhibiting Perineural Invasion in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zheng; Dong, Teng-Hui; Si, Pei-Ren; Shen, Wei; Bi, Yi-Liang; Min, Min; Chen, Xin; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perineural invasion (PNI) is a histopathological characteristic of pancreatic cancer (PanCa). The aim of this study was to observe the treatment effect of continuous low-dose-rate (CLDR) irradiation to PNI and assess the PNI-related pain relief caused by iodine-125 (125I) seed implantation. Methods: The in vitro PNI model established by co-culture with dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and cancer cells was interfered under 2 and 4 Gy of 125I seeds CLDR irradiation. The orthotopic models of PNI were established, and 125I seeds were implanted in tumor. The PNI-related molecules were analyzed. In 30 patients with panCa, the pain relief was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Pain intensity was measured before and 1 week, 2 weeks, and 1, 3, and 6 months after 125I seed implantation. Results: The co-culture of DRG and PanCa cells could promote the growth of PanCa cells and DRG neurites. In co-culture groups, the increased number of DRG neurites and pancreatic cells in radiation group was significantly less. In orthotopic models, the PNI-positive rate in radiation and control group was 3/11 and 7/11; meanwhile, the degrees of PNI between radiation and control groups was significant difference (P < 0.05). At week 2, the mean VAS pain score in patients decreased by 50% and significantly improved than the score at baseline (P < 0.05). The pain scores were lower in all patients, and the pain-relieving effect was retained about 3 months. Conclusions: The CLDR irradiation could inhibit PNI of PanCa with the value of further study. The CLDR irradiation could do great favor in preventing local recurrence and alleviating pain. PMID:27748339

  20. Implementing a comprehensive approach to the study of health dynamics using the psychoneuroimmunology paradigm.

    PubMed

    McCain, Nancy L; Gray, Dorothy Patricia; Walter, Jeanne M; Robins, JoLynne

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) as an integrative paradigm for advancing both theoretical and empirical knowledge of physiological patterns that contribute to the dynamics of health. We depict relationships among relevant psychobehavioral and physiological components in a PNI-based framework. We then provide examples of how this framework guided 2 clinical trials designed to assess the effectiveness of selected nursing interventions to reduce stress and enhance coping, one in persons with human immunodeficiency viral disease and the other in persons with cancer. The examples address disease-specific measures for assessing the components of the PNI-based framework.

  1. [Study of peripheral nerve injury in trauma patients].

    PubMed

    Castillo-Galván, Marina Lizeth; Martínez-Ruiz, Fernando Maximiliano; de la Garza-Castro, Oscar; Elizondo-Omaña, Rodrigo Enrique; Guzmán-López, Santos

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence, location, mechanism, and characteristics of peripheral nerve injury (PNI) in trauma patients. A retrospective study of medical records with PNI diagnosis secondary to trauma in the period of 2008-2012. The following information was collected: gender, age, occupation, anatomic location, affected nerve, mechanism of injury, degree of injury, costs, and hospitalization time. The prevalence of PNI is 1.12%. The location of the nerve injury was 61% upper limb, the highest incidence was presented to the brachial plexus (35%) and ulnar nerve (18%). The mechanism of the lesion was sharp injury (19%). The PNI are commonly present in people of a productive age. Neurotmesis was the most frequent degree of lesion. The patients stayed at hospital 2.51 ± 1.29 days and the average cost was 12,474.00 Mexican pesos ± 5,595.69 (US$ 1,007.54 ± 452.21) for one nerve injury.

  2. Prognostic nutritional index as a prognostic biomarker for survival in digestive system carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Xu, Peng; Kang, Huafeng; Lin, Shuai; Wang, Meng; Yang, Pengtao; Dai, Cong; Liu, Xinghan; Liu, Kang; Zheng, Yi; Dai, Zhijun

    2016-12-27

    The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) has been reported to correlate with the prognosis in patients with various malignancies. We performed a meta-analysis to determine the predictive potential of PNI in digestive system cancers. Twenty-three studies with a total of 7,384 patients suffering from digestive system carcinomas were involved in this meta-analysis. A lower PNI was significantly associated with the shorter overall survival (OS) [Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.83, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.62-2.07], the poorer disease-free survival (DFS) (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.19-2.89), and the higher rate of post-operative complications (HR 2.31, 95% CI 1.63-3.28). In conclusion, PNI was allowed to function as an efficient indicator for the prognosis of patients with digestive system carcinomas.

  3. Psychoneuroimmunology: application to ocular diseases.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Lori M

    2009-06-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is a relatively new discipline within the field of neuroscience which researches the relationship between emotional states, the central and peripheral nervous systems, and the endocrine and immune systems. Negative psychological states, such as stress, anxiety, and depression, may alter immune system regulation and modulation of peripheral cytokines. A plethora of PNI studies have shown that increased psychological stress and depression are associated with an alteration of immune functioning and worsened health outcomes for many conditions. To date, application of PNI methodology has not been reported for ocular diseases. This article provides an historical perspective on the origins of the rift between the emotional and spiritual from physical aspects of disease. A review of how stress is mediated through sympathetic adrenomedullary and hypothalamic pituitary axis activation with shifts in immunity is provided. The literature which supports spirituality in healing is presented. Finally, ocular diseases which would be most amenable to a PNI approach are discussed.

  4. Prognostic nutritional index as a prognostic biomarker for survival in digestive system carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Xu, Peng; Kang, Huafeng; Lin, Shuai; Wang, Meng; Yang, Pengtao; Dai, Cong; Liu, Xinghan; Liu, Kang; Zheng, Yi; Dai, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) has been reported to correlate with the prognosis in patients with various malignancies. We performed a meta-analysis to determine the predictive potential of PNI in digestive system cancers. Twenty-three studies with a total of 7,384 patients suffering from digestive system carcinomas were involved in this meta-analysis. A lower PNI was significantly associated with the shorter overall survival (OS) [Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.83, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.62–2.07], the poorer disease-free survival (DFS) (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.19–2.89), and the higher rate of post-operative complications (HR 2.31, 95% CI 1.63–3.28). In conclusion, PNI was allowed to function as an efficient indicator for the prognosis of patients with digestive system carcinomas. PMID:27888808

  5. The gene for the serpin thrombin inhibitor (P17), protease nexin I, is located on human chromosome 2q33-q35 and on syntenic regions in the mouse and sheep genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.E.; Burkin, D.J.; Fournier, R.E.K.

    1995-05-01

    Protease nexin I (PNI) is the most important physiologic regulator of {alpha}-thrombin in tissues. PNI is highly expressed and developmentally regulated in the nervous system where it is concentrated at neuromuscular junctions and also central synapses in the hippocampus and striatum. Approximately 10% of identified proteins at mammalian neuromuscular junctions are serine protease inhibitors, consistent with their central role in balancing serine protease activity to develop, maintain, and remodel synapses. Southern blot hybridization of PNI cDNA to somatic cell hybrids placed the structural gene for PNI (locus PI7) on human chromosome 2q33-q35 and to syntenic chromosomes in the mouse (chromosome 1) and sheep (chromosome 2). 30 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Surgical excision of perineal nodular induration: A cyclist’s third testicle

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Mohannad A.; Murphy, Gregory P.; Gaither, Thomas W.; Osterberg, E. Charles; Sanford, Thomas A.; Horvai, Andrew E.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2017-01-01

    Perineal nodular induration (PNI), or biker’s nodule, is a rare, bothersome, pseudotumour. Herein, we describe the surgical technique used to treat a healthy cyclist who developed an enlarging PNI for five years that grew into a perineal mass. The mass prevented him from cycling due to worsening discomfort and heaviness. The PNI-associated mass was successfully removed by wide surgical excision and a local advancement flap. Subsequently, the patient resumed cycling. Histopathology report demonstrated a benign lesion with abundant ropy collagen with native smooth muscle, vessels, and rare fibroblast-like spindle cells. With the increasing popularity of cycling, PNI may become more common, and health providers should be aware of this rare entity and how it can be safely removed. PMID:28503242

  7. Issues in the design and implementation of psychoneuroimmunology research.

    PubMed

    Robinson, F Patrick; Mathews, Herbert L; Witek-Janusek, Linda

    2002-04-01

    Research that uses a psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) framework seeks to determine whether valid associations exist among stress, immune function, and health. These associations are difficult to conclusively determine due to the fact that PNI research is fraught with methodological difficulties. These difficulties arise from the multifaceted and complex nature of the neuro-endocrine-immune network that is the phenomenon of interest in PNI. This article discusses multiple issues of which investigators should be aware when designing and implementing PNI research including (1) the control of potentially immunomodulating variables related to demographics, behavior, and lifestyle; (2) the manner in which stress, endocrine function, immunity, and health outcomes are measured in consideration of the theoretical relevance to the research question, population, or disease entity understudy; (3) the way physiological specimens are procured and stored; and (4) the methods by which assays are performed.

  8. Understanding the phase transition of linear poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gel under the heating and cooling processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yeonju; Hashimoto, Chihiro; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Jung, Young Mee

    2016-11-01

    Temperature-dependent ATR-FTIR spectra of linear poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAAm) gel during the heating and cooling processes were analyzed by using principal component analysis (PCA) and two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy. Temperature-dependent variation of bands due to C-H stretching mode and those arising from the Cdbnd O stretching coupling with N-H bending modes were investigated to better understand coil to globule transition of linear PNiPAAm gel. Results of PCA and 2D correlation spectroscopy demonstrated that the coil to globule transition mechanism of PNiPAAm gel varies for increasing and decreasing temperatures. Furthermore, the change of the side chain is showed variation of main chain in linear PNiPAAm gel during heating process, on the other hands, bands of the vibration of C-H stretching mode are changed before the Cdbnd O stretching coupling with N-H bending modes during cooling process.

  9. Prognostic significance of the prognostic nutritional index in esophageal cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, M; Migita, K; Matsumoto, S; Wakatsuki, K; Ito, M; Nakade, H; Kunishige, T; Kitano, M; Kanehiro, H

    2017-08-01

    Nutritional status is one of the most important issues faced by cancer patients. Several studies have shown that a low preoperative nutritional status is associated with a worse prognosis in patients with various types of cancer, including esophageal cancer (EC). Recently, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and/or radiotherapy have been accepted as the standard treatment for resectable advanced EC. However, NAC has the potential to deteriorate the nutritional status of a patient. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of the nutritional status for EC patients who underwent NAC. We retrospectively reviewed 66 squamous cell EC patients who underwent NAC consisting of docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil followed by subtotal esophagectomy at Nara Medical University Hospital between January 2009 and August 2015. To assess the patients' nutritional status, the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) before commencing NAC and prior to the operation was calculated as 10 × serum albumin (g/dl) + 0.005 × total lymphocyte count in the peripheral blood (per mm3). The cutoff value of the PNI was set at 45. A multivariable analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS). The mean pre-NAC and preoperative PNI were 50.2 ± 5.7 and 48.1 ± 4.7, respectively (P = 0.005). The PNI decreased following NAC in 44 (66.7%) patients. Before initiating NAC, 9 (13.6%) patients had a low PNI, and 12 (18.2%) patients had a low PNI prior to the operation. The pre-NAC PNI and preoperative PNI were significantly associated with the OS (P = 0.013 and P = 0.004, respectively) and RFS (P = 0.036 and P = 0.005, respectively) rates. The multivariable analysis identified the preoperative PNI as an independent prognostic factor for poor OS and RFS, although the pre-NAC PNI was not an independent predictor. Our results suggest that the preoperative PNI is a useful marker for predicting the long-term outcomes of EC patients

  10. Incorporation of perineural invasion of gastric carcinoma into the 7th edition tumor-node-metastasis staging system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Deng, Jing-Yu; Liu, Yong; Ke, Bin; Liu, Hong-Gen; Liang, Han

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of perineural invasion (PNI) in patients with gastric cancer who underwent curative resection. We retrospectively analyzed 518 patients who had undergone curative gastrectomy. Paraffin sections of surgical specimens from all patients were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. PNI was defined when carcinoma cells infiltrated into the perineurium or neural fascicles. Patients with PNI had a significantly larger tumors (≥5.0 cm), lymphatic venous invasion (positive), deeper tumor invasion (T4), more number of lymph node metastases (N3), and higher tumor stage (III). Regarding survival, multivariate analysis showed that PNI emerged as an independent prognostic factor for survival (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.901, P < 0.001). We incorporated the PNI into the 7th edition tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system. Comparing with the 7th edition staging system, the redefinition of TPNI stage had higher -2loglikelihood value (-2loglikelihood = 3,492.259) and lower HR and 95 % confidence interval (CI) (HR = 1.955, 95 % CI = 1.630-2.343); redefinition of NPNI and TNMIIIPNI stage both had lower -2loglikelihood value (-2loglikelihood = 3,306.608; -2loglikelihood = 2,535.151) and higher HR and 95 % CI (HR = 1.879, 95 % CI = 1.720-2.053; HR = 2.268, 95 % CI = 1.900-2.707), which represented the optimum prognostic stratification, together with better homogeneity, discriminatory ability. Our results showed that the frequency of PNI was high in patients with gastric cancer who underwent curative gastrectomy and the proportion of PNI positivity increased with progression and clinical stage of disease. PNI may be useful in detecting patients who had poor prognosis after curative resection in gastric cancer and it should be incorporated into TNM staging.

  11. Perineural invasion in prostate biopsy specimens is associated with increased bone metastasis in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ciftci, Seyfettin; Yilmaz, Hasan; Ciftci, Esra; Simsek, Emrah; Ustuner, Murat; Yavuz, Ufuk; Muezzinoglu, Bahar; Dillioglugil, Ozdal

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate the relationship between perineural invasion (PNI) and bone metastasis in prostate cancer (PCa). We retrospectively reviewed the data of 633 PCas who had whole-body bone scan (WBBS) between 2008 and 2014. We recorded the age, clinical T-stage, total PSA (tPSA) prior to biopsy, Gleason sum (GS), and PNI in transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy (TRUS-Bx) and digital rectal examination findings. Bone metastases were assessed with WBBS and magnetic resonance image if WBBS was suspicious. We divided the patients into two groups according to NCCN criteria: (Group 1) bone scan not indicated, (Group 2) bone scan indicated. There were 262 patients in Group 1 and 371 in 2. There is not significant relationship between PNI and bone metastasis in Group 1. However, there is very limited number of metastatic patients (n = 12) in this group. There is a strong relationship between PNI and bone metastasis in Group 2 (P = 0.001). Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of PNI for bone metastasis were 72.4%, 81.7%, and 77.7%, respectively. In this group, tPSA, GS, positive DRE, and PNI were significant covariates for prediction of bone metastasis in univariate and multivariate analysis (except age). The most powerful predictor was PNI, and it increased the risk of bone metastasis 11-fold. PNI in the TRUS-Bx specimens is the most powerful predictive histopathological feature for bone metastasis, by increasing the risk of bone metastasis 11-fold in NCCN bone scan indicated patients (Group 2). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Psychoneuroimmunology and its relationship to the differential diagnosis of temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Auvenshine, R C

    1997-04-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is a field of medicine which joins immunology and neurobiology. It focuses on the relationship of stress upon the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary (HPA) axis. Depletion of hormones and neurotransmitters within the HPA-axis, as a result of stress, can lead to a multitude of diseases and disorders. Therefore, it is necessary for the dentist to be familiar with PNI and the HPA-axis in order to make an accurate diagnosis of TMD.

  13. Antiretroviral Therapy as Prevention of … Pneumococcal Infections?

    PubMed Central

    Leporrier, Jérémie; Delbos, Valérie; Unal, Guillemette; Honoré, Patricia; Etienne, Manuel; Bouchaud, Olivier; Caron, François

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite antiretroviral therapy, it is generally believed that the risk for pneumococcal infections (PnIs) is high among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, most studies in this field have been conducted before 2010, and the proportion of virologically suppressed patients has drastically increased in these latter years thanks to larger indications and more effective antiretroviral regimens. This study aimed to re-evaluate the current risk of PnI among adult patients infected with HIV. Methods. The incidence of PnI was evaluated between 1996 and 2014 in 2 French regional hospitals. The 80 most recent cases of PnI (2000–2014) were retrospectively compared with 160 controls (HIV patients without PnI) to analyze the residual risk factors of PnI. Results. Among a mean annual follow-up cohort of 1616 patients, 116 PnIs were observed over 18 years. The risk factors of PnI among patients infected with HIV were an uncontrolled HIV infection or “classic” risk factors of PnI shared by the general population such as addiction, renal or respiratory insufficiency, or hepatitis B or C coinfection. Pneumococcal vaccination coverage was low and poorly targeted, because only 5% of the cases had been previously vaccinated. The incidence of invasive PnIs among HIV patients with a nonvirologically suppressed infection or comorbidities was 12 times higher than that reported in the general population at the country level (107 vs 9/100000 patients), whereas the incidence among virologically suppressed HIV patients without comorbidities was lower (7.6/100000 patients). Conclusions. Human immunodeficiency virus infection no longer per se seems to be a significant risk factor for PnI, suggesting a step-down from a systematic to an “at-risk patient” targeted pneumococcal vaccination strategy. PMID:28018929

  14. Perineural invasion associated with increased cancer-specific mortality after external beam radiation therapy for men with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, Clair . E-mail: cbeard@lroc.harvard.edu; Schultz, Delray; Loffredo, Marian; Cote, Kerri; Renshaw, Andrew A.; Hurwitz, Mark D.; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: To identify an association between perineural invasion (PNI) and cancer-specific survival in patients with prostate cancer after standard-dose external beam radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A total of 517 consecutive patients who underwent RT (median dose, 70.5 Gy) between 1989 and 2003 for low-risk or intermediate-risk prostate cancer were studied. A genitourinary pathologist (AAR) scored presence or absence of PNI on all prostate needle-biopsy specimens. A Cox regression multivariable analysis was performed to assess whether the presence of PNI was associated with risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality after RT when the recognized risk-group variables were factored into the model. Estimates of cancer-specific mortality were made using a cumulative incidence method. Comparisons of survival were made using a two-tailed log-rank test. Results: At a median follow-up of 4.5 years, 84 patients (16%) have died, 15 of 84 (18%) from prostate cancer. PNI was the only significant predictor of prostate cancer-specific mortality after RT (p = 0.012). The estimated prostate cancer-specific mortality was 14% at 8 years for PNI+ patients vs. 5% for PNI- patients (p = 0.0008). Conclusions: Patients with low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer who have PNI on prostate needle biopsy have a significantly higher rate of prostate cancer-specific mortality after standard-dose radiation therapy than patients without PNI. Although this analysis is retrospective, this association argues for consideration of the use of more aggressive therapy, such as hormonal therapy with RT or dose escalation, in these select patients.

  15. Development of a Brief Version of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Schoenleber, Michelle; Roche, Michael J.; Wetzel, Eunike; Pincus, Aaron L.; Roberts, Brent W.

    2015-01-01

    With theoretical and empirical interest in narcissism growing, there is a need for brief measures of pathological narcissism that can be used more practically while assessing the construct comprehensively. Data from four samples (total n = 3,851) collected across two separate research groups and representing undergraduate, community, and clinical populations was used to establish the reliability, validity, and utility of the Brief-Pathological Narcissism Inventory (B-PNI). Item response theory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to determine the best-performing 28 items from the original PNI and ensure that the B-PNI exhibited a factor structure consistent with the original PNI. Items were retained for all seven pathological narcissism facet scales. Additional results also support the criterion validity of the B-PNI, suggesting it can be used in place of the original PNI to assess the various facets of pathological narcissism effectively and without loss of information, which may enhance the ability of researchers to investigate pathological narcissism in future work. PMID:26011478

  16. Anatomic and Molecular Development of Corticostriatal Projection Neurons in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sohur, U. Shivraj; Padmanabhan, Hari K.; Kotchetkov, Ivan S.; Menezes, Joao R.L.; Macklis, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Corticostriatal projection neurons (CStrPN) project from the neocortex to ipsilateral and contralateral striata to control and coordinate motor programs and movement. They are clinically important as the predominant cortical population that degenerates in Huntington's disease and corticobasal ganglionic degeneration, and their injury contributes to multiple forms of cerebral palsy. Together with their well-studied functions in motor control, these clinical connections make them a functionally, behaviorally, and clinically important population of neocortical neurons. Little is known about their development. “Intratelencephalic” CStrPN (CStrPNi), projecting to the contralateral striatum, with their axons fully within the telencephalon (intratelencephalic), are a major population of CStrPN. CStrPNi are of particular interest developmentally because they share hodological and axon guidance characteristics of both callosal projection neurons (CPN) and corticofugal projection neurons (CFuPN); CStrPNi send axons contralaterally before descending into the contralateral striatum. The relationship of CStrPNi development to that of broader CPN and CFuPN populations remains unclear; evidence suggests that CStrPNi might be evolutionary “hybrids” between CFuPN and deep layer CPN—in a sense “chimeric” with both callosal and corticofugal features. Here, we investigated the development of CStrPNi in mice—their birth, maturation, projections, and expression of molecular developmental controls over projection neuron subtype identity. PMID:23118198

  17. Stromal-derived factor-1α/CXCL12-CXCR4 chemotactic pathway promotes perineural invasion in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qinhong; Wang, Zheng; Chen, Xin; Duan, Wanxing; Lei, Jianjun; Zong, Liang; Li, Xuqi; Sheng, Liang; Ma, Jiguang; Han, Liang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Lun; Guo, Kun; Ma, Zhenhua; Wu, Zheng; Wu, Erxi; Ma, Qingyong

    2015-03-10

    Perineural invasion (PNI) is considered as an alternative route for the metastatic spread of pancreatic cancer cells; however, the molecular changes leading to PNI are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis plays a pivotal role in the neurotropism of pancreatic cancer cells to local peripheral nerves. Immunohistochemical staining results revealed that CXCR4 elevation correlated with PNI in 78 pancreatic cancer samples. Both in vitro and in vivo PNI models were applied to investigate the function of the CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling in PNI progression and pathogenesis. The results showed that the activation of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis significantly increased pancreatic cancer cells invasion and promoted the outgrowth of the dorsal root ganglia. CXCL12 derived from the peripheral nerves stimulated the invasion and chemotactic migration of CXCR4-positive cancer cells in a paracrine manner, eventually leading to PNI. In vivo analyses revealed that the abrogation of the activated signaling inhibited tumor growth and invasion of the sciatic nerve toward the spinal cord. These data indicate that the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis may be a novel therapeutic target to prevent the perineural dissemination of pancreatic cancer.

  18. Precisely Determining Ultralow level UO2(2+) in Natural Water with Plasmonic Nanowire Interstice Sensor.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Raekeun; Kim, Hongki; Yoo, Seung Min; Lee, Sang Yup; Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Lee, Min-Ku; Rhee, Chang-Kyu; Kang, Taejoon; Kim, Bongsoo

    2016-01-21

    Uranium is an essential raw material in nuclear energy generation; however, its use raises concerns about the possibility of severe damage to human health and the natural environment. In this work, we report an ultrasensitive uranyl ion (UO2(2+)) detection method in natural water that uses a plasmonic nanowire interstice (PNI) sensor combined with a DNAzyme-cleaved reaction. UO2(2+) induces the cleavage of DNAzymes into enzyme strands and released strands, which include Raman-active molecules. A PNI sensor can capture the released strands, providing strong surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal. The combination of a PNI sensor and a DNAzyme-cleaved reaction significantly improves the UO2(2+) detection performance, resulting in a detection limit of 1 pM and high selectivity. More importantly, the PNI sensor operates perfectly, even in UO2(2+)-contaminated natural water samples. This suggests the potential usefulness of a PNI sensor in practical UO2(2+)-sensing applications. We anticipate that diverse toxic metal ions can be detected by applying various ion-specific DNA-based ligands to PNI sensors.

  19. Precisely Determining Ultralow level UO22+ in Natural Water with Plasmonic Nanowire Interstice Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Gwak, Raekeun; Kim, Hongki; Yoo, Seung Min; Lee, Sang Yup; Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Lee, Min-Ku; Rhee, Chang-Kyu; Kang, Taejoon; Kim, Bongsoo

    2016-01-01

    Uranium is an essential raw material in nuclear energy generation; however, its use raises concerns about the possibility of severe damage to human health and the natural environment. In this work, we report an ultrasensitive uranyl ion (UO22+) detection method in natural water that uses a plasmonic nanowire interstice (PNI) sensor combined with a DNAzyme-cleaved reaction. UO22+ induces the cleavage of DNAzymes into enzyme strands and released strands, which include Raman-active molecules. A PNI sensor can capture the released strands, providing strong surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal. The combination of a PNI sensor and a DNAzyme-cleaved reaction significantly improves the UO22+ detection performance, resulting in a detection limit of 1 pM and high selectivity. More importantly, the PNI sensor operates perfectly, even in UO22+-contaminated natural water samples. This suggests the potential usefulness of a PNI sensor in practical UO22+-sensing applications. We anticipate that diverse toxic metal ions can be detected by applying various ion-specific DNA-based ligands to PNI sensors. PMID:26791784

  20. Dorsal horn neurons release extracellular ATP in a VNUT-dependent manner that underlies neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Takahiro; Ozono, Yui; Mikuriya, Satsuki; Kohro, Yuta; Tozaki-Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Iwatsuki, Ken; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Ichikawa, Reiko; Salter, Michael W.; Tsuda, Makoto; Inoue, Kazuhide

    2016-01-01

    Activation of purinergic receptors in the spinal cord by extracellular ATP is essential for neuropathic hypersensitivity after peripheral nerve injury (PNI). However, the cell type responsible for releasing ATP within the spinal cord after PNI is unknown. Here we show that PNI increases expression of vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) in the spinal cord. Extracellular ATP content ([ATP]e) within the spinal cord was increased after PNI, and this increase was suppressed by exocytotic inhibitors. Mice lacking VNUT did not show PNI-induced increase in [ATP]e and had attenuated hypersensitivity. These phenotypes were recapitulated in mice with specific deletion of VNUT in spinal dorsal horn (SDH) neurons, but not in mice lacking VNUT in primary sensory neurons, microglia or astrocytes. Conversely, ectopic VNUT expression in SDH neurons of VNUT-deficient mice restored PNI-induced increase in [ATP]e and pain. Thus, VNUT is necessary for exocytotic ATP release from SDH neurons which contributes to neuropathic pain. PMID:27515581

  1. Precisely Determining Ultralow level UO22+ in Natural Water with Plasmonic Nanowire Interstice Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwak, Raekeun; Kim, Hongki; Yoo, Seung Min; Lee, Sang Yup; Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Lee, Min-Ku; Rhee, Chang-Kyu; Kang, Taejoon; Kim, Bongsoo

    2016-01-01

    Uranium is an essential raw material in nuclear energy generation; however, its use raises concerns about the possibility of severe damage to human health and the natural environment. In this work, we report an ultrasensitive uranyl ion (UO22+) detection method in natural water that uses a plasmonic nanowire interstice (PNI) sensor combined with a DNAzyme-cleaved reaction. UO22+ induces the cleavage of DNAzymes into enzyme strands and released strands, which include Raman-active molecules. A PNI sensor can capture the released strands, providing strong surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal. The combination of a PNI sensor and a DNAzyme-cleaved reaction significantly improves the UO22+ detection performance, resulting in a detection limit of 1 pM and high selectivity. More importantly, the PNI sensor operates perfectly, even in UO22+-contaminated natural water samples. This suggests the potential usefulness of a PNI sensor in practical UO22+-sensing applications. We anticipate that diverse toxic metal ions can be detected by applying various ion-specific DNA-based ligands to PNI sensors.

  2. Prognosis Prediction for Postoperative Esophageal Cancer Patients Using Onodera's Prognostic Nutritional Index.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hideo; Okamoto, Yuko; Kawai, Akimasa; Ueno, Daisuke; Kubota, Hisako; Murakami, Haruaki; Higashida, Masaharu; Hirai, Toshihiro

    2017-07-20

    Preoperative nutritional status may impact surgical outcome and prognosis. We evaluated the predictive value of Onodera's prognostic nutritional index (O's-PNI) of surgical outcome following esophagectomy in esophageal cancer patients. In total, 144 patients undergoing esophagectomy for esophageal cancer from April 2010 to May 2015 were evaluated, retrospectively. Eighty-four patients were enrolled in this study. O's-PNIs were calculated before surgery, discharge, and 1, 2, and 6 mo after discharge. The relationship between O's-PNI and occurrence of complications as classified by the Clavien-Dindo (C-D) classification, length of hospital stay, and survival time was investigated. The mean O's-PNI for patients with complications of more than Grade 2 by the C-D classification was 37.4, which was significantly lower than that for Grades 0 or 1 (40.5, P = 0.0094). A negative correlation was obtained between O's-PNI and hospital stay length (P = 0.0006), whereas a positive correlation was obtained for O's-PNI at 6 mo postsurgery and overall survival (P = 0.0171, P = 0.0201). O's-PNI may represent a useful indicator of the occurrence of complications and length of hospital stay, and may influence overall survival at 6 mo postsurgery. Nutritional management during the perioperative period could therefore contribute to satisfactory outcomes following esophagectomy in esophageal cancer patients.

  3. Needle-free injection of insulin powder: delivery efficiency and skin irritation assessment*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-yu; Wang, Zhe-wei; Tu, Can; Wang, Jia-bo; Jiang, Bing-qian; Li, Qi; Zeng, Ling-na; Ma, Zhi-jie; Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Yan-ling; Zhang, Ya-ming; Yan, Dan; Tan, Rui; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2014-01-01

    Insulin is widely used in treating diabetes, but still needs to be administered by needle injection. This study investigated a new needle-free approach for insulin delivery. A portable powder needleless injection (PNI) device with an automatic mechanical unit was designed. Its efficiency in delivering insulin was evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. The skin irritation caused by the device was investigated and the results were analyzed in relation to aerodynamic parameters. Inorganic salt-carried insulin powders had hypoglycemic effects, while raw insulin powders were not effective when delivered by PNI, indicating that salt carriers play an important role in the delivery of insulin via PNI. The relative delivery efficiency of phosphate-carried insulin powder using the PNI device was 72.25%. A safety assessment test showed that three key factors (gas pressure, cylinder volume, and nozzle distance) were related to the amount of skin irritation caused by the PNI device. Optimized injection conditions caused minimal skin lesions and are safe to use in practice. The results suggest that PNI has promising prospects as a novel technology for delivering insulin and other biological drugs. PMID:25294378

  4. Development of a brief version of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory.

    PubMed

    Schoenleber, Michelle; Roche, Michael J; Wetzel, Eunike; Pincus, Aaron L; Roberts, Brent W

    2015-12-01

    With theoretical and empirical interest in narcissism growing, there is a need for brief measures of pathological narcissism that can be used more practically while assessing the construct comprehensively. Data from four samples (total N = 3,851) collected across two separate research groups and representing undergraduate, community, and clinical populations were used to establish the reliability, validity, and utility of the Brief-Pathological Narcissism Inventory (B-PNI). Item response theory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to determine the best-performing 28 items from the original PNI and ensure that the B-PNI exhibited a factor structure consistent with the original PNI. Items were retained for all seven pathological narcissism facet scales. Additional results also support the criterion validity of the B-PNI, suggesting that it can be used in place of the original PNI to assess the various facets of pathological narcissism effectively and without loss of information, which may enhance the ability of researchers to investigate pathological narcissism in future work.

  5. Significance of preoperative prognostic nutrition index as prognostic predictors in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma with tyrosine kinase inhibitors as first-line target therapy.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wen; Zhong, Hai; Kong, Wen; Dong, Baijun; Chen, Yonghui; Zhou, Lixin; Xue, Wei; Huang, Yiran; Zhang, Jin; Huang, Jiwei

    2017-09-09

    Prognostic nutritional index (PNI) is a recognized indicator of both immune and nutritional status. It was firstly used as a preoperative prognostic indicator, and its role in the prognosis of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has not yet been investigated in large-scale study. The purpose of this work was to investigate the prognostic role of pretreatment PNI in patients with mRCC with sorafenib or sunitinib as first-line targeted therapy. In this retrospective single-center research, the Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of 178 mRCC patients who received first-line therapy of sorafenib or sunitinib. Log-rank test was used to compare the survival outcomes of patients with low pretreatment PNI (PNI < 51.62) and high pretreatment PNI (PNI ≥ 51.62), and Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to compare PFS and OS between these two groups. Prognostic accuracy was determined using Harrell concordance index. The overall median PFS and OS time for all 178 patients were 11 months (95% CI 9-12 months) and 24 months (95% CI 19-33 months), respectively. Patients with low pretreatment PNI both had significantly shorter median PFS (7 vs 19 months, P < 0.001) and OS (14 vs 50 months, P < 0.001) than those with high PNI. Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment PNI was an independent predictor of OS (HR 1.658, 95% CI 1.040-2.614, P = 0.033) and an independent predictor of PFS as well (HR 1.842, 95% CI 1.226-2.766, P = 0.003). The model built by the addition of pretreatment PNI improved predictive accuracy of PFS and OS compared with the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium Model (Heng model) (c-index: 0.68 and 0.70). Comparing to NLR (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio) (0.69 and 0.72), PNI might be a preciser factor to predict PFS and OS (0.71 and 0.73). Low pretreatment PNI could be a significant risk factor for mRCC patients who

  6. A Preoperative Nutritional Index for Predicting Cancer-Specific and Overall Survival in Chinese Patients With Laryngeal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yan; Chen, Shu-Wei; Chen, Shi-Qi; Ou-Yang, Dian; Liu, Wei-Wei; Song, Ming; Yang, An-Kui; Zhang, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pinato prognostic nutritional index (PNI) adequately predicts long-term outcomes of various malignancies. However, its value in predicting outcomes in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is unknown. All patients newly diagnosed with LSCC presenting to the Department of Head and Neck Oncology at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between January 1, 1990 and July 31, 2010 were eligible. The PNI was calculated as serum albumin (g/L) + 5 × total lymphocyte count/L. The Cutoff Finder software program was used to classify the patients into 3 groups for which the PNI score was at least 70% sensitive, at least 70% specific, or equivocal. Cancer-specific survival was estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method, and predictors were assessed with Cox regression analysis. Median time between surgery and PNI administration for the 975 eligible patients was 83 months. Index score groups were significantly associated with age, T stage, TNM stage, and type of surgery. Five-year CSS and OS were 57.3% and 56.6% in patients with PNI scores below 48.65 (low-probability of survival), 72.8% and 71.3% with scores between 48.65 and 56.93 (moderate-probability of survival), and 77.6% and 75.3% with scores above 56.93 (high-probability of survival); 10-year CSS and OS were 44.2% and 42.7%, 61.6% and 55.6%, 68.3% and 63.5%, respectively. The PNI score groups significantly predicted CSS and OS (P < 0.001). The PNI is an inexpensive and readily available score that predicted survival in patients with LSCC after curative laryngectomy. PMID:26986105

  7. Pretreatment prognostic nutritional index is a significant predictor of prognosis in patients with cervical cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Haraga, Junko; Nakamura, Keiichiro; Omichi, Chiaki; Nishida, Takeshi; Haruma, Tomoko; Kusumoto, Tomoyuki; Seki, Noriko; Masuyama, Hisashi; Katayama, Norihisa; Kanazawa, Susumu; Hiramatsu, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) are prognostic factors in patients with cervical cancer who undergo concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and radiotherapy (RT). A total of 131 patients who underwent CCRT and RT for cervical cancer were retrospectively investigated and the correlations of NLR, PLR and PNI with clinical parameters and prognosis were assessed in CCRT and RT. The CCRT and RT groups had a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 41.82 and 24.72 months, respectively, and an overall survival of 49.70 and 29.56 months, respectively. At a cut-off value of NLR≥2.85, the PFS and OS in patients with higher NLR undergoing RT were significantly shorter compared with those in patients with lower NLR (P=0.029 and P=0.017, respectively). At a cut-off value for PNI of ≤48.55 in patients undergoing CCRT and ≤45.80 in patients undergoing RT, the PFS and OS in patients with lower PNI were significantly shorter compared with those in patients with higher PNI (PFS and OS with CCRT, P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively; PFS and OS with RT, P=0.002 and P=0.008, respectively). Multivariate analyses also identified low PNI as an independent prognostic factor for PFS and OS in patients receiving CCRT. Therefore, low PNI was shown to predict poor prognosis in patients with cervical cancer. PMID:27900086

  8. Preoperative prognostic nutritional index predicts postoperative surgical site infections in gastrointestinal fistula patients undergoing bowel resections

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qiongyuan; Wang, Gefei; Ren, Jianan; Ren, Huajian; Li, Guanwei; Wu, Xiuwen; Gu, Guosheng; Li, Ranran; Guo, Kun; Deng, Youming; Li, Yuan; Hong, Zhiwu; Wu, Lei; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have implied a prognostic value of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) in postoperative septic complications of elective colorectal surgeries. However, the evaluation of PNI in contaminated surgeries for gastrointestinal (GI) fistula patients is lack of investigation. The purpose of this study was to explore the predictive value of PNI in surgical site infections (SSIs) for GI fistula patients undergoing bowel resections. A retrospective review of 290 GI patients who underwent intestinal resections between November 2012 and October 2015 was performed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify risk factors for SSIs, and receiver operating characteristic cure was used to quantify the effectiveness of PNI. SSIs were diagnosed in 99 (34.1%) patients, with incisional infection identified in 54 patients (18.6%), deep incisional infection in 13 (4.5%), and organ/space infection in 32 (11.0%). receiver operating characteristic curve analysis defined a PNI cut-off level of 45 corresponding to postoperative SSIs (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.72, 76% sensitivity, 55% specificity). Furthermore, a multivariate analysis indicated that the PNI < 45 [odd ratio (OR): 2.24, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09–4.61, P = 0.029] and leukocytosis (OR: 3.70, 95% CI: 1.02–13.42, P = 0.046) were independently associated with postoperative SSIs. Preoperative PNI is a simple and useful marker to predict SSIs in GI fistula patients after enterectomies. Measurement of PNI is therefore recommended in the routine assessment of patients with GI fistula receiving surgical treatment. PMID:27399098

  9. En Bloc Resection of Desmoplastic Neurotropic Melanoma with Perineural Invasion of the Intracranial Trigeminal and Intraparotid Facial Nerve: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Erkan, Serkan; Acharya, Aanand N.; Savundra, James; Lewis, Stephen B.; Rajan, Gunesh P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Desmoplastic neurotropic melanoma (DNM) is a rare, highly malignant, and locally invasive form of cutaneous melanoma with a tendency for perineural invasion (PNI). Methods We report a case of a 61-year-old man presenting with right-sided trigeminal neuralgia and progressive facial paresis due to the PNI of the intracranial trigeminal nerve and the intraparotid facial nerve from DNM. We also present a review of the literature with six cases of DNM with PNI of the intracranial trigeminal nerve identified. Results The combined transtemporal-infratemporal fossa approach was performed to achieve total en bloc resection of the tumor mass followed by postoperative radiotherapy (PORT). After 24 months of follow-up, the patient remains disease free with no signs of recurrence on magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusion We recommend the en bloc resection of the tumor mass followed by PORT for the management of DNM with PNI. A high index of suspicion for PNI as a cause of cranial neuropathies is essential for the early detection and treatment of patients with known melanoma. PMID:26929895

  10. Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory among Chinese university students.

    PubMed

    You, Jianing; Leung, Freedom; Lai, Katty Kit Yee; Fu, Kei

    2013-01-01

    The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) is a multidimensional measure of narcissistic pathology. This study examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the PNI in a sample of Chinese university students in Hong Kong. Eight hundred and thirty-one students completed an online battery of questionnaires assessing narcissistic pathology, self-esteem, unstable sense of self, and maladaptive self-defense strategies. Results replicated the 7 first-order factors and the 2 second-order factors of the PNI. Each of the 7 first-order factors and the 2 second-order factors had good internal consistency. Preliminary findings also supported the concurrent validity of the PNI. The PNI appeared to be a valid measure of narcissistic pathology among Chinese. Findings of this study suggest that the core pathology of pathological narcissism might involve an inflated sense of self-importance that is not substantiated by actual achievement, and bearing this unsubstantiated sense of self-importance renders narcissists highly susceptible to self-deflation when their narcissistic needs are not met.

  11. Translational implications of inflammatory biomarkers and cytokine networks in psychoneuroimmunology.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Developments in psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) need to be translated into personalized medicine to achieve better clinical outcomes. One of the most critical steps in this translational process is to identify systemic biomarkers for better diagnosis and treatment. Applications of systems biology approaches in PNI would enable the insights into the correlations among various systems and different levels for the identification of the basic elements of the psychophysiological framework. Among the potential PNI biomarkers, inflammatory markers deserve special attention as they play a pivotal role linking various health conditions and disorders. The elucidation of inflammatory markers, cytokine networks, and immune-brain-behavior interactions may help establish PNI profiles for the identification of potential targets for personalized interventions in at risk populations. The understanding of the general systemic pathways among different disorders may contribute to the transition from the disease-centered medicine to patient-centered medicine. Integrative strategies targeting these factors and pathways would be useful for the prevention and treatment of a spectrum of diseases that share the common links. Examples of the translational implications of potential PNI biomarkers and networks in diseases including depression, Alzheimer's disease, obesity, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and HIV are discussed in details.

  12. Ecoimmunology for Psychoneuroimmunologists: Considering Context in Neuroendocrine-Immune-Behavior Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Demas, Gregory E.; Carlton, Elizabeth D.

    2014-01-01

    The study of immunity has become an important area of investigation for researchers in a wide range of areas outside the traditional discipline of immunology. For the last several decades, psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) has strived to identify key interactions among the nervous, endocrine and immune systems and behavior. More recently, the field of ecological immunology (ecoimmunology) has been established within the perspectives of ecology and evolutionary biology, sharing with PNI an appreciation of the environmental influences on immune function. The primary goal of ecoimmunology is to understand immune function within a broadly integrative, organismal context, typically from an ultimate, evolutionary perspective. To accomplish this ecoimmunology, like PNI, has become a broadly integrative field of investigation, combining diverse approaches from evolution and ecology to endocrinology and neurobiology. The disciplines of PNI and ecoimmunology, with their unique yet complementary perspectives and methodologies, have much to offer one another. Researchers in both fields, however, remain largely unaware of each other's findings despite attempts at integration. The goal of this review is to share with psychoneuroimmunologists and other mechanistically-oriented researchers some of the core concepts and principles, as well as relevant recent findings, within ecoimmunology with the hope that this information will prove relevant to their own research programs. More broadly, our goal is to attempt to integrate both the proximate and ultimate perspectives offered by PNI and ecoimmunology respectively into a common theoretical framework for understanding neuro-endocrine-immune interactions and behavior in a larger ecological, evolutionary context. PMID:25218837

  13. [Association of peripheral nerve invasion with clinicopathological factors and prognosis of colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Han, Dong; Wei, Ying; Wang, Xidi; Wang, Geng; Chen, Yinggang

    2017-01-25

    To investigate the association of peripheral nerve invasion (PNI) with clinicopathological factors and prognosis of colorectal cancer. Clinicopathological data and Surgical specimens of 372 colorectal cancer patients who underwent radical resection from January 2011 to June 2012 in The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University were collected. Histopathological evaluation of tissue samples was conducted with hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. PNI was considered positive when cancer cells were observed inside the nerve sheath, or when at least 33% of the nerve periphery was surrounded by cancer cells. The relationship between PNI and clinicopathological factors of colorectal cancer was analyzed by χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test. Three-year overall survivals of PNI positive and negative patients were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. Detection results were compared using log-rank test. Of 372 colorectal cancer patients, 133 (35.8%) were PNI positive. Among the PNI positive patients, 63 cases were male and 70 cases female; 76 cases were more than 60 years old and 57 cases less than 60 years old; tumors of 6 cases located in the ileocecal colon, of 33 cases in the ascending colon, of 7 cases in the transverse colon, of 8 cases in the descending colon, of 22 cases in the sigmoid colon, and of 57 cases in the rectum; tumor diameter was greater than 4 cm in 83 cases, and less than 4 cm in 50 cases; tumors of 48 cases were moderately or highly differentiated, and of 85 cases poorly-differentiation; tumor invasion depth in 2 cases, T2 in 7 cases, T3 in 93 cases, T4 in 31 cases; lymphatic metastasis was N0 phase in 56 cases, N1 in 41 cases, and N2 in 36 cases; tumors were stage I( in 2 cases, stage II( in 40 cases, of stage III( in 75 cases and stage IIII( in 16 cases. The positive rate of PNI was significantly associated with tumor location (χ(2)=11.20, P=0.048), tumor size (χ(2)=21.80, P=0.000), differentiation (χ(2)=60.90, P=0.000), depth

  14. Penetrating neck injury from a screwdriver: can the No Zone approach be applied to Zone I injuries?

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Nikita R; McMonagle, Morgan

    2015-11-27

    The newer approach to management of penetrating neck injuries (PNI) involves the No Zone approach: comprehensive physical examination combined with CT angiography for triage to effectively identify or exclude vascular and aerodigestive injury. This approach, however, has a low negative exploration rate; there is risk of missing occult injuries especially Zone I and III PNI. We report a case of a patient with PNI to Zone I of the neck who was haemodynamically stable at presentation; CT scan revealed complete occlusion of the common carotid artery. Immediate surgical exploration revealed an occult hypopharyngeal injury in addition to the arterial trauma, which was missed on the CT scan. Hence the No Zone approach needs cautious clinical application, especially in Zone I injuries.

  15. Sensory signs in complex regional pain syndrome and peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Gierthmühlen, Janne; Maier, Christoph; Baron, Ralf; Tölle, Thomas; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Birbaumer, Niels; Huge, Volker; Koroschetz, Jana; Krumova, Elena K; Lauchart, Meike; Maihöfner, Christian; Richter, Helmut; Westermann, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    This study determined patterns of sensory signs in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type I and II and peripheral nerve injury (PNI). Patients with upper-limb CRPS-I (n=298), CRPS-II (n=46), and PNI (n=72) were examined with quantitative sensory testing according to the protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain. The majority of patients (66%-69%) exhibited a combination of sensory loss and gain. Patients with CRPS-I had more sensory gain (heat and pressure pain) and less sensory loss than patients with PNI (thermal and mechanical detection, hypoalgesia to heat or pinprick). CRPS-II patients shared features of CRPS-I and PNI. CRPS-I and CRPS-II had almost identical somatosensory profiles, with the exception of a stronger loss of mechanical detection in CRPS-II. In CRPS-I and -II, cold hyperalgesia/allodynia (28%-31%) and dynamic mechanical allodynia (24%-28%) were less frequent than heat or pressure hyperalgesia (36%-44%, 67%-73%), and mechanical hypoesthesia (31%-55%) was more frequent than thermal hypoesthesia (30%-44%). About 82% of PNI patients had at least one type of sensory gain. QST demonstrates more sensory loss in CRPS-I than hitherto considered, suggesting either minimal nerve injury or central inhibition. Sensory profiles suggest that CRPS-I and CRPS-II may represent one disease continuum. However, in contrast to recent suggestions, small fiber deficits were less frequent than large fiber deficits. Sensory gain is highly prevalent in PNI, indicating a better similarity of animal models to human patients than previously thought. These sensory profiles should help prioritize approaches for translation between animal and human research. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antagonistic Interaction of BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 and 2 with BREVIPEDICELLUS and PENNYWISE Regulates Arabidopsis Inflorescence Architecture1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Madiha; Xu, Mingli; Murmu, Jhadeswar; Tabb, Paul; Liu, Yuanyuan; Storey, Kathryn; McKim, Sarah M.; Douglas, Carl J.; Hepworth, Shelley R.

    2012-01-01

    The transition to flowering in many plant species, including Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), is marked by the elongation of internodes to make an inflorescence upon which lateral branches and flowers are arranged in a characteristic pattern. Inflorescence patterning relies in part on the activities of two three-amino-acid loop-extension homeodomain transcription factors: BREVIPEDICELLUS (BP) and PENNYWISE (PNY) whose interacting products also promote meristem function. We examine here the genetic interactions between BP-PNY whose expression is up-regulated in stems at the floral transition, and the lateral organ boundary genes BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 (BOP1) and BOP2, whose expression is restricted to pedicel axils. Our data show that bp and pny inflorescence defects are caused by BOP1/2 gain of function in stems and pedicels. Compatible with this, inactivation of BOP1/2 rescues these defects. BOP expression domains are differentially enlarged in bp and pny mutants, corresponding to the distinctive patterns of growth restriction in these mutants leading to compacted internodes and clustered or downward-oriented fruits. Our data indicate that BOP1/2 are positive regulators of KNOTTED1-LIKE FROM ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA6 expression and that growth restriction in BOP1/2 gain-of-function plants requires KNOTTED1-LIKE FROM ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA6. Antagonism between BOP1/2 and BP is explained in part by their reciprocal regulation of gene expression, as evidenced by the identification of lignin biosynthetic genes that are repressed by BP and activated by BOP1/2 in stems. These data reveal BOP1/2 gain of function as the basis of bp and pny inflorescence defects and reveal how antagonism between BOP1/2 and BP-PNY contributes to inflorescence patterning in a model plant species. PMID:22114095

  17. Antagonistic interaction of BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 and 2 with BREVIPEDICELLUS and PENNYWISE regulates Arabidopsis inflorescence architecture.

    PubMed

    Khan, Madiha; Xu, Mingli; Murmu, Jhadeswar; Tabb, Paul; Liu, Yuanyuan; Storey, Kathryn; McKim, Sarah M; Douglas, Carl J; Hepworth, Shelley R

    2012-02-01

    The transition to flowering in many plant species, including Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), is marked by the elongation of internodes to make an inflorescence upon which lateral branches and flowers are arranged in a characteristic pattern. Inflorescence patterning relies in part on the activities of two three-amino-acid loop-extension homeodomain transcription factors: BREVIPEDICELLUS (BP) and PENNYWISE (PNY) whose interacting products also promote meristem function. We examine here the genetic interactions between BP-PNY whose expression is up-regulated in stems at the floral transition, and the lateral organ boundary genes BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 (BOP1) and BOP2, whose expression is restricted to pedicel axils. Our data show that bp and pny inflorescence defects are caused by BOP1/2 gain of function in stems and pedicels. Compatible with this, inactivation of BOP1/2 rescues these defects. BOP expression domains are differentially enlarged in bp and pny mutants, corresponding to the distinctive patterns of growth restriction in these mutants leading to compacted internodes and clustered or downward-oriented fruits. Our data indicate that BOP1/2 are positive regulators of KNOTTED1-LIKE FROM ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA6 expression and that growth restriction in BOP1/2 gain-of-function plants requires KNOTTED1-LIKE FROM ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA6. Antagonism between BOP1/2 and BP is explained in part by their reciprocal regulation of gene expression, as evidenced by the identification of lignin biosynthetic genes that are repressed by BP and activated by BOP1/2 in stems. These data reveal BOP1/2 gain of function as the basis of bp and pny inflorescence defects and reveal how antagonism between BOP1/2 and BP-PNY contributes to inflorescence patterning in a model plant species.

  18. Novel immunological and nutritional-based prognostic index for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kai-Yu; Xu, Jian-Bo; Chen, Shu-Ling; Yuan, Yu-Jie; Wu, Hui; Peng, Jian-Jun; Chen, Chuang-Qi; Guo, Pi; Hao, Yuan-Tao; He, Yu-Long

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the prognostic significance of immunological and nutritional-based indices, including the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet-lymphocyte ratio in gastric cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 632 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy between 1998 and 2008. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were calculated to compare the predictive ability of the indices, together with estimating the sensitivity, specificity and agreement rate. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors for overall survival (OS). Propensity score analysis was performed to adjust variables to control for selection bias. RESULTS: Each index could predict OS in gastric cancer patients in univariate analysis, but only PNI had independent prognostic significance in multivariate analysis before and after adjustment with propensity scoring (hazard ratio, 1.668; 95% confidence interval: 1.368-2.035). In subgroup analysis, a low PNI predicted a significantly shorter OS in patients with stage II-III disease (P = 0.019, P < 0.001), T3-T4 tumors (P < 0.001), or lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). Canton score, a combination of PNI, NLR, and platelet, was a better indicator for OS than PNI, with the largest area under the curve for 12-, 36-, 60-mo OS and overall OS (P = 0.022, P = 0.030, P < 0.001, and P = 0.024, respectively). The maximum sensitivity, specificity, and agreement rate of Canton score for predicting prognosis were 84.6%, 34.9%, and 70.1%, respectively. CONCLUSION: PNI is an independent prognostic factor for OS in gastric cancer. Canton score can be a novel preoperative prognostic index in gastric cancer. PMID:26019461

  19. Comprehensive Evaluation of Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in the Acute Healing Phase Using Tissue Clearing and Optical Microscopy in a Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Cameron P.; Senthil-Kumar, Prabhu; Zhao, Jie; Randolph, Mark A.; Winograd, Jonathan M.; Evans, Conor L.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI), a common injury in both the civilian and military arenas, is usually associated with high healthcare costs and with patients enduring slow recovery times, diminished quality of life, and potential long-term disability. Patients with PNI typically undergo complex interventions but the factors that govern optimal response are not fully characterized. A fundamental understanding of the cellular and tissue-level events in the immediate postoperative period is essential for improving treatment and optimizing repair. Here, we demonstrate a comprehensive imaging approach to evaluate peripheral nerve axonal regeneration in a rodent PNI model using a tissue clearing method to improve depth penetration while preserving neural architecture. Sciatic nerve transaction and end-to-end repair were performed in both wild type and thy-1 GFP rats. The nerves were harvested at time points after repair before undergoing whole mount immunofluorescence staining and tissue clearing. By increasing the optic depth penetration, tissue clearing allowed the visualization and evaluation of Wallerian degeneration and nerve regrowth throughout entire sciatic nerves with subcellular resolution. The tissue clearing protocol did not affect immunofluorescence labeling and no observable decrease in the fluorescence signal was observed. Large-area, high-resolution tissue volumes could be quantified to provide structural and connectivity information not available from current gold-standard approaches for evaluating axonal regeneration following PNI. The results are suggestive of observed behavioral recovery in vivo after neurorrhaphy, providing a method of evaluating axonal regeneration following repair that can serve as an adjunct to current standard outcomes measurements. This study demonstrates that tissue clearing following whole mount immunofluorescence staining enables the complete visualization and quantitative evaluation of axons throughout nerves in a PNI model

  20. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) microgels at the oil-water interface: interfacial properties as a function of temperature.

    PubMed

    Monteux, Cécile; Marlière, Claire; Paris, Pauline; Pantoustier, Nadège; Sanson, Nicolas; Perrin, Patrick

    2010-09-07

    Highly monodisperse poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), PNiPAM, microgels were prepared by the conventional radical polymerization of NiPAM in the presence of dimethylamino ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) monomers at various concentrations. The effect of DMAEMA on the polymerization of PNiPAM microgels was examined at constant initiator (V50) and cross-linker (MBA) concentrations. The presence of DMAEMA in the synthesis batch allows for the preparation of PNiPAM microgels with controlled size and a narrow size distribution. The oil(dodecane)/water interfacial properties of the model PNiPAM microgels were then investigated. The pendant drop technique was used to measure the interfacial tensions as a function of temperature. Over the whole range of temperature (20-45 degrees C), the interfacial tension remains low (on the order of 17 mN/m) and goes through a minimum (12 mN/m) at a temperature of about 34 degrees C, which well matches the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) of PNiPAM microgels. Below the VPTT, the decrease in the interfacial tension with temperature is likely to be due to the adsorption of dense layers because of the decrease of the excluded volume interactions. Above the VPTT, we suggest that the increase in the interfacial tension with temperature comes from the adsorption of loosely packed PNiPAM microgels. We also studied the effect of temperature on the stability of emulsions. Dodecane in water emulsions, which form at ambient temperature, are destabilized as the temperature exceeds the VPTT. In light of the interfacial tension results, we suggest that emulsion destabilization arises from the adsorption of aggregates above the VPTT and not from an important desorption of microgels. Aggregate adsorption would bring a sufficiently high number of dodecane molecules into contact with water to induce coalescence without changing the interfacial tension very much.

  1. Prognostic value of tumour deposit and perineural invasion status in colorectal cancer patients: a SEER-based population study.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Erin; Llanos, Adana A M; Yi, Xianghua; Duan, Sheng-Zhong; Zhang, Lanjing

    2016-08-01

    The definition of tumour deposit (TD) in colorectal cancer (CRC) was changed recently in the American Joint Commission on Cancer (AJCC) Staging Manual, 7th edition. We aimed to examine the prognostic values of the newly defined TD and perineural invasion (PNI) in this population study. We identified the incidental CRC cases with known TD or PNI status in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) programme diagnosed in 2010 and 2011. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate overall survivals (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). We found that 6.71% (2774 of 41 323) of the CRC cases were positive for TD and 9.61% (3970 of 41 215) positive for PNI. In multivariable models, TD- and PNI-positive statuses correlated independently with worse 3-year OS [hazard ratio (HR): 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.58-1.80 and HR: 1.24, 95%: CI: 1.16-1.32, respectively] and 3-year CSS (HR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.65-1.94 and HR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18-1.38, respectively, P < 0.001 for all). Other independent prognostic factors included age, T category, N category, tumour location and tumour grade, but not gender. TD and PNI correlated with worse OS in all N categories (P < 0.001 for all). TD-associated HR for 3-year OS increases as the N category becomes lower (1.73 in N2, 2.32 in N1 and 3.24 in N0), while rare (1.4%) TD-positive CRC in N0 category should have been assigned to N1c. Tumour deposit and PNI correlate independently with worse 3-year OS and CSS. TD appears prognostically more important in the CRC of lower N categories. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Prognostic Significance of Preoperative Prognostic Nutritional Index in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Patients Treated with Platinum-Based Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yi; Li, Shuangdi; Yan, Qin; Li, Bilan; Feng, Youji

    2016-01-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the role of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) used as a prognostic marker for predicting response and survival outcomes in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) who are receiving platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients with a new diagnosis of EOC receiving postoperative platinum-based chemotherapy were identified. The PNI was calculated as 10 × serum albumin value (g/dl) + 0.005 × peripheral lymphocyte count (per mm3). Patients were divided into a platinum-resistant (P-R) group and a platinum-sensitive (P-S) group according to the chemotherapeutic response. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to calculate the optimal cut-off value for PNI to predict chemotherapeutic response and prognosis. A total of 344 patients were enrolled. Area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of PIN < 45 to predict platinum resistance were: 0.688, 62.50%, and 83.47%, respectively. Patients with a lower PNI (< 45) had shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). PNI showed a significant association with PFS (hazard ratio (HR) 1.890, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.396-2.560; p < 0.001) and OS (HR 1.747, 95% CI 1.293-2.360; p < 0.001). Our results suggest that PNI assessment could assist the identification of patients with a poor prognosis and has potential clinical value in predicting platinum resistance in patients with EOC. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  3. Perioperative anaesthetic management of penetrating neck injury associated with Rh blood type in a young adult.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Zhou, Yeting; Shi, Jiaohui; Wang, Zhichun

    2013-02-20

    We describe here a young adult patient with penetrating neck injuries (PNI) with an Rh negative blood type and discuss the perioperative anaesthetic management of single-stage surgical exploration under general anaesthesia and extracorporeal circulation in this patient. The patient had zone II PNI and he was in a haemodynamically progressive unstable state, and the knife penetrated the left internal jugular vein, superior thyroid artery and recurrent laryngeal nerve; the trachea and the oesophagus were swelling at a rapid rate. Eight weeks after operation, the patient was discharged from the hospital without any complications.

  4. Dermal, Eye, and Oral Toxicological Evaluations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    13 14 POI 0.08 0.02 0.0 0 .08a 0 .06a PEI NI PNI PNI Mod. Mini ADT G: 2 g/kg G: 2 g/kg G: 2 g/kg SDOT G: 5 g/kg G: 5 g/kg G: 5 g/kg L: 5g /kg L: 5g /kg...chemical. 51 .. . . . .. .. . . Dose (mg/kg) Animal Numbers Organ Pathology 50 Males (continued) Intestines: Duodenum: Diffuse congestion ; (11212...multifocal hemorrhages. , Colon: Mucus cast. Cecum: Diffuse congestion . ’-" Multifocal tubular vacuolation, and focus of mineralization (11218). Marked

  5. Sex and gender in psychoneuroimmunology research: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Darnall, Beth D; Suarez, Edward C

    2009-07-01

    To date, research suggests that sex and gender impact pathways central to the foci of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI). This review provides a historical perspective on the evolution of sex and gender in psychoneuroimmunology research. Gender and sexually dimorphic pathways may have synergistic effects on health differences in men and women. We provide an overview of the literature of sex and gender differences in brain structure and function, sex steroids, gender role identification, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function, genetics, immunology and cytokine response. Specific examples shed light on the importance of attending to sex and gender methodology in PNI research and recommendations are provided.

  6. Autogenic training.

    PubMed

    Benor, R

    1996-10-01

    Westernized medicine has conditioned us to rely on the outer physician; Autogenic Training (AT) enables us to find and develop an intimate relationship with our own inner physician and healer. This article outlines the historical and theoretical background to AT. The training process is described and reference is made to research literature which illustrates those individuals, illnesses, and conditions which respond favourably to AT. Drawing on the current mind-body science of Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), AT is seen as a significant member of the growing body of PNI techniques, research, and complementary therapies in the UK.

  7. Perioperative anaesthetic management of penetrating neck injury associated with Rh blood type in a young adult

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Zhou, Yeting; Shi, Jiaohui; Wang, Zhichun

    2013-01-01

    We describe here a young adult patient with penetrating neck injuries (PNI) with an Rh negative blood type and discuss the perioperative anaesthetic management of single-stage surgical exploration under general anaesthesia and extracorporeal circulation in this patient. The patient had zone II PNI and he was in a haemodynamically progressive unstable state, and the knife penetrated the left internal jugular vein, superior thyroid artery and recurrent laryngeal nerve; the trachea and the oesophagus were swelling at a rapid rate. Eight weeks after operation, the patient was discharged from the hospital without any complications. PMID:23429024

  8. Sex and gender in psychoneuroimmunology research: Past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Darnall, Beth D.; Suarez, Edward C.

    2009-01-01

    To date, research suggests that sex and gender impact pathways central to the foci of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI). This review provides a historical perspective on the evolution of sex and gender in psychoneuroimmunology research. Gender and sexually dimorphic pathways may have synergistic effects on health differences in men and women. We provide an overview of the literature of sex and gender differences in brain structure and function, sex steroids, gender role identification, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function, genetics, immunology and cytokine response. Specific examples shed light on the importance of attending to sex and gender methodology in PNI research and recommendations are provided. PMID:19272440

  9. Evidence for the Criterion Validity and Clinical Utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (N = 299 and 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic…

  10. Impact of the Preoperative Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) Score on the Survival after Curative Surgery for Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Iseki, Yasuhito; Shibutani, Masatsune; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Nagahara, Hisashi; Ohtani, Hiroshi; Sugano, Kenji; Ikeya, Tetsuro; Muguruma, Kazuya; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Toyokawa, Takahiro; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently, the preoperative immune-nutritional status has been reported to correlate with the survival rate in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). However, there have been no reports on the relationship between the controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score and the clinical outcome after curative surgery for CRC. We herein evaluated the prognostic significance of the CONUT score in patients with CRC, and then compared the accuracy of the CONUT score and the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) as a predictor of survival. Methods We retrospectively reviewed a database of 204 patients who underwent curative surgery for Stage II/III CRC. Patients were divided into two groups according to the CONUT score and the PNI. Results The five-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) rate was significantly higher at 92.7% in the low CONUT group, compared to a rate of 81.0% in the high CONUT group (p=0.0016). The five-year CSS was 71.2% in the low PNI group and 92.3% in the high PNI group, which showed a significant difference (p=0.0155). A multivariate analysis showed that lymph node metastasis and the CONUT score were independent risk factors for CSS. Conclusion This study suggested that the CONUT score is a strong independent predictor of the survival among CRC patients. PMID:26147805

  11. Adjuvant poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) generates more efficient monoclonal antibodies against truncated recombinant histidine-rich protein2 of Plasmodium falciparum for malaria diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Verma, Reena; Ravichandran, Ramakrishnan; Jayaprakash, Naatamai S; Kumar, Ashok; Vijayalakshmi, Mookambeswaran A; Venkataraman, Krishnan

    2015-05-01

    Adjuvants play an important role in eliciting immune responses and subsequent generation of antibodies with high specificity. Recently, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAAm), also known as a "smart" polymer, has been proposed as a potential adjuvant for making antibodies and vaccines. This material exhibits efficient delivery, protection against degradation, and preservation of antigen epitopes. In this work, we used both CFA and smart polymer to develop a highly specific murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) against recombinant truncated histidine rich protein2 (HRP2) of Plasmodium falciparum. Our results indicate that the mAbs developed using these adjuvants were able to recognize recombinant HRP2 and native PfHRP2 protein from spent medium. The mAbs generated against recombinant truncated HRP2 showed better sensitivity to the antigen and importantly mAbs generated using PNiPAAm adjuvant were in the range of 10(8)-10(9) M(-1). The mAbs generated using PNiPAAm are very efficient and sensitive in detecting HRP2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of such comparison having been made between these two adjuvants and we propose that the smart polymer has huge potential as an alternative to CFA. Additionally, we discuss the utility of the mAbs generated through PNiPAAm for specific diagnosis of malaria caused by P. falciparum.

  12. Plexin-B1 and Semaphorin 4D Cooperate to Promote Perineural Invasion in a RhoA/ROK-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Binmadi, Nada O.; Yang, Ying-Hua; Zhou, Hua; Proia, Patrizia; Lin, Yi-Ling; Batista De Paula, Alfredo M.; Sena Guimarães, André L.; Poswar, Fabiano O.; Sundararajan, Devaki; Basile, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Perineural invasion (PNI) is a tropism of tumor cells for nerve bundles located in the surrounding stroma. It is a pathological feature observed in certain tumors, referred to as neurotropic malignancies, that severely limits the ability to establish local control of disease and results in pain, recurrent growth, and distant metastases. Despite the importance of PNI as a prognostic indicator, its biological mechanisms are poorly understood. The semaphorins and their receptors, the plexins, compose a family of proteins originally shown to be important in nerve cell adhesion, axon migration, and proper central nervous system development. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that these factors are expressed in tissues outside of the nervous system and represent a widespread signal transduction system that is involved in the regulation of motility and adhesion in different cell types. We believe that the plexins and semaphorins, which are strongly expressed in both axons and many carcinomas, play a role in PNI. In this study, we show that plexin-B1 is overexpressed in tissues and cell lines from neurotropic malignancies and is attracted to nerves that express its ligand, semaphorin 4D, in a Rho/Rho kinase-dependent manner. We also demonstrate that nerves are attracted to tumors through this same system of proteins, suggesting that both plexin-B1 and semaphorin 4D are important in the promotion of PNI. PMID:22252234

  13. Special needs require special attention: a pilot project implementing the paediatric pain profile for children with profound neurological impairment in an in-patient setting following surgery.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Katie A; Franck, Linda S

    2011-09-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the implementation of pain assessment tools for children with profound neurological impairment (PNI) in in-patient settings. This article describes a pilot project to evaluate the Paediatric Pain Profile (PPP) for children with PNI undergoing surgery. Five families of children 5 to 16 years of age with a primary diagnosis of cerebral palsy and admitted for surgical procedures were interviewed. Nineteen nurses completed questionnaires and children's pain management documentation was audited. The project identified issues in three areas of pain management: implementation process, individualised pain management and partnership. The PPP required pre-admission assessment and parental involvement, and was considered time-consuming by nurses. Individualised pain assessment and intervention was difficult to achieve, as was shared assessment and documentation among parents and nurses. Despite initial resistance to change, with greater use there was growing appreciation of the value of components of the PPP. Further exploration of the PPP tool in practice is required before its use can be widely recommended for children with PNI in in-patient settings. Future studies are required to determine which of the available pain assessment tools has the greatest accuracy and utility for assessment of post-operative pain in children with PNI.

  14. Sesame oil improves functional recovery by attenuating nerve oxidative stress in a mouse model of acute peripheral nerve injury: role of Nrf-2.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Che-Chia; Huang, Hui-Cheng; Wu, Po-Ting; Tai, Ta-Wei; Jou, I-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Peripheral nervous injury (PNI) is a common form of trauma in modern society, especially in sport players. Despite the advance of therapy for PNI, the recovery of function can never reach the preinjury level after treatments. Recently, inhibiting neural oxidative stress shows a beneficial effect in improving functional recovery after PNI. In addition, sesame oil has been reported to possess the excellent antioxidative properties. However, whether sesame oil can improve the functional recovery after PNI by its antioxidative effect has never been investigated. Thirty mice were randomly divided into five groups of six: group I mice received sham operation; group II mice received sciatic nerve crush; and groups III-V mice daily ingested 0.5, 1 and 2 ml/kg of sesame oil for 6 days, respectively, after sciatic nerve crush. Oxidative stress, GAP43 and nuclear Nrf2 levels as well as spinal somatosensory evoked potentials were assessed on day 6, while paw withdrawal latency and sciatic function index were assessed on days 0, 3, and 6. Sesame oil significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and increased nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and GAP43 expression in sciatic nerve. Furthermore, sesame oil improved electrophysiological and functional assessments in mice with sciatic nerve crush. In conclusion, sesame oil may improve nerve functional recovery by attenuating nerve oxidative stress in mouse acute peripheral nerve injury. Further, application of natural product sesame oil may be an alternative approach for improving nerve functional recovery in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Report on TNT 05-3 Atmospheric Effects Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-14

    magnetic declination, speed and course over ground) from a Garmin GPS 16- HVPS receiver. Table 1 lists mounting 2 heights for these sensors...Location/Speed 2.4 m GPS Receiver Garmin GPS16- HVPS Ship Heading 4.0 m Compass PNI *Measures temperature at surface. 3 Figure 1

  16. A Model for Perineural Invasion in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huyett, Phillip; Gilbert, Mark; Liu, Lijun; Ferris, Robert L; Kim, Seungwon

    2017-01-05

    Perineural invasion (PNI) is found in approximately 40% of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Despite multimodal treatment with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, locoregional recurrences and distant metastases occur at higher rates, and overall survival is decreased by 40% compared to HNSCC without PNI. In vitro studies of the pathways involved in HNSCC PNI have historically been challenging given the lack of a consistent, reproducible assay. Described here is the adaptation of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) assay for the examination of PNI in HNSCC. In this model, DRG are harvested from the spinal column of a sacrificed nude mouse and placed within a semisolid matrix. Over the subsequent days, neurites are generated and grow in a radial pattern from the cell bodies of the DRG. HNSCC cell lines are then placed peripherally around the matrix and invade preferentially along the neurites toward the DRG. This method allows for rapid evaluation of multiple treatment conditions, with very high assay success rates and reproducibility.

  17. Evidence for the criterion validity and clinical utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (Ns = 299, 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability with established indices of normal personality traits, psychopathology and clinical concerns, and pathological personality traits. Overall, the pattern of correlations supported the convergent and discriminate validity of grandiose and vulnerable conceptualizations of pathological narcissism as measured by the PNI. Clinical utility was assessed by evaluating the extent to which clinicians without specific training in pathological narcissism as well as clinicians with expertise in pathological narcissism could accurately predict the correlates of PNI grandiosity and vulnerability with normal and pathological personality traits and psychopathology. The rcontrast-cv coefficient (Westen & Rosenthal, 2003) provided a global index of accuracy in clinicians’ predictions that was more fully elaborated by examining systematic discrepancies across groups. Overall, novice and expert clinicians were generally able to predict criterion correlations, with some exceptions (e.g., counter to predictions, pathological narcissism was negatively associated with treatment resistance). These results provide further evidence regarding the validity and utility of the narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability constructs as measured by the PNI. PMID:22315481

  18. Pleiotrophin and N-syndecan promote perineural invasion and tumor progression in an orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Zhang, Lu-Lin; Huang, Xu-Mei; Li, Wen-Yao; Gao, She-Gan

    2017-06-07

    To detect the expression of pleiotrophin (PTN) and N-syndecan in pancreatic cancer and analyze their association with tumor progression and perineural invasion (PNI). An orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer was created by injecting tumor cells subcapsularly in a root region of the pancreas beneath the spleen. Pancreatic cancer tissues were taken from 36 mice that survived for more than 90 d. PTN and N-syndecan proteins were detected by immunohistochemistry and analyzed for their correlation with pathological features, PNI, and prognosis. The expression rates of PTN and N-syndecan proteins were 66.7% and 61.1%, respectively, in cancer tissue. PTN and N-syndecan expression was associated with PNI (P = 0.019 and P = 0.032, respectively). High PTN expression was closely associated with large bloody ascites (P = 0.009), liver metastasis (P = 0.035), and decreased survival time (P = 0.022). N-syndecan expression was significantly associated with tumor size (P = 0.025), but not with survival time (P = 0.539). High PTN and N-syndecan expression was closely associated with metastasis and poor prognosis, suggesting that they may promote tumor progression and PNI in the orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer.

  19. Skin carcinoma of the head and neck with perineural invasion.

    PubMed

    Balamucki, Christopher J; Mancuso, Anthony A; Amdur, Robert J; Kirwan, Jessica M; Morris, Christopher G; Flowers, Franklin P; Stoer, Charles B; Cognetta, Armand B; Mendenhall, William M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to update the experience treating cutaneous squamous cell and basal cell carcinomas of the head and neck with incidental or clinical perineural invasion (PNI) with radiotherapy (RT). From 1965 to 2007, 216 patients received RT alone or with surgery and/or chemotherapy. The 5-year overall, cause-specific, and disease-free survivals for incidental and clinical PNIs were 55% vs 54%, 73% vs 64%, and 67% vs 51%. The 5-year local control, local-regional control, and freedom from distant metastases for incidental and clinical PNIs were 80% vs 54%, 70% vs 51%, and 90% vs 94%. On univariate and multivariate (P = .0038 and .0047) analyses, clinical PNI was a poor prognostic factor for local control. The rates of grade 3 or higher complication in the incidental and clinical PNI groups were 16% and 36%, respectively. Radiotherapy plays a critical role in the treatment of this disease. Clinical PNI should be adequately irradiated to include the involved nerves to the skull base. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Erratum: Psychoneuroimmunology: application to ocular diseases.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Lori M

    2009-09-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is a relatively new discipline within the field of neuroscience which researches the relationship between emotional states, the central and peripheral nervous systems, and the endocrine and immune systems. Negative psychological states, such as stress, anxiety, and depression, may alter immune system regulation and modulation of peripheral cytokines. A plethora of PNI studies have shown that increased psychological stress and depression are associated with an alteration of immune functioning and worsened health outcomes for many conditions. To date, application of PNI methodology has not been reported for ocular diseases. This article provides an historical perspective on the origins of the rift between the emotional and spiritual from physical aspects of disease. A review of how stress is mediated through sympathetic adrenomedullary and hypothalamic pituitary axis activation with shifts in immunity is provided. The literature which supports spirituality in healing is presented. Finally, ocular diseases which would be most amenable to a PNI approach are discussed.[This corrects the article on p. in vol. .].

  1. A simulation study of hardwood rootstock populations in young loblolly pine plantations

    Treesearch

    David R. Weise; Glenn R. Glover

    1988-01-01

    A computer program to simulate spatial distribution of hardwood rootstock populations is presented. Nineteen 3 to 6 yearold loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations in Alabama and Georgia were measured to provide information for the simulator. Spatial pattern, expressed as Pielou's nonrandomness index (PNI), ranged from 0.47 to 2.45. Scatterplots illustrated no...

  2. Significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio and prognostic nutrition index as preoperative predictors of early mortality after liver resection for huge (≥10 cm) hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Goh, Brian K P; Kam, Juinn Huar; Lee, Ser-Yee; Chan, Chung-Yip; Allen, John C; Jeyaraj, Premaraj; Cheow, Peng-Chung; Chow, Pierce K H; Ooi, London L P J; Chung, Alexander Y F

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to determine preoperative predictors of early (<1 year) mortality from disease recurrence after liver resection (LR) for huge (≥10 cm) HCC, with special emphasis on the importance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and prognostic nutrition index (PNI). Between 2000 to 2013, 166 patients underwent LR for huge HCC. Optimal cut-offs for alpha fetoprotein (AFP), NLR, PLR, and PNI were determined by plotting the receiver operator curves (ROC) in predicting early mortality and utilizing the Youden index. The 30-day/in-hospital postoperative mortality rate was 4.2%. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and the 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 43% and 24%, respectively. Early mortality from disease recurrence occurred in 35 of 159 (22%) patients. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that tumor rupture and high AFP (>1,085 ng/ml) were independent preoperative predictors of early mortality after LR for HCC, and both a low PNI (<41) and high AFP were independent predictors of early mortality for non-ruptured HCC. In 51 patients who had none of these three factors, only four (7.8%) patients experienced early mortality from disease recurrence. Spontaneous rupture, high AFP, and low PNI were predictors of early mortality from disease recurrence after LR for huge HCC. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;113:621-627. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. [Value of the palliative prognostic index, controlling nutritional status, and prognostic nutritional index for objective evaluation during transition from chemotherapy to palliative care in cases of advanced or recurrent gastrointestinal cancer].

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Tsuyoshi; Annen, Kazuya; Kawamukai, Yuji; Onuma, Noritomo; Kawashima, Mayu

    2014-07-01

    We investigated whether objective evaluation by using the palliative prognostic index(PPI), controlling nutritional status(COUNT), and prognostic nutritional index(PNI)can provide prognostic information during the transition from chemotherapy to palliative care in patients with advanced or recurrent gastrointestinal cancer. The subjects were 28 patients with gastrointestinal cancer who died of their disease between January 2009 and June 2012. We compared the PPI, COUNT, and PNI scores between patients who died within 90 days of completing chemotherapy(Group A, n=14)and patients who survived for 90 or more days(Group B, n=14). The PPI score for Group A(4.0)was significantly higher than that for Group B(0.8)(p<0.001). The COUNT score was also significantly higher for Group A(6.3)than for Group B (3.9)(p=0.033). A significant difference in survival was evident when the cutoff value for PNI was set at 40 in the critical region(68/118, p=0.04). Our study suggests that the PPI, COUNT, and PNI may be useful for objective evaluation during the transition from chemotherapy to palliative care.

  4. Virally mediated cervical cancer in the iatrogenically immunocompromised: applications for psychoneuroimmunology.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Sally E; Lehman, Brandy; Antoni, Michael H; Pereira, Deidre B

    2007-08-01

    Oncogenic or high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of cancers, including cervical cancer. HPV infected individuals who are immunocompromised secondary to acquired (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) or iatrogenic (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE] patients and organ and hematopoeitic stem cell transplant recipients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy) immune deficiency are particularly at risk for HPV-initiated cervical neoplasia and cancer. Psychoneuroimmunologic (PNI) research has demonstrated that psychosocial factors such as stress, pessimism, and sleep quality may play a role in the promotion of HPV-mediated cervical neoplasia in HIV-positive women. However, no research to our knowledge has examined PNI mechanisms of HPV-mediated cervical neoplasia and cancer in women who are undergoing iatrogenic immunosuppressive therapy for the treatment of autoimmune disease or the prevention of graft-rejection. This article reviews the PNI mechanisms that may underlie the promotion of HPV-mediated cervical neoplasia and applies this model to HPV-infected women who are iatrogenically immunosuppressed, an understudied population at-risk for cervical cancer. Female transplant recipients, one such group, may provide a unique paradigm in which to explore further PNI mechanisms of HPV-mediated cervical neoplasia.

  5. Translational bioinformatics in psychoneuroimmunology: methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Translational bioinformatics plays an indispensable role in transforming psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) into personalized medicine. It provides a powerful method to bridge the gaps between various knowledge domains in PNI and systems biology. Translational bioinformatics methods at various systems levels can facilitate pattern recognition, and expedite and validate the discovery of systemic biomarkers to allow their incorporation into clinical trials and outcome assessments. Analysis of the correlations between genotypes and phenotypes including the behavioral-based profiles will contribute to the transition from the disease-based medicine to human-centered medicine. Translational bioinformatics would also enable the establishment of predictive models for patient responses to diseases, vaccines, and drugs. In PNI research, the development of systems biology models such as those of the neurons would play a critical role. Methods based on data integration, data mining, and knowledge representation are essential elements in building health information systems such as electronic health records and computerized decision support systems. Data integration of genes, pathophysiology, and behaviors are needed for a broad range of PNI studies. Knowledge discovery approaches such as network-based systems biology methods are valuable in studying the cross-talks among pathways in various brain regions involved in disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Augmentation of Breast Cancer Growth and Metastasis by Chronic Stressor Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    months) I attended and presented a poster at the Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) Research Society conference in June 2011 where there was a National Cancer...Breast Cancer Model. Szpunar MJ, Madden KS, Liverpool KM, Brown EB. Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society Annual Meeting. June 8-11, 2011. Chicago, IL

  7. Transcription factor IRF5 drives P2X4R+-reactive microglia gating neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Takahiro; Iwamoto, Shosuke; Yoshinaga, Ryohei; Tozaki-Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Nishiyama, Akira; Mak, Tak W.; Tamura, Tomohiko; Tsuda, Makoto; Inoue, Kazuhide

    2014-01-01

    In response to neuronal injury or disease, microglia adopt distinct reactive phenotypes via the expression of different sets of genes. Spinal microglia expressing the purinergic P2X4 receptor (P2X4R) after peripheral nerve injury (PNI) are implicated in neuropathic pain. Here we show that interferon regulatory factor-5 (IRF5), which is induced in spinal microglia after PNI, is responsible for direct transcriptional control of P2X4R. Upon stimulation of microglia by fibronectin, IRF5 induced de novo expression of P2X4R by directly binding to the promoter region of the P2rx4 gene. Mice lacking Irf5 did not upregulate spinal P2X4R after PNI, and also exhibited substantial resistance to pain hypersensitivity. Furthermore, we found that expression of IRF5 in microglia is regulated by IRF8. Thus, an IRF8-IRF5 transcriptional axis may contribute to shifting spinal microglia toward a P2X4R-expressing reactive state after PNI. These results may provide a new target for treating neuropathic pain. PMID:24818655

  8. Role of perineural invasion as a prognostic factor in laryngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    MESOLELLA, MASSIMO; IORIO, BRIGIDA; MISSO, GABRIELLA; LUCE, AMALIA; CIMMINO, MARIANO; IENGO, MAURIZIO; LANDI, MARIO; SPERLONGANO, PASQUALE; CARAGLIA, MICHELE; RICCIARDIELLO, FILIPPO

    2016-01-01

    The diffusion of laryngeal cancer cells in the perineural space is a parameter associated with a negative prognosis, high loco-regional recurrence and low disease-free survival rates. The spread of tumor cells on the perineural sheath highlights the histopathological and clinically aggressive behavior of this type of tumor, which may extend proximally or distally in the nerve for >10 cm. Therefore, the surgical resection margin is generally insufficient to treat patients with laryngeal cancer presenting with perineural invasion (PNI) with surgery alone. In PNI, the minor laryngeal nerves are frequently involved, rather than the superior and inferior laryngeal nerves. The aim of the present study was: i) To evaluate the prognostic importance of PNI; ii) to correlate the rate of infiltration with factors associated with the tumor, including histotype, site and tumor-node-metastasis stage, and with the type of surgery (total or partial laryngectomy); and iii) to evaluate the rate of disease-free survival according to the outcome of combined surgery and radiotherapy (RT) treatment, by means of retrospective analysis. The results of the present study highlighted the importance of performing a closer clinical and instrumental follow-up in patients with laryngeal cancer whose histopathological examination is positive for PNI. In such cases, it is important to complement the surgical therapeutic treatment with adjuvant RT. PMID:27073523

  9. Evidence for the Criterion Validity and Clinical Utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (N = 299 and 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic…

  10. Rejoinder: A Construct Validity Approach to the Assessment of Narcissism.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R; Campbell, W Keith

    2016-02-01

    In this rejoinder, we comment on Wright's response to our reanalysis and reinterpretation of the data presented by Wright and colleagues. Two primary differences characterize these perspectives. First, the conceptualization of grandiose narcissism differs such that emotional and ego vulnerability, dysregulation, and pervasive impairments are more characteristic of Wright's conception, likely due to the degree to which it is tied to clinical observations. Our conceptualization is closer to psychopathy and describes an extraverted, dominant, and antagonistic individual who is relatively less likely to be found in clinical settings. Second, our approach to construct validation differs in that we take an empirical perspective that focuses on the degree to which inventories yield scores consistent with a priori predictions. The grandiose dimension of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI-G) yields data that fail to align with expert ratings of narcissistic personality disorder and grandiose narcissism. We suggest that caution should be taken in treating the PNI-G as a gold standard measure of pathological narcissism, that revision of the PNI-G is required before it can serve as a stand-alone measure of grandiose narcissism, and that the PNI-G should be buttressed by other scales when being used as a measure of grandiose narcissism.

  11. PAP/REG3A favors perineural invasion in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and serves as a prognostic marker.

    PubMed

    Nigri, Jérémy; Gironella, Meritxell; Bressy, Christian; Vila-Navarro, Elena; Roques, Julie; Lac, Sophie; Bontemps, Caroline; Kozaczyk, Coraline; Cros, Jérôme; Pietrasz, Daniel; Maréchal, Raphaël; Van Laethem, Jean-Luc; Iovanna, Juan; Bachet, Jean-Baptiste; Folch-Puy, Emma; Tomasini, Richard

    2017-06-27

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a fatal and insidious malignant disease for which clinicians' tools are restricted by the current limits in knowledge of how tumor and stromal cells act during the disease. Among PDA hallmarks, neural remodeling (NR) and perineural invasion (PNI) drastically influence quality of life and patient survival. Indeed, NR and PNI are associated with neuropathic pain and metastasis, respectively, both of which impact clinicians' decisions and therapeutic options. The aim of this study was to determine the impact and clinical relevance of the peritumoral microenvironment, through pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP/REG3A) expression, on PNI in pancreatic cancer. First, we demonstrated that, in PDA, PAP/REG3A is produced by inflamed acinar cells from the peritumoral microenvironment and then enhances the migratory and invasive abilities of cancer cells. More specifically, using perineural ex vivo assays we revealed that PAP/REG3A favors PNI through activation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in cancer cells. Finally, we analyzed the level of PAP/REG3A in blood from healthy donors or patients with PDA from three independent cohorts. Patients with high levels of PAP/REG3A had overall shorter survival as well as poor surgical outcomes with reduced disease-free survival. Our study provides a rationale for using the PAP/REG3A level as a biomarker to improve pancreatic cancer prognosis. It also suggests that therapeutic targeting of PAP/REG3A activity in PDA could limit tumor cell aggressiveness and PNI.

  12. A Novel Automated Somatosensory Evoked Potential (SSEP) Monitoring Device for Detection of Intraoperative Peripheral Nerve Injury in Cardiac Surgery: A Clinical Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Chui, Jason; Murkin, John M; Turkstra, Timothy; McKenzie, Neil; Guo, Linrui; Quantz, Mackenzie

    2017-08-01

    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a common and potentially devastating complication in cardiac surgery. Somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) monitoring is one of the modalities for PNI; however, its application is limited by complicated logistics. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of using a novel, automated SSEP device (EPAD; SafeOp Surgical, Hunt Valley, MD) for detection of intraoperative PNI during cardiac surgery. Prospective, observational study. Single university hospital. Cardiac surgical patients. After Ethics Board approval and written consent, study participants were monitored using the EPAD automated SSEP device during cardiac surgery. All patients with prolonged and abnormal SSEP changes were evaluated postoperatively, and if they were symptomatic, they were referred for further nerve conduction and electromyographic assessment. Of the 43 patients who consented to study inclusion, 33 were monitored successfully. With increasing clinical experience the authors encountered minimal technical issues, and satisfactory signals were obtained in most patients. Abnormal SSEP signal changes, which were encountered in 5 (15.2%) patients, were interpreted as impending PNI; 3 patients experienced prolonged signal changes (>1 h), and 2 (6.1%) of these developed symptomatic peripheral neuropathy that was confirmed with nerve conduction studies. The EPAD automated SSEP device is a viable option for detecting PNI during cardiac surgery. A high incidence of intraoperative peripheral nerve compromise and a 6.1% incidence of postoperative peripheral neuropathy were observed. This study reports the clinical feasibility of using the EPAD automated SSEP device; additional studies are required to evaluate the diagnostic test accuracy and the outcome benefit of routine SSEP monitoring in cardiac surgical patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Schwann cells promote EMT and the Schwann-like differentiation of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma cells via the BDNF/TrkB axis.

    PubMed

    Shan, Chun; Wei, Jianhua; Hou, Rui; Wu, Baolei; Yang, Zihui; Wang, Lei; Lei, Delin; Yang, Xinjie

    2016-01-01

    Perineural invasion (PNI) is a striking biological behavior observed in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC). The present study was designed to establish a co-culture model of SACC cells with Schwann cells (SCs), and then study epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the Schwann-like differentiation of SACC cells to investigate the likely molecular mechanism of PNI. The co-culture models of SCs with tumor cells (SACC-83, SACC-LM and MEC-1) were established using a Transwell system. An elevated concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was detected by ELISA assay in the co-cultured medium of the SACC-83 group and SACC-LM group rather than the MEC-1 group. The EMT process and Schwann-like differentiation in SACC-83 cells were analyzed by RT-PCR, western blotting, immunofluorescence, photography, and migration and perineural invasion assays. The SACC-83 cells under the co-culture condition with SCs changed to a mesenchymal morphology and had higher migration and invasion capabilities compared with the solely cultured SACC-83 cells, accompanied by the downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of N-cadherin and vimentin. The co-cultured SACC-83 cells also developed Schwann-like differentiation with increased expression of SC markers, S100A4 and GFAP. However, inhibition of tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) by K252a markedly blocked these effects. Additionally, the expression and correlation of TrkB, E-cadherin and S100A4 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 187 primary SACC cases. The levels of TrkB and S100A4 expression were both positively associated with PNI in the SACC cases, while E-cadherin expression was negatively associated with PNI. Elevated expression of TrkB was significantly correlated with the downregulated expression of E-cadherin and the upregulated expression of S100A4 in the SACC cases. Our results suggest that SCs play a pivotal role in the PNI process by inducing the EMT process and the Schwann-like differentiation

  14. [Psychological stress, immune function and disease development. The psychoneuroimmunologic perspective].

    PubMed

    Schulz, K-H; Gold, S

    2006-08-01

    Interdisciplinary psychoneuroimmunological (PNI) research increasingly demonstrates clinically relevant interrelations between psychological stressors and the onset or progression of chronic diseases. Disturbances of the bi-directional interaction between the nervous system, the immune system and the endocrine system have been hypothesized to be implicated in several diseases. Here, we review evidence from psychoneuroimmunology within the theoretical framework of allostatic load to conceptualize some of these associations. Interdisciplinary PNI research investigating the importance of psychological stress for the higher incidence of infections, decreased responses to vaccinations and delayed wound healing is reviewed. Furthermore, the literature supporting similar associations with regard to progression of oncological diseases and autoimmune disorders is reviewed with a focus on breast cancer and multiple sclerosis. The accumulating evidence regarding the importance of neuroendocrine-immune interaction in these diseases may thus lead to novel insights into pathogenetic mechanisms and could contribute to the development of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  15. Psychoneuroimmunology and the pediatric surgeon.

    PubMed

    Tagge, Edward P; Natali, Elizabeth Lee; Lima, Evan; Leek, Dustin; Neece, Cameron L; Randall, Kiti Freier

    2013-08-01

    The mind-body connection is receiving increasing scrutiny in a large number of clinical settings, although research has lagged in the pediatric specialties. Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is a novel interdisciplinary scientific field that examines the relationship of the mind to the patient's neurologic, endocrine, and immune systems by examining critical parameters such as the effects of mental stress on wound healing and infection rates. Techniques that modify a patient's emotional and mental responses to illness and surgery have positive effects on their physiology resulting in improved recoveries and higher patient satisfaction rates. In the appropriate clinical settings, an awareness of PNI can enhance outcomes for pediatric surgical patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Balance and coordination training, but not endurance training, enhances synaptophysin and neurotrophin-3 immunoreactivity in the lumbar spinal cord after sciatic nerve crush.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Leandro Viçosa; Ilha, Jocemar; Schneider, Ana Paula Krauthein; Barbosa, Silvia; Faccioni-Heuser, Maria Cristina

    2016-04-01

    Numerous rehabilitation treatments have been shown to be useful for peripheral and central restoration after (PNI). After sciatic nerve crush, we investigated 4 weeks of endurance training (ET) and balance and coordination training (BCT) with sciatic function index, hind-paw stride length, and spinal cord dorsal horn synaptophysin and neurotrophin-3 immunoreactivity. Our results demonstrated no significant differences between the non-trained (NT), ET, and BCT groups in sciatic functional index, and in stride-length analysis, but the ET showed higher values compared with the NT group. Synaptophysin immunoreactivity was higher in the BCT group compared with the NT group, and neurotrophin-3 immunoreactivity in the BCT group was greater compared with the other groups. BCT can positively affect spinal cord plasticity after a (PNI), and these modifications are important in the rehabilitation process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [Conditioning mechanisms and psychoneuroimmunology].

    PubMed

    Stockhorst, Ursula; Klosterhalfen, Sibylle

    2005-01-01

    This chapter deals with the role of conditioning principles in psychoneuroimmunology (PNI). We will first describe the paradigms of classical and instrumental conditioning and classify immune parameters that are subject to conditioning (chapter 1). So far, PNI research mainly uses classical (or Pavlovian) conditioning. We will summarize some of the paradigmatic studies, mainly animal studies (chapter 2) and also describe studies that support the clinical relevance of classical conditioning, i. e., in the pharmacological treatment of autoimmune diseases, transplantation and tumor chemotherapy (chapter 3). A study of our group on anticipatory immunomodulation in pediatric cancer patients is reported. Mechanisms mediating conditioned immunomodulation are summarized (chapter 4). We also describe studies that analyze the impact of instrumental conditioning contingencies on immune functioning (chapter 5). Finally, research perspectives are summarized (chapter 6).

  18. Psychoneuroimmunology: then and now.

    PubMed

    Fleshner, Monika; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2004-06-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) emerged in the neurosciences in the late 1970s to early 1980s and has extended to influence the fields of psychology, psychiatry, endocrinology, physiology, and the biomedical research community. This review documents the journey of PNI from the early 1980s to the present. Today, we recognize that the highly complex immune system interacts with an equally complex nervous system in a bidirectional manner. Evolutionarily old signals continue to play a role in these communications, as do mechanisms for protection of the host. The disparity between physical and psychological stressors is only an illusion. Host defense mechanisms respond in adaptive and meaningful ways to both. The present review will describe a new way of thinking about evolutionarily old molecules, heat shock proteins, adding to a body of evidence suggesting that activation of the acute stress response is a double-edged sword that can both benefit and derail optimal immunity.

  19. Stress-associated immune dysregulation and its importance for human health: a personal history of psychoneuroimmunology.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Historically, clinicians have suspected that both major and minor stressful events can have health implications. Observations and case reports link severely stressful life events with a sudden onset or worsening of a variety of illnesses. The immune system was quickly implicated as a means to help explain how stressful life events could produce this relationship. The field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is a field of research that deals with the complex interactions between the central nervous system, endocrine and immune systems, and how behavior/stress can modify these interactions. In this review, I have selected some of our papers that represent our efforts to study the effects of stress on the immune response and also include selected papers that describe how our PNI program at The Ohio State University Medical Center has evolved; virtually all of this research has been performed in collaboration with Janice Kiecolt-Glaser and others in our research group.

  20. Hydromagnetic Waves and Instabilities in Kappa Distribution Plasma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    perpendicular effective particle temperatures, respec- tively. Two other parameters related to pM and pnl which naturally occur in the study of...role in determin- ing the excitation conditions of the field swelling and mirror instabilities [see Eqs. (60) and (65)]. Calculating pnl /pni from Eq...more convenient form of the perturbed distribution function /„ that may be used in- stead of Eq. (12) to obtain nn, pM, and pnl given by Eqs. (72

  1. Invasion characteristics of oral tongue cancer: frequency of reporting and effect on survival in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Michael; Liu, Lihua; Ward, Kevin; Zhang, Juanjuan; Almon, Lyn; Su, Gan; Berglund, Lenard; Chen, Amy; Sinha, Uttam K; Young, John L

    2009-09-01

    The 2000 College of American Pathologists (CAP) guidelines recommend that a characterization of carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract, including tongue cancer, should include depth of invasion (DI) and the presence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) or perineural invasion (PNI). This study included patients who were diagnosed with cancer of the oral tongue, who underwent tumor resection, and who were reported to either the Metropolitan Atlanta and Rural Georgia Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry or the Los Angeles SEER registry. The authors assessed the completeness of pathology reporting with respect to the documentation of PNI or LVI and DI. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine factors that influenced reporting while taking into consideration clustering of observations within the hospitals. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were conducted to examine the impact of tumor invasion characteristics on mortality while controlling for other prognostic factors. DI reporting increased from 13% between 1997 and 1999 to 23% between 2000 and 2004 after the CAP issued its recommendations; whereas mode of invasion (the presence of LVI and/or PNI) reporting for the same period increased from 13% to 38%. The observed increase in reporting was most pronounced in the first 2 years (2000 and 2001) and appeared to decline again afterward. Tumor invasion >3 mm in depth and the presence of PNI were among the strongest predictors of survival in multivariate analyses. The current results indicated the importance of reporting tumor invasion characteristics for patients diagnosed with cancer of the oral tongue. The findings also underscore the need for continuous monitoring of adherence to the CAP protocol.

  2. Gas Consumption of Scuba Divers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    Conshelf 12 regulator and hose. (Text Continued on Page 11) 9 -1- W _44 -.n c,4 Er. 0 CCA 10 -4 Phys iological hteasurcments (Figurc•s 2, 3 , 4). In...E.NT PnI UhI Report) Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited C:S: 3 • 9- ! 3 ,pN S-ATEvENT ýof Th iabltraclt rltered in Block 20, I...MATERIALS ................... .................... 2 Experiment Design .................. .................... 2 Diver Safety

  3. Transplantation of embryonic spinal cord neurons to the injured distal nerve promotes axonal regeneration after delayed nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenming; Fang, Xinyu; Zhang, Chaofan; Li, Wen; Wong, Wai Man; Xu, Yejun; Wu, Wutian; Lin, Jianhua

    2017-03-01

    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) usually results in poor functional recovery. Nerve repair is the common clinical treatment for PNI but is always obstructed by the chronic degeneration of the distal stump and muscle. Cell transplantation can alleviate the muscle atrophy after PNI, but the subsequent recovery of the locomotive function is seldom described. In this study, we combined cell transplantation and nerve repair to investigate whether the transplantation of embryonic spinal cord cells could benefit the delayed nerve repair. The experiment consisted of 3 stages: transection of the tibial nerve to induce 'pre-degeneration', a second surgery performed 2 weeks later for transplantation of E14 embryonic spinal cord cells or vehicle (culture medium) at the distal end of the injured nerve, and, 3 months later, the removal of the grafted cells and the cross-suturing of the residual distal end to the proximal end of a freshly cut ipsilateral common peroneal (CP) nerve. Cell survival and fate after the transplantation were investigated, and the functional recovery after the cross-suturing was compared between the groups. The grafted cells could survive and generate motor neurons, extending axons that were subsequently myelinated and forming synapses with the muscle. After the cross-suturing, the axonal regeneration from the proximal stump of the injured CP nerve and the functional recovery of the denervated gastrocnemius muscle were significantly promoted in the group receiving the cells. Our study presents a new perspective indicating that the transplantation of embryonic spinal cord neurons may be a valuable therapeutic strategy for PNI.

  4. Structural properties of thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-poly(ethyleneglycol) microgels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clara-Rahola, J.; Fernandez-Nieves, A.; Sierra-Martin, B.; South, A. B.; Lyon, L. A.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Fernandez Barbero, A.

    2012-06-01

    We present investigations of the structural properties of thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAM) microgels dispersed in an aqueous solvent. In this particular work poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG) units flanked with acrylate groups are employed as cross-linkers, providing an architecture designed to resist protein fouling. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), static light scattering (SLS), and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) are employed to study the microgels as a function of temperature over the range 10 °C ≤ T ≤ 40 °C. DLS and SLS measurements are simultaneously performed and, respectively, allow determination of the particle hydrodynamic radius, Rh, and radius of gyration, Rg, at each temperature. The thermal variation of these magnitudes reveals the microgel deswelling at the PNiPAM lower critical solution temperature (LCST). However, the hydrodynamic radius displays a second transition to larger radii at temperatures T ≤ 20 °C. This feature is atypical in standard PNiPAM microgels and suggests a structural reconfiguration within the polymer network at those temperatures. To better understand this behavior we perform neutron scattering measurements at different temperatures. In striking contrast to the scattering profile of soft sphere microgels, the SANS profiles for T ≤ LCST of our PNiPAM-PEG suspensions indicate that the particles exhibit structural properties characteristic of star polymer configurations. The star polymer radius of gyration and correlation length gradually decrease with increasing temperature despite maintenance of the star polymer configuration. At temperatures above the LCST, the scattered SANS intensity is typical of soft sphere systems.

  5. Characterization of Underwater Explosions by Spectral/Cepstral Analysis, Modeling and Inversion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    generated by the ex- panding and contracting gas sphere that rises to the surface. The amplitude of the pulses decays steadily as the energy in the...up to M= 5 reverberations in the water column after the first surface reflection. Generally , the value of the bottom reflection coefficient, rb...Lg phases are notably large throughout the band from 2 to 7 Hz and the first arrival Pn is emergent. PniLg ratios are generally less than 1, except at

  6. Predicting the Risk of Non–organ-confined Prostate Cancer When Perineural Invasion Is Found on Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Gorin, Michael A.; Chalfin, Heather J.; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Feng, Zhaoyong; Partin, Alan W.; Trock, Bruce J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To more precisely define the risk of non–organ-confined (non-OC) prostate cancer among men with perineural invasion (PNI) identified on prostate biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS The Johns Hopkins radical prostatectomy database was queried for men with PNI reported on prostate biopsy. Patients with and without non-OC disease were compared for differences in preoperative clinical and pathologic characteristics, including three biopsy-based measures of tumor volume (number of cores with cancer, percentage of cores with cancer, and maximum percent core involvement with cancer). After evaluating the different preoperative variables in univariate analyses, a multivariable logistic regression model was generated, and bootstrap estimates of the risk of non-OC disease were calculated. RESULTS In total, 556 patients with PNI were analyzed, 279 (50.2%) of whom were found to have non-OC prostate cancer. In univariate analyses, preoperative prostate-specific antigen, clinical T stage, biopsy Gleason sum, and the three biopsy-based measures of tumor volume were significantly associated with non-OC disease. Of the three measures of tumor volume, the best fit to the data and highest degree of model discrimination were obtained using maximum percent core involvement with cancer. Incorporating this variable, preoperative prostate-specific antigen, clinical T stage, and biopsy Gleason sum into a multivariable model, the estimated risk of non-OC disease was found to range from 13.8% to 94.4% (bootstrap corrected c-index = 0.735). CONCLUSION Men with PNI on prostate biopsy are at a wide range of risk for non-OC disease. Preoperative estimation of this risk is improved by considering readily available biopsy estimates of tumor volume. PMID:24655556

  7. A Systematic Review of Spiritually Based Interventions and Psychoneuroimmunological Outcomes in Breast Cancer Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Hulett, Jennifer M.; Armer, Jane M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This is a review of spiritually based interventions (eg, mindfulness-based stress reduction) that utilized psychoneuroimmunological (PNI) outcome measures in breast cancer survivors. Specifically, this review sought to examine the evidence regarding relationships between spiritually based interventions, psychosocial-spiritual outcomes, and biomarker outcomes in breast cancer survivors. Methods A systematic search of 9 online databases was conducted for articles of original research, peer-reviewed, randomized and nonrandomized control trials from 2005–2015. Data were extracted in order to answer selected questions regarding relationships between psychosocial-spiritual and physiological measures utilized in spiritually based interventions. Implications for future spiritually based interventions in breast cancer survivorship are discussed. Results Twenty-two articles were reviewed. Cortisol was the most common PNI biomarker outcome studied. Compared with control groups, intervention groups demonstrated positive mental health outcomes and improved or stable neuroendocrine-immune profiles, although limitations exist. Design methods have improved with regard to increased use of comparison groups compared with previous reviews. There are few spiritually based interventions that specifically measure religious or spiritual constructs. Similarly, there are few existing studies that utilize standardized religious or spiritual measures with PNI outcome measures. Findings suggest that a body of knowledge now exists in support of interventions with mindfulness-breathing-stretching components; furthermore, these interventions appear to offer potential improvement or stabilization of neuroendocrine-immune activity in breast cancer survivors compared to control groups. Conclusion From a PNI perspective, future spiritually based interventions should include standardized measures of religiousness and spirituality in order to understand relationships between and among

  8. Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.11g Receivers With Erasure Decoding to Mitigate the Effects of Pulse-Noise Interference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    alternative statistical model is the Nakagami - m distribution which is a flexible model for the fading channel since it includes the Rayleigh fading...with r=1/2 convolutional source coding and HDD for a Nakagami fading channel ( m =1) ( 0 15dBbE N...BPSK/QPSK in AWGN and PNI with r=3/4 convolutional source coding and HDD for a Nakagami fading channel ( m =1) ( 0 24dBbE N

  9. [The effect of forest exploitation on structure, diversity, and floristic composition of palmito-dominated Atlantic forests at Misiones, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Chediack, Sandra E

    2008-06-01

    The effect of forest exploitation--timber and palmito (Euterpe edulis, Palmae) extraction--on structure, diversity, and floristic composition of forests known as palmitals of the Atlantic Forest of Argentina was analyzed. These palmitals are located in Misiones (54 degrees 13' W and 25 degrees 41' S). Three 1 ha permanent plots were established: two in the "intangible" zone of the Iguazu National Park (PNI), and another in an exploited forest site bordering the PNI. Three 0.2 ha non-permanent plots were also measured. One was located in the PNI reserve zone where illegal palmito extraction occurs. The other two were in logged forest. All trees and palmitos with DBH >10 cm were identified and DBH and height were measured. For each of the six sites, richness and diversity of tree species, floristic composition, number of endemic species, and density of harvestable tree species were estimated. The harvest of E. edulis increases density of other tree species, diminishing palmito density. Forest explotation (logging and palmito harvest) is accompanied by an increase in diversity and density of heliophilic species, which have greater timber value in the region. However, this explotation also diminishes the density of palmito, of endemic species which normally grow in low densities, and of species found on the IUCN Red List. Results suggest that forest structure may be managed for timber and palmito production. The "intangible" zone of the PNI has the greatest conservation value in the Atlantic Forest, since a greater number of endemisms and endangered species are found here.

  10. Clinical outcomes and prognostic factors in gastric cancer patients aged ≥85 years undergoing endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Masau; Oda, Ichiro; Suzuki, Haruhisa; Abe, Seiichiro; Nonaka, Satoru; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Sekine, Shigeki; Saito, Yutaka

    2017-05-01

    Although the number of gastric cancer patients aged ≥85 years indicated for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has increased, little is known about the outcomes and prognostic factors. This study aimed to investigate the clinical outcomes and prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) of patients aged ≥85 years who underwent ESD for gastric cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 108 patients aged ≥85 years with 149 gastric cancers treated by ESD between 1999 and 2014 at our institution. The clinical outcomes and prognosis were evaluated. Furthermore, the relationships between patient and lesion characteristics with OS were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and a Cox proportional hazards model. All patients had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) of 0 to 1. En bloc, R0, and curative resections were achieved in 98.0%, 91.3%, and 72.7%, respectively, without severe adverse events requiring surgery. During a median follow-up period of 40.2 months (range, 1.8-108.7 months), 23 patients died, including 2 of gastric cancer. The 3-year (54.3% vs 95.9%) and 5-year (54.3% vs 76.3%) OS rates were significantly lower in patients with a low (<44.6) as opposed to a higher (≥44.6) prognostic nutritional index (PNI) (P < .001). The PNI was independently prognostic of OS (hazard ratio, 7.0; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-22.9; P = .001). ESD is feasible for gastric cancer patients aged ≥85 years with good PS. However, low PNI was found to be prognostic of reduced OS, indicating the need to evaluate the PNI in determining whether to perform ESD. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Thiophene Hydrodesulfurization over Nickel Phosphide Catalysts: Effect of the Precursor Composition and Support

    SciTech Connect

    Sawhill, Stephanie J.; Layman, Kathryn A.; Van Wyk, Daniel R.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Chong M.; Bussell, Mark E.

    2005-04-25

    Silica- and alumina-supported nickel phosphide (NixPy) catalysts have been prepared, characterized by bulk and surface sensitive techniques, and evaluated for the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of thiophene. Series of 30 wt% NixPy/SiO2 and 20 wt% NixPy/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared from oxidic precursors having a range of P/Ni molar ratios by temperature programmed reduction (TPR) in flowing H2. Oxidic precursors with molar ratios of P/Ni = 0.8 and 2.0 yielded catalysts containing phase-pure Ni2P on the silica and alumina supports, respectively. At lower P/Ni ratios, significant Ni12P5 impurities were present in the NixPy/SiO2 and NixPy/Al2O3 catalysts as indicated by X-ray diffraction. The HDS activities of the NixPy/SiO2 and NixPy/Al2O3 catalysts depended strongly on the P/Ni molar ratio of the oxidic precursors with optimal activities obtained for catalysts containing phase pure Ni2P and minimal excess P. After 48 h on-stream, a Ni2P/SiO2 catalyst was 20 and 3.3 times more active than sulfided Ni/SiO2 and Ni-Mo/SiO2 catalysts, respectively. A Ni2P/Al2O3 catalyst was 2.7 times more active than a sulfided Ni/Al2O3 catalyst but only about half as active as a Ni-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst.

  12. Factors Associated with Recurrence and Regional Adenopathy for Head and Neck Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Harris, Brianna N; Bayoumi, Ahmed; Rao, Shyam; Moore, Michael G; Farwell, D Gregory; Bewley, Arnaud F

    2017-03-01

    Objective Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. With advanced CSCC of the head and neck, there is conflicting evidence on what constitutes high-risk disease. Our objective is to evaluate which factors are predictive of recurrence and nodal spread and survival. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Tertiary academic institution. Subjects and Methods Patients with advanced head and neck CSCC treated with primary resection identified by chart review. Results A total of 212 patients met inclusion criteria, with a mean age of 70.4 years; 87.3% were men. Mean tumor diameter was 3.65 cm, with an average depth of invasion of 1.38 cm. The mean follow-up time was 35 months (median, 21.5), and over that period 67 recurrences were recorded, 49 of which were local. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimate of disease-free survival for the cohort was 53.2%. On Cox multivariate analysis, recurrent disease, perineural invasion (PNI), and poorly differentiated histology were independent predictors of recurrence. On multinomial logistic regression, patients with primary tumors on the ear, cheek, temple, or lip, as well as those with PNI, were more likely to present with nodal metastasis. Conclusion For advanced CSCCs of the head and neck, patients with recurrent disease, PNI, and poorly differentiated tumors are at highest risk for local recurrence. Patients with tumors or the ear, cheek, temple, or lip, as well as those with PNI, are at increased risk of harboring nodal disease.

  13. Standby Power Management Architecture for Deep-Submicron Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-19

    59 starvation is to use an arbiter than implements a fair arbitration scheme, such as round - robin , token-passing, or time-slotting. Power control...dw8051 port includes a small wrapper to convert the interface into BIF format. Since the neighbor table is a shared resource, a round - robin arbiter...between domains when there are multiple pending commands. The PNI uses a hybrid tree and round - robin arbitration scheme to ensure fairness and speed. The

  14. The prognostic value of preoperative inflammation-based prognostic scores and nutritional status for overall survival in resected patients with nonmetastatic Siewert type II/III adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lixiang; Su, Yezhou; Chen, Zhangming; Wei, Zhijian; Han, Wenxiu; Xu, Aman

    2017-07-01

    Immune and nutritional status of patients have been reported to predict postoperative complications, recurrence, and prognosis of patients with cancer. Therefore, this retrospective study aimed to explore the prognostic value of preoperative inflammation-based prognostic scores [neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR)] and nutritional status [prognostic nutritional index (PNI), body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin, albumin, and prealbumin] for overall survival (OS) in adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction (AEG) patients. A total of 355 patients diagnosed with Siewert type II/III AEG and underwent surgery between October 2010 and December 2011 were followed up until October 2016. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the cutoff values of NLR, PLR, and PNI. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analyses were used to calculate the OS characteristics. The ideal cutoff values for predicting OS were 3.5 for NLR, 171 for PLR, and 51.3 for PNI according to the ROC curve. The patients with hemoglobin <120 g/L (P = .001), prealbumin <180 mg/L (P = .000), PNI <51.3 (P = .010), NLR >3.5 (P = .000), PLR >171 (P = .006), and low BMI group (P = .000) had shorter OS. And multivariate survival analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model showed that the tumor-node-metastasis stage, BMI, NLR, and prealbumin levels were independent risk factors for the OS. Our study demonstrated that preoperative prealbumin, BMI, and NLR were independent prognostic factors of AEG patients.

  15. Reduced frontal cortex thickness and cortical volume associated with pathological narcissism.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yu; Sang, Na; Wang, Yongchao; Hou, Xin; Huang, Hui; Wei, Dongtao; Zhang, Jinfu; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-07-22

    Pathological narcissism is often characterized by arrogant behavior, a lack of empathy, and willingness to exploit other individuals. Generally, individuals with high levels of narcissism are more likely to suffer mental disorders. However, the brain structural basis of individual pathological narcissism trait among healthy people has not yet been investigated with surface-based morphometry. Thus, in this study, we investigated the relationship between cortical thickness (CT), cortical volume (CV), and individual pathological narcissism in a large healthy sample of 176 college students. Multiple regression was used to analyze the correlation between regional CT, CV, and the total Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) score, adjusting for age, sex, and total intracranial volume. The results showed that the PNI score was significantly negatively associated with CT and CV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, key region of the central executive network, CEN), which might be associated with impaired emotion regulation processes. Furthermore, the PNI score showed significant negative associations with CV in the right postcentral gyrus, left medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), and the CT in the right inferior frontal cortex (IFG, overlap with social brain network), which may be related to impairments in social cognition. Together, these findings suggest a unique structural basis for individual differences in pathological narcissism, distributed across different gray matter regions of the social brain network and CEN. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Effects of neonatal nutritional status on the risk for metabolic syndrome in Chilean obese children].

    PubMed

    Sapunar, Jorge; Bustos, Paulina; Sáez, Katia; Muñoz, Sergio; Asenjo, Sylvia

    2014-12-01

    Neonatal malnutrition defined by birth weight (BW) is a risk factor for obesity and cardio-metabolic diseases in adults. Neonatal ponderal index (NPI) may have better diagnostic value than BW to establish nutritional status. To determine the effect of neonatal nutritional status, established by the three NPI curves available in Chile, on the risk of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) in obese school children. A nested case/control study in a sample of 410 obese school children aged 10 to 16 years (57% males) was performed. The dichotomous response variable was the presence of MS defined as International Diabetes Federation (IDF) or Cook's criteria. The exposure variable was having NPI < percentile (p) 10. The frequency of MS was 36 and 39% according to the IDF and Cook criteria, respectively. The proportion of children with neonatal malnutrition exceeded 20%. A significantly increased risk for MS was only found when PNI was defined according to Lagos's Table and MS was defined using IDF criteria. Having a PNI > p90, however, showed a trend towards a reduced risk of MS, which only reached significance using Lagos's Table and Cook's Criteria. Neonatal malnutrition defined by NPI is common in obese school children. The condition of neonatal under nutrition defined as PNI < p10 may be a risk factor for developing MS. Instead, having a NPI > p90 could be protective.

  17. BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 and 2 regulate Arabidopsis inflorescence architecture in conjunction with homeobox genes KNAT6 and ATH1.

    PubMed

    Khan, Madiha; Tabb, Paul; Hepworth, Shelley R

    2012-07-01

    Inflorescence architecture varies widely among flowering plants, serving to optimize the display of flowers for reproductive success. In Arabidopsis thaliana, internode elongation begins at the floral transition, generating a regular spiral arrangement of upwardly-oriented flowers on the primary stem. Post-elongation, differentiation of lignified interfascicular fibers in the stem provides mechanical support. Correct inflorescence patterning requires two interacting homeodomain transcription factors: the KNOTTED1-like protein BREVIPEDICELLUS (BP) and its BEL1-like interaction partner PENNYWISE (PNY). Mutations in BP and PNY cause short internodes, irregular spacing and/or orientation of lateral organs, and altered lignin deposition in stems. Recently, we showed that these defects are caused by the misexpression of lateral organ boundary genes, BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 (BOP1) and BOP2, which function downstream of BP-PNY in an antagonistic fashion. BOP1/2 gain-of-function in stems promotes expression of the boundary gene KNOTTED1-LIKE FROM ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA6 (KNAT6) and shown here, ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX GENE1 (ATH1), providing KNAT6 with a BEL1-like co-factor. Our further analyses show that defects caused by BOP1/2 gain-of-function require both KNAT6 and ATH1. These data reveal how BOP1/2-dependent activation of a boundary module in stems exerts changes in inflorescence architecture.

  18. Novel Ru(II) complex with 3-(2'-pyridyl)-1,8-naphthalimide derivative for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Dong Min; Kwon, Dong Yuel; Kim, Young Sik

    2014-12-01

    A novel heteroleptic ruthenium(II) complex D1 with a pni (3-(2'-pyridyl)-1,8-naphthalimide) derivative as a heteroleptic donor was designed and theoretical studies were performed of the molar absorptivity of D1 compared to that of the standard N749 dye and [Ru(dcbpy)2(ppy)] (dcbpy = 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine, ppy = 2-phenylpyridine). Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations were used to gain an insight into the factors responsible for the photovoltaic properties of the dye sensitizer. The results showed that the absorption spectrum of the D1 dye with the pni derivative was red-shifted compared to N749 and [Ru(dcbpy)2(ppy)], particularly, in the region above 600 nm. The red-shift was attributed to the heteroleptic electron-donating ligands of the D1 dye. According to the molecular orbital analysis, the LUMO of the D1 dye mainly localized on tctpy (4,4',4"-tricarboxy-2-2':6'.2"-terpyridine) moiety. HOMOs of the N749 were localized on the NCS moiety. However, HOMO and HOMO-2 of D1 were localized on the Ru-NCS moiety and the Ru-pni moiety, respectively. Owing to the additional HOMO-2, the D1 dye had a broad absorption spectrum and high photovoltaic efficiency compared to N749.

  19. Current progress in use of adipose derived stem cells in peripheral nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zack-Williams, Shomari DL; Butler, Peter E; Kalaskar, Deepak M

    2015-01-01

    Unlike central nervous system neurons; those in the peripheral nervous system have the potential for full regeneration after injury. Following injury, recovery is controlled by schwann cells which replicate and modulate the subsequent immune response. The level of nerve recovery is strongly linked to the severity of the initial injury despite the significant advancements in imaging and surgical techniques. Multiple experimental models have been used with varying successes to augment the natural regenerative processes which occur following nerve injury. Stem cell therapy in peripheral nerve injury may be an important future intervention to improve the best attainable clinical results. In particular adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) are multipotent mesenchymal stem cells similar to bone marrow derived stem cells, which are thought to have neurotrophic properties and the ability to differentiate into multiple lineages. They are ubiquitous within adipose tissue; they can form many structures resembling the mature adult peripheral nervous system. Following early in vitro work; multiple small and large animal in vivo models have been used in conjunction with conduits, autografts and allografts to successfully bridge the peripheral nerve gap. Some of the ADSC related neuroprotective and regenerative properties have been elucidated however much work remains before a model can be used successfully in human peripheral nerve injury (PNI). This review aims to provide a detailed overview of progress made in the use of ADSC in PNI, with discussion on the role of a tissue engineered approach for PNI repair. PMID:25621105

  20. Nutritional status in the era of target therapy: poor nutrition is a prognostic factor in non-small cell lung cancer with activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations.

    PubMed

    Park, Sehhoon; Park, Seongyeol; Lee, Se-Hoon; Suh, Beomseok; Keam, Bhumsuk; Kim, Tae Min; Kim, Dong-Wan; Kim, Young Whan; Heo, Dae Seog

    2016-11-01

    Pretreatment nutritional status is an important prognostic factor in patients treated with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. In the era of target therapies, its value is overlooked and has not been investigated. The aim of our study is to evaluate the value of nutritional status in targeted therapy. A total of 2012 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were reviewed and 630 patients with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) were enrolled for the final analysis. Anemia, body mass index (BMI), and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) were considered as nutritional factors. Hazard ratio (HR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for each group were calculated by Cox proportional analysis. In addition, scores were applied for each category and the sum of scores was used for survival analysis. In univariable analysis, anemia (HR, 1.29; p = 0.015), BMI lower than 18.5 (HR, 1.98; p = 0.002), and PNI lower than 45 (HR, 1.57; p < 0.001) were poor prognostic factors for PFS. Among them, BMI and PNI were independent in multi-variable analysis. All of these were also significant prognostic values for OS. The higher the sum of scores, the poorer PFS and OS were observed. Pretreatment nutritional status is a prognostic marker in NSCLC patients treated with EGFR TKI. Hence, baseline nutritional status should be more carefully evaluated and adequate nutrition should be supplied to these patients.

  1. POLAR NETWORK INDEX AS A MAGNETIC PROXY FOR THE SOLAR CYCLE STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Priyal, Muthu; Banerjee, Dipankar; Ravindra, B.; Singh, Jagdev; Karak, Bidya Binay; Muñoz-Jaramillo, Andrés; Choudhuri, Arnab Rai E-mail: dipu@iiap.res.in

    2014-09-20

    The Sun has a polar magnetic field which oscillates with the 11 yr sunspot cycle. This polar magnetic field is an important component of the dynamo process which operates in the solar convection zone and produces the sunspot cycle. We have direct systematic measurements of the Sun's polar magnetic field only from about the mid-1970s. There are, however, indirect proxies which give us information about this field at earlier times. The Ca-K spectroheliograms taken at the Kodaikanal Solar Observatory during 1904-2007 have now been digitized with 4k × 4k CCD and have higher resolution (∼0.86 arcsec) than the other available historical data sets. From these Ca-K spectroheliograms, we have developed a completely new proxy (polar network index, hereafter PNI) for the Sun's polar magnetic field. We calculate PNI from the digitized images using an automated algorithm and calibrate our measured PNI against the polar field as measured by the Wilcox Solar Observatory for the period 1976-1990. This calibration allows us to estimate the polar fields for the earlier period up to 1904. The dynamo calculations performed with this proxy as input data reproduce reasonably well the Sun's magnetic behavior for the past century.

  2. Polar Network Index as a Magnetic Proxy for the Solar Cycle Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyal, Muthu; Banerjee, Dipankar; Karak, Bidya Binay; Muñoz-Jaramillo, Andrés; Ravindra, B.; Choudhuri, Arnab Rai; Singh, Jagdev

    2014-09-01

    The Sun has a polar magnetic field which oscillates with the 11 yr sunspot cycle. This polar magnetic field is an important component of the dynamo process which operates in the solar convection zone and produces the sunspot cycle. We have direct systematic measurements of the Sun's polar magnetic field only from about the mid-1970s. There are, however, indirect proxies which give us information about this field at earlier times. The Ca-K spectroheliograms taken at the Kodaikanal Solar Observatory during 1904-2007 have now been digitized with 4k × 4k CCD and have higher resolution (~0.86 arcsec) than the other available historical data sets. From these Ca-K spectroheliograms, we have developed a completely new proxy (polar network index, hereafter PNI) for the Sun's polar magnetic field. We calculate PNI from the digitized images using an automated algorithm and calibrate our measured PNI against the polar field as measured by the Wilcox Solar Observatory for the period 1976-1990. This calibration allows us to estimate the polar fields for the earlier period up to 1904. The dynamo calculations performed with this proxy as input data reproduce reasonably well the Sun's magnetic behavior for the past century.

  3. Histological subtypes of oral non-tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma in dogs.

    PubMed

    Nemec, A; Murphy, B; Kass, P H; Verstraete, F J M

    2012-01-01

    Several histological subtypes and grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are described in human literature and these subtypes have distinct morphological features and biological behaviour. This retrospective study (1990-2010) included 84 dogs diagnosed with SCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx, excluding the tonsils. Sixty-nine of the SCCs (82.1%) were further diagnosed as conventional SCC (CSCC) (33 [47.8%] well-differentiated, 31 [44.9%] moderately-differentiated and five [7.3%] poorly-differentiated), five (5.95%) each as papillary SCC and basaloid SCC, three (3.6%) as adenosquamous carcinoma and two (2.4%) as spindle cell carcinoma. Compared with the general hospital population, neutered female dogs, dogs aged 10 to <15 years, English springer spaniels and Shetland sheepdogs were overrepresented. The majority (78.1%) of SCCs were proliferative with or without associated ulceration, although no significant association was observed between the gross appearance and different SCC subtypes. 71.4% of SCCs were located in dentate jaws; however, well-differentiated CSCC more often affected the tongue and other non-dentate mucosal surfaces (P=0.0022). No significant association was found between any of the SCC subtypes and tumour-associated inflammation (TAI), perineural and lymphovascular invasion (PNI, LVI), or between gross appearance of the tumour and tumour location, PNI, LVI or TAI or PNI, LVI, TAI and tumour location.

  4. Microarray and qPCR Analyses of Wallerian Degeneration in Rat Sciatic Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Sheng; Tang, Xin; Yu, Jun; Liu, Jie; Ding, Fei; Gu, Xiaosong

    2017-01-01

    Wallerian degeneration occurs immediately following injury to mammal peripheral nerves. To better understand the molecular events occurring during Wallerian degeneration, a rat model of sciatic nerve transection was used to assess differentially expressed genes at 0.5, 1, 6, 12, 24 h, 4 days, 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks post nerve injury (PNI). Hierarchical clustering, Euclidean distance matrix, and principal component analysis (PCA) collectively suggested three distinct phases within the post-injury period of 4 weeks. Gene ontology (GO) analysis suggested that phase I (0–6 h PNI), phase II (6–24 h PNI), and phase III (4 days to 4 weeks) were associated with acute response to injury, preformation of Wallerian degeneration, and complete execution of Wallerian degeneration, respectively. Critical signaling pathways and transcriptional factor networks responsible for the regulation of Wallerian degeneration were further identified and integrated using Kyoto Enrichment of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), respectively. Our results may help to elucidate some molecular mechanisms of gene regulation associated with Wallerian degeneration that occurs after traumatic injury to peripheral nerve axons in mammals. PMID:28239339

  5. The role of psychoneuroimmunology in personalized and systems medicine.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) may provide the scientific basis for personalized and systems medicine. The exploration of the extensive interactions among psychological and behavioral factors, the nervous system, the immune system, and the endocrine system may help understand the mechanisms underlying health, wellness, and diseases. PNI theories based on systems biology methodologies may contribute to the identification of patient patterns for establishing psychological and physiological profiles for personalized medicine. A biopsychosocial model will help elucidate the systemic interrelationships between psychosocial and bio-physiological factors for the development of systems medicine. Many evidences have supported the close relationships between stress, depression, inflammation, and disorders including obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, arthritis, skin diseases, infectious diseases, and sleep disorders. As inflammation is a critical connection among different diseases, the elucidation of the associations may contribute to the findings of systemic therapeutic targets. With the understanding of the translational implications of PNI, integrative interventions in multiple dimensions can be applied to modulate stress responses and promote healthier behaviors. These interventions include combination drug therapies, diets, nutritional supplements, meditation, and other behavioral and mind-body strategies.

  6. Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma: Review of 2,202 Cases.

    PubMed

    Cho, Matthew; Lee, Jaein; James, Craig L; Marshman, Gillian; Huilgol, Shyamala C

    2016-07-01

    Increases in the incidence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in women, younger age groups and in aggressive scalp subtypes in younger women have been reported. To describe lesion and patient characteristics in scalp BCC. Retrospective audit of scalp BCCs from 3 pathology laboratories in Adelaide, South Australia, January 2009-December 2013. Scalp BCC was 2.6% of all BCC. Of 2,202 patients with scalp BCC, 62% were male and 78% were >60 years. Histologic subtypes included nodular (55%), mixed (30%), and superficial (8%). The concordance between biopsy and excision was 83% for division into nonaggressive and aggressive subtypes. The incomplete excision rate was 16%. Aggressive subtypes were larger and had perineural invasion (PNI) in 8.5% and incomplete excision in 26%. Basal cell carcinoma on the scalp was less common. Men and the elderly had the majority of cases, with no predilection for women, including aggressive histologic subtypes in younger women. Aggressive subtypes were associated with increased size, incomplete excision, and PNI. A preliminary biopsy assisted division into aggressive and nonaggressive histologic subtypes. Incomplete excision rates were higher and increased in aggressive histologic subtypes and PNI. Mohs surgery or wider margins are suggested in these cases.

  7. Applying the psychoneuroimmunology framework to nursing research.

    PubMed

    Starkweather, Angela; Witek-Janusek, Linda; Mathews, Herbert L

    2005-02-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) provides a distinct perspective regarding the interrelatedness of the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. PNI explicates the possible means by which behavior and emotion can influence immune function. Moreover, PNI explains the means by which the immune system affects the nervous system and affects psychological response. The interactions among these systems are mediated at the molecular level by cytokines and hormones produced by cells of not just the immune but also the nervous and endocrine systems. These cytokines and hormones affect endocrine and neuronal processes that, in turn, affect mood, emotions, personal perception, as well as the immune response. Analysis of the effect of cytokines and hormones at the molecular, cellular, and peripheral level is under intense investigation. Such analysis will lead to a better understanding of the connections among the psychological, neurological, and immunological systems. This understanding will provide for a holistic perspective upon which better health care can be provided, discomfort minimized, and disease prevented. The use of such a perspective in neuroscience nursing investigation can elicit novel approaches to care.

  8. Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Eyelid Presenting as Trigeminal Neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Nicole; Shaikh, Naazli; Strickland, Leah

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes two patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the periocular and periorbital skin who presented with trigeminal neuralgia. Both patients had previous cutaneous SCC of the scalp treated successfully with surgical resection but later presented with neuro-ophthalmic findings suggesting perineural invasion (PNI) of SCC. PNI of SCC in the periocular skin or orbit can lead to devastating effects if malignant cells seed into the orbit and adjacent cranial nerves as our two patients developed an orbital apex syndrome. Patients with a history of SCC of the scalp and forehead who later develop neuro-ophthalmological deficits or patients with persistent ocular symptoms should, in particular, be followed with a low threshold for cutaneous SCC or PNI of recurrent disease. SCC metastasizing into the periocular tissues and orbit by neural invasion is rare and carries a poor prognosis. The urgency for a prompt diagnosis and evaluation by a multidisciplinary team is warranted to prevent untoward outcomes of this skin cancer.  PMID:28097083

  9. An audit of penetrating neck injuries in a South African trauma service.

    PubMed

    Madsen, A S; Laing, G L; Bruce, J L; Oosthuizen, G V; Clarke, D L

    2016-01-01

    This study reviews and validates the practice of selective non-operative management (SNOM) of penetrating neck injury (PNI) in a South African trauma service and reviews the impact new imaging modalities have had on the management of this injury. This study was performed within the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service, in the city of Pietermaritzburg, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. A prospectively maintained trauma registry was retrospectively interrogated. All patients with PNI treated over a 46-month period were included within the study. A total of 510 patients were included in the study. There were 452 stab wounds (SW) and 58 gunshot wounds (GSW). A total of 202 (40%) patients sustained isolated PNI, the remaining 308 (60%) patients sustained trauma to at least one additional anatomical region. An airway injury was identified in 29 (6%) patients; a pharyngo-oesophageal injury in 41 (8%) patients and a vascular injury in 86 (17%) patients. Associated injuries included three penetrating cardiac injuries (PCI) and 146 patients with haemo-pneumothoraces. Of the total cohort, 387 patients (76%) underwent CT Angiography (CTA), of which 70 (18%) demonstrated a vascular injury. Formal catheter directed angiogram (CDA) was performed on 16 patients with positive CTA but confirmed injury in only half of these patients. Of 212 patients (42%) who underwent water-soluble contrast swallow (WS-swallow), an injury was demonstrated in 29 (14%) cases. A total of 401 (79%) patients were successfully managed conservatively for PNI and 109 (21%) surgically or by endovascular intervention. Only five (1.2%) patients failed a trial of SNOM and required surgery. The in-hospital mortality rate was 2%. No deaths could be attributed to a failure of SNOM. SNOM of PNI is a safe and appropriate management strategy. The conservative management of isolated pharyngeal injuries is well supported by our findings but the role of conservative treatment of oesophageal injuries needs to be

  10. Past and Future Drought Regimes in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Burak; Topcu, Sevilay; Turkes, Murat; Sen, Baha

    2010-05-01

    Climate variability in the 20th century was characterized by apparent precipitation variability at both temporal and spatial scales. In addition to the well-known characteristic seasonal and year-to-year variability, some marked and long-term changes in precipitation occurred in Turkey, particularly after the early 1970s. Drought, originating from a deficiency of precipitation over an extended time period (which is usually a season or more) has become a recurring phenomenon in Turkey in the past few decades. Spatially coherent with the significant drought events since early 1970s, water stress and shortages for all water user sectors have also reached their critical points in Turkey. Analyzing the historical occurrence of drought provides an understanding of the range of climate possibilities for a country, resulting in more informed management decision-making. However, future projections about spatial and temporal changes in drought characteristics such as frequency, intensity and duration can be challenging for developing appropriate mitigation and adaptation strategies. Hence, the objectives of this study are (i) to analyze the spatial and temporal dimensions of historical droughts in Turkey, (2) to predict potential intensity, frequency and duration of droughts in Turkey for the future (2070-2100). The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Percent to Normal Index (PNI) have been used to assess the drought characteristics. Rainfall datasets for the reference period, 1960-1990, were acquired from 52 stations (representative of all kinds of regions with different rainfall regimes in the country) of the Turkish State Meteorological Service (TSMS). The future rainfall series for the 2070-2100 period were simulated using a regional climate model (RegCM3) for IPCC's SRESS-A2 scenario conditions. For verification of RegCM3 simulations, the model was performed for the reference period and simulated rainfall data were used for computing two drought indices (SPI

  11. Molecular Profiling of Selected Cell Populations in Tissues by On-chip MALDI MS

    PubMed Central

    Schwamborn, Kristina; Zavalin, Andrey I.; Caprioli, Richard M.; Aerni, Hans Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Spatial molecular analysis of tissues using MALDI MS is an emerging tool for pathology that enables discovery of diagnostically useful protein signatures that correlate with disease. An ongoing challenge is mapping disease-related proteomic changes in tissues with morphologically complex architecture where analysis at the single cell level is desired. Here we describe a novel highly sensitive workflow that allows the isolation and processing of selected cell subpopulations for MALDI MS analysis. Optimization of the method for fresh frozen and formalin fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue is described, and the workflow is applied for the detection of differentially expressed proteins from cells related to perineural invasion (PNI) in human prostate cancer. METHODS: Tissue sections of 4–20 μm thickness were thaw-mounted onto Director slides for staining and dehydration. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was carried out using a PALM microbeam instrument modified with a custom holder for mounting of capture chips consisting of Teflon printed slides. The sample was digested on-chip with trypsin in a humidity chamber to reduce evaporation of the digestion buffer. Differentially expressed peptides were detected directly from the chip using a 9.4 T Bruker Apex-Qe MALDI MS. RESULTS: An optimized workflow combining LCM, on-chip processing and analysis of fresh frozen and FFPE tissue allowed the detection of meaningful protein signatures from less than 50 dissected cells. Profiles from fresh frozen and FFPE mouse liver tissue from the same mouse showed similar peptide profiles, demonstrating successful on-chip antigen retrieval of FFPE tissue. We then applied this strategy for mapping of differentially expressed proteins in PNI. Molecular profiles from cells undergoing PNI and nerve distant bulk tumor cells showed many differentially expressed peptides, including peptides with m/z = 1356.624 and 1459.696. The rapid, high throughput analysis of cell type

  12. E-PASS score as a useful predictor of postoperative complications and mortality after colorectal surgery in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Tetsuro; Takeshita, Hiroaki; Takagi, Katsunori; Kunizaki, Masaki; To, Kazuo; Abo, Takafumi; Hidaka, Shigekazu; Nanashima, Atsushi; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Sawai, Terumitsu

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify whether a surgical-specific risk scoring system estimating the physiologic ability and surgical stress (E-PASS) score was useful for prediction of postoperative morbidity and mortality. The E-PASS score consists of the preoperative risk score (PRS), surgical stress score (SSS), and the comprehensive risk score (CRS). Conventional scoring systems [colorectal physiologic and operative severity score for the enumeration of mortality (CR-POSSUM) and the prognostic nutritional index (PNI)] were also examined. We retrospectively compared these scores in patients with or without postoperative complications. We assessed the relationship between these scores, clinicopathological features and postoperative mortality. Postoperative complications developed in 78 patients (33%). American Society of Anesthesiologists score, performance status, PNI score, PRS, SSS, and CRS were significantly higher in patients with postoperative complications than in those without postoperative complications (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was highest for E-PASS [E-PASS (PRS, 0.74; SSS, 0.62; CRS, 0.78), PNI (0.62), CR-POSSUM (PS, 0.57; OSS, 0.52)]. Multivariate logistic analysis identified CRS ≥ 0.2 as a significant determinant of postoperative complications (p < 0.01; hazard ratio, 4.84). Overall survival was significantly better in the CRS < 0.2 group than in the CRS > 0.2 group (p < 0.01). The E-PASS score system was a useful predictor of postoperative complications and mortality, especially in patients with advanced age.

  13. Impact of anastomotic leakage on long-term oncologic outcome and its related factors in rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Gyoung Tae; Ann, Yeo Shen; Cheong, Chinock; Han, Jeonghee; Cho, Min Soo; Hur, Hyuk; Min, Byung Soh; Lee, Kang Young; Kim, Nam Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Anastomotic leakage (AL) is a well-known cause of morbidity after low anterior resection (LAR) for rectal cancer, but its impact on oncologic outcome is not well understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of AL on long-term oncologic outcome and to identify factors associated with AL that may affect prognosis after LAR for rectal cancer. A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent curative resection for rectal cancer without diverting stoma was performed. To investigate AL related factors that may be associated with oncologic outcome, Clavien-Dindo grades, prognostic nutritional indices (PNI) and inflammatory indices were included. One hundred and one patients out of a total of 1258 patients developed postoperative AL, giving an AL rate of 8.0%. Patients with AL showed poorer disease-free survival (DFS), than patients without AL (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.6; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.1–2.5; P = 0.01). In patients who developed AL, age over 60 (HR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1–4.7; P = 0.033), advanced pathologic stage (HR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4–4.0; P = 0.001), suppressed neutrophil-proportion (≤80%) (HR = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.2–5.8; P = 0.019) and PNI <36 (HR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.2–9.6; P = 0.018) were associated with poorer DFS. AL was associated with poorer DFS. In patients with AL, a suppressed neutrophil-proportion and decreased PNI below 36 were associated with tumor recurrence. PMID:27472726

  14. Matrix modulation of compensatory lung regrowth and progenitor cell proliferation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shifren, A.; Mazan, M. R.; Gruntman, A. M.; Lascola, K. M.; Nolen-Walston, R. D.; Kim, C. F.; Tsai, L.; Pierce, R. A.; Mecham, R. P.; Ingenito, E. P.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical stress is an important modulator of lung morphogenesis, postnatal lung development, and compensatory lung regrowth. The effect of mechanical stress on stem or progenitor cells is unclear. We examined whether proliferative responses of epithelial progenitor cells, including dually immunoreactive (CCSP and proSP-C) progenitor cells (CCSP+/SP-C+) and type II alveolar epithelial cells (ATII), are affected by physical factors found in the lung of emphysematics, including loss of elastic recoil, reduced elastin content, and alveolar destruction. Mice underwent single lung pneumonectomy (PNY) to modulate transpulmonary pressure (mechanical stress) and to stimulate lung regeneration. Control mice underwent sham thoracotomy. Plombage of different levels was employed to partially or completely abolish this mechanical stress. Responses to graded changes in transpulmonary pressure were assessed in elastin-insufficient mice (elastin +/−, ELN+/−) and elastase-treated mice with elastase-induced emphysema. Physiological regrowth, morphometry (linear mean intercept; Lmi), and the proliferative responses of CCSP+/SP-C+, Clara cells, and ATII were evaluated. Plombage following PNY significantly reduced transpulmonary pressure, regrowth, and CCSP+/SP-C+, Clara cell, and ATII proliferation following PNY. In the ELN+/− group, CCSP+/SP-C+ and ATII proliferation responses were completely abolished, although compensatory lung regrowth was not significantly altered. In contrast, in elastase-injured mice, compensatory lung regrowth was significantly reduced, and ATII but not CCSP+/SP-C+ proliferation responses were impaired. Elastase injury also reduced the baseline abundance of CCSP+/SP-C+, and CCSP+/SP-C+ were found to be displaced from the bronchioalveolar duct junction. These data suggest that qualities of the extracellular matrix including elastin content, mechanical stress, and alveolar integrity strongly influence the regenerative capacity of the lung, and the

  15. Comparison of the prognostic values of selected inflammation based scores in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ke; Lei, Jianyong; Li, Canjun; Shu, Kunpeng; Li, Wenbin; Zhang, Yuwei; Li, Zhihui; Gong, Rixiang; Zhu, Jingqiang

    2017-09-01

    The significance of inflammation based scores including the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (dNLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and plasma fibrinogen remains unclear in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). We aimed to compare the prognostic value of these scores. Seventy-eight patients newly diagnosed as MTC with operation in our institution from May 2009 to September 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and Kaplan-Meier analyses were calculated to compare the prognostic value of these scores. Increased PLR was predictive of lymph node metastasis (AUC = 0.644, P = 0.022), capsule invasion (AUC = 0.666, P = 0.007), advanced tumor stages (AUC = 0.657, P = 0.011), and recurrence (AUC = 0.655, P = 0.049). Increased fibrinogen was predictive of lymph node metastasis (AUC = 0.669, P = 0.006) and capsule invasion (AUC = 0.631, P = 0.038). Reduced PNI was predictive of recurrence (AUC = 0.655, P = 0.049). Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox regression analysis revealed that PLR was a significant predictor for recurrence. PLR, fibrinogen, and PNI are all predictive. Specially, PLR is superior to other inflammation based scores in terms of prognostic ability. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Upregulated TLR3 Promotes Neuropathic Pain by Regulating Autophagy in Rat With L5 Spinal Nerve Ligation Model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weijia; Lu, Zhijun

    2016-12-21

    Microglia, rapidly activated following peripheral nerve injury (PNI), accumulate within the spinal cord and adopt inflammation that contributes to development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Microglia express functional Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which play pivotal roles in regulating inflammatory processes. However, little is known about the role of TLR3 in regulating neuropathic pain after PNI. Here TLR3 expression and autophagy activation was assayed in dorsal root ganglions and in microglia following PNI by using realtime PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. The role of TLR3/autophagy signaling in regulating tactile allodynia was evaluated by assaying paw mechanical withdrawal threshold and cold allodynia after intrathecal administration of Poly (I:C) and 3-methyladenine (3-MA). We found that L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) induces the expression of TLR3 in dorsal root ganglions and in primary rat microglia at the mRNA and protein level. Meanwhile, L5 SNL results in an increased activation of autophagy, which contributes to microglial activation and subsequent inflammatory response. Intrathecal administration of Poly (I:C), a TLR3 agonist, significantly increases the activation of microglial autophagy, whereas TLR3 knockdown markedly inhibits L5 SNL-induced microglial autophagy. Poly (I:C) treatment promotes the expression of proinflammatory mediators, whereas 3-MA (a specific inhibitor of autophagy) suppresses Poly (I:C)-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Autophagy inhibition further inhibits TLR3-mediated mechanical and cold hypersensitivity following SNL. These results suggest that inhibition of TLR3/autophagy signaling contributes to alleviate neurophathic pain triggered by SNL.

  17. Sarcopenia is a predictive factor for intestinal resection in admitted patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Bamba, Shigeki; Sasaki, Masaya; Takaoka, Azusa; Takahashi, Kenichiro; Imaeda, Hirotsugu; Nishida, Atsushi; Inatomi, Osamu; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Andoh, Akira

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between skeletal muscle volume and the prognosis of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains undetermined. We conducted a retrospective study of 72 IBD patients who were admitted to the hospital due to disease exacerbation. We enrolled IBD patients who had undergone abdominal computed tomography and assessed the nutritional indices, such as the Onodera's prognostic nutritional index (O-PNI) and the controlling nutritional status (CONUT) index. The L3 skeletal muscle index (SMI), which is the ratio of the cross-sectional area of skeletal muscles at the level of the third lumbar (L3) vertebra to the height squared, was used to identify sarcopenia. Sarcopenia, defined as a low SMI, was observed in 42% of all IBD patients (37% with Crohn's disease (CD) and 48% with ulcerative colitis (UC)). In UC patients, the O-PNI and CONUT values, height, and albumin levels were significantly lower than in CD patients. The SMI strongly correlated with sex, body weight, albumin level, and O-PNI in IBD patients. Multivariate analysis using the Cox regression model demonstrated that the presence of sarcopenia (P = 0.015) and disease type (CD or UC) (P = 0.007) were significant factors predicting intestinal resection. The cumulative operation-free survival rate was significantly lower for sarcopenic patients than in all IBD patients (P = 0.003) and a stratified analysis of CD patients (P = 0.001) using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. The L3 skeletal muscle area is a prognostic factor for intestinal resection in patients with CD.

  18. Role of brainstem serotonin in analgesia produced by low-intensity exercise on neuropathic pain after sciatic nerve injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Bobinski, Franciane; Ferreira, Tamara A A; Córdova, Marina M; Dombrowski, Patrícia A; da Cunha, Cláudio; Santo, Caroline C do Espírito; Poli, Anicleto; Pires, Rita G W; Martins-Silva, Cristina; Sluka, Kathleen A; Santos, Adair R S

    2015-12-01

    Physical exercise is a low-cost, safe, and efficient intervention for the reduction of neuropathic chronic pain in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms for how exercise reduces neuropathic pain are not yet well understood. Central monoaminergic systems play a critical role in endogenous analgesia leading us to hypothesize that the analgesic effect of low-intensity exercise occurs through activation of monoaminergic neurotransmission in descending inhibitory systems. To test this hypothesis, we induced peripheral nerve injury (PNI) by crushing the sciatic nerve. The exercise intervention consisted of low-intensity treadmill running for 2 weeks immediately after injury. Animals with PNI showed an increase in pain-like behaviors that were reduced by treadmill running. Reduction of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) synthesis using the tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester prevented the analgesic effect of exercise. However, blockade catecholamine synthesis with the tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine had no effect. In parallel, 2 weeks of exercise increased brainstem levels of the 5-HT and its metabolites (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid), decreased expression of the serotonin transporter, and increased expression of 5-HT receptors (5HT-1B, 2A, 2C). Finally, PNI-induced increase in inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1 beta, in the brainstem, was reversed by 2 weeks of exercise. These findings provide new evidence indicating that low-intensity aerobic treadmill exercise suppresses pain-like behaviors in animals with neuropathic pain by enhancing brainstem 5-HT neurotransmission. These data provide a rationale for the analgesia produced by exercise to provide an alternative approach to the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain.

  19. Purinergic Modulation of Spinal Neuroglial Maladaptive Plasticity Following Peripheral Nerve Injury.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Giovanni; Colangelo, Anna Maria; Berbenni, Miluscia; Ippolito, Vita Maria; De Luca, Ciro; Verdesca, Francesco; Savarese, Leonilde; Alberghina, Lilia; Maggio, Nicola; Papa, Michele

    2015-12-01

    Modulation of spinal reactive gliosis following peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a promising strategy to restore synaptic homeostasis. Oxidized ATP (OxATP), a nonselective antagonist of purinergic P2X receptors, was found to recover a neuropathic behavior following PNI. We investigated the role of intraperitoneal (i.p.) OxATP treatment in restoring the expression of neuronal and glial markers in the mouse spinal cord after sciatic spared nerve injury (SNI). Using in vivo two-photon microscopy, we imaged Ca(2+) transients in neurons and astrocytes of the dorsal horn of spinal cord at rest and upon right hind paw electrical stimulation in sham, SNI, and OxATP-treated mice. Neuropathic behavior was investigated by von Frey and thermal plantar test. Glial [glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1)] and GABAergic [vesicular GABA transporter (vGAT) and glutamic acid decarboxylase 65/76 (GAD65/67)] markers and glial [glutamate transporter (GLT1) and GLAST] and neuronal amino acid [EAAC1, vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGLUT1)] transporters have been evaluated. In SNI mice, we found (i) increased glial response, (ii) decreased glial amino acid transporters, and (iii) increased levels of neuronal amino acid transporters, and (iv) in vivo analysis of spinal neurons and astrocytes showed a persistent increase of Ca(2+) levels. OxATP administration reduced glial activation, modulated the expression of glial and neuronal glutamate/GABA transporters, restored neuronal and astrocytic Ca(2+) levels, and prevented neuropathic behavior. In vitro studies validated that OxATP (i) reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), (ii) reduced astrocytic proliferation, (iii) increase vGLUT expression. All together, these data support the correlation between reactive gliosis and perturbation of the spinal synaptic homeostasis and the role played by the purinergic system in modulating spinal plasticity following PNI.

  20. Matrix modulation of compensatory lung regrowth and progenitor cell proliferation in mice.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, A M; Shifren, A; Mazan, M R; Gruntman, A M; Lascola, K M; Nolen-Walston, R D; Kim, C F; Tsai, L; Pierce, R A; Mecham, R P; Ingenito, E P

    2010-02-01

    Mechanical stress is an important modulator of lung morphogenesis, postnatal lung development, and compensatory lung regrowth. The effect of mechanical stress on stem or progenitor cells is unclear. We examined whether proliferative responses of epithelial progenitor cells, including dually immunoreactive (CCSP and proSP-C) progenitor cells (CCSP+/SP-C+) and type II alveolar epithelial cells (ATII), are affected by physical factors found in the lung of emphysematics, including loss of elastic recoil, reduced elastin content, and alveolar destruction. Mice underwent single lung pneumonectomy (PNY) to modulate transpulmonary pressure (mechanical stress) and to stimulate lung regeneration. Control mice underwent sham thoracotomy. Plombage of different levels was employed to partially or completely abolish this mechanical stress. Responses to graded changes in transpulmonary pressure were assessed in elastin-insufficient mice (elastin +/-, ELN+/-) and elastase-treated mice with elastase-induced emphysema. Physiological regrowth, morphometry (linear mean intercept; Lmi), and the proliferative responses of CCSP+/SP-C+, Clara cells, and ATII were evaluated. Plombage following PNY significantly reduced transpulmonary pressure, regrowth, and CCSP+/SP-C+, Clara cell, and ATII proliferation following PNY. In the ELN+/- group, CCSP+/SP-C+ and ATII proliferation responses were completely abolished, although compensatory lung regrowth was not significantly altered. In contrast, in elastase-injured mice, compensatory lung regrowth was significantly reduced, and ATII but not CCSP+/SP-C+ proliferation responses were impaired. Elastase injury also reduced the baseline abundance of CCSP+/SP-C+, and CCSP+/SP-C+ were found to be displaced from the bronchioalveolar duct junction. These data suggest that qualities of the extracellular matrix including elastin content, mechanical stress, and alveolar integrity strongly influence the regenerative capacity of the lung, and the patterns of

  1. Conservative management of laryngeal perforation in a rural setting: case report and review of the literature on penetrating neck injuries.

    PubMed

    Kolber, Michael R; Aspler, Anne; Sequeira, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Penetrating neck injuries (PNIs) are infrequent but can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Although surgical management of unstable patients with penetrating neck trauma is the standard of care, management of stable patients remains controversial owing to the possibility of occult injuries. Recent studies suggest that physical examination and ancillary imaging may be sufficiently accurate to diagnose or rule out surgically significant injuries in PNI. We report a patient with a laryngeal perforation who was managed conservatively in a rural hospital without complications and review the literature pertinent to cases of this nature.

  2. Comparison of the prognostic values of inflammation markers in patients with acute pancreatitis: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Ying; Feng, Limin; Guo, Renyong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Inflammation-based prognostic markers (neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR), prognostic nutritional index (PNI), red cell distribution width (RDW) and lymphocyte–monocyte ratio (LMR)) are associated with overall survival in some diseases. This study assessed their prognostic value in mortality and severity in acute pancreatitis (AP). Design A retrospective cohort study. Setting Patients with AP were recruited from the emergency department at our hospital. Participants A total of 359 patients with AP (31 non-survivors) were enrolled. Primary and secondary outcome measures Mortality and severity of AP were the primary and secondary outcome measures, respectively. Biochemistry and haematology results of the first test after admission were collected. Independent relationships between severe AP (SAP) and markers were assessed using multivariate logistic regression models. Mortality prediction ability was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Overall survival was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method, with differences compared using the log-rank test. Independent relationships between mortality and each predictor were estimated using the Cox proportional hazard models. Results Compared with survivors of AP, non-survivors had higher RDW (p<0.001), higher NLR (p<0.001), lower LMR (p<0.001) and lower PNI (p<0.001) at baseline. C reactive protein (CRP; OR=8.251, p<0.001), RDW (OR=2.533, p=0.003) and PNI (OR=7.753, p<0.001) were independently associated with the occurrence of SAP. For predicting mortality, NLR had the largest area under the ROC curve (0.804, p<0.001), with a 16.64 cut-off value, 82.4% sensitivity and 75.6% specificity. RDW was a reliable marker for excluding death owing to its lowest negative likelihood ratio (0.11). NLR (HR=4.726, p=0.004), CRP (HR=3.503, p=0.003), RDW (HR=3.139, p=0.013) and PNI (HR=2.641, p=0.011) were independently associated with mortality of AP. Conclusions NLR was the most powerful marker of

  3. [Predictive factors for locally recurrent rectal cancer after primary curative surgery].

    PubMed

    Gao, Haoji; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Ren

    2015-11-01

    Local recurrence is a major clinical challenge after primary rectal cancer surgery. Although there is a possibility that R0 resection can be achieved, the outcome is still not favorable due to the low R0 resection rate and complexity of the surgery. Therefore prevention has a higher priority over treatment afterwards. As TME principle is accepted worldwide, the local recurrence rate has been reduced dramatically. And there are other factors associated with local recurrence including CRM, operation type, staging and PNI. Proper chemoradiotherapy may reduce the risk, however benefit always comes with side effect, therefore risk stratification is important.

  4. In-House Cost of Source Inspection.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    destination inspection adds about 6.5 hours of in- house effort. The average net cost to the Government is * approximately $150 per contract. The average cost is... HOUSE COST OF SOURCE INSPECTION N ODTIC M NELECTES FEB 0 81988 JULY 1987 Approved for Public re~a" I Distrbt~g, U nlurmt’i1 S.S...TITLE (Include Security Classification) (U) In- House Cost of Source Inspection 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Pni.l FIr_ r"iv mV 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME

  5. Peripheral nerve injury and TRPV1-expressing primary afferent C-fibers cause opening of the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Beggs, Simon; Liu, Xue Jun; Kwan, Chun; Salter, Michael W

    2010-11-02

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays the crucial role of limiting exposure of the central nervous system (CNS) to damaging molecules and cells. Dysfunction of the BBB is critical in a broad range of CNS disorders including neurodegeneration, inflammatory or traumatic injury to the CNS, and stroke. In peripheral tissues, the vascular-tissue permeability is normally greater than BBB permeability, but vascular leakage can be induced by efferent discharge activity in primary sensory neurons leading to plasma extravasation into the extravascular space. Whether discharge activity of sensory afferents entering the CNS may open the BBB or blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) remains an open question. Here we show that peripheral nerve injury (PNI) produced by either sciatic nerve constriction or transecting two of its main branches causes an increase in BSCB permeability, as assessed by using Evans Blue dye or horseradish peroxidase. The increase in BSCB permeability was not observed 6 hours after the PNI but was apparent 24 hours after the injury. The increase in BSCB permeability was transient, peaking about 24-48 hrs after PNI with BSCB integrity returning to normal levels by 7 days. The increase in BSCB permeability was prevented by administering the local anaesthetic lidocaine at the site of the nerve injury. BSCB permeability was also increased 24 hours after electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve at intensity sufficient to activate C-fibers, but not when A-fibers only were activated. Likewise, BSCB permeability increased following application of capsaicin to the nerve. The increase in permeability caused by C-fiber stimulation or by PNI was not anatomically limited to the site of central termination of primary afferents from the sciatic nerve in the lumbar cord, but rather extended throughout the spinal cord and into the brain. We have discovered that injury to a peripheral nerve and electrical stimulation of C-fibers each cause an increase in the permeability of

  6. The Determination of Mustard Gas and Related Vesicants in Rubber and Paint by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    genomen kunnen worden op een slagveld na gebruik van chemische strijdmiddelen. Binnen bet kader van de opdracbt A84/Y,/159 ’Identificatie van chemische...publicatie gebruikt. TNO-report PML 214492016 Page 4 CONTENTS SUMMARYISAMENVATTING 2 VOORWOORD 3 CONTENTS 4 1 INTRODUCTION 5 2 EXPERIMENTAL 5 2.1...TNO-roport PNI. 2144Q 201 b imgc 12 4 AUTHENTICATION E.R. Wil H.L, Boter (author) (project manager ) TNO-report PML 214492016 Page 13 5 REFERENCES 1

  7. Laser-Based Diagnostics for Transient Species in Hydrocarbon Flames

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    SRI________________ Aem Pronigonnand Pnwer I abnratory 6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code ) 7b. ADORES$S(CiMy State. and ZIP Code ) 333 Ravenswood Avenue Wright...POSOIN 8b.OFFCSYBLý PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZA rION (if appika le hI.)-6 - -2 4 Or- ADDRESS (City, State. and ZIP Code ) 10...Year, Monek Daey) IS. PAGE COUNT PniIFROM ll/R TO--UR 1 90R 236 16. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION 17. COSATI CODES 1S. SUBJECT TERMS (Comnwiu on rewew if

  8. Psychoneuroimmunology and health from a nursing perspective.

    PubMed

    Langley, Pauline; Fonseca, Jenny; Iphofen, Ron

    Psychoneuroimmunology is the science that links psychological processes and the immune system. It is important to nursing as it offers underpinning theory to support good caring and empathetic nursing. This article describes the science of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) and provides an overview of how interactions between psychological states and physiological function take place and some of the consequences for health status. It also reviews the relevance of research to nursing and considers its potential to strengthen the evidence base for therapeutic nursing and complementary therapies.

  9. Organic Rankine Cycle Silent Power Plant, 1.5 Kw, 28VDC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-22

    was increased. The GA-17310 valve was modified for a Hastelloy 25 seat and a Stellite 6 nard fac-ing over 1 74 PH poppet for better internal leakage...8217+ Ito# kkM 410 SECTION VII SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT 1 .*1 Vit. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT Unit No. 2 was tested as a iomolete packaged system except that...hr TNI 8 40°F PNI =974 psia Pc 16 4.0PsIa Sizovewipfig Lo•(s) - 410 B/hr .if .II 4 if ir - --* S..... . .. * 1 Tobl. VhIF EPfs~l of 4cat Lost on

  10. Twelve-Month Prostate-Specific Antigen Values and Perineural Invasion as Strong Independent Prognostic Variables of Long-Term Biochemical Outcome After Prostate Seed Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, William; Lee, John; Chamberlain, David; Cunningham, James; Yang Lixi; Tay, Jonathan

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To determine whether post-treatment prostate-specific antigen (ptPSA) values at 12 months and other clinical parameters predict long-term PSA relapse-free survival (PRFS) following prostate seed brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Records of 204 hormone-naieve patients with localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated at St. Mary's Regional Medical Center in Reno, NV, and at Carson Tahoe Regional Medical Center in Carson City, NV, between 1998 and 2003, using I-125 or Pd-103 seed brachytherapy, were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment planning was done using a preplanned, modified peripheral loading technique. A total of 185 of 204 patients had PSA records at 12 months after implant. Variables included were age, initial pretreatment PSA, Gleason score, T stage, National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk group (RG), perineural invasion (PNI), external beam boost, dose, and ptPSA levels at 12 months with cutpoints at {<=}1, 1.01 to 2.00, 2.01 to 3.00, and >3.00 ng/ml. Results: Median follow-up was 80 months, and median age was 69 years. The numbers of patients stratified by NCCN low, intermediate, and high RG were 110:65:10, respectively. Monotherapy and boost prescription doses were 145 Gy and 110 Gy for I-125, and 125 Gy and 100 Gy for Pd-103 seeds, respectively. The median dose (D90) was 95.4% of the prescribed dose. The 5-year PRFS at the 12-months ptPSA levels of {<=}1, 1.01 to 2.00, 2.01 to 3.00, and >3.00 ng/ml were 98.5%, 85.7%, 61.5%, and 22.2%, respectively. The 10-year PRFS at the 12-months ptPSA levels of {<=}1 and 1.01 to 2.00 ng/ml were 90.5% and 85.7%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, both ptPSA and PNI were significant independent predictors of PRFS. Hazard ratios (HR) for ptPSA levels at {<=}1, 1.01 to 2.00, 2.01 to 3.00, and >3.00 ng/ml at 12 months were 1, 4.96, 27.57, and 65.10, respectively. PNI had an HR of 6.1 (p = 0.009). Conclusions: Presence of PNI and ptPSA values at 12 months are strong prognostic variables for

  11. Specification of reproductive meristems requires the combined function of SHOOT MERISTEMLESS and floral integrators FLOWERING LOCUS T and FD during Arabidopsis inflorescence development.

    PubMed

    Smith, Harley M S; Ung, Nolan; Lal, Shruti; Courtier, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    In Arabidopsis floral meristems are specified on the periphery of the inflorescence meristem by the combined activities of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-FD complex and the flower meristem identity gene LEAFY. The floral specification activity of FT is dependent upon two related BELL1-like homeobox (BLH) genes PENNYWISE (PNY) and POUND-FOOLISH (PNF) which are required for floral evocation. PNY and PNF interact with a subset of KNOTTED1-LIKE homeobox proteins including SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM). Genetic analyses show that these BLH proteins function with STM to specify flowers and internodes during inflorescence development. In this study, experimental evidence demonstrates that the specification of flower and coflorescence meristems requires the combined activities of FT-FD and STM. FT and FD also regulate meristem maintenance during inflorescence development. In plants with reduced STM function, ectopic FT and FD promote the formation of axillary meristems during inflorescence development. Lastly, gene expression studies indicate that STM functions with FT-FD and AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 (AGL24)-SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONTANS1 (SOC1) complexes to up-regulate flower meristem identity genes during inflorescence development.

  12. Specification of reproductive meristems requires the combined function of SHOOT MERISTEMLESS and floral integrators FLOWERING LOCUS T and FD during Arabidopsis inflorescence development

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Harley M. S.; Ung, Nolan; Lal, Shruti; Courtier, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    In Arabidopsisfloral meristems are specified on the periphery of the inflorescence meristem by the combined activities of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)–FD complex and the flower meristem identity gene LEAFY. The floral specification activity of FT is dependent upon two related BELL1-like homeobox (BLH) genes PENNYWISE (PNY) and POUND-FOOLISH (PNF) which are required for floral evocation. PNY and PNF interact with a subset of KNOTTED1-LIKE homeobox proteins including SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM). Genetic analyses show that these BLH proteins function with STM to specify flowers and internodes during inflorescence development. In this study, experimental evidence demonstrates that the specification of flower and coflorescence meristems requires the combined activities of FT–FD and STM. FT and FD also regulate meristem maintenance during inflorescence development. In plants with reduced STM function, ectopic FT and FD promote the formation of axillary meristems during inflorescence development. Lastly, gene expression studies indicate that STM functions with FT–FD and AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 (AGL24)–SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONTANS1 (SOC1) complexes to up-regulate flower meristem identity genes during inflorescence development PMID:20937733

  13. Psychosomatic plasticity: An "emergent property" of personality research?

    PubMed

    Jawer, Michael

    2006-03-01

    Psychosomatic plasticity, defined as an extreme capacity to turn suggestions into bodily realities, is as phenomenon well worth investigating because it challenges mainstream conceptions about the relationship between mind and body in health as well as illness. The field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) offers a framework within which to understand this phenomenon because PNI makes a compelling case for the biological unity of self. Hartmann's Boundaries concept is particularly applicable because it suggests that the minds of "thin-boundary" persons are relatively fluid and able to make numerous connections. Wilson and Barber's identification of the fantasy prone person and Thalbourne's transliminality concept are similarly relevant. Taking these explorations a step further, this author proposes that the flow of feeling within individuals represents the key to psychosomatic plasticity. Blushing, psoriasis, and immune reactions are offered as examples, as are more anomalous reports such as those provided by heart transplantation recipients and cases said to be indicative of reincarnation. In each instance, persons who are highly sensitive (ie, have a speedier and more direct flow of feeling) are more likely to evidence physical reactions. Psychosomatic plasticity represents an emerging area of interest in personality research, one that clearly merits further investigation.

  14. Fabrication of dual-sensitive keratin-based polymer hydrogels and their controllable release behaviors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kangqi; Guo, Juhua; He, Yufeng; Song, Pengfei; Xiong, Yubing; Wang, Rong-Min

    2016-10-03

    Using feather keratin (FK) as a biocompatible and inexpensive biopolymer, a kind of dual-sensitive keratin-based polymer hydrogel (FK/PNiPA/PIAc-Gel) with interpenetrating network structure was prepared by two-step polymerization of N-isopropyl acrylamide (NiPA) and itaconic acid (IAc) in presence of crosslinker. After being characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy, its swelling behaviors and environmental sensitivity were investigated. The obtained biopolymer based hydrogel has good swelling and deswelling performance, and it is sensitive to pH value, temperature and salts of environment. Using anticancer drug, doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox·HCl),  and Bovine serum albumin (BSA) as different drug molecules, its release behaviors in different environment were investigated. It was found that the release behaviors of FK/PNiPA/PIAc-Gel were controllable via adjusting pH value or temperature of environment. The cumulative release of the anticancer drug (Dox·HCl) reached 93.3% within 16 h, and the cumulative release rate of macromolecular drug (BSA) got to 75.9% in 24 h. In summary, the keratin-based biopolymer hydrogel with interpenetrating network structure, pH-sensitivity and temperature sensitivity are potentially applied to sustain drug carrier and humid medicinal material in the biomedical field or clinical nursing field.

  15. A Reduced SWAP+C DC Magnetometer for Geomagnetic and Space Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldwin, M.; Ojeda, L.; Rogacki, S.; Pelloni, M.; Regoli, L.

    2016-12-01

    A new small, low mass, low power consumption, and low cost (reduced SWaP+C or Size, Weight and Power + Cost) magnetometer is being developed for both ground-based and future CubeSat Constellation-class missions. The University of Michigan (UM) magnetometer is based on the PNI Induction magnetometer electronics. PNI 3100 magnetometers have flight heritage on Cubesat Missions (e.g., the UM RAXs mission), but they were used primarily for attitude control. This presentation describes the modifications and performance of the magnetometer and our strategies for continued improvement in performance and its environmental testing. A description of further development of this new magnetometer with regards to its ability to measure geophysical signals up to 10 Hz is also given. Current performance has noise levels of about 1 nT/root Hz at 1 Hz, temperature stability, inherent radiation tolerance, in a 3 x 5 cm package (electronics and sensors), draws 10s of mW and costs a few hundred dollars. We will also present several strategies to reduce the noise by a factor of 5-10 that are currently being pursued.

  16. Association of percent positive prostate biopsies and perineural invasion with biochemical outcome after external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wong, William W; Schild, Steven E; Vora, Sujay A; Halyard, Michele Y

    2004-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated the significance of the percentage of positive biopsies (PPB) and perineural invasion (PNI) for patients treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for localized prostate cancer. Our goal was to investigate the value of these factors in predicting biochemical control (bNED) after EBRT. The study cohort consisted of 331 patients who received EBRT between 1993 and 1999 for clinically localized prostate cancer. The median follow-up was 4.4 years (range, 3 months to 9.6 years). The distribution by clinical T stage was as follows: T1 in 55 (17%), T2a in 94 (28%), T2b in 76 (23%), T2c in 74 (22%), T3a in 27 (8%), and T3b in 5 (2%). The pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (iPSA) level was < or =10 ng/mL in 224 patients, 10.1-20 ng/mL in 72 patients, and >20 ng/mL in 35 patients. The biopsy Gleason score was < or =6 in 216 patients and > or =7 in 115 patients. On the basis of the pathology report, the PPB was calculated for 239 patients and was < or =33% in 109, 34-66% in 72, and > or =67% in 58 patients. PNI was present in 30 patients. The median dose of EBRT was 68.4 Gy (range, 64-71 Gy). Patients were categorized into three risk groups: 142 patients were low risk (T1-T2, iPSA < or =10 ng/mL, and Gleason score < or =6), 137 were intermediate risk (increase in the value of one of the risk factors); and 52 patients were high risk (increase in value of two or more of the risk factors). Biochemical failure was defined as three consecutive rises in the PSA level. The 5-year bNED rate for the entire cohort was 62%. The 5-year bNED rate for the low-, intermediate, and high-risk group was 79%, 51%, and 47%, respectively (p <0.0001). On univariate analysis (log-rank test), clinical stage (p = 0.0073), grade (p <0.0001), iPSA (p = 0.0043), risk group (p <0.0001), PPB (p = 0.0193), and presence of PNI (p = 0.0137) correlated with bNED. For T1-T2a, T2b-T2c, and T3 patients, the 5-year bNED rate was 71%, 59%, and 40%, respectively. The 5-year b

  17. What drives hydrophobic polymer collapse and re-entry transitions in miscible good solvents?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Ropero, Francisco; Hajari, Timir; van der Vegt, Nico F. A.

    Herein, we study co-nonsolvency of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAM) in methanol aqueous solutions. Our results show that both the coil-to-globule transition at low methanol concentrations and the globule-to-coil re-entrance at high methanol concentrations are entropy driven. At low alcohol content, methanol preferentially binds to the PNiPAM globule and drives polymer collapse. Rather than being driven by electrostatic, hydrogen bonding or bridging-type interactions with the globule, preferential methanol binding is found to result from a significant increase of the chain configurational entropy, stabilizing methanol-enriched globular structures over wet globular structures in neat water. The globule-to-coil re-entrance at high methanol concentrations is instead driven by changes in solvent-excluded volume of the coil and globular states imparted by a decrease in solvent density with increasing methanol content of the solution. The co-nonsolvency mechanism proposed in this contribution provides a new angle on how to develop Coarse Grained simulation models for responsive soft matter systems. Moreover, several of the solvation effects described in this contribution can be incorporated in theories for cosolvent-induced conformational transitions in dilute polymer solutions. This research was supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) within the Collaborative Research Center ``Multiscale Simulation Methods for Soft Matter Systems'' (SFB-TRR146).

  18. Charge transfer reactions in nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wiederrecht, G.P.; Wasielewski, M.R. |; Galili, T.; Levanon, H.

    1998-07-01

    Ultrafast transient absorption studies of intramolecular photoinduced charge separation and thermal charge recombination were carried out on a molecule consisting of a 4-(N-pyrrolidino)naphthalene-1,8-imide donor (PNI) covalently attached to a pyromellitimide acceptor (PI) dissolved in the liquid crystal 4{prime}-(n-pentyl)-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). The temperature dependencies of the charge separation and recombination rates were obtained at temperatures above the nematic-isotropic phase transition of 5CB, where ordered microdomains exist and scattering of visible light by these domains is absent. The authors show that excited state charge separation is dominated by molecular reorientation of 5CB perpendicular to the director within the liquid crystal microdomains. They also show that charge recombination is adiabatic and is controlled by the comparatively slow collective reorientation of the liquid crystal microdomains relative to the orientation of PNI{sup +}-PI{sup {minus}}. They also report the results of time resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) studies of photoinduced charge separation in a series of supramolecular compounds dissolved in oriented liquid crystal solvents. These studies permit the determination of the radical pair energy levels as the solvent reorganization energy increases from the low temperature crystalline phase, through the soft glass phase, to the nematic phase of the liquid crystal.

  19. Psychosocial influences on immunity, including effects on immune maturation and senescence

    PubMed Central

    Coe, Christopher L.; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Studies investigating the influence of psychosocial factors on immunity played a critical and formative role in the field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), and have been a major component of articles published in Brain, Behavior and Immunity (BBI). An analysis of papers during the first two decades of BBI from 1987–2006 revealed three behavior-related topics were most prominent: 1) stress-induced changes in immune responses, 2) immune correlates of psychopathology and personality, and 3) behavioral conditioning of immunity. Important subthemes included the effect of early rearing conditions on immune maturation in the developing infant and, subsequently, psychosocial influences affecting the decline of immunity in the senescent host. The responsiveness of cell functioning in the young and elderly helped to validate the view that our immune competence is malleable. Many technical advances in immune methods were also evident. Initially, there was a greater reliance on in vitro proliferative and cytolytic assays, while later studies were more likely to use cell subset enumerations, cytokine quantification, and indices of latent virus reactivation. The reach of PNI extended from the traditional clinical entities of infection, autoimmunity, and cancer to attain a broader relevance to inflammatory physiology, and thus to asthma, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disease. There continue to be many theoretical and applied ramifications of these seminal findings. Fortunately, the initial controversies about whether psychological processes could really impinge upon and modify immune responses have now receded into the pages of history under the weight of the empirical evidence. PMID:17706917

  20. Psychoneuroimmunology: new avenues of research for the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Prolo, Paolo; Chiappelli, Francesco; Fiorucci, Adriano; Dovio, Andrea; Sartori, Maria Luisa; Angeli, Alberto

    2002-06-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) investigates the relations between the psychophysiological and immunophysiological dimensions of living beings. PNI brings together researchers in a number of scientific and medical disciplines, including psychology, the neurosciences, immunology, physiology, pharmacology, psychiatry, behavioral medicine, infectious diseases, and rheumatology. All are scientists with profound interest in interactions between the nervous and immune systems, and the relation between behavior and health. Despite the variety in domains and approaches to research, the outcome common to all research endeavors is the discovery of new information, of uncovered facts, of novel evidence, which contributes to the continuing generation of knowledge. In this paper we discuss psychoneuroimmune aspects of some conditions that are not routinely immediately associated with immunity, such as the condition of being the caregiver of somebody suffering from dementia; the effect on the brain-body modulations of aluminum, a metal that is not a component of the human body; and insomnia, a fairly common but disturbing disease, that even today lacks an effectual treatment.

  1. The spatiotemporal localization of JAM-C following sciatic nerve crush in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Avari, Parizad; Huang, Wenlong; Averill, Sharon; Colom, Bartomeu; Imhof, Beat A; Nourshargh, Sussan; Priestley, John V

    2012-07-01

    JAM-C is a junctional adhesion molecule, enriched at tight junctions on endothelial and epithelial cells, and also localized to Schwann cells at junctions between adjoining myelin end loops. The role of JAM-C following peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is currently unknown. We examined the localization of JAM-C after sciatic nerve crush injury in adult rats. JAM-C immunoreactivity was present in paranodes and incisures in sham surgery control nerve, but distal to the crush injury significantly decreased at three and 14 days. JAM-C was re-expressed at 28 days and, by 56 days, was significantly increased in the distal nerve compared to controls. In a 7-mm length of sciatic nerve sampled distal to the crush site, the densities of JAM-C immunoreactive paranodes increased in the distal direction. Conversely, the densities of JAM-C immunoreactive incisures were highest immediately distal to the crush site and decreased in the more distal direction. Further analysis revealed a strong correlation between JAM-C localization and remyelination. Fifty-six days after crush injury, greater densities of JAM-C paranodes were seen compared to the nodal marker jacalin, suggesting that paranodal JAM-C precedes node formation. Our data are the first to demonstrate a potential role of JAM-C in remyelination after PNI.

  2. Direct Osmolyte-Macromolecule Interactions Confer Entropic Stability to Folded States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Ropero, Francisco; van der Vegt, Nico F. A.

    2015-03-01

    Protective osmolytes are chemical compounds that shift the (bio)macromolecule folding/unfolding equilibrium toward the folded state under osmotic stresses. Traditionally it has been considered that omolytes are depleted from the macromolecule first solvation shell, leading to entropic stabilization of the folded state. Recent theoretical and experimental studies suggest that protective osmolytes may directly interact with the macromolecule. As an exemplary and experimentally well-characterized system, we herein discuss poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAM) in water whose folding/unfolding equilibrium shifts toward the folded state in the presence of urea. Based on Molecular Dynamics simulations we show that urea preferentially accumulates in the first solvation shell of PNiPAM driven by attractive van der Waals dispersion forces leading to the formation of urea clouds around the polymer. Solvation thermodynamics analysis of the folded and unfolded states discards direct urea/macromolecule interactions as driving force of the folding mechanism. Our data shows that entropic penalization of unfolded polymer chains upon increasing urea concentration drives the collapse of the polymer chain. German Research Foundation (DFG), Cluster of Excellence 259 ``Smart Interfaces - Understanding and Designing Fluid Boundaries.''

  3. Ni-Supported Pd Nanoparticles with Ca Promoter: A New Catalyst for Low-Temperature Ammonia Cracking

    PubMed Central

    Polanski, Jaroslaw; Bartczak, Piotr; Ambrozkiewicz, Weronika; Sitko, Rafal; Siudyga, Tomasz; Mianowski, Andrzej; Szade, Jacek; Balin, Katarzyna; Lelątko, Józef

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report a new nanometallic, self-activating catalyst, namely, Ni-supported Pd nanoparticles (PdNPs/Ni) for low temperature ammonia cracking, which was prepared using a novel approach involving the transfer of nanoparticles from the intermediate carrier, i.e. nano-spherical SiO2, to the target carrier technical grade Ni (t-Ni) or high purity Ni (p-Ni) grains. The method that was developed allows a uniform nanoparticle size distribution (4,4±0.8 nm) to be obtained. Unexpectedly, the t-Ni-supported Pd NPs, which seemed to have a surface Ca impurity, appeared to be more active than the Ca-free (p-Ni) system. A comparison of the novel PdNPs/Ni catalyst with these reported in the literature clearly indicates the much better hydrogen productivity of the new system, which seems to be a highly efficient, flexible and durable catalyst for gas-phase heterogeneous ammonia cracking in which the TOF reaches a value of 2615 mmolH2/gPd min (10,570 molNH3/molPd(NP) h) at 600°C under a flow of 12 dm3/h (t-Ni). PMID:26308929

  4. Facile synthesis of self-supported Ni2P nanosheet@Ni sponge composite for high-rate battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, F.; Xie, D.; Zhong, Y.; Wang, D. H.; Xia, X. H.; Gu, C. D.; Wang, X. L.; Tu, J. P.

    2016-10-01

    To meet the requirements for high-rate battery with desirable performance, a self-supported Ni2P@Ni sponge electrode is synthesized via simple steps, in which the Ni sponge substrate is synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal method and the Ni2P nanosheets grown on the novel substrate are converted from Ni(OH)2 via a phosphorization reaction. This hybrid composite combines the 3D porous structure of Ni sponge and high capacity of Ni2P nanosheets, which exhibits lightweight, flexible and highly-conductive properties, resulting in an excellent specific capacity of 430.3 mAh g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 and remaining as high as 77.0% capacity even at 40 A g-1. More importantly, the Ni2P@Ni sponge//C cell exhibits the maximum energy density of 182.1 W h kg-1 at a power density of 205 W kg-1 along with superior capacity retention of 85.2% after 3000 cycles. It is suggested that the Ni2P nanosheet@ Ni sponge composite is a promising electrode material for high-rate batteries.

  5. Ni-Supported Pd Nanoparticles with Ca Promoter: A New Catalyst for Low-Temperature Ammonia Cracking.

    PubMed

    Polanski, Jaroslaw; Bartczak, Piotr; Ambrozkiewicz, Weronika; Sitko, Rafal; Siudyga, Tomasz; Mianowski, Andrzej; Szade, Jacek; Balin, Katarzyna; Lelątko, Józef

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report a new nanometallic, self-activating catalyst, namely, Ni-supported Pd nanoparticles (PdNPs/Ni) for low temperature ammonia cracking, which was prepared using a novel approach involving the transfer of nanoparticles from the intermediate carrier, i.e. nano-spherical SiO2, to the target carrier technical grade Ni (t-Ni) or high purity Ni (p-Ni) grains. The method that was developed allows a uniform nanoparticle size distribution (4,4±0.8 nm) to be obtained. Unexpectedly, the t-Ni-supported Pd NPs, which seemed to have a surface Ca impurity, appeared to be more active than the Ca-free (p-Ni) system. A comparison of the novel PdNPs/Ni catalyst with these reported in the literature clearly indicates the much better hydrogen productivity of the new system, which seems to be a highly efficient, flexible and durable catalyst for gas-phase heterogeneous ammonia cracking in which the TOF reaches a value of 2615 mmolH2/gPd min (10,570 molNH3/molPd(NP) h) at 600°C under a flow of 12 dm3/h (t-Ni).

  6. Postoperative outcome after oesophagectomy for cancer: Nutritional status is the missing ring in the current prognostic scores.

    PubMed

    Filip, B; Scarpa, M; Cavallin, F; Cagol, M; Alfieri, R; Saadeh, L; Ancona, E; Castoro, C

    2015-06-01

    Several prognostic scores were designed in order to estimate the risk of postoperative adverse events. None of them includes a component directly associated to the nutritional status. The aims of the study were the evaluation of performance of risk-adjusted models for early outcomes after oesophagectomy and to develop a score for severe complication prediction with special consideration regarding nutritional status. A comparison of POSSUM and Charlson score and their derivates, ASA, Lagarde score and nutritional index (PNI) was performed on 167 patients undergoing oesophagectomy for cancer. A logistic regression model was also estimated to obtain a new prognostic score for severe morbidity prediction. Overall morbidity was 35.3% (59 cases), severe complications (grade III-V of Clavien-Dindo classification) occurred in 20 cases. Discrimination was poor for all the scores. Multivariable analysis identified pulse, connective tissue disease, PNI and potassium as independent predictors of severe morbidity. This model showed good discrimination and calibration. Internal validation using standard bootstrapping techniques confirmed the good performance. Nutrition could be an independent risk factor for major complications and a nutritional status coefficient could be included in current prognostic scores to improve risk estimation of major postoperative complications after oesophagectomy for cancer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Psychological Stress, Immunity, and the Effects on Indigenous Microflora.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress is an intrinsic part of life that affects all organs of the body through direct nervous system innervation and the release of neuroendocrine hormones. The field of PsychoNeuroImmunology (PNI) has clearly demonstrated that the physiological response to psychological stressors can dramatically impact the functioning of the immune system, thus identifying one way in which susceptibility to or severity of diseases are exacerbated during stressful periods. This chapter describes research at the interface between the fields of PNI and Microbial Endocrinology to demonstrate that natural barrier defenses, such as those provided by the commensal microflora, can be disrupted by exposure to psychological stressors. These stress effects are evident in the development of the intestinal microflora in animals born from stressful pregnancy conditions, and in older animals with fully developed microbial populations. Moreover, data are presented demonstrating that exposure to different types of stressors results in the translocation of microflora from cutaneous and mucosal surfaces into regional lymph nodes. When considered together, a scenario emerges in which psychological stressors induce a neuroendocrine response that has the potential to directly or indirectly affect commensal microflora populations, the integrity of barrier defenses, and the internalization of microbes. Finally, a hypothesis is put forth in which stressor-induced alterations of the microflora contribute to the observed stressor-induced increases in inflammatory markers in the absence of overt infection.

  8. [Nutritional screening before surgery for esophageal cancer - current status and evaluation results].

    PubMed

    Shimakawa, Takeshi; Asaka, Shinich; Sagawa, Masano; Shimazaki, Asako; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Usui, Takebumi; Yokomizo, Hajime; Shiozawa, Shunichi; Yoshimatsu, Kazuhiko; Katsube, Takao; Naritaka, Yoshihiko

    2014-10-01

    The incidence of postoperative complications and mortality are usually higher in patients with preoperative malnutrition. Malnutrition often preexists, particularly in patients undergoing surgery for esophageal cancer, which is substantially invasive. It is therefore important to understand the nutritional condition of patients and actively control perioperative nutrition.Our hospital has been providing nutritional status screening for patients before resection of esophageal cancer, and we report the current status and evaluation results in this article.This screening included 158 patients requiring radical resection of esophageal cancer.Age, comorbidity with diabetes, body mass index(BMI), serum albumin(Alb), Onodera's prognostic nutritional index(PNI), and Glasgow prognostic score(GPS)were used as nutritional indicators to stratify patients for analysis.Evaluation parameters included the incidence of postoperative complications(any complication, pulmonary complications, psychiatric disorder, and anastomotic leakage)and rates of long-term postoperative hospitalization.The analysis indicated that age, BMI, serum Alb, PNI, and GPS are useful for predicting the onset of postoperative complications and prolonged postoperative hospitalization.For such patients, more active nutritional control should be provided.

  9. Design and analysis of serial limiting dilution assays with small sample sizes.

    PubMed

    Macken, C

    1999-01-01

    We study the design of serial limiting dilution assays (SLDAs) for estimation of effector cell frequency in settings that restrict severely the amount of material available for assay, and for which the assumption of a single-hit Poisson model is reasonable. For different designs (that is, dilution factor, number of dilution levels, and number of replicates at each level), we evaluate maximum likelihood and minimum chi-square estimators, using four quantitative criteria: probability of a non-informative assay (PNI), bias, coefficient of variation (CV), and mean squared error (MSE). Our results are exact, not simulation-based, nor approximations. We found that differences between these two estimators were insubstantial by comparison with the effect on the estimators of the experimental design. Bias was severe in small assays, and could lead, in extremely small designs, to overestimation of effector frequency by as much as 100%. These four criteria provide a rigorous basis for determining the most effective apportionment of total effort among replicates and dilution levels. By increasing the dilution factor and favoring the number of replicates over the number of dilution levels, the PNI is reduced while bias, CV and MSE are increased; and vice versa. Our study is easily extended to estimation of the density of biologically active particles per volume. It can also be extended to alternatives to the single-hit Poisson model for a serial limiting dilution assay.

  10. Evaluation of Small Intestine Submucosa and Poly(caprolactone-co-lactide) Conduits for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Sun Woo; Kwon, Doo Yeon; Lee, Bit Na; Kwon, Jin Seon; Park, Ji Hoon; Lee, Jun Hee; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, Il Woo; Shin, Jung-Woog; Lee, Hai Bang; Kim, Wan-Doo

    2015-01-01

    The present study employed nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) only, which were made of small intestine submucosa (SIS) and poly(caprolactone-co-lactide) (PCLA) to promote nerve regeneration in a peripheral nerve injury (PNI) model with nerve defects of 15 mm. The SIS- and PCLA-NGCs were easily prepared by rolling of a SIS sheet and a bioplotter using PCLA, respectively. The prepared SIS- and PCLA-NGCs fulfilled the general requirement for use as artificial peripheral NGCs such as easy fabrication, reproducibility for mass production, suturability, sterilizability, wettability, and proper mechanical properties to resist collapsing when applied to in vivo implantation. The SIS- and PCLA-NGCs appeared to be well integrated into the host sciatic nerve without causing dislocations and serious inflammation. All NGCs stably maintained their NGC shape for 8 weeks without collapsing, which matched well with the nerve regeneration rate. Staining of the NGCs in the longitudinal direction showed that the regenerated nerves grew successfully from the SIS- and PCLA-NGCs through the sciatic nerve-injured gap and connected from the proximal to distal direction along the NGC axis. SIS-NGCs exhibited a higher nerve regeneration rate than PCLA-NGCs. Collectively, our results indicate that SIS- and PCLA-NGCs induced nerve regeneration in a PNI model, a finding that has significant implications in the future with regard to the feasibility of clinical nerve regeneration with SIS- and PCLA-NGCs prepared through an easy fabrication method using promising biomaterials. PMID:25435200

  11. KRAS and PIK3CA mutations in colorectal adenocarcinomas correlate with aggressive histological features and behavior.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sejin; Hong, Mineui; Shin, Mi Kyung; Kim, Byung Chun; Shin, Hyung-Sik; Yu, Eunsil; Hong, Seung-Mo; Kim, Jihun; Chun, Sung Min; Kim, Tae-Im; Choi, Kyung-Chan; Ko, Young Woong; Kim, Jeong Won

    2017-02-08

    Tumor budding (TB) in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and has been recently characterized as an indicator of poor prognosis along with lymphovascular tumor emboli (LVE), perineural invasion (PNI), and an infiltrative growth pattern. Mutations in the genes of the Ras-MAPK and PI3K pathways are associated with EMT and an aggressive CRC phenotype and have been used in patient stratification for anti-EGF receptor therapies; however, the impact of these mutations on CRC morphology and behavior remains unclear. In this study, using a multi-gene panel, we detected KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, TP53, and POLE mutations in 90 CRCs and investigated their associations with clinicopathological parameters, including TB. Our results showed that 21 of 34 tumors with high-grade TB had KRAS mutations (P=.001) and KRAS G12D and PIK3CA exon 9 variants were significantly associated with high-grade TB (P=.002 and .006, respectively); furthermore, tumors with KRAS mutations in exons 3 and 4 tended to have LVE and PNI (P=.044 and .049, respectively). PIK3CA exon 9 mutations indicated a tendency for shorter disease-free survival (P=.030), whereas BRAF mutations were associated with extracellular mucin deposition (P=.016). Our study revealed a correlation of KRAS mutations with high-grade TB, an association of certain KRAS and PIK3CA variants with aggressive clinicopathological features, as well as a possible relationship between BRAF mutations and mucin production in CRC.

  12. Generation of Transgenic Pigs by Cytoplasmic Injection of piggyBac Transposase-Based pmGENIE-3 Plasmids1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zicong; Zeng, Fang; Meng, Fanming; Xu, Zhiqian; Zhang, Xianwei; Huang, Xiaoling; Tang, Fei; Gao, Wenchao; Shi, Junsong; He, Xiaoyan; Liu, Dewu; Wang, Chong; Urschitz, Johann; Moisyadi, Stefan; Wu, Zhenfang

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The process of transgenesis involves the introduction of a foreign gene, the transgene, into the genome of an animal. Gene transfer by pronuclear microinjection (PNI) is the predominant method used to produce transgenic animals. However, this technique does not always result in germline transgenic offspring and has a low success rate for livestock. Alternate approaches, such as somatic cell nuclear transfer using transgenic fibroblasts, do not show an increase in efficiency compared to PNI, while viral-based transgenesis is hampered by issues regarding transgene size and biosafety considerations. We have recently described highly successful transgenesis experiments with mice using a piggyBac transposase-based vector, pmhyGENIE-3. This construct, a single and self-inactivating plasmid, contains all the transpositional elements necessary for successful gene transfer. In this series of experiments, our laboratories have implemented cytoplasmic injection (CTI) of pmGENIE-3 for transgene delivery into in vivo-fertilized pig zygotes. More than 8.00% of the injected embryos developed into transgenic animals containing monogenic and often single transgenes in their genome. However, the CTI technique was unsuccessful during the injection of in vitro-fertilized pig zygotes. In summary, here we have described a method that is not only easy to implement, but also demonstrated the highest efficiency rate for nonviral livestock transgenesis. PMID:24671876

  13. Brain-immune communication psychoneuroimmunology of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kern, S; Ziemssen, T

    2008-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system are two extremely complex and highly adaptive systems. In the face of a real or anticipated threat, be it physical (eg, infection) or psychological (eg, psychosocial stress) in nature, the two systems act in concert to provide optimal adaptation to the demanding internal or environmental conditions. During instances of well being, the communication between these two systems is well tuned and balanced. However, a disturbed crosstalk between the CNS and the immune system is thought to play a major role in a wide series of disorders characterized by a hyporesponsive or hyperresponsive immune system. In multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease, an excess of inflammatory processes seems to be a hallmark and there is growing evidence for a disturbed communication between the CNS and the immune system as a crucial pathogenic factor. While the exact mechanisms for these phenomena are still poorly understood, the young discipline of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), which focuses on the mechanism underlying the brain to immune crosstalk, might offer some insights into the existing pathogenic mechanisms. Findings from the field of PNI might also help to gain a better understanding regarding the origin and course of MS clinical symptoms such as fatigue and depression.

  14. Disruption of Xpg increases spontaneous mutation frequency, particularly A:T to C:G transversion.

    PubMed

    Shiomi, N; Hayashi, E; Sasanuma, S; Mita, K; Shiomi, T

    2001-12-19

    Cells isolated from Xpg (the mouse counterpart of XPG)-disrupted mice underwent premature senescence and showed early onset of immortalization, suggesting that Xpg might be involved in genetic stability. Recent studies showed that human XPG, in addition to its function in the nucleotide excision repair (NER), was involved in the repair of oxidative base damages such as thymine glycol (Tg) and 8-oxo-guanine (8-oxoG), and this may explain the genetic instability observed in Xpg-deficient cells. To clarify this point, we determined spontaneous mutation frequencies and the type of spontaneous base substitution mutations in cells obtained from normal and Xpg-deficient mice using the supF shuttle vector (pNY200) for mutation assay. The spontaneous mutation frequency of the supF gene in pNY200 propagated in the Xpg-deficient cells was about three times higher than that in normal cells, indicating the importance of Xpg in reducing the frequency of spontaneous mutations. The frequency of spontaneous base substitution mutations at A:T sites, particularly that of the A:T to C:G transversion, increased markedly in the Xpg-deficient cells.

  15. Activation of Actuating Hydrogels with WS2 Nanosheets for Biomimetic Cellular Structures and Steerable Prompt Deformation.

    PubMed

    Zong, Lu; Li, Xiankai; Han, Xiangsheng; Lv, Lili; Li, Mingjie; You, Jun; Wu, Xiaochen; Li, Chaoxu

    2017-09-05

    Macroscopic soft actuation is intrinsic to living organisms in nature, including slow deformation (e.g., contraction, bending, twisting, and curling) of plants motivated by microscopic swelling and shrinking of cells, and rapid motion of animals (e.g., deformation of jellyfish) motivated by cooperative nanoscale movement of motor proteins. These actuation behaviors, with an exceptional combination of tunable speed and programmable deformation direction, inspire us to design artificial soft actuators for broad applications in artificial muscles, nanofabrication, chemical valves, microlenses, soft robotics, etc. However, so far artificial soft actuators have been typically produced on the basis of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAM), whose deformation is motived by volumetric shrinkage and swelling in analogue to plant cells, and exhibits sluggish actuation kinetics. In this study, alginate-exfoliated WS2 nanosheets were incorporated into ice-template-polymerized PNiPAM hydrogels with the cellular microstructures which mimic plant cells, yet the prompt steerable actuation of animals. Because of the nanosheet-reinforced pore walls formed in situ in freezing polymerization and reasonable hierarchical water channels, this cellular hybrid hydrogel achieves super deformation speed (on the order of magnitude of 10° s), controllable deformation direction, and high near-infrared light responsiveness, offering an unprecedented platform of artificial muscles for various soft robotics and devices (e.g., rotator, microvalve, aquatic swimmer, and water-lifting filter).

  16. Interpersonal perception of pathological narcissism: a social relations analysis.

    PubMed

    Lukowitsky, Mark R; Pincus, Aaron L

    2013-01-01

    Impairments in self and interpersonal functioning are core features of personality pathology. Clinical theory and research indicate that compromised self-awareness and distorted interpersonal perceptions are particularly prominent in individuals exhibiting pathological narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Therefore we conducted a study to gain a better understanding of interpersonal perception of pathological narcissism. A large sample (N=437) of moderately acquainted individuals assigned to 1 of 93 small mixed-sex groups completed self- and informant ratings on the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) in a round-robin design. The social relations model (SRM) was used to partition the variance in dyadic ratings to investigate several hypotheses about interpersonal perception of pathological narcissism. SRM analyses demonstrated evidence of assimilation (the tendency to perceive and rate others similarly) and consensus (the extent to which multiple observers form similar impressions of another person) in interpersonal perception of pathological narcissism. Results also indicated modest self-other agreement and assumed similarity (the tendency for people to perceive others as similar to themselves) for PNI higher order factors and subscale ratings. Finally, results suggested that individuals high in pathological narcissism had some awareness of how peers would rate them (metaperception) but believed that others would rate them similarly to how they rated themselves.

  17. Measures of Narcissism and Their Relations to DSM-5 Pathological Traits: A Critical Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R; Campbell, W Keith

    2016-02-01

    There exists substantial debate about how to best assess pathological narcissism with a variety of measures designed to assess grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, as well as the DSM-IV and DSM-5 based conceptualizations of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). Wright and colleagues published correlations between several narcissism measures (Narcissistic Personality Inventory [NPI]; Pathological Narcissism Inventory [PNI]; Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire [PDQ] NPD) with the traits comprising the DSM-5 Section III personality trait model. In the current study, we examine the agreement manifested by Wright and colleagues' narcissism-DSM-5 trait profiles with expert ratings of the DSM-5 traits most relevant to descriptions of DSM-IV NPD. Despite concerns regarding the NPI's ability to measure pathological narcissism, its trait profile was strongly correlated with expert ratings, as was PDQ NPD's profile. Conversely, the trait profiles associated with the PNI were primarily uncorrelated with the expert rated NPD profile. The implications of these findings with regard to the assessment of narcissism are discussed.

  18. Psychoneuroimmunology and cancer: A decade of discovery, paradigm shifts, and methodological innovations

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Paige Green; O’Connell, Mary; Lutgendorf, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces the supplemental issue of “Cancer, Brain, Behavior, and Immunity” and outlines important discoveries, paradigm shifts, and methodological innovations that have emerged in the past decade to advance mechanistic and translational understanding of biobehavioral influences on tumor biology, cancer treatment-related sequelae, and cancer outcomes. We offer a heuristic framework for research on biobehavioral pathways in cancer. The shifting survivorship landscape is highlighted and we propose that the changing demographics suggest prudent adoption of a life course perspective of cancer and cancer survivorship. We note opportunities for psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) research to ameliorate the long-term, unintended consequences of aggressive curative intent and call attention to the critical role of reciprocal translational pathways between animal and human studies. Lastly, we briefly summarize the articles included in this compilation and offer our perspectives on future research directions. HighlightsThis article introduces the National Cancer Institute sponsored special issue Cancer, Brain, Behavior, and Immunity and highlights the last decade of PNI-cancer research. PMID:23333846

  19. Nerve growth factor regulates CD133 function to promote tumor cell migration and invasion via activating ERK1/2 signaling in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Xin, Beibei; He, Xiaodan; Wang, Juan; Cai, Jun; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Ti; Shen, Xiaohong

    Perineural invasion (PNI) is extremely high frequency among the various metastatic routes in pancreatic cancer. Nerve growth factor, secreted by astroglial cells, exerts effects on tumor invasion in some cancer cells, but its function on migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer is still unclear. In the present study, we determined the effects of NGF on modulating tumor cell metastatic potential and invasion activity and explored its mechanisms in pancreatic cancer. NGF and CD133 expression were detected in tumor tissues using immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting analysis. The effects of NGF on the regulation of CD133 expression and the promotion of cancer migration and invasion were investigated using wound healing and matrigel transwell assay. A related mechanism that NGF regulates CD133's function via activating ERK1/2 signaling also was observed. NGF/CD133 is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer and promotes the migration and invasion of human pancreatic cancer cells through the activation of the ERK/CD133 signaling cascade. NGF/ERK signaling modulates the cancer cell EMT process, migration and invasion through the regulation of CD133 expression and its subcellular localization. NGF/CD133 signaling initiated the migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. NGF/CD133 might be an effective and potent therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer metastasis, particularly in PNI. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. How do different dimensions of adolescent narcissism impact the relation between callous-unemotional traits and self-reported aggression?

    PubMed

    Lee-Rowland, Lauren M; Barry, Christopher T; Gillen, Christopher T A; Hansen, Laura K

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the moderating influence that different aspects of narcissism have on the relation between callous-unemotional (CU) traits and aggression in a sample of 720 adolescents (500 males), ages 16-19 enrolled in a 22-week residential program. Findings from the two studies revealed that psychopathy-linked narcissism as assessed by the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001; Antisocial process screening device. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.) and vulnerable narcissism as assessed using the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI; Pincus et al., 2009; Initial construction and validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 21, 365-379) significantly moderated the relation between CU traits and aggression in adolescents. Conversely, non-pathological narcissism assessed by the Narcissistic Personality Inventory for Children (NPIC; Barry, Frick, & Killian, 2003; The relation of narcissism and self-esteem to conduct problems in children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 139-152) and PNI grandiose narcissism did not significantly impact this relation. These results suggest that forms of narcissism most closely connected to internalizing problems combined with CU traits are associated with relatively heightened aggression in youth. The implications of these findings are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 43:14-25, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The prognostic index: a useful pathologic guide for prediction of nodal metastases and survival in penile squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Alcides; Caballero, Carmelo; Soares, Fernando; Guimarães, Gustavo C; Cunha, Isabel W; Reuter, Víctor; Barreto, José; Rodríguez, Ingrid; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2009-07-01

    A concern of surgical oncologists has been to find a method to select patients for groin dissection in penile carcinomas considering the high morbidity of this procedure. A promising methodology, in the identification of early metastatic foci by the sentinel lymph node technique (initiated in Paraguay in the 1970s), was found, using a static anatomic approach, to be associated with a recurrence rate of 30%. Later, a dynamic method using radioactive tracers and peritumoral dye injection was introduced with an improvement in patients' outcome. Recurrences, however, remained high in most studies at a rate of about 15% to 20% except in few highly specialized centers with failure rates of 5%. The technical sophistication, lack of multicenter reproduction, and cost of dynamic sentinel node biopsies preclude their routine implementation in developing countries and other approaches are necessary. Because histologic grade, depth of tumor infiltration, and perineural invasion (PNI) are considered among the most important pathologic prognostic parameters in penile cancer, we devised a Prognostic Index combining these 3 factors. In this study, we are evaluating the incidence of nodal metastasis according to the Prognostic Index score. Pathologic materials from 193 patients with penectomy/circumcision and bilateral groin dissections for invasive squamous cell carcinoma were analyzed. The Prognostic Index (ranging from 2 to 7) consisted in the addition of numerical values given to histologic grade (1 to 3), deepest anatomic level involved by cancer (1 to 3), and presence of PNI (0 or 1). Histologic grades were defined as follows: grade 1, carcinomas with minimal to no atypias; grade 3, tumors showing any proportion of anaplastic cells; and grade 2, the remainder tumors. The anatomic levels and their numerical values were: in glans, lamina propria, 1; corpus spongiosum, 2; and corpus cavernosum, 3. In foreskin they were: lamina propria, 1; dartos, 2; and skin, 3. PNI was

  2. A comparison of the prognostic value of preoperative inflammation-based scores and TNM stage in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qun-Xiong; Su, Zi-Jian; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Wang, Chong-Ren; Ke, Shao-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Background People’s Republic of China is one of the countries with the highest incidence of gastric cancer, accounting for 45% of all new gastric cancer cases in the world. Therefore, strong prognostic markers are critical for the diagnosis and survival of Chinese patients suffering from gastric cancer. Recent studies have begun to unravel the mechanisms linking the host inflammatory response to tumor growth, invasion and metastasis in gastric cancers. Based on this relationship between inflammation and cancer progression, several inflammation-based scores have been demonstrated to have prognostic value in many types of malignant solid tumors. Objective To compare the prognostic value of inflammation-based prognostic scores and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage in patients undergoing gastric cancer resection. Methods The inflammation-based prognostic scores were calculated for 207 patients with gastric cancer who underwent surgery. Glasgow prognostic score (GPS), neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR), prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and prognostic index (PI) were analyzed. Linear trend chi-square test, likelihood ratio chi-square test, and receiver operating characteristic were performed to compare the prognostic value of the selected scores and TNM stage. Results In univariate analysis, preoperative serum C-reactive protein (P<0.001), serum albumin (P<0.001), GPS (P<0.001), PLR (P=0.002), NLR (P<0.001), PI (P<0.001), PNI (P<0.001), and TNM stage (P<0.001) were significantly associated with both overall survival and disease-free survival of patients with gastric cancer. In multivariate analysis, GPS (P=0.024), NLR (P=0.012), PI (P=0.001), TNM stage (P<0.001), and degree of differentiation (P=0.002) were independent predictors of gastric cancer survival. GPS and TNM stage had a comparable prognostic value and higher linear trend chi-square value, likelihood ratio chi-square value, and larger area under the receiver operating

  3. Histopathological variables and biomarkers enhancer of zeste homologue 2, Ki-67 and minichromosome maintenance protein 7 as prognosticators in primarily endocrine-treated prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Teemu T; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Kujala, Paula M; Tuominen, Vilppu J; Isola, Jorma J; Visakorpi, Tapio

    2011-11-01

    • To evaluate the prognostic value of histopathological variables and immunostainings of biomarkers enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2), Ki-67 and minichromosome maintenance protein 7 (MCM7) from core biopsies of hormonally treated patients with prostate cancer. • Biopsies of 247 primarily endocrine-treated patients were analysed for histopathological characteristics and Gleason scores (GS) according to the revised guidelines of International Society of Urologic Pathology (ISUP) consensus conference 2005. • Immunohistochemical stainings were analysed with the aid of digital image analysis. • The prognostic value of the histopathological variables and the biomarkers was analysed with univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis, with biochemical recurrence as an endpoint. • Biomarkers EZH2 (relative risk [RR] 2.0, 95% confidence interval 1.2-3.3), Ki-67 (3.4, 2.1-5.5) and MCM7 (2.4, 1.5-3.9) were significantly associated with progression-free survival in a univariate analysis. • Ki-67 immunostaining index detected high-risk patients with GS of 7 (9.1, 8.0-10.3). • In a multivariate analysis with non-conventional GS groups 5-7 (3 + 4), 7(4 + 3)-8, and 9-10, the independent prognostic markers were pretreatment GS (2.2, 1.5-3.2), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (2.1, 1.1-4.2), perineural invasion (PNI) (1.6, 1.2-2.2), and clinical T-stage (cT) (1.9, 1.0-3.7). • Combination of the independent markers (PSA level > 20 ng/mL or GS >3 + 4 or PNI >3 or cT >2) yielded best risk stratification (RR 11.6, 10.4-12.7). • GS remains one of the most important prognostic factors in prostate cancer. However, the refined guidelines by ISUP 2005 might have shifted the threshold between low-grade and high-grade cancers from GS 6 vs 7 to GS 3 + 4 vs 4 + 3. • PNI is an independent prognostic marker superior to cT. • Ki-67 is the most useful biomarker in detecting patients with GS = 7 at high risk for progression. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL

  4. A comparison of the prognostic value of preoperative inflammation-based scores and TNM stage in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qun-Xiong; Su, Zi-Jian; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Wang, Chong-Ren; Ke, Shao-Ying

    2015-01-01

    People's Republic of China is one of the countries with the highest incidence of gastric cancer, accounting for 45% of all new gastric cancer cases in the world. Therefore, strong prognostic markers are critical for the diagnosis and survival of Chinese patients suffering from gastric cancer. Recent studies have begun to unravel the mechanisms linking the host inflammatory response to tumor growth, invasion and metastasis in gastric cancers. Based on this relationship between inflammation and cancer progression, several inflammation-based scores have been demonstrated to have prognostic value in many types of malignant solid tumors. To compare the prognostic value of inflammation-based prognostic scores and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage in patients undergoing gastric cancer resection. The inflammation-based prognostic scores were calculated for 207 patients with gastric cancer who underwent surgery. Glasgow prognostic score (GPS), neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR), prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and prognostic index (PI) were analyzed. Linear trend chi-square test, likelihood ratio chi-square test, and receiver operating characteristic were performed to compare the prognostic value of the selected scores and TNM stage. In univariate analysis, preoperative serum C-reactive protein (P<0.001), serum albumin (P<0.001), GPS (P<0.001), PLR (P=0.002), NLR (P<0.001), PI (P<0.001), PNI (P<0.001), and TNM stage (P<0.001) were significantly associated with both overall survival and disease-free survival of patients with gastric cancer. In multivariate analysis, GPS (P=0.024), NLR (P=0.012), PI (P=0.001), TNM stage (P<0.001), and degree of differentiation (P=0.002) were independent predictors of gastric cancer survival. GPS and TNM stage had a comparable prognostic value and higher linear trend chi-square value, likelihood ratio chi-square value, and larger area under the receiver operating characteristic curve as compared to other

  5. Parameningeal Rhabdomyosarcoma: Outcomes and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Joanna C.; Wexler, Leonard H.; Meyers, Paul A.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine patterns of failure in patients with parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma (PM-RMS) treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Forty-seven patients with PM-RMS received chemotherapy and IMRT for definitive treatment. The median age was 9 years (range, 0.5-35 years). The high-risk features were as follows: 40% alveolar histology, 72% group III and 26% group IV disease, 57% either intracranial extension (ICE) (n=25) or cranial neuropathy (n=21). The median time to RT from the start of chemotherapy was 15 weeks (range, 2-54 weeks). Patients received 50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions to the primary tumor by use of IMRT. Thirteen patients aged {>=}14 years with alveolar histology received 36 Gy prophylactic nodal irradiation (PNI) to bilateral cervical nodes. Events were defined as local, regional (nodal), central nervous system (CNS), or distant failures. Results: With a median follow-up time of 3.3 years (range, 0.5-12.8 years), 18 patients experienced failure: 5 local, 2 regional, 6 distant, and 7 CNS. The 5-year local failure-free survival was 86%. Age, histology, and time to RT did not influence the risk of local failure. The 5-year regional failure-free survival was 92%: 100% for embryonal and 74% for alveolar (P=.03). However, there were no lymph node failures in patients with alveolar histology who were given PNI. The 5-year CNS failure-free survival was 83%: 100% without and 70% with ICE (P=.01); 95% without and 69% with cranial neuropathy (P=.02). The estimated 5-year event-free survival and overall survival were 61% for group III and 58% for group IV patients. Conclusions: Distant failure was the most common type of failure among group IV patients. Patients with alveolar histology seem to benefit from PNI. The presence of ICE or cranial neuropathy portends a high risk of CNS failure, the most common pattern of failure among non-group IV patients. These patients may benefit from the addition of novel CNS

  6. Use of Ornamental Trees in Dating of Abandoned Cemeteries on the Example of Thuja Occidentalis and Thuja Orientalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opała, Magdalena; Majgier, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    i Thuja occidentalis. Te obce dla flory polskiej gatunki, doskonale zaadaptowały się do zastanych warunków siedliskowych i klimatycznych. W pracy przedstawiono próbę zastosowania metody datowania dendrochronologicznego do określenia wieku porzuconych cmentarzy z Krainy Wielkich Jezior Mazurskich. Badaniem objęto 5 porzuconych cmentarzy. Ogółem pobrano 15 wywiertów z drzew. Po zastosowaniu standardowej metody dendrochronologicznej, utworzono lokalne chronologie przyrostowe dla badanych gatunków. Badania wykazały, iż najstarsze okazały się być okazy Thuja occidentalis występujące na cmentarzu Słabowo, których wiek wynosi ponad 70 lat. Na pozostałych obiektach rosnące okazy obydwu gatunków żywotników datowane są na lata 60. i początek lat 70.XX wiek. W porównaniu z informacjami historycznymi o wieku i pochodzeniu badanych obiektów rosnące na nich okazy żywotników są znacznie młodsze niż wiek założenia cmentarzy. Przedstawiona metoda okazała się być niezwykle pomocna w poznaniu czasu wprowadzenia żywotników Thuja occidentalis i Thuja orientalis na badanych cmentarzach.

  7. Superresolution Microscopy of the Volume Phase Transition of pNIPAM Microgels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, Gaurasundar Marc; Nöjd, Sofi; Braibanti, Marco; Schurtenberger, Peter; Scheffold, Frank

    Hierarchical polymer structures such as pNIPAM microgels have been extensively studied for their ability to undergo significant structural and physical transformations that can be controlled by external stimuli such as temperature, pH or solvent composition. Here we discuss in-situ three-dimensional superresolution microscopy of dye-labeled submicron sized PNiPAM microgels. We use direct STochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (dSTORM) to study the internal density distribution and the particle-to-particle variability of the volume phase transition. Moreover we discuss the potential of this technique towards future applications to more complex architectures for example microgel with anisotropic shape or ones that are doped or decorated with nanoparticles.

  8. The associations between pathological narcissism, alexithymia and disordered eating attitudes among participants of pro-anorexic online communities.

    PubMed

    Zerach, Gadi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between pathological narcissism, alexithymia, and disordered eating attitudes among participants of pro-anorexic online communities. Specifically, we explored the possible moderating role of alexithymia in the relationships between narcissistic vulnerability and disordered eating attitudes. Participants included 97 Israeli female young adults who are active participants in pro-anorexic online communities. These participants completed a battery of self-reported questionnaires: The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI); The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26); and The Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Narcissistic grandiosity, vulnerability, and alexithymia were positively related to disordered eating attitudes. Alexithymia moderated the relationships between narcissistic vulnerability and the total score of disordered eating attitudes. Furthermore, alexithymia moderated the relationships between both narcissistic vulnerability and grandiosity and the oral control subscale of EAT-26. These findings highlight the interaction between the pathological narcissism and the fundamental trait of alexithymia that might put individuals at risk for disordered eating.

  9. Faunistic Catalog of the Caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) of Parque Nacional do Itatiaia and its Surroundings in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Leandro Lourenço; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is considered one of the world's biological diversity hotspots, and is increasingly threatened by the rapid destruction and fragmentation of its natural areas. The caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Itatiaia massif, an Atlantic Forest highland area, are inventoried and cataloged here. The catalog is based on examination of bibliographies, field work on many localities of Itatiaia massif (including Parque Nacional do Itatiaia — PNI), and the entomological collection Professor José Alfredo Pinheiro Dutra (DZRJ), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. A total of 92 species are recorded, representing about 17% of the known Brazilian Trichoptera fauna. Leptoceridae, Hydropsychidae, and Philopotamidae are the families most represented. The high species richness, as well as the remarkable patterns of species distribution, may be related to the characteristics of Mantiqueira mountain range. PMID:22958122

  10. New approach to Tolman's electronic parameter based on local vibrational modes.

    PubMed

    Kalescky, Robert; Kraka, Elfi; Cremer, Dieter

    2014-01-06

    Tolman's electronic parameter (TEP) derived from the A1-symmetrical CO stretching frequency of nickel-phosphine-tricarbonyl complexes, R3PNi(CO)3, is brought to a new, improved level by replacing normal with local vibrational frequencies. CO normal vibrational frequencies are always flawed by mode-mode coupling especially with metal-carbon stretching modes, which leads to coupling frequencies as large as 100 cm(-1) and can become even larger when the transition metal and the number of ligands is changed. Local TEP (LTEP) values, being based on local CO stretching force constants rather than normal mode frequencies, no longer suffer from mode coupling and mass effects. For 42 nickel complexes of the type LNi(CO)3, it is shown that LTEP values provide a different ordering of ligand electronic effects as previously suggested by TEP and CEP values. The general applicability of the LTEP concept is demonstrated.

  11. The neurochemistry of peripheral nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Benga, Andreea; Zor, Fatih; Korkmaz, Ahmet; Marinescu, Bogdan; Gorantla, Vijay

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) can be most disabling, resulting in the loss of sensitivity, motor function and autonomic control in the involved anatomical segment. Although injured peripheral nerves are capable of regeneration, sub-optimal recovery of function is seen even with the best reconstruction. Distal axonal degeneration is an unavoidable consequence of PNI. There are currently few strategies aimed to maintain the distal pathway and/or target fidelity during regeneration across the zone of injury. The current state of the art approaches have been focussed on the site of nerve injury and not on their distal muscular targets or representative proximal cell bodies or central cortical regions. This is a comprehensive literature review of the neurochemistry of peripheral nerve regeneration and a state of the art analysis of experimental compounds (inorganic and organic agents) with demonstrated neurotherapeutic efficacy in improving cell body and neuron survival, reducing scar formation and maximising overall nerve regeneration. PMID:28615804

  12. An integrated device for magnetically-driven drug release and in situ quantitative measurements: Design, fabrication and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruvera, I. J.; Hernández, R.; Mijangos, C.; Goya, G. F.

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a device capable of remote triggering and in situ quantification of therapeutic drugs, based on magnetically-responsive hydrogels of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) and alginate (PNiPAAm). The heating efficiency of these hydrogels measured by their specific power absorption (SPA) values showed that the values between 100 and 300 W/g of the material were high enough to reach the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the polymeric matrix within few minutes. The drug release through application of AC magnetic fields could be controlled by time-modulated field pulses in order to deliver the desired amount of drug. Using B12 vitamin as a concept drug, the device was calibrated to measure amounts of drug released as small as 25(2)×10-9 g, demonstrating the potential of this device for very precise quantitative control of drug release.

  13. Dynamics and filtration of microgel suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naegele, Gerhard; Roa, Rafael; Riest, Jonas

    Microgel suspensions exhibit interesting transport properties determined by direct and hydrodynamic interactions. Using an annulus model to account for solvent permeability, we calculate the diffusion function and sedimentation coefficient of PNiPAM microgel suspensions, in excellent agreement with experimental results. Moreover, an extension of our precise analytic methods to long-time properties including viscosity and self-diffusion coefficient is presented, with results compared to simulation and experimental data. The predicted transport properties are an important ingredient to the modeling of convective-diffusive transport in membrane ultrafiltration of permeable particles. The efficiency of the separation process depends on hydrodynamic boundary conditions, membrane properties and particle interactions. We calculate the concentration polarization layer and permeate flux at different operating conditions for cross-flow ultrafiltration of non-ionic and ionic microgels. Small microgel permeability already affects the filtration significantly.

  14. Platelet-rich plasma, an adjuvant biological therapy to assist peripheral nerve repair

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Mikel; Garate, Ane; Delgado, Diego; Padilla, Sabino

    2017-01-01

    Therapies such as direct tension-free microsurgical repair or transplantation of a nerve autograft, are nowadays used to treat traumatic peripheral nerve injuries (PNI), focused on the enhancement of the intrinsic regenerative potential of injured axons. However, these therapies fail to recreate the suitable cellular and molecular microenvironment of peripheral nerve repair and in some cases, the functional recovery of nerve injuries is incomplete. Thus, new biomedical engineering strategies based on tissue engineering approaches through molecular intervention and scaffolding offer promising outcomes on the field. In this sense, evidence is accumulating in both, preclinical and clinical settings, indicating that platelet-rich plasma products, and fibrin scaffold obtained from this technology, hold an important therapeutic potential as a neuroprotective, neurogenic and neuroinflammatory therapeutic modulator system, as well as enhancing the sensory and motor functional nerve muscle unit recovery. PMID:28250739

  15. Psychoneuroimmunology.

    PubMed

    Tausk, Francisco; Elenkov, Ilia; Moynihan, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is a discipline that has evolved in the last 40 years to study the relationship between immunity, the endocrine system, and the central and peripheral nervous systems. In this manner, neurotransmitters, hormones, and neuropeptides have been found to regulate immune cells, and these in turn are capable of communicating with nervous tissue through the secretion of a wide variety of cytokines. Of critical importance is the effect of products of the CNS and nerves on the maintenance of the delicate balance between cell-mediated (Th1) and humoral (Th2) immune responses. A good example of how this concept operates in vivo becomes evident when analyzing the effects of stressors. Chronic stress affects significantly the function of the immune system as well as modifies the evolution of a variety of skin diseases, as psychosocial interventions have proved to be effective in their therapy.

  16. Psychoneuroimmunology and cancer: a decade of discovery, paradigm shifts, and methodological innovations.

    PubMed

    Green McDonald, Paige; O'Connell, Mary; Lutgendorf, Susan K

    2013-03-01

    This article introduces the supplement Advances in Cancer and Brain, Behavior, and Immunity and outlines important discoveries, paradigm shifts, and methodological innovations that have emerged in the past decade to advance mechanistic and translational understanding of biobehavioral influences on tumor biology, cancer treatment-related sequelae, and cancer outcomes. We offer a heuristic framework for research on biobehavioral pathways in cancer. The shifting survivorship landscape is highlighted, and we propose that the changing demographics suggest prudent adoption of a life course perspective of cancer and cancer survivorship. We note opportunities for psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) research to ameliorate the long-term, unintended consequences of aggressive curative intent and call attention to the critical role of reciprocal translational pathways between animal and human studies. Lastly, we briefly summarize the articles included in this compilation and offer our perspectives on future research directions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Faunistic catalog of the caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) of Parque Nacional do Itatiaia and its surroundings in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Leandro Lourenço; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is considered one of the world's biological diversity hotspots, and is increasingly threatened by the rapid destruction and fragmentation of its natural areas. The caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Itatiaia massif, an Atlantic Forest highland area, are inventoried and cataloged here. The catalog is based on examination of bibliographies, field work on many localities of Itatiaia massif (including Parque Nacional do Itatiaia - PNI), and the entomological collection Professor José Alfredo Pinheiro Dutra (DZRJ), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. A total of 92 species are recorded, representing about 17% of the known Brazilian Trichoptera fauna. Leptoceridae, Hydropsychidae, and Philopotamidae are the families most represented. The high species richness, as well as the remarkable patterns of species distribution, may be related to the characteristics of Mantiqueira mountain range.

  18. The impact of pathological narcissism on psychotherapy utilization, initial symptom severity, and early-treatment symptom change: a naturalistic investigation.

    PubMed

    Ellison, William D; Levy, Kenneth N; Cain, Nicole M; Ansell, Emily B; Pincus, Aaron L

    2013-01-01

    The impact of pathological narcissism on psychotherapy has seldom been investigated empirically, despite extensive clinical theory proposing that highly narcissistic individuals should be reluctant to engage in treatment and derive smaller benefits from therapy. In this study, we investigate the relationship between scores on the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI; Pincus et al., 2009), which assesses both narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability, and clinical variables in a sample of outpatients (N=60) at a community mental health center. Results indicated that grandiosity, but not vulnerability, was negatively related to the use of adjunctive services and positively predicted client-initiated termination of psychotherapy. In addition, grandiosity and vulnerability were related to initial levels of different symptoms in multilevel models using a subsample (n=41) but not generally related to the linear rate of symptom change in early psychotherapy. The results highlight the clinical utility of assessing pathological narcissism in a real-world psychotherapeutic context.

  19. A glimpse behind the mask: facets of narcissism and feelings of self-worth.

    PubMed

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Besser, Avi

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the connections that the facets of narcissism captured by the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Hall, 1979) and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI; Pincus et al., 2009) have with self-esteem. This was accomplished by asking 372 participants to complete measures of narcissism and self-esteem level as well as daily diary measures concerning their state self-esteem and daily experiences. Our analyses found that the facets of narcissism differed in their associations with average level of self-esteem, fluctuations in state self-esteem over time, and self-esteem reactions following daily events. These results suggest that it is important to consider specific facets of narcissism when examining feelings of self-worth rather than relying on broader composite measures of narcissistic personality features. Implications of these results for our understanding of the dynamics of the narcissistic personality are discussed.

  20. Thermo-responsive cell culture carriers based on poly(vinyl methyl ether)-the effect of biomolecular ligands to balance cell adhesion and stimulated detachment.

    PubMed

    Teichmann, Juliane; Nitschke, Mirko; Pette, Dagmar; Valtink, Monika; Gramm, Stefan; Härtel, Frauke V; Noll, Thomas; Funk, Richard H W; Engelmann, Katrin; Werner, Carsten

    2015-08-01

    Two established material systems for thermally stimulated detachment of adherent cells were combined in a cross-linked polymer blend to merge favorable properties. Through this approach poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAAm) with its superior switching characteristic was paired with a poly(vinyl methyl ether)-based composition that allows adjusting physico-chemical and biomolecular properties in a wide range. Beyond pure PNiPAAm, the proposed thermo-responsive coating provides thickness, stiffness and swelling behavior, as well as an apposite density of reactive sites for biomolecular functionalization, as effective tuning parameters to meet specific requirements of a particular cell type regarding initial adhesion and ease of detachment. To illustrate the strength of this approach, the novel cell culture carrier was applied to generate transplantable sheets of human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC). Sheets were grown, detached, and transferred onto planar targets. Cell morphology, viability and functionality were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and determination of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) before and after sheet detachment and transfer. HCEC layers showed regular morphology with appropriate TEER. Cells were positive for function-associated marker proteins ZO-1, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, and paxillin, and extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin, laminin and collagen type IV before and after transfer. Sheet detachment and transfer did not impair cell viability. Subsequently, a potential application in ophthalmology was demonstrated by transplantation onto de-endothelialized porcine corneas in vitro. The novel thermo-responsive cell culture carrier facilitates the generation and transfer of functional HCEC sheets. This paves the way to generate tissue engineered human corneal endothelium as an alternative transplant source for endothelial keratoplasty.

  1. Conserved Dopamine Neurotrophic Factor-Transduced Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Axon Regeneration and Functional Recovery of Injured Sciatic Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Nie, Lin; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Yuan-Qiang; Wang, Shuai-Shuai; Cheng, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a common disease that often results in axonal degeneration and the loss of neurons, ultimately leading to limited nerve regeneration and severe functional impairment. Currently, there are no effective treatments for PNI. In the present study, we transduced conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in collagen tubes to investigate their regenerative effects on rat peripheral nerves in an in vivo transection model. Scanning electron microscopy of the collagen tubes demonstrated their ability to be resorbed in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of the CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after application of CDNF-MSCs. Quantitative analysis of neurofilament 200 (NF200) and S100 immunohistochemistry showed significant enhancement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration in the group receiving CDNF-MSCs (CDNF-MSCs group) compared with the control groups. Myelination thickness, axon diameter and the axon-to fiber diameter ratio (G-ratio) were significantly higher in the CDNF-MSCs group at 8 and 12 weeks after nerve transection surgery. After surgery, the sciatic functional index, target muscle weight, wet weight ratio of gastrocnemius muscle and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tracing demonstrated functional recovery. Light and electron microscopy confirmed successful regeneration of the sciatic nerve. The greater numbers of HRP-labeled neuron cell bodies and increased sciatic nerve index values (SFI) in the CDNF-MSCs group suggest that CDNF exerts neuroprotective effects in vivo. We also observed higher target muscle weights and a significant improvement in muscle atrophism in the CDNF-MSCs group. Collectively, these findings indicate that CDNF gene therapy delivered by MSCs is capable of promoting nerve regeneration and functional recovery, likely because of the significant neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of CDNF and the superior environment offered by MSCs and collagen tubes. PMID

  2. Short-term outcomes and nutritional status after laparoscopic subtotal gastrectomy with a very small remnant stomach for cStage I proximal gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Haruna; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Takiguchi, Shuji; Tanaka, Koji; Miyazaki, Yasuhiro; Makino, Tomoki; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Yamasaki, Makoto; Nakajima, Kiyokazu; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2017-08-20

    Total or proximal gastrectomy is usually performed for early proximal gastric carcinoma, but the optimal type of gastrectomy is still unknown. We evaluated short-term outcomes and nutritional status after laparoscopic subtotal gastrectomy (LsTG) in comparison with laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG) and laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (LPG). We analyzed 113 patients who underwent LsTG (n = 38), LTG (n = 48), or LPG (n = 27) for cStage I gastric cancer located in the upper third of the stomach. Postoperative morbidities, nutritional status including body weight, serum albumin, hemoglobin, the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and endoscopic findings at 1 year after surgery were compared between LsTG and both LTG and LPG. Operation time and intraoperative blood loss were similar among the three groups. The incidence of postoperative morbidities was lower in LsTG than in LTG. The degree of body weight loss was significantly smaller in LsTG than in LTG at 6 and 12 months. At 12 months, LsTG resulted in better serum albumin and PNI than LPG, and better hemoglobin than LTG. Endoscopic examination demonstrated that one LsTG patient and two LPG patients had reflux esophagitis. Remnant gastritis was observed more frequently in LPG than in LsTG. No LsTG patient had bile reflux, although it was observed in four LPG patients. LsTG with a very small remnant stomach had favorable short-term outcomes and nutritional status compared with LTG and LPG, so it may be a better treatment option for cStage I proximal gastric carcinoma.

  3. Leptin is essential for microglial activation and neuropathic pain after preganglionic cervical root avulsion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kai-Ting; Lin, Yi-Lo; Lin, Chi-Te; Hong, Chen-Jei; Tsai, May-Jywan; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Lee, Yi-Yen; Cheng, Henrich; Huang, Ming-Chao

    2017-10-15

    Preganglionic cervical root avulsion (PCRA) affects both the peripheral and central nervous systems and is often associated with neuropathic pain. Unlike peripheral nerve injuries (PNI), central lesions caused by disruption of cervical roots from the spinal cord following PCRA contribute to the generation of neuropathic pain. Leptin is involved in the development of neuropathic pain after PNI by affecting neurons. However, whether leptin is involved in microglial activation leading to neuropathic pain after PCRA is unknown. Preganglionic avulsion of the left 6(th)-8(th) cervical roots was performed in C57B/6J mice and leptin-deficient mice. A leptin antagonist or leptin was administered to C57B/6J mice and leptin-deficient mice after injury, respectively. The expression pattern of spinal and supraspinal microglia was examined by immunofluorescent staining. Von Frey filaments were used to test pain sensitivity. Leptin is essential for the development of neuropathic pain after PCRA. Allodynia was absent in the leptin-deficient mice and the mice administered the leptin antagonist. We also found that leptin deficiency or the administration of its antagonist inhibited the development of microgliosis in the dorsal horn and brainstem. Furthermore, increase in the expression of CD86 and iNOS, and Wallerian degeneration were noted in the spinal cord. The administration of exogenous leptin to leptin-deficient mice reversed these effects. We concluded that leptin is involved in the proliferation and activation of microglia, which in turn enhances the development of neuropathic pain. Blocking the effects of leptin might be a target for the treatment of neuropathic pain after PCRA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Thermo-responsive cell culture carriers based on poly(vinyl methyl ether)—the effect of biomolecular ligands to balance cell adhesion and stimulated detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teichmann, Juliane; Nitschke, Mirko; Pette, Dagmar; Valtink, Monika; Gramm, Stefan; Härtel, Frauke V.; Noll, Thomas; Funk, Richard H. W.; Engelmann, Katrin; Werner, Carsten

    2015-08-01

    Two established material systems for thermally stimulated detachment of adherent cells were combined in a cross-linked polymer blend to merge favorable properties. Through this approach poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAAm) with its superior switching characteristic was paired with a poly(vinyl methyl ether)-based composition that allows adjusting physico-chemical and biomolecular properties in a wide range. Beyond pure PNiPAAm, the proposed thermo-responsive coating provides thickness, stiffness and swelling behavior, as well as an apposite density of reactive sites for biomolecular functionalization, as effective tuning parameters to meet specific requirements of a particular cell type regarding initial adhesion and ease of detachment. To illustrate the strength of this approach, the novel cell culture carrier was applied to generate transplantable sheets of human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC). Sheets were grown, detached, and transferred onto planar targets. Cell morphology, viability and functionality were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and determination of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) before and after sheet detachment and transfer. HCEC layers showed regular morphology with appropriate TEER. Cells were positive for function-associated marker proteins ZO-1, Na+/K+-ATPase, and paxillin, and extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin, laminin and collagen type IV before and after transfer. Sheet detachment and transfer did not impair cell viability. Subsequently, a potential application in ophthalmology was demonstrated by transplantation onto de-endothelialized porcine corneas in vitro. The novel thermo-responsive cell culture carrier facilitates the generation and transfer of functional HCEC sheets. This paves the way to generate tissue engineered human corneal endothelium as an alternative transplant source for endothelial keratoplasty.

  5. A longitudinal study of pain, personality, and brain plasticity following peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Ruma; Anastakis, Dimitri J; Katz, Joel; Davis, Karen D

    2016-03-01

    We do not know precisely why pain develops and becomes chronic after peripheral nerve injury (PNI), but it is likely due to biological and psychological factors. Here, we tested the hypotheses that (1) high Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) scores at the time of injury and repair are associated with pain and cold sensitivity after 1-year recovery and (2) insula gray matter changes reflect the course of injury and improvements over time. Ten patients with complete median and/or ulnar nerve transections and surgical repair were tested ∼3 weeks after surgical nerve repair (time 1) and ∼1 year later for 6 of the 10 patients (time 2). Patients and 10 age-/sex-matched healthy controls completed questionnaires that assessed pain (patients) and personality and underwent quantitative sensory testing and 3T MRI to assess cortical thickness. In patients, pain intensity and neuropathic pain correlated with pain catastrophizing. Time 1 pain catastrophizing trended toward predicting cold pain thresholds at time 2, and at time 1 cortical thickness of the right insula was reduced. At time 2, chronic pain was related to the time 1 pain-PCS relationship and cold sensitivity, pain catastrophizing correlated with cold pain threshold, and insula thickness reversed to control levels. This study highlights the interplay between personality, sensory function, and pain in patients following PNI and repair. The PCS-pain association suggests that a focus on affective or negative components of pain could render patients vulnerable to chronic pain. Cold sensitivity and structural insula changes may reflect altered thermosensory or sensorimotor awareness representations.

  6. Thermo-responsive cell culture carriers based on poly(vinyl methyl ether)—the effect of biomolecular ligands to balance cell adhesion and stimulated detachment

    PubMed Central

    Teichmann, Juliane; Nitschke, Mirko; Pette, Dagmar; Valtink, Monika; Gramm, Stefan; Härtel, Frauke V; Noll, Thomas; Funk, Richard H W; Engelmann, Katrin; Werner, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Two established material systems for thermally stimulated detachment of adherent cells were combined in a cross-linked polymer blend to merge favorable properties. Through this approach poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAAm) with its superior switching characteristic was paired with a poly(vinyl methyl ether)-based composition that allows adjusting physico-chemical and biomolecular properties in a wide range. Beyond pure PNiPAAm, the proposed thermo-responsive coating provides thickness, stiffness and swelling behavior, as well as an apposite density of reactive sites for biomolecular functionalization, as effective tuning parameters to meet specific requirements of a particular cell type regarding initial adhesion and ease of detachment. To illustrate the strength of this approach, the novel cell culture carrier was applied to generate transplantable sheets of human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC). Sheets were grown, detached, and transferred onto planar targets. Cell morphology, viability and functionality were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and determination of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) before and after sheet detachment and transfer. HCEC layers showed regular morphology with appropriate TEER. Cells were positive for function-associated marker proteins ZO-1, Na+/K+-ATPase, and paxillin, and extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin, laminin and collagen type IV before and after transfer. Sheet detachment and transfer did not impair cell viability. Subsequently, a potential application in ophthalmology was demonstrated by transplantation onto de-endothelialized porcine corneas in vitro. The novel thermo-responsive cell culture carrier facilitates the generation and transfer of functional HCEC sheets. This paves the way to generate tissue engineered human corneal endothelium as an alternative transplant source for endothelial keratoplasty. PMID:27877823

  7. Pathological narcissism and the depressive temperament.

    PubMed

    Tritt, Shona M; Ryder, Andrew G; Ring, Angela J; Pincus, Aaron L

    2010-05-01

    Although relations between depressive and narcissistic pathologies have been proposed in both psychoanalytic and phenomenological literatures, empirical research generally fails to confirm this link. Common measures of narcissism, however, emphasize grandiose rather than vulnerable traits, and include both adaptive and maladaptive features. We therefore assessed the relation between narcissistic personality and depressive temperament (DT) using a recently developed measure designed to assess a wide range of pathological narcissistic (PN) traits. We also examined the distinctiveness of the association between DT and PN controlling other temperaments. The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI; Pincus et al., 2009), the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A; Akiskal et al., 2005), and a modified Schedule of Fatigue and Anergia (SOFA; Hadzi-Pavlovic et al., 2000), were administered to 228 university students. Principal component analyses yielded two components of PN: Component 1 items reflect narcissistic vulnerability-negative affect when narcissistic needs are not met; Component 2 items reflect narcissistic grandiosity-positive affect related to self-enhancement. Component 1 significantly predicted DT, an effect that remained after controlling for Component 2 and other temperaments in the TEMPS-A and SOFA. A similar effect was observed for the anxious temperament. Our study is limited by the use of a homogenous, non-clinical university student sample unscreened for clinical depression, and by reliance on self-report questionnaires. Contrary to past research, DT is associated with narcissistic disturbance, in particular with the avoidance of narcissistic injury, when the PNI is used. Clinical intervention targeting this avoidance might help patients with a DT develop self-esteem that is not overly dependant upon recognition from others. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Incidence and risk factors for rectovaginal fistula after low anterior resection for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Jun; Ota, Mitsuyoshi; Kawaguchi, Daisuke; Shima, Hidetaka; Kaida, Shuhei; Osada, Shunichi; Kamimukai, Nobuyuki; Kamiya, Noriyuki; Ishibe, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuteru; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Akiyama, Hirotoshi; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Oba, Mari; Endo, Itaru

    2015-12-01

    The rectovaginal fistula (RVF) is a rare complication after low anterior resection (LAR) for rectal cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for RVF after LAR for rectal cancer. This was a retrospective multi-institution study of 371 female rectal cancer patients who underwent LAR with anastomosis between January 2007 and December 2011. Patient-, tumor-, and surgery-related variables were examined by univariate and multivariate analyses. The overall RVF rate was 3.0 % (11/371). The RVF was diagnosed on median postoperative day 83 (15-766). In 81.8 % (9/11) of the patients, the diagnosis of RVF was made after hospital discharge. Multivariate analysis identified prognostic nutritional index (PNI; odds ratio (OR) 6.97; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.47-33.08; P = 0.015), preoperative chemotherapy (OR 27.31; CI 3.49-213.62; P = 0.002), tumor size (OR 5.90; CI 1.04-33.47; P = 0.045), intraoperative bleeding (OR 13.91; CI 1.34-144.42; P = 0.027), and lateral lymph node dissection (OR 4.92; CI 1.02-23.63; P = 0.045) as independent risk factors for RVF after LAR. Risk factors of RVF were PNI (<45), preoperative chemotherapy, tumor size (≧ 50 mm), intraoperative bleeding (≧ 200 ml), and lateral lymph node dissection. Before an operation, obtaining the information about these risk factors is of great importance in LAR for rectal cancer.

  9. Brief transvertebral electrical stimulation of the spinal cord improves the specificity of femoral nerve reinnervation.

    PubMed

    Franz, Colin K; Singh, Bhagat; Martinez, Jose A; Zochodne, Douglas W; Midha, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Functional outcomes are generally poor following peripheral nerve injury (PNI). The reason is multifactorial but includes the misdirection of regenerating axons to inappropriate end organs. It has been shown that brief electrical stimulation (Estim) of nerves has the potential to improve the accuracy and rate of peripheral axon regeneration. The present study explores a novel percutaneous transvertebral approach to Estim, which was tested in the mouse femoral nerve model. Inspired by the protocol of Gordon and colleagues (ie, 20 Hz, for 1 hour), we applied Estim to the cervicothoracic spinal cord (SC-Estim) to remotely activate lumbar motor neurons following transection and repair of the femoral nerve. Fluorescent dyes were applied to the distal nerve to label reinnervating cells. Sections of nerve were taken to quantify the numbers of reinnervating axons as well as to stain for a known femoral axon guidance molecule-polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM). In comparison to sham treatment, SC-Estim led to significantly greater expression of PSA-NCAM as well as improved the specificity of motor reinnervation. Interestingly, although SC-Estim did not alter the number of early reinnervating (ie, pioneer) axons, there was a reduction in the number of retrogradely labeled neurons at 2 weeks postrepair. However, by 6 weeks postrepair, there was no difference in the number of neurons that had reinnervated the femoral nerve. The present findings support the development of SC-Estim as a novel approach to enhance the specificity of reinnervation and potentially improve functional outcomes following PNI.

  10. The promotion of tumor metastasis by surgery and stress: immunological basis and implications for psychoneuroimmunology.

    PubMed

    Ben-Eliyahu, Shamgar

    2003-02-01

    This mini-review emphasizes a psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) perspective of the hypothesis that stress and surgical excision of the primary tumor can promote tumor metastasis. It first establishes the empirical and theoretical basis for control of metastasis by cell-mediated immunity (CMI), as well as the interactive role of non-immunological risk factors. It then describes the various aspects of surgery that suppress CMI, and the neuroendocrine mechanisms mediating suppression by stress and surgery. Last, it briefly reviews the empirical evidence, from animal and human studies, for the promotion of metastasis by stress and surgery, with specific reference to the mediating role of CMI. It is concluded that: (a) Immunological mechanisms most likely play a role in limiting metastasis in patients with solid tumors. (b) Immunosuppression can be deleterious, especially when surgery is conducted early, before the tumor develops insurmountable mechanisms to escape immune destruction. (c) The most sensitive period for the establishment of metastases is the immediate aftermath of surgery. Interventions aiming at reducing stress and immunosuppression should thus strive to start beforehand. (d) 'Psychological and physiological insults activate similar neuroendocrine mechanisms of immunosuppression. Therefore, a multimodal therapeutic approach should be used to prevent tumor metastasis during the perioperative period. (e) Studies employing interventions aimed at reducing the surgical stress response should preferably assess immunological indices with an established clinical relevance, and follow up long-term recurrence provided sample size assure statistical power. (f) The progress toward earlier detection of cancer, and our growing understanding of immunosuppression, continuously improves the chances for successful PNI interventions.

  11. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck: a single-center analysis of 105 consecutive cases over a 30-year period.

    PubMed

    van Weert, Stijn; Bloemena, Elisabeth; van der Waal, Isaäc; de Bree, Remco; Rietveld, Derek H F; Kuik, Joop D; Leemans, C René

    2013-08-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare salivary gland malignancy with a poor disease free survival due to frequent distant metastases and late local recurrences. Previous single-center reports on outcome mostly encompass small series. In this report a relative large series of 105 cases is analyzed, all treated at the VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands over a 30-year period in which treatment strategies remained unchanged. All cases of ACC of the head and neck between 1979 and 2009 at our institution were analyzed through a medical chart review. Recurrence patterns and possible prognostic factors (T-stage, N-status, age, gender, type of salivary gland involved, histological grade, surgical margins, perineural invasion (PNI) and postoperative radiotherapy (RT)) were analyzed. One-hundred and five cases of ACC of the head and neck were identified. Five-, ten- and twenty-year survival rates for overall survival were 68%, 52% and 28%, respectively. T-stage, N-status, surgical margins, histological subtype and age were highly significant predictors for survival. PNI was not a negative prognosticator. T-stage, N-status, surgical margins, histological grade and age are the main predictors of survival-outcome in ACC of the head and neck. Distant metastasis frequently develop, mainly in the first 5 years post treatment. Local recurrences often develop even later on, warranting long term follow up of patients treated for ACC. Grade III ACC should be considered a specific entity within the group of ACC due to its typical aggressive biological behavior and relatively poor outcome, implicating the need for an improved adjuvant treatment. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Nutritional and zinc status of head and neck cancer patients: an interpretive review.

    PubMed

    Prasad, A S; Beck, F W; Doerr, T D; Shamsa, F H; Penny, H S; Marks, S C; Kaplan, J; Kucuk, O; Mathog, R H

    1998-10-01

    In this review, we provide evidence based on our studies, for zinc deficiency and cell mediated immune disorders, and the effects of protein and zinc status on clinical morbidities in patients with head and neck cancer. We investigated subjects with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, and hypopharynx. Patients with metastatic disease and with severe co-morbidity were excluded. Nutritional assessment included dietary history, body composition, and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) determination. Zinc status was determined by zinc assay in plasma, lymphocytes, and granulocytes. Pretreatment zinc status and nutritional status were correlated with clinical outcomes in 47 patients. Assessment of immune functions included production of TH1 and TH2 cytokines, T cell subpopulations and cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity reaction to common antigens. At baseline approximately 50% of our subjects were zinc-deficient based on cellular zinc criteria and had decreased production of TH1 cytokines but not TH2 cytokines, decreased NK cell lytic activity and decreased proportion of CD4+ CD45RA+ cells in the peripheral blood. The tumor size and overall stage of the disease correlated with baseline zinc status but not with PNI, alcohol intake, or smoking. Zinc deficiency was associated with increased unplanned hospitalizations. The disease-free interval was highest for the group which had both zinc sufficient and nutrition sufficient status. Zinc deficiency and cell mediated immune dysfunctions were frequently present in patients with head and neck cancer when seen initially. Zinc deficiency resulted in an imbalance of TH1 and TH2 functions. Zinc deficiency was associated with increased tumor size, overall stage of the cancer and increased unplanned hospitalizations. These observations have broad implications in the management of patients with head and neck cancer.

  13. New Criteria to Assess Seismic and Rock Burst Hazard in Coal Mines / Nowe Kryteria Dla Oceny Zagrożenia Sejsmicznego I Tąpaniami W Kopalniach Węgla Kamiennego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutke, Grzegorz; Dubiński, Józef; Lurka, Adam

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents new criteria of seismic and rock burst hazard assessment in Polish hard coal mines where longwall mining system is common practice. The presented criteria are based on the results of continuous recording of seismic events and analysis of selected seismological parameters: spatial location of seismic event in relation to mining workings, seismic energy, seismic energy release per unit coal face advance, b-value of Gutenberg-Richter law, seismic energy index EI, seismic moment M0, weighted value of peak particle velocity PPVW. These parameters are determined in a moving daily time windows or time windows with fixed number of seismic tremors. Time changes of these parameters are then compared with mean value estimated in the analyzed area. This is the basis to indicate the zones of high seismic and rock burst hazard in specific moment in time during mining process. Additionally, the zones of high seismic and rock burst hazard are determined by utilization of passive seismic tomography method. All the calculated seismic parameters in moving time windows are used to quantify seismic and rock burst hazard by four level scales. In practice, assessment of seismic and rock burst hazard is used to make daily decision about using rock burst prevention activities and correction of further exploitation of monitored coal panel. Zagrożenie sejsmiczne i związane z nim genetycznie zagrożenie tąpnięciem w dalszym ciągu należą do najgroźniejszych zagrożeń naturalnych występujących w polskich kopalniach węgla kamiennego. W ostatnich latach w kopalniach Górnośląskiego Zagłębia Węglowego (GZW) rocznie rejestrowano 1000÷1500 wstrząsów o energii sejsmicznej Es ≥ 1·105J (magnituda lokalna ML ≥ 1.7), a najsilniejsze z nich osiągały energię Es = 4 ·109J (ML = 4.1). W latach 1991-2010 odnotowano w GZW 101 tąpnięć, z których około 66% miało miejsce w wyrobiskach chodnikowych, powodując ich uszkodzenia lub całkowite zniszczenie, a w

  14. Evaluation of prognostic markers for patients with curatively resected thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Ikeguchi, Masahide; Kouno, Yusuke; Kihara, Kyoichi; Suzuki, Kazunori; Endo, Kanenori; Nakamura, Seiichi; Sawada, Takashi; Shimizu, Tetsu; Matsunaga, Tomoyuki; Fukumoto, Yoji; Saito, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) are prognostic parameters for malignancies. Additionally, serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) and cytokeratin 19 fragments (CYFRA 21-1) are tumor markers for squamous cell carcinoma. In the present study, the prognostic importance of these markers in patients with resectable thoracic esophageal cancer was investigated. In this retrospective study, 84 enrolled patients diagnosed with resectable clinical stage I–III thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) underwent thoracic esophageal resection and three-field lymph node dissection at Tottori University Hospital between January 2007 and December 2013. The correlations among preoperative patient markers (GPS, NLR, PNI, SCC-Ag and CYFRA 21-1) and the occurrence of postoperative complications and patient survival were analyzed. The operative mortality was 2.4%, and morbidity was 42.9%. Strong correlations between occurrence of postoperative complications and open thoracotomy (P=0.083) and high-serum CYFRA 21-1 (P=0.007) were observed. In 15 patients with high-serum CYFRA 21-1, postoperative complications were detected in 11 of them (73.3%); on the other hand, complications occurred in 25 of 69 (36.2%) with low-serum CYFRA 21-1. The 5-year disease-free survival rate and 5-year overall survival rate of all the patients were 52.2 and 50.8%, respectively. Among the prognostic parameters, preoperative high NLR was determined to be a poor prognostic factor, independent of the tumor stage in the multivariate analysis. These results may indicate that, in patients with preoperative high-serum CYFRA 21-1, more attention should be paid to the occurrence of postoperative complications. Therefore, in such cases, anastomosis between blood vessels of the substitute esophagus and cervical vessels would be recommended. Furthermore, in patients with high preoperative NLR, effective adjuvant

  15. Percentage of Positive Biopsy Cores: A Better Risk Stratification Model for Prostate Cancer?

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Jiayi; Vicini, Frank A.; Williams, Scott G.; Ye Hong; McGrath, Samuel; Ghilezan, Mihai; Krauss, Daniel; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Kestin, Larry L.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To assess the prognostic value of the percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPC) and perineural invasion in predicting the clinical outcomes after radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer and to explore the possibilities to improve on existing risk-stratification models. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2004, 1,056 patients with clinical Stage T1c-T3N0M0 prostate cancer, who had four or more biopsy cores sampled and complete biopsy core data available, were treated with external beam RT, with or without a high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost at William Beaumont Hospital. The median follow-up was 7.6 years. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed with PPC, Gleason score, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen, T stage, PNI, radiation dose, androgen deprivation, age, prostate-specific antigen frequency, and follow-up duration. A new risk stratification (PPC classification) was empirically devised to incorporate PPC and replace the T stage. Results: On multivariate Cox regression analysis, the PPC was an independent predictor of distant metastasis, cause-specific survival, and overall survival (all p < .05). A PPC >50% was associated with significantly greater distant metastasis (hazard ratio, 4.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.86-8.61), and its independent predictive value remained significant with or without androgen deprivation therapy (all p < .05). In contrast, PNI and T stage were only predictive for locoregional recurrence. Combining the PPC ({<=}50% vs. >50%) with National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk stratification demonstrated added prognostic value of distant metastasis for the intermediate-risk (hazard ratio, 5.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.78-16.6) and high-risk (hazard ratio, 4.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.70-11.3) groups, regardless of the use of androgen deprivation and high-dose RT (all p < .05). The proposed PPC classification appears to provide improved stratification of the clinical outcomes relative to the National

  16. A comparative audit of gunshot wounds and stab wounds to the neck in a South African metropolitan trauma service.

    PubMed

    Madsen, A S; Laing, G L; Bruce, J L; Clarke, D L

    2016-09-01

    Introduction The aim of this comparative study of gunshot wounds (GSWs) and stab wounds (SWs) to the neck was to quantify the impact of the mechanism of injury on the outcome and management of penetrating neck injury (PNI). Methods A prospective trauma registry was interrogated retrospectively. Data were analysed pertaining to demographics and injury severity score (ISS), physiology on presentation, anatomical site of wounds and injuries sustained, investigations, management, outcome and complications. Results There were 452 SW and 58 GSW cases over the 46 months of the study. Patients with GSWs were more likely to have extracervical injuries than those with SWs (69% vs 63%). The incidence of a 'significant cervical injury' was almost twice as high in the GSW cohort (55% vs 31%). For patients with transcervical GSWs, this increased to 80%. The mean ISS was 17 for GSW and 11 for SW patients. Those in the GSW cohort presented with threatened airways and a requirement for an emergency airway three times as often as patients with SWs (24% vs 7% and 14% vs 5% respectively). The incidence among GSW and SW patients respectively was 5% and 6% for airway injuries, 12% and 8% for injuries to the digestive tract, 21% and 16% for vascular injuries, 59% and 10% for associated cervical injuries, 36% and 14% for maxillofacial injuries, 16% and 9% for injuries to the head, and 35% and 45% for injuries to the chest. In the GSW group, 91% underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA), with 23% of these being positive for a vascular injury. For SWs, 74% of patients underwent CTA, with 17% positive for a vascular injury. Slightly more patients with GSWs required operative intervention than those with SWs (29% vs 26%). Conclusions Patients with GSWs to the neck have a worse outcome than those with injuries secondary to SWs. However, the proportion of neck injuries actually requiring direct surgical intervention is not increased and most cases with PNI secondary to GSWs can be managed

  17. Clinicopathological and prognostic characteristics in patients with AFP-secreting gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bozkaya, Yakup; Demirci, Nebi Serkan; Kurtipek, Alican; Erdem, Gökmen Umut; Ozdemir, Nuriye Yildirim; Zengin, Nurullah

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether there are any clinicopathological or prognostic differences between patients with α-fetoprotein-secreting gastric carcinoma (AFP-SGC) and non-AFP-SGC. Pathological parameters, clinical parameters, and treatment efficacy were compared in patients with AFP-SGC and non-AFP-SGC. In total, 362 patients (53 with AFP-SGC and 309 with non-AFP-SGC) were included in the present study. Patients with AFP-SGC had significantly higher levels of lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion (PNI), rate of liver metastasis, and stage IV cancer compared with patients with non-AFP-SGC (P<0.05). The median overall survival (OS) rate was 12.6 months in the AFP-SGC group, and 22.1 months in the non-AFP-SGC group (P<0.001). The median OS and disease free survival (DFS) of patients with stage I-III AFP-SGC were 28.1 and 13.4 months, respectively, whereas for patients with non-AFP-SGC, the OS and DFS were 45.3 and 38.0 months, respectively (P=0.01; P=0.02). The median OS for the stage IV AFP-SGC and non-AFP-SGC groups was 9.3 and 11.5 months, respectively (P=0.14). Multivariate analysis of the entire patient group revealed that the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance score of ≥2, lymph node involvement, presence of PNI, high levels of carcinoembryonic antigen, and distant metastasis were significantly correlated with OS. The lymph node involvement, ECOG performance score of ≥2, AFP-SGC type, and weight loss at diagnosis were also significant factors influencing the DFS in the stage I-III group. In conclusion, patients with AFP-SGC had more aggressive clinicopathological features and biological behavior with an increased tendency of liver metastasis compared with patients with non-AFP-SGC. In the near future, AFP may become an important surrogate marker to manage therapies of patients with gastric cancer.

  18. A comparative audit of gunshot wounds and stab wounds to the neck in a South African metropolitan trauma service

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, AS; Laing, GL; Bruce, JL

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this comparative study of gunshot wounds (GSWs) and stab wounds (SWs) to the neck was to quantify the impact of the mechanism of injury on the outcome and management of penetrating neck injury (PNI). Methods A prospective trauma registry was interrogated retrospectively. Data were analysed pertaining to demographics and injury severity score (ISS), physiology on presentation, anatomical site of wounds and injuries sustained, investigations, management, outcome and complications. Results There were 452 SW and 58 GSW cases over the 46 months of the study. Patients with GSWs were more likely to have extracervical injuries than those with SWs (69% vs 63%). The incidence of a ‘significant cervical injury’ was almost twice as high in the GSW cohort (55% vs 31%). For patients with transcervical GSWs, this increased to 80%. The mean ISS was 17 for GSW and 11 for SW patients. Those in the GSW cohort presented with threatened airways and a requirement for an emergency airway three times as often as patients with SWs (24% vs 7% and 14% vs 5% respectively). The incidence among GSW and SW patients respectively was 5% and 6% for airway injuries, 12% and 8% for injuries to the digestive tract, 21% and 16% for vascular injuries, 59% and 10% for associated cervical injuries, 36% and 14% for maxillofacial injuries, 16% and 9% for injuries to the head, and 35% and 45% for injuries to the chest. In the GSW group, 91% underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA), with 23% of these being positive for a vascular injury. For SWs, 74% of patients underwent CTA, with 17% positive for a vascular injury. Slightly more patients with GSWs required operative intervention than those with SWs (29% vs 26%). Conclusions Patients with GSWs to the neck have a worse outcome than those with injuries secondary to SWs. However, the proportion of neck injuries actually requiring direct surgical intervention is not increased and most cases with PNI secondary to GSWs can be

  19. Ablation of sensory neurons in a genetic model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma slows initiation and progression of cancer.

    PubMed

    Saloman, Jami L; Albers, Kathryn M; Li, Dongjun; Hartman, Douglas J; Crawford, Howard C; Muha, Emily A; Rhim, Andrew D; Davis, Brian M

    2016-03-15

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by an exuberant inflammatory desmoplastic response. The PDAC microenvironment is complex, containing both pro- and antitumorigenic elements, and remains to be fully characterized. Here, we show that sensory neurons, an under-studied cohort of the pancreas tumor stroma, play a significant role in the initiation and progression of the early stages of PDAC. Using a well-established autochthonous model of PDAC (PKC), we show that inflammation and neuronal damage in the peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) occurs as early as the pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) 2 stage. Also at the PanIN2 stage, pancreas acinar-derived cells frequently invade along sensory neurons into the spinal cord and migrate caudally to the lower thoracic and upper lumbar regions. Sensory neuron ablation by neonatal capsaicin injection prevented perineural invasion (PNI), astrocyte activation, and neuronal damage, suggesting that sensory neurons convey inflammatory signals from Kras-induced pancreatic neoplasia to the CNS. Neuron ablation in PKC mice also significantly delayed PanIN formation and ultimately prolonged survival compared with vehicle-treated controls (median survival, 7.8 vs. 4.5 mo; P = 0.001). These data establish a reciprocal signaling loop between the pancreas and nervous system, including the CNS, that supports inflammation associated with oncogenic Kras-induced neoplasia. Thus, pancreatic sensory neurons comprise an important stromal cell population that supports the initiation and progression of PDAC and may represent a potential target for prevention in high-risk populations.

  20. Neuroendocrine-immune circuits, phenotypes, and interactions.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Noah T; Demas, Gregory E

    2017-01-01

    Multidirectional interactions among the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems have been demonstrated in humans and non-human animal models for many decades by the biomedical community, but ecological and evolutionary perspectives are lacking. Neuroendocrine-immune interactions can be conceptualized using a series of feedback loops, which culminate into distinct neuroendocrine-immune phenotypes. Behavior can exert profound influences on these phenotypes, which can in turn reciprocally modulate behavior. For example, the behavioral aspects of reproduction, including courtship, aggression, mate selection and parental behaviors can impinge upon neuroendocrine-immune interactions. One classic example is the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH), which proposes that steroid hormones act as mediators of traits important for female choice while suppressing the immune system. Reciprocally, neuroendocrine-immune pathways can promote the development of altered behavioral states, such as sickness behavior. Understanding the energetic signals that mediate neuroendocrine-immune crosstalk is an active area of research. Although the field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) has begun to explore this crosstalk from a biomedical standpoint, the neuroendocrine-immune-behavior nexus has been relatively underappreciated in comparative species. The field of ecoimmunology, while traditionally emphasizing the study of non-model systems from an ecological evolutionary perspective, often under natural conditions, has focused less on the physiological mechanisms underlying behavioral responses. This review summarizes neuroendocrine-immune interactions using a comparative framework to understand the ecological and evolutionary forces that shape these complex physiological interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ni2P nanosheets/Ni foam composite electrode for long-lived and pH-tolerable electrochemical hydrogen generation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yanmei; Xu, You; Zhuo, Sifei; Zhang, Jingfang; Zhang, Bin

    2015-02-04

    The continuous consumption of fossil fuels and accompanying environmental problems are driving the exploration of low-cost and effective electrocatalysts to produce clean hydrogen. A Ni2P nanosheets/Ni foam composite, as a non-noble metal electrocatalyst, has been prepared through a facile chemical conversion pathway using surface oxidized Ni foam as precursor and low concentration of trioctylphosphine (TOP) as a phosphorus source. Further investigation shows the oxidized layer of Ni foam can orient the formation of Ni2P nanosheets and facilitate the reaction with TOP. The Ni2P/Ni, acting as a robust 3D self-supported superaerophobic hydrogen-evolving cathode, shows superior catalytic performance, stability, and durability in aqueous media over a wide pH value of 0-14, making it a versatile catalyst system for hydrogen generation. Such highly active, stable, abundant, and low-cost materials hold enormously promising potential applications in the fields of catalysis, energy conversion, and storage.

  2. The Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio at Diagnosis Is Significantly Associated with Survival in Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Piciucchi, Matteo; Stigliano, Serena; Archibugi, Livia; Zerboni, Giulia; Signoretti, Marianna; Barucca, Viola; Valente, Roberto; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Capurso, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Different inflammation-based scores such as the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), the Odonera Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI), the Glasgow Prognostic Score, the platelet/lymphocyte ratio, and the C-reactive protein/albumin ratio have been found to be significantly associated with pancreatic cancer (PDAC) prognosis. However, most studies have investigated patients undergoing surgery, and few of them have compared these scores. We aimed at evaluating the association between inflammatory-based scores and PDAC prognosis. In a single center cohort study, inflammatory-based scores were assessed at diagnosis and their prognostic relevance as well as that of clinic-pathological variables were evaluated through multiple logistic regression and survival probability analysis. In 206 patients, age, male sex, tumor size, presence of distant metastasis, access to chemotherapy, and an NLR > 5 but not other scores were associated with overall survival (OS) at multivariate analysis. Patients with an NLR < 5 had a median survival of 12 months compared to 4 months in those with an NLR > 5. In the 81 patients with distant metastasis at diagnosis, an NLR > 5 resulted in the only variable significantly associated with survival. Among patients with metastatic disease who received chemotherapy, the median survival was 3 months in patients with an NLR > 5 and 7 months in those with an NLR < 5. The NLR might drive therapeutic options in PDAC patients, especially in the setting of metastatic disease. PMID:28353661

  3. The Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio at Diagnosis Is Significantly Associated with Survival in Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Piciucchi, Matteo; Stigliano, Serena; Archibugi, Livia; Zerboni, Giulia; Signoretti, Marianna; Barucca, Viola; Valente, Roberto; Fave, Gianfranco Delle; Capurso, Gabriele

    2017-03-29

    Different inflammation-based scores such as the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), the Odonera Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI), the Glasgow Prognostic Score, the platelet/lymphocyte ratio, and the C-reactive protein/albumin ratio have been found to be significantly associated with pancreatic cancer (PDAC) prognosis. However, most studies have investigated patients undergoing surgery, and few of them have compared these scores. We aimed at evaluating the association between inflammatory-based scores and PDAC prognosis. In a single center cohort study, inflammatory-based scores were assessed at diagnosis and their prognostic relevance as well as that of clinic-pathological variables were evaluated through multiple logistic regression and survival probability analysis. In 206 patients, age, male sex, tumor size, presence of distant metastasis, access to chemotherapy, and an NLR > 5 but not other scores were associated with overall survival (OS) at multivariate analysis. Patients with an NLR < 5 had a median survival of 12 months compared to 4 months in those with an NLR > 5. In the 81 patients with distant metastasis at diagnosis, an NLR > 5 resulted in the only variable significantly associated with survival. Among patients with metastatic disease who received chemotherapy, the median survival was 3 months in patients with an NLR > 5 and 7 months in those with an NLR < 5. The NLR might drive therapeutic options in PDAC patients, especially in the setting of metastatic disease.

  4. Uncut Esophagojejunostomy with Double Jejunal Pouch: An Alternative Reconstruction Method that Improves the Quality of Life of Patients after Total Gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jia Qing; Cao, Yong Kuan; Zhang, Guo Hu; Wang, Pei Hong; Luo, Guo De

    2017-04-01

    Currently, there is no optimal digestive tract reconstruction technique well recognized by scholars after total gastrectomy. In this study, a new reconstruction method, which is modified from the classic Roux-en-Y procedure, an uncut jejunal esophageal anastomosis with double jejunal pouch (UJEA-DJP) was established, and its advantages for improving the quality of life of patients who undergo total gastrectomy were analyzed. Altogether 160 patients with gastric cancer enrolled in our center from September 2009 to March 2012 received radical D2 total gastrectomy. According to the reconstruction methods used, these patients were divided into three groups: UJEA-DJP (n = 63), Roux-en-Y (n = 45), and P-loop with Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy (P-RY; n = 52). The operation time for reconstruction, complications, prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and the Visick classification among the three groups were analyzed. We found that UJEA-DJP has advantages over Roux-en-Y and P-RY regarding the time of digestive tract reconstruction, incidence rates for long-term complications, postoperative nutritional index, body weight recovery, and the Visick classification for subjective feelings (p < .05). The UJEA-DJP surgical procedure has the advantages of intestinal continuity and double-pouch construction, which can significantly reduce long-term complications and improve the long-term quality of life of patients after surgical procedure.

  5. Sequence variation in the Toxoplasma gondii eIF4A gene among strains from different hosts and geographical locations.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Fang, S F; Zhou, D H; Li, Z Y; Liu, G H; Zhu, X Q

    2014-04-29

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of animals, including humans. The T. gondii eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) protein is expressed in the tachyzoite, but its expression is markedly downregulated in the bradyzoite, and it is therefore considered to be associated with tachyzoite virulence. The present study examined sequence variation in the eIF4A gene among nine strains of different genotypes from different hosts and geographical localities using polymerase chain reaction amplification, sequence analysis, and phylogenetic reconstruction by Bayesian inference. The complete genomic sequence of the eIF4A gene was 3156 bp in length in the strain TgCgCaI, 3153 bp in the strain MAS, 3152 bp in the strain TgPNY, and 3154 bp in the other six strains. Sequence analysis identified 29 (0-0.8%) variable nucleotide positions among all strains, with 16 of these variations located in the coding region, while the other 12 were distributed between the two introns. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these eIF4A sequences were not effective molecular markers for intra-species phylogenetic analysis and differential identification of T. gondii strains from different hosts and geographical locations. This study demonstrated the existence of low sequence variation in the eIF4A gene, suggesting that T. gondii eIF4A may represent a suitable candidate vaccine against toxoplasmosis.

  6. The development of military medical care for peripheral nerve injuries during World War I.

    PubMed

    Hanigan, William

    2010-05-01

    Although the clinical and electrical diagnoses and treatments of peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) had been described prior to World War I, many reports were fragmented and incomplete. Individual physicians' experiences were not extensive, and in 1914 the patient with a PNI remained a subject of medical curiosity, and was hardly a focus of comprehensive care. World War I altered these conditions; casualties with septic wounds and PNIs swamped the general hospitals. By 1915, specialized hospitals or wards were developed to care for neurological injuries. In the United Kingdom, Sir Robert Jones developed the concept of Military Orthopedic Centres, with coordinated specialized care and rehabilitation. Military appointments of neurologists and electrotherapists sharpened clinical diagnoses and examinations. Surgical techniques were introduced, then discarded or accepted as surgeons developed skills to meet the new conditions. The US Surgeon General, William Gorgas, and his consultant in neurosurgery, Charles Frazier, went a step further, with the organization of a research laboratory as well as the establishment of a Peripheral Nerve Commission and Registry. Despite these developments and good intentions, postwar follow-up for PNIs remained incomplete at best. Records were lost, personnel transferred, and patients discharged from the system. The lack of a standardized grading system seriously impaired the ability to record clinical changes and compare outcomes. Nevertheless, specialized treatment of a large number of PNIs during World War I established a foundation for comprehensive care that influenced military medical services in the next world war.

  7. Strategies for regeneration of components of nervous system: scaffolds, cells and biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lingling; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2015-03-01

    Nerve diseases including acute injury such as peripheral nerve injury (PNI), spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI), and chronic disease like neurodegeneration disease can cause various function disorders of nervous system, such as those relating to memory and voluntary movement. These nerve diseases produce great burden for individual families and the society, for which a lot of efforts have been made. Axonal pathways represent a unidirectional and aligned architecture allowing systematic axonal development within the tissue. Following a traumatic injury, the intricate architecture suffers disruption leading to inhibition of growth and loss of guidance. Due to limited capacity of the body to regenerate axonal pathways, it is desirable to have biomimetic approach that has the capacity to graft a bridge across the lesion while providing optimal mechanical and biochemical cues for tissue regeneration. And for central nervous system injury, one more extra precondition is compulsory: creating a less inhibitory surrounding for axonal growth. Electrospinning is a cost-effective and straightforward technique to fabricate extracellular matrix (ECM)-like nanofibrous structures, with various fibrous forms such as random fibers, aligned fibers, 3D fibrous scaffold and core-shell fibers from a variety of polymers. The diversity and versatility of electrospinning technique, together with functionalizing cues such as neurotrophins, ECM-based proteins and conductive polymers, have gained considerable success for the nerve tissue applications. We are convinced that in the future the stem cell therapy with the support of functionalized electrospun nerve scaffolds could be a promising therapy to cure nerve diseases.

  8. Developing an Inositol-Phosphate-Actuated Nanochannel System by Mimicking Biological Calcium Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qi; Tang, Qiuhan; Chen, Zhonghui; Zhao, Shilong; Qing, Guangyan; Sun, Taolei

    2017-09-13

    In eukaryotic cells, ion channels, which ubiquitously present as polypeptides or proteins, usually regulate the ion transport across biological membranes by conformational switching of the channel proteins in response to the binding of diverse signaling molecules (e.g., inositol phosphate, abbreviated to InsP). To mimic the gating behaviors of natural Ca(2+) channels manipulated by InsPs, a smart poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-4-(3-acryloylthioureido) benzoic acid)0.2] (denoted as PNI-co-ATBA0.2) was integrated onto a porous anodic alumina (PAA) membrane, building an InsP-actuated nanochannel system. Driven by the intensive hydrogen bonding complexation of ATBA monomer with InsP, the copolymer chains displayed a remarkable and reversible conformational transition from a contracted state to a swollen one, accompanied with significant changes in surface morphology, wettability, and viscoelasticity. Benefiting from these features, dynamic gating behaviors of the nanochannels located on the copolymer-modified PAA membrane could be precisely manipulated by InsPs, reflected as a satisfactory linear relationship between real-time variation in transmembrane ionic current and the InsP concentration over a wide range from 1 nmol L(-1) to 10 μmol L(-1), as well as a clear discrimination among InsP2, InsP3, and InsP6. This study indicates the great potential of biomolecule-responsive polymers in the fabrication of biomimetic ion nanochannels and other nanoscale biodevices.

  9. Development of automated high throughput single molecular microfluidic detection platform for signal transduction analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Po-Jung; Baghbani Kordmahale, Sina; Chou, Chao-Kai; Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Hung, Mien-Chie; Kameoka, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Signal transductions including multiple protein post-translational modifications (PTM), protein-protein interactions (PPI), and protein-nucleic acid interaction (PNI) play critical roles for cell proliferation and differentiation that are directly related to the cancer biology. Traditional methods, like mass spectrometry, immunoprecipitation, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy require a large amount of sample and long processing time. "microchannel for multiple-parameter analysis of proteins in single-complex (mMAPS)"we proposed can reduce the process time and sample volume because this system is composed by microfluidic channels, fluorescence microscopy, and computerized data analysis. In this paper, we will present an automated mMAPS including integrated microfluidic device, automated stage and electrical relay for high-throughput clinical screening. Based on this result, we estimated that this automated detection system will be able to screen approximately 150 patient samples in a 24-hour period, providing a practical application to analyze tissue samples in a clinical setting.

  10. Valence Band Dependent Charge Transport in Bulk Molecular Electronic Devices Incorporating Highly Conjugated Multi-[(Porphinato)Metal] Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Robert C; Wang, Ruobing; Rawson, Jeff; Therien, Michael J; You, Wei

    2016-02-24

    Molecular electronics offers the potential to control device functions through the fundamental electronic properties of individual molecules, but realization of such possibilities is typically frustrated when such specialized molecules are integrated into a larger area device. Here we utilize highly conjugated (porphinato)metal-based oligomers (PM(n) structures) as molecular wire components of nanotransfer printed (nTP) molecular junctions; electrical characterization of these "bulk" nTP devices highlights device resistances that depend on PM(n) wire length. Device resistance measurements, determined as a function of PM(n) molecular length, were utilized to evaluate the magnitude of a phenomenological β corresponding to the resistance decay parameter across the barrier; these data show that the magnitude of this β value is modulated via porphyrin macrocycle central metal atom substitution [β(PZn(n); 0.065 Å(-1)) < β(PCu(n); 0.132 Å(-1)) < β(PNi(n); 0.176 Å(-1))]. Cyclic voltammetric data, and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopic studies carried out at gold surfaces, demonstrate that these nTP device resistances track with the valence band energy levels of the PM(n) wire, which were modulated via porphyrin macrocycle central metal atom substitution. This study demonstrates the ability to fabricate "bulk" and scalable electronic devices in which function derives from the electronic properties of discrete single molecules, and underscores how a critical device function--wire resistance--may be straightforwardly engineered by PM(n) molecular composition.

  11. Review of high-risk features of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and discrepancies between the American Joint Committee on Cancer and NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines In Oncology.

    PubMed

    Skulsky, Samuel Lamarre; O'Sullivan, Barry; McArdle, Orla; Leader, Mary; Roche, Muireann; Conlon, Peter J; O'Neill, James Paul

    2017-03-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a malignancy that arises from epidermal keratinocytes. Although the majority of cutaneous SCC cases are easily treated without further complication, some behave more aggressively and carry a poor prognosis. These "high-risk" cutaneous SCCs commonly originate in the head and neck and have an increased tendency toward recurrence, local invasion, and distant metastasis. Factors for high-risk cutaneous SCC include large size (>2 cm), a deeply invasive lesion (>2 mm), incomplete excision, high-grade/desmoplastic lesions, perineural invasion (PNI), lymphovascular invasion, immunosuppression, and high-risk anatomic locations. Both the National Comprehensive Cancer Network(®) (NCCN(®) ) and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) identify several of these high-risk features of cutaneous SCC. The purpose of this article was to review the high-risk features included in these guidelines, as well as their notable discrepancies and omissions. We also provide a brief overview of current prophylactic measures, surgical options, and adjuvant therapies for high-risk cutaneous SCC. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 578-594, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Mouse testing methods in psychoneuroimmunology: an overview of how to measure sickness, depressive/anxietal, cognitive, and physical activity behaviors.

    PubMed

    York, Jason M; Blevins, Neil A; Baynard, Tracy; Freund, Gregory G

    2012-01-01

    The field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) aims to uncover the processes and consequences of nervous, immune, and endocrine system relationships. Behavior is a consequence of such interactions and manifests from a complex interweave of factors including immune-to-neural and neural-to-immune communication. Often the signaling molecules involved during a particular episode of neuroimmune activation are not known but behavioral response provides evidence that bioactives such as neurotransmitters and cytokines are perturbed. Immunobehavioral phenotyping is a first-line approach when examining the neuroimmune system and its reaction to immune stimulation or suppression. Behavioral response is significantly more sensitive than direct measurement of a single specific bioactive and can quickly and efficiently rule in or out relevance of a particular immune challenge or therapeutic to neuroimmunity. Classically, immunobehavioral research was focused on sickness symptoms related to bacterial infection but neuroimmune activation is now a recognized complication of diseases and disorders ranging from cancer to diabesity. Immunobehaviors include lethargy, loss of appetite, and disinterest in social activity and the surrounding environment. In addition, neuroimmune activation can precipitate feelings of depression and anxiety while negatively impacting cognitive function and physical activity. Provided is a detailed overview of behavioral tests frequently used to examine neuroimmune activation in mice with a special emphasis on preexperimental conditions that can confound or prevent successful immunobehavioral experimentation.

  13. C-reactive protein/albumin ratio as prognostic score in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Many studies have examined histopathological factors and various prognostic scores related to inflammation to predict outcomes. Here, we examined the prognostic value of the C-reactive protein/albumin (CRP/alb) ratio in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Materials and Methods This retrospective study included 40 patients with OSCC. Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we focused on the correlation of the CRP/alb ratio with clinicopathological characteristics and with overall survival. We then compared five inflammation-based prognostic scores, CRP/alb ratio, modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and prognostic nutritional index (PNI), based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results The optimal cut-off value for the CRP/alb ratio was 0.085. The group with a high CRP/alb ratio had a high TNM clinical stage (P=0.002) and larger primary tumors (P=0.029), with statistically significant differences in lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. In addition, when the CRP/alb ratio was high, multivariate analysis showed a lower survival rate (P=0.002; hazard ratio=6.078), and the ROC curve showed more outstanding discriminatory ability regarding overall survival compared to other inflammation-based prognostic scores. Conclusion The CRP/alb ratio can be an independent prognostic factor when predicting prognosis in OSCC and has good prognostic ability. PMID:27847731

  14. Two branches of the lupeol synthase gene in the molecular evolution of plant oxidosqualene cyclases.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, M; Zhang, H; Endo, A; Shishikura, K; Kushiro, T; Ebizuka, Y

    1999-11-01

    Two new triterpene synthase cDNAs, named as OEW and TRW, were cloned from olive leaves (Olea europaea) and from dandelion roots (Taraxacum officinale), respectively, by the PCR method with primers designed from the conserved sequences found in the known oxidosqualene cyclases. Their ORFs consisted of 2274 bp nucleotides and coded for 758 amino acid long polypeptides. They shared high sequence identity (78%) to each other, while they showed only about 60% identities to the known triterpene synthases LUPI (lupeol synthase clone from Arabidopsis thaliana) and PNY (beta-amyrin synthase clone from Panax ginseng) at amino acid level. To determine the enzyme functions of the translates, they were expressed in an ERG7 deficient yeast mutant. Accumulation of lupeol in the cells of yeast transformants proved both of these clones code for lupeol synthase proteins. An EST (expression sequence tag) clone isolated from Medicago truncatula roots as a homologue of cycloartenol synthase gene, exhibits high sequence identity (75-77%) to these two lupeol synthase cDNAs, suggesting it to be another lupeol synthase clone. Comparatively low identity (approximately 57%) of LUP1 from Arabidopsis thaliana to either one of these clones leaves LUP1 as a distinct clone among lupeol synthases. From these sequence comparisons, now we propose that two branches of lupeol synthase gene have been generated in higher plants during the course of evolution.

  15. Direct visualization of the interfacial position of colloidal particles and their assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, N.; Ally, J.; Bley, K.; Kappl, M.; Landfester, K.; Weiss, C. K.

    2014-05-01

    A method for direct visualization of the position of nanoscale colloidal particles at air-water interfaces is presented. After assembling hard (polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate), silica) or soft core-shell gold-hydrogel composite (Au@PNiPAAm) colloids at the air-water interface, butylcyanoacrylate is introduced to the interface via the gas phase. Upon contact with water, an anionic polymerization reaction of the monomer is initiated and a film of poly(butylcyanoacrylate) (PBCA) is generated, entrapping the colloids at their equilibrium position at the interface. We apply this method to investigate the formation of complex, binary assembly structures directly at the interface, to visualize soft, nanoscale hydrogel colloids in the swollen state, and to visualize and quantify the equilibrium position of individual micro- and nanoscale colloids at the air-water interface depending of the amount of charge present on the particle surface. We find that the degree of deprotonation of the carboxyl group shifts the air-water contact angle, which is further confirmed by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy. Remarkably, the contact angles determined for individual colloidal particles feature a significant distribution that greatly exceeds errors attributable to the size distribution of the colloids. This finding underlines the importance of accessing soft matter on an individual particle level.A method for direct visualization of the position of nanoscale colloidal particles at air-water interfaces is presented. After assembling hard (polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate), silica) or soft core-shell gold-hydrogel composite (Au@PNiPAAm) colloids at the air-water interface, butylcyanoacrylate is introduced to the interface via the gas phase. Upon contact with water, an anionic polymerization reaction of the monomer is initiated and a film of poly(butylcyanoacrylate) (PBCA) is generated, entrapping the colloids at their equilibrium position at the interface. We apply

  16. Rare Earth Elements of Orzeskie Beds of South-West Part Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland) / Pierwiastki Ziem Rzadkich Z Pokładów Węgla Warstw Orzeskich Południowo-Zachodniej Części Gzw (Polska)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, Zdzisław; Białecka, Barbara; Moszko, Joanna Całusz; Komorek, Joanna; Lewandowska, Małgorzata

    2015-03-01

    The subject of the research concerned the coal samples from 360/1, 361 and 362/1 seams of the Orzesze beds in the "Pniówek" coal mine. The obtained samples were characterized by low ash content - 2.22- 6.27% of the mass. The chemical composition of the ash indicates the presence of aluminosilicate minerals in the analyzed coal samples - most likely clay minerals, the presence of which has been confirmed in microscopic tests of the petrographic composition of channel samples of coal. The content of rare earth elements (REE sum) in the ash of the tested coal seams ranged from 364 to 1429 ppm. Variation of the REE content has been observed within a single seam. The fraction of REE indicates a relation with a mineral substance. No relation of the REE fraction and the presence of red beds has been found based on the tested samples. The content of REE found in ash, normalized to chondrites, is characterized by LREE enrichment in relation to HREE. The Eu anomaly is most likely related to tuff and tonstein levels occurring in Orzesze beds, which accompany the coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (i.a., south of the studied area). The research has indicated that LREE in the tested samples are more related to the mineral substance, while HREE have a stronger affinity with organic substances. Przedmiotem badań były próbki węgla z pokładów 360/1, 361 i 362/1 warstw orzeskich KWK Pniówek. Próbki te charakteryzują się niewielką zawartością popiołu 2,22-6,27% mas. Skład chemiczny popiołów wskazuje na obecność w analizowanych próbkach węgla minerałów z grupy glinokrzemianów najprawdopodobniej minerałów ilastych, których obecność była stwierdzona w badaniach mikroskopowych składu petrograficznego próbek bruzdowych węgla. Zawartości pierwiastków ziem rzadkich (suma REE) w popiołach badanych pokładów węgla wahają się od 364 do 1429 ppm. Obserwuje się zróżnicowanie zawartości REE w obrębie jednego pok

  17. Nutritional Assessment of Patients with Head and Neck Cancer in North-East India and Dietary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Abhinandan; Bahar, Iqbal; Saikia, Abijit

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Head and neck cancer (HNCA) patients have poor nutritional status which clearly bears a negative prognosis in cancer. There is no study and consensus on nutritional assessment tools and diet structure for such patients. This study intends to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and formulate a diet chart keeping in view the general food habit and economic condition of HNCA patients of North East (NE) region. Aim: To find out an affordable dietary intervention for HNCA patients based on dietary principles. To assess the role of nutritional assessment tools in these group of patients. Materials and Methods: This is a 1-year prospective interventional study on HNCA patients attending the Dept of ENT of a teaching hospital. The outcome of the nutritional intervention using a specific diet were assessed using clinical, laboratory and anthropomorphic assessment tools and indices like Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI) and Nutritional Assessment Index (NAI). Results: The study diet provided appropriate amounts of nutrients to HNCA patients as evident from improvements in anthropomorphic parameters and nutritional indices. Clinically, Hemoglobin percentage (Hb%), Body Mass Index (BMI), Mid Arm Circumference (MAC) and triceps skin fold thickness (TST) were found to be reliable malnutrition markers. Conclusion: Nutritional Assessment Index has been found to be the best index to evaluate malnutrition. The daily requirement of nutrients for HNCA patients can be satisfactorily met by adopting specific diet chart presented in our study. As no structured diet plan are available in literature, our diet chart can act as a template diet appropriate for HNCA patients of this region. PMID:26600696

  18. Strategies for regeneration of components of nervous system: scaffolds, cells and biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lingling; Prabhakaran, Molamma P.; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2015-01-01

    Nerve diseases including acute injury such as peripheral nerve injury (PNI), spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI), and chronic disease like neurodegeneration disease can cause various function disorders of nervous system, such as those relating to memory and voluntary movement. These nerve diseases produce great burden for individual families and the society, for which a lot of efforts have been made. Axonal pathways represent a unidirectional and aligned architecture allowing systematic axonal development within the tissue. Following a traumatic injury, the intricate architecture suffers disruption leading to inhibition of growth and loss of guidance. Due to limited capacity of the body to regenerate axonal pathways, it is desirable to have biomimetic approach that has the capacity to graft a bridge across the lesion while providing optimal mechanical and biochemical cues for tissue regeneration. And for central nervous system injury, one more extra precondition is compulsory: creating a less inhibitory surrounding for axonal growth. Electrospinning is a cost-effective and straightforward technique to fabricate extracellular matrix (ECM)-like nanofibrous structures, with various fibrous forms such as random fibers, aligned fibers, 3D fibrous scaffold and core-shell fibers from a variety of polymers. The diversity and versatility of electrospinning technique, together with functionalizing cues such as neurotrophins, ECM-based proteins and conductive polymers, have gained considerable success for the nerve tissue applications. We are convinced that in the future the stem cell therapy with the support of functionalized electrospun nerve scaffolds could be a promising therapy to cure nerve diseases. PMID:26813399

  19. The involvement of β-amyrin 28-oxidase (CYP716A52v2) in oleanane-type ginsenoside biosynthesis in Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Han, Jung-Yeon; Kim, Min-Jun; Ban, Yong-Wook; Hwang, Hwan-Su; Choi, Yong-Eui

    2013-12-01

    Panax species are the most popular medicinal herbs. The root of these plants contains pharmacologically active triterpene saponins, also known as ginsenosides, compounds that are divided into dammarane- and oleanane-type triterpenes. Two CYP716A subfamily genes (CYP716A47 and CYP716A53v2) were recently characterized, encoding an enzyme catalyzing the hydroxylation of dammarane-type triterpenes in Panax ginseng. Herein, we report that one CYP716A subfamily gene (CYP716A52v2) isolated from P. ginseng encodes a β-amyrin 28-oxidase, which is suggested to modify β-amyrin into oleanolic acid, a precursor of an oleanane-type saponin (mainly ginsenoside Ro) in P. ginseng. The ectopic expression of both PNY1 and CYP716A52v2 in recombinant yeast resulted in erythrodiol and oleanolic acid production, respectively. In vitro enzymatic activity assays biochemically confirmed that CYP716A52v2 catalyzed the oxidation of β-amyrin to produce oleanolic acid, and the chemical structure of the oleanolic acid product was confirmed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Transgenic P. ginseng plants were generated via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation: the overexpression of CYP716A52v2 greatly increased the content of oleanane-type ginsenoside (ginsenoside Ro), whereas RNA interference against CYP716A52v2 markedly reduced it. Furthermore, the levels of other dammarene-type ginsenosides were not affected in these transgenic lines. These results indicate that CYP716A52v2 is a β-amyrin 28-oxidase that plays a key role in the biosynthesis of oleanane-type triterpenes in P. ginseng.

  20. A Novel Prognostic Score, Based on Preoperative Nutritional Status, Predicts Outcomes of Patients after Curative Resection for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuechao; Qiu, Haibo; Liu, Jianjun; Chen, Shangxiang; Xu, Dazhi; Li, Wei; Zhan, Youqing; Li, Yuanfang; Chen, Yingbo; Zhou, Zhiwei; Sun, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We aimed to determine whether preoperative nutritional status (PNS) was a valuable predictor of outcome in patients with gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 1320 patients with GC undergoing curative resection. The PNS score was constructed based on four objective and easily measurable criteria: prognostic nutritional index (PNI) score 1, serum albumin <35 g/L, body mass index (BMI) <18.5 kg/m2, or preoperative weight loss ≥5% of body weight. The PNS score was 2 for patients who met three or four criteria, 1 for those who met one or two criteria, and 0 for those who didn't meet all of these criteria. RESULTS: The overall survival (OS) rates in patients with PNS scores 0, 1, and 2 were 59.1%, 42.4%, and 23.4%, respectively (P < 0.001). Multivariate analyses revealed the PNS was an independent predictor for OS (HR for PNS 1 and PNS 2: 1.497, 95 % CI: 1.230-1.820 and 2.434, 95 % CI: 1.773-3.340, respectively; p < 0.001). Furthermore, 5-year OS ranged from 92% (stage I) to 37% (stage III), while the combination of TNM and PNS stratified 5-year OS from 95% (TNM I, PNS 0) to 19% (TNM III, PNS 3). Of note, the prognostic significance of PNS was still maintained when stratified by TNM stage, age, sex, tumor size, anemia and adjuvant chemotherapy (All P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The PNS, a novel nutritional-based prognostic score, is independently associated with OS in GC. Prospective studies are needed to validate its clinical utility. PMID:27877232

  1. A Novel Prognostic Score, Based on Preoperative Nutritional Status, Predicts Outcomes of Patients after Curative Resection for Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuechao; Qiu, Haibo; Liu, Jianjun; Chen, Shangxiang; Xu, Dazhi; Li, Wei; Zhan, Youqing; Li, Yuanfang; Chen, Yingbo; Zhou, Zhiwei; Sun, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We aimed to determine whether preoperative nutritional status (PNS) was a valuable predictor of outcome in patients with gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 1320 patients with GC undergoing curative resection. The PNS score was constructed based on four objective and easily measurable criteria: prognostic nutritional index (PNI) score 1, serum albumin <35 g/L, body mass index (BMI) <18.5 kg/m(2), or preoperative weight loss ≥5% of body weight. The PNS score was 2 for patients who met three or four criteria, 1 for those who met one or two criteria, and 0 for those who didn't meet all of these criteria. RESULTS: The overall survival (OS) rates in patients with PNS scores 0, 1, and 2 were 59.1%, 42.4%, and 23.4%, respectively (P < 0.001). Multivariate analyses revealed the PNS was an independent predictor for OS (HR for PNS 1 and PNS 2: 1.497, 95 % CI: 1.230-1.820 and 2.434, 95 % CI: 1.773-3.340, respectively; p < 0.001). Furthermore, 5-year OS ranged from 92% (stage I) to 37% (stage III), while the combination of TNM and PNS stratified 5-year OS from 95% (TNM I, PNS 0) to 19% (TNM III, PNS 3). Of note, the prognostic significance of PNS was still maintained when stratified by TNM stage, age, sex, tumor size, anemia and adjuvant chemotherapy (All P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The PNS, a novel nutritional-based prognostic score, is independently associated with OS in GC. Prospective studies are needed to validate its clinical utility.

  2. Prognostic and predictive factors in gingivo buccal complex squamous cell carcinoma: role of tumor budding and pattern of invasion.

    PubMed

    Manjula, B V; Augustine, Suni; Selvam, Sumithra; Mohan, A Mathan

    2015-03-01

    Invasive tumor front (ITF) is the deepest three to six cell layers or detached tumor cell groups at the advancing edge of the tumor. Tumor budding is defined as presence of isolated single cells or small cell clusters scattered in the stroma ahead of the ITF and is characteristic of aggressive cancer. It is recognized as an adverse prognostic factor in several human cancers like colorectal, oesophageal, laryngeal cancers and more recently tongue cancers. However, the prognostic value of tumor budding has not been reported in GBCSCC. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of pattern of invasion (POI) at the ITF, Tumor budding and other clinicopathological parameters in predicting nodal metastases and prognosis in GBCSCC. 33 patients with primary GBCSCC were prospectively evaluated at a tertiary care referral centre. Tumor budding and type of POI was examined in detail and data documented. Statistical analyses were carried out to assess the correlation of tumor budding, POI, and other clinicopathologic parameters (stage, grade of the tumor, tumor thickness, PNI, LVI) with nodal metastases and predict prognosis. Cox regression was used for both Univariate and multivariate analysis. Significant predictors of nodal metastases on Univariate analysis were male gender (p = 0.021), smoking (p = 0.046), Tumor budding (p = 0.014) and diffuse infiltrative/worst POI (p = 0.004), where as on multivariate analysis only worst POI was significantly associated with positive lymph nodes (p = 0.004). Presence of nodal metastases (p = 0.01) and tumor thickness >5 mm (p = 0.009) were independent negative prognostic factors on multivariate analysis. Significant single risk factor predictive of positive lymph nodes is worst POI in GBCSCC. Nodal metastases and >5 mm tumor thickness are independent risk factors for disease free survival.

  3. Chemical synthesis of O-thiophosphotyrosyl peptides.

    PubMed

    Kitas, E; Küng, E; Bannwarth, W

    1994-02-01

    The synthon for O-thiophosphotyrosine, Fmoc-Tyr[PS(OBzl)2]-OH (1c), was prepared in 63% yield from Fmoc-Tyr-OH by first transient protection as the tBuMe2Si-ester and phosphinylation with (BzlO)2PNiPr2/tetrazole followed by oxidation of P(III) to P(V) with S8 in CS2. Building block 1c was incorporated in the Fmoc solid-phase synthesis of two O-thiophosphotyrosine-containing peptides H-Thr-Glu-Pro-Gln-Tyr(PS)-Gln-Pro-Gly-Glu-OH (2) and H-Thr-Arg-Asp-Ile-Tyr(PS)-Glu-Thr-Asp-Phe-Phe-Arg-Lys-OH (3), corresponding to sequences of the p60src (523-531) protein and an insulin receptor (IR) (1142-1153) analogue, respectively. An alternative approach of synthesis, the global phosphorylation of a resin-bound peptide, also proved useful. Thus, the free tyrosyl side-chain containing-peptide IR (1142-1153) on support was phosphinylated with the above phosphoramidite reagent followed by oxidation with either S8/CS2 or tetraethylthiuram disulfide/CH3CN solutions. Deprotection and peptide-resin cleavage was performed with a TFA/thiophenol (H2O) mixture. Crude peptides 2 and 3 were stable to the acidolytic deprotection. Preparative RP(C18)HPLC was initially performed using 0.1% TFA(aq)/EtOH solvents. However, analyses of fractions resulting from the purification step indicated significant decomposition of thiophosphopeptide in solution. Stability measurements both as a function of time and pH, further confirmed this initial finding. Purifications performed at intermediate pH using a triethylammonium acetate (pH 7.5)/CH3CN solvent system overcame this problem.

  4. Factors affecting tumor recurrence after curative surgery for NSCLC: impacts of lymphovascular invasion on early tumor recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chanyeong; Jang, Seung Hun; Lee, Jae Woong

    2014-01-01

    Background Although surgery is potentially curative treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the risk of postoperative disease recurrence is still high. This study was conducted to assess the factors associated with postoperative tumor recurrence in patients who underwent curative surgery for NSCLC. Methods One hundred seventy-one patients who underwent curative surgery for NSCLC were included in this study. Clinicopathological factors of histologic type, pathologic TNM stage, T stage, N stage, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), perineural invasion (PNI), surgical procedure, adjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant radiotherapy were investigated. Gender, age, and clinicopathologic factors were included in univariate and multivariate analyses using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model, respectively. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to investigate the significance of differences in recurrence-free interval (RFI) according to clinicopathological factors. Results Median RFI was 20 months. Univariate and multivariate analyses for overall recurrence identified T stage, N stage, and LVI as significant factors (P=0.045, 0.044, and <0.001, respectively). Pathologic stage (P=0.005) was the only factor that was significantly associated with locoregional recurrence. T stage (P=0.040) and LVI (P<0.001) were significantly associated with distant recurrence. The difference in 2-year freedom from recurrence between LVI positive and negative groups was significant (14.9% vs. 44.6%, P<0.001). LVI was the only factor that was significantly associated with a shortened mean RFI (P<0.001). Conclusions LVI had a significant effect on both overall and distant recurrence rates as well as on early tumor recurrence after curative surgery for NSCLC. PMID:25364519

  5. Indian Council of Medical Research consensus document for the management of tongue cancer

    PubMed Central

    D’Cruz, Anil K.; Sharma, Shilpi; Agarwal, Jaiprakash P.; Thakar, Alok; Teli, Ashraf; Arya, Supreeta; Desai, Chirag; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Sebastian, Paul; Verghese, Bipin T.; Kane, Shubhada; Sucharita, V; Kaur, Tanvir; Shukla, D. K.; Rath, Goura Kishor

    2015-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The document is based on consensus among the experts and best available evidence pertaining to Indian population and is meant for practice in India.Early diagnosis is imperative in improving outcomes and preserving quality of life. High index of suspicion is to be maintained for leukoplakia (high risk site).Evaluation of a patient with newly diagnosed tongue cancer should include essential tests: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is investigative modality of choice when indicated. Computed tomography (CT) scan is an option when MRI is unavailable. In early lesions when imaging is not warranted ultrasound may help guide management of the neck.Early stage cancers (stage I & II) require single modality treatment – either surgery or radiotherapy. Surgery is preferred. Adjuvant radiotherapy is indicated for T3/T4 cancers, presence of high risk features [lymphovascular emboli (LVE), perineural invasion (PNI), poorly differentiated, node +, close margins). Adjuvant chemoradiation (CTRT) is indicated for positive margins and extranodal disease.Locally advanced operable cancers (stage III & IVA) require combined multimodality treatment - surgery + adjuvant treatment. Adjuvant treatment is indicated in all and in the presence of high risk features as described above.Locally advanced inoperable cancers (stage IVB) are treated with palliative chemo-radiotherapy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or symptomatic treatment depending upon the performance status. Select cases may be considered for neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgical salvage.Metastatic disease (stage IVC) should be treated with a goal for palliation. Chemotherapy may be offered to patients with good performance status. Local treatment in the form of radiotherapy may be added for palliation of symptoms.Intense follow-up every 3 months is required for initial 2 years as most recurrences occur in the first 24 months. After 2nd year follow up is done at 4-6 months interval. At each follow up

  6. The alkene monooxygenase from Xanthobacter strain Py2 is closely related to aromatic monooxygenases and catalyzes aromatic monohydroxylation of benzene, toluene, and phenol

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, N.Y.; Jenkins, A.; Chan Kwo Chion, C.K.N.; Leak, D.J.

    1999-04-01

    The genes encoding the six polypeptide components of the alkene monooxygenase from Xanthobacter strain Py2 (Xamo) have been located on a 4.9-kb fragment of chromosomal DNA previously cloned in cosmid pNY2. Sequencing and analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences indicate that the components of Xamo are homologous to those of the aromatic monooxygenases, toluene 2-, 3-, and 4-monooxygenase and benzene monooxygenase, and that the gene order is identical. The genes and predicted polypeptides are aamA, encoding the 497-residue oxygenase {alpha}-subunit (XamoA); aamB, encoding the 88-residue oxygenase {gamma}-subunit (XamoB); aamC, encoding the 122-residue ferredoxin (XamoC); aamD, encoding the 101-residue coupling or effector protein (XamoD); aamE, encoding the 341-residue oxygenase {beta}-subunit (XamoE); and aamF, encoding the 327-residue reductase (XamoF). A sequence with > 60% concurrence with the consensus sequence of {sigma}{sup 5.4} (RpoN)-dependent promoters was identified upstream of the aamA gene. Detailed comparison of XamoA with the oxygenase {alpha}-subunits from aromatic monooxygenases, phenol hydroxylases, methane monooxygenase, and the alkene monooxygenase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous B276 showed that, despite the overall similarity to the aromatic monooxygenases, XamoA has some distinctive characteristics of the oxygenases which oxidize aliphatic, and particularly alkene, substrates. On the basis of the similarity between Xamo and the aromatic monooxygenases, Xanthobacter strain Py2 was tested and shown to oxidize benzene, toluene, and phenol, while the alkene monooxygenase-negative mutants NZ1 and NZ2 did not.

  7. Ablation of sensory neurons in a genetic model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma slows initiation and progression of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saloman, Jami L.; Albers, Kathryn M.; Li, Dongjun; Hartman, Douglas J.; Crawford, Howard C.; Muha, Emily A.; Rhim, Andrew D.; Davis, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by an exuberant inflammatory desmoplastic response. The PDAC microenvironment is complex, containing both pro- and antitumorigenic elements, and remains to be fully characterized. Here, we show that sensory neurons, an under-studied cohort of the pancreas tumor stroma, play a significant role in the initiation and progression of the early stages of PDAC. Using a well-established autochthonous model of PDAC (PKC), we show that inflammation and neuronal damage in the peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) occurs as early as the pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) 2 stage. Also at the PanIN2 stage, pancreas acinar-derived cells frequently invade along sensory neurons into the spinal cord and migrate caudally to the lower thoracic and upper lumbar regions. Sensory neuron ablation by neonatal capsaicin injection prevented perineural invasion (PNI), astrocyte activation, and neuronal damage, suggesting that sensory neurons convey inflammatory signals from Kras-induced pancreatic neoplasia to the CNS. Neuron ablation in PKC mice also significantly delayed PanIN formation and ultimately prolonged survival compared with vehicle-treated controls (median survival, 7.8 vs. 4.5 mo; P = 0.001). These data establish a reciprocal signaling loop between the pancreas and nervous system, including the CNS, that supports inflammation associated with oncogenic Kras-induced neoplasia. Thus, pancreatic sensory neurons comprise an important stromal cell population that supports the initiation and progression of PDAC and may represent a potential target for prevention in high-risk populations. PMID:26929329

  8. Gender specific association of TP53 polymorphisms (EX4 215G>C Arg72Pro, IVS3+40-41ins16, and IVS6+62G>A), with risk of oral cancer subtypes and overall survival of the patients.

    PubMed

    Nagam, Srivani L S S; Katta, Saritha; Prasad, Vidudala V T S

    2017-03-01

    Reports on the association of TP53 polymorphisms with oral cancer are not only limited but also not specific to site and/or gender. Hence, we examined the effect of TP53 polymorphisms (EX4 215G>C, IVS3+40-41ins16 and IVS6+62G>A) on buccal mucosa cancer (BMC) and tongue cancer (TC) risk, survival of patients in relation to risk and clinical factors, gender wise (excepting for estimating hazards ratio [HR]), using Fisher's Exact Test, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and Cox-proportional hazards models. The exonic polymorphism increased BMC and TC risk in males by 2-4-fold. The IVS3+40-41ins16 was protective against BMC and TC in both genders, whereas IVS6+62G>A protected only males against TC. Genotype combinations and haplotypes which altered the risk of cancers in males and females were different. TC males, aged 40-44 years and females, aged 55-59 years survived better than BMC patients. The IVS3+40-41ins16 polymorphism differentially impacted survival of female patients exposed to tobacco. TC patients with EX4 215GC with lymphovascular spread (LVS) and metastasis exhibited higher HR while, patients with EX4 215CC and perineural invasion (PNI) showed lower HR. Impact of the intronic variants along with clinical parameters on survival and HR estimates varied between BMC and TC. Our bioinformatics analysis revealed the presence of CTCF binding site within TP53 gene. In conclusion, the polymorphisms altered risk and survival of BMC and TC in a gender specific manner, which varied with mode of tobacco and/or alcohol use. The current study, therefore underscores strong need for research, stratified by tumor site and gender. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Essential elucidation for preparation of supported nickel phosphide upon nickel phosphate precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xuguang; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Baoquan

    2014-04-01

    Preparation of supported nickel phosphide (Ni{sub 2}P) depends on nickel phosphate precursor, generally related to its chemical composition and supports. Study of this dependence is essential and meaningful for the preparation of supported Ni{sub 2}P with excellent catalytic activity. The chemical nature of nickel phosphate precursor is revealed by Raman and UV–vis spectra. It is found that initial P/Ni mole ratio ≥0.8 prohibits the Ni-O-Ni bridge bonding (i.e., nickel oxide). This chemical bonding will not result in Ni{sub 2}P structure, verified by XRD characterization results. The alumina (namely, γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, θ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, or α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) with distinct physiochemical properties also results in diverse chemical nature of nickel phosphate, and then different nickel phosphides. The influence of alumina support on producing Ni{sub 2}P was explained by the theory of surface energy heterogeneity, calculated by the NLDFT method based on N{sub 2}-sorption isotherm. The uniform surface energy of α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} results only in the nickel phosphosate precursor and thus the Ni{sub 2}P phase. - Graphical abstract: Surface energy heterogeneity in alumina (namely α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, θ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) supported multi-oxidic precursors with different reducibilities and thus diverse nickel phosphides (i.e., Ni{sub 3}P, Ni{sub 12}P{sub 5}, Ni{sub 2}P). - Highlights: • Preparing pure Ni{sub 2}P. • Elucidating nickel phosphate precursor. • Associating with surface energy.

  10. Profiling pathological narcissism according to DSM-5 domains and traits: A study on consecutively admitted Italian psychotherapy patients.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Andrea; Somma, Antonella; Borroni, Serena; Pincus, Aaron L; Markon, Kristian E; Krueger, Robert F

    2016-06-23

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported online in Psychological Assessment on Nov 28 2016 (see record 2016-56886-001). In the original article, several values were reversed and the mean was misreported in Table 2. The corrected Table 2 is provided in the erratum.] Pathological narcissism represents a clinically relevant, albeit controversial personality construct, with multiple conceptualizations that are operationalized by different measures. Even in the recently published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5), 2 different views of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) are formulated (i.e., Section II and Section III). The DSM-5 Section III alternative PD model diagnosis of NPD is based on self and interpersonal dysfunction (Criterion A) and a profile of maladaptive personality traits (Criterion B), specifically elevated scores on Attention Seeking and Grandiosity. Given the diversity of conceptualizations of pathological narcissism, we evaluated the convergences and divergences in DSM-5 trait profiles characterizing multiple measures of narcissism in a clinical sample of 278 consecutively admitted Italian psychotherapy patients. Patients were administered the Italian versions of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) and 4 measures of NPD, (a) the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI); (b) the NPD scale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+; (c) the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis II Personality Disorders, Version 2.0 (SCID-II) as an observer-rated measure of NPD; and (d) the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI). Multiple regression analyses showed that PID-5 traits explained from 13% to more than 60% of the variance in the different NPD measures. Attention Seeking was consistently associated with all measures of NPD, whereas Grandiosity was associated with some of the NPD measures. All measures of NPD were also significantly related to additional DSM-5 maladaptive traits

  11. The association between breastfeeding, the stress response, inflammation, and postpartum depression during the postpartum period: Prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sukhee; Corwin, Elizabeth J

    2015-10-01

    Research suggests that exclusive breastfeeding may have a stress-protective role in postpartum depression; however, less is known about the underlying mechanisms by which this protection may occur or whether the protective relationship holds for women who mix breast and bottle feeding. To examine patterns of the stress response, inflammation, and depressive symptoms among women predominantly breastfeeding or bottle feeding their infants at 6 months postpartum. A part of a larger longitudinal study across 6 months postpartum investigating the psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) of postpartum depression. Prenatal clinics and community. One hundred nineteen postpartum women who met inclusion/exclusion criteria and followed up from the prenatal period to postpartum 6 months. Data were collected during seven home visits occurring during the 3rd trimester (weeks 32-36) and on postpartum days 7 and 14, months 1, 2, 3, and 6. Women completed stress and depression surveys and provided blood for pro- (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-a, IFN-γ) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines, and collected saliva for diurnal cortisol. Self-report of predominant breastfeeding during 6 months postpartum ranged from 91.9% at day 7 to 70.6% at month 6 postpartum. There were no associations between the pattern of feeding and depressive symptoms. Biological differences, however, existed between the groups, with levels of salivary cortisol at 8 AM and 8:30 AM at month 6 higher and levels of IL-6 at month 6 lower in women who primarily breastfed compared to those who primarily bottle fed their infants after controlling for confounding variables. Breastfeeding was not related to postpartum depression however differences in stress and inflammatory markers are apparent at month 6 postpartum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Multi-level biological responses in Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763) (Brachyura, Ucididae) as indicators of conservation status in mangrove areas from the western atlantic.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Luis Felipe de Almeida; Souza, Caroline Araújo de; Nobre, Caio Rodrigues; Pereira, Camilo Dias Seabra; Pinheiro, Marcelo Antonio Amaro

    2016-11-01

    able to reflect the conservation status of the mangrove areas studied using information on guideline values of MN‰, NRRT, and density of the uçá crab in order to categorize three levels of human impacts in mangrove areas: PNI (probable null impact); PLI (probable low impact); and PHI (probable high impact). Results confirm the success of U. cordatus species' multi-level biological responses in diagnosing threats to mangrove areas. Therefore, this species represents an effective tool in studies on mangrove conservation statuses in the Western Atlantic.

  13. Inflammation scores predict the survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who were treated with transarterial chemoembolization and recombinant human type-5 adenovirus H101

    PubMed Central

    He, Chao-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Background The systemic inflammatory response plays an important role in cancer development and progression. An original inflammation-based staging system for predicting survival in patients undergoing transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with recombinant human type-5 adenovirus H101 is not available. This study aimed to validate the prognostic value of inflammation scores for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who were treated with TACE combined with H101. Methods The data from 216 patients with HCC who underwent TACE combined with H101 from January 2007 to July 2015 were retrospectively collected, and the association of the inflammation scores with overall survival (OS) was analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify variables associated with OS. The prognostic value of the inflammation scores, including the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), neutrophil/ platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR-PLR), modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS), prognostic nutritional index (PNI), prognostic index (PI), tumor-node-metastasis (TNM), Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) and Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) staging systems were analyzed and compared using the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs). Results The estimated 1-, 2-, and 3-year OS rates were 61.3%, 44.2%, and 40.5% for the entire study cohort, respectively; the median OS was 17 months. According to the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, the pretreatment NLR, tumor diameter and pretreatment alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels were independent predictors of OS. The CLIP score had superior discriminative abilities compared with other staging systems, and the NLR-PLR score consistently displayed a higher AUROC value than the other inflammation-based prognostic scores. The combination of the NLR-PLR and CLIP scores exhibited a superior prognostic ability for OS compared to the NLR-PLR or

  14. Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia and Patient Safety: Update of an Evidence-Based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Neal, Joseph M

    2016-01-01

    support the concept that ultrasound (US) guidance does not meaningfully affect the incidence of peripheral nerve injury (PNI) associated with regional anesthesia. Similar confirmatory evidence attests to US guidance reducing the incidence and intensity of hemidiaphragmatic paresis (HDP) but not eliminating it. Literature published since late 2009 reports the effective role of US guidance in reducing the incidence of local anesthetic systemic toxicity and allows calculation of a lower predicted frequency of pneumothorax associated with US-guided supraclavicular blocks.

  15. Influence of EDDS on metal speciation in soil extracts: measurement and mechanistic multicomponent modeling.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Gerwin F; Schenkeveld, Walter D C; Song, Jing; Luo, Yongming; Japenga, Jan; Temminghoff, Erwin J M

    2008-02-15

    The use of the [S,S]-isomer of EDDS to enhance phytoextraction has been proposed for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. Speciation of metals in soil solution in the presence of EDDS and dissolved organic matter (DOM) received, however, almost no attention, whereas metal speciation plays an important role in relation to uptake of metals by plants. We investigated the influence of EDDS on speciation of dissolved metals in batch extraction experiments using fourfield-contaminated soils with pH varying between 4.7 and 7.2. Free metal concentrations were determined with the Donnan membrane technique, and compared with results obtained with the chemical speciation program ECOSAT and the NICA-Donnan model using a multicomponent approach. Addition of EDDS increased total metal concentrations in our soil extracts by a factor between 1.1 and 32 (Al), 2.1-48 (Cu), 1.1-109 (Fe), 1.1-5.5 (Ni), and 1.3-17 (Zn). In general, Al, Cu, Fe, and Zn had the largest total concentrations in the EDDS-treated extracts, but the contribution of these metals to the sum of total metal concentrations varied significantly between our soils. Free metal concentrations varied between 7.0 and 8.9 (pCd2+), 3.9-9.9 (pCu2+), 6.3-10.2 (pNi2+), and 5.2-7.0 (pZn2+). Addition of EDDS decreased free metal concentrations by a factor between 1.4 and 1.9 (Cd), 3.4-216 (Cu), 1.3-186 (Ni), and 1.3-3.3 (Zn). Model predictions of free metal concentrations were very good, and predicted values were mostly within 1 order of magnitude difference from the measured concentrations. A multicomponent approach had to be used in our model calculations, because competition between Fe and other metals for binding with EDDS was important. This was done by including the solubility of metal oxides in our model calculations. Multicomponent models can be used in chelant-assisted phytoextraction experiments to predict the speciation of dissolved metals and to increase the understanding of metal uptake by plants.

  16. Selective management of penetrating neck injuries using "no zone" approach.

    PubMed

    Prichayudh, Supparerk; Choadrachata-anun, Jirat; Sriussadaporn, Suvit; Pak-art, Rattaplee; Sriussadaporn, Sukanya; Kritayakirana, Kritaya; Samorn, Pasurachate

    2015-09-01

    Selective management has been the standard management protocol in penetrating neck injuries (PNIs) since this approach has significantly reduced unnecessary neck exploration. The purpose of this study is to evaluate outcomes of selective management in PNIs using the "no zone" approach, in which the management is guided mainly by clinical signs and symptoms, not the location of the neck wounds. A retrospective study was performed in patients treated for PNIs at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital (KCMH) from January 2003 to December 2013. The patients with hard signs of neck injury (i.e., active bleeding, significant haematoma, massive subcutaneous emphysema, and air bubbling through the neck wound) underwent emergency neck exploration. The asymptomatic patients and the patients with soft signs (other symptoms) were considered to be candidates for selective management. Data collection included demographic data, emergency department parameters, details of neck injury, and outcomes in terms of mortality, negative exploration rate, and missed injury rate. Eighty-six PNI patients were treated at KCMH from 2003 to 2013, 64 of which sustained stab wounds, 12 gunshot wounds, 4 shotgun wounds, and 6 other causes. Thirty-six patients presenting with hard signs underwent immediate neck exploration and there were 2 negative explorations. Twenty-six patients with soft signs underwent selective investigations (including computed tomographic angiography in 21 patients), 5 patients required neck explorations due to positive results of the investigations with one negative exploration. All of the twenty-four asymptomatic patients were managed with close observation, none required subsequent neck exploration. There was no missed injury found in the present study. Successful non-operative management was carried out in 45 patients (52%). The overall negative exploration rate was 7% (3 in 41 patients undergoing neck exploration). Two patients with hard signs died from associated chest

  17. Monitoring of post-vaccination anti-HBs titles vaccine in children and adolescents in the pre-dialysis of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Costa, Nathália Cristina Pereira da; Canhestro, Mônica Ribeiro; Soares, Cristina Maria Bouissou Morais; Rodrigues, Juliana Scudilio

    2017-08-28

    Bacterial or viral diseases are one of the major causes of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). These patients show a quantitative reduction of levels of antibodies over time. Among the infectious diseases that affect CKD patients, stands out hepatitis B (HB). Immunization and control of antibodies levels against the hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) are ways to prevent the HB infection in this population. Patients with anti-HBs levels ≥10 IU/ml are considered adequate responders, whereas those with anti-HBs levels ≥ 100 IU/ml are considered excellent responders. To analyze the variation of the anti-HBs levels obtained after vaccination against HB in children and adolescents in the pre-dialysis stage of CKD. A retrospective cohort study on anti-HBs levels of children and adolescents in the pre-dialysis stage of CKD. Correlation between levels of anti-HBs titers and time since the vaccination were estimated. From the total of 116 studied patients most of the studied patients were considered excellent responders, obtaining in the three anti-HBs titers percentages of 70.7%, 62.1% and 54.9% respectively. The anti-HBs titer levels showed a negative correlation with the time since vaccination (Kendall Tau-b = -0.16; p = 0.02). The majority of the studied population was vaccinated by PNI and showed excellent anti-HBs titer levels, even experiencing a progressive reduced response over the time. As doenças infecciosas, bacterianas ou virais, são uma das principais causas de morte dos pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC), que apresentam um decréscimo na duração da imunidade em comparação às pessoas saudáveis. Entre as doenças infecciosas que acometem os portadores de DRC, destaca-se a hepatite B (HB). A imunização e o controle dos níveis de anticorpos contra o antígeno da superfície da hepatite B (anti-HBs) são formas de evitar a contaminação da HB nessa população. Pacientes com o nível de anti-HBs ≥ 10 UI/ml s

  18. A 4300km-Long Particulate Hydrothermal Plume West of the Southern East Pacific Rise (15°S): Particulate Minor and Trace Elements from the U.S. GEOTRACES Eastern Pacific Zonal Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimmons, J. N.; Forsch, K. O.; Sherrell, R. M.; German, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    Research over the last 35 years has demonstrated a substantial influence of deep-sea hydrothermal venting on seawater chemistry proximal to vent sites, but basin-scale hydrothermal effects are to date only hypothesized on the basis of limited seawater and sediment sampling downstream of vent sites. The U.S. GEOTRACES Eastern Pacific Zonal Transect cruise investigated these potential long-range hydrothermal influences by sampling along the 15°S southern East Pacific Rise (EPR) plume, which is known to extend >4000 km from the EPR based on He-3 distributions. We present measurements of 30 particulate elements (>0.45 μm, filtered from GO-Flo bottles) at 11 stations along this transect. Concentrations of pFe and pMn peaked at 90 nM and 9 nM at 2425m above the EPR ridge axis (Sta 18), with no measurable back-transport to the east. A clear plume signature was detected at all stations from the ridge axis to the last station 4300 km to the west, where attenuated but background-distinguishable pFe and pMn peaks of 0.31 and 0.11 nM persisted at 2500m (Sta 36). Notably, the pMn peak appeared slightly deeper than the pFe peak near-field, and distal pMn decreased faster than pFe, a prime example of variable particle composition and settling behavior along the plume. The oxyanions pV (377 pM max) and pP (20 nM max) and particle-reactive pNd (2.42 pM max) all showed strong correlations with pFe and similarly remained enriched at distal stations, suggesting scavenging by Fe oxyhydroxides. The chalcophiles pCu (0.27 nM), pZn (75 pM), pCd (0.35 pM), and pCo (5.7 pM) were all enhanced near-field but, except pCu, reached background concentrations by Sta 23, indicating that sulfide particles either preferentially settle or dissolve early in plume evolution. Elevated pCu, in contrast, persisted throughout the sampled plume length. No elevated pAl, pTi, or pNi was evident in the hydrothermal plume, yet a substantial nepheloid layer with high concentrations of crustally

  19. Acid Mine Drainage Treatment by Perlite Nanomineral, Batch and Continuous Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabani, Kumars Seifpanahi; Ardejani, Faramarz Doulati; Badii, Khshayar; Olya, Mohammad Ebrahim

    2014-03-01

    ąsteczek do rozmiarów rzędu nano- cząsteczek. Perlit poddany został następnie badaniom z wykorzystaniem dyfrakcji promieniowania rentgenowskiego, rentgenowskiej analizy fluorescencyjnej, skaningowej mikroskopii elektronowej, transmisyjnej mikroskopii elektronowej, spektroskopii w podczerwieni z transformatą Fouriera. Przeprowadzono także badania powierzchni właściwej w oparciu o równanie BET. Wyniki badań kwaśnych wód kopalnianych wykazują ich kwasowość na poziomie 5.1, a zawartość jonów Cu2+, Fe2+ i Mn2 wynosi odpowiednio 10.5, 4.1, 8.3 ppm. W pierwszym etapie analizowano system działania okresowego, zbadano wpływ następujących parametrów: ilości czynnika absorbującego i temperatury. Następnie przebadano modele izotermiczne i kinetyczne. Na podstawie uzyskanych wyników wykazano, że izoterma Langmuira oraz model pseudo-kinetycznego drugiego rzędu wykazują lepszą zgodność z danymi eksperymentalnymi niż pozostałe modele izotermiczne i kinetyczne. Uzyskane parametry termodynamiczne: ΔG°, ΔH° i ΔS° wskazują, że adsorpcja jonów Cu2+, Fe2+ i Mn2 z kwaśnych wód kopalnianych przebiega spontanicznie i jest procesem endotermicznym. W końcowym etapie badania nanocząsteczki perlitu- adsorbentu zostały umieszczone wewnątrz szklanej kolumny i wykorzystane do usuwania jonów metali ciężkich z kwaśnych wód kopalnianych podawanych z prędkością przepływu 1, 3, 5 ml/min. Krzywe przebicia wskazują, że kolumna została nasycona odpowiednio po 180, 240 i 315 dla odpowiednich prędkości przepływu. Uzyskane wyniki wskazują, że ten występujący lokalnie w dużych ilościach, tani i łatwo dostępny minerał krzemianowy wykazuje wysoką skuteczność w usuwaniu z kwaśnych wód kopalniach zanieczyszczeń w postaci metali ciężkich, dlatego też może być z powodzeniem wykorzystany do oczyszczania znacznych ilości wód a także na skalę przemysłową