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Sample records for pseudo-continuous arterial spin

  1. Improved Pseudo-Continuous Arterial Spin Labeling for Mapping Brain Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Nezamzadeh, Marzieh; Matson, Gerald B.; Young, Karl; Weiner, Michael W.; Schuff, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate arterial spin labeling (ASL) methods for improved brain perfusion mapping. Previously, Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) was developed to overcome limitations inherent with conventional continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL), but the control scan (null pulse) in the original method for pCASL perturbs the equilibrium magnetization, diminishing the ASL signal. Here, a new modification of pCASL, termed mpCASL is reported, in which the perturbation caused by the null pulse is reduced and perfusion mapping improved. Materials and Methods Improvements with mpCASL are demonstrated using numerical simulations and experiments. ASL signal intensity as well as contrast and reproducibility of in-vivo brain perfusion images were measured in four volunteers who had MRI scans at 4 Tesla and the data compared across the labeling methods. Results Perfusion maps with mpCASL showed, on average, higher ASL signal intensity and higher image contrast than those from CASL or pCASL. Furthermore, mpCASL yielded better reproducibility in repeat scans than the other methods. Conclusion The experimental results are consistent with the hypothesis that the new null pulse of mpCASL leads to improved brain perfusion images. PMID:20512895

  2. Real-Time Functional MRI Using Pseudo-Continuous Arterial Spin Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Jahanian, Hesamoddin; Greenwald, Mark K.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Peltier, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    The first implementation of real-time acquisition and analysis of Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) based functional MRI time series is presented in this article. The implementation uses a pseudo-continuous labeling scheme followed by a spiral k-space acquisition trajectory. Real-time reconstruction of the images, preprocessing and regression analysis of the fMRI data were implemented on a laptop computer interfaced with the MRI scanner. The method allows the user to track the current raw data, subtraction images, and the cumulative t-statistic map overlaid on a cumulative subtraction image. The user is also able to track the time course of individual time courses, and interactively select an ROI as a nuisance covariate. The pulse sequence allows the user to adjust acquisition and labeling parameters while observing their effect on the image within two successive TRs. This method is illustrated on a stimulation paradigm consisting of simultaneous finger-tapping and visual stimulation and on a bimanual finger tapping task alternating hands. PMID:21446035

  3. Real-time functional MRI using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Jahanian, Hesamoddin; Greenwald, Mark K; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Peltier, Scott J

    2011-06-01

    The first implementation of real-time acquisition and analysis of arterial spin labeling-based functional magnetic resonance imaging time series is presented in this article. The implementation uses a pseudo-continuous labeling scheme followed by a spiral k-space acquisition trajectory. Real-time reconstruction of the images, preprocessing, and regression analysis of the functional magnetic resonance imaging data were implemented on a laptop computer interfaced with the MRI scanner. The method allows the user to track the current raw data, subtraction images, and the cumulative t-statistic map overlaid on a cumulative subtraction image. The user is also able to track the time course of individual time courses and interactively selects a region of interest as a nuisance covariate. The pulse sequence allows the user to adjust acquisition and labeling parameters while observing their effect on the image within two successive pulse repetition times. This method is demonstrated by two functional imaging experiments: a simultaneous finger-tapping and visual stimulation paradigm, and a bimanual finger-tapping task.

  4. Optimisation of pulsed and pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling MRI techniques: A phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, Norain; Zukhi, Jihan; Rusli, Awatif; Zainon, Rafidah

    2017-05-01

    Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) MRI is a non-invasive technique using a freely diffusible intrinsic tracer. The main objective of this study is to evaluate two different techniques of ASL MRI; pulsed ASL (PASL) and pseudo-continuous ASL (PCASL) in obtaining the best signal by manipulating the different imaging parameters. We used a fabricated Perspex flow phantom that is magnetically susceptible. The phantom has a straight tube that mimics carotid artery in adult patients and a U-shaped tube with 75% stenosis. We used a mixture of 60:40 distilled water and glycerol respectively as a substitute to blood. The fabricated phantom was scanned with 1.5T and 3T MRI Scanner using PCASL technique and PASL respectively. Two main imaging parameters were studied which were the field of view (FOV) and slice thickness (ST) to obtain the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the region of interests. The 1.5 T PCASL technique gave SNR values of (13, 22, 30.1) for ST (5, 7, 9 mm) and FOV 240. When higher FOV = 320 was selected, the SNR values were (26.8, 15, 37) for different ST (5, 7, 9 mm). The 3.0 T PASL technique gave the SNR values of (9, 9.3, 11) for ST (5, 7, 9mm) and FOV 240mm. In the higher FOV = 320 mm, we obtained SNR values of (15.2, 17.5, 37.2) for ST (5, 7, 9 mm). As a conclusion, the images quality which can be measured by SNR value is affected by types of ASL and also different parameters.

  5. Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling technique for measuring CBF dynamics with high temporal resolution.

    PubMed

    Silva, A C; Kim, S G

    1999-09-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) can be measured noninvasively with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) by using arterial water as an endogenous perfusion tracer. However, the arterial spin labeling (ASL) techniques suffer from poor temporal resolution due to the need to wait for the exchange of labeled arterial spins with tissue spins to produce contrast. In this work, a new ASL technique is introduced, which allows the measurement of CBF dynamics with high temporal and spatial resolution. This novel method was used in rats to determine the dynamics of CBF changes elicited by somatosensory stimulation with a temporal resolution of 108 ms. The onset time of the CBF response was 0.6 +/- 0.4 sec (mean +/- SD) after onset of stimulation (n = 10). The peak response was observed 4.4 +/- 3.7 sec (mean +/- SD) after stimulation began. These results are in excellent agreement with previous data obtained with invasive techniques, such as laser-Doppler flowmetry and hydrogen clearance, and suggest the appropriateness of this novel technique to probe CBF dynamics in functional and pathological studies with high temporal and spatial resolution. Magn Reson Med 42:425-429, 1999.

  6. Unilateral fetal-type circle of Willis anatomy causes right-left asymmetry in cerebral blood flow with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling: A limitation of arterial spin labeling-based cerebral blood flow measurements?

    PubMed

    Barkeij Wolf, Jurriaan Jh; Foster-Dingley, Jessica C; Moonen, Justine Ef; van Osch, Matthias Jp; de Craen, Anton Jm; de Ruijter, Wouter; van der Mast, Roos C; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2016-09-01

    The accuracy of cerebral blood flow measurements using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling can be affected by vascular factors other than cerebral blood flow, such as flow velocity and arterial transit time. We aimed to elucidate the effects of common variations in vascular anatomy of the circle of Willis on pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling signal. In addition, we investigated whether possible differences in pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling signal could be mediated by differences in flow velocities. Two hundred and three elderly participants underwent magnetic resonance angiography of the circle of Willis and pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling scans. Mean pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling-cerebral blood flow signal was calculated for the gray matter of the main cerebral flow territories. Mean cerebellar gray matter pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling-cerebral blood flow was significantly lower in subjects having a posterior fetal circle of Willis variant with an absent P1 segment. The posterior fetal circle of Willis variants also showed a significantly higher pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling-cerebral blood flow signal in the ipsilateral flow territory of the posterior cerebral artery. Flow velocity in the basilar artery was significantly lower in these posterior fetal circle of Willis variants. This study indicates that pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling measurements underestimate cerebral blood flow in the posterior flow territories and cerebellum of subjects with a highly prevalent variation in circle of Willis morphology. Additionally, our data suggest that this effect is mediated by concomitant differences in flow velocity between the supplying arteries. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Reproducibility of multiphase pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling and the effect of post-processing analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Fazlollahi, Amir; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Liang, Xiaoyun; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Connelly, Alan; Salvado, Olivier; Calamante, Fernando

    2015-08-15

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an emerging MRI technique for non-invasive measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Compared to invasive perfusion imaging modalities, ASL suffers from low sensitivity due to poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), susceptibility to motion artifacts and low spatial resolution, all of which limit its reliability. In this work, the effects of various state of the art image processing techniques for addressing these ASL limitations are investigated. A processing pipeline consisting of motion correction, ASL motion correction imprecision removal, temporal and spatial filtering, partial volume effect correction, and CBF quantification was developed and assessed. To further improve the SNR for pseudo-continuous ASL (PCASL) by accounting for errors in tagging efficiency, the data from multiphase (MP) acquisitions were analyzed using a novel weighted-averaging scheme. The performances of each step in terms of SNR and reproducibility were evaluated using test-retest ASL data acquired from 12 young healthy subjects. The proposed processing pipeline was shown to improve the within-subject coefficient of variation and regional reproducibility by 17% and 16%, respectively, compared to CBF maps computed following motion correction but without the other processing steps. The CBF measurements of MP-PCASL compared to PCASL had on average 23% and 10% higher SNR and reproducibility, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Feasibility of Using Pseudo-Continuous Arterial Spin Labeling Perfusion in a Geriatric Population at 1.5 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Forsberg, Lars; Aspelund, Thor; van der Geest, Rob J.; van Buchem, Mark A.; Launer, Lenore J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van Osch, Matthias J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the feasibility of using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) perfusion in a geriatric population at 1.5-Tesla. Materials and Methods In 17 participants (mean age 78.8±1.63 years) we assessed; 1) inter-session repeatability and reliability of resting state perfusion in 27 brain regions; 2) brain activation using finger-tapping as a means to evaluate the ability to detect flow differences; 3) reliability by comparing cerebral blood flow (CBF) with pCASL to CBF with phase contrast (PC-MR). Results The CBF (mean±standard deviation (SD)) for the whole brain grey matter (GM) was 40.6±8.4 and 41.4±8.7 ml/100g/min for the first and second scan respectively. The within-subject standard deviation (SDw), the repeatability index (RI) and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) across the 27 regions ranged from 1.1 to 7.9, 2.2 to 15.5 and 0.35 to 0.98 respectively. For whole brain GM the SDw, RI and ICC were 1.6, 3.2 and 0.96 respectively. The between-subject standard deviation (SDB) was larger than the SDw for all regions. Comparison of CBF at rest and activation on a voxel level showed significantly higher perfusion during finger tapping in the motor- and somatosensory regions. The mean CBF for whole brain GM was 40.6±8.4 ml/100g/min at rest and 42.6±8.6 ml/100g/min during activation. Finally the reliability of pCASL against the reference standard of PC-MR was high (ICC = 0.80). The mean CBF for whole brain measured with PC-MRI was 54.3±10.1 ml/100g/min and 38.3±7.8 ml/100g/min with pCASL. Conclusions The results demonstrate moderate to high levels of repeatability and reliability for most brain regions, comparable to what has been reported for younger populations. The performance of pCASL at 1.5-Tesla shows that region-specific perfusion measurements with this technique are feasible in studies of a geriatric population. PMID:26659363

  9. Feasibility of Using Pseudo-Continuous Arterial Spin Labeling Perfusion in a Geriatric Population at 1.5 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Forsberg, Lars; Aspelund, Thor; van der Geest, Rob J; van Buchem, Mark A; Launer, Lenore J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van Osch, Matthias J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) perfusion in a geriatric population at 1.5-Tesla. In 17 participants (mean age 78.8±1.63 years) we assessed; 1) inter-session repeatability and reliability of resting state perfusion in 27 brain regions; 2) brain activation using finger-tapping as a means to evaluate the ability to detect flow differences; 3) reliability by comparing cerebral blood flow (CBF) with pCASL to CBF with phase contrast (PC-MR). The CBF (mean±standard deviation (SD)) for the whole brain grey matter (GM) was 40.6±8.4 and 41.4±8.7 ml/100g/min for the first and second scan respectively. The within-subject standard deviation (SDw), the repeatability index (RI) and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) across the 27 regions ranged from 1.1 to 7.9, 2.2 to 15.5 and 0.35 to 0.98 respectively. For whole brain GM the SDw, RI and ICC were 1.6, 3.2 and 0.96 respectively. The between-subject standard deviation (SDB) was larger than the SDw for all regions. Comparison of CBF at rest and activation on a voxel level showed significantly higher perfusion during finger tapping in the motor- and somatosensory regions. The mean CBF for whole brain GM was 40.6±8.4 ml/100g/min at rest and 42.6±8.6 ml/100g/min during activation. Finally the reliability of pCASL against the reference standard of PC-MR was high (ICC = 0.80). The mean CBF for whole brain measured with PC-MRI was 54.3±10.1 ml/100g/min and 38.3±7.8 ml/100g/min with pCASL. The results demonstrate moderate to high levels of repeatability and reliability for most brain regions, comparable to what has been reported for younger populations. The performance of pCASL at 1.5-Tesla shows that region-specific perfusion measurements with this technique are feasible in studies of a geriatric population.

  10. Prospective motion correction for 3D pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling using an external optical tracking system.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Murat; Maclaren, Julian; Bammer, Roland

    2017-06-01

    Head motion is an unsolved problem in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the brain. Real-time tracking using a camera has recently been proposed as a way to prevent head motion artifacts. As compared to navigator-based approaches that use MRI data to detect and correct motion, optical motion correction works independently of the MRI scanner, thus providing low-latency real-time motion updates without requiring any modifications to the pulse sequence. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to demonstrate that prospective optical motion correction using an optical camera mitigates artifacts from head motion in three-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (3D PCASL) acquisitions and 2) to assess the effect of latency differences between real-time optical motion tracking and navigator-style approaches (such as PROMO). An optical motion correction system comprising a single camera and a marker attached to the patient's forehead was used to track motion at a rate of 60fps. In the presence of motion, continuous tracking data from the optical system was used to update the scan plane in real-time during the 3D-PCASL acquisition. Navigator-style correction was simulated by using the tracking data from the optical system and performing updates only once per repetition time. Three normal volunteers and a patient were instructed to perform continuous and discrete head motion throughout the scan. Optical motion correction yielded superior image quality compared to uncorrected images or images using navigator-style correction. The standard deviations of pixel-wise CBF differences between reference and non-corrected, navigator-style-corrected and optical-corrected data were 14.28, 14.35 and 11.09mL/100g/min for continuous motion, and 12.42, 12.04 and 9.60mL/100g/min for discrete motion. Data obtained from the patient revealed that motion can obscure pathology and that application of optical prospective correction can successfully reveal the underlying

  11. Optimization and reliability of multiple postlabeling delay pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling during rest and stimulus-induced functional task activation

    PubMed Central

    Mezue, Melvin; Segerdahl, Andrew R; Okell, Thomas W; Chappell, Michael A; Kelly, Michael E; Tracey, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) sequences that incorporate multiple postlabeling delay (PLD) times allow estimation of when arterial blood signal arrives within a region of interest. Sequences that account for such variability may improve the reliability of ASL and therefore make the technique well suited for future clinical and experimental investigations of cerebral perfusion. This study assessed the within- and between-session reproducibility of an optimized pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) sequence that incorporates multiple postlabeling delays (multi-PLD pCASL). Healthy subjects underwent four identical scans separated by 30 minutes, 1 week, and 1 month using multi-PLD pCASL to image absolute perfusion (cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial arrival time (AAT)) during both rest and a visual-cued motor task. We show good test-retest reliability, with strong consistency across subjects and sessions during rest (inter-session within-subject coefficient of variation: gray matter (GM) CBF=6.44% GM AAT=2.20%). We also report high sensitivity and reproducibility during the functional task, where we show robust task-related decreases in AAT corresponding with regions of increased CBF. Importantly, these results give insight into optimal PLD selection for future investigations using single-PLD ASL to image different brain regions, and highlight the necessity of multi-PLD ASL when imaging perfusion in the whole brain. PMID:25269517

  12. Reduced distortion artifact whole brain CBF mapping using blip-reversed non-segmented 3D echo planar imaging with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Gai, Neville D; Chou, Yi Yu; Pham, Dzung; Butman, John A

    2017-09-01

    To implement and evaluate interleaved blip-up, blip-down, non-segmented 3D echo planar imaging (EPI) with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) and post-processing for reduced susceptibility artifact cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps. 3D EPI non-segmented acquisition with a pCASL labeling sequence was modified to include alternating k-space coverage along phase encoding direction (referred to as "blip-reversed") for alternating dynamic acquisitions of control and label pairs. Eight volunteers were imaged on a 3T scanner. Images were corrected for distortion using spatial shifting transformation of the underlying field map. CBF maps were calculated and compared with maps obtained without blip reversal using matching gray matter (GM) images from a high resolution 3D scan. Additional benefit of using the correction for alternating blip-up and blip-down acquisitions was assessed by comparing to corrected blip-up only and corrected blip-down only CBF maps. Matched Student t-test of overlapping voxels for the eight volunteers was done to ascertain statistical improvement in distortion. Mean CBF value in GM for the eight volunteers from distortion corrected CBF maps was 50.8±9.9ml/min/100 gm tissue. Corrected CBF maps had 6.3% and 4.1% more voxels in GM when compared with uncorrected blip up (BU) and blip down (BD) images, respectively. Student t-test showed significant reduction in distortion when compared with blip-up images and blip-down images (p<0.001). When compared with corrected BU and corrected BD only CBF maps, BU and BD corrected maps had 2.3% and 1% more voxels (p=0.006 and 0.04, respectively). Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling with non-segmented 3D EPI acquisition using alternating blip-reversed k-space traversal and distortion correction provided significantly better matching GM CBF maps. In addition, employing alternating blip-reversed acquisitions during pCASL acquisition resulted in statistically significant improvement over corrected blip

  13. Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling imaging of cerebral blood perfusion asymmetry in drug-naïve patients with first-episode major depression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guangdong; Bian, Haiman; Jiang, Deguo; Cui, Mingwei; Ji, Shengzhang; Liu, Mei; Lang, Xu; Zhuo, Chuanjun

    2016-01-01

    Many previous studies have reported that regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) aberrations may be one of the pathological characteristics of depression and rCBF has demonstrated a certain degree of asymmetry. However, studies investigating the cerebral blood perfusion asymmetry changes of drug-naïve patients experiencing their first episode of major depression using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) are rare. Ten drug-naïve patients experiencing their first major depression episode and 15 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the current study. A novel pCASL method was applied to whole brain MRI scans of all of the samples. The Statistics Parameter Mapping and Relative Expression Software Tool software packages were used for the pre-processing and statistical analysis of the two sets of images, and the differences in the cerebral blood perfusion at the whole brain level were compared between the two groups. Compared with the healthy control group, the cerebral perfusion of the depression patients showed an asymmetric pattern. Decreased cerebral blood perfusion regions were primarily located in the left hemisphere, specifically in the left temporal lobe, frontal lobe and cingulate cortex [P<0.05 and cluster size ≥30 with false discovery rate (FDR) correction]. Simultaneously, increased perfusion regions were predominantly located in the right hemisphere, specifically in the right cerebellum, thalamus, frontal lobe and anterior cingulate cortex (P<0.05 and cluster size ≥30, with FDR correction). Thus, pCASL may characterize the alterations in cerebral blood perfusion of patients with depression. PMID:28101340

  14. Simultaneous Multi-slice Turbo-FLASH Imaging with CAIPIRINHA for Whole Brain Distortion-Free Pseudo-Continuous Arterial Spin Labeling at 3 and 7T

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Moeller, Steen; Li, Xiufeng; Vu, An T.; Krasileva, Kate; Ugurbil, Kamil; Yacoub, Essa; Wang, Danny JJ

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) or multiband (MB) imaging has recently been attempted for arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI in conjunction with echo-planar imaging (EPI) readout. It was found that SMS-EPI can reduce the T1 relaxation effect of the label, improve image coverage and resolution with little penalty in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, EPI still suffers from geometric distortion and signal dropout from field inhomogeneity effects especially at high and ultrahigh magnetic fields. Here we present a novel scheme for achieving high fidelity distortion-free quantitative perfusion imaging by combining pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) with SMS Turbo-FLASH (TFL) readout at both 3 and 7 Tesla. Bloch equation simulation was performed to characterize and optimize the TFL-based pCASL perfusion signal. Two MB factors (3 and 5) were implemented in SMS-TFL pCASL and compared with standard 2D TFL and EPI pCASL sequences. The temporal SNR of SMS-TFL pCASL relative to that of standard TFL pCASL was 0.76±0.10 and 0.74±0.11 at 7T, 0.70±0.05 and 0.65±0.05 at 3T for MB factor of 3 and 5, respectively. By implementing background suppression in conjunction with SMS-TFL at 3T, the relative temporal SNR improved to 0.84±0.09 and 0.79±0.10 for MB factor of 3 and 5 respectively. Compared to EPI pCASL, significantly increased temporal SNR (p<0.001) and improved visualization of orbitofrontal cortex were achieved using SMS-TFL pCASL. By combining SMS acceleration with TFL pCASL, we demonstrated the feasibility for whole brain distortion-free quantitative mapping of cerebral blood flow at high and ultrahigh magnetic fields. PMID:25837601

  15. [Test-retest reliability of 3D spiral fast-spin-echo pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling for cerebral perfusion imaging of subcortical gray matter in healthy adults].

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng-Qi; Chen, Zhi-Ye; Ma, Lin

    2017-09-20

    To evaluate the test-retest reliability of 3D spiral fast-spin-echo (FSE) pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (3D pc-ASL) for cerebral perfusion imaging of the subcortical gray matter in healthy adults in resting state. 3D spiral FSE ASL and 3D T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled echo (3D T1-FSPGR) sequences were used for cerebral perfusion imaging in 8 healthy adult subjects, and a repeat imaging examination was performed after one week. The subcortical gray matter structures including the putamen, globus pallidus, caudate nucleus, thalamus, amygdala and hippocampus were segmented on the brain structural 3D images to generate the cerebral blood flow (CBF) map. The CBF value was extracted based on the segmented images and the CBF maps. The reliability and reproducibility of the measurements were evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plot. The mean ICC value of the subcortical gray matter structures was 0.88∓0.04 (range, 0.80-0.93). The Bland-Altman plot analysis demonstrated that the differences between the two measurements at all the points corresponding to the subcortical gray matter structures were within 95% CI of the limits of agreement. 3D spiral FSE pseudo-continuous ASL is a reliable method for assessing the perfusion of the cerebral subcortical gray matter structures.

  16. [Three-dimensional Pseudo-continuous Arterial Spin Label Non-contrast Enhanced Perfusion Imaging of Head and Neck Tumors with High-field MR System].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Duan, Miao; Zhou, Hai-long; Shi, Kai-ning; Sun, Zhao-yong; Bai, Chun-mei; Jia, Ning; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Xing-ming; Hu, Ke; Zhang, Zhu-hua; Jin, Zheng-yu

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of three-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin label (3D pCASL) non-contrast enhanced perfusion imaging applied to head and neck tumors in high-field MR and detect the effects of different postlabeling delay (PLD) time on image quality and the reliability of repeated measurements of tumor blood flow (BF) in different 3D pCASL groups. In this prospective study,all the 25 patients received neck 3D pCASL non-contrast enhanced perfusion examinations in a 3.0 T MR system by using an 8-channel head and neck joint coil. Conventional T1-weighted (TIWI) and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) were performed firstly. Finally,three 3D pCASL with different PLD time [ASL1(PLD1=1525 ms),ASL2 (PLD2=2025 ms), ASL3(PLD3=2525 ms)] were acquired. Patients' perfusion-weighted images acquired from different 3D pCASL sequences underwent the analysis of signal to noise ratio (SNR) and contrast noise ratio (CNR) for tumors. Two observers performed the qualitative assessments on spiral artifacts and vascular artifacts of perfusion-weighted images from different 3D pCASL sequences. Blood flow (BF) of tumors from different 3D pCASL sequences were measured by the two observers respectively for the first time and by observer 2 for the second time. Seventeen enrolled patients (age:50.1 ± 12.7 years,M/F=10:7) with histopathologic. underwent the evaluation of image quality and measurements of BF values. The SNRs and CNRs of ASL1,ASL2, and ASL3 showed a descending trendency. SNRs (P=0.011) and CNRs (P=0.009) of ASL1 were significant higher than those of ASL3. There was no significant difference of scores of spiral artifacts among the three ASL groups (P=0.932). The scores of vascular artifacts of ASL1,ASL2,and ASL3 showed a descending trendency,also. And scores of ASL1 was significant higher than that of ASL3(P=0.000). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of intre-and intraobserver were high (ICC>0.9). Although the BF values of ASL1,ASL2, and ASL3 showed an

  17. Three-dimensional whole-brain perfusion quantification using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling MRI at multiple post-labeling delays: accounting for both arterial transit time and impulse response function.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qin; Huang, Alan J; Hua, Jun; Desmond, John E; Stevens, Robert D; van Zijl, Peter C M

    2014-02-01

    Measurement of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) with whole-brain coverage is challenging in terms of both acquisition and quantitative analysis. In order to fit arterial spin labeling-based perfusion kinetic curves, an empirical three-parameter model which characterizes the effective impulse response function (IRF) is introduced, which allows the determination of CBF, the arterial transit time (ATT) and T(1,eff). The accuracy and precision of the proposed model were compared with those of more complicated models with four or five parameters through Monte Carlo simulations. Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling images were acquired on a clinical 3-T scanner in 10 normal volunteers using a three-dimensional multi-shot gradient and spin echo scheme at multiple post-labeling delays to sample the kinetic curves. Voxel-wise fitting was performed using the three-parameter model and other models that contain two, four or five unknown parameters. For the two-parameter model, T(1,eff) values close to tissue and blood were assumed separately. Standard statistical analysis was conducted to compare these fitting models in various brain regions. The fitted results indicated that: (i) the estimated CBF values using the two-parameter model show appreciable dependence on the assumed T(1,eff) values; (ii) the proposed three-parameter model achieves the optimal balance between the goodness of fit and model complexity when compared among the models with explicit IRF fitting; (iii) both the two-parameter model using fixed blood T1 values for T(1,eff) and the three-parameter model provide reasonable fitting results. Using the proposed three-parameter model, the estimated CBF (46 ± 14 mL/100 g/min) and ATT (1.4 ± 0.3 s) values averaged from different brain regions are close to the literature reports; the estimated T(1,eff) values (1.9 ± 0.4 s) are higher than the tissue T1 values, possibly reflecting a contribution from the microvascular arterial blood compartment.

  18. A longitudinal study of cerebral blood flow under hypoxia at high altitude using 3D pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjia; Liu, Jie; Lou, Xin; Zheng, Dandan; Wu, Bing; Wang, Danny J J; Ma, Lin

    2017-02-27

    Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) may occur with acute exposure to high altitude; however, the CBF of the brain parenchyma has not been studied to date. In this study, identical magnetic resonance scans using arterial spin labeling (ASL) were performed to study the haemodynamic changes at both sea level and high altitude. We found that with acute exposure to high altitude, the CBF in acute mountain sickness (AMS) subjects was higher (P < 0.05), while the CBF of non-AMS subjects was lower (P > 0.05) compared with those at sea level. Moreover, magnetic resonance angiography in both AMS and non-AMS subjects showed a significant increase in the cross-sectional areas of the internal carotid, basilar, and middle cerebral arteries on the first day at high altitude. These findings support that AMS may be related to increased CBF rather than vasodilation; these results contradict most previous studies that reported no relationship between CBF changes and the occurrence of AMS. This discrepancy may be attributed to the use of ASL for CBF measurement at both sea level and high altitude in this study, which has substantial advantages over transcranial Doppler for the assessment of CBF.

  19. A longitudinal study of cerebral blood flow under hypoxia at high altitude using 3D pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenjia; Liu, Jie; Lou, Xin; Zheng, Dandan; Wu, Bing; Wang, Danny J. J.; Ma, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) may occur with acute exposure to high altitude; however, the CBF of the brain parenchyma has not been studied to date. In this study, identical magnetic resonance scans using arterial spin labeling (ASL) were performed to study the haemodynamic changes at both sea level and high altitude. We found that with acute exposure to high altitude, the CBF in acute mountain sickness (AMS) subjects was higher (P < 0.05), while the CBF of non-AMS subjects was lower (P > 0.05) compared with those at sea level. Moreover, magnetic resonance angiography in both AMS and non-AMS subjects showed a significant increase in the cross-sectional areas of the internal carotid, basilar, and middle cerebral arteries on the first day at high altitude. These findings support that AMS may be related to increased CBF rather than vasodilation; these results contradict most previous studies that reported no relationship between CBF changes and the occurrence of AMS. This discrepancy may be attributed to the use of ASL for CBF measurement at both sea level and high altitude in this study, which has substantial advantages over transcranial Doppler for the assessment of CBF. PMID:28240265

  20. Accuracy and precision of pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling perfusion during baseline and hypercapnia: a head-to-head comparison with ¹⁵O H₂O positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Heijtel, D F R; Mutsaerts, H J M M; Bakker, E; Schober, P; Stevens, M F; Petersen, E T; van Berckel, B N M; Majoie, C B L M; Booij, J; van Osch, M J P; Vanbavel, E; Boellaard, R; Lammertsma, A A; Nederveen, A J

    2014-05-15

    Measurements of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) provide useful information about cerebrovascular condition and regional metabolism. Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) is a promising non-invasive MRI technique to quantitatively measure the CBF, whereas additional hypercapnic pCASL measurements are currently showing great promise to quantitatively assess the CVR. However, the introduction of pCASL at a larger scale awaits further evaluation of the exact accuracy and precision compared to the gold standard. (15)O H₂O positron emission tomography (PET) is currently regarded as the most accurate and precise method to quantitatively measure both CBF and CVR, though it is one of the more invasive methods as well. In this study we therefore assessed the accuracy and precision of quantitative pCASL-based CBF and CVR measurements by performing a head-to-head comparison with (15)O H₂O PET, based on quantitative CBF measurements during baseline and hypercapnia. We demonstrate that pCASL CBF imaging is accurate during both baseline and hypercapnia with respect to (15)O H₂O PET with a comparable precision. These results pave the way for quantitative usage of pCASL MRI in both clinical and research settings.

  1. Quantifying the test–retest reliability of cerebral blood flow measurements in a clinical model of on-going post-surgical pain: A study using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labelling☆

    PubMed Central

    Hodkinson, Duncan J.; Krause, Kristina; Khawaja, Nadine; Renton, Tara F.; Huggins, John P.; Vennart, William; Thacker, Michael A.; Mehta, Mitul A.; Zelaya, Fernando O.; Williams, Steven C.R.; Howard, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    Arterial spin labelling (ASL) is increasingly being applied to study the cerebral response to pain in both experimental human models and patients with persistent pain. Despite its advantages, scanning time and reliability remain important issues in the clinical applicability of ASL. Here we present the test–retest analysis of concurrent pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) and visual analogue scale (VAS), in a clinical model of on-going pain following third molar extraction (TME). Using ICC performance measures, we were able to quantify the reliability of the post-surgical pain state and ΔCBF (change in CBF), both at the group and individual case level. Within-subject, the inter- and intra-session reliability of the post-surgical pain state was ranked good-to-excellent (ICC > 0.6) across both pCASL and VAS modalities. The parameter ΔCBF (change in CBF between pre- and post-surgical states) performed reliably (ICC > 0.4), provided that a single baseline condition (or the mean of more than one baseline) was used for subtraction. Between-subjects, the pCASL measurements in the post-surgical pain state and ΔCBF were both characterised as reliable (ICC > 0.4). However, the subjective VAS pain ratings demonstrated a significant contribution of pain state variability, which suggests diminished utility for interindividual comparisons. These analyses indicate that the pCASL imaging technique has considerable potential for the comparison of within- and between-subjects differences associated with pain-induced state changes and baseline differences in regional CBF. They also suggest that differences in baseline perfusion and functional lateralisation characteristics may play an important role in the overall reliability of the estimated changes in CBF. Repeated measures designs have the important advantage that they provide good reliability for comparing condition effects because all sources of variability between subjects are excluded from the experimental error. The

  2. A linear mixed perfusion model for tissue partial volume correction of perfusion estimates in dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI: Impact on absolute quantification, repeatability, and agreement with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Ahlgren, André; Wirestam, Ronnie; Lind, Emelie; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Knutsson, Linda

    2017-06-01

    The partial volume effect (PVE) is an important source of bias in brain perfusion measurements. The impact of tissue PVEs in perfusion measurements with dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI (DSC-MRI) has not yet been well established. The purpose of this study was to suggest a partial volume correction (PVC) approach for DSC-MRI and to study how PVC affects DSC-MRI perfusion results. A linear mixed perfusion model for DSC-MRI was derived and evaluated by way of simulations. Twenty healthy volunteers were scanned twice, including DSC-MRI, arterial spin labeling (ASL), and partial volume measurements. Two different algorithms for PVC were employed and assessed. Simulations showed that the derived model had a tendency to overestimate perfusion values in voxels with high fractions of cerebrospinal fluid. PVC reduced the tissue volume dependence of DSC-MRI perfusion values from 44.4% to 4.2% in gray matter and from 55.3% to 14.2% in white matter. One PVC method significantly improved the voxel-wise repeatability, but PVC did not improve the spatial agreement between DSC-MRI and ASL perfusion maps. Significant PVEs were found for DSC-MRI perfusion estimates, and PVC successfully reduced those effects. The findings suggest that PVC might be an important consideration for DSC-MRI applications. Magn Reson Med 77:2203-2214, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. Acceleration-selective arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Sophie; Ghariq, Eidrees; Teeuwisse, Wouter M; Webb, Andrew; van Osch, Matthias J P

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a new arterial spin labeling (ASL) method with spatially nonselective labeling is introduced, based on the acceleration of flowing spins, which is able to image brain perfusion with minimal contamination from venous signal. This method is termed acceleration-selective ASL (AccASL) and resembles velocity-selective ASL (VSASL), with the difference that AccASL is able to discriminate between arterial and venous components in a single preparation module due to the higher acceleration on the arterial side of the microvasculature, whereas VSASL cannot make this distinction unless a second labeling module is used. A difference between AccASL and VSASL is that AccASL is mainly cerebral blood volume weighted, whereas VSASL is cerebral blood flow weighted. AccASL exploits the principles of acceleration-encoded magnetic resonance angiography by using motion-sensitizing gradients in a T2 -preparation module. This method is demonstrated in healthy volunteers for a range of cutoff accelerations. Additionally, AccASL is compared with VSASL and pseudo-continuous ASL, and its feasibility in functional MRI is demonstrated. Compared with VSASL with a single labeling module, a strong and significant reduction in venous label is observed. The resulting signal-to-noise ratio is comparable to pseudo-continuous ASL and robust activation of the visual cortex is observed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. SU-E-I-65: Estimation of Tagging Efficiency in Pseudo-Continuous Arterial Spin Labeling (pCASL) MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Jen, M; Yan, F; Tseng, Y; Chen, C; Lin, C; Liu, H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: pCASL was recommended as a potent approach for absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) quantification in clinical practice. However, uncertainties of tagging efficiency in pCASL remain an issue. This study aimed to estimate tagging efficiency by using short quantitative pulsed ASL scan (FAIR-QUIPSSII) and compare resultant CBF values with those calibrated by using 2D Phase Contrast (PC) MRI. Methods: Fourteen normal volunteers participated in this study. All images, including whole brain (WB) pCASL, WB FAIR-QUIPSSII and single-slice 2D PC, were collected on a 3T clinical MRI scanner with a 8-channel head coil. DeltaM map was calculated by averaging the subtraction of tag/control pairs in pCASL and FAIR-QUIPSSII images and used for CBF calculation. Tagging efficiency was then calculated by the ratio of mean gray matter CBF obtained from pCASL and FAIR-QUIPSSII. For comparison, tagging efficiency was also estimated with 2D PC, a previously established method, by contrast WB CBF in pCASL and 2D PC. Feasibility of estimation from a short FAIR-QUIPSSII scan was evaluated by number of averages required for obtaining a stable deltaM value. Setting deltaM calculated by maximum number of averaging (50 pairs) as reference, stable results were defined within ±10% variation. Results: Tagging efficiencies obtained by 2D PC MRI (0.732±0.092) were significantly lower than which obtained by FAIRQUIPPSSII (0.846±0.097) (P<0.05). Feasibility results revealed that four pairs of images in FAIR-QUIPPSSII scan were sufficient to obtain a robust calibration of less than 10% differences from using 50 pairs. Conclusion: This study found that reliable estimation of tagging efficiency could be obtained by a few pairs of FAIR-QUIPSSII images, which suggested that calibration scan in a short duration (within 30s) was feasible. Considering recent reports concerning variability of PC MRI-based calibration, this study proposed an effective alternative for CBF quantification with pCASL.

  5. Assessing Intracranial Vascular Compliance Using Dynamic Arterial Spin Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lirong; Liu, Collin Y.; Smith, Robert X.; Jog, Mayank; Langham, Michael; Krasileva, Kate; Chen, Yufen; Ringman, John M.; Wang, Danny J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular compliance (VC) is an important marker for a number of cardiovascular diseases and dementia, which is typically assessed in central and peripheral arteries indirectly by quantifying pulse wave velocity (PWV), and/or pulse pressure waveform. To date, very few methods are available for the quantification of intracranial VC. In the present study, a novel MRI technique for in-vivo assessment of intracranial VC was introduced, where dynamic arterial spin labeling (ASL) scans were synchronized with the systolic and diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle. VC is defined as the ratio of change in arterial cerebral blood volume (ΔCBV) and change in arterial pressure (ΔBP). Intracranial VC was assessed in different vascular components using the proposed dynamic ASL method. Our results show that VC mainly occurs in large arteries, gradually decreases in small arteries and arterioles. The comparison of intracranial VC between young and elderly subjects shows that aging is accompanied by a reduction of intracranial VC, in good agreement with the literature. Furthermore, a positive association between intracranial VC and cerebral perfusion measured using pseudo-continuous ASL with 3D GRASE MRI was observed independent of aging effects, suggesting loss of VC is associated with a decline in perfusion. Finally, a significant positive correlation between intracranial and central (aortic arch) VC was observed using an ungated phase-contrast 1D projection PWV technique. The proposed dynamic ASL method offers a promising approach for assessing intracranial VC in a range of cardiovascular diseases and dementia. PMID:26364865

  6. Pseudo-asymmetry of cerebral blood flow in arterial spin labeling caused by unilateral fetal-type circle of Willis: Technical limitation or a way to better understanding physiological variations of cerebral perfusion and improving arterial spin labeling acquisition?

    PubMed

    Law-Ye, B; Geerts, B; Galanaud, D; Dormont, D; Pyatigorskaya, N

    2016-09-01

    In the recently published article, "Unilateral fetal-type circle of Willis anatomy causes right-left asymmetry in cerebral blood flow with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling: A limitation of arterial spin labeling-based cerebral blood flow measurements?", it was shown by the method of arterial spin labeling (ASL) that unilateral fetal-type circle of Willis could induce variation of blood flow in cerebellar and posterior cerebral artery territory. We believe that the reported observation, rather than being a limitation, gives several interesting cues for understanding the ASL sequence. In this commentary, we formulate some suggestions regarding the use of ASL in clinical practice, discuss the potential causes of the above-mentioned pseudo-asymmetry and consider future improvements of the ASL technique. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. A general framework for the analysis of vessel encoded arterial spin labeling for vascular territory mapping.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Michael A; Okell, Thomas W; Jezzard, Peter; Woolrich, Mark W

    2010-11-01

    Vessel encoded arterial spin labeling provides a way to perform non-invasive vascular territory imaging. By uniquely encoding the blood within feeding arteries over a number of images, the territories of each can be identified. Here, a new approach for the analysis of vessel encoded arterial spin labeling data is presented. The method includes a full description of how the geometry of arteries and spatial label modulation affects the measured signal. It also incorporates an artery-based classification that considers multiple arteries in each class, explicitly permitting a voxel to be supplied by multiple arteries. The developed framework is cast within a Bayesian inference procedure allowing both flow contributions and the locations of the arteries in the labeling plane to be inferred. By using simulated data, the method was shown to provide more accurate estimates of blood contribution in areas of mixed supply, such as would be found in watershed regions, than conventional methods. It was also able to estimate the location of arteries within the labeling plane, accounting for motion between sequence prescription and acquisition. Similar performance was found for data acquired using a pseudo-continuous labeling scheme both in the neck and above the Circle of Willis. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Tonotopic maps in human auditory cortex using arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Gardumi, Anna; Ivanov, Dimo; Havlicek, Martin; Formisano, Elia; Uludağ, Kâmil

    2017-03-01

    A tonotopic organization of the human auditory cortex (AC) has been reliably found by neuroimaging studies. However, a full characterization and parcellation of the AC is still lacking. In this study, we employed pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) to map tonotopy and voice selective regions using, for the first time, cerebral blood flow (CBF). We demonstrated the feasibility of CBF-based tonotopy and found a good agreement with BOLD signal-based tonotopy, despite the lower contrast-to-noise ratio of CBF. Quantitative perfusion mapping of baseline CBF showed a region of high perfusion centered on Heschl's gyrus and corresponding to the main high-low-high frequency gradients, co-located to the presumed primary auditory core and suggesting baseline CBF as a novel marker for AC parcellation. Furthermore, susceptibility weighted imaging was employed to investigate the tissue specificity of CBF and BOLD signal and the possible venous bias of BOLD-based tonotopy. For BOLD only active voxels, we found a higher percentage of vein contamination than for CBF only active voxels. Taken together, we demonstrated that both baseline and stimulus-induced CBF is an alternative fMRI approach to the standard BOLD signal to study auditory processing and delineate the functional organization of the auditory cortex. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1140-1154, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Proximal Bright Vessel Sign on Arterial Spin Labeling Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Cardioembolic Cerebral Infarction.

    PubMed

    Kato, Ayumi; Shinohara, Yuki; Kuya, Keita; Sakamoto, Makoto; Kowa, Hisanori; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2017-07-01

    The congestion of spin-labeled blood at large-vessel occlusion can present as hyperintense signals on perfusion magnetic resonance imaging with 3-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (proximal bright vessel sign). The purpose of this study was to clarify the difference between proximal bright vessel sign and susceptibility vessel sign in acute cardioembolic cerebral infarction. Forty-two patients with cardioembolic cerebral infarction in the anterior circulation territory underwent magnetic resonance imaging including diffusion-weighted imaging, 3-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling perfusion magnetic resonance imaging, T2*-weighted imaging, and 3-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography using a 3-T magnetic resonance scanner. Visual assessments of proximal bright vessel sign and the susceptibility vessel sign were performed by consensus of 2 experienced neuroradiologists. The relationship between these signs and the occlusion site of magnetic resonance angiography was also investigated. Among 42 patients with cardioembolic cerebral infarction, 24 patients showed proximal bright vessel sign (57.1%) and 25 showed susceptibility vessel sign (59.5%). There were 19 cases of proximal bright vessel sign and susceptibility vessel sign-clear, 12 cases of proximal bright vessel sign and susceptibility vessel sign-unclear, and 11 mismatched cases. Four out of 6 patients with proximal bright vessel sign-unclear and susceptibility vessel sign-clear showed distal middle cerebral artery occlusion, and 2 out of 5 patients with proximal bright vessel sign-clear and susceptibility vessel sign-unclear showed no occlusion on magnetic resonance angiography. Proximal bright vessel sign is almost compatible with susceptibility vessel sign in patients with cardioembolic cerebral infarction. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Arterial spin labelling reveals an abnormal cerebral perfusion pattern in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Richard; MacAskill, Michael R.; Pearson, John F.; Rüeger, Sina; Pitcher, Toni L.; Livingston, Leslie; Graham, Charlotte; Keenan, Ross; Shankaranarayanan, Ajit; Alsop, David C.; Dalrymple-Alford, John C.; Anderson, Tim J.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for objective imaging markers of Parkinson’s disease status and progression. Positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography studies have suggested patterns of abnormal cerebral perfusion in Parkinson’s disease as potential functional biomarkers. This study aimed to identify an arterial spin labelling magnetic resonance-derived perfusion network as an accessible, non-invasive alternative. We used pseudo-continuous arterial spin labelling to measure cerebral grey matter perfusion in 61 subjects with Parkinson’s disease with a range of motor and cognitive impairment, including patients with dementia and 29 age- and sex-matched controls. Principal component analysis was used to derive a Parkinson’s disease-related perfusion network via logistic regression. Region of interest analysis of absolute perfusion values revealed that the Parkinson’s disease pattern was characterized by decreased perfusion in posterior parieto-occipital cortex, precuneus and cuneus, and middle frontal gyri compared with healthy controls. Perfusion was preserved in globus pallidus, putamen, anterior cingulate and post- and pre-central gyri. Both motor and cognitive statuses were significant factors related to network score. A network approach, supported by arterial spin labelling-derived absolute perfusion values may provide a readily accessible neuroimaging method to characterize and track progression of both motor and cognitive status in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:21310726

  11. Rapid 3D dynamic arterial spin labeling with a sparse model-based image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Fielden, Samuel W; Feng, Xue; Wintermark, Max; Mugler, John P; Meyer, Craig H

    2015-11-01

    Dynamic arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI measures the perfusion bolus at multiple observation times and yields accurate estimates of cerebral blood flow in the presence of variations in arterial transit time. ASL has intrinsically low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and is sensitive to motion, so that extensive signal averaging is typically required, leading to long scan times for dynamic ASL. The goal of this study was to develop an accelerated dynamic ASL method with improved SNR and robustness to motion using a model-based image reconstruction that exploits the inherent sparsity of dynamic ASL data. The first component of this method is a single-shot 3D turbo spin echo spiral pulse sequence accelerated using a combination of parallel imaging and compressed sensing. This pulse sequence was then incorporated into a dynamic pseudo continuous ASL acquisition acquired at multiple observation times, and the resulting images were jointly reconstructed enforcing a model of potential perfusion time courses. Performance of the technique was verified using a numerical phantom and it was validated on normal volunteers on a 3-Tesla scanner. In simulation, a spatial sparsity constraint improved SNR and reduced estimation errors. Combined with a model-based sparsity constraint, the proposed method further improved SNR, reduced estimation error and suppressed motion artifacts. Experimentally, the proposed method resulted in significant improvements, with scan times as short as 20s per time point. These results suggest that the model-based image reconstruction enables rapid dynamic ASL with improved accuracy and robustness.

  12. Gray matter contamination in arterial spin labeling white matter perfusion measurements in patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Mutsaerts, Henri J M M; Richard, Edo; Heijtel, Dennis F R; van Osch, Matthias J P; Majoie, Charles B L M; Nederveen, Aart J

    2014-01-01

    White matter (WM) perfusion measurements with arterial spin labeling can be severely contaminated by gray matter (GM) perfusion signal, especially in the elderly. The current study investigates the spatial extent of GM contamination by comparing perfusion signal measured in the WM with signal measured outside the brain. Four minute 3T pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling scans were performed in 41 elderly subjects with cognitive impairment. Outward and inward geodesic distance maps were created, based on dilations and erosions of GM and WM masks. For all outward and inward geodesic distances, the mean CBF was calculated and compared. GM contamination was mainly found in the first 3 subcortical WM voxels and had only minor influence on the deep WM signal (distances 4 to 7 voxels). Perfusion signal in the WM was significantly higher than perfusion signal outside the brain, indicating the presence of WM signal. These findings indicate that WM perfusion signal can be measured unaffected by GM contamination in elderly patients with cognitive impairment. GM contamination can be avoided by the erosion of WM masks, removing subcortical WM voxels from the analysis. These results should be taken into account when exploring the use of WM perfusion as micro-vascular biomarker.

  13. Postischemic hyperperfusion on arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI is linked to hemorrhagic transformation in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Songlin; Liebeskind, David S; Dua, Sumit; Wilhalme, Holly; Elashoff, David; Qiao, Xin J; Alger, Jeffry R; Sanossian, Nerses; Starkman, Sidney; Ali, Latisha K; Scalzo, Fabien; Lou, Xin; Yoo, Bryan; Saver, Jeffrey L; Salamon, Noriko; Wang, Danny JJ

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between hyperperfusion and hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL) with background suppressed 3D GRASE was performed during routine clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on AIS patients at various time points. Arterial spin labeling cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps were visually inspected for the presence of hyperperfusion. Hemorrhagic transformation was followed during hospitalization and was graded on gradient recalled echo (GRE) scans into hemorrhagic infarction (HI) and parenchymal hematoma (PH). A total of 361 ASL scans were collected from 221 consecutive patients with middle cerebral artery stroke from May 2010 to September 2013. Hyperperfusion was more frequently detected posttreatment (odds ratio (OR)=4.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5 to 8.9, P<0.001) and with high National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at admission (P<0.001). There was a significant association between having hyperperfusion at any time point and HT (OR=3.5, 95% CI 2.0 to 6.3, P<0.001). There was a positive relationship between the grade of HT and time–hyperperfusion with the Spearman's rank correlation of 0.44 (P=0.003). Arterial spin labeling hyperperfusion may provide an imaging marker of HT, which may guide the management of AIS patients post tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and/or endovascular treatments. Late hyperperfusion should be given more attention to prevent high-grade HT. PMID:25564233

  14. Mapping of cerebral perfusion territories using territorial arterial spin labeling: techniques and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Hartkamp, Nolan S; Petersen, Esben T; De Vis, Jill B; Bokkers, Reinoud P H; Hendrikse, Jeroen

    2013-08-01

    A knowledge of the exact cerebral perfusion territory which is supplied by any artery is of great importance in the understanding and diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease. The development and optimization of territorial arterial spin labeling (T-ASL) MRI techniques in the past two decades have made it possible to visualize and determine the cerebral perfusion territories in individual patients and, more importantly, to do so without contrast agents or otherwise invasive procedures. This review provides an overview of the development of ASL techniques that aim to visualize the general cerebral perfusion territories or the territory of a specific artery of interest. The first efforts of T-ASL with pulsed, continuous and pseudo-continuous techniques are summarized and subsequent clinical studies using T-ASL are highlighted. In the healthy population, the perfusion territories of the brain-feeding arteries are highly variable. This high variability requires special consideration in specific patient groups, such as patients with cerebrovascular disease, stroke, steno-occlusive disease of the large arteries and arteriovenous malformations. In the past, catheter angiography with selective contrast injection was the only available method to visualize the cerebral perfusion territories in vivo. Several T-ASL methods, sometimes referred to as regional perfusion imaging, are now available that can easily be combined with conventional brain MRI examinations to show the relationship between the cerebral perfusion territories, vascular anatomy and brain infarcts or other pathology. Increased availability of T-ASL techniques on clinical MRI scanners will allow radiologists and other clinicians to gain further knowledge of the relationship between vasculature and patient diagnosis and prognosis. Treatment decisions, such as surgical revascularization, may, in the near future, be guided by information provided by T-ASL MRI in close correlation with structural MRI and quantitative

  15. Pain response measured with arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Nasim; Brawn, Jennifer; Barmettler, Gabi; Borsook, David; Becerra, Lino

    2013-06-01

    The majority of functional MRI studies of pain processing in the brain use the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) imaging approach. However, the BOLD signal is complex as it depends on simultaneous changes in blood flow, vascular volume and oxygen metabolism. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion imaging is another imaging approach in which the magnetically labeled arterial water is used as an endogenous tracer that allows for direct measurement of cerebral blood flow. In this study, we assessed the pain response in the brain using a pulsed-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) approach and a thermal stimulation paradigm. Using pCASL, response to noxious stimulation was detected in somatosensory cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus and precuneus, consistent with the pain response activation patterns detected using the BOLD imaging approach. We suggest that pCASL is a reliable alternative for functional MRI pain studies in conditions in which blood flow, volume or oxygen extraction are altered or compromised.

  16. Noninvasive assessment of arterial compliance of human cerebral arteries with short inversion time arterial spin labeling

    PubMed Central

    Warnert, Esther AH; Murphy, Kevin; Hall, Judith E; Wise, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    A noninvasive method of assessing cerebral arterial compliance (AC) is introduced in which arterial spin labeling (ASL) is used to measure changes in arterial blood volume (aBV) occurring within the cardiac cycle. Short inversion time pulsed ASL (PASL) was performed in healthy volunteers with inversion times ranging from 250 to 850 ms. A model of the arterial input function was used to obtain the cerebral aBV. Results indicate that aBV depends on the cardiac phase of the arteries in the imaging volume. Cerebral AC, estimated from aBV and brachial blood pressure measured noninvasively in systole and diastole, was assessed in the flow territories of the basal cerebral arteries originating from the circle of Willis: right and left middle cerebral arteries (RMCA and LMCA), right and left posterior cerebral arteries (RPCA and LPCA), and the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). Group average AC values calculated for the RMCA, LMCA, ACA, RPCA, and LPCA were 0.56%±0.2%, 0.50%±0.3%, 0.4%±0.2%, 1.1%±0.5%, and 1.1%±0.3% per mm Hg, respectively. The current experiment has shown the feasibility of measuring AC of cerebral arteries with short inversion time PASL. PMID:25515216

  17. Noninvasive MRI measurement of CBF: evaluating an arterial spin labelling sequence with 99mTc-HMPAO CBF autoradiography in a rat stroke model.

    PubMed

    Baskerville, Tracey A; McCabe, Christopher; Weir, Christopher J; Macrae, I Mhairi; Holmes, William M

    2012-06-01

    Arterial spin labelling (ASL) is increasingly available for noninvasive cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurement in stroke research. Here, a pseudo-continuous ASL technique (pCASL) was evaluated against (99m)Tc-D, L-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ((99m)Tc-HMPAO) autoradiography in a rat stroke model. The (99m)Tc-HMPAO was injected (intravenously, 225 MBq) during pCASL acquisition. The pCASL and (99m)Tc-HMPAO autoradiography CBF measures, relative to the contralateral hemisphere, were in good agreement across the spectrum of flow values in normal and ischemic tissues. The pCASL-derived quantitative regional CBF values (contralateral: 157 to 177 mL/100 g per minute; ipsilateral: 9 to 104 mL/100 g per minute) were consistent with the literature values. The data show the potential utility of pCASL for CBF assessment in a rat stroke model.

  18. Recommended implementation of arterial spin-labeled perfusion MRI for clinical applications: A consensus of the ISMRM perfusion study group and the European consortium for ASL in dementia.

    PubMed

    Alsop, David C; Detre, John A; Golay, Xavier; Günther, Matthias; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Lu, Hanzhang; MacIntosh, Bradley J; Parkes, Laura M; Smits, Marion; van Osch, Matthias J P; Wang, Danny J J; Wong, Eric C; Zaharchuk, Greg

    2015-01-01

    This review provides a summary statement of recommended implementations of arterial spin labeling (ASL) for clinical applications. It is a consensus of the ISMRM Perfusion Study Group and the European ASL in Dementia consortium, both of whom met to reach this consensus in October 2012 in Amsterdam. Although ASL continues to undergo rapid technical development, we believe that current ASL methods are robust and ready to provide useful clinical information, and that a consensus statement on recommended implementations will help the clinical community to adopt a standardized approach. In this review, we describe the major considerations and trade-offs in implementing an ASL protocol and provide specific recommendations for a standard approach. Our conclusion is that as an optimal default implementation, we recommend pseudo-continuous labeling, background suppression, a segmented three-dimensional readout without vascular crushing gradients, and calculation and presentation of both label/control difference images and cerebral blood flow in absolute units using a simplified model.

  19. Whole-brain perfusion imaging with balanced steady-state free precession arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Han, Paul Kyu; Ye, Jong Chul; Kim, Eung Yeop; Choi, Seung Hong; Park, Sung-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Recently, balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) readout has been proposed for arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion imaging to reduce susceptibility artifacts at a relatively high spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, the main limitation of bSSFP-ASL is the low spatial coverage. In this work, methods to increase the spatial coverage of bSSFP-ASL are proposed for distortion-free, high-resolution, whole-brain perfusion imaging. Three strategies of (i) segmentation, (ii) compressed sensing (CS) and (iii) a hybrid approach combining the two methods were tested to increase the spatial coverage of pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) with three-dimensional bSSFP readout. The spatial coverage was increased by factors of two, four and six using each of the three approaches, whilst maintaining the same total scan time (5.3 min). The number of segments and/or CS acceleration rate (R) correspondingly increased to maintain the same bSSFP readout time (1.2 s). The segmentation approach allowed whole-brain perfusion imaging for pCASL-bSSFP with no penalty in SNR and/or total scan time. The CS approach increased the spatial coverage of pCASL-bSSFP whilst maintaining the temporal resolution, with minimal impact on the image quality. The hybrid approach provided compromised effects between the two methods. Balanced SSFP-based ASL allows the acquisition of perfusion images with wide spatial coverage, high spatial resolution and SNR, and reduced susceptibility artifacts, and thus may become a good choice for clinical and neurological studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Thalamic hypoperfusion and disrupted cerebral blood flow networks in idiopathic generalized epilepsy: Arterial spin labeling and graph theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Sone, Daichi; Watanabe, Masako; Ota, Miho; Kimura, Yukio; Sugiyama, Atsuhiko; Maekawa, Tomoko; Okura, Mariko; Enokizono, Mikako; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Sato, Noriko; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate interictal cerebral blood flow (CBF) distributions and graph theoretical networks in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) using arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging and anatomical covariance methods of graph theoretical analysis. We recruited 19 patients with IGE and 19 age-/gender-matched healthy controls. Their CBF images were obtained by pseudo-continuous ASL imaging and compared using statistical parametric mapping 8 software (SPM8) and Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT). The ASL imaging could detect interictal hypoperfusion in the thalamus, upper midbrain, and left cerebellum in IGE. Additionally, the graph theoretical analyses revealed characteristic findings of the CBF network of IGE, including significantly reduced resilience to attacks and changes of regional clustering especially in the bilateral temporo-occipital areas and lateral frontal lobes. There was no significance in the comparisons of network metrics. These findings could contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of IGE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased SNR Efficiency in Velocity Selective Arterial Spin Labeling using Multiple Velocity Selective Saturation Modules (mm-VSASL)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jia; Wong, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Velocity-selective arterial spin labeling (VSASL) is theoretically insensitive to transit delay (TD) effects. However, it uses saturation instead of inversion, resulting in compromised signal to noise ratio (SNR). In this study we explore the use of multiple velocity-selective saturation (VSS) modules in VSASL (mm-VSASL) to improve SNR. Methods Theoretical SNR efficiency improvement and optimized parameters were calculated from simulations for mm-VSASL. VSASL with two VSS modules (VSASL-2VSS) was implemented to measure cerebral blood flow in vivo, compared with conventional VSASL (VSASL-1VSS), Pulsed ASL and Pseudo-Continuous ASL. TDs and bolus durations (BDs) were measured to validate the simulations and to examine the TD sensitivity of these preparations. Results Compared with VSASL-1VSS, VSASL-2VSS achieved a significant improvement of SNR (22.1 ± 1.9%, P = 1.7 × 10−6) in vivo, consistent with a 22.7% improvement predicted from simulations. The SNR was comparable to or higher (in GM, P = 4.3 × 10−3) than that using PCASL. VSASL was experimentally verified to have minimal TD effects. Conclusion Utilizing multiple VSS modules can improve the SNR efficiency of VSASL. Mm-VSASL may result in an SNR that is comparable to or even higher than that of PCASL in applications where long PLDs are required. PMID:25251933

  2. Temporal and Spatial Variances in Arterial Spin-Labeling Are Inversely Related to Large-Artery Blood Velocity.

    PubMed

    Robertson, A D; Matta, G; Basile, V S; Black, S E; Macgowan, C K; Detre, J A; MacIntosh, B J

    2017-08-01

    The relationship between extracranial large-artery characteristics and arterial spin-labeling MR imaging may influence the quality of arterial spin-labeling-CBF images for older adults with and without vascular pathology. We hypothesized that extracranial arterial blood velocity can explain between-person differences in arterial spin-labeling data systematically across clinical populations. We performed consecutive pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling and phase-contrast MR imaging on 82 individuals (20-88 years of age, 50% women), including healthy young adults, healthy older adults, and older adults with cerebral small vessel disease or chronic stroke infarcts. We examined associations between extracranial phase-contrast hemodynamics and intracranial arterial spin-labeling characteristics, which were defined by labeling efficiency, temporal signal-to-noise ratio, and spatial coefficient of variation. Large-artery blood velocity was inversely associated with labeling efficiency (P = .007), temporal SNR (P < .001), and spatial coefficient of variation (P = .05) of arterial spin-labeling, after accounting for age, sex, and group. Correction for labeling efficiency on an individual basis led to additional group differences in GM-CBF compared to correction using a constant labeling efficiency. Between-subject arterial spin-labeling variance was partially explained by extracranial velocity but not cross-sectional area. Choosing arterial spin-labeling timing parameters with on-line knowledge of blood velocity may improve CBF quantification. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  3. Robust method for 3D arterial spin labeling in mice.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Brige Paul; Bishop, Jonathan; Zhou, Yu-Qing; Wu, Jian; Henkelman, R Mark; Sled, John G

    2012-07-01

    Arterial spin labeling is a versatile perfusion quantification methodology, which has the potential to provide accurate characterization of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in mouse models. However, a paucity of physiological data needed for accurate modeling, more stringent requirements for gradient performance, and strong artifacts introduced by magnetization transfer present special challenges for accurate CBF mapping in the mouse. This article describes robust mapping of CBF over three-dimensional brain regions using amplitude-modulated continuous arterial spin labeling. To provide physiological data for CBF modeling, the carotid artery blood velocity distribution was characterized using pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasound. These blood velocity measurements were used in simulations that optimize inversion efficiency for parameters meeting MRI gradient duty cycle constraints. A rapid slice positioning algorithm was developed and evaluated to provide accurate positioning of the labeling plane. To account for enhancement of T(1) due to magnetization transfer, a binary spin bath model of magnetization transfer was used to provide a more accurate estimate of CBF. Finally, a study of CBF was conducted on 10 mice with findings of highly reproducible inversion efficiency (mean ± standard-error-of-the-mean, 0.67 ± 0.03), statistically significant variation in CBF over 12 brain regions (P < 0.0001) and a mean ± standard-error-of-the-mean whole brain CBF of 219 ± 6 mL/100 g/min.

  4. Noise Reduction in Arterial Spin Labeling Based Functional Connectivity Using Nuisance Variables.

    PubMed

    Jann, Kay; Smith, Robert X; Rios Piedra, Edgar A; Dapretto, Mirella; Wang, Danny J J

    2016-01-01

    Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) perfusion image series have recently been utilized for functional connectivity (FC) analysis in healthy volunteers and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Noise reduction by using nuisance variables has been shown to be necessary to minimize potential confounding effects of head motion and physiological signals on BOLD based FC analysis. The purpose of the present study is to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of different noise reduction strategies (NRS) using nuisance variables to improve perfusion based FC analysis in two cohorts of healthy adults using state of the art 3D background-suppressed (BS) GRASE pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) and dual-echo 2D-EPI pCASL sequences. Five different NRS were performed in healthy volunteers to compare their performance. We then compared seed-based FC analysis using 3D BS GRASE pCASL in a cohort of 12 children with ASD (3f/9m, age 12.8 ± 1.3 years) and 13 typically developing (TD) children (1f/12m; age 13.9 ± 3 years) in conjunction with NRS. Regression of different combinations of nuisance variables affected FC analysis from a seed in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to other areas of the default mode network (DMN) in both BOLD and pCASL data sets. Consistent with existing literature on BOLD-FC, we observed improved spatial specificity after physiological noise reduction and improved long-range connectivity using head movement related regressors. Furthermore, 3D BS GRASE pCASL shows much higher temporal SNR compared to dual-echo 2D-EPI pCASL and similar effects of noise reduction as those observed for BOLD. Seed-based FC analysis using 3D BS GRASE pCASL in children with ASD and TD children showed that noise reduction including physiological and motion related signals as nuisance variables is crucial for identifying altered long-range connectivity from PCC to frontal brain areas associated with ASD. This is the first study that systematically evaluated the effects of

  5. Noise Reduction in Arterial Spin Labeling Based Functional Connectivity Using Nuisance Variables

    PubMed Central

    Jann, Kay; Smith, Robert X.; Rios Piedra, Edgar A.; Dapretto, Mirella; Wang, Danny J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) perfusion image series have recently been utilized for functional connectivity (FC) analysis in healthy volunteers and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Noise reduction by using nuisance variables has been shown to be necessary to minimize potential confounding effects of head motion and physiological signals on BOLD based FC analysis. The purpose of the present study is to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of different noise reduction strategies (NRS) using nuisance variables to improve perfusion based FC analysis in two cohorts of healthy adults using state of the art 3D background-suppressed (BS) GRASE pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) and dual-echo 2D-EPI pCASL sequences. Five different NRS were performed in healthy volunteers to compare their performance. We then compared seed-based FC analysis using 3D BS GRASE pCASL in a cohort of 12 children with ASD (3f/9m, age 12.8 ± 1.3 years) and 13 typically developing (TD) children (1f/12m; age 13.9 ± 3 years) in conjunction with NRS. Regression of different combinations of nuisance variables affected FC analysis from a seed in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to other areas of the default mode network (DMN) in both BOLD and pCASL data sets. Consistent with existing literature on BOLD-FC, we observed improved spatial specificity after physiological noise reduction and improved long-range connectivity using head movement related regressors. Furthermore, 3D BS GRASE pCASL shows much higher temporal SNR compared to dual-echo 2D-EPI pCASL and similar effects of noise reduction as those observed for BOLD. Seed-based FC analysis using 3D BS GRASE pCASL in children with ASD and TD children showed that noise reduction including physiological and motion related signals as nuisance variables is crucial for identifying altered long-range connectivity from PCC to frontal brain areas associated with ASD. This is the first study that systematically evaluated the effects of

  6. Support vector machine classification of arterial volume-weighted arterial spin tagging images.

    PubMed

    Shah, Yash S; Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Jahanian, Hesamoddin; Peltier, Scott J

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, machine-learning techniques have gained growing popularity in medical image analysis. Temporal brain-state classification is one of the major applications of machine-learning techniques in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain data. This article explores the use of support vector machine (SVM) classification technique with motor-visual activation paradigm to perform brain-state classification into activation and rest with an emphasis on different acquisition techniques. Images were acquired using a recently developed variant of traditional pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling technique called arterial volume-weighted arterial spin tagging (AVAST). The classification scheme is also performed on images acquired using blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) and traditional perfusion-weighted arterial spin labeling (ASL) techniques for comparison. The AVAST technique outperforms traditional pseudocontinuous ASL, achieving classification accuracy comparable to that of BOLD contrast images. This study demonstrates that AVAST has superior signal-to-noise ratio and improved temporal resolution as compared with traditional perfusion-weighted ASL and reduced sensitivity to scanner drift as compared with BOLD. Owing to these characteristics, AVAST lends itself as an ideal choice for dynamic fMRI and real-time neurofeedback experiments with sustained activation periods.

  7. Impact of pseudo-continuous fermentation on the ethanol tolerance of Scheffersomyces stipitis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Meng; Kim, Min Hea; He, Qinghua Peter; Wang, Jin

    2013-09-01

    In this work we conducted the pseudo-continuous fermentation, i.e., continuous fermentation with cell retention, using Scheffersomyces stipitis, and studied its effect on ethanol tolerance of the strain. During the fermentation experiments, S. stipitis was adapted to a mild concentration of ethanol (20-26 g/L) for two weeks. Two substrates (glucose and xylose) were used in different fermentation experiments. After fermentation, various experiments were performed to evaluate the ethanol tolerance of adapted cells and unadapted cells. Compared to the unadapted cells, the viability of adapted cells increased by 8 folds with glucose as the carbon source and 6 folds with xylose as the carbon source following exposure to 60 g/L ethanol for 2 h. Improved ethanol tolerance of the adapted cells was also revealed in the effects of ethanol on plasma membrane permeability, extracellular alkalization and acidification. The mathematical modeling of cell leakage, extracellular alkalization and acidification revealed that cells cultured on glucose show better ethanol tolerance than cells cultured on xylose but the differences become smaller for adapted cells. The results show that pseudo-continuous fermentation can effectively improve cell's ethanol tolerance due to the environmental pressure during the fermentation process. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Test-retest reliability of cerebral blood flow in healthy individuals using arterial spin labeling: Findings from the EMBARC study.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Jorge R C; Greenberg, Tsafrir; Lu, Hanzhang; Chase, Henry W; Fournier, Jay; Cooper, Crystal M; Deckersbach, Thilo; Adams, Phil; Carmody, Thomas; Fava, Mauricio; Kurian, Benji; McGrath, Patrick J; McInnis, Melvin G; Oquendo, Maria A; Parsey, Ramin; Weissman, Myrna; Trivedi, Madhukar; Phillips, Mary L

    2017-09-06

    Previous investigations of test-retest reliability of cerebral blood flow (CBF) at rest measured with pseudo-continuous Arterial Spin Labeling (pCASL) demonstrated good reliability, but are limited by the use of similar scanner platforms. In the present study we examined test-retest reliability of CBF in regions implicated in emotion and the default mode network. We measured absolute and relative CBF at rest in thirty-one healthy subjects in two scan sessions, one week apart, at four different sites and three different scan platforms. We derived CBF from pCASL images with an automated algorithm and calculated intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) across sessions for regions of interest. In addition, we investigated site effects. For both absolute and relative CBF measures, ICCs were good to excellent (i.e. >0.6) in most brain regions, with highest values observed for the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and ventral striatum. A leave-one-site-out cross validation analysis did not show a significant effect for site on whole brain CBF and there was no proportional bias across sites. However, a significant site effect was present in the repeated measures ANOVA. The high test-retest reliability of CBF measured with pCASL in a range of brain regions implicated in emotion and salience processing, emotion regulation, and the default mode network, which have been previously linked to depression symptomatology supports its use in studies that aim to identify neuroimaging biomarkers of treatment response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Clinical applications of arterial spin labeling technique in brain diseases].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zheng, Gang; Zhao, Tiezhu; Guo, Chao; Li, Lin; Lu, Guangming

    2013-02-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) technique is a kind of perfusion functional magnetic resonance imaging method that is based on endogenous contrast, and it can measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) noninvasively. The ASL technique has advantages of noninvasiveness, simplicity and relatively lower costs so that it is more suitable for longitudinal studies compared with previous perfusion methods, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), CT and the contrast agent based magnetic resonance perfusion imaging. This paper mainly discusses the current clinical applications of ASL in brain diseases as cerebrovascular diseases, brain tumors, Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy, etc.

  10. Measurement of Cerebral Perfusion Territories Using Arterial Spin Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Fernando F.; Tannús, Alberto; Silva, Afonso C.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to assess the perfusion territories of major cerebral arteries can be a valuable asset to the diagnosis of a number of cerebrovascular diseases. Recently, several arterial spin labeling (ASL) techniques have been proposed to obtain the cerebral perfusion territories of individual arteries according to three different approaches: (1) using a dedicated labeling RF coil; (2) applying selective inversion of spatially confined areas; or (3) employing multi-dimensional RF pulses. Methods that use a separate labeling RF coil have high SNR, low RF power deposition and unrestricted 3-dimensional coverage, but are mostly limited to separation of the left and right circulation, and do require extra hardware, which may limit their implementation in clinical systems. Alternatively, methods that utilize selective inversion have higher flexibility of implementation and higher arterial selectivity, but suffer from imaging artifacts resulting from interference between the labeling slab and the volume of interest. The goal of the present review is to provide the reader with a critical survey of the different ASL approaches proposed to date to obtain cerebral perfusion territories, by discussing the relative advantages and disadvantages of each technique, so as to serve as a guiding resource towards future refinements of this promising methodology. PMID:17503440

  11. Quantification of liver perfusion using multidelay pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xinlei; Qian, Tianyi; Fernandez-Seara, Maria A; Smith, Robert X; Li, Kuncheng; Ying, Kui; Sung, Kyunghyun; Wang, Danny J J

    2016-05-01

    To develop a free-breathing multidelay pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) technique for quantitative measurement of liver perfusion of the hepatic artery and portal vein, respectively. A navigator-gated pCASL sequence with balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) readout was developed and applied on five healthy young volunteers at 3T. Two labeling schemes were performed with the labeling plane applied on the descending aorta above the liver, and perpendicular to the portal vein before its entry to liver to label the hepatic artery and portal vein, respectively. For each labeling scheme, pCASL scans were performed at five or six postlabeling delays between 200 and 2000 msec or 2500 msec with an interval of 400 or 500 msec. Multidelay pCASL images were processed offline with nonrigid motion correction, outlier removal, and fitted for estimation of liver perfusion and transit time. Estimated liver perfusion of the hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein were 21.8 ± 1.9 and 95.1 ± 8.9 mL/100g/min, with the corresponding transit time of 1227.3 ± 355.5 and 667.2 ± 85.0 msec, respectively. The estimated liver perfusion and transit time without motion correction were less reliable with greater residual variance compared to those processed with motion correction (P < 0.05). The liver perfusion measurement using multidelay pCASL showed good correspondence with values noted in the literature. The capability to noninvasively and selectively label the hepatic artery and portal vein is a unique strength of pCASL as compared to other liver perfusion imaging techniques, such as computed tomography perfusion and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Post-ischaemic hyperperfusion in traumatic middle cerebral artery dissection detected by arterial spin labelling of magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Motohiro; Tamase, Akira; Kamide, Tomoya; Mori, Kentaro; Seki, Syunsuke; Iida, Yu; Suzuki, Kei-Ichiro; Aoki, Takae; Hirano, Ken-Ichi; Takahashi, Mitsuyuki; Kawabata, Yuichi; Nakano, Tatsu; Taguchi, Hiroki

    2016-10-01

    We report a patient with a traumatic middle cerebral artery dissection, which showed hyperperfusion in the territory supplied by the left middle cerebral artery. A 45-year-old man experienced speech disturbance and motor weakness in his right hemibody on the day following mild head trauma. His symptoms worsened on the fourth day. Magnetic resonance imaging showed narrowing in the left M1 portion of the middle cerebral artery. Angiography showed narrowing and dilatation in the left middle cerebral artery trunk. The lesion was diagnosed as a dissection of the middle cerebral artery. Arterial spin labelling of magnetic resonance imaging and single photon emission computed tomography showed increased cerebral blood flow in the left temporal region compared with the right. The patient was treated conservatively and the symptoms gradually improved. The hyperperfusion observed on arterial spin labelling and single photon emission computed tomography gradually improved and disappeared on the 25th day. This is the first reported case of traumatic middle cerebral artery dissection, which showed post-ischaemic hyperperfusion in the territory of the affected artery. To detect hyperperfusion in the brain, arterial spin labelling is a useful technique. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Vascular territory image analysis using vessel encoded arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Michael A; Okell, Thomas W; Jezzard, Peter; Woolrich, Mark W

    2009-01-01

    Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) permits the non-invasive assessment of cerebral perfusion, by magnetically labeling all the blood flowing into the brain. Vessel encoded (VE) ASL extends this concept by introducing spatial modulations of the labeling procedure, resulting in different patterns of label applied to the blood from different vessels. Here a Bayesian inference solution to the analysis of VE-ASL is presented based on a description of the relative locations of labeled vessels and a probabilistic classification of brain tissue to vessel source. In simulation and on real data the method is shown to reliably determine vascular territories in the brain, including the case where the number of vessels exceeds the number of independent measurements.

  14. Hepatic arterial spin labelling MRI: an initial evaluation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ramasawmy, R; Campbell-Washburn, A E; Wells, J A; Johnson, S P; Pedley, R B; Walker-Samuel, S; Lythgoe, M F

    2015-01-01

    The development of strategies to combat hepatic disease and augment tissue regeneration has created a need for methods to assess regional liver function. Liver perfusion imaging has the potential to fulfil this need, across a range of hepatic diseases, alongside the assessment of therapeutic response. In this study, the feasibility of hepatic arterial spin labelling (HASL) was assessed for the first time in mice at 9.4 T, its variability and repeatability were evaluated, and it was applied to a model of colorectal liver metastasis. Data were acquired using flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery-arterial spin labelling (FAIR-ASL) with a Look–Locker readout, and analysed using retrospective respiratory gating and a T1-based quantification. This study shows that preclinical HASL is feasible and exhibits good repeatability and reproducibility. Mean estimated liver perfusion was 2.2 ± 0.8 mL/g/min (mean ± standard error, n = 10), which agrees well with previous measurements using invasive approaches. Estimates of the variation gave a within-session coefficient of variation (CVWS) of 7%, a between-session coefficient of variation (CVBS) of 9% and a between-animal coefficient of variation (CVA) of 15%. The within-session Bland–Altman repeatability coefficient (RCWS) was 18% and the between-session repeatability coefficient (RCBS) was 29%. Finally, the HASL method was applied to a mouse model of liver metastasis, in which significantly lower mean perfusion (1.1 ± 0.5 mL/g/min, n = 6) was measured within the tumours, as seen by fluorescence histology. These data indicate that precise and accurate liver perfusion estimates can be achieved using ASL techniques, and provide a platform for future studies investigating hepatic perfusion in mouse models of disease. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25522098

  15. Using arterial spin labeling to examine mood states in youth

    PubMed Central

    Mikita, Nina; Mehta, Mitul A; Zelaya, Fernando O; Stringaris, Argyris

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the neural correlates of mood states and the specific physiological changes associated with their valence and duration, especially in young people. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging is particularly well-suited to study sustained cerebral states in young people, due to its robustness to low-frequency drift, excellent interscan reliability, and noninvasiveness. Yet, it has so far been underutilized for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying mood states in youth. Methods In this exploratory study, 21 healthy adolescents aged 16 to 18 took part in a mood induction experiment. Neutral, sad, and happy mood states were induced using film clips and explicit instructions. An ASL scan was obtained following presentation of each film clip. Results Mood induction led to robust changes in self-reported mood ratings. Compared to neutral, sad mood was associated with increased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the left middle frontal gyrus and anterior prefrontal cortex, and decreased rCBF in the right middle frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobule. A decrease in self-reported mood from neutral to sad condition was associated with increased rCBF in the precuneus. Happy mood was associated with increased rCBF in medial frontal and cingulate gyri, the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, and ventral striatum, and decreased rCBF in the inferior parietal lobule. The level of current self-reported depressive symptoms was negatively associated with rCBF change in the cerebellum and lingual gyrus following both sad and happy mood inductions. Conclusions Arterial spin labeling is sensitive to experimentally induced mood changes in healthy young people. The effects of happy mood on rCBF patterns were generally stronger than the effects of sad mood. PMID:26085964

  16. Bolus-tracking arterial spin labelling: theoretical and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, M. E.; Blau, C. W.; Kerskens, C. M.

    2009-03-01

    Arterial spin labelling (ASL) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that can be used to provide a quantitative assessment of cerebral perfusion. Despite the development of a number of theoretical models to facilitate quantitative ASL, some key challenges still remain. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel quantitative ASL method based on a macroscopic model that reduces the number of variables required to describe the physiological processes involved. To this end, a novel Fokker-Planck equation consisting of stochastically varying macroscopic variables was derived from a general Langevin equation. ASL data from the rat brain was acquired using a bolus-tracking ASL protocol where a bolus of labelled spins flowing from an inversion plane in the neck into an imaging plane in the brain can be observed. Bolus durations of 1.5 s, 2.0 s and 3.0 s were used and the solution to the Fokker-Planck equation for the boundary conditions of bolus-tracking ASL was fitted to the experimental data using a least-squares fit. The mean transit time (MTT) and capillary transit time (CTT) were calculated from the first and second moments of the resultant curve respectively and the arterial transit time (ATT) was calculated by subtracting the CTT from the MTT. The average MTT, CTT and ATT values were 1.75 ± 0.22 s, 1.43 ± 0.12 s and 0.32 ± 0.04 s respectively. In conclusion, a new ASL protocol has been developed by combining the theoretical model with ASL experiments. The technique has the unique ability to provide solutions for varying bolus volumes and the generality of the new model is demonstrated by the derivation of additional solutions for the continuous and pulsed ASL (CASL and PASL) techniques.

  17. Tonotopic maps in human auditory cortex using arterial spin labeling

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Dimo; Havlicek, Martin; Formisano, Elia; Uludağ, Kâmil

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A tonotopic organization of the human auditory cortex (AC) has been reliably found by neuroimaging studies. However, a full characterization and parcellation of the AC is still lacking. In this study, we employed pseudo‐continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) to map tonotopy and voice selective regions using, for the first time, cerebral blood flow (CBF). We demonstrated the feasibility of CBF‐based tonotopy and found a good agreement with BOLD signal‐based tonotopy, despite the lower contrast‐to‐noise ratio of CBF. Quantitative perfusion mapping of baseline CBF showed a region of high perfusion centered on Heschl's gyrus and corresponding to the main high‐low‐high frequency gradients, co‐located to the presumed primary auditory core and suggesting baseline CBF as a novel marker for AC parcellation. Furthermore, susceptibility weighted imaging was employed to investigate the tissue specificity of CBF and BOLD signal and the possible venous bias of BOLD‐based tonotopy. For BOLD only active voxels, we found a higher percentage of vein contamination than for CBF only active voxels. Taken together, we demonstrated that both baseline and stimulus‐induced CBF is an alternative fMRI approach to the standard BOLD signal to study auditory processing and delineate the functional organization of the auditory cortex. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1140–1154, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27790786

  18. Characterizing Resting-State Brain Function Using Arterial Spin Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Jann, Kay; Wang, Danny J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an increasingly established magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that is finding broader applications in studying the healthy and diseased brain. This review addresses the use of ASL to assess brain function in the resting state. Following a brief technical description, we discuss the use of ASL in the following main categories: (1) resting-state functional connectivity (FC) measurement: the use of ASL-based cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements as an alternative to the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) technique to assess resting-state FC; (2) the link between network CBF and FC measurements: the use of network CBF as a surrogate of the metabolic activity within corresponding networks; and (3) the study of resting-state dynamic CBF-BOLD coupling and cerebral metabolism: the use of dynamic CBF information obtained using ASL to assess dynamic CBF-BOLD coupling and oxidative metabolism in the resting state. In addition, we summarize some future challenges and interesting research directions for ASL, including slice-accelerated (multiband) imaging as well as the effects of motion and other physiological confounds on perfusion-based FC measurement. In summary, this work reviews the state-of-the-art of ASL and establishes it as an increasingly viable MRI technique with high translational value in studying resting-state brain function. PMID:26106930

  19. Characterizing Resting-State Brain Function Using Arterial Spin Labeling.

    PubMed

    Chen, J Jean; Jann, Kay; Wang, Danny J J

    2015-11-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an increasingly established magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that is finding broader applications in studying the healthy and diseased brain. This review addresses the use of ASL to assess brain function in the resting state. Following a brief technical description, we discuss the use of ASL in the following main categories: (1) resting-state functional connectivity (FC) measurement: the use of ASL-based cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements as an alternative to the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) technique to assess resting-state FC; (2) the link between network CBF and FC measurements: the use of network CBF as a surrogate of the metabolic activity within corresponding networks; and (3) the study of resting-state dynamic CBF-BOLD coupling and cerebral metabolism: the use of dynamic CBF information obtained using ASL to assess dynamic CBF-BOLD coupling and oxidative metabolism in the resting state. In addition, we summarize some future challenges and interesting research directions for ASL, including slice-accelerated (multiband) imaging as well as the effects of motion and other physiological confounds on perfusion-based FC measurement. In summary, this work reviews the state-of-the-art of ASL and establishes it as an increasingly viable MRI technique with high translational value in studying resting-state brain function.

  20. Diagnostic Potential of Pulsed Arterial Spin Labeling in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Trebeschi, Stefano; Riederer, Isabelle; Preibisch, Christine; Bohn, Karl P.; Förster, Stefan; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Zimmer, Claus; Kirschke, Jan S.; Valentinitsch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimers disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Although the underlying pathology is still not completely understood, several diagnostic methods are available. Frequently, the most accurate methods are also the most invasive. The present work investigates the diagnostic potential of Pulsed Arterial Spin Labeling (PASL) for AD: a non-invasive, MRI-based technique for the quantification of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). In particular, we propose a pilot computer aided diagnostic (CAD) procedure able to discriminate between healthy and diseased subjects, and at the same time, providing visual informative results. This method encompasses the creation of a healthy model, the computation of a voxel-wise likelihood function as comparison between the healthy model and the subject under examination, and the correction of the likelihood function via prior distributions. The discriminant analysis is carried out to maximize the accuracy of the classification. The algorithm has been trained on a dataset of 81 subjects and achieved a sensitivity of 0.750 and a specificity of 0.875. Moreover, in accordance with the current pathological knowledge, the parietal lobe, and limbic system are shown to be the main discriminant factors. PMID:27147946

  1. Characterizing pulmonary blood flow distribution measured using arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Henderson, A Cortney; Prisk, G Kim; Levin, David L; Hopkins, Susan R; Buxton, Richard B

    2009-12-01

    The arterial spin labeling (ASL) method provides images in which, ideally, the signal intensity of each image voxel is proportional to the local perfusion. For studies of pulmonary perfusion, the relative dispersion (RD, standard deviation/mean) of the ASL signal across a lung section is used as a reliable measure of flow heterogeneity. However, the RD of the ASL signals within the lung may systematically differ from the true RD of perfusion because the ASL image also includes signals from larger vessels, which can reflect the blood volume rather than blood flow if the vessels are filled with tagged blood during the imaging time. Theoretical studies suggest that the pulmonary vasculature exhibits a lognormal distribution for blood flow and thus an appropriate measure of heterogeneity is the geometric standard deviation (GSD). To test whether the ASL signal exhibits a lognormal distribution for pulmonary blood flow, determine whether larger vessels play an important role in the distribution, and extract physiologically relevant measures of heterogeneity from the ASL signal, we quantified the ASL signal before and after an intervention (head-down tilt) in six subjects. The distribution of ASL signal was better characterized by a lognormal distribution than a normal distribution, reducing the mean squared error by 72% (p < 0.005). Head-down tilt significantly reduced the lognormal scale parameter (p = 0.01) but not the shape parameter or GSD. The RD increased post-tilt and remained significantly elevated (by 17%, p < 0.05). Test case results and mathematical simulations suggest that RD is more sensitive than the GSD to ASL signal from tagged blood in larger vessels, a probable explanation of the change in RD without a statistically significant change in GSD. This suggests that the GSD is a useful measure of pulmonary blood flow heterogeneity with the advantage of being less affected by the ASL signal from tagged blood in larger vessels.

  2. Clinical utility of arterial spin-labeling as a confirmatory test for suspected brain death.

    PubMed

    Kang, K M; Yun, T J; Yoon, B-W; Jeon, B S; Choi, S H; Kim, J-H; Kim, J E; Sohn, C-H; Han, M H

    2015-05-01

    Diagnosis of brain death is made on the basis of 3 essential findings: coma, absence of brain stem reflexes, and apnea. Although confirmatory tests are not mandatory in most situations, additional testing may be necessary to declare brain death in patients in whom results of specific components of clinical testing cannot be reliably evaluated. Recently, arterial spin-labeling has been incorporated as part of MR imaging to evaluate cerebral perfusion. Advantages of arterial spin-labeling include being completely noninvasive and providing information about absolute CBF. We retrospectively reviewed arterial spin-labeling findings according to the following modified criteria based on previously established confirmatory tests to determine brain death: 1) extremely decreased perfusion in the whole brain, 2) bright vessel signal intensity around the entry of the carotid artery to the skull, 3) patent external carotid circulation, and 4) "hollow skull sign" in a series of 5 patients. Arterial spin-labeling findings satisfied the criteria for brain death in all patients. Arterial spin-labeling imaging has the potential to be a completely noninvasive confirmatory test to provide additional information to assist in the diagnosis of brain death.

  3. Prediction of Early Reperfusion From Repeated Arterial Spin Labeling Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging During Intravenous Thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Shuhei; Griebe, Martin; Gregori, Johannes; Günther, Matthias; Sauter-Servaes, Johannes; Wolf, Marc E; Gass, Achim; Hennerici, Michael G; Szabo, Kristina; Kern, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    There are few in vivo data on the pathophysiology of reperfusion during systemic thrombolysis. We monitored the time course of cerebral perfusion changes in patients during thrombolysis with repeated arterial spin labeling perfusion magnetic resonance imaging. Ten patients with proximal arterial occlusion within 4.5 hours after symptom onset were prospectively enrolled. All patients received intravenous thrombolysis during the magnetic resonance imaging examination. Repeated arterial spin labeling perfusion images were acquired during the 60-minute therapy and at follow-up after 24 to 72 hours. Clinical data, magnetic resonance imaging features, and cerebral perfusion changes were analyzed. Before thrombolysis, arterial spin labeling hypoperfusion and fluid-attenuation inversion recovery vascular hyperintensity in the territory of the occluded arteries were observed in all patients. In 5 patients, extensive arterial transit artifacts (ATA) developed in the hypoperfused area. The ATA corresponded with fluid-attenuation inversion recovery vascular hyperintensities. All 5 patients who developed extensive ATA in the hypoperfused area had complete reperfusion after thrombolysis, whereas the 5 without extensive ATA showed no or only partial reperfusion (P<0.01). The development of ATA preceded the normalization of tissue perfusion. The development of ATA during thrombolysis is associated with early reperfusion after thrombolysis. arterial spin labeling assessment during intravenous thrombolysis has the potential to guide subsequent therapeutic strategies in patients with acute stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Arterial spin labelling reveals prolonged arterial arrival time in idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bachari, Sarah; Parkes, Laura M.; Vidyasagar, Rishma; Hanby, Martha F.; Tharaken, Vivek; Leroi, Iracema; Emsley, Hedley C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, yet effective disease modifying treatments are still lacking. Neurodegeneration involves multiple interacting pathological pathways. The extent to which neurovascular mechanisms are involved is not well defined in IPD. We aimed to determine whether novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, including arterial spin labelling (ASL) quantification of cerebral perfusion, can reveal altered neurovascular status (NVS) in IPD. Fourteen participants with IPD (mean ± SD age 65.1 ± 5.9 years) and 14 age and cardiovascular risk factor matched control participants (mean ± SD age 64.6 ± 4.2 years) underwent a 3T MRI scan protocol. ASL images were collected before, during and after a 6 minute hypercapnic challenge. FLAIR images were used to determine white matter lesion score. Quantitative images of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial arrival time (AAT) were calculated from the ASL data both at rest and during hypercapnia. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) images were calculated, depicting the change in CBF and AAT relative to the change in end-tidal CO2. A significant (p = 0.005) increase in whole brain averaged baseline AAT was observed in IPD participants (mean ± SD age 1532 ± 138 ms) compared to controls (mean ± SD age 1335 ± 165 ms). Voxel-wise analysis revealed this to be widespread across the brain. However, there were no statistically significant differences in white matter lesion score, CBF, or CVR between patients and controls. Regional CBF, but not AAT, in the IPD group was found to correlate positively with Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) scores. These findings provide further evidence of alterations in NVS in IPD. PMID:25379411

  5. Arterial spin labeling imaging reveals widespread and Aβ-independent reductions in cerebral blood flow in elderly apolipoprotein epsilon-4 carriers.

    PubMed

    Michels, Lars; Warnock, Geoffrey; Buck, Alfred; Macauda, Gianluca; Leh, Sandra E; Kaelin, Andrea M; Riese, Florian; Meyer, Rafael; O'Gorman, Ruth; Hock, Christoph; Kollias, Spyros; Gietl, Anton F

    2016-03-01

    Changes in cerebral blood flow are an essential feature of Alzheimer's disease and have been linked to apolipoprotein E-genotype and cerebral amyloid-deposition. These factors could be interdependent or influence cerebral blood flow via different mechanisms. We examined apolipoprotein E-genotype, amyloid beta-deposition, and cerebral blood flow in amnestic mild cognitive impairment using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling MRI in 27 cognitively normal elderly and 16 amnestic mild cognitive impairment participants. Subjects underwent Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography and apolipoprotein E-genotyping. Global cerebral blood flow was lower in apolipoprotein E ɛ4-allele carriers (apolipoprotein E4+) than in apolipoprotein E4- across all subjects (including cognitively normal participants) and within the group of cognitively normal elderly. Global cerebral blood flow was lower in subjects with mild cognitive impairment compared with cognitively normal. Subjects with elevated cerebral amyloid-deposition (PiB+) showed a trend for lower global cerebral blood flow. Apolipoprotein E-status exerted the strongest effect on global cerebral blood flow. Regional analysis indicated that local cerebral blood flow reductions were more widespread for the contrasts apolipoprotein E4+ versus apolipoprotein E4- compared with the contrasts PiB+ versus PiB- or mild cognitive impairment versus cognitively normal. These findings suggest that apolipoprotein E-genotype exerts its impact on cerebral blood flow at least partly independently from amyloid beta-deposition, suggesting that apolipoprotein E also contributes to cerebral blood flow changes outside the context of Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Arterial spin labeling imaging reveals widespread and Aβ-independent reductions in cerebral blood flow in elderly apolipoprotein epsilon-4 carriers

    PubMed Central

    Warnock, Geoffrey; Buck, Alfred; Macauda, Gianluca; Leh, Sandra E; Kaelin, Andrea M; Riese, Florian; Meyer, Rafael; O’Gorman, Ruth; Hock, Christoph; Kollias, Spyros; Gietl, Anton F

    2015-01-01

    Changes in cerebral blood flow are an essential feature of Alzheimer’s disease and have been linked to apolipoprotein E-genotype and cerebral amyloid-deposition. These factors could be interdependent or influence cerebral blood flow via different mechanisms. We examined apolipoprotein E-genotype, amyloid beta-deposition, and cerebral blood flow in amnestic mild cognitive impairment using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling MRI in 27 cognitively normal elderly and 16 amnestic mild cognitive impairment participants. Subjects underwent Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography and apolipoprotein E-genotyping. Global cerebral blood flow was lower in apolipoprotein E ɛ4-allele carriers (apolipoprotein E4+) than in apolipoprotein E4− across all subjects (including cognitively normal participants) and within the group of cognitively normal elderly. Global cerebral blood flow was lower in subjects with mild cognitive impairment compared with cognitively normal. Subjects with elevated cerebral amyloid-deposition (PiB+) showed a trend for lower global cerebral blood flow. Apolipoprotein E-status exerted the strongest effect on global cerebral blood flow. Regional analysis indicated that local cerebral blood flow reductions were more widespread for the contrasts apolipoprotein E4+ versus apolipoprotein E4− compared with the contrasts PiB+ versus PiB− or mild cognitive impairment versus cognitively normal. These findings suggest that apolipoprotein E-genotype exerts its impact on cerebral blood flow at least partly independently from amyloid beta-deposition, suggesting that apolipoprotein E also contributes to cerebral blood flow changes outside the context of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26661143

  7. Arterial Spin Labeling Magnetic Resonance Imaging Estimation of Antegrade and Collateral Flow in Unilateral Middle Cerebral Artery Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Jinhao; Ma, Ning; Liebeskind, David S; Wang, Danny J J; Ma, Lin; Xu, Yang; Wang, Ting; Miao, Zhongrong; Lou, Xin

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling with multiple postlabeling delays has been used to assess cerebral blood flow (CBF). We used this modality to estimate antegrade and collateral flow in patients with unilateral middle cerebral artery stenosis. Consecutive patients with unilateral middle cerebral artery 50% to 99% stenosis at 2 centers underwent pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling with a postlabeling delays of 1.5 and 2.5 s. Mean CBF of bilateral middle cerebral artery territory at the postlabeling delays 1.5 and 2.5 s was measured. Early-arriving flow proportion was defined as (CBF 1.5 s at lesion side/CBF 2.5 s at normal side)×100%. Late-arriving retrograde flow proportion was defined as ([CBF 2.5 s-CBF 1.5 s] at lesion side-[CBF 2.5 s-CBF 1.5 s] at normal side)/CBF 2.5 s at normal side×100%. Antegrade and collateral scales were evaluated in patients with conventional angiography. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between early-arriving flow and late-arriving retrograde flow proportions on arterial spin labeling and antegrade and collateral scales on conventional angiography, respectively. Forty-one patients (46.0±12.0 years) were enrolled. The mean early-arriving flow proportion was 78.3±14.9%. The mean late-arriving retrograde flow proportion was 16.1±10.2%. In 21 patients with conventional angiography, Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.53 (95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.79) between antegrade grade and early-arriving flow proportion (P=0.01) and 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.92) between collateral grade and late-arriving retrograde flow proportion (P<0.0001). Three-dimensional pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling with 2 postlabeling delays may provide an empirical approach for estimating antegrade and collateral flow in patients with unilateral middle cerebral artery stenosis. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02479243. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Clinical application of 3D arterial spin-labeled brain perfusion imaging for Alzheimer disease: comparison with brain perfusion SPECT.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Ishii, K; Hosokawa, C; Hyodo, T; Kashiwagi, N; Matsuki, M; Ashikaga, R; Murakami, T

    2014-05-01

    Alzheimer disease is the most common neurodegenerative disorder with dementia, and a practical and economic biomarker for diagnosis of Alzheimer disease is needed. Three-dimensional arterial spin-labeling, with its high signal-to-noise ratio, enables measurement of cerebral blood flow precisely without any extrinsic tracers. We evaluated the performance of 3D arterial spin-labeling compared with SPECT, and demonstrated the 3D arterial spin-labeled imaging characteristics in the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease. This study included 68 patients with clinically suspected Alzheimer disease who underwent both 3D arterial spin-labeling and SPECT imaging. Two readers independently assessed both images. Kendall W coefficients of concordance (K) were computed, and receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed for each reader. The differences between the images in regional perfusion distribution were evaluated by means of statistical parametric mapping, and the incidence of hypoperfusion of the cerebral watershed area, referred to as "borderzone sign" in the 3D arterial spin-labeled images, was determined. Readers showed K = 0.82/0.73 for SPECT/3D arterial spin-labeled imaging, and the respective areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.82/0.69 for reader 1 and 0.80/0.69 for reader 2. Statistical parametric mapping showed that the perisylvian and medial parieto-occipital perfusion in the arterial spin-labeled images was significantly higher than that in the SPECT images. Borderzone sign was observed on 3D arterial spin-labeling in 70% of patients misdiagnosed with Alzheimer disease. The diagnostic performance of 3D arterial spin-labeling and SPECT for Alzheimer disease was almost equivalent. Three-dimensional arterial spin-labeled imaging was more influenced by hemodynamic factors than was SPECT imaging. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  9. Reduced resolution transit delay prescan for quantitative continuous arterial spin labeling perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Dai, Weiying; Robson, Philip M; Shankaranarayanan, Ajit; Alsop, David C

    2012-05-01

    Arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI can suffer from artifacts and quantification errors when the time delay between labeling and arrival of labeled blood in the tissue is uncertain. This transit delay is particularly uncertain in broad clinical populations, where reduced or collateral flow may occur. Measurement of transit delay by acquisition of the arterial spin labeling signal at many different time delays typically extends the imaging time and degrades the sensitivity of the resulting perfusion images. Acquisition of transit delay maps at the same spatial resolution as perfusion images may not be necessary, however, because transit delay maps tend to contain little high spatial resolution information. Here, we propose the use of a reduced spatial resolution arterial spin labeling prescan for the rapid measurement of transit delay. Approaches to using the derived transit delay information to optimize and quantify higher resolution continuous arterial spin labeling perfusion images are described. Results in normal volunteers demonstrate heterogeneity of transit delay across different brain regions that lead to quantification errors without the transit maps and demonstrate the feasibility of this approach to perfusion and transit delay quantification. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Changes in cerebral blood flow and vasoreactivity to CO2 measured by arterial spin labeling after 6days at 4350m.

    PubMed

    Villien, Marjorie; Bouzat, Pierre; Rupp, Thomas; Robach, Paul; Lamalle, Laurent; Troprès, Irène; Estève, François; Krainik, Alexandre; Lévy, Patrick; Warnking, Jan M; Verges, Samuel

    2013-05-15

    Changes in cerebral perfusion and CO2 cerebrovascular reactivity during and immediately after a sojourn at high altitude remain unclear but may be critical for acclimatization. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of 6days at 4350m on cerebral perfusion and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to CO2 by arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging at sea level and to compare it with transcranial Doppler (TCD) results at altitude. Eleven healthy male subjects, non-acclimatized to altitude, stayed for 6days at 4350m (Observatoire Vallot, massif du Mont-Blanc). Prior to the stay and within 6h after returning to sea level, subjects were investigated using pseudo-continuous ASL at 3T during a block-design inhalation paradigm to measure basal cerebral blood flow (CBF) and CO2 CVR. End-tidal CO2 (PetCO2), respiratory rate, heart rate and oxygen saturation were recorded during the exam. Subjects were also examined using TCD prior to and on day 5 of the stay at altitude to measure blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAv) and CO2 CVR. CO2 CVR was expressed as percent change in ASL CBF or TCD MCAv per mmHg change in PetCO2. PetCO2 was significantly decreased during and after altitude. Significant increases in TCD MCAv compared to before altitude measurements were observed on day 5 at altitude (+20.5±15.5%). Interestingly, ASL CBF remained increased in the MCA and anterior vascular territories (+22.0±24.1% and 20.5±20.3%, respectively) after altitude under normoxic conditions. TCD CVR tended to decrease on day 5 at 4350m (-12.3±54.5% in the MCA) while the ASL CVR was significantly decreased after altitude (-29.5±19.8% in the MCA). No correlation was observed between cerebral hemodynamic changes and symptoms of acute mountain sickness at high altitude. In conclusion, prolonged exposure to high altitude significantly increases blood flow during the altitude stay and within 6h after returning to sea level. Decreased CO2 CVR after prolonged

  11. Perfusion quantification by model-free arterial spin labeling using nonlinear stochastic regularization deconvolution.

    PubMed

    Ahlgren, André; Wirestam, Ronnie; Petersen, Esben Thade; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Knutsson, Linda

    2013-11-01

    Quantification of cerebral blood flow can be accomplished by model-free arterial spin labeling using the quantitative STAR labeling of arterial regions (QUASAR) sequence. The required deconvolution is normally based on block-circulant singular value decomposition (cSVD)/oscillation SVD (oSVD), an algorithm associated with nonphysiological residue functions and potential effects of arterial dispersion. The aim of this work was to amend this by implementing nonlinear stochastic regularization (NSR) deconvolution, previously used to retrieve realistic residue functions in dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI. To characterize the residue function in model-free arterial spin labeling, and possibly to improve absolute cerebral blood flow quantification, NSR was applied to deconvolution of QUASAR data. For comparison, SVD-based deconvolution was also employed. Residue function characteristics and cerebral blood flow values from 10 volunteers were obtained. Simulations were performed to support the in vivo results. NSR was able to resolve realistic residue functions in contrast to the SVD-based methods. Mean cerebral blood flow estimates in gray matter were 36.6 ± 2.6, 28.6 ± 3.3, 40.9 ± 3.6, and 42.9 ± 3.9 mL/100 g/min for cSVD, oSVD, NSR, and NSR with correction for arterial dispersion, respectively. In simulations, the NSR-based perfusion estimates showed better accuracy than the SVD-based approaches. Perfusion quantification by model-free arterial spin labeling is evidently dependent on the selected deconvolution method, and NSR is a feasible alternative to SVD-based methods. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms: Toward a Distinction between Carcinoma and Papilloma Using Arterial Spin-Labeling.

    PubMed

    Dangouloff-Ros, V; Grevent, D; Pagès, M; Blauwblomme, T; Calmon, R; Elie, C; Puget, S; Sainte-Rose, C; Brunelle, F; Varlet, P; Boddaert, N

    2015-09-01

    Pediatric choroid plexus papillomas and carcinomas are highly vascularized neoplasms, which are difficult to distinguish with conventional imaging. We aimed to analyze the diagnostic accuracy of PWI, by using both pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling and DSC-PWI. We reviewed the PWI of 13 children with choroid plexus neoplasms (7 papillomas and 6 carcinomas). We quantified CBF, relative CBF, and relative CBV in each lesion and compared papillomas and carcinomas. Relative CBF values by using arterial spin-labeling were significantly higher for carcinomas (P = .028). The median value of relative CBF was 1.7 (range, 1.4-1.9) for carcinomas and 0.4 (range, 0.3-0.6) for papillomas. The CBF median value was 115 mL/min/100 g (range, 90-140 mL/min/100 g) for carcinomas and 41 mL/min/100 g (range, 10-73 mL/min/100 g) for papillomas (P = .056). Measures with DSC-PWI were more variable and not significantly different (P = .393). Arterial spin-labeling is a promising technique to differentiate choroid plexus carcinomas and papillomas.

  13. Insight into the labeling mechanism of acceleration selective arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Sophie; Petersen, Esben T; Van Osch, Matthias J P

    2017-04-01

    Acceleration selective arterial spin labeling (AccASL) is a spatially non-selective labeling technique, used in traditional ASL methods, which labels spins based on their flow acceleration rather than spatial localization. The exact origin of the AccASL signal within the vasculature is not completely understood. To obtain more insight into this, the acceleration selective module was performed followed by a velocity selective module, which is used in velocity selective arterial spin labeling (VS-ASL). Nine healthy volunteers were scanned with various combinations of the control and label conditions in both the acceleration and velocity selective module. The cut-off acceleration (0.59 m/s(2)) or velocity (2 cm/s) was kept constant in one module, while it was varied over a large range in the other module. With the right subtractions this resulted in AccASL, VS-ASL, combined AccASL and VS-ASL signal, and signal from one module with crushing from the other. The label created with AccASL has an overlap of approximately 50% in the vascular region with VS-ASL, but also originates from smaller vessels closer to the capillaries. AccASL is able to label spins both in the macro- and meso-vasculature, as well as in the microvasculature.

  14. Perfusion deficits detected by arterial spin-labeling in patients with TIA with negative diffusion and vascular imaging.

    PubMed

    Qiao, X J; Salamon, N; Wang, D J J; He, R; Linetsky, M; Ellingson, B M; Pope, W B

    2013-01-01

    A substantial portion of clinically diagnosed TIA cases is imaging-negative. The purpose of the current study is to determine if arterial spin-labeling is helpful in detecting perfusion abnormalities in patients presenting clinically with TIA. Pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling with 3D background-suppressed gradient and spin-echo was acquired on 49 patients suspected of TIA within 24 hours of symptom onset. All patients were free of stroke history and had no lesion-specific findings on general MR, DWI, and MRA sequences. The calculated arterial spin-labeling CBF maps were scored from 1-3 on the basis of presence and severity of perfusion disturbance by 3 independent observers blinded to patient history. An age-matched cohort of 36 patients diagnosed with no cerebrovascular events was evaluated as a control. Interobserver agreement was assessed by use of the Kendall concordance test. Scoring of perfusion abnormalities on arterial spin-labeling scans of the TIA cohort was highly concordant among the 3 observers (W = 0.812). The sensitivity and specificity of arterial spin-labeling in the diagnosis of perfusion abnormalities in TIA was 55.8% and 90.7%, respectively. In 93.3% (70/75) of the arterial spin-labeling CBF map readings with positive scores (≥2), the brain regions where perfusion abnormalities were identified by 3 observers matched with the neurologic deficits at TIA onset. In this preliminary study, arterial spin-labeling showed promise in the detection of perfusion abnormalities that correlated with clinically diagnosed TIA in patients with otherwise normal neuroimaging results.

  15. Estimation of arterial arrival time and cerebral blood flow from QUASAR arterial spin labeling using stable spline.

    PubMed

    Castellaro, Marco; Peruzzo, Denis; Mehndiratta, Amit; Pillonetto, Gianluigi; Petersen, Esben Thade; Golay, Xavier; Chappell, Michael A; Bertoldo, Alessandra

    2015-12-01

    QUASAR arterial spin labeling (ASL) permits the application of deconvolution approaches for the absolute quantification of cerebral perfusion. Currently, oscillation index regularized singular value decomposition (oSVD) combined with edge-detection (ED) is the most commonly used method. Its major drawbacks are nonphysiological oscillations in the impulse response function and underestimation of perfusion. The aim of this work is to introduce a novel method to overcome these limitations. A system identification method, stable spline (SS), was extended to address ASL peculiarities such as the delay in arrival of the arterial blood in the tissue. The proposed framework was compared with oSVD + ED in both simulated and real data. SS was used to investigate the validity of using a voxel-wise tissue T1 value instead of using a single global value (of blood T1 ). SS outperformed oSVD + ED in 79.9% of simulations. When applied to real data, SS exhibited a physiologically realistic range for perfusion and a higher mean value with respect to oSVD + ED (55.5 ± 9.5 SS, 34.9 ± 5.2 oSVD + ED mL/100 g/min). SS can represent an alternative to oSVD + ED for the quantification of QUASAR ASL data. Analysis of the retrieved impulse response function revealed that using a voxel wise tissue T1 might be suboptimal. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Arterial Spin Label Imaging of Acute Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack

    PubMed Central

    Zaharchuk, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Since acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) are fundamentally disruptions of brain hemodynamics, neuroimaging of brain perfusion might be expected to be of clinical utility. Recently, a noncontrast method of measuring CBF using arterial spin labeling (ASL) has become feasible in the clinical setting. It has advantages when compared to dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) bolus contrast perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) that include lack of exposure to gadolinium-based contrast materials, improved quantitation, and decreased sensitivity to susceptibility artifacts and motion. Drawbacks of ASL include reduced signal-to-noise (SNR) and high sensitivity to arterial transit delays. While deleterious for quantitative perfusion measurements, the sensitivity of ASL to late arriving blood can be beneficial to visualize collateral flow. This chapter will discuss ASL imaging findings in patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke and TIA, focusing on typical appearances, common artifacts, and comparisons with bolus contrast PWI. PMID:21640300

  17. Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) fMRI: Advantages, Theoretical Constrains and Experimental Challenges in Neurosciences

    PubMed Central

    Borogovac, Ajna; Asllani, Iris

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is a well-established correlate of brain function and therefore an essential parameter for studying the brain at both normal and diseased states. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a noninvasive fMRI technique that uses arterial water as an endogenous tracer to measure CBF. ASL provides reliable absolute quantification of CBF with higher spatial and temporal resolution than other techniques. And yet, the routine application of ASL has been somewhat limited. In this review, we start by highlighting theoretical complexities and technical challenges of ASL fMRI for basic and clinical research. While underscoring the main advantages of ASL versus other techniques such as BOLD, we also expound on inherent challenges and confounds in ASL perfusion imaging. In closing, we expound on several exciting developments in the field that we believe will make ASL reach its full potential in neuroscience research. PMID:22966219

  18. Additive global cerebral blood flow normalization in arterial spin labeling perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Stephanie B; Koller, Jonathan M; Campbell, Meghan C; Perlmutter, Joel S; Black, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    To determine how different methods of normalizing for global cerebral blood flow (gCBF) affect image quality and sensitivity to cortical activation, pulsed arterial spin labeling (pASL) scans obtained during a visual task were normalized by either additive or multiplicative normalization of modal gCBF. Normalization by either method increased the statistical significance of cortical activation by a visual stimulus. However, image quality was superior with additive normalization, whether judged by intensity histograms or by reduced variability within gray and white matter.

  19. Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Guoqiang; Floyd, Thomas F.; Durduran, Turgut; Zhou, Chao; Wang, Jiongjiong; Detre, John A.; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2007-02-01

    Calf blood flow was measured simultaneously in healthy human subjects (n = 7) during cuff inflation and deflation using near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) and arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI (ASL-MRI). The DCS and ASL-MRI data exhibited highly correlated absolute and relative dynamic flow responses in each individual (p < 0.001). Peak flow variations during hyperemia were also significantly correlated, though more for relative (p = 0.003) than absolute (p = 0.016) flow. Repeated measurement variation was less than 8% for both modalities. The results provide much needed quantitative blood flow validation of the diffuse optical correlation method in humans.

  20. Comparison of gradient echo with spin echo magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography in the evaluation of major aortopulmonary collateral arteries.

    PubMed

    Vick, G W; Wendt, R E; Rokey, R

    1994-05-01

    This study compared gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging, spin echo magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, and echocardiography with x-ray cineangiography in the evaluation of major aortopulmonary collateral arteries. Twelve patients (ages 9 months to 35 years, mean 11 +/- 11 years) with known or suspected major aortopulmonary collateral arteries were studied. The aortic insertion and proximal course of 29 major aortopulmonary collateral arteries demonstrated by x-ray contrast angiography were shown in all 29 cases by gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging but in only 23 of the 29 cases by spin echo magnetic resonance imaging. Color Doppler-echocardiography detected aortopulmonary collateral arteries in four patients but did not define the proximal course or distal anatomy. Gradient echo images of distal aortopulmonary collateral anatomy were qualitatively superior to spin echo images. The contrast-to-noise ratio between the vessel lumen and adjacent lung was greater for gradient echo (6.06 +/- 2.91) than for spin echo (1.45 +/- 1.13)(p < 0.05). Gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging is a useful method for identification and characterization of aortopulmonary collateral arteries in patients of all ages and is superior to spin echo magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography.

  1. Detection of crossed cerebellar diaschisis in hyperacute ischemic stroke using arterial spin-labeled MR imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Koung Mi; Sohn, Chul-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Arterial spin-labeling (ASL) was recently introduced as a noninvasive method to evaluate cerebral hemodynamics. The purposes of this study were to assess the ability of ASL imaging to detect crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) in patients with their first unilateral supratentorial hyperacute stroke and to identify imaging or clinical factors significantly associated with CCD. Materials and methods We reviewed 204 consecutive patients who underwent MRI less than 8 hours after the onset of stroke symptoms. The inclusion criteria were supratentorial abnormality in diffusion-weighted images in the absence of a cerebellar or brain stem lesion, bilateral supratentorial infarction, subacute or chronic infarction, and MR angiography showing vertebrobasilar system disease. For qualitative analysis, asymmetric cerebellar hypoperfusion in ASL images was categorized into 3 grades. Quantitative analysis was performed to calculate the asymmetric index (AI). The patients’ demographic and clinical features and outcomes were recorded. Univariate and multivariate analyses were also performed. Results A total of 32 patients met the inclusion criteria, and 24 (75%) presented CCD. Univariate analyses revealed more frequent arterial occlusions, higher diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesion volumes and higher initial NIHSS and mRS scores in the CCD-positive group compared with the CCD-negative group (all p < .05). The presence of arterial occlusion and the initial mRS scores were related with the AI (all p < .05). Multivariate analyses revealed that arterial occlusion and the initial mRS scores were significantly associated with CCD and AI. Conclusion ASL imaging could detect CCD in 75% of patients with hyperacute infarction. We found that CCD was more prevalent in patients with arterial occlusion, larger ischemic brain volumes, and higher initial NIHSS and mRS scores. In particular, vessel occlusion and initial mRS score appeared to be significantly related

  2. Reduction in cerebral perfusion after heroin administration: a resting state arterial spin labeling study.

    PubMed

    Denier, Niklaus; Gerber, Hana; Vogel, Marc; Klarhöfer, Markus; Riecher-Rossler, Anita; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Lang, Undine E; Borgwardt, Stefan; Walter, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Heroin dependence is a chronic relapsing brain disorder, characterized by the compulsion to seek and use heroin. Heroin itself has a strong potential to produce subjective experiences characterized by intense euphoria, relaxation and release from craving. The neurofunctional foundations of these perceived effects are not well known. In this study, we have used pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) in 15 heroin-dependent patients from a stable heroin-assisted treatment program to observe the steady state effects of heroin (60 min after administration). Patients were scanned in a cross-over and placebo controlled design. They received an injection of their regular dose of heroin or saline (placebo) before or after the scan. As phMRI method, we used a pulsed arterial spin labeling (ASL) sequence based on a flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) spin labeling scheme combined with a single-shot 3D GRASE (gradient-spin echo) readout on a 3 Tesla scanner. Analysis was performed with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM 8), using a general linear model for whole brain comparison between the heroin and placebo conditions. We found that compared to placebo, heroin was associated with reduced perfusion in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the left medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and in the insula (both hemispheres). Analysis of extracted perfusion values indicate strong effect sizes and no gender related differences. Reduced perfusion in these brain areas may indicate self- and emotional regulation effects of heroin in maintenance treatment.

  3. Sickle cell anemia: reference values of cerebral blood flow determined by continuous arterial spin labeling MRI.

    PubMed

    Arkuszewski, M; Krejza, J; Chen, R; Melhem, E R

    2013-04-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a chronic illness associated with progressive deterioration in patients' quality of life. The major complications of SCA are cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) such as asymptomatic cerebral infarct or overt stroke. The risk of CVA may be related to chronic disturbances in cerebral blood flow (CBF), but the thresholds of "normal" steady-state CBF are not well established. The reference tolerance limits of CBF can be useful to estimate the risk of CVA in asymptomatic children with SCA, who are negative for hyperemia or evidence of arterial narrowing. Continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL) MR perfusion allows for non-invasive quantification of global and regional CBF. To establish such reference tolerance limits we performed CASL MR examinations on a 3-Tesla MR scanner in a carefully selected cohort of 42 children with SCA (mean age, 8.1±3.3 years; range limits, 2.3-14.4 years; 24 females), who were not on chronic transfusion therapy, had no history of overt stroke or transient ischemic attack, were free of signs and symptoms of focal vascular territory ischemic brain injury, did not have intracranial arterial narrowing on MR angiography and were at low risk for stroke as determined by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography.

  4. Measurement of vascular water transport in human subjects using time-resolved pulsed arterial spin labelling.

    PubMed

    Bibic, Adnan; Knutsson, Linda; Schmidt, Anders; Henningsson, Erik; Månsson, Sven; Abul-Kasim, Kasim; Åkeson, Jonas; Gunther, Matthias; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Wirestam, Ronnie

    2015-08-01

    Most approaches to arterial spin labelling (ASL) data analysis aim to provide a quantitative measure of the cerebral blood flow (CBF). This study, however, focuses on the measurement of the transfer time of blood water through the capillaries to the parenchyma (referred to as the capillary transfer time, CTT) as an alternative parameter to characterise the haemodynamics of the system. The method employed is based on a non-compartmental model, and no measurements need to be added to a common time-resolved ASL experiment. Brownian motion of labelled spins in a potential was described by a one-dimensional general Langevin equation as the starting point, and as a Fokker-Planck differential equation for the averaged distribution of labelled spins at the end point, which takes into account the effects of flow and dispersion of labelled water by the pseudorandom nature of the microvasculature and the transcapillary permeability. Multi-inversion time (multi-TI) ASL data were acquired in 14 healthy subjects on two occasions in a test-retest design, using a pulsed ASL sequence and three-dimensional gradient and spin echo (3D-GRASE) readout. Based on an error analysis to predict the size of a region of interest (ROI) required to obtain reasonably precise parameter estimates, data were analysed in two relatively large ROIs, i.e. the occipital lobe (OC) and the insular cortex (IC). The average values of CTT in OC were 260 ± 60 ms in the first experiment and 270 ± 60 ms in the second experiment. The corresponding IC values were 460 ± 130 ms and 420 ± 139 ms, respectively. Information related to the water transfer time may be important for diagnostics and follow-up of cerebral conditions or diseases characterised by a disrupted blood-brain barrier or disturbed capillary blood flow.

  5. Localisation value of ictal arterial spin-labelled sequences in partial seizures.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Manuel; Munuera, Josep; Salas-Puig, Xavier; Santamarina, Estevo; Lacuey, Nuria; Rovira, Alex

    2011-09-01

    Perfusion-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using pulsed arterial spin-labelled (ASL) sequences is becoming a more commonly used tool for the diagnosis of patients with focal epilepsy. We report a patient with post-traumatic epilepsy and cortical haemorrhage who had a complex partial seizure characterised mainly by ictal speech (verbalisation) during MRI acquisition. Ictal ASL showed focal hyperperfusion over the right temporal region which had resolved on follow-up MRI, two weeks later. Seizure semiology and interictal EEG suggested seizure origin in the non-dominant temporal lobe, which matched the increased ictal blood flow observed by ASL. The patient had language dominance in the left hemisphere, as observed by functional MRI. Our findings suggest that focal hyperperfusion, as observed by ASL, may have localising value in temporal epilepsies when performed in the ictal period.

  6. Arterial spin-labeling perfusion imaging of childhood meningitis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alex Mun-Ching; Yeh, Chih-Hua; Liu, Ho-Ling; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Wang, Huei-Shyong; Toh, Cheng-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is mainly used to detect complications, is ineffective in determining the neurological status of patients with meningitis. Hemodynamic change in the brain may be more indicative of the neurological status but few imaging studies have verified this. Arterial spin-labeling (ASL) perfusion, a noninvasive MR method requiring no contrast agent injection, can be used to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). We describe three pediatric patients with meningitis, who all showed regions of increased CBF on perfusion imaging. One patient, presenting with headache and conscious disturbance, had CBF changes in the frontal, temporal, and occipital regions. The other two patients, presenting with hallucinations, memory deficits, and seizures, had CBF changes in the frontal and temporal regions. ASL perfusion imaging may be helpful in assessing patients with meningitis, demonstrating CBF changes more strongly correlating with the neurological status, and detecting active brain abnormalities.

  7. An Arterial Spin Labeling MRI Perfusion Study of Migraine without Aura Attacks.

    PubMed

    Gil-Gouveia, Raquel; Pinto, Joana; Figueiredo, Patricia; Vilela, Pedro Ferro; Martins, Isabel Pavão

    2017-01-01

    Studies of brain perfusion during migraine without aura attacks have inconsistent results. Arterial spin labeling MRI, a non-invasive quantitative perfusion technique, was used to prospectively study a spontaneous untreated migraine without aura attack and a headache-free period. Image analysis used FSL and MATLAB software; Group analysis used permutation methods for perfusion differences between sessions. Thirteen women (age 35.7) were scanned during an attack of an average intensity of 6.8 (on 0-10 Visual Analog Scale) and 16 h duration. No global or regional perfusion differences were identified when comparing migraine and migraine-free sessions. Our findings suggest that the painful phase of migraine without aura attacks is not associated with brain perfusion abnormalities.

  8. Cerebral Blood Flow in Ischemic Vascular Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease By Arterial Spin Labeling MRI

    PubMed Central

    Schuff, N.; Matsumoto, S.; Kmiecik, J.; Studholme, C.; Du, A.T.; Ezekiel, F.; Miller, B.L.; Kramer, J.H.; Jagust, W.J.; Chui, H.C.; Weiner, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    Background The objectives were first to compare the effects of subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and second to analyze the relationship between CBF and subcortical vascular disease, measured as volume of white matter lesions (WML). Methods Eight mildly demented patients with SIVD (77 ± 8 years, 26 ± 3 MMSE) and 14 patients with AD were compared to 18 cognitively normal elderly. All subjects had CBF measured using arterial spin labeling MRI and brain volumes assessed using structural MRI. Results AD and SIVD showed marked CBF reductions in frontal (p = 0.001) and parietal (p = 0.001) cortex. In SIVD, increased subcortical WML were associated with reduced CBF in frontal cortex (p = 0.04) in addition to cortical atrophy (frontal: p = 0.05; parietal: p = 0.03). Conclusions Subcortical vascular disease is associated with reduced CBF in the cortex, irrespective of brain atrophy. PMID:19896584

  9. Arterial spin-labeling in routine clinical practice, part 3: hyperperfusion patterns.

    PubMed

    Deibler, A R; Pollock, J M; Kraft, R A; Tan, H; Burdette, J H; Maldjian, J A

    2008-09-01

    Arterial spin-labeled (ASL) perfusion imaging can be implemented successfully into a routine clinical neuroimaging protocol and can accurately demonstrate alterations in brain perfusion. We have observed patterns of focal, regional, and global hyperperfusion in a wide variety of disease processes. The causes of hyperperfusion at clinical ASL have not been previously characterized. Focal lesions such as brain tumors and vascular malformations with increased perfusion can be well depicted by ASL. More global causes of hyperperfusion, including postanoxia vasodilation and hypercapnia, may go undetected on conventional MR images, whereas the regional hyperperfusion, which may occur in reversible encephalopathies and luxury perfusion, has been consistently illustrated on ASL cerebral blood flow maps at our institution.

  10. Arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of late seizure after stroke.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Mutsumi; Kawabata, Yuichi; Joki, Hideto; Kushi, Yuji; Yokoi, Yasutaka; Sasame, Jo; Seki, Shunsuke; Mori, Kentaro; Kamide, Tomoya; Tamase, Akira; Shima, Hiroshi; Nomura, Motohiro; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Fumiaki

    2014-04-15

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a non-invasive modality of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) used to evaluate cerebral perfusion without a contrast agent. The usefulness of ASL for diagnosis in the acute phase of late seizure after stroke was evaluated. Twelve consecutive patients diagnosed with late seizure after stroke were enrolled in this study. MRI including ASL was performed for each patient at the time of the emergency department visit. Eight of the patients underwent electroencephalography (EEG). All patients showed hyperperfusion around the stroke lesion on ASL. Only 6 patients showed high signal intensity along the cerebral cortex around the stroke lesion on diffusion-weighted imaging. The patients who underwent EEG showed slow activity, but paroxysmal discharges such as spikes or sharp waves were not observed. ASL was able to reveal hyperperfusion and was of great diagnostic value in the peri-ictal phase of late seizure after stroke. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Support vector machine learning-based cerebral blood flow quantification for arterial spin labeling MRI.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ze

    2014-07-01

    To develop a multivariate machine learning classification-based cerebral blood flow (CBF) quantification method for arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI. The label and control images of ASL MRI were separated using a machine-learning algorithm, the support vector machine (SVM). The perfusion-weighted image was subsequently extracted from the multivariate (all voxels) SVM classifier. Using the same pre-processing steps, the proposed method was compared with standard ASL CBF quantification method using synthetic data and in-vivo ASL images. As compared with the conventional univariate approach, the proposed ASL CBF quantification method significantly improved spatial signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and image appearance of ASL CBF images. the multivariate machine learning-based classification is useful for ASL CBF quantification. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Comparing model-based and model-free analysis methods for QUASAR arterial spin labeling perfusion quantification.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Michael A; Woolrich, Mark W; Petersen, Esben T; Golay, Xavier; Payne, Stephen J

    2013-05-01

    Amongst the various implementations of arterial spin labeling MRI methods for quantifying cerebral perfusion, the QUASAR method is unique. By using a combination of labeling with and without flow suppression gradients, the QUASAR method offers the separation of macrovascular and tissue signals. This permits local arterial input functions to be defined and "model-free" analysis, using numerical deconvolution, to be used. However, it remains unclear whether arterial spin labeling data are best treated using model-free or model-based analysis. This work provides a critical comparison of these two approaches for QUASAR arterial spin labeling in the healthy brain. An existing two-component (arterial and tissue) model was extended to the mixed flow suppression scheme of QUASAR to provide an optimal model-based analysis. The model-based analysis was extended to incorporate dispersion of the labeled bolus, generally regarded as the major source of discrepancy between the two analysis approaches. Model-free and model-based analyses were compared for perfusion quantification including absolute measurements, uncertainty estimation, and spatial variation in cerebral blood flow estimates. Major sources of discrepancies between model-free and model-based analysis were attributed to the effects of dispersion and the degree to which the two methods can separate macrovascular and tissue signal. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Quantification of Serial Cerebral Blood Flow in Acute Stroke Using Arterial Spin Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Okell, Thomas W.; Sheerin, Fintan; Schulz, Ursula; Mathieson, Phil; Reckless, Ian; Shah, Kunal; Ford, Gary A.; Chappell, Michael A.; Jezzard, Peter; Kennedy, James

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Perfusion-weighted imaging is used to select patients with acute ischemic stroke for intervention, but knowledge of cerebral perfusion can also inform the understanding of ischemic injury. Arterial spin labeling allows repeated measurement of absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) without the need for exogenous contrast. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between dynamic CBF and tissue outcome in the month after stroke onset. Methods— Patients with nonlacunar ischemic stroke underwent ≤5 repeated magnetic resonance imaging scans at presentation, 2 hours, 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month. Imaging included vessel-encoded pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling using multiple postlabeling delays to quantify CBF in gray matter regions of interest. Receiver–operator characteristic curves were used to predict tissue outcome using CBF. Repeatability was assessed in 6 healthy volunteers and compared with contralateral regions of patients. Diffusion-weighted and T2-weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery imaging were used to define tissue outcome. Results— Forty patients were included. In contralateral regions of patients, there was significant variation of CBF between individuals, but not between scan times (mean±SD: 53±42 mL/100 g/min). Within ischemic regions, mean CBF was lowest in ischemic core (17±23 mL/100 g/min), followed by regions of early (21±26 mL/100 g/min) and late infarct growth (25±35 mL/100 g/min; ANOVA P<0.0001). Between patients, there was marked overlap in presenting and serial CBF values. Conclusions— Knowledge of perfusion dynamics partially explained tissue fate. Factors such as metabolism and tissue susceptibility are also likely to influence tissue outcome. PMID:27879446

  14. Intraoperative resection control using arterial spin labeling - Proof of concept, reproducibility of data and initial results.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Thomas; Ahmeti, Hajrullah; Lübbing, Isabel; Helle, Michael; Jansen, Olav; Synowitz, Michael; Ulmer, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging is a unique tool for visualizing structures during resection and/or for updating any kind of neuronavigation that might be hampered as a result of brain shift during surgery. Advanced MRI techniques such as perfusion-weighted imaging have already proven to be important in the initial diagnosis preoperatively, but can also help to differentiate between tumor and surgically induced changes intraoperatively. Commonly used methods to visualize brain perfusion include contrast agent administration and are therefore somewhat limited. One method that uses blood as an internal contrast medium is arterial spin labeling (ASL), which might represent an attractive alternative. Ten healthy volunteers were examined using three different scanners and coils within 1 h (3T Achieva MRI using 32-channel head coil, 1.5T Achieva MRI using a 6-channel head coil, 1.5 Intera Scanner using 2 surface coils, Philips, Best, The Netherlands) and quantitative CBF values were calculated and compared between the different setups. Additionally, in eight patients with glioblastoma multiforme, ASL was used pre-, intra-, and postoperatively to define tumor tissue and the extent of resection in comparison to structural imaging. A high correlation (r = 0.91-0.96) was found between MRI scanners and coils used. ASL was as reliable as conventional MR imaging if complete resection was already achieved, but additionally provided valuable information regarding residual tumor tissue in one patient. Intraoperative arterial spin-labeling is a feasible, reproducible, and reliable tool to map CBF in brain tumors and seems to give beneficial information compared to conventional intraoperative MR imaging in partial resection.

  15. Whole brain perfusion measurements using arterial spin labeling with multiband acquisition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae; Shin, Wanyong; Zhao, Tiejun; Beall, Erik B; Lowe, Mark J; Bae, Kyongtae T

    2013-12-01

    The multiband (MB) excitation and reconstruction technique was both developed and evaluated for accelerated data acquisition of arterial spin labeling (ASL) to cover whole brain perfusion maps. MB excitation was incorporated into a pulsed ASL (PASL) technique and compared with conventional single-band excitation PASL from healthy subjects, using a 32-channel head receiver coil at 3 T. The MB de-aliasing performance and effectiveness in perfusion measurement were measured with varying MB acceleration factors and gaps between MB excitations. The MB PASL perfusion maps were in good agreement with the conventional single-band PASL maps at matched slices. The imaging coverage could be effectively extended with the MB technique by a factor up to 5. A gap as small as 3 cm between MB excitations resulted in a comparable ASL signal loss and temporal-signal-to-noise ratio with single-band PASL. The MB ASL technique is an effective method to evaluate whole brain perfusion because it minimizes the temporal spread of labeled spins across slices, resulting in more accurate perfusion measurements. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The spatial coefficient of variation in arterial spin labeling cerebral blood flow images.

    PubMed

    Mutsaerts, Henri Jmm; Petr, Jan; Václavů, Lena; van Dalen, Jan W; Robertson, Andrew D; Caan, Matthan W; Masellis, Mario; Nederveen, Aart J; Richard, Edo; MacIntosh, Bradley J

    2017-09-01

    Macro-vascular artifacts are a common arterial spin labeling (ASL) finding in populations with prolonged arterial transit time (ATT) and result in vascular regions with spuriously increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) and tissue regions with spuriously decreased CBF. This study investigates whether there is an association between the spatial signal distribution of a single post-label delay ASL CBF image and ATT. In 186 elderly with hypertension (46% male, 77.4 ± 2.5 years), we evaluated associations between the spatial coefficient of variation (CoV) of a CBF image and ATT. The spatial CoV and ATT metrics were subsequently evaluated with respect to their associations with age and sex - two demographics known to influence perfusion. Bland-Altman plots showed that spatial CoV predicted ATT with a maximum relative error of 7.6%. Spatial CoV was associated with age (β = 0.163, p = 0.028) and sex (β = -0.204, p = 0.004). The spatial distribution of the ASL signal on a standard CBF image can be used to infer between-participant ATT differences. In the absence of ATT mapping, the spatial CoV may be useful for the clinical interpretation of ASL in patients with cerebrovascular pathology that leads to prolonged transit of the ASL signal to tissue.

  17. Quantitative Assessment of Flow Reduction After Feeder Embolization in Meningioma by Using Pseudocontinuous Arterial Spin Labeling.

    PubMed

    Wanibuchi, Masahiko; Komatsu, Katsuya; Akiyama, Yukinori; Mikami, Takeshi; Iihoshi, Satoshi; Miyata, Kei; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2016-09-01

    Meningioma is a hypervascular tumor of the central nervous system. Angiographic disappearance of tumor blush after preoperative feeder embolization allows qualitative, but not quantitative, assessment of flow reduction. Pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL), which has evolved from magnetic resonance imaging techniques, allows noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) using water protons in the arterial blood flow. We applied PCASL for assessment of blood flow in meningioma and its reduction on preoperative embolization. Forty-one consecutive patients (11 males, 30 females) with histologically proven meningioma were evaluated by PCASL. Quantitative assessment by an absolute value of tumor blood flow (TBF) and a relative value of tumor vascular index (tVI; calculated as TBF divided by CBF) were calculated. In 8 cases, in which preoperative embolization was achieved, flow reduction rate was evaluated. TBF of meningiomas, 155.8 mL/100 g·min(-1) on average, was 2.6 times higher than CBF, 59.9 mL/100 g·min(-1) (P < 0.001). Patients who underwent feeder embolization showed statistically greater flow reduction rate, which was calculated as 42.7% (P < 0.05). Mean tVI before embolization was 4.1, which was reduced to 2.1 after embolization. PCASL could yield quantitative assessment of blood flow in meningioma including flow reduction rate in cases of feeder embolization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Assesment of perfusion in glial tumors with arterial spin labeling; comparison with dynamic susceptibility contrast method.

    PubMed

    Cebeci, H; Aydin, O; Ozturk-Isik, E; Gumus, C; Inecikli, F; Bekar, A; Kocaeli, H; Hakyemez, B

    2014-10-01

    Arterial spin labeling perfusion imaging (ASL-PI) is a non-invasive perfusion imaging method that can be used for evaluation and quantification of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Aim of our study was to evaluating the efficiency of ASL in histopathological grade estimation of glial tumors and comparing findings with dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion imaging (DSC-PI) method. This study involved 33 patients (20 high-grade and 13 low-grade gliomas). Multiphase multislice pulsed ASL MRI sequence and a first-passage gadopentetate dimeglumine T2*-weighted gradient-echo single-shot echo-planar sequence were acquired for all the patients. For each patient, perfusion relative signal intensity (rSI), CBF and relative CBF (rCBF) on ASL-PI and relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) values on DSC-PI were determined. The relative signal intensity of each tumor was determined as the maximal SI within the tumor divided by SI within symetric region in the contralateral hemisphere on ASL-PI. rCBV and rCBF were calculated by deconvolution of an arterial input function. Relative values of the lesions were obtained by dividing the values to the normal appearing symmetric region on the contralateral hemisphere. For statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney ranksum test was carried out. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was performed to assess the relationship between the rCBF-ASL, rSI-ASL, rCBV and rCBF ratios and grade of gliomas. Their cut-off values permitting best discrimination was calculated. The correlation between rCBV, rCBF, rSI-ASL and rCBF-ASL and glioma grade was assessed using Spearman correlation analysis. There was a statistically significant difference between low and high-grade tumors for all parameters. Correlation analyses revealed significant positive correlations between rCBV and rCBF-ASL (r=0.81, p<0.001). However correlation between rCBF and rCBF-ASL was weaker (r=0.64, p<0.001). Arterial spin labeling is an

  19. Discrete Li-occupation versus pseudo-continuous Na-occupation and their relationship with structural change behaviors in Fe2(MoO4)3

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Ji-Li; Zhou, Yong-Ning; Shi, Si-Qi; Shadike, Zulipiya; Huang, Xuan-Qi; Luo, Jun; Yang, Zhen-Zhong; Li, Hong; Gu, Lin; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Fu, Zheng-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The key factors governing the single-phase or multi-phase structural change behaviors during the intercalation/deintercalation of guest ions have not been well studied and understood yet. Through systematic studies of orthorhombic Fe2(MoO4)3 electrode, two distinct guest ion occupation paths, namely discrete one for Li and pseudo-continuous one for Na, as well as their relationship with single-phase and two-phase modes for Na+ and Li+, respectively during the intercalation/deintercalation process have been demonstrated. For the first time, the direct atomic-scale observation of biphasic domains (discrete occupation) in partially lithiated Fe2(MoO4)3 and the one by one Na occupation (pseudo-continuous occupation) at 8d sites in partially sodiated Fe2(MoO4)3 are obtained during the discharge processes of Li/Fe2(MoO4)3 and Na/Fe2(MoO4)3 cells respectively. Our combined experimental and theoretical studies bring the new insights for the research and development of intercalation compounds as electrode materials for secondary batteries. PMID:25744589

  20. Discrete Li-occupation versus pseudo-continuous Na-occupation and their relationship with structural change behaviors in Fe₂(MoO₄)₃

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, Ji-Li; Zhou, Yong-Ning; Shi, Si-Qi; ...

    2015-03-06

    The key factors governing the single-phase or multi-phase structural change behaviors during the intercalation/deintercalation of guest ions have not been well studied and understood yet. Through systematic studies of orthorhombic Fe₂(MoO₄)₃ electrode, two distinct guest ion occupation paths, namely discrete one for Li and pseudo-continuous one for Na, as well as their relationship with single-phase and two-phase modes for Na⁺ and Li⁺, respectively during the intercalation/deintercalation process have been demonstrated. For the first time, the direct atomic-scale observation of biphasic domains (discrete occupation) in partially lithiated Fe₂(MoO₄)₃ and the one by one Na occupation (pseudo-continuous occupation) at 8d sites inmore » partially sodiated Fe₂(MoO₄)₃ are obtained during the discharge processes of Li/Fe₂(MoO₄)₃ and Na/Fe₂(MoO₄)₃ cells respectively. Our combined experimental and theoretical studies bring the new insights for the research and development of intercalation compounds as electrode materials for secondary batteries.« less

  1. Discrete Li-occupation versus pseudo-continuous Na-occupation and their relationship with structural change behaviors in Fe₂(MoO₄)₃

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Ji-Li; Zhou, Yong-Ning; Shi, Si-Qi; Shadike, Zulipiya; Huang, Xuan-Qi; Luo, Jun; Yang, Zhen-Zhong; Li, Hong; Gu, Lin; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Fu, Zheng-Wen

    2015-03-06

    The key factors governing the single-phase or multi-phase structural change behaviors during the intercalation/deintercalation of guest ions have not been well studied and understood yet. Through systematic studies of orthorhombic Fe₂(MoO₄)₃ electrode, two distinct guest ion occupation paths, namely discrete one for Li and pseudo-continuous one for Na, as well as their relationship with single-phase and two-phase modes for Na⁺ and Li⁺, respectively during the intercalation/deintercalation process have been demonstrated. For the first time, the direct atomic-scale observation of biphasic domains (discrete occupation) in partially lithiated Fe₂(MoO₄)₃ and the one by one Na occupation (pseudo-continuous occupation) at 8d sites in partially sodiated Fe₂(MoO₄)₃ are obtained during the discharge processes of Li/Fe₂(MoO₄)₃ and Na/Fe₂(MoO₄)₃ cells respectively. Our combined experimental and theoretical studies bring the new insights for the research and development of intercalation compounds as electrode materials for secondary batteries.

  2. Near-Contiguous Spin Echo Imaging Using Matched-Phase RF and Its Application in Velocity-Selective Arterial Spin Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Zun, Zungho; Hargreaves, Brian A.; Pauly, John; Zaharchuk, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The minimum slice spacing in multislice imaging is limited by inter-slice crosstalk due to an imperfect slice profile. This study sought to minimize the slice spacing using matched-phase RF pulses and demonstrate its application in cerebral blood flow imaging using velocity-selective arterial spin labeling. Methods A spin-echo matched-phase 90°–180° RF pair was designed using Shinnar-Le Roux algorithm in order to improve the slice profile of longitudinal magnetization, which plays a more critical role in creating interslice crosstalk than transverse magnetization. Both transverse and longitudinal slice profiles were compared between matched-phase RF and sinc-based RF pulses in simulations and measurements. Velocity-selective arterial spin labeling was performed in normal volunteers using both RF pulses and standard deviation of cerebral blood flow time series was calculated to examine ASL signal stability. Results Using designed matched-phase RF, the longitudinal slice profile was sharpened without signal-to-noise ratio loss. In velocity-selective arterial spin labeling imaging, the temporal standard deviation of cerebral blood flow measurements was reduced from 48 mL/100 g/min to 32 mL/100 g/min by 33% using matched-phase RF pulses, and as a result, cerebral blood flow image quality improved. Conclusion This study reports that near-contiguous multislice imaging can be achieved using matched-phase RF pulses without compromising signal-to-noise ratio and signal stability. PMID:23857667

  3. Multimodality evaluation of dural arteriovenous fistula with CT angiography, MR with arterial spin labeling, and digital subtraction angiography: case report.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Matthew; McTaggart, Ryan; Santarelli, Justin; Fischbein, Nancy; Marks, Michael; Zaharchuk, Greg; Do, Huy

    2014-01-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVF) are cerebrovascular lesions with pathologic shunting into the venous system from arterial feeders. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has long been considered the gold standard for diagnosis, but advances in noninvasive imaging techniques now play a role in the diagnosis of these complex lesions. Herein, we describe the case of a patient with right-side pulsatile tinnitus and DAVF diagnosed using computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance with arterial spin labeling, and DSA. Implications for imaging analysis of DAVFs and further research are discussed.

  4. Mapping Long-Term Functional Changes in Cerebral Blood Flow by Arterial Spin Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Ssali, Tracy; Anazodo, Udunna C.; Bureau, Yves; MacIntosh, Bradley J.; Günther, Matthias; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Although arterial spin labeling (ASL) is appealing for mapping long-term changes in functional activity, inter-sessional variations in basal blood flow, arterial transit times (ATTs), and alignment errors, can result in significant false activation when comparing images from separate sessions. By taking steps to reduce these sources of noise, this study assessed the ability of ASL to detect functional CBF changes between sessions. ASL data were collected in three sessions to image ATT, resting CBF and CBF changes associated with motor activation (7 participants). Activation maps were generated using rest and task images acquired in the same session and from sessions separated by up to a month. Good agreement was found when comparing between-session activation maps to within-session activation maps with only a 16% decrease in precision (within-session: 90 ± 7%) and a 13% decrease in the Dice similarity (within-session: 0.75 ± 0.07) coefficient after a month. In addition, voxel-wise reproducibility (within-session: 4.7 ± 4.5%) and reliability (within-session: 0.89 ± 0.20) of resting grey-matter CBF decreased by less than 18% for the between-session analysis relative to within-session values. ATT variability between sessions (5.0 ± 2.7%) was roughly half the between-subject variability, indicating that its effects on longitudinal CBF were minimal. These results demonstrate that conducting voxel-wise analysis on CBF images acquired on different days is feasible with only modest loss in precision, highlighting the potential of ASL for longitudinal studies. PMID:27706218

  5. Signal changes on magnetic resonance perfusion images with arterial spin labeling after carotid endarterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Shimogawa, Takafumi; Morioka, Takato; Sayama, Tetsuro; Haga, Sei; Akiyama, Tomoaki; Murao, Kei; Kanazawa, Yuka; Furuta, Yoshihiko; Sakata, Ayumi; Arakawa, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cerebral hyperperfusion after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is defined as an increase in ipsilateral cerebral blood flow (CBF). Practically, however, prompt and precise assessment of cerebral hyperperfusion is difficult because of limitations in the methodology of CBF measurement during the perioperative period. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a completely noninvasive and repeatable magnetic resonance perfusion imaging technique that uses magnetically-labelled blood water as an endogenous tracer. To clarify the usefulness of ASL in the management of cerebral hyperperfusion, we investigated signal changes by ASL with a single 1.5-s post-labeling delay on visual inspection. Methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients who underwent CEA were enrolled in this retrospective study. Results: On postoperative day 1, 22 (68.8%) and 4 (12.5%) patients exhibited increased ASL signals bilaterally (Group A) and on the operated side (Group B), respectively. Follow-up ASL showed improvement in these findings. Six (18.8%) patients showed no change (Group C). There was no apparent correlation between ASL signals on postoperative day 1 and the preoperative hemodynamic state, including the cerebrovascular reserve (P = 0.2062). Three (9.4%) patients developed cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (two in Group A and one in Group B). Coincidence in the localization of increased ASL signals and electroencephalographic abnormalities was noted in these patients. Conclusion: Visual analysis of ASL with a single post-labeling delay overestimates CBF and cannot identify patients at risk of cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome probably because of the strong effect of the shortened arterial transit time immediately after CEA. However, ASL may be used as for screening. PMID:28144479

  6. Vessel segmentation in 4D arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance angiography images of the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phellan, Renzo; Lindner, Thomas; Falcão, Alexandre X.; Forkert, Nils D.

    2017-03-01

    4D arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance angiography (4D ASL MRA) is a non-invasive and safe modality for cerebrovascular imaging procedures. It uses the patient's magnetically labeled blood as intrinsic contrast agent, so that no external contrast media is required. It provides important 3D structure and blood flow information but a sufficient cerebrovascular segmentation is important since it can help clinicians to analyze and diagnose vascular diseases faster, and with higher confidence as compared to simple visual rating of raw ASL MRA images. This work presents a new method for automatic cerebrovascular segmentation in 4D ASL MRA images of the brain. In this process images are denoised, corresponding image label/control image pairs of the 4D ASL MRA sequences are subtracted, and temporal intensity averaging is used to generate a static representation of the vascular system. After that, sets of vessel and background seeds are extracted and provided as input for the image foresting transform algorithm to segment the vascular system. Four 4D ASL MRA datasets of the brain arteries of healthy subjects and corresponding time-of-flight (TOF) MRA images were available for this preliminary study. For evaluation of the segmentation results of the proposed method, the cerebrovascular system was automatically segmented in the high-resolution TOF MRA images using a validated algorithm and the segmentation results were registered to the 4D ASL datasets. Corresponding segmentation pairs were compared using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). On average, a DSC of 0.9025 was achieved, indicating that vessels can be extracted successfully from 4D ASL MRA datasets by the proposed segmentation method.

  7. Model-free arterial spin labelling for cerebral blood flow quantification: introduction of regional arterial input functions identified by factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Knutsson, Linda; Bloch, Karin Markenroth; Holtås, Stig; Wirestam, Ronnie; Ståhlberg, Freddy

    2008-05-01

    To identify regional arterial input functions (AIFs) using factor analysis of dynamic studies (FADS) when quantification of perfusion is performed using model-free arterial spin labelling. Five healthy volunteers and one patient were examined on a 3-T Philips unit using quantitative STAR labelling of arterial regions (QUASAR). Two sets of images were retrieved, one where the arterial signal had been crushed and another where it was retained. FADS was applied to the arterial signal curves to acquire the AIFs. Perfusion maps were obtained using block-circulant SVD deconvolution and regional AIFs obtained by FADS. In the volunteers, the ASL experiment was repeated within 24 h. The patient was also examined using dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI. In the healthy volunteers, CBF was 64+/-10 ml/[min 100 g] (mean+/-S.D.) in GM and 24+/-4 ml/[min 100 g] in WM, while the mean aBV was 0.94% in GM and 0.25% in WM. Good CBF image quality and reasonable quantitative CBF values were obtained using the combined QUASAR/FADS technique. We conclude that FADS may be a useful supplement in the evaluation of ASL data using QUASAR.

  8. Partial volume correction for arterial spin labeling data using spatial-temporal information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Baojuan; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Linchuan; Liang, Zhengrong; Lu, Hongbing

    2015-03-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) provides a noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Due to relatively low spatial resolution, the accuracy of CBF measurement is affected by the partial volume (PV) effect. In general ASL sequence, multiple scans of perfusion image pairs are acquired temporally to improve the signal to noise ratio. Several spatial PV correction methods have been proposed for the simple averaging of pair-difference images, while the perfusion information of gray matter and white matter existed in multiple image pairs was totally ignored. In this study, a statistical model of perfusion mixtures inside each voxel for the 4D ASL sequence is first proposed. To solve the model, a simplified method is proposed, in which the linear regression (LR) method is first used to obtain initial estimates of spatial correction, then an EM (expectation maximization) method is used to obtain accurate estimation using temporal information. The combination of LR and EM method (EM-LR) can effectively utilize the spatial-temporal information of ASL data for PV correction and provide a theoretical solution to estimate the perfusion mixtures. Both simulated and in vivo data were used to evaluate the performance of proposed method, which demonstrated its superiority on PV correction, edge preserving, and noise suppression.

  9. Quantifying Cerebellum Grey Matter and White Matter Perfusion Using Pulsed Arterial Spin Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiufeng; Sarkar, Subhendra N.; Purdy, David E.; Briggs, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    To facilitate quantification of cerebellum cerebral blood flow (CBF), studies were performed to systematically optimize arterial spin labeling (ASL) parameters for measuring cerebellum perfusion, segment cerebellum to obtain separate CBF values for grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM), and compare FAIR ASST to PICORE. Cerebellum GM and WM CBF were measured with optimized ASL parameters using FAIR ASST and PICORE in five subjects. Influence of volume averaging in voxels on cerebellar grey and white matter boundaries was minimized by high-probability threshold masks. Cerebellar CBF values determined by FAIR ASST were 43.8 ± 5.1 mL/100 g/min for GM and 27.6 ± 4.5 mL/100 g/min for WM. Quantitative perfusion studies indicated that CBF in cerebellum GM is 1.6 times greater than that in cerebellum WM. Compared to PICORE, FAIR ASST produced similar CBF estimations but less subtraction error and lower temporal, spatial, and intersubject variability. These are important advantages for detecting group and/or condition differences in CBF values. PMID:24949416

  10. Pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling with prospective motion correction (PCASL-PROMO).

    PubMed

    Zun, Zungho; Shankaranarayanan, Ajit; Zaharchuk, Greg

    2014-10-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion imaging with a segmented three-dimensional (3D) readout is becoming increasing popular, yet conventional motion correction approaches cannot be applied in segmented imaging. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the integration of 3D pseudocontinuous ASL (PCASL) and PROMO (PROspective MOtion correction) for cerebral blood flow measurements. PROMO was integrated into 3D PCASL without increasing repetition time. PCASL was performed with and without PROMO in the absence of motion. The performance of PCASL-PROMO was then evaluated with controlled motions using separate scans with and without PROMO and also with random motion using an interleaved scan where every repetition time is repeated twice, once with and once without PROMO. The difference in the average ASL signal of the 3D volume between conventional and PROMO implementations was negligible (<0.2%). ASL image artifacts from both controlled and random motions were removed significantly with PROMO, showing improved correlation with reference images. Multiple combinations of data acquired using the interleaved scan revealed that PROMO with real-time motion updating alone reduces motion artifact significantly and that rescanning of corrupted segments is more critical in tagged images than control images. This study demonstrates that PROMO is a successful approach to motion correction for PCASL cerebral blood flow imaging. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Identification of cerebral perfusion using arterial spin labeling in patients with seizures in acute settings

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Roh-Eul; Yoon, Byung-Woo; Lee, Sang Kun; Lee, Soon-Tae; Kang, Koung Mi; Choi, Seung Hong; Kim, Ji-hoon; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Park, Sun-Won; Han, Moon Hee

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the utility of arterial spin labeling perfusion-weighted imaging (ASL-PWI) in patients with suspected seizures in acute settings. A total of 164 patients who underwent ASL-PWI for suspected seizures in acute settings (with final diagnoses of seizure [n = 129], poststroke seizure [n = 18], and seizure mimickers [n = 17]), were included in this retrospective study. Perfusion abnormality was analyzed for: (1) pattern, (2) multifocality, and (3) atypical distribution against vascular territories. Perfusion abnormality was detected in 39% (50/129) of the seizure patients, most (94%, 47/50) being the hyperperfusion pattern. Of the patients with perfusion abnormality, multifocality or hemispheric involvement and atypical distribution against vascular territory were revealed in 46% (23/50) and 98% (49/50), respectively. In addition, seizures showed characteristic features including hyperperfusion (with or without non-territorial distribution) on ASL-PWI, thus differentiating them from poststroke seizures or seizure mimickers. In patients in whom seizure focus could be localized on both EEG and ASL-PWI, the concordance rate was 77%. The present study demonstrates that ASL-PWI can provide information regarding cerebral perfusion status in patients with seizures in acute settings and has the potential to be used as a non-invasive imaging tool to identify the cerebral perfusion in patients with seizures. PMID:28291816

  12. Measurement of Blood Flow in Arteriovenous Malformations before and after Embolization Using Arterial Spin Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Suazo, L.; Foerster, B.; Fermin, R.; Speckter, H.; Vilchez, C.; Oviedo, J.; Stoeter, P.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The assessment of shunt reduction after an embolization of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) or fistula (AVF) from conventional angiography is often difficult and may be subjective. Here we present a completely non-invasive method using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure shunt reduction. Using pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL), we determined the relative amount of signal attributed to the shunt over 1.75 s and 6 different slices covering the lesion. This amount of signal from the shunt was related to the total signal from all slices and measured before and after embolization. The method showed a fair agreement between the PASL results and the judgement from conventional angiography. In the case of a total or subtotal shunt occlusion, PASL showed a shunt reduction between 69% and 92%, whereas in minimal shunt reduction as judged by conventional angiography, the ASL result was –6% (indicating slightly increased flow) to 35% in a partially occluded vein of Galen aneurysm. The PASL method proved to be fairly reproducible (up to 2% deviation between three measurements without interventions). On conclusion, PASL is able to reliably measure the amount of shunt reduction achieved by embolization of AVMs and AVFs PMID:22440600

  13. Measurement of blood flow in arteriovenous malformations before and after embolization using arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Suazo, L; Foerster, B; Fermin, R; Speckter, H; Vilchez, C; Oviedo, J; Stoeter, P

    2012-03-01

    The assessment of shunt reduction after an embolization of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) or fistula (AVF) from conventional angiography is often difficult and may be subjective. Here we present a completely non-invasive method using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure shunt reduction. Using pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL), we determined the relative amount of signal attributed to the shunt over 1.75 s and 6 different slices covering the lesion. This amount of signal from the shunt was related to the total signal from all slices and measured before and after embolization. The method showed a fair agreement between the PASL results and the judgement from conventional angiography. In the case of a total or subtotal shunt occlusion, PASL showed a shunt reduction between 69% and 92%, whereas in minimal shunt reduction as judged by conventional angiography, the ASL result was -6% (indicating slightly increased flow) to 35% in a partially occluded vein of Galen aneurysm. The PASL method proved to be fairly reproducible (up to 2% deviation between three measurements without interventions). On conclusion, PASL is able to reliably measure the amount of shunt reduction achieved by embolization of AVMs and AVFs.

  14. Application of Arterial Spin Labelling in the Assessment of Ocular Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Pontré, B.

    2016-01-01

    Arterial spin labelling (ASL) is a noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modality, capable of measuring blood perfusion without the use of a contrast agent. While ASL implementation for imaging the brain and monitoring cerebral blood flow has been reviewed in depth, the technique is yet to be widely used for ocular tissue imaging. The human retina is a very thin but highly stratified structure and it is also situated close to the surface of the body which is not ideal for MR imaging. Hence, the application of MR imaging and ASL in particular has been very challenging for ocular tissues and retina. That is despite the fact that almost all of retinal pathologies are accompanied by blood perfusion irregularities. In this review article, we have focused on the technical aspects of the ASL and their implications for its optimum adaptation for retinal blood perfusion monitoring. Retinal blood perfusion has been assessed through qualitative or invasive quantitative methods but the prospect of imaging flow using ASL would increase monitoring and assessment of retinal pathologies. The review provides details of ASL application in human ocular blood flow assessment. PMID:27066501

  15. Regression algorithm correcting for partial volume effects in arterial spin labeling MRI.

    PubMed

    Asllani, Iris; Borogovac, Ajna; Brown, Truman R

    2008-12-01

    Partial volume effects (PVE) are a consequence of limited spatial resolution in brain imaging. In arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI, the problem is exacerbated by the nonlinear dependency of the ASL signal on magnetization contributions from each tissue within an imaged voxel. We have developed an algorithm that corrects for PVE in ASL imaging. The algorithm is based on a model that represents the voxel intensity as a weighted sum of pure tissue contribution, where the weighting coefficients are the tissue's fractional volume in the voxel. Using this algorithm, we were able to estimate cerebral blood flow (CBF) for gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) independently. The average voxelwise ratio of GM to WM CBF was approximately 3.2, in good agreement with reports in the literature. As proof of concept, data from PVE-corrected method were compared with those from the conventional, PVE-uncorrected method. As hypothesized, the two yielded similar CBF values for voxels containing >95% GM and differed in proportion with the voxels' heterogeneity. More importantly, the GM CBF assessed with the PVE-corrected method was independent of the voxels' heterogeneity, implying that estimation of flow was unaffected by PVE. An example of application of this algorithm in motor-activation data is also given.

  16. Arterial Spin-Labeling in Routine Clinical Practice, Part 1: Technique and Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    Deibler, A.R.; Pollock, J.M.; Kraft, R.A.; Tan, H.; Burdette, J.H.; Maldjian, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The routine use of arterial spin-labeling (ASL) in a clinical population has led to the depiction of diverse brain pathologic features. Unique challenges in the acquisition, postprocessing, and analysis of cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps are encountered in such a population, and high-quality ASL CBF maps can be generated consistently with attention to quality control and with the use of a dedicated postprocessing pipeline. Familiarity with commonly encountered artifacts can help avoid pitfalls in the interpretation of CBF maps. The purpose of this review was to describe our experience with a heterogeneous collection of ASL perfusion cases with an emphasis on methodology and common artifacts encountered with the technique. In a period of 1 year, more than 3000 pulsed ASL cases were performed as a component of routine clinical brain MR evaluation at both 1.5 and 3T. These ASL studies were analyzed with respect to overall image quality and patterns of perfusion on final gray-scale DICOM images and color Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) CBF maps, and common artifacts and their impact on final image quality were categorized. PMID:18372417

  17. 3D GRASE PROPELLER: Improved Image Acquisition Technique for Arterial Spin Labeling Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Huan; Hoge, W. Scott; Hamilton, Craig A.; Günther, Matthias; Kraft, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a non-invasive technique that can quantitatively measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). While traditionally ASL employs 2D EPI or spiral acquisition trajectories, single-shot 3D GRASE is gaining popularity in ASL due to inherent SNR advantage and spatial coverage. However, a major limitation of 3D GRASE is through-plane blurring caused by T2 decay. A novel technique combining 3D GRASE and a PROPELLER trajectory (3DGP) is presented to minimize through-plane blurring without sacrificing perfusion sensitivity or increasing total scan time. Full brain perfusion images were acquired at a 3×3×5mm3 nominal voxel size with Q2TIPS-FAIR as the ASL preparation sequence. Data from 5 healthy subjects was acquired on a GE 1.5T scanner in less than 4 minutes per subject. While showing good agreement in CBF quantification with 3D GRASE, 3DGP demonstrated reduced through-plane blurring, improved anatomical details, high repeatability and robustness against motion, making it suitable for routine clinical use. PMID:21254211

  18. Hyperemic flow heterogeneity within the calf, foot, and forearm measured with continuous arterial spin labeling MRI

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen-Chau; Wang, Jiongjiong; Detre, John A.; Wehrli, Felix W.; Mohler, Emile; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Floyd, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for microvascular blood flow measurement. We used a continuous ASL scheme (CASL) to investigate the hyperemic flow difference between major muscle groups in human extremities. Twenty-four healthy subjects with no evidence of vascular disease were recruited. MRI was conducted on a 3.0 Tesla Siemens Trio whole body system with a transmit/receive knee coil. A nonmagnetic orthopedic tourniquet system was used to create a 5-min period of ischemia followed by a period of hyperemic flow (occlusion pressure = 250 mmHg). CASL imaging, lasting from 2 min before cuff inflation to 3 min after cuff deflation, was performed on the midcalf, midfoot, and midforearm in separate sessions from which blood flow was quantified with an effective temporal resolution of 16 s. When muscles in the same anatomic location were compared, hyperemic flow was found to be significantly higher in the compartments containing muscles known to have relatively higher slow-twitch type I fiber compositions, such as the soleus muscle in the calf and the extensors in the forearm. In the foot, the plantar flexors exhibited a slightly delayed hyperemic response relative to that of the dorsal compartment, but no between-group flow difference was observed. These results demonstrate that CASL is sensitive to flow heterogeneity between diverse muscle groups and that nonuniform hyperemic flow patterns following an ischemic paradigm correlate with relative fiber-type predominance. PMID:18310508

  19. Early development of arterial spin labeling to measure regional brain blood flow by MRI.

    PubMed

    Koretsky, Alan P

    2012-08-15

    Two major avenues of work converged in the late 1980's and early 1990's to give rise to brain perfusion MRI. The development of anatomical brain MRI quickly had as a major goal the generation of angiograms using tricks to label flowing blood in macroscopic vessels. These ideas were aimed at getting information about microcirculatory flow as well. Over the same time course the development of in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy had as its primary goal the assessment of tissue function and in particular, tissue energetics. For this the measurement of the delivery of water to tissue was critical for assessing tissue oxygenation and viability. The measurement of the washin/washout of "freely" diffusible tracers by spectroscopic based techniques pointed the way for quantitative approaches to measure regional blood flow by MRI. These two avenues came together in the development of arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI techniques to measure regional cerebral blood flow. The early use of ASL to measure brain activation to help verify BOLD fMRI led to a rapid development of ASL based perfusion MRI. Today development and applications of regional brain blood flow measurements with ASL continues to be a major area of activity.

  20. A Reduced Resolution Transit Delay Prescan for Quantitative Continuous Arterial Spin Labeling Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Weiying; Robson, Philip M; Shankaranarayanan, Ajit; Alsop, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI can suffer from artifacts and quantification errors when the time delay between labeling and arrival of labeled blood in the tissue is uncertain. This transit delay is particularly uncertain in broad clinical populations, where reduced or collateral flow may occur. Measurement of transit delay by acquisition of the ASL signal at many different time delays typically extends the imaging time and degrades the sensitivity of the resulting perfusion images. Acquisition of transit delay maps at the same spatial resolution as perfusion images may not be necessary, however, because transit delay maps tend to contain little high spatial resolution information. Here, we propose the use of a reduced spatial resolution ASL prescan for the rapid measurement of transit delay. Approaches to using the derived transit delay information to optimize and quantify higher resolution continuous ASL perfusion images are described. Results in normal volunteers demonstrate heterogeneity of transit delay across different brain regions that lead to quantification errors without the transit maps and demonstrate the feasibility of this approach to perfusion and transit delay quantification. PMID:22084006

  1. Arterial Spin Labeling Magnetic Resonance Perfusion for Traumatic Brain Injury: Technical Challenges and Potentials.

    PubMed

    Andre, Jalal B

    2015-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI), including concussion, is a public health concern, as it affects over 1.7 million persons in the United States per year. Yet, the diagnosis of TBI, particularly mild TBI (mTBI), can be controversial, as neuroimaging findings can be sparse on conventional magnetic resonance and computed tomography examinations, and when present, often poorly correlate with clinical signs and symptoms. Furthermore, the discussion of TBI, concussion, and head impact exposure is immediately complicated by the many differing opinions of what constitutes each, their respective severities, and how the underlying biomechanics of the inciting head impact might alter the distribution, severity, and prognosis of the underlying brain injury. Advanced imaging methodologies hold promise in improving the sensitivity and detectability of associated imaging biomarkers that might better correlate with patient outcome and prognostication, allowing for improved triage and therapeutic guidance in the setting of TBI, particularly in mTBI. This work will examine the defining symptom complex associated with mTBI and explore changes in cerebral blood flow measured by arterial spin labeling, as a potential imaging biomarker for TBI, and briefly correlate these observations with findings identified by single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography imaging.

  2. A feasibility study on estimation of tissue mixture contributions in 3D arterial spin labeling sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Pu, Huangsheng; Zhang, Xi; Li, Baojuan; Liang, Zhengrong; Lu, Hongbing

    2017-03-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) provides a noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Due to relatively low spatial resolution, the accuracy of CBF measurement is affected by the partial volume (PV) effect. To obtain accurate CBF estimation, the contribution of each tissue type in the mixture is desirable. In general, this can be obtained according to the registration of ASL and structural image in current ASL studies. This approach can obtain probability of each tissue type inside each voxel, but it also introduces error, which include error of registration algorithm and imaging itself error in scanning of ASL and structural image. Therefore, estimation of mixture percentage directly from ASL data is greatly needed. Under the assumption that ASL signal followed the Gaussian distribution and each tissue type is independent, a maximum a posteriori expectation-maximization (MAP-EM) approach was formulated to estimate the contribution of each tissue type to the observed perfusion signal at each voxel. Considering the sensitivity of MAP-EM to the initialization, an approximately accurate initialization was obtain using 3D Fuzzy c-means method. Our preliminary results demonstrated that the GM and WM pattern across the perfusion image can be sufficiently visualized by the voxel-wise tissue mixtures, which may be promising for the diagnosis of various brain diseases.

  3. ASAP (Automatic Software for ASL Processing): A toolbox for processing Arterial Spin Labeling images.

    PubMed

    Mato Abad, Virginia; García-Polo, Pablo; O'Daly, Owen; Hernández-Tamames, Juan Antonio; Zelaya, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    The method of Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) has experienced a significant rise in its application to functional imaging, since it is the only technique capable of measuring blood perfusion in a truly non-invasive manner. Currently, there are no commercial packages for processing ASL data and there is no recognized standard for normalizing ASL data to a common frame of reference. This work describes a new Automated Software for ASL Processing (ASAP) that can automatically process several ASL datasets. ASAP includes functions for all stages of image pre-processing: quantification, skull-stripping, co-registration, partial volume correction and normalization. To assess the applicability and validity of the toolbox, this work shows its application in the study of hypoperfusion in a sample of healthy subjects at risk of progressing to Alzheimer's disease. ASAP requires limited user intervention, minimizing the possibility of random and systematic errors, and produces cerebral blood flow maps that are ready for statistical group analysis. The software is easy to operate and results in excellent quality of spatial normalization. The results found in this evaluation study are consistent with previous studies that find decreased perfusion in Alzheimer's patients in similar regions and demonstrate the applicability of ASAP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Combined Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Arterial Spin Labeling as Markers of Early Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaobo; Yan, Ronghua; Chen, Zhaoyu; Weng, Ruihui; Liu, Xu; Gao, Huimin; Xu, Xiaofeng; Kang, Zhuang; Liu, Zhexing; Guo, Yan; Liu, Zhenhua; Larsen, Jan Petter; Wang, Jin; Tang, Beisha; Hallett, Mark; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify a PD-specific MRI pattern using combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) to discriminate patients with early PD from healthy subjects and evaluate disease status. Twenty-one early and 22 mid-late PD patients, and 22 healthy, age/gender-matched controls underwent 3-T MRI with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA), fiber number (FN) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements. We found that compared with healthy subjects, there was a profound reduction in FN passing through the SN in PD. FA in the SN and CBF in the caudate nucleus were inversely correlated with motor dysfunction. A negative correlation was observed between FA in the hippocampus (Hip) and the NMSS-Mood score, whereas CBF in the Hip and the prefrontal cortex(PFC) correlated with declined cognition. Stratified five-fold cross-validation identified FA in the SN(FA-SNAv), CBF in the PFC(CBF-PFCAv) and FA in the parietal white matter(FA-PWMAv), and the combination of these measurements offered relatively high accuracy (AUC 0.975, 90% sensitivity and 100% specificity) in distinguishing those with early PD from healthy subjects. We demonstrate that the decreased FNs through SN in combination with changes in FA-SNAv, CBF-PFCAv and FA-PWMAv values might serve as potential markers of early-stage PD. PMID:27646647

  5. Differentiation of Glioblastoma from Brain Metastasis: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis Using Arterial Spin Labeling MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sunwoo, Leonard; You, Sung-Hye; Yoo, Roh-Eul; Kang, Koung Mi; Choi, Seung Hong; Kim, Ji-hoon; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Park, Sun-Won; Jung, Cheolkyu; Park, Chul-Kee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic performance of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by using arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to differentiate glioblastoma (GBM) from brain metastasis. Materials and Methods The institutional review board of our hospital approved this retrospective study. The study population consisted of 128 consecutive patients who underwent surgical resection and were diagnosed as either GBM (n = 89) or brain metastasis (n = 39). All participants underwent preoperative MR imaging including ASL. For qualitative analysis, the tumors were visually graded into five categories based on ASL-CBF maps by two blinded reviewers. For quantitative analysis, the reviewers drew regions of interest (ROIs) on ASL-CBF maps upon the most hyperperfused portion within the tumor and upon peritumoral T2 hyperintensity area. Signal intensities of intratumoral and peritumoral ROIs for each subject were normalized by dividing the values by those of contralateral normal gray matter (nCBFintratumoral and nCBFperitumoral, respectively). Visual grading scales and quantitative parameters between GBM and brain metastasis were compared. In addition, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of ASL-driven CBF to differentiate GBM from brain metastasis. Results For qualitative analysis, GBM group showed significantly higher grade compared to metastasis group (p = 0.001). For quantitative analysis, both nCBFintratumoral and nCBFperitumoral in GBM were significantly higher than those in metastasis (both p < 0.001). The areas under the curve were 0.677, 0.714, and 0.835 for visual grading, nCBFintratumoral, and nCBFperitumoral, respectively (all p < 0.001). Conclusion ASL perfusion MR imaging can aid in the differentiation of GBM from brain metastasis. PMID:27861605

  6. Cerebral blood flow and vasoreactivity in aging: an arterial spin labeling study

    PubMed Central

    Leoni, R.F.; Oliveira, I.A.F.; Pontes-Neto, O.M.; Santos, A.C.; Leite, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) in young and elderly participants were assessed using pulsed arterial spin labeling (ASL) and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in combination with inhalation of CO2. Pulsed ASL and BOLD-MRI were acquired in seventeen asymptomatic volunteers (10 young adults, age: 30±7 years; 7 elderly adults, age: 64±8 years) with no history of diabetes, hypertension, and neurological diseases. Data from one elderly participant was excluded due to the incorrigible head motion. Average baseline CBF in gray matter was significantly reduced in elderly (46±9 mL·100 g-1·min-1) compared to young adults (57±8 mL·100 g-1·min-1; P=0.02). Decreased pulsed ASL-CVR and BOLD-CVR in gray matter were also observed in elderly (2.12±1.30 and 0.13±0.06 %/mmHg, respectively) compared to young adults (3.28±1.43 and 0.28±0.11 %/mmHg, respectively; P<0.05), suggesting some degree of vascular impairment with aging. Moreover, age-related decrease in baseline CBF was observed in different brain regions (inferior, middle and superior frontal gyri; precentral and postcentral gyri; superior temporal gyrus; cingulate gyri; insula, putamen, caudate, and supramarginal gyrus). In conclusion, CBF and CVR were successfully investigated using a protocol that causes minimal or no discomfort for the participants. Age-related decreases in baseline CBF and CVR were observed in the cerebral cortex, which may be related to the vulnerability for neurological disorders in aging. PMID:28355354

  7. Cerebral blood flow and vasoreactivity in aging: an arterial spin labeling study.

    PubMed

    Leoni, R F; Oliveira, I A F; Pontes-Neto, O M; Santos, A C; Leite, J P

    2017-03-23

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) in young and elderly participants were assessed using pulsed arterial spin labeling (ASL) and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in combination with inhalation of CO2. Pulsed ASL and BOLD-MRI were acquired in seventeen asymptomatic volunteers (10 young adults, age: 30±7 years; 7 elderly adults, age: 64±8 years) with no history of diabetes, hypertension, and neurological diseases. Data from one elderly participant was excluded due to the incorrigible head motion. Average baseline CBF in gray matter was significantly reduced in elderly (46±9 mL·100 g-1·min-1) compared to young adults (57±8 mL·100 g-1·min-1; P=0.02). Decreased pulsed ASL-CVR and BOLD-CVR in gray matter were also observed in elderly (2.12±1.30 and 0.13±0.06 %/mmHg, respectively) compared to young adults (3.28±1.43 and 0.28±0.11 %/mmHg, respectively; P<0.05), suggesting some degree of vascular impairment with aging. Moreover, age-related decrease in baseline CBF was observed in different brain regions (inferior, middle and superior frontal gyri; precentral and postcentral gyri; superior temporal gyrus; cingulate gyri; insula, putamen, caudate, and supramarginal gyrus). In conclusion, CBF and CVR were successfully investigated using a protocol that causes minimal or no discomfort for the participants. Age-related decreases in baseline CBF and CVR were observed in the cerebral cortex, which may be related to the vulnerability for neurological disorders in aging.

  8. Diagnostic significance of arterial spin labeling in the assessment of tumor grade in brain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Fang; Hou, Bo; Yang, Su-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Rui; Dong, Xiaolei; Zhang, Min; Yao, Gen-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current meta.analysis was to assess the arterial spin labeling. (ASL) perfusion imaging measurement of cerebral blood flow. (CBF) in patients with brain tumors, and assessing preoperative tumor grade in brain. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, China BioMedicine (CBM), CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were chosen to evaluate the associations between ASL and brain cancer. Two reviewers separately evaluated the quality of the included trials. Standardized mean difference (SMD) at 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was also calculated. Finally, 475 patients were enrolled into this meta-analysis from 12 eligible studies and were selected for statistical analysis. Results showed that relative tumor blood flow (rTBF) and relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in high-grade brain cancer patients were faster than those in low-grade brain cancer patients. Subgroup analysis stratified by country implied that ASL may be the main prediction of increased rTBF in high-grade brain cancer patients among USA, Korea and China; and rCBF was faster in high-grade brain cancer using ASL in USA and China. Further reference by tissue-stratified analysis revealed a positive association of rTBF with high-grade brain cancer by utilization of ASL in all the experimental subgroups, while rCBF was only correlated in white subgroups. These results showed that rTBF and rCBF were faster in high-grade brain cancer patients, suggesting that ASL may provide suitable measurement for the differential diagnosis of tumor grade in brain.

  9. Default Mode Network Connectivity Encodes Clinical Pain: An Arterial Spin Labeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Loggia, Marco L.; Kim, Jieun; Gollub, Randy L.; Vangel, Mark G.; Kirsch, Irving; Kong, Jian; Wasan, Ajay D.; Napadow, Vitaly

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have suggested the presence of alterations in the anatomo-functional properties of the brain of patients with chronic pain. However, investigation of the brain circuitry supporting the perception of clinical pain presents significant challenges, particularly when using traditional neuroimaging approaches. While potential neuroimaging markers for clinical pain have included resting brain connectivity, these cross-sectional studies have not examined sensitivity to within-subject exacerbation of pain. We used the dual regression probabilistic Independent Component Analysis approach to investigate resting-state connectivity on Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) data. Brain connectivity was compared between patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) and healthy controls, before and after the performance of maneuvers aimed at exacerbating clinical pain levels in the patients. Our analyses identified multiple resting state networks, including the Default Mode Network (DMN). At baseline, patients demonstrated stronger DMN connectivity to the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), left inferior parietal lobule and right insula (rINS). Patients’ baseline clinical pain correlated positively with connectivity strength between the DMN and right insula (DMN-rINS). The performance of calibrated physical maneuvers induced changes in pain, which were paralleled by changes in DMN-rINS connectivity. Maneuvers also disrupted the DMN-pgACC connectivity, which at baseline was anti-correlated with pain. Finally, baseline DMN connectivity predicted maneuver-induced changes in both pain and DMN-rINS connectivity. Our results support the use of ASL to evaluate clinical pain, and the use of resting DMN connectivity as a potential neuroimaging biomarker for chronic pain perception. PMID:23111164

  10. Quantifying fluctuations of resting state networks using arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Gopal; Scheidegger, Rachel; Alsop, David C

    2015-01-01

    Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used to investigate spontaneous low-frequency signal fluctuations across brain resting state networks. However, BOLD only provides relative measures of signal fluctuations. Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) MRI holds great potential for quantitative measurements of resting state network fluctuations. This study systematically quantified signal fluctuations of the large-scale resting state networks using ASL data from 20 healthy volunteers by separating them from global signal fluctuations and fluctuations caused by residual noise. Global ASL signal fluctuation was 7.59% ± 1.47% relative to the ASL baseline perfusion. Fluctuations of seven detected resting state networks vary from 2.96% ± 0.93% to 6.71% ± 2.35%. Fluctuations of networks and residual noise were 6.05% ± 1.18% and 6.78% ± 1.16% using 4-mm resolution ASL data applied with Gaussian smoothing kernel of 6mm. However, network fluctuations were reduced by 7.77% ± 1.56% while residual noise fluctuation was markedly reduced by 39.75% ± 2.90% when smoothing kernel of 12 mm was applied to the ASL data. Therefore, global and network fluctuations are the dominant structured noise sources in ASL data. Quantitative measurements of resting state networks may enable improved noise reduction and provide insights into the function of healthy and diseased brain. PMID:26661226

  11. Arterial spin labelling shows functional depression of non-lesion tissue in chronic Wernicke's aphasia.

    PubMed

    Robson, Holly; Specht, Karsten; Beaumont, Helen; Parkes, Laura M; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Zahn, Roland

    2017-07-01

    Behavioural impairment post-stroke is a consequence of structural damage and altered functional network dynamics. Hypoperfusion of intact neural tissue is frequently observed in acute stroke, indicating reduced functional capacity of regions outside the lesion. However, cerebral blood flow (CBF) is rarely investigated in chronic stroke. This study investigated CBF in individuals with chronic Wernicke's aphasia (WA) and examined the relationship between lesion, CBF and neuropsychological impairment. Arterial spin labelling CBF imaging and structural MRIs were collected in 12 individuals with chronic WA and 13 age-matched control participants. Joint independent component analysis (jICA) investigated the relationship between structural lesion and hypoperfusion. Partial correlations explored the relationship between lesion, hypoperfusion and language measures. Joint ICA revealed significant differences between the control and WA groups reflecting a large area of structural lesion in the left posterior hemisphere and an associated area of hypoperfusion extending into grey matter surrounding the lesion. Small regions of remote cortical hypoperfusion were observed, ipsilateral and contralateral to the lesion. Significant correlations were observed between the neuropsychological measures (naming, repetition, reading and semantic association) and the jICA component of interest in the WA group. Additional ROI analyses found a relationship between perfusion surrounding the core lesion and the same neuropsychological measures. This study found that core language impairments in chronic WA are associated with a combination of structural lesion and abnormal perfusion in non-lesioned tissue. This indicates that post-stroke impairments are due to a wider disruption of neural function than observable on structural T1w MRI. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Arterial spin labeling at 3.0 Tesla in subacute ischemia: comparison to dynamic susceptibility perfusion.

    PubMed

    Huck, S; Kerl, H U; Al-Zghloul, M; Groden, C; Nölte, I

    2012-03-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a promising but clinically not established non-invasive method to assess cerebral perfusion. The purpose of this study was to compare perfusion imaging with pulsed ASL (pASL) to conventional dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion-weighted imaging (PWL) using commercially available equipment and postprocessing (3.0 Tesla, 32-channel head coil) in patients with subacute ischemia. The pASL and DSC-PWI techniques were compared in 15 patients with subacute ischemia (age 49-88 years, 6 females and 9 males, time from onset to scan 4-161 h). Image inhomogeneity was assessed with the non-uniformity index. Image quality, delineation of hypoperfusion and degree of hypoperfusion were rated by two readers using a 5-scale grading system. The volume of hypoperfusion was quantified planimetrically. Image quality and image inhomogeneity were superior in DSC time-to-peak (TTP) compared to pASL cerebral brain flow (CBF; both p < 0.05). The delineation of hypoperfusion was better in DSC-TTP (p < 0.05) and the hypoperfusion was graded as more severe in DSC-TTP (p < 0.05). The volume of hypoperfusion did not differ between pASL-CBF and DSC-TTP, however, in pASL-CBF five cases with small infarctions (lacunar and pontine) were false negative compared to DSC-relative CBF. The mismatch frequency was lower in pASL (13%) than in DSC-rCBF (20%) and DSC-TTP (47%). Using a commercially available sequence and a 32-channel head coil at 3.0 Tesla pASL-CBF is feasible but limited compared to DSC-PWI in the assessment of ischemic stroke. In its present form pASL has a reserve role in clinical practice for situations when gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) is contraindicated.

  13. Propofol allows precise quantitative arterial spin labelling functional magnetic resonance imaging in the rat.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Karen M; Blau, Christoph W; Kelly, Michael E; O'Herlihy, Colm; O'Connell, P R; Jones, James F X; Kerskens, Christian M

    2010-07-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques highlight cerebral vascular responses which are coupled to changes in neural activation. However, two major difficulties arise when employing these techniques in animal studies. First is the disturbance of cerebral blood flow due to anaesthesia and second is the difficulty of precise reproducible quantitative measurements. These difficulties were surmounted in the current study by using propofol and quantitative arterial spin labelling (QASL) to measure relative cerebral blood volume of labelled water (rCBV(lw),) mean transit time (MTT) and capillary transit time (CTT). The ASL method was applied to measure the haemodynamic response in the primary somatosensory cortex following forepaw stimulation in the rat. Following stimulation an increase in signal intensity and rCBV(lw) was recorded, this was accompanied by a significant decrease in MTT (1.97+/-0.06s to 1.44+/-0.04s) and CTT (1.76+/-0.06s to 1.39+/-0.07s). Two animals were scanned repeatedly on two different experimental days. Stimulation in the first animal was applied to the same forepaw during the initial and repeat scan. In the second animal stimulation was applied to different forepaws on the first and second days. The control and activated ASL signal intensities, rCBVlw on both days were almost identical in both animals. The basal MTT and CTT during the second scan were also very similar to the values obtained during the first scan. The MTT recorded from the animal that underwent stimulation to the same paw during both scanning sessions was very similar on the first and second days. In conclusion, propofol induces little physiological disturbance and holds potential for longitudinal QASL fMRI studies.

  14. Prediction of Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption and Intracerebral Hemorrhagic Infarction Using Arterial Spin-Labeling Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Niibo, Takeya; Ohta, Hajime; Miyata, Shirou; Ikushima, Ichiro; Yonenaga, Kazuchika; Takeshima, Hideo

    2017-01-01

    Arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance imaging is sensitive for detecting hyperemic lesions (HLs) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We evaluated whether HLs could predict blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in acute ischemic stroke patients. In a retrospective study, arterial spin-labeling was performed within 6 hours of symptom onset before revascularization treatment in 25 patients with anterior circulation large vessel occlusion on baseline magnetic resonance angiography. All patients underwent angiographic procedures intended for endovascular therapy and a noncontrast computed tomography scan immediately after treatment. BBB disruption was defined as a hyperdense lesion present on the posttreatment computed tomography scan. A subacute magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography scan was performed during the subacute phase to assess HTs. The relationship between HLs and BBB disruption and HT was examined using the Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score locations in the symptomatic hemispheres. A HL was defined as a region where CBFrelative≥1.4 (CBFrelative=CBFHL/CBFcontralateral). HLs, BBB disruption, and HT were found in 9, 15, and 15 patients, respectively. Compared with the patients without HLs, the patients with HLs had a higher incidence of both BBB disruption (100% versus 37.5%; P=0.003) and HT (100% versus 37.5%; P=0.003). Based on the Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score locations, 21 regions of interests displayed HLs. Compared with the regions of interests without HLs, the regions of interests with HLs had a higher incidence of both BBB disruption (42.8% versus 3.9%; P<0.001) and HT (85.7% versus 7.8%; P<0.001). HLs detected on pretreatment arterial spin-labeling maps may enable the prediction and localization of subsequent BBB disruption and HT. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Arterial Spin Labeling Blood Flow MRI: Its Role in the Early Characterization of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alsop, David C.; Dai, Weiying; Grossman, Murray; Detre, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) enables the noninvasive, quantitative imaging of cerebral blood flow using standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment. Because it requires no contrast injection, ASL can add resting functional information to MRI studies measuring atrophy and signs of ischemic injury. Key features of ASL technology that may affect studies in Alzheimer’s disease are described. The existing literature describing ASL blood flow imaging applied to Alzheimer’s disease and related dementia is reviewed, and the potential role of ASL in treatment and prevention studies of early Alzheimer’s disease is discussed. PMID:20413865

  16. Arterial Spin Labeling Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Performed in Acute Perinatal Stroke Reveals Hyperperfusion Associated With Ischemic Injury.

    PubMed

    Watson, Christopher G; Dehaes, Mathieu; Gagoski, Borjan A; Grant, P Ellen; Rivkin, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    Perfusion-weighted imaging in adults with acute stroke often reveals hypoperfusion in the ischemic core and in a surrounding area of nondiffusion-restricted penumbral tissue. Perinatal stroke is common, but the perfusion pattern is rarely documented. We aimed to describe the perfusion pattern in newborns with perinatal stroke. Neonates with clinical features of acute stroke underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Perfusion data were obtained using pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling. Strokes were classified as arterial, venous, or both. Core infarction was determined by the presence of restricted diffusion on diffusion-weighted imaging. Perfusion-weighted imaging and susceptibility-weighted imaging signal in the ischemic area were visually compared with the homologous region in the contralesional hemisphere. Electroencephalogram data were evaluated for seizure activity. In 25 neonates with acute stroke, 8 of 11 (73%) with arterial ischemic stroke demonstrated hyperperfusion, 1 of 9 (11%) with venous stroke, and 4 of 5 (80%) with both. Hypoperfusion was observed in 3 of 9 (33%) with venous and none with arterial ischemic stroke. Perfusion was normal in 4 of 9 (45%) with venous and 1 of 5 (20%) with both. Twenty-one of 24 patients (88%) with electroencephalogram data had either electrographic seizures or focal sharp waves in the ipsilesional hemisphere (11/11 arterial ischemic stroke, 6/9 venous, and 4/5 both). Perfusion-weighted imaging can be obtained in neonates with acute stroke and often reveals hyperperfusion in the infarct core. Penumbra in arterial ischemic stroke is seldom found. Hyperperfusion may be caused by poststroke reperfusion or to neuronal hyperexcitability of stroke-associated seizure. Its identification may be useful for consideration of therapy for acute neonatal stroke. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Quantification of Perfusion Changes during a Motor Task Using Arterial Spin Labeling.

    PubMed

    Vilela, P; Pimentel, M; Sousa, I; Figueiredo, P

    2011-03-29

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a non-invasive MRI technique that allows the quantitative measurement of perfusion, (regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF)). The ASL techniques use the labeling of the blood, by inverting or saturating the spins of water molecules of the blood supplying the imaged region. When reaching the capillary bed, these will be exchanged with tissue water giving rise to a perfusion-weighted signal. The subtraction of control (without label) from labeled images yields a signal difference that directly reflects the local perfusion. Being a non-invasive method, it can be repeated as many times as needed allowing the brain perfusion variation quantification associated with endogenous and exogenous stimuli. In this study, the authors have evaluated the CBF variation induced by the neural activity during a common motor task. The study was conducted on a Siemens Verio 3T system using a 12-channel head coil and a pulsed ASL Q2TIPS-PICORE sequence with a GE-EPI readout. The sequences were driven in 3D PACE mode for prospective motion correction. Fifteen healthy volunteers were studied using a simple motor task consisting in sequential thumb-digit opposition. Two different functional ASL protocols were used: #1 one perfusion scan was obtained during rest and another one during an equal period of motor task (total scan time ~8 min) (TI1 = 700 ms, TI1s = 1600 ms, TI2 =1800 ms; 91 Interleaved tag and control volumes were acquired; TR/TE = 2500/25 ms and flip angle = 90°; nine contiguous axial slices of 8 mm thickness acquired in-line with the AC-PC axis, positioned from the vertex of the brain to the top of cerebellum; FOV = 256 × 256 mm(2); matrix 64 × 64; gap between the labeling slab and the proximal 18.8 mm) and #2 a block design alternating five 25s periods of motor task with five 25s periods of rest (total scan time ~4 min) (TI1 = 700 ms, TI1s = 1600 ms, TI2 = 1800 ms; 101 interleaved tag and control volumes were acquired; TR/TE = 2500/11 ms and

  18. Pseudo continuous wave instrument. [ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Acoustic properties and their changes in a sample of liquid, gas, plasma or solid are measured by applying a variable frequency source to the sample by means of a transducer to produce sound waves within the sample. The application of the variable frequency source to the sample is periodically interrupted for a short duration. Means are connected to the transducer for receiving the resulting acoustic signals during the interruptions for producing a control signal indicative of a difference in the frequency of the output of the variable frequency source and the frequency of a mechanical resonant peak in the sample. The control signal is applied to the variable frequency source to maintain its output frequency at the frequency of the mechanical resonant peak. The change in frequency of the variable frequency source indicates the shift in frequency of the mechanical resonant peak and the amplitude of the acoustic signals indicates the attenuation of the acoustic signals in the sample.

  19. Arterial spin-labeling assessment of normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity as a predictor of histologic grade of astrocytic neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Furtner, J; Schöpf, V; Schewzow, K; Kasprian, G; Weber, M; Woitek, R; Asenbaum, U; Preusser, M; Marosi, C; Hainfellner, J A; Widhalm, G; Wolfsberger, S; Prayer, D

    2014-03-01

    Pulsed arterial spin-labeling is a noninvasive MR imaging perfusion method performed with the use of water in the arterial blood as an endogenous contrast agent. The purpose of this study was to determine the inversion time with the largest difference in normalized intratumoral signal intensity between high-grade and low-grade astrocytomas. Thirty-three patients with gliomas, histologically classified as low-grade (n = 7) or high-grade astrocytomas (n = 26) according to the World Health Organization brain tumor classification, were included. A 3T MR scanner was used to perform pulsed arterial spin-labeling measurements at 8 different inversion times (370 ms, 614 ms, 864 ms, 1114 ms, 1364 ms, 1614 ms, 1864 ms, and 2114 ms). Normalized intratumoral signal intensity was calculated, which was defined by the signal intensity ratio of the tumor and the contralateral normal brain tissue for all fixed inversion times. A 3-way mixed ANOVA was used to reveal potential differences in the normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity between high-grade and low-grade astrocytomas. The difference in normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity between high-grade and low-grade astrocytomas obtained the most statistically significant results at 370 ms (P = .003, other P values ranged from .012-.955). The inversion time by which to differentiate high-grade and low-grade astrocytomas by use of normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity was 370 ms in our study. The normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity values at this inversion time mainly reflect the labeled intra-arterial blood bolus and therefore could be referred to as normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity. Our data indicate that the use of normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity values allows differentiation between low-grade and high-grade astrocytomas and thus may serve as a new, noninvasive marker for astrocytoma grading.

  20. Arterial spin labeling MRI is able to detect early hemodynamic changes in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gutiérrez, José María; Garcia-Fernandez, Nuria; Slon Roblero, M Fernanda; Páramo, Jose A; Escalada, F Javier; Wang, Danny Jj; Benito, Alberto; Fernández-Seara, María A

    2017-04-06

    To investigate whether arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI could detect renal hemodynamic impairment in diabetes mellitus (DM) along different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Three Tesla (3T) ASL-MRI was performed to evaluate renal blood flow (RBF) in 91 subjects (46 healthy volunteers and 45 type 2 diabetic patients). Patients were classified according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as group I (eGFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ), group II (60 ≥ eGFR>30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ), or group III (eGFR ≤ 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ), to determine differences depending on renal function. Studies were performed at 3T using a 12-channel flexible body array combined with the spine array coil as receiver. A 28% reduction in cortical RBF was seen in diabetics in comparison with healthy controls (185.79 [54.60] versus 258.83 [37.96] mL/min/100 g, P < 3 × 10(-6) ). Differences were also seen between controls and diabetic patients despite normal eGFR and absence of overt albuminuria (RBF [mL/min/100 g]: controls=258.83 [37.96], group I=208.89 [58.83], P = 0.0018; eGFR [mL/min/1.73 m(2) ]: controls = 95.50 [12.60], group I = 82.00 [20.76], P > 0.05; albumin-creatinine ratio [mg/g]: controls = 3.50 [4.45], group I = 17.50 [21.20], P > 0.05). A marked decrease in RBF was noted a long with progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) through the five stages of CKD (χ(2)  = 43.58; P = 1.85 × 10(-9) ). Strong correlation (r = 0.62; P = 4 × 10(-10) ) was obtained between RBF and GFR estimated by cystatin C. ASL-MRI is able to quantify early renal perfusion impairment in DM, as well as changes according to different CKD stages of DN. In addition, we demonstrated a correlation of RBF quantified by ASL and GFR estimated by cystatin C. 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Application of Machine Learning to Arterial Spin Labeling in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Collij, Lyduine E; Heeman, Fiona; Kuijer, Joost P A; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Benedictus, Marije R; Möller, Christiane; Verfaillie, Sander C J; Sanz-Arigita, Ernesto J; van Berckel, Bart N M; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Wink, Alle Meije

    2016-12-01

    Purpose To investigate whether multivariate pattern recognition analysis of arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion maps can be used for classification and single-subject prediction of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subjects with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) after using the W score method to remove confounding effects of sex and age. Materials and Methods Pseudocontinuous 3.0-T ASL images were acquired in 100 patients with probable AD; 60 patients with MCI, of whom 12 remained stable, 12 were converted to a diagnosis of AD, and 36 had no follow-up; 100 subjects with SCD; and 26 healthy control subjects. The AD, MCI, and SCD groups were divided into a sex- and age-matched training set (n = 130) and an independent prediction set (n = 130). Standardized perfusion scores adjusted for age and sex (W scores) were computed per voxel for each participant. Training of a support vector machine classifier was performed with diagnostic status and perfusion maps. Discrimination maps were extracted and used for single-subject classification in the prediction set. Prediction performance was assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to generate an area under the ROC curve (AUC) and sensitivity and specificity distribution. Results Single-subject diagnosis in the prediction set by using the discrimination maps yielded excellent performance for AD versus SCD (AUC, 0.96; P < .01), good performance for AD versus MCI (AUC, 0.89; P < .01), and poor performance for MCI versus SCD (AUC, 0.63; P = .06). Application of the AD versus SCD discrimination map for prediction of MCI subgroups resulted in good performance for patients with MCI diagnosis converted to AD versus subjects with SCD (AUC, 0.84; P < .01) and fair performance for patients with MCI diagnosis converted to AD versus those with stable MCI (AUC, 0.71; P > .05). Conclusion With automated methods, age- and sex-adjusted ASL perfusion maps can be used to

  2. Comparison of cerebral blood flow measurement with [15O]-water positron emission tomography and arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fan, Audrey P; Jahanian, Hesamoddin; Holdsworth, Samantha J; Zaharchuk, Greg

    2016-05-01

    Noninvasive imaging of cerebral blood flow provides critical information to understand normal brain physiology as well as to identify and manage patients with neurological disorders. To date, the reference standard for cerebral blood flow measurements is considered to be positron emission tomography using injection of the [(15)O]-water radiotracer. Although [(15)O]-water has been used to study brain perfusion under normal and pathological conditions, it is not widely used in clinical settings due to the need for an on-site cyclotron, the invasive nature of arterial blood sampling, and experimental complexity. As an alternative, arterial spin labeling is a promising magnetic resonance imaging technique that magnetically labels arterial blood as it flows into the brain to map cerebral blood flow. As arterial spin labeling becomes more widely adopted in research and clinical settings, efforts have sought to standardize the method and validate its cerebral blood flow values against positron emission tomography-based cerebral blood flow measurements. The purpose of this work is to critically review studies that performed both [(15)O]-water positron emission tomography and arterial spin labeling to measure brain perfusion, with the aim of better understanding the accuracy and reproducibility of arterial spin labeling relative to the positron emission tomography reference standard.

  3. Assessment of Arterial Wall Enhancement for Differentiation of Parent Artery Disease from Small Artery Disease: Comparison between Histogram Analysis and Visual Analysis on 3-Dimensional Contrast-Enhanced T1-Weighted Turbo Spin Echo MR Images at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jinhee; Kim, Tae-Won; Hwang, Eo-Jin; Koo, Jaseong; Shin, Yong Sam; Jung, So-Lyung; Ahn, Kook-Jin; Kim, Bum-soo

    2017-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the histogram analysis and visual scores in 3T MRI assessment of middle cerebral arterial wall enhancement in patients with acute stroke, for the differentiation of parent artery disease (PAD) from small artery disease (SAD). Materials and Methods Among the 82 consecutive patients in a tertiary hospital for one year, 25 patients with acute infarcts in middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory were included in this study including 15 patients with PAD and 10 patients with SAD. Three-dimensional contrast-enhanced T1-weighted turbo spin echo MR images with black-blood preparation at 3T were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The degree of MCA stenosis, and visual and histogram assessments on MCA wall enhancement were evaluated. A statistical analysis was performed to compare diagnostic accuracy between qualitative and quantitative metrics. Results The degree of stenosis, visual enhancement score, geometric mean (GM), and the 90th percentile (90P) value from the histogram analysis were significantly higher in PAD than in SAD (p = 0.006 for stenosis, < 0.001 for others). The receiver operating characteristic curve area of GM and 90P were 1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86–1.00). Conclusion A histogram analysis of a relevant arterial wall enhancement allows differentiation between PAD and SAD in patients with acute stroke within the MCA territory. PMID:28246519

  4. QUANTITATIVE CHANGES IN REGIONAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW INDUCED BY COLD, HEAT AND ISCHEMIC PAIN: A CONTINUOUS ARTERIAL SPIN LABELING STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Frölich, Michael A.; Deshpande, Hrishikesh; Ness, Timothy; Deutsch, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Background The development of arterial spin labeling methods, has allowed measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) quantitatively and to show the pattern of cerebral activity associated with any state such as a sustained pain state or changes due to a neurotropic drug. Methods We studied the differential effects of three pain conditions in ten healthy subjects on a 3T scanner during resting baseline, heat, cold and ischemic pain using continuous arterial spin labeling. Results Cold pain showed the greatest absolute rCBF increases in left anterior cingulate cortex, left amygdala, left angular gyrus, and Brodmann Area 6, and a significant rCBF decrease in the cerebellum. Changes in rCBF were characteristic of the type of pain condition: cold and heat pain showed increases, while the ischemic condition showed a reduction in mean absolute gray matter flow compared to rest. An association of subjects’ pain tolerance and cerebral blood flow was noted. Conclusions The observation that quantitative rCBF changes are characteristic of the pain task employed and that there is a consistent rCBF change in Brodman area 6, an area responsible for the integration of a motor response to pain, should provide extremely useful information in the quest to develop an imaging biomarker of pain. Conceivably, response in BA6 may serve as an objective measure of analgesic efficacy. PMID:22913924

  5. Pulsed arterial spin labeling effectively and dynamically observes changes in cerebral blood flow after mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shu-Ping; Li, Yi-Ning; Liu, Jun; Wang, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Zi-Shu; Zhou, Shun-Ke; Tao, Fang-Xu; Zhang, Zhi-Xue

    2016-02-01

    Cerebral blood flow is strongly associated with brain function, and is the main symptom and diagnostic basis for a variety of encephalopathies. However, changes in cerebral blood flow after mild traumatic brain injury remain poorly understood. This study sought to observe changes in cerebral blood flow in different regions after mild traumatic brain injury using pulsed arterial spin labeling. Our results demonstrate maximal cerebral blood flow in gray matter and minimal in the white matter of patients with mild traumatic brain injury. At the acute and subacute stages, cerebral blood flow was reduced in the occipital lobe, parietal lobe, central region, subcutaneous region, and frontal lobe. Cerebral blood flow was restored at the chronic stage. At the acute, subacute, and chronic stages, changes in cerebral blood flow were not apparent in the insula. Cerebral blood flow in the temporal lobe and limbic lobe diminished at the acute and subacute stages, but was restored at the chronic stage. These findings suggest that pulsed arterial spin labeling can precisely measure cerebral blood flow in various brain regions, and may play a reference role in evaluating a patient's condition and judging prognosis after traumatic brain injury.

  6. Arterial Transit Time Effects in Pulsed Arterial Spin Labeling CBF Mapping: Insight From a PET and MR Study in Normal Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Maolin; Maguire, R. Paul; Arora, Jagriti; Planeta-Wilson, Beata; Weinzimmer, David; Wang, Jinghua; Wang, Yuenan; Kim, Hyeonjin; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Huang, Yiyun; Carson, Richard E.; Constable, R. Todd

    2010-01-01

    Arterial transit time (ATT), a key parameter required to calculate absolute cerebral blood flow in arterial spin labeling (ASL), is subject to much uncertainty. In this study, ASL ATTs were estimated on a per-voxel basis using data measured by both ASL and positron emission tomography in the same subjects. The mean ATT increased by 260 ± 20 (standard error of the mean) ms when the imaging slab shifted downwards by 54 mm, and increased from 630 ± 30 to 1220 ± 30 ms for the first slice, with an increase of 610 ± 20 ms over a four-slice slab when the gap between the imaging and labeling slab increased from 20 to 74 mm. When the per-slice ATTs were employed in ASL cerebral blood flow quantification and the in-slice ATT variations ignored, regional cerebral blood flow could be significantly different from the positron emission tomography measures. ATT also decreased with focal activation by the same amount for both visual and motor tasks (~80 ms). These results provide a quantitative relationship between ATT and the ASL imaging geometry and yield an assessment of the assumptions commonly used in ASL imaging. These findings should be considered in the interpretation of, and comparisons between, different ASL-based cerebral blood flow studies. The results also provide spatially specific ATT data that may aid in optimizing the ASL imaging parameters. PMID:19953506

  7. In vivo measurement of the longitudinal relaxation time of arterial blood (T1a) in the mouse using a pulsed arterial spin labeling approach.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David L; Lythgoe, Mark F; Gadian, David G; Ordidge, Roger J

    2006-04-01

    A novel method for measuring the longitudinal relaxation time of arterial blood (T1a) is presented. Knowledge of T1a is essential for accurately quantifying cerebral perfusion using arterial spin labeling (ASL) techniques. The method is based on the flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) pulsed ASL (PASL) approach. We modified the standard FAIR acquisition scheme by incorporating a global saturation pulse at the beginning of the recovery period. With this approach the FAIR tissue signal difference has a simple monoexponential dependence on the recovery time, with T1a as the time constant. Therefore, FAIR measurements performed over a range of recovery times can be fitted to a monoexponential recovery curve and T1a can be calculated directly. This eliminates many of the difficulties associated with the measurement of T1a. Experiments performed in vivo in the mouse at 2.35T produced a mean value of 1.51 s for T1a, consistent with previously published values. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Arterial Spin-labeling MR Imaging of Renal Masses: Correlation with Histopathologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Lanzman, Rotem S.; Robson, Phil M.; Sun, Maryellen R.; Patel, Amish D.; Mentore, Kimiknu; Wagner, Andrew A.; Genega, Elizabeth M.; Rofsky, Neil M.; Alsop, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the value of arterial spin-labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the characterization of solid renal masses by using histopathologic findings as the standard of reference. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was compliant with HIPAA and approved by the institutional review board. Informed consent was obtained from all patients before imaging. Forty-two consecutive patients suspected of having renal masses underwent ASL MR imaging before their routine 1.5-T clinical MR examination. Mean and peak tumor perfusion levels were obtained by one radiologist, who was blinded to the final histologic diagnosis, by using region of interest analysis. Perfusion values were correlated with histopathologic findings by using analysis of variance. A linear correlation model was used to evaluate the relationship between tumor size and perfusion in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). P < .05 was considered indicative of a statistically significant difference. Results: Histopathologic findings were available in 34 patients (28 men, six women; mean age ± standard deviation, 60.4 years ± 11.7). The mean perfusion of papillary RCC (27.0 mL/min/100 g ± 15.1) was lower than that of clear cell RCC (171.6 mL/min/100 g ± 61.2, P = .001), chromophobe RCC (152.9 mL/min/100 g ± 80.7, P = .04), unclassified RCC (208.0 mL/min/100 g ± 41.1, P = .001), and oncocytoma (373.9 mL/min/100 g ± 99.2, P < .001). The mean and peak perfusion levels of oncocytoma (373.9 mL/min/100 g ± 99.2 and 512.3 mL/min/100 g ± 146.0, respectively) were higher than those of papillary RCC (27.0 mL/min/100 g ± 15.1 and 78.2 mL/min/100 g ± 39.7, P < .001 for both), chromophobe RCC (152.9 mL/min/100 g ± 80.7 and 260.9 mL/min/100 g ± 61.9; P < .001 and P = .02, respectively), and unclassified RCC (208.0 mL/min/100 g ± 41.1 and 273.3 mL/min/100 g ± 83.4; P = .01 and P = .03, respectively). The mean tumor perfusion of oncocytoma was higher than that of clear cell

  9. Wedge-shaped slice-selective adiabatic inversion pulse for controlling temporal width of bolus in pulsed arterial spin labeling

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jia; Buxton, Richard B.; Wong, Eric C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) methods, arterial blood is labeled via inverting a slab with uniform thickness, resulting in different temporal widths of boluses in vessels with different flow velocities. This limits the temporal resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) efficiency gains in PASL-based methods intended for high temporal resolution and SNR efficiency, such as Turbo-ASL and Turbo-QUASAR. Theory and Methods A novel wedge-shaped (WS) adiabatic inversion pulse is developed by adding in-plane gradient pulses to a slice-selective (SS) adiabatic inversion pulse to linearly modulate the inversion thicknesses at different locations while maintaining the adiabatic properties of the original pulse. A hyperbolic secant (HS) based WS inversion pulse was implemented. Its performance was tested in simulations, phantom and human experiments, and compared to an SS HS inversion pulse. Results Compared to the SS inversion pulse, the WS inversion pulse is capable of inducing different inversion thicknesses at different locations. It can be adjusted to generate a uniform temporal width of boluses in arteries at locations with different flow velocities. Conclusion The WS inversion pulse can be used to control the temporal widths of labeled boluses in PASL experiments. This should benefit PASL experiments by maximizing labeling duty cycle, and improving temporal resolution and SNR efficiency. PMID:26451521

  10. Arterial spin labeling versus BOLD in direct challenge and drug-task interaction pharmacological fMRI.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Stephanie B; Koller, Jonathan M; Campbell, Meghan C; Black, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    A carefully controlled study allowed us to compare the sensitivity of ASL (arterial spin labeling) and BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) fMRI for detecting the effects of the adenosine A2a antagonist tozadenant in Parkinson disease. The study compared the effect of drug directly or the interaction of the drug with a cognitive task. Only ASL detected the direct effect of tozadenant. BOLD was more sensitive to the cognitive task, which (unlike most drugs) allows on-off comparisons over short periods of time. Neither ASL nor BOLD could detect a cognitive-pharmacological interaction. These results are consistent with the known relative advantages of each fMRI method, and suggest that for drug development, directly imaging pharmacodynamic effects with ASL may have advantages over cognitive-pharmacological interaction BOLD, which has hitherto been the more common approach to pharmacological fMRI.

  11. Quantitative, dynamic and noninvasive determination of skeletal muscle perfusion in mouse leg by NMR arterial spin-labeled imaging.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, Didier; Loureiro de Sousa, Paulo; Fromes, Yves; Wary, Claire; Carlier, Pierre G

    2008-11-01

    Because mouse may relatively easily be genetically tailored to develop equivalent of human muscular diseases or to present controlled alterations of mechanisms involved in vasoregulation, it has become the prevalent species to explore such questions. However, the very small size of the animals represents a serious limitation when evaluating the functional consequences of these genetic manipulations. In this context, the recourse to arterial spin labeling (ASL) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods in which arterial water spins act as an endogenous and freely diffusible tracer of perfusion is tempting but challenging. This article shows that despite the small size of the animal, mouse muscle perfusion may be measured, at rest and in conditions of reactive hyperemia, using saturation inversion recovery sequence, a pulsed ASL variant, combined with NMR imaging. Baseline perfusion values in the mouse leg were 17+/-11 ml.min(-1).100 g(-1) (n=11) and were comparable to microsphere data from the literature. Under ischemia, leg perfusion was 1.2+/-9.3 ml.min(-1).100 g(-1) (n=11). The difference observed between basal and ischemic measurements was statistically different (P=.0001). The temporal pattern of hyperemia in mouse muscle was coherent with previously published measurements in humans and in rats. The mean peak perfusion was 62+/-24 ml.min(-1).100 g(-1) (n=6) occurring 48+/-27 s after the end of occlusion. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the ability of ASL combined to NMR imaging to quantify skeletal muscle perfusion in mice legs, both at rest and dynamically.

  12. SU-D-18C-05: Variable Bolus Arterial Spin Labeling MRI for Accurate Cerebral Blood Flow and Arterial Transit Time Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, M; Jung, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an MRI perfusion imaging method from which quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps can be calculated. Acquisition with variable post-labeling delays (PLD) and variable TRs allows for arterial transit time (ATT) mapping and leads to more accurate CBF quantification with a scan time saving of 48%. In addition, T1 and M0 maps can be obtained without a separate scan. In order to accurately estimate ATT and T1 of brain tissue from the ASL data, variable labeling durations were invented, entitled variable-bolus ASL. Methods: All images were collected on a healthy subject with a 3T Siemens Skyra scanner. Variable-bolus Psuedo-continuous ASL (PCASL) images were collected with 7 TI times ranging 100-4300ms in increments of 700ms with TR ranging 1000-5200ms. All boluses were 1600ms when the TI allowed, otherwise the bolus duration was 100ms shorter than the TI. All TI times were interleaved to reduce sensitivity to motion. Voxel-wise T1 and M0 maps were estimated using a linear least squares fitting routine from the average singal from each TI time. Then pairwise subtraction of each label/control pair and averaging for each TI time was performed. CBF and ATT maps were created using the standard model by Buxton et al. with a nonlinear fitting routine using the T1 tissue map. Results: CBF maps insensitive to ATT were produced along with ATT maps. Both maps show patterns and averages consistent with literature. The T1 map also shows typical T1 contrast. Conclusion: It has been demonstrated that variablebolus ASL produces CBF maps free from the errors due to ATT and tissue T1 variations and provides M0, T1, and ATT maps which have potential utility. This is accomplished with a single scan in a feasible scan time (under 6 minutes) with low sensivity to motion.

  13. Volumetric cerebral perfusion imaging in healthy adults: regional distribution, laterality, and repeatability of pulsed continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL).

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Chanraud, Sandra; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Shankaranarayanan, Ajit; Alsop, David C; Rohlfing, Torsten; Sullivan, Edith V

    2010-06-30

    The regional distribution, laterality, and reliability of volumetric pulsed continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL) measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions were determined in 10 normal volunteers studied on two occasions separated by 3 to 7 days. Regional CBF, normalized for global perfusion, was highly reliable when measured on separate days. Several regions showed significant lateral asymmetry; notably, in frontal regions CBF was greater in the right than left hemisphere, whereas left was greater than right in posterior regions. There was considerable regional variability across the brain, whereby the posterior cingulate and central and posterior precuneus cortices had the highest perfusion and the globus pallidus the lowest gray matter perfusion. The latter may be due to iron-induced T1 shortening affecting labeled spins and computed CBF signal. High CBF in the posterior cingulate and posterior and central precuneus cortices in this task-free acquisition suggests high activity in these principal nodes of the "default mode network."

  14. Volumetric Cerebral Perfusion Imaging in Healthy Adults: Regional Distribution, Laterality, and Repeatability of Pulsed Continuous Arterial Spin Labeling (PCASL)

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Chanraud, Sandra; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Shankaranarayanan, Ajit; Alsop, David C.; Rohlfing, Torsten; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2010-01-01

    The regional distribution, laterality, and reliability of volumetric pulsed continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL) measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions were determined in 10 normal volunteers studied on two occasions separated by 3 to 7 days. Regional CBF, normalized for global perfusion, was highly reliable when measured on separate days. Several regions showed significant lateral asymmetry; notably, in frontal regions CBF was greater in the right than left hemisphere, whereas left was greater than right in posterior regions. There was considerable regional variability across the brain, whereby the posterior cingulate and central and posterior precuneus cortices had the highest perfusion and the globus pallidus the lowest gray matter perfusion. The latter may be due to iron-induced T1 shortening affecting labeled spins and computed CBF signal. High CBF in the posterior cingulate and posterior and central precuneus cortices in this task-free acquisition suggests high activity in these principal nodes of the “default mode network.” PMID:20488671

  15. Distinctive Patterns of Three-Dimensional Arterial Spin-Labeled Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Subtypes of Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Naoto; Okada, Kazunori; Yamagata, Shingo; Takayoshi, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Shuhei

    2016-07-01

    Ischemic penumbra in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) can be evaluated using arterial spin-labeled (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We used three-dimensional ASL-MRI to examine patients with different stroke subtypes and the clinical utility of the method within 24 hours of AIS onset. The 55 male and 48 female patients (mean age, 79.0 years) underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, and pulsed continuous ASL perfusion imaging to determine stroke subtype, hypoperfused ASL area, and neurological deficit severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale). Arterial transit artifacts, indicative of occlusive regions or collateral flow, and other stroke indices were compared. ASL hypoperfusion was detected in 3 of 9 patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA), 2 of 27 patients with lacunar infarction (LI), 19 of 31 patients with atherothrombotic infarction (AT), and 30 of 36 patients with cardiogenic embolic infarction (CE). ASL abnormalities were significantly less frequent in LI than in AT and CE, and more frequent in CE than in TIA. ASL abnormalities were more prevalent in patients with medium-to-large DWI-assessed lesions than in those with small lesions on DWI. Patients with medium-sized lesions following AT and CE had a high frequency of diffusion-perfusion mismatch. In 4 of the 5 patients who underwent intravenous thrombolytic therapy, ASL hypoperfusion and diffusion-perfusion mismatch were improved and the occluded arteries were recanalized. ASL perfusion studies may provide useful clinical information allowing diffusion-perfusion mismatch detection and treatment selection in AIS patients, depending on stroke subtype. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Arterial Spin-Labeling Parameters Influence Signal Variability and Estimated Regional Relative Cerebral Blood Flow in Normal Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment: FAIR versus PICORE Techniques.

    PubMed

    Lövblad, K-O; Montandon, M-L; Viallon, M; Rodriguez, C; Toma, S; Golay, X; Giannakopoulos, P; Haller, S

    2015-07-01

    Arterial spin-labeling is a noninvasive method to map cerebral blood flow, which might be useful for early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. We directly compared 2 arterial spin-labeling techniques in healthy elderly controls and individuals with mild cognitive impairment. This prospective study was approved by the local ethics committee and included 198 consecutive healthy controls (mean age, 73.65 ± 4.02 years) and 43 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (mean age, 73.38 ± 5.85 years). Two pulsed arterial spin-labeling sequences were performed at 3T: proximal inversion with a control for off-resonance effects (PICORE) and flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery technique (FAIR). Relative cerebral blood flow maps were calculated by using commercial software and standard parameters. Data analysis included spatial normalization of gray matter-corrected relative CBF maps, whole-brain average, and voxelwise comparison of both arterial spin-labeling sequences. Overall, FAIR yielded higher relative CBF values compared with PICORE (controls, 32.7 ± 7.1 versus 30.0 ± 13.1 mL/min/100 g, P = .05; mild cognitive impairment, 29.8 ± 5.4 versus 26.2 ± 8.6 mL/min/100 g, P < .05; all, 32.2 ± 6.8 versus 29.3 ± 12.3 mL/min/100 g, P < .05). FAIR had lower variability (controls, 36.2% versus 68.8%, P < .00001; mild cognitive impairment, 18.9% versus 22.9%, P < .0001; all, 34.4% versus 64.9% P < .00001). The detailed voxelwise analysis revealed a higher signal for FAIR, notably in both convexities, while PICORE had higher signal predominantly in deep cerebral regions. Overall, FAIR had higher estimated relative CBF and lower interindividual variability than PICORE. In more detail, there were regional differences between both arterial spin-labeling sequences. In summary, these results highlight the need to calibrate arterial spin-labeling sequences. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  17. Medullary hemangioblastoma in a child with von Hippel-Lindau disease: vascular tumor perfusion depicted by arterial spin labeling and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging.

    PubMed

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Ra, Young-Shin

    2015-07-01

    Medullary hemangioblastoma is very rare in children. Based on small nodular enhancement with peritumoral edema and without dilated feeding arteries on conventional MRI, hemangioblastoma, pilocytic astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and ganglioglioma were included in the differential diagnosis of the medullary tumor. In this case report, the authors emphasize the diagnostic value of arterial spin labeling and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in demonstrating vascular tumor perfusion of hemangioblastoma in a 12-year-old boy who was later found to have von Hippel-Lindau disease.

  18. Tumor Vascularity in Renal Masses: Correlation of Arterial Spin-Labeled and Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MR Imaging Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Kapur, Payal; Yuan, Qing; Xi, Yin; Carvo, Ingrid; Signoretti, Sabina; Dimitrov, Ivan; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A.; Margulis, Vitaly; Muradyan, Naira; Brugarolas, James; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J.; Pedrosa, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate potential correlations between perfusion by arterial spin-labeled (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI derived quantitative measures of vascularity in renal masses >2 cm and to correlate these with microvessel density (MVD) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Methods Informed written consent was obtained from all patients before imaging in this HIPAA-compliant, IRB-approved, prospective study. 36 consecutive patients scheduled for surgery of a known renal mass >2 cm underwent 3T ASL and DCE MRI. ASL measures (PASL) of mean, peak, and low perfusion areas within the mass were correlated to DCE-derived Ktrans, Kep, and Ve in the same locations using a region of interest analysis. MRI data were correlated to MVD measures in the same tumor regions in ccRCC. Spearman correlation was used to evaluate the correlation between PASL and DCE-derived measurements, and MVD. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Histopathologic diagnosis was obtained in 36 patients (25 men; mean age 58 ±12 years). PASL correlated with Ktrans (ρ=0.48, P=0.0091 for the entire tumor and ρ=0.43, P=0.03 for the high flow area, respectively) and Kep (ρ=0.46, P=0.01 for the entire tumor and ρ=0.52, P=0.008 for the high flow area, respectively). PASL (ρ=0.66, P=0.0002), Ktrans (ρ=0.61, P=0.001), and Kep (ρ=0.64, P=0.0006) also correlated with MVD in high and low perfusion areas in ccRCC. Conclusions PASL correlate with the DCE-derived measures of vascular permeability and flow, Ktrans and Kep, in renal masses >2cm in size. Both measures correlate to MVD in clear cell histology. MICROABSTRACT Arterial spin labeling (ASL) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been proposed to quantitatively assess vascularity in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However there are intrinsic differences between these two imaging methods, such as the relative contribution of vascular permeability

  19. Tumor Vascularity in Renal Masses: Correlation of Arterial Spin-Labeled and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Kapur, Payal; Yuan, Qing; Xi, Yin; Carvo, Ingrid; Signoretti, Sabina; Dimitrov, Ivan; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A; Margulis, Vitaly; Muradyan, Naira; Brugarolas, James; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J; Pedrosa, Ivan

    2016-02-01

    Arterial spin-labeled (ASL) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been proposed to quantitatively assess vascularity in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, there are intrinsic differences between these 2 imaging methods, such as the relative contribution of vascular permeability and blood flow to signal intensity for DCE MRI. We found a correlation between ASL perfusion and the DCE-derived volume transfer constant and rate constant parameters in renal masses > 2 cm in size and these measures correlated with microvessel density in clear cell RCC. The objective of this study was to investigate potential correlations between perfusion using arterial spin-labeled (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI-derived quantitative measures of vascularity in renal masses > 2 cm and to correlate these with microvessel density (MVD) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Informed written consent was obtained from all patients before imaging in this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, institutional review board-approved, prospective study. Thirty-six consecutive patients scheduled for surgery of a known renal mass > 2 cm underwent 3T ASL and DCE MRI. ASL perfusion measures (PASL) of mean, peak, and low perfusion areas within the mass were correlated to DCE-derived volume transfer constant (K(trans)), rate constant (Kep), and fractional volume of the extravascular extracellular space (Ve) in the same locations using a region of interest analysis. MRI data were correlated to MVD measures in the same tumor regions in ccRCC. Spearman correlation was used to evaluate the correlation between PASL and DCE-derived measurements, and MVD. P < .05 was considered statistically significant. Histopathologic diagnosis was obtained in 36 patients (25 men; mean age 58 ± 12 years). PASL correlated with K(trans) (ρ = 0.48 and P = .0091 for the entire tumor and ρ = 0.43 and P = .03 for the

  20. Increased Blood Viscosity in Ischemic Stroke Patients with Small Artery Occlusion Measured by an Electromagnetic Spinning Sphere Viscometer.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Koji; Abumiya, Takeo; Sakai, Keiji; Hirano, Miki; Osanai, Toshiya; Shichinohe, Hideo; Nakayama, Naoki; Kazumata, Ken; Hida, Kazutoshi; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2016-11-01

    High blood viscosity causes blood stagnation and subsequent pathological thrombotic events, resulting in the development of ischemic stroke. We hypothesize that the contribution of blood viscosity may differ among ischemic stroke subtypes based on specific pathological conditions. We tried to verify this hypothesis by measuring blood viscosity in acute ischemic stroke patients using a newly developed electromagnetic spinning sphere (EMS) viscometer. Measurements in acute ischemic stroke patients were performed 4 times during admission and data were compared with those obtained from 100 healthy outpatient volunteers. We enrolled 92 patients (cardioembolism: 25, large artery atherosclerosis: 42, and small artery occlusion [SAO]: 25) in this study. Comparisons of blood viscosity between the ischemic stroke subgroups and control group revealed that blood viscosity at the date of admission was significantly higher in the SAO group (5.37 ± 1.11 mPa⋅s) than in the control group (4.66 ± .72 mPa⋅s) (P < .01). Among all subtype groups showing a reduction in blood viscosity after 2 weeks, the SAO group showed the highest and most significant reduction, indicating that SAO patients had the most concentrated blood at the onset. Blood viscosity was significantly increased in the SAO group at the date of admission, which indicated the contribution of dehydration to the onset of ischemic stroke. The importance of dehydration needs to be emphasized more in the pathogenesis of SAO. The clinical application of the EMS viscometer is promising for understanding and differentiating the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of skeletal muscle perfusion using arterial spin labeling NMRI: validation by comparison with venous occlusion plethysmography.

    PubMed

    Raynaud, J S; Duteil, S; Vaughan, J T; Hennel, F; Wary, C; Leroy-Willig, A; Carlier, P G

    2001-08-01

    T(1)-based determination of perfusion was performed with the high temporal and spatial resolution that monitoring of exercise physiology requires. As no data were available on the validation of this approach in human muscles, T(1)-based NMRI of perfusion was compared to standard strain-gauge venous occlusion plethysmography performed simultaneously within a 4 T magnet. Two different situations were investigated in 21 healthy young volunteers: 1) a 5-min ischemia of the leg, or 2) a 2-3 min ischemic exercise consisting of a plantar flexion on an amagnetic ergometer. Leg perfusion was monitored over 5-15 min of the recovery phase, after the air-cuff arterial occlusion had been released. The interesting features of the sequence were the use of a saturation-recovery module for the introduction of a T(1) modulation and of single-shot spin echo for imaging. Spatial resolution was 1.7 x 2.0 mm and temporal resolution was 2 s. For data analysis, ROIs were traced on different muscles and perfusion was calculated from the differences in muscle signal intensity in successive images. To allow comparison with the global measurement of perfusion by plethysmography, the T(1)-based NMR measurements in exercising muscles were rescaled to the leg cross-section. The perfusion measurements obtained by plethysmography and NMRI were in close agreement with a correlation coefficient between 0.87 and 0.92. This indicates that pulsed arterial techniques provide determination of muscle perfusion not only with superior spatial and temporal resolution but also with exactitude.

  2. The QUASAR reproducibility study, Part II: Results from a multi center Arterial Spin Labeling test-retest Study

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Esben Thade; Mouridsen, Kim; Golay, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) is a method to measure perfusion using magnetically labeled blood water as an endogenous tracer. Being fully non-invasive, this technique is attractive for longitudinal studies of cerebral blood flow in healthy and diseased individuals, or as a surrogate marker of metabolism. So far, ASL has been restricted mostly to specialist centers due to a generally low SNR of the method and potential issues with user-dependent analysis needed to obtain quantitative measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Here, we evaluated a particular implementation of ASL (called Quantitative STAR labeling of Arterial Regions or QUASAR), a method providing user independent quantification of CBF in a large test-retest study across sites from around the world, dubbed “The QUASAR reproducibility study”. Altogether, 28 sites located in Asia, Europe and North America participated and a total of 284 healthy volunteers were scanned. Minimal operator dependence was assured by using an automatic planning tool and its accuracy and potential usefulness in multi-center trials was evaluated as well. Accurate repositioning between sessions was achieved with the automatic planning tool showing mean displacements of 1.87±0.95mm and rotations of 1.56±0.66°. Mean gray matter CBF was 47.4±7.5 [ml/100g/min] with a between subject standard variation SDb = 5.5 [ml/100g/min] and a within subject standard deviation SDw = 4.7 [ml/100g/min]. The corresponding repeatability was 13.0 [ml/100g/min] and was found to be within the range of previous studies. PMID:19660557

  3. The QUASAR reproducibility study, Part II: Results from a multi-center Arterial Spin Labeling test-retest study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Esben Thade; Mouridsen, Kim; Golay, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) is a method to measure perfusion using magnetically labeled blood water as an endogenous tracer. Being fully non-invasive, this technique is attractive for longitudinal studies of cerebral blood flow in healthy and diseased individuals, or as a surrogate marker of metabolism. So far, ASL has been restricted mostly to specialist centers due to a generally low SNR of the method and potential issues with user-dependent analysis needed to obtain quantitative measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Here, we evaluated a particular implementation of ASL (called Quantitative STAR labeling of Arterial Regions or QUASAR), a method providing user independent quantification of CBF in a large test-retest study across sites from around the world, dubbed "The QUASAR reproducibility study". Altogether, 28 sites located in Asia, Europe and North America participated and a total of 284 healthy volunteers were scanned. Minimal operator dependence was assured by using an automatic planning tool and its accuracy and potential usefulness in multi-center trials was evaluated as well. Accurate repositioning between sessions was achieved with the automatic planning tool showing mean displacements of 1.87+/-0.95 mm and rotations of 1.56+/-0.66 degrees . Mean gray matter CBF was 47.4+/-7.5 [ml/100 g/min] with a between-subject standard variation SD(b)=5.5 [ml/100 g/min] and a within-subject standard deviation SD(w)=4.7 [ml/100 g/min]. The corresponding repeatability was 13.0 [ml/100 g/min] and was found to be within the range of previous studies.

  4. Arterial Spin-Labeling MRI Can Identify the Presence and Intensity of Collateral Perfusion in Patients With Moyamoya Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zaharchuk, Greg; Do, Huy M.; Marks, Michael P.; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Moseley, Michael E.; Steinberg, Gary K.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Determining the presence and adequacy of collateral blood flow is important in cerebrovascular disease. Therefore, we explored whether a noninvasive imaging modality, arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI, could be used to detect the presence and intensity of collateral flow using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and stable xenon CT cerebral blood flow as gold standards for collaterals and cerebral blood flow, respectively. Methods ASL and DSA were obtained within 4 days of each other in 18 patients with Moyamoya disease. Two neurointerventionalists scored DSA images using a collateral grading scale in regions of interest corresponding to ASPECTS methodology. Two neuroradiologists similarly scored ASL images based on the presence of arterial transit artifact. Agreement of ASL and DSA consensus scores was determined, including kappa statistics. In 15 patients, additional quantitative xenon CT cerebral blood flow measurements were performed and compared with collateral grades. Results The agreement between ASL and DSA consensus readings was moderate to strong, with a weighted kappa value of 0.58 (95% confidence interval, 0.52–0.64), but there was better agreement between readers for ASL compared with DSA. Sensitivity and specificity for identifying collaterals with ASL were 0.83 (95% confidence interval, 0.77–0.88) and 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.76–0.87), respectively. Xenon CT cerebral blood flow increased with increasing DSA and ASL collateral grade (P<0.05). Conclusions ASL can noninvasively predict the presence and intensity of collateral flow in patients with Moyamoya disease using DSA as a gold standard. Further study of other cerebrovascular diseases, including acute ischemic stroke, is warranted. PMID:21799169

  5. Comparison of quantitative perfusion imaging using arterial spin labeling at 1.5 and 4.0 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiongjiong; Alsop, David C; Li, Lin; Listerud, John; Gonzalez-At, Julio B; Schnall, Mitchell D; Detre, John A

    2002-08-01

    High-field arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI is appealing because it provides not only increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), but also advantages in terms of labeling due to the increased relaxation time T(1) of labeled blood. In the present study, we provide a theoretical framework for the dependence of the ASL signal on the static field strength, followed by experimental validation in which a multislice pulsed ASL (PASL) technique was carried out at 4T and compared with PASL and continuous ASL (CASL) techniques at 1.5T, both in the resting state and during motor activation. The resting-state data showed an SNR ratio of 2.3:1.4:1 in the gray matter and a contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of 2.7:1.1:1 between the gray and white matter for the difference perfusion images acquired using 4T PASL, 1.5T CASL, and 1.5T PASL, respectively. However, the functional data acquired using 4T PASL did not show significantly improved sensitivity to motor cortex activation compared with the 1.5T functional data, with reduced fractional perfusion signal change and increased intersubject variability. Possible reasons for these experimental results, including susceptibility effects and physiological noise, are discussed. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Modeling magnetization transfer effects of Q2TIPS bolus saturation in multi-TI pulsed arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Petr, Jan; Schramm, Georg; Hofheinz, Frank; Langner, Jens; van den Hoff, Jörg

    2014-10-01

    To estimate the relaxation time changes during Q2TIPS bolus saturation caused by magnetization transfer effects and to propose and evaluate an extended model for perfusion quantification which takes this into account. Three multi inversion-time pulsed arterial spin labeling sequences with different bolus saturation duration were acquired for five healthy volunteers. Magnetization transfer exchange rates in tissue and blood were obtained from control image saturation recovery. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) obtained using the extended model and the standard model was compared. A decrease of obtained CBF of 6% (10%) was observed in grey matter when the duration of bolus saturation increased from 600 to 900 ms (1200 ms). This decrease was reduced to 1.6% (2.8%) when the extended quantification model was used. Compared with the extended model, the standard model underestimated CBF in grey matter by 9.7, 15.0, and 18.7% for saturation durations 600, 900, and 1200 ms, respectively. Results for simulated single inversion-time data showed 5-16% CBF underestimation depending on blood arrival time and bolus saturation duration. Magnetization transfer effects caused by bolus saturation pulses should not be ignored when performing quantification as they can cause appreciable underestimation of the CBF. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging arterial-spin-labelling perfusion alterations in childhood migraine with atypical aura: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Boulouis, Grégoire; Shotar, Eimad; Dangouloff-Ros, Volodia; Grévent, David; Calmon, Raphaël; Brunelle, Francis; Naggara, Olivier; Kossorotoff, Manoelle; Boddaert, Nathalie

    2016-09-01

    Atypical migraine with aura can be challenging to diagnose. Arterial-spin-labelling (ASL) is able to non-invasively quantify brain perfusion. Our aim was to report cerebral blood flow (CBF) alterations using ASL, at the acute phase of atypical migraine with aura in children. Paediatric patients were retrospectively included if (1) referred for acute neurological deficit(s), (2) underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at presentation with ASL sequence, and (3) had subsequent diagnosis of migraine with aura. Neurological symptom-free controls were matched for age. Twenty-eight regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on CBF maps for each participant/control. Ten patients were included (median age 13y, range 8-16y). Eight of 10 had multiple aura symptoms during the episode. For every patient, CBF was decreased in a brain region consistent with symptoms when MRI was performed less than 14 hours after onset (n=7 patients) and increased if the MRI was performed 17 hours or more after (n=4 MRIs). MRI-ASL appears to be a promising tool for the diagnostic workup and differentials exclusion in paediatric migraine with aura. Constant and time-consistent non-territorial CBF modifications were found in our sample providing additional insight to migraine with aura pathophysiology. The authors encourage implementing this sequence at the acute phase of unexplained paediatric neurological deficits, with or without accompanying headache. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  8. Acute effects of alcohol on brain perfusion monitored with arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging in young adults.

    PubMed

    Marxen, Michael; Gan, Gabriela; Schwarz, Daniel; Mennigen, Eva; Pilhatsch, Maximilian; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Guenther, Matthias; Smolka, Michael N

    2014-03-01

    While a number of studies have established that moderate doses of alcohol increase brain perfusion, the time course of such an increase as a function of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) has not yet been investigated, and studies differ about regional effects. Using arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated (1) the time course of the perfusion increase during a 15-minute linear increase of BrAC up to 0.6 g/kg followed by a steady exposure of 100 minutes, (2) the regional distribution, (3) a potential gender effect, and (4) the temporal stability of perfusion effects. In 48 young adults who participated in the Dresden longitudinal study on alcohol effects in young adults, we observed (1) a 7% increase of global perfusion as compared with placebo and that perfusion and BrAC are tightly coupled in time, (2) that the increase reaches significance in most regions of the brain, (3) that the effect is stronger in women than in men, and (4) that an acute tolerance effect is not observable on the time scale of 2 hours. Larger studies are needed to investigate the origin and the consequences of the effect, as well as the correlates of inter-subject variations.

  9. Improving cerebral blood flow quantification for arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI by removing residual motion artifacts and global signal fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ze

    2012-12-01

    Denoising is critical to improving the quality and stability of cerebral blood flow (CBF) quantification in arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) due to the intrinsic low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) of ASL data. Previous studies have been focused on reducing the spatial or temporal noise using standard filtering techniques, and less attention has been paid to two global nuisance effects, the residual motion artifacts and the global signal fluctuations. Since both nuisances affect the whole brain, removing them in advance should enhance the CBF quantification quality for ASL MRI. The purpose of this paper was to assess this potential benefit. Three methods were proposed to suppress each or both of the two global nuisances. Their performances for CBF quantification were validated using ASL data acquired from 13 subjects. Evaluation results showed that covarying out both global nuisances significantly improved temporal SNR and test-retest stability of CBF measurement. Although the concept of removing both nuisances is not technically novel per se, this paper clearly showed the benefits for ASL CBF quantification. Dissemination of the proposed methods in a free ASL data processing toolbox should be of interest to a broad range of ASL users.

  10. The attention network changes in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy: Evidence from an arterial spin labeling perfusion study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xingui; He, Xiaoxuan; Tao, Longxiang; Cheng, Huaidong; Li, Jingjing; Zhang, Jingjie; Qiu, Bensheng; Yu, Yongqiang; Wang, Kai

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying attention deficits that are related to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in combination with cerebral perfusion. Thirty one patients with breast cancer who were scheduled to receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 34 healthy control subjects were included. The patients completed two assessments of the attention network tasks (ANT), neuropsychological background tests, and the arterial spin labeling scan, which were performed before neoadjuvant chemotherapy and after completing chemotherapy. After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the patients exhibited reduced performance in the alerting and executive control attention networks but not the orienting network (p < 0.05) and showed significant increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the left posterior cingulate gyrus, left middle occipital gyrus, bilateral precentral gyrus, inferior parietal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, angular gyrus, precuneus, cuneus, superior occipital gyrus, calcarine cortex, and temporal gyrus (p < 0.01 corrected) when compared with patients before chemotherapy and healthy controls. A significant correlation was found between the decrease performance of ANT and the increase in CBF changes in some brain regions of the patients with breast cancer. The results demonstrated that neoadjuvant chemotherapy influences hemodynamic activity in different brain areas through increasing cerebral perfusion, which reduces the attention abilities in breast cancer patients. PMID:28209975

  11. The effect of black tea and caffeine on regional cerebral blood flow measured with arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Vidyasagar, Rishma; Greyling, Arno; Draijer, Richard; Corfield, Douglas R; Parkes, Laura M

    2013-06-01

    Black tea consumption has been shown to improve peripheral vascular function. Its effect on brain vasculature is unknown, though tea contains small amounts of caffeine, a psychoactive substance known to influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). We investigated the effects on CBF due to the intake of tea components in 20 healthy men in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. On separate days, subjects received a single dose of 184 mg caffeine (equivalent to one strong espresso coffee), 2,820 mg black tea solids containing 184 mg caffeine (equivalent to 6 cups of tea), 2,820 mg decaffeinated black tea solids, or placebo. The CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to hypercapnia were measured with arterial spin labeled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and 2 hours after administration. We found a significant global reduction with caffeine (20%) and tea (21%) in gray matter CBF, with no effect of decaffeinated tea, suggesting that only caffeine influences CBF acutely. Voxelwise analysis revealed the effect of caffeine to be regionally specific. None of the interventions had an effect on CVR. Additional research is required to conclude on the physiologic relevance of these findings and the chronic effects of caffeine and tea intake on CBF.

  12. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis after stroke identified noninvasively with cerebral blood flow-weighted arterial spin labeling MRI

    PubMed Central

    Strother, Megan K.; Buckingham, Cari; Faraco, Carlos C.; Arteaga, Daniel; Lu, Pengcheng; Xu, Yaomin; Donahue, Manus J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) is most commonly investigated using hemodynamic PET and SPECT imaging. However, noninvasive MRI offers advantages of improved spatial resolution, allowing hemodynamic changes to be compared directly with structural findings and without concerns related to ionizing radiation exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate relationships between CCD identified from cerebral blood flow (CBF)-weighted arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI with cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR)-weighted blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) MRI, Wallerian degeneration, clinical motor impairment, and corticospinal tract involvement. Methods Subjects (n=74) enrolled in an ongoing observational stroke trial underwent CBF-weighted ASL and hypercapnic CVR-weighted BOLD MRI. Hemispheric asymmetry indices for basal cerebellar CBF, cerebellar CVR, and cerebral peduncular area were compared between subjects with unilateral supratentorial infarcts (n=18) and control subjects without infarcts (n=16). CCD required (1) supratentorial infarct and (2) asymmetric cerebellar CBF (>95% confidence interval relative to controls). Results In CCD subjects (n=9), CVR (p=0.04) and cerebral peduncular area (p < 0.01) were significantly asymmetric compared to controls. Compared to infarct subjects not meeting CCD criteria (n=9), CCD subjects had no difference in corticospinal tract location for infarct (p=1.0) or motor impairment (p=0.08). Conclusions CCD correlated with cerebellar CVR asymmetry and Wallerian degeneration. These findings suggest that noninvasive MRI may be a useful alternative to PET or SPECT to study structural correlates and clinical consequences of CCD following supratentorial stroke. PMID:26724658

  13. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis detected by arterial spin-labeled perfusion magnetic resonance imaging in subacute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuai; Guan, Min; Lian, Hao-Jun; Ma, Li-Jia; Shang, Jun-Kui; He, Shuang; Ma, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Mi-Lan; Li, Zi-Yuan; Wang, Mei-Yun; Shi, Da-Peng; Zhang, Jie-Wen

    2014-10-01

    Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) was a common radiological phenomenon manifested as reduced blood flow and metabolism in the cerebellar hemisphere contralateral to a supratentorial cerebral lesion. The hypoperfusion and hypometabolism in the contralateral cerebellum in CCD was traditionally detected by positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The present prospective study aimed to assess the detection of CCD in subacute stage ischemic stroke by arterial spin-labeling (ASL) perfusion technique with a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. ASL images were obtained from 46 patients with supratentorial ischemic stroke at subacute stage. Regional cerebral blood flow values in the cerebellar hemispheres were measured on a region of interest basis. Twenty-four of 46 (52%) patients showed CCD phenomenon by ASL-MRI method, which was in line with the PET/SPECT series. Infarctions in basal ganglia areas are prone to cause CCD. With advantages in easy acquisition and no radiation, ASL-MRI seems to be an ideal tool for the detection and follow-up of CCD. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of black tea and caffeine on regional cerebral blood flow measured with arterial spin labeling

    PubMed Central

    Vidyasagar, Rishma; Greyling, Arno; Draijer, Richard; Corfield, Douglas R; Parkes, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Black tea consumption has been shown to improve peripheral vascular function. Its effect on brain vasculature is unknown, though tea contains small amounts of caffeine, a psychoactive substance known to influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). We investigated the effects on CBF due to the intake of tea components in 20 healthy men in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. On separate days, subjects received a single dose of 184 mg caffeine (equivalent to one strong espresso coffee), 2,820 mg black tea solids containing 184 mg caffeine (equivalent to 6 cups of tea), 2,820 mg decaffeinated black tea solids, or placebo. The CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to hypercapnia were measured with arterial spin labeled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and 2 hours after administration. We found a significant global reduction with caffeine (20%) and tea (21%) in gray matter CBF, with no effect of decaffeinated tea, suggesting that only caffeine influences CBF acutely. Voxelwise analysis revealed the effect of caffeine to be regionally specific. None of the interventions had an effect on CVR. Additional research is required to conclude on the physiologic relevance of these findings and the chronic effects of caffeine and tea intake on CBF. PMID:23486295

  15. Simultaneous laser Doppler flowmetry and arterial spin labeling MRI for measurement of functional perfusion changes in the cortex.

    PubMed

    He, Jiabao; Devonshire, Ian M; Mayhew, John E W; Papadakis, Nikos G

    2007-02-15

    This study compares laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) for the measurement of functional changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF). The two methods were applied concurrently in a paradigm of electrical whisker stimulation in the anaesthetised rat. Multi-channel LDF was used, with each channel corresponding to different fiber separation (and thus measurement depth). Continuous ASL was applied using separate imaging and labeling coils at 3 T. Careful experimental set up ensured that both techniques recorded from spatially concordant regions of the barrel cortex, where functional responses were maximal. Strong correlations were demonstrated between CBF changes measured by each LDF channel and ASL in terms of maximum response magnitude and response time-course within a 6-s-long temporal resolution imposed by ASL. Quantitatively, the measurements of the most superficial LDF channels agreed strongly with those of ASL, whereas the deeper LDF channels underestimated consistently the ASL measurement. It was thus confirmed that LDF quantifies CBF changes consistently at a superficial level, and for this case the two methods provided concordant measures of functional CBF changes, despite their essentially different physical principles and spatiotemporal characteristics.

  16. Improving quality of arterial spin labeling MR imaging at 3 Tesla with a 32-channel coil and parallel imaging.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Petr, Jan; Bannier, Elise; Barillot, Christian; Gauvrit, Jean-Yves

    2012-05-01

    To compare 12-channel and 32-channel phased-array coils and to determine the optimal parallel imaging (PI) technique and factor for brain perfusion imaging using Pulsed Arterial Spin labeling (PASL) at 3 Tesla (T). Twenty-seven healthy volunteers underwent 10 different PASL perfusion PICORE Q2TIPS scans at 3T using 12-channel and 32-channel coils without PI and with GRAPPA or mSENSE using factor 2. PI with factor 3 and 4 were used only with the 32-channel coil. Visual quality was assessed using four parameters. Quantitative analyses were performed using temporal noise, contrast-to-noise and signal-to-noise ratios (CNR, SNR). Compared with 12-channel acquisition, the scores for 32-channel acquisition were significantly higher for overall visual quality, lower for noise and higher for SNR and CNR. With the 32-channel coil, artifact compromise achieved the best score with PI factor 2. Noise increased, SNR and CNR decreased with PI factor. However mSENSE 2 scores were not always significantly different from acquisition without PI. For PASL at 3T, the 32-channel coil at 3T provided better quality than the 12-channel coil. With the 32-channel coil, mSENSE 2 seemed to offer the best compromise for decreasing artifacts without significantly reducing SNR, CNR. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Hippocampal blood flow in normal aging measured with arterial spin labeling at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Rusinek, Henry; Brys, Miroslaw; Glodzik, Lidia; Switalski, Remigiusz; Tsui, Wai-Hon; Haas, Francois; Mcgorty, Kellyanne; Chen, Qun; de Leon, Mony J.

    2011-01-01

    Due to methodological difficulties related to the small size, variable distribution of hippocampal arteries, and the location of the hippocampus in the proximity of middle cranial fossa, little is known about hippocampal blood flow (HBF). We have tested the utility of a pulsed ASL sequence based on multi-shot TrueFISP to measure HBF in 34 normal volunteers (17 women, 17 men, 26-92 years old). Flow sensitivity to a mild hypercapnic challenge was also examined. Coregistered 3D MPRAGE sequence was used to eliminate from hippocampal and cortical regions of interest all voxel with <75% of gray matter. Large blood vessels were also excluded. HBF in normal volunteers averaged 61.2±9.0 ml/(100g min). There was no statistically significant age or gender effect. Under a mild hypercapnia challenge (end tidal CO2 pressure increase of 6.8±1.9 mg Hg over the baseline), HBF response was 14.1±10.8 ml/(100g min), whereas cortical gray matter flow increased by 18.0±12.2 ml/(100g min). Flow response among women was significantly larger than in the men. The average absolute difference between two successive HBF measures was 3.6 ml/(100g min), or 5.4%. The 3T TrueFISP ASL method offers a HBF measurement strategy that combines good spatial resolution, sensitivity, and minimal image distortions. PMID:20939094

  18. Association of Collateral Blood Vessels Detected by Arterial Spin Labeling Magnetic Resonance Imaging With Neurological Outcome After Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    de Havenon, Adam; Haynor, David R; Tirschwell, David L; Majersik, Jennifer J; Smith, Gordon; Cohen, Wendy; Andre, Jalal B

    2017-04-01

    Robust collateral blood vessels have been associated with better neurologic outcome following acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The most commonly used methods for identifying collaterals are contrast-based angiographic imaging techniques, which are not possible in all patients after AIS. To assess the association between the presence of collateral vessels identified using arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging, a technique that does not require exogenous administration of contrast, and neurologic outcome in patients after AIS. This retrospective cohort study examined 38 patients after AIS admitted to a tertiary academic medical center between 2012 and 2014 who underwent MRI with ASL. According to a prespecified hypothesis, ASL images were graded for the presence of collaterals by 2 neuroradiologists. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at discharge and other composite data were abstracted from the medical record by a neurologist blinded to radiologic data. Of the 38 patients, 19 (50.0%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 61 (20) years. In 25 of 38 patients (65.8%), collaterals were detected using ASL, which were significantly associated with both a good outcome (mRS score of 0-2 at discharge; P = .02) and a 1-point decrease in mRS score at discharge (odds ratio, 6.4; 95% CI, 1.7-23.4; P = .005). In a multivariable ordinal logistic regression model, controlling for admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, history of atrial fibrillation, premorbid mRS score, and stroke parent artery status, there was a strong association between the presence of ASL collaterals and a 1-point decrease in the mRS score at discharge (odds ratio, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.2-22.1; P = .03). Following AIS, the presence of ASL collaterals is strongly associated with better neurological outcome at hospital discharge. This novel association between ASL collaterals and improved neurologic outcome may help guide prognosis and management, particularly in patients

  19. Resting Cerebral Blood Flow Alterations in Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury: An Arterial Spin Labeling Perfusion fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, John; Patel, Sunil; Avants, Brian; Europa, Eduardo; Wang, Jiongjiong; Slattery, John; Gee, James C.; Coslett, H. Branch; Detre, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Non-invasive measurement of resting state cerebral blood flow (CBF) may reflect alterations of brain structure and function after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, previous imaging studies of resting state brain in chronic TBI have been limited by several factors, including measurement in relative rather than absolute units, use of crude spatial registration methods, exclusion of subjects with substantial focal lesions, and exposure to ionizing radiation, which limits repeated assessments. This study aimed to overcome those obstacles by measuring absolute CBF with an arterial spin labeling perfusion fMRI technique, and using an image preprocessing protocol that is optimized for brains with mixed diffuse and focal injuries characteristic of moderate and severe TBI. Resting state CBF was quantified in 27 individuals with moderate to severe TBI in the chronic stage, and 22 demographically matched healthy controls. In addition to global CBF reductions in the TBI subjects, more prominent regional hypoperfusion was found in the posterior cingulate cortices, the thalami, and multiple locations in the frontal cortices. Diffuse injury, as assessed by tensor-based morphometry, was mainly associated with reduced CBF in the posterior cingulate cortices and the thalami, where the greatest volume losses were detected. Hypoperfusion in superior and middle frontal cortices, in contrast, was associated with focal lesions. These results suggest that structural lesions, both focal and diffuse, are the main contributors to the absolute CBF alterations seen in chronic TBI, and that CBF may serve as a tool to assess functioning neuronal volume. We also speculate that resting reductions in posterior cingulate perfusion may reflect alterations in the default-mode network, and may contribute to the attentional deficits common in TBI. PMID:20528163

  20. Association of developmental venous anomalies with perfusion abnormalities on arterial spin labeling and bolus perfusion-weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Iv, Michael; Fischbein, Nancy J; Zaharchuk, Greg

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the frequency and characteristics of developmental venous anomaly (DVA)-associated perfusion abnormalities on arterial spin labeling (ASL) and bolus perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) and discuss their potential causes. We reviewed brain MR reports to identify all DVAs reported on studies performed between 2009 and 2012. DVA location and findings on PWI and/or ASL imaging were assessed by visual inspection. Sizes of DVAs were categorized as small (<15 mm), medium (15-25 mm), and large (>25 mm). For ASL, signal in the DVA, surrounding parenchyma, or associated draining vein was recorded. For PWI, changes on hemodynamic maps (cerebral blood volume [CBV], cerebral blood flow [CBF], mean transit time [MTT], and normalized time-to-peak of the residue function [Tmax]) were evaluated. Coexisting vascular malformations in association with DVAs were also identified. Six hundred and fifty-two DVAs were identified in 632 subjects. Of these, 121 underwent both perfusion modalities, 15 only PWI, and 127 only ASL. ASL abnormalities were seen in 21/248 (8%), including signal in a draining vein (2/21, 10%), in the DVA (11/21, 52%), and in the parenchyma (8/21, 38%). On PWI, the majority of DVAs demonstrated abnormalities (108/136, 79%), typically increased CBF, CBV, MTT, and Tmax. There was no association between DVA size and presence of ASL signal (P = .836). Borderline statistical significance was found between DVA size and presence of PWI abnormality (P = .046). No relationship was found between the presence of a coexisting vascular malformation and presence of ASL (P = .468) or PWI abnormality (P = .745). Perfusion changes with DVAs are common on PWI but uncommon on ASL. PWI findings are expected based on the anatomy and physiology of DVAs and are accentuated by gradient echo acquisition. DVAs with intrinsic ASL signal or signal in draining veins may be associated with arteriovenous shunting (transitional lesions). Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of

  1. The Cerebral Blood Flow Biomedical Informatics Research Network (CBFBIRN) database and analysis pipeline for arterial spin labeling MRI data

    PubMed Central

    Shin, David D.; Ozyurt, I. Burak; Liu, Thomas T.

    2013-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a magnetic resonance imaging technique that provides a non-invasive and quantitative measure of cerebral blood flow (CBF). After more than a decade of active research, ASL is now emerging as a robust and reliable CBF measurement technique with increased availability and ease of use. There is a growing number of research and clinical sites using ASL for neuroscience research and clinical care. In this paper, we present an online CBF Database and Analysis Pipeline, collectively called the Cerebral Blood Flow Biomedical Informatics Research Network (CBFBIRN) that allows researchers to upload and share ASL and clinical data. In addition to serving the role as a central data repository, the CBFBIRN provides a streamlined data processing infrastructure for CBF quantification and group analysis, which has the potential to accelerate the discovery of new scientific and clinical knowledge. All capabilities and features built into the CBFBIRN are accessed online using a web browser through a secure login. In this work, we begin with a general description of the CBFBIRN system data model and its architecture, then devote the remainder of the paper to the CBFBIRN capabilities. The latter part of our work is divided into two processing modules: (1) Data Upload and CBF Quantification Module; (2) Group Analysis Module that supports three types of analysis commonly used in neuroscience research. To date, the CBFBIRN hosts CBF maps and associated clinical data from more than 1,300 individual subjects. The data have been contributed by more than 20 different research studies, investigating the effect of various conditions on CBF including Alzheimer’s, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, traumatic brain injury, HIV, caffeine usage, and methamphetamine abuse. Several example results, generated by the CBFBIRN processing modules, are presented. We conclude with the lessons learned during implementation and deployment of the CBFBIRN and our

  2. Respiratory motion prediction and prospective correction for free-breathing arterial spin-labeled perfusion MRI of the kidneys.

    PubMed

    Song, Hao; Ruan, Dan; Liu, Wenyang; Stenger, V Andrew; Pohmann, Rolf; Fernández-Seara, Maria A; Nair, Tejas; Jung, Sungkyu; Luo, Jingqin; Motai, Yuichi; Ma, Jingfei; Hazle, John D; Gach, H Michael

    2017-03-01

    Respiratory motion prediction using an artificial neural network (ANN) was integrated with pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) MRI to allow free-breathing perfusion measurements in the kidney. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the ANN to accurately predict the location of the kidneys during image acquisition. A pencil-beam navigator was integrated with a pCASL sequence to measure lung/diaphragm motion during ANN training and the pCASL transit delay. The ANN algorithm ran concurrently in the background to predict organ location during the 0.7-s 15-slice acquisition based on the navigator data. The predictions were supplied to the pulse sequence to prospectively adjust the axial slice acquisition to match the predicted organ location. Additional navigators were acquired immediately after the multislice acquisition to assess the performance and accuracy of the ANN. The technique was tested in eight healthy volunteers. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) for the eight volunteers were 1.91 ± 0.17 mm and 1.43 ± 0.17 mm, respectively, for the ANN. The RMSE increased with transit delay. The MAE typically increased from the first to last prediction in the image acquisition. The overshoot was 23.58% ± 3.05% using the target prediction accuracy of ± 1 mm. Respiratory motion prediction with prospective motion correction was successfully demonstrated for free-breathing perfusion MRI of the kidney. The method serves as an alternative to multiple breathholds and requires minimal effort from the patient. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  3. Static and dynamic functional connectivity in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: use of arterial spin labelling fMRI.

    PubMed

    Boissoneault, Jeff; Letzen, Janelle; Lai, Song; Robinson, Michael E; Staud, Roland

    2016-09-28

    Studies using arterial spin labelling (ASL) have shown that individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have decreased regional cerebral blood flow, which may be associated with changes in functional neural networks. Indeed, recent studies indicate disruptions in functional connectivity (FC) at rest in chronically fatigued patients including perturbations in static FC (sFC), that is average FC at rest between several brain regions subserving neurocognitive, motor and affect-related networks. Whereas sFC often provides information of functional network reorganization in chronic illnesses, investigations of temporal changes in functional connectivity between multiple brain areas may shed light on the dynamic characteristics of brain network activation associated with such maladies. We used ASL fMRI in 19 patients with CFS and 15 healthy controls (HC) to examine both static and dynamic changes in FC among several a priori selected brain regions during a fatiguing cognitive task. HC showed greater increases than CFS in static FC (sFC) between insula and temporo-occipital structures and between precuneus and thalamus/striatum. Furthermore, inferior frontal gyrus connectivity to cerebellum, occipital and temporal structures declined in HC but increased in CFS. Patients also showed lower dynamic FC (dFC) between hippocampus and right superior parietal lobule. Both sFC and dFC correlated with task-related fatigue increases. These data provide the first evidence that perturbations in static and dynamic FC may underlie chronically fatigued patients' report of task-induced fatigue. Further research will determine whether such changes in sFC and dFC are also characteristic for other fatigued individuals, including patients with chronic pain, cancer and multiple sclerosis.

  4. Assessment of Alzheimer’s Disease Risk with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: An Arterial Spin Labeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Bangen, Katherine J.; Restom, Khaled; Liu, Thomas T.; Wierenga, Christina E.; Jak, Amy J.; Salmon, David P.; Bondi, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of older adults at risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by virtue of their cognitive (i.e., mild cognitive impairment [MCI]) and/or genetic (i.e., apolipoprotein E [APOE] ε4 allele) status demonstrate divergent brain response patterns during memory encoding across studies. Using arterial spin labeling MRI, we examined the influence of AD risk on resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) as well as the CBF and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal response to memory encoding in the medial temporal lobes (MTL) in 45 older adults (29 cognitively normal [14 APOE ε4 carriers and 15 noncarriers]; 16 MCI [8 APOE ε4 carriers, 8 noncarriers]). Risk groups were comparable in terms of mean age, years of education, gender distribution, and vascular risk burden. Individuals at genetic risk for AD by virtue of the APOE ε4 allele demonstrated increased MTL resting state CBF relative to ε4 noncarriers, whereas individuals characterized as MCI showed decreased MTL resting state CBF relative to their cognitively normal peers. For percent change CBF, there was a trend toward a cognitive status by genotype interaction. In the cognitively normal group, there was no difference in percent change CBF based on APOE genotype. In contrast, in the MCI group, APOE ε4 carriers demonstrated significantly greater percent change in CBF relative to ε4 noncarriers. No group differences were found for BOLD response. Findings suggest that abnormal resting state CBF and CBF