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Sample records for psenud filmi nitamise

  1. Filmy channel microchip with amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Fu, Feng F U; Xu, Xueqin; Lin, Jin-Ming; Chen, Guonan

    2009-11-01

    In this article, a new type of microchip with filmy channels and a sample-injection fracture is introduced. Unlike commercial microchip, new microchip possessed filmy channel with width 2-3 mm. The effective cooling ability made filmy channel microchip restrain the generation of Joule heat even under electric field of 588 V/cm. Moreover, wider channel could be more easily modified to prevent the absorption of samples, load more samples and result in a higher sensitivity. Sample-injection fracture was first applied to match the filmy channel in microchip. Equipped with an amperometric detector, the characteristics of the newly designed filmy channel microchip had been studied and the results showed that it had good reproducibility, higher sensitivity and excellent separation ability. The microchip was also applied to separate L-tryptophan's metabolites, namely 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxy-indole-3-acetic acid.

  2. Reconciling extreme branch length differences: decoupling time and rate through the evolutionary history of filmy ferns.

    PubMed

    Schuettpelz, Eric; Pryer, Kathleen M

    2006-06-01

    The rate of molecular evolution is not constant across the Tree of Life. Characterizing rate discrepancies and evaluating the relative roles of time and rate along branches through the past are both critical to a full understanding of evolutionary history. In this study, we explore the interactions of time and rate in filmy ferns (Hymenophyllaceae), a lineage with extreme branch length differences between the two major clades. We test for the presence of significant rate discrepancies within and between these clades, and we separate time and rate across the filmy fern phylogeny to simultaneously yield an evolutionary time scale of filmy fern diversification and reconstructions of ancestral rates of molecular evolution. Our results indicate that the branch length disparity observed between the major lineages of filmy ferns is indeed due to a significant difference in molecular evolutionary rate. The estimation of divergence times reveals that the timing of crown group diversification was not concurrent for the two lineages, and the reconstruction of ancestral rates of molecular evolution points to a substantial rate deceleration in one of the clades. Further analysis suggests that this may be due to a genome-wide deceleration in the rate of nucleotide substitution.

  3. Anatomical diversity and regressive evolution in trichomanoid filmy ferns (Hymenophyllaceae): a phylogenetic approach.

    PubMed

    Dubuisson, Jean-Yves; Hennequin, Sabine; Bary, Sophie; Ebihara, Atsushi; Boucheron-Dubuisson, Elodie

    2011-12-01

    To infer the anatomical evolution of the Hymenophyllaceae (filmy ferns) and to test previously suggested scenarios of regressive evolution, we performed an exhaustive investigation of stem anatomy in the most variable lineage of the family, the trichomanoids, using a representative sampling of 50 species. The evolution of qualitative and quantitative anatomical characters and possibly related growth-forms was analyzed using a maximum likelihood approach. Potential correlations between selected characters were then statistically tested using a phylogenetic comparative method. Our investigations support the anatomical homogeneity of this family at the generic and sub-generic levels. Reduced and sub-collateral/collateral steles likely derived from an ancestral massive protostele, and sub-collateral/collateral types appear to be related to stem thickness reduction and root apparatus regression. These results corroborate the hypothesis of regressive evolution in the lineage, in terms of morphology as well as anatomy. In addition, a heterogeneous cortex, which is derived in the lineage, appears to be related to a colonial strategy and likely to a climbing phenotype. The evolutionary hypotheses proposed in this study lay the ground for further evolutionary analyses that take into account trichomanoid habitats and accurate ecological preferences.

  4. Desiccation tolerance of Hymenophyllacea filmy ferns is mediated by constitutive and non-inducible cellular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Garcés Cea, Marcelo; Claverol, Stephan; Alvear Castillo, Carla; Rabert Pinilla, Claudia; Bravo Ramírez, León

    2014-04-01

    The Hymenophyllaceae is a primitive family within the Filicopsidae. One of the most exceptional features of this family of ferns is the presence of fronds with one or just a few cell layers (hence their name of filmy ferns), and the absence of stomata. Hymenophyllum caudiculatum and Hymenophyllum dentatum are able to lose more than 82% of their fully hydrated water content, to remain dry for extended periods of time (days or weeks), and to survive and remain viable following rehydration. The aim of this work was to understand whether the adaptive strategy of the Hymenophyllaceae for desiccation tolerance is constitutive or inducible. A proteomic approach was adopted in combination with physiological parameters to assess whether there were changes in the protein content during dehydration and following rehydration. Detached fronds were used to monitor the rates of photosynthesis in desiccation experiments, sugar accumulation, and high-resolution 2-DE to analyze proteome variation during a desiccation-rehydration cycle. The analyzed proteome exhibited little variation (3-4%) between hydrated and desiccated states, while variation was greater between the desiccated and rehydrated states (8.7-10%). Eighty-two discrete proteins were analyzed by MS/MS, and 65 were identified. About 21% of the analyzed proteins (17) were mixtures of two or more different polypeptides. Of the identified proteins, more than a half (33 spots, 55%) had functions related to energy-photosynthesis. The second largest category with known function (five spots, 8%) was related to cell rescue, defense, and virulence. More than one in every four proteins analyzed belonged to a group of hypothetical proteins (18 spots, 28%). The results suggest that the Hymenophyllaceae represent an example of a change in adaptive strategy from a typical vascular to the poikilohydric homoiochlorophyllous adaptation, which they share with the bryophytes that grow in profusion in the same habitats. The speed at which

  5. Light and desiccation responses of some Hymenophyllaceae (filmy ferns) from Trinidad, Venezuela and New Zealand: poikilohydry in a light-limited but low evaporation ecological niche

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, Michael C. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Hymenophyllaceae (filmy ferns) are typically plants of shady, constantly moist habitats. They attain greatest species diversity and biomass in humid tropical montane forests and temperate hyperoceanic climates. This paper presents ecophysiological data bearing on their worldwide ecological niche space and its limits. Methods Chlorophyll fluorescence was used to monitor recovery in desiccation experiments, and for measurements of 95 % saturating irradiance [photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD95 %)] of photosynthetic electron flow and other parameters, in the New Zealand Hymenophyllum sanguinolentum, and three species each of Hymenophyllum and Trichomanes from forests in Trinidad and Venezuela. Key Results Hymenophyllum sanguinolentum was comparable in desiccation tolerance and light responses with the European species. The more common species in the two tropical forests showed PPFD95 % >100 µmol m−2 s−1, and withstood moderate desiccation (–40 MPa) for several days. The four most shade-adapted species had PPFD95 % ≤51 µmol m−2 s−1, and were sensitive to even mild and brief desiccation (–22 MPa for 3 d). Conclusions Light and desiccation responses of filmy ferns can be seen as an integrated package. At low light and windspeed in humid forests, net radiation and saturation deficit are low, and diffusion resistance high. Water loss is slow and can be supported by modest conduction from the sub-stratum. With higher irradiance, selection pressure for desiccation tolerance increases progressively. With low light and high humidity, the filmy fern pattern of adaptation is probably optimal, and the vascular plant leaf with mesophyll and stomata offers no advantage in light capture, water economy or CO2 uptake. Trade-offs between light adaptation and desiccation tolerance, and between stem conduction and water absorption through the leaf surface, underlie adaptive radiation and niche differentiation of species within the family

  6. The sporophyte-less filmy fern of eastern North America Trichomanes intricatum (Hymenophyllaceae) has the chloroplast genome of an Asian species.

    PubMed

    Ebihara, Atsushi; Farrar, Donald R; Ito, Motomi

    2008-12-01

    Trichomanes intricatum, the sporophyte-less filmy fern of the eastern United States, has been considered to be a species whose sporophyte generation has become extinct or is possibly still present among the many species of Trichomanes s.l. in the new world tropics but unable to grow in a temperate climate. A close relationship to Asian species has heretofore not been considered. Comparison of rbcL and rps4-trnS sequences to species of Trichomanes s.l. reveals that T. intricatum shares its chloroplast genome with Crepidomanes schmidtianum of eastern Asia. Because C. schmidtianum is a sterile triploid and the ploidy level of T. intricatum is unknown, several scenarios leading to their sharing of these maternally inherited genes must be explored.

  7. Dynamics of a climbing surfactant-laden film--I: base-state flow.

    PubMed

    Mavromoustaki, A; Matar, O K; Craster, R V

    2012-04-01

    The dynamics of a surfactant-laden film climbing up an inclined plane is investigated through a two-dimensional (2-D), nonlinear evolution equation for the interface coupled to convective-diffusion equations for the surfactant, derived using lubrication theory. One-dimensional (1-D) solutions, representing the base-state flow, are investigated for constant flux and constant volume configurations; these flows are parameterised by capillarity, gravity, convection-diffusion ratios (represented by Péclét numbers at the surface and bulk), a solubility parameter, sorption kinetics constants, the number of surfactant monomers in a micelle, and the nonlinearity of the surfactant equation of state. In both configurations studied, a front develops spreading up the substrate against the direction of gravity whereby the leading edge of the front follows a power-law as a function of time. The effect of system parameters on the base-state flow is explored through an extensive parametric study, while the stability of the above-mentioned system to spanwise perturbations is the focus of Part II.

  8. From Empire to "Filmi:" A Fusion of Western and Indian Cultural Practices in Australian Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southcott, Jane; Joseph, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    During the 19th and 20th centuries, Indian culture was represented in Australia as part of celebrations of the British Empire. Children were presented with stereotypic representations of Indian culture, which provide a snapshot of contemporary perceptions. Such representations were rarely authentic. By removing music from one culture and…

  9. From Empire to "Filmi:" A Fusion of Western and Indian Cultural Practices in Australian Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southcott, Jane; Joseph, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    During the 19th and 20th centuries, Indian culture was represented in Australia as part of celebrations of the British Empire. Children were presented with stereotypic representations of Indian culture, which provide a snapshot of contemporary perceptions. Such representations were rarely authentic. By removing music from one culture and…

  10. A Filmy Black-Phosphorus Polyimide Saturable Absorber for Q-Switched Operation in an Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tianxian; Mao, Dong; Cui, Xiaoqi; Li, Mingkun; Song, Kun; Jiang, Biqiang; Lu, Hua; Quan, Wangmin

    2016-11-11

    We demonstrate an erbium-doped fiber laser passively Q-switched by a black-phosphorus polyimide film. The multi-layer black-phosphorus (BP) nanosheets were prepared via a liquid exfoliation approach exploiting N-methylpyrrolidone as the dispersion liquid. By mixing the BP nanosheets with polyimide (PI), a piece of BP-PI film was obtained after evaporating the mixture in a petri dish. The BP-PI saturable absorber had a modulation depth of 0.47% and was inserted into an erbium-doped fiber laser to realize passive Q-switched operations. The repetition rate of the Q-switched laser increased from 5.73 kHz to 31.07 kHz when the laser pump was enhanced from 31.78 mW to 231.46 mW. Our results show that PI is an excellent host material to protect BP from oxidation, and the BP-PI film can act as a promising nonlinear optical device for laser applications.

  11. A Filmy Black-Phosphorus Polyimide Saturable Absorber for Q-Switched Operation in an Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Tianxian; Mao, Dong; Cui, Xiaoqi; Li, Mingkun; Song, Kun; Jiang, Biqiang; Lu, Hua; Quan, Wangmin

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate an erbium-doped fiber laser passively Q-switched by a black-phosphorus polyimide film. The multi-layer black-phosphorus (BP) nanosheets were prepared via a liquid exfoliation approach exploiting N-methylpyrrolidone as the dispersion liquid. By mixing the BP nanosheets with polyimide (PI), a piece of BP–PI film was obtained after evaporating the mixture in a petri dish. The BP–PI saturable absorber had a modulation depth of 0.47% and was inserted into an erbium-doped fiber laser to realize passive Q-switched operations. The repetition rate of the Q-switched laser increased from 5.73 kHz to 31.07 kHz when the laser pump was enhanced from 31.78 mW to 231.46 mW. Our results show that PI is an excellent host material to protect BP from oxidation, and the BP–PI film can act as a promising nonlinear optical device for laser applications. PMID:28774038

  12. Ultraviolet spectra of quenched carbonaceous composite derivatives: Comparison to the '217 nanometer' interstellar absorption feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Akira; Wada, Setsuko; Tokunaga, Alan T.; Narisawa, Takatoshi; Nakagawa, Hidehiro; Ono, Hiroshi

    1994-07-01

    QCCs (quenched carbonaceous composite) are amorphous carbonaceous material formed from a hydrocarbon plasma. We present the UV-visible spectra of 'filmy QCC; (obtained outside of the beam ejected from the hydrocarbon plasma) and 'dark QCC' (obtained very near to the beam) for comparison to the stellar extinction curve. When filmy QCC is heated to 500-700 C (thermally altered), the wavelength of the absorption maximum increases form 204 nm to 220-222 nm. The dark QCC has an absorption maximum at 217-222 nm. In addition, the thermally altered filmy QCC has a slope change at about 500 nm which resembles that in the interstellar extinction curve. The resemblance of the extinction curve of the QCCs to that of the interstellar medium suggests that QCC derivatives may be representative of the type of interstellar material that produces the 217 nm interstellar medium feature. The peak extinction of the dark QCC is higher than the average interstellar extinction curve while that of the thermally altered filmy QCC is lower, so that a mixture of dark and thermally altered filmy QCC can match the peak extinction observed in the interstellar medium. It is shown from electron micrographs that most of the thermally altered filmy QCC is in the form of small grainy structure less than 4 nm in diameter. This shows that the structure unit causing the 217-222 nm feature in QCC is very small.

  13. Ultraviolet spectra of quenched carbonaceous composite derivatives: Comparison to the '217 nanometer' interstellar absorption feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, Akira; Wada, Setsuko; Tokunaga, Alan T.; Narisawa, Takatoshi; Nakagawa, Hidehiro; Ono, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    QCCs (quenched carbonaceous composite) are amorphus carbonaceous material formed from a hydrocarbon plasma. We present the UV-visible spectra of 'filmy QCC; (obtained outside of the beam ejected from the hydrocarbon plasma) and 'dark QCC' (obtained very near to the beam) for comparison to the stellar extinction curve. When filmy QCC is heated to 500-700 C (thermally altered), the wavelength of the absorption maximum increases form 204 nm to 220-222 nm. The dark QCC has an absorption maximum at 217-222 nm. In addition, the thermally altered filmy QCC has a slope change at about 500 nm which resmbles that in the interstellar extinction curve. The resemblance of the extinction curve of the QCCs to that of the interstellar medium suggests that QCC derivatives may be representative of the type of interstellar material that produces the 217 nm interstellar medium feature. The peak extinction of the dark QCC is higher than the average interstellar extinction curve while that of the thermally altered filmy QCC is lower, so that a mixture of dark and thermally altered filmy QCC can match the peak extinction observed in the interstellar medium. It is shown from electron micrographs that most of the thermally altered flimy QCC is in the form of small grainy structure less than 4 nm in diameter. This shows that the structure unit causing the 217-222 nm feature in QCC is very small.

  14. Media Education in Japan (Retrospect and Present Trends).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takakuwa, Yasuo

    This overview of the development of media education in Japan begins with a discussion of the motion picture as entertainment and the public attitude toward film in Japan during the early years of the century. The introduction of film education into the schools in the 1920s--both teaching by film and teaching about film--is then described together…

  15. Grain Boundary Segregation and Stress Corrosion Cracking of Aluminum Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    consider the following: i) Generation of byd- ogen ii) Entry of hydrogen through the protective surface filmi and iii) Concentration of hydrogen in a...Mechanisms of cracking Hydrogen einbrittlernent Grain boundary segregation Oxide filris Alumrinum’n Alloys 20. A STT ACT (Cori(Itue on revors• side It ,rece...grain boundary segregation profiles of various alunminum ll oys. Samnples of both cornommercial ( 7075 , 7050, and 749) and high purity alloys based on the

  16. Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway Regional Transportation Study; Analysis of Freight Rates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    84 156-160 45 331-335 85.5 161-165 A6 335-34n 17 166:171 47 341-345 8 171.175 t 4,8 346-35’) 89" 176- 10 49 351-355 ".5 K. R. Tolonen Director of Transportation May 6, 1980 14~e~cL Qp o S~AJEN4~E F- 21 DAT FILMI

  17. Study of the Lubrication Mechanism of Thin Film Lubricated Concentrated Steel Contacts. The Influence of Pre-Treatment of the Steel on the Load Carrying Capacity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    flD-.Ri35 067 STUDY OF THE LUBRICATION rECHRNISI OF THIN FILMi/ LUBRICARTED CONCENTRATED S..(U) METARLINSTITUUT TNO APELDOORN (NETHERLAiNDS) DEPT OF...7300 AM Apeldoorn , The Netherlands LaJ Approved for Public Release; distribution unlimited -* :~ S MIVCL £ASSavCA’TICN OF THIS PAGE(Wm Date £ngIOV0dl...DAJA 37-82-C-0465 3pLVOM’H ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS M0 PQOORAM ELEMENT. PR~OJECT. TA5K ’~Metaaliflstituut TND p.(). Box 541 U7300 Am Apeldoorn

  18. Laparoscopic management of chemical peritonitis caused by dermoid cyst spillage.

    PubMed

    Shamshirsaz, Alireza A; Shamshirsaz, Amirhoushang A; Vibhakar, Jill L; Broadwell, Christina; Van Voorhis, Bradley J

    2011-01-01

    Dermoid cyst is the most frequent benign ovarian tumor. Spillage of cyst contents during surgery is common and can rarely lead to chemical peritonitis. A patient presented 3 days after attempted laparoscopic removal of bilateral dermoid cysts. On examination, she had a low-grade fever, rebound tenderness with guarding, and a markedly elevated white blood cell count. A decision was made to proceed with laparoscopy with the presumptive diagnosis of chemical peritonitis. Laparoscopic findings included residual dermoid cyst contents and extensive filmy adhesions of the bowel and omentum to the peritoneal surface. The chemical peritonitis resolved after laparoscopic removal of residual dermoid cyst content including bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and copious irrigation. Early recognition and prompt treatment by repeat laparoscopic surgery with removal of the remaining cyst contents and peritoneal lavage can be a successful method for treating chemical peritonitis.

  19. Laparoscopic Management of Chemical Peritonitis Caused by Dermoid Cyst Spillage

    PubMed Central

    Shamshirsaz, Amirhoushang A.; Vibhakar, Jill L.; Broadwell, Christina; Van Voorhis, Bradley J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dermoid cyst is the most frequent benign ovarian tumor. Spillage of cyst contents during surgery is common and can rarely lead to chemical peritonitis. Case Report: A patient presented 3 days after attempted laparoscopic removal of bilateral dermoid cysts. On examination, she had a low-grade fever, rebound tenderness with guarding, and a markedly elevated white blood cell count. A decision was made to proceed with laparoscopy with the presumptive diagnosis of chemical peritonitis. Laparoscopic findings included residual dermoid cyst contents and extensive filmy adhesions of the bowel and omentum to the peritoneal surface. The chemical peritonitis resolved after laparoscopic removal of residual dermoid cyst content including bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and copious irrigation. Conclusion: Early recognition and prompt treatment by repeat laparoscopic surgery with removal of the remaining cyst contents and peritoneal lavage can be a successful method for treating chemical peritonitis. PMID:21985734

  20. Synthesis and properties of polyvinylidene fluoride high-temperature treatment products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhivulin, V. E.; Zherebtsov, D. A.; Lebedeva, S. M.; Shtenberg, M. V.; Osipov, A. A.; Pesin, L. A.

    2017-02-01

    Simultaneous thermal, gravimetric and mass spectrometric analyses made it possible to reveal considerable differences in fluorine desorption and changes in weight of filmy samples of original and partly chemically dehydrofluorinated polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) under an increase in temperature up to 800°C in argon flow. To determine the thermal treatment effect on the final material's properties, the PVDF film was heated in a backing vacuum (0.5 Torr) up to 600°C with 40-minute isothermal exposure at a maximum temperature. Raman scattering spectroscopy was applied to compare molecular structures of the final products obtained by the high-temperature treatment of all samples and to prove their similarity. The spectrum of the chemically dehydrofluorinated sample, not subjected to a thermal effect, was characterized by a weak band in the region of 2000-2200 cm-1, characteristic of the carbyne-like structures dominated by a polyyne type.

  1. Femtosecond pulse generation from a topological insulator mode-locked fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Zheng, Xu-Wu; Liu, Meng; Zhao, Nian; Luo, Ai-Ping; Luo, Zhi-Chao; Xu, Wen-Cheng; Zhang, Han; Zhao, Chu-Jun; Wen, Shuang-Chun

    2014-03-24

    We reported on the generation of femtosecond pulse in a fiber ring laser by using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based topological insulator (TI), Bi2Se3 saturable absorber (SA). The PVA-TI composite has a low saturable optical intensity of 12 MW/cm2 and a modulation depth of ~3.9%. By incorporating the fabricated PVA-TISA into a fiber laser, mode-locking operation could be achieved at a low pump threshold of 25 mW. After an optimization of the cavity parameters, optical pulse with ~660 fs centered at 1557.5 nm wavelength had been generated. The experimental results demonstrate that the PVA could be an excellent host material for fabricating high-performance TISA, and also indicate that the filmy PVA-TISA is indeed a good candidate for ultrafast saturable absorption device.

  2. Epiphytes as an Indicator of Climate Change in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettwich, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    Although climate change threatens many ecosystems, current research in this field suggests tropical vegetation lags in response. Epiphytes, or arboreal vegetation, occupy tight, climate-defined niches compared with co-occurring life forms such as trees, yet there have been few studies of Hawaii's epiphyte communities. Because of Hawaii Island's natural climatic diversity, it is an ideal location to understand how these intrinsically climate sensitive plants interact with the atmosphere and evaluate how they may serve as a near-term indicator of climate change. Here we establish a baseline from which changes in corticolous epiphyte communities can be monitored as a leading indicator of likely forest changes by 1) investigating patterns of epiphyte abundance and species composition across elevation and precipitation gradients on windward Hawaii Island, and 2) using physiological measurements to investigate the relative importance of rain vs. fog in epiphyte-atmosphere interactions. The precipitation gradient keeps elevation constant at 1000m, while varying precipitation between 2,400 and 6,400 mm/year. The elevation gradient keeps rainfall constant at 3000mm/year, and varies elevation between 200 and 1750 m. Forest sites are dominated by Ohia Lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) across broad geographic and climatological ranges thus allowing examination of epiphytes on this single host. We quantified bryophytes and vascular plants growing on Ohia trunks with standardized diameter and branching characteristics. Overall, epiphyte communities showed much finer scale responses to climate variation when compared with structurally dominant vegetation (which was broadly similar at all sites). The precipitation gradient exhibits a clear increase in abundance of all epiphyte groups and a definable increase in diversity with increasing rainfall. Results across the elevation gradient show a higher abundance of filmy ferns and bryophytes above the lifting condensation level (about

  3. Nanometer-Scale Epitaxial Strain Release in Perovskite Heterostructures Using 'SrAlOx' Sliding Buffer Layers

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Christopher

    2011-08-11

    We demonstrate the strain release of LaAlO{sub 3} epitaxial film on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) by inserting ultra-thin 'SrAlO{sub x}' buffer layers. Although SrAlO{sub x} is not a perovskite, nor stable as a single phase in bulk, epitaxy stabilizes the perovskite structure up to a thickness of 2 unit cells (uc). At a critical thickness of 3 uc of SrAlO{sub x}, the interlayer acts as a sliding buffer layer, and abruptly relieves the lattice mismatch between the LaAlO{sub 3} filmand the SrTiO{sub 3} substrate, while maintaining crystallinity. This technique may provide a general approach for strain relaxation of perovskite film far below the thermodynamic critical thickness. A central issue in heteroepitaxial filmgrowth is the inevitable difference in lattice constants between the filmand substrate. Due to this lattice mismatch, thin film are subjected to microstructural strain, which can have a significan effect on the filmproperties. This challenge is especially prominent in the rapidly developing fiel of oxide electronics, where much interest is focused on incorporating the emergent physical properties of oxides in devices. Although strain can be used to great effect to engineer unusual ground states, it is often deleterious for bulk first-orde phase transitions, which are suppressed by the strain and symmetry constraints of the substrate. While there are some reports discussing the control of the lattice mismatch in oxides using thick buffer layers, the materials choice, lattice-tunable range, and control of misfit dislocations are still limited. In this Letter, we report the fabrication of strain-relaxed LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) thin film on SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) (001) using very thin 'SrAlO{sub x}' (SAO) buffer layers. Whereas for 1 or 2 pseudo-perovskite unit cells (uc) of SAO, the subsequent LAO filmis strained to the substrate, at a critical thickness of 3 uc the SAO interlayer abruptly relieves the lattice mismatch between the LAO and the STO, although maintaining the

  4. Initiation of microplasma discharges at the edge of a dielectric film deposited on a metal surface

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V. A.; Sakharov, A. S.; Konyzhev, M. E.

    2008-02-15

    Excitation of microplasma discharges in the interaction of a plasma flow with a metal surface partially covered with a dielectric film is investigated experimentally and theoretically. A new phenomenon-the excitation of microplasma discharges at the boundary between the free metal surface and the area covered with the film-is discovered. Microplasma discharges at the edge of the dielectric film are initiated by a strong electric field that arises between the free metal surface and the outer surface of the film in the interaction with the plasma flow. This field gives rise to surface breakdowns at the film edge, followed by the development of primary microplasma discharges. In turn, the dense plasma of primary microplasma discharges causes secondary microplasma discharges, which also arise at the edge of the dielectric film after the external plasma flow has already terminated. Microplasma discharges gradually evaporate the dielectric film, and the surface cleaned of the film acquires a microrelief due to the local melting and subsequent fast cooling of the metal at the sites of microplasma discharges.

  5. Periostin antisense oligonucleotide prevents adhesion formation after surgery in mice.

    PubMed

    Takai, Shinji; Yoshino, Masafumi; Takao, Kazumasa; Yoshikawa, Kazunori; Jin, Denan

    2017-02-01

    To study the role of periostin in adhesion formation, the effect of periostin antisense oligonucleotide (PAO) on adhesion formation was evaluated in mice. Under anesthesia, the serous membrane of the cecum was abraded, and the adhesion score and mRNA levels of periostin and its related factors were determined after surgery. Saline, 40 mg/kg of negative sense oligonucleotide (NSO), or 40 mg/kg of PAO were injected into the abdomen after surgery, and the adhesion score and mRNA levels were evaluated 14 days later. Filmy adhesion formation was observed 1 day after surgery, and the adhesion score increased gradually to 14 days. The mRNA levels of periostin, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and collagen I increased gradually from 3 days to 14 days. The adhesion score of PAO was significantly lower than of saline or NSO 14 days after surgery. The mRNA levels of periostin, TGF-β, and collagen I were also significantly attenuated by treatment with PAO compared with saline or NSO. Thus, these results demonstrated that the periostin mRNA level increased in the abraded cecum, and PAO prevented adhesion formation along with attenuation of the periostin mRNA level. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yizhong; Luo, Zhengqian; Li, Yingyue; Zhong, Min; Xu, Bin; Che, Kaijun; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping; Peng, Jian; Weng, Jian

    2014-10-20

    We propose and demonstrate a MoS2-based passively Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser with a wide tuning range of 1519.6-1567.7 nm. The few-layer MoS2 nano-platelets are prepared by the liquid-phase exfoliation method, and are then made into polymer-composite film to construct the fiber-compatible MoS2 saturable absorber (SA). It is measured at 1560 nm wavelength, that such MoS2 SA has the modulation depth of ∼ 2% and the saturable optical intensity of ∼ 10 MW/cm(2). By further inserting the filmy MoS2-SA into an Er-doped fiber laser, stable Q-switching operation with a 48.1 nm continuous tuning from S- to C-waveband is successfully achieved. The shortest pulse duration and the maximum pulse energy are 3.3 μs and 160 nJ, respectively. The repetition rate and the pulse duration under different operation conditions have been also characterized. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first demonstration of MoS2 Q-switched, widely-tunable fiber laser.

  7. An Australian webspinner species makes the finest known insect silk fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Shoko; Weisman, Sarah; Trueman, Holly E.; Mudie, Stephen T.; Haritos, Victoria S.; Sutherland, Tara D.

    2009-01-15

    Aposthonia gurneyi, an Australian webspinner species, is a primitive insect that constructs and lives in a silken tunnel which screens it from the attentions of predators. The insect spins silk threads from many tiny spines on its forelegs to weave a filmy sheet. We found that the webspinner silk fibers have a mean diameter of only 65 nm, an order of magnitude smaller than any previously reported insect silk. The purpose of such fine silk may be to reduce the metabolic cost of building the extensive tunnels. At the molecular level, the A. gurneyi silk has a predominantly beta-sheet protein structure. The most abundant clone in a cDNA library produced from the webspinner silk glands encoded a protein with extensive glycine-serine repeat regions. The GSGSGS repeat motif of the A. gurneyi silk protein is similar to the well-known GAGAGS repeat motif found in the heavy fibroin of silkworm silk, which also has beta-sheet structure. As the webspinner silk gene is unrelated to the silk gene of the phylogenetically distant silkworm, this is a striking example of convergent evolution.

  8. Influence of different morphology of three-dimensional Cu(x)O with mixed facets modified air-cathodes on microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ziqi; Li, Kexun; Zhang, Xi; Ge, Baochao; Pu, Liangtao

    2015-11-01

    Three kinds of three-dimensional (3D) CuxO catalysts were prepared to modify activated carbon air-cathode using a facile electrochemical method with addition of surfactants. The maximum power density of MFC using SC-Cu air cathode (added sodium citrate into the electrolyte solution in electrodeposition process) was 1550±47 mW m(-2), almost 77% higher than AC cathode. Specifically, the charge transfer resistance significantly decreased by 89% from 9.3980 Ω to 1.0640 Ω compared to the control. Lumphy and mutually embedded filmy sheet structure were observed in SEM, which provided sufficient active sites for oxygen adsorption and diffusion. In XRD and TEM result, CuxO with mixed facets showed special structure which had a better performance. Crystallization condition of electrodeposited materials played a significant role in their nature electrochemical properties, morphology controlled by surfactant of CuxO exhibited high properties on the air-cathode MFC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chromosome number evolution in Hymenophyllum (Hymenophyllaceae), with special reference to the subgenus Hymenophyllum.

    PubMed

    Hennequin, Sabine; Ebihara, Atsushi; Dubuisson, Jean-Yves; Schneider, Harald

    2010-04-01

    With about 100 species distributed worldwide, Hymenophyllum subg. Hymenophyllum is the largest subgenus of filmy ferns. It also displays morphological disparity and extreme chromosome numbers variation, with n=11, 12, 13, 14, 18, 21, 22, 26, 28, and 34. We use DNA sequences from the genes rbcL, part of accD, rps4, and the intergenic spacers rbcL-accD, rps4-trnS, and trnG-trnR to infer relationships within Hymenophyllum, with a focus on this subgenus. In the subgenus Hymenophyllum, two main clades are retrieved together with several minor clades whose placement within the subgenus remains ambiguous. We then investigate the evolution of chromosome numbers in the genus and the subgenus, using a maximum likelihood approach taking into account phylogenetic uncertainty. We provide evidence that Hymenophyllum experienced descending aneuploidy during its evolutionary history, especially within the subgenus Hymenophyllum. Reduction in chromosome numbers is particularly extreme in one clade of the subgenus, with the lowest number reported for homosporous ferns. In addition, this group of species displays a high instability in its chromosome number. Both the reduction and the instability in chromosome number may coincide with the distribution of these species in either temperate areas or at high elevations.

  10. Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS(2) saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Luo, Ai-Ping; Wang, Fu-Zao; Tang, Rui; Liu, Meng; Luo, Zhi-Chao; Xu, Wen-Cheng; Zhao, Chu-Jun; Zhang, Han

    2014-08-01

    We report on the generation of a femtosecond pulse in a fiber ring laser by using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based molybdenum disulfide (MoS(2)) saturable absorber (SA). With a saturable optical intensity of 34  MW/cm(2) and a modulation depth of ∼4.3%, the PVA-based MoS(2) SA had been employed with an erbium-doped fiber ring laser as a mode locker. The mode-locking operation could be achieved at a low pump threshold of 22 mW. A ∼710  fs pulse centered at 1569.5 nm wavelength with a repetition rate of 12.09 MHz had been achieved with proper cavity dispersion. With the variation of net cavity dispersion, output pulses with durations from 0.71 to 1.46 ps were obtained. The achievement of a femtosecond pulse at 1.55 μm waveband demonstrates the broadband saturable absorption of MoS(2), and also indicates that the filmy PVA-based MoS(2) SA is indeed a good candidate for an ultrafast saturable absorption device.

  11. The evolution of chloroplast genome structure in ferns.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Paul G; Roper, Jessie M; Duffy, Aaron M

    2010-09-01

    The plastid genome (plastome) is a rich source of phylogenetic and other comparative data in plants. Most land plants possess a plastome of similar structure. However, in a major group of plants, the ferns, a unique plastome structure has evolved. The gene order in ferns has been explained by a series of genomic inversions relative to the plastome organization of seed plants. Here, we examine for the first time the structure of the plastome across fern phylogeny. We used a PCR-based strategy to map and partially sequence plastomes. We found that a pair of partially overlapping inversions in the region of the inverted repeat occurred in the common ancestor of most ferns. However, the ancestral (seed plant) structure is still found in early diverging branches leading to the osmundoid and filmy fern lineages. We found that a second pair of overlapping inversions occurred on a branch leading to the core leptosporangiates. We also found that the unique placement of the gene matK in ferns (lacking a flanking intron) is not a result of a large-scale inversion, as previously thought. This is because the intron loss maps to an earlier point on the phylogeny than the nearby inversion. We speculate on why inversions may occur in pairs and what this may mean for the dynamics of plastome evolution.

  12. [Post-cesarean parietal scar characteristics are predictive of pelvic adhesions. A prospective cohort study].

    PubMed

    Khlifi, A; Meddeb, S; Kouira, M; Boukadida, A; Hachani, F; Chachia, S; Hidar, S; Bibi, M; Khairi, H; Essaidi, H

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether abdominal scar characteristics could predict the incidence and severity of intra-abdominal adhesions found at repeat cesarean delivery. Prospective cohort study including 151pregnant women with at least one previous cesarean delivery and who delivered abdominally in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology of Farhat Hached teaching hospital-Sousse-Tunisia, during 6 months. Abdominal scar characteristics were studied. The main outcome measure(s) were the incidence and severity of intra-abdominal adhesions. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 18.0. Of 151 women enrolled into this trial, 111 (73.5%) had adhesions, 57 (37.8%) had dense adhesions. Of all the abdominal scar characteristics studied, a depressed scar was associated with an increased incidence of both dense and filmy intra-abdominal adhesions and frozen pelvis if compared of women who did not have a depressed scar (P<10(-4) ; RR=7.6; IC=2.98-19.45). A number of previous cesarean section equal or more than 2 was also correlated with an increased incidence of severe intra-abdominal adhesions and frozen pelvis if compared with women who had only one previous cesarean section (P=0.002; RR=2.53; IC=1.16-5.56). A depressed abdominal scar of a previous cesarean delivery and a number of previous cesarean sections are significantly correlated with the incidence and severity of intra-abdominal adhesions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Chitosan and β-Cyclodextrin-epichlorohydrin Polymer Composite Film as a Plant Healthcare Material for Carbendazim-Controlled Release to Protect Rape against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary.

    PubMed

    Wang, Delong; Jia, Mingchen; Wang, Lanying; Song, Shuang; Feng, Juntao; Zhang, Xing

    2017-03-26

    The influence of β-cyclodextrin-epichlorohydrin (β-CD-EP) polymers on the improvement of the solubility and antifungal activity of carbendazim has been investigated. Meanwhile, the potential of the chitosan and β-CD-EP composite film used as a plant healthcare material for carbendazim-controlled release to protect rape against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary has been evaluated. β-CD-EP-1 and 2 (β-CD content, 750 mg/g and 440 mg/g, respectively) were found to significantly improve the solubility of the guest molecule carbendazim (17.9 and 18.5 times, respectively) and the 1:1 stoichiometry of the host-guest was confirmed by the Job's plot. A slight synergism was observed for the β-CD-EP/carbendazim complex against S. sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, indicating an enhancement to the bioavailability of carbendazim. The in vitro release studies revealed that β-CD-EP polymers could efficiently modulate carbendazim release behaviors, such as the release retard and rate. The in vivo efficacy experiments demonstrated that the β-CD-EP/carbendazim and chitosan composite film could significantly prolong the effective duration of carbendazim at a concentration of 100 μg/mL compared with spraying carbendazim at 500 μg/mL. Thereby, a highly useful and strategic concept in plant disease control by a plant healthcare material-the chitosan and polymeric β-CD-EP composite film-is provided, which could also serve as a concept for related plant diseases.

  14. Cotransport of viruses and clay particles in water saturated and unsaturated porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysikopoulos, C. V.; Syngouna, V. I.

    2014-12-01

    This experimental study examines the effects of clay colloids on the transport of viruses in variably saturated porous media. All cotransport experiments were conducted in both saturated and partially saturated columns packed with glass beads, using bacteriophages MS2 and ΦΧ174 as model viruses, and kaolinite (KGa-1b) and montmorillonite (STx-1b) as model clay colloids. The various experimental collision efficiencies were determined using the classical colloid filtration theory. The experimental data indicated that the mass recovery of viruses and clay colloids decreased as the water saturation decreased. Temporal moments of the various breakthrough concentrations collected, suggested that the presence of clays significantly influenced virus transport and irreversible deposition onto glass beads. The mass recovery of both viruses, based on total effluent virus concentrations, was shown to reduce in the presence of suspended clay particles. Furthermore, the transport of suspended virus and clay-virus particles was retarded, compared to the conservative tracer. Under unsaturated conditions both clay particles hindered the transport of the two viruses considered in this work. Moreover, the surface properties of viruses, clays and glass beads were employed for the construction of classical DLVO and capillary potential energy profiles, and the results suggested that capillary forces play a significant role on colloid retention. It was estimated that the capillary potential energy of MS2 is lower than that of ΦΧ174, and the capillary potential energy ofKGa-1b is lower than that of STx-1b, assuming that the protrusion distance through the water filmis the same for each pair of particles. Moreover, the capillary potential energy is several orders of magnitude greater than the DLVO energy potential. Figure 1Schematic illustration of the various concentrations involved in the cotransport experiments for: (a) saturated and (b) unsaturated porous media.

  15. Muller's muscle, no longer vestigial in endoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    De Battista, Juan Carlos; Zimmer, Lee A; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco; Froelich, Sebastien C; Theodosopoulos, Philip V; DePowell, John J; Keller, Jeffrey T

    2011-01-01

    As a thin filmy covering overlaying the inferior orbital fissure (IOF), Muller's muscle was considered a vestigial structure in humans, and for this reason, its anatomical significance was neglected. Because of increasing interest in endonasal approaches to the skull base that encompasses this region, we re-examined this structure's role as an anatomical landmark from an endoscopic perspective. In 10 cadaveric specimens, microanatomical dissections were performed (n = 5); endoscopic dissections were performed (n = 5) via approaches of the middle turbinate or inferior turbinate, and via the Caldwell-Luc approach through the maxillary sinus. Histological examinations were performed in 20 human fetuses (Embryology Institute, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain). In cadaveric dissections, Muller's muscle was demonstrated in all specimens, serving as a bridge-like structure that spanned the entire IOF and separated the orbit from the temporal, infratemporal, and pterygopalatine fossas. Depending on which endoscopic corridor was used, a different aspect of the IOF and Muller's muscle was identified. In our endoscopic and microscopic observations, Muller's muscle was extensive, not only spanning the IOF but also extending posteriorly to reach the superior orbital fissure (SOF) and anterior confluence of the cavernous sinus. Histological analysis identified many anastomotic connections between the ophthalmic venous system and pterygoid plexus that may explain how infection or tumor spreads between these regions. Muller's muscle serves as an anatomical landmark in the IOF and facilitates anatomical orientation in this region for endoscopic skull base approaches. Its recognition during endoscopic approaches allows for a better three-dimensional understanding of this anterior cranial base region. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evolution of the rpoB-psbZ region in fern plastid genomes: notable structural rearrangements and highly variable intergenic spacers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The rpoB-psbZ (BZ) region of some fern plastid genomes (plastomes) has been noted to go through considerable genomic changes. Unraveling its evolutionary dynamics across all fern lineages will lead to clarify the fundamental process shaping fern plastome structure and organization. Results A total of 24 fern BZ sequences were investigated with taxon sampling covering all the extant fern orders. We found that: (i) a tree fern Plagiogyria japonica contained a novel gene order that can be generated from either the ancestral Angiopteris type or the derived Adiantum type via a single inversion; (ii) the trnY-trnE intergenic spacer (IGS) of the filmy fern Vandenboschia radicans was expanded 3-fold due to the tandem 27-bp repeats which showed strong sequence similarity with the anticodon domain of trnY; (iii) the trnY-trnE IGSs of two horsetail ferns Equisetum ramosissimum and E. arvense underwent an unprecedented 5-kb long expansion, more than a quarter of which was consisted of a single type of direct repeats also relevant to the trnY anticodon domain; and (iv) ycf66 has independently lost at least four times in ferns. Conclusions Our results provided fresh insights into the evolutionary process of fern BZ regions. The intermediate BZ gene order was not detected, supporting that the Adiantum type was generated by two inversions occurring in pairs. The occurrence of Vandenboschia 27-bp repeats represents the first evidence of partial tRNA gene duplication in fern plastomes. Repeats potentially forming a stem-loop structure play major roles in the expansion of the trnY-trnE IGS. PMID:21486489

  17. Evolution of the rpoB-psbZ region in fern plastid genomes: notable structural rearrangements and highly variable intergenic spacers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Su, Ying-Juan; Wang, Ting

    2011-04-13

    The rpoB-psbZ (BZ) region of some fern plastid genomes (plastomes) has been noted to go through considerable genomic changes. Unraveling its evolutionary dynamics across all fern lineages will lead to clarify the fundamental process shaping fern plastome structure and organization. A total of 24 fern BZ sequences were investigated with taxon sampling covering all the extant fern orders. We found that: (i) a tree fern Plagiogyria japonica contained a novel gene order that can be generated from either the ancestral Angiopteris type or the derived Adiantum type via a single inversion; (ii) the trnY-trnE intergenic spacer (IGS) of the filmy fern Vandenboschia radicans was expanded 3-fold due to the tandem 27-bp repeats which showed strong sequence similarity with the anticodon domain of trnY; (iii) the trnY-trnE IGSs of two horsetail ferns Equisetum ramosissimum and E. arvense underwent an unprecedented 5-kb long expansion, more than a quarter of which was consisted of a single type of direct repeats also relevant to the trnY anticodon domain; and (iv) ycf66 has independently lost at least four times in ferns. Our results provided fresh insights into the evolutionary process of fern BZ regions. The intermediate BZ gene order was not detected, supporting that the Adiantum type was generated by two inversions occurring in pairs. The occurrence of Vandenboschia 27-bp repeats represents the first evidence of partial tRNA gene duplication in fern plastomes. Repeats potentially forming a stem-loop structure play major roles in the expansion of the trnY-trnE IGS.

  18. Antioxidant status, metabolic profile and immune response of lambs supplemented with tannin rich Ficus infectoria leaf meal.

    PubMed

    Dey, Avijit; Dutta, Narayan; Pattanaik, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Kusumakar

    2015-02-01

    To study the effect of supplementation of tanniferous tree leaves Ficus infectoria on antioxidant status and immune response, twenty four lambs were randomly divided into four groups of six each in a completely randomized design and fed either a conventional supplement (CON) or experimental supplements (FILM-I, FILM-II and FILM-III) containing 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% condensed tannins (CT), respectively by replacement of wheat bran of supplement CON with Ficus infectoria leaf meal (FILM). Blood biochemical profile was monitored in all lambs at 0, 45, 90, 135, 180 days of feeding. Although haemato-biochemical parameters remained similar, there was significant (p < 0.05) improvement in catalase activity, total thiol and protein thiol groups with reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO) in lambs fed FILM diet irrespective of levels. However, intracellular status of reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase activity was improved (p < 0.05) only in FILM-II and FILM-III supplemented lambs. The cell-mediated immune response was significantly (p < 0.05) improved in all the lambs fed FILM supplemented diets. Improved antioxidant status and immunity in FILM supplemented lambs increased voluntary feed intake irrespective of level. However, the average daily gain for a period of 180 d showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase by the supplementation of FILM-II diet containing 1.5% CT. The present study reveals that the supplementation of Ficus infectoria leaf meal up to 21.2% in the concentrate mixture could improve the antioxidant status and immunity in lambs. However, as feed efficiency was reduced at higher levels due to presence of CT, 15.9% supplementation containing 1.5% condensed tannins in concentrate mixture is suggested to improve the health and production performance of lambs.

  19. Understanding and improving the mechanical stability of semiconducting polymers for flexible and stretchable electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Printz, Adam David

    -aggregate model---a spectroscopic model which estimates the quantity and quality of aggregates in a polymer film---is used to determine how the microstructure of a semiconducting polymer thin film evolves with repetitive strain. Samples strained below the yield point undergo little microstructural evolution, while samples strained above the yield point exhibit a significant decrease in aggregation and tensile modulus. Appendix C describes the invention of an environmentally-friendly fabrication technique, abrasion lithography.

  20. Removal of Radioactive Nuclides by Multi-Functional Microcapsules Enclosing Inorganic Ion-Exchangers and Organic Extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Mimura, H.; Akiba, K.; Onodera, Y.

    2002-02-26

    The microcapsules enclosing two kinds of functional materials, inorganic ion-exchangers and organic extractants, were prepared by taking advantage of the high immobilization ability of alginate gel polymer. The fine powders of inorganic ion-exchanger and oil drops of extractant were kneaded with sodium alginate (NaALG) solution and the kneaded sol readily gelled in a salt solution of CaCl2, BaCl2 or HCl to form spherical gel particles. The uptake properties of various nuclides, 137Cs, 85Sr, 60Co, 88Y, 152Eu and 241Am, for thirty-four specimens of microcapsules in the presence of 10-1-10-4 M HNO3 were evaluated by the batch method. The distribution coefficient (Kd) of Cs+ above 103 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules enclosing CuFC or AMP. The Kd of Sr2+ around 102 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules containing clinoptilolite, antimonic acid, zeolite A, zeolite X or titanic acid. The microcapsules enclosing DEHPA exhibited relatively large Kd values of trivalent metal ions above 103 cm3/g; for example, the Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for a favorable microcapsule (CuFC/clinoptilolite/DEHPA/CaALG) were 1.1x104, 7.5x10, 1.1x10, 1.0x104, 1.4x104, 3.4x103 cm3/g, respectively. The uptake rates of Cs+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for this microcapsule were rather fast; the uptake percentage above 90% was obtained after 19 h-shaking and the uptake equilibrium was attained within 1 d. The AMP/CaALG exhibited high uptake ability for Cs+ even after irradiation of 188 kGy, and DEHPA/CaALG microcapsule had similar Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ ions before and after irradiation. The microcapsules with various shapes such as spherical, columnar, fibrous and filmy forms were easily prepared by changing the way of dipping kneaded sol into gelling salt solution. The microcapsules enclosing inorganic ion-exchangers and extractants have a potential possibility for the simultaneous removal of various radioactive nuclides from waste solutions.

  1. Musing over Microbes in Microgravity: Microbial Physiology Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweickart, Randolph; McGinnis, Michael; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    New York City, the most populated city in the United States, is home to over 8 million humans. This means over 26,000 people per square mile! Imagine, though, what the view would be if you peeked into the world of microscopic organisms. Scientists estimate that a gram of soil may contain up to 1 billion of these microbes, which is as much as the entire human population of China! Scientists also know that the world of microbes is incredibly diverse-possibly 10,000 different species in one gram of soil - more than all the different types of mammals in the world. Microbes fill every niche in the world - from 20 miles below the Earth's surface to 20 miles above, and at temperatures from less than -20 C to hotter than water's boiling point. These organisms are ubiquitous because they can adapt quickly to changing environments, an effective strategy for survival. Although we may not realize it, microbes impact every aspect of our lives. Bacteria and fungi help us break down the food in our bodies, and they help clean the air and water around us. They can also cause the dark, filmy buildup on the shower curtain as well as, more seriously, illness and disease. Since humans and microbes share space on Earth, we can benefit tremendously from a better understanding of the workings and physiology of the microbes. This insight can help prevent any harmful effects on humans, on Earth and in space, as well as reap the benefits they provide. Space flight is a unique environment to study how microbes adapt to changing environmental conditions. To advance ground-based research in the field of microbiology, this STS-107 experiment will investigate how microgravity affects bacteria and fungi. Of particular interest are the growth rates and how they respond to certain antimicrobial substances that will be tested; the same tests will be conducted on Earth at the same times. Comparing the results obtained in flight to those on Earth, we will be able to examine how microgravity induces

  2. First-principles XANES simulations of spinel zinc ferrite with a disordered cation distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Seisuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Isao

    2007-05-01

    Theoretical calculations of Zn K and Fe K x-ray absorption near-edge structures (XANES) using a first-principles method have been performed to evaluate the degree of cation disordering in spinel zinc ferrite (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) thin film prepared by a sputtering method, ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films annealed at elevated temperatures, and ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} bulk specimen prepared by a solid-state reaction. Using the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave + local orbitals method, a theoretical spectrum is generated for the tetrahedral and octahedral environments for each of the two cations. The experimental XANES spectrum of the thin film annealed at 800 deg. C as well as that of bulk specimen is successfully reproduced by using either the theoretical spectrum for Zn{sup 2+} on the tetrahedral site (A site) or that for Fe{sup 3+} on the octahedral site (B site), which is indicative of the normal spinel structure. For the as-deposited film, on the other hand, excellent agreement between theoretical and experimental spectra is obtained by considering the presence of either ion in both the A and B sites. The degree of cation disordering, x, defined as [Zn{sub 1-x}{sup 2+}Fe{sub x}{sup 3+}]{sub A}[Zn{sub x}{sup 2+}Fe{sub 2-x}{sup 3+}]{sub B}O{sub 4}, is estimated to be approximately 0.6 in the as-deposited film, which is consistent with the analysis of the extended x-ray absorption fine structure on the Zn K edge. Curious magnetic properties as we previously observed for the as-deposited thin film--i.e., ferrimagnetic behaviors accompanied by large magnetization at room temperature and cluster spin-glass-like behavior--are discussed in connection with disordering of Zn{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions in the spinel-type structure.

  3. Musing over Microbes in Microgravity: Microbial Physiology Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweickart, Randolph; McGinnis, Michael; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    New York City, the most populated city in the United States, is home to over 8 million humans. This means over 26,000 people per square mile! Imagine, though, what the view would be if you peeked into the world of microscopic organisms. Scientists estimate that a gram of soil may contain up to 1 billion of these microbes, which is as much as the entire human population of China! Scientists also know that the world of microbes is incredibly diverse-possibly 10,000 different species in one gram of soil - more than all the different types of mammals in the world. Microbes fill every niche in the world - from 20 miles below the Earth's surface to 20 miles above, and at temperatures from less than -20 C to hotter than water's boiling point. These organisms are ubiquitous because they can adapt quickly to changing environments, an effective strategy for survival. Although we may not realize it, microbes impact every aspect of our lives. Bacteria and fungi help us break down the food in our bodies, and they help clean the air and water around us. They can also cause the dark, filmy buildup on the shower curtain as well as, more seriously, illness and disease. Since humans and microbes share space on Earth, we can benefit tremendously from a better understanding of the workings and physiology of the microbes. This insight can help prevent any harmful effects on humans, on Earth and in space, as well as reap the benefits they provide. Space flight is a unique environment to study how microbes adapt to changing environmental conditions. To advance ground-based research in the field of microbiology, this STS-107 experiment will investigate how microgravity affects bacteria and fungi. Of particular interest are the growth rates and how they respond to certain antimicrobial substances that will be tested; the same tests will be conducted on Earth at the same times. Comparing the results obtained in flight to those on Earth, we will be able to examine how microgravity induces

  4. Epiphyte Water Retention and Evaporation in Native and Invaded Tropical Montane Cloud Forests in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudd, R. G.; Giambelluca, T. W.

    2006-12-01

    Epiphyte water retention was quantified at two montane cloud forest sites in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, one native and the other invaded by an alien tree species. Water storage elements measured included all epiphytic mosses, leafy liverworts, and filmy ferns. Tree surface area was estimated and a careful survey was taken to account for all epiphytes in the sample area of the forest. Samples were collected and analyzed in the lab for epiphyte water retention capacity (WRC). Based on the volume of the different kinds of epiphytes and their corresponding WRC, forest stand water retention capacity for each survey area was estimated. Evaporation from the epiphyte mass was quantified using artificial reference samples attached to trees that were weighed at intervals to determine changes in stored water on days without significant rain or fog. In addition, a soil moisture sensor was wrapped in an epiphyte sample and left in the forest for a 6-day period. Epiphyte biomass at the Native Site and Invaded Site were estimated to be 2.89 t ha-1 and 1.05 t ha-1, respectively. Average WRC at the Native Site and Invaded Site were estimated at 1.45 mm and 0.68 mm, respectively. The difference is likely due to the presence of the invasive Psidium cattleianum at the Invaded Site because its smooth stem surface is unable to support a significant epiphytic layer. The evaporation rate from the epiphyte mass near WSC for the forest stand at the Native Site was measured at 0.38 mm day-1, which represented 10.6 % of the total ET from the forest canopy at the Native Site during the period. The above research has been recently complemented by a thorough investigation of the WSC of all water storage elements (tree stems, tree leaves, shrubs, grasses, litter, fallen branches, and epiphytes) at six forested sites at different elevations within, above, and below the zone of frequent cloud-cover. The goal of this study was to create an inexpensive and efficient methodology for acquiring

  5. Uterine perforation caused by intrauterine devices: clinical course and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kaislasuo, Janina; Suhonen, Satu; Gissler, Mika; Lähteenmäki, Pekka; Heikinheimo, Oskari

    2013-06-01

    What are the symptoms of uterine perforation caused by modern copper intrauterine devices (Cu-IUDs) and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS); how is perforation detected and what are the findings in abdominal surgery? Symptoms are mostly mild and ∼30% of women are asymptomatic. Surgical findings are mainly minimal; no visceral complications were found in this study. However, adhesions as well as pregnancies seem to be more common among women using Cu-IUDs. Prior studies and case reports have suggested that uterine perforation by modern IUDs/IUSs is rarely serious. A retrospective study of 75 patients (54 LNG-IUS and 21 Cu-IUD) treated surgically for uterine perforation between 1996 and 2009. The patients treated for uterine perforation by an IUD/IUS at clinics of the Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District were identified using the National Care Register for Health Institutions in Finland. The clinical data were collected from individual patient records. The majority of patients (n = 53; 71%) had mild symptoms of abnormal bleeding or abdominal pain or both, in combination with missing IUD/IUS threads. Asymptomatic patients (n = 22; 29%) were examined because of missing threads or pregnancy. Failure to remove the IUD/IUS by pulling visible threads was the reason for referral in seven women (9%) requesting removal of the device. Eleven women (15%) were pregnant. Misplaced IUDs/IUSs were localized by a combination of vaginal ultrasonography (US) and X-ray, hysteroscopy or curettage. Only after this were patients treated by means of laparoscopy. The majority (n = 44; 65%) of the 68 intra-abdominal devices were located in the omentum, the remaining 24 (35%) around the uterus. Partial perforation or myometrial embedding was diagnosed in all seven cases (9%) with visible threads, but unsuccessful removal by pulling. During laparoscopy, filmy adhesions were found in 21 patients (30%). Pregnancy (33 versus 7%, P = 0.009) and intra-abdominal adhesions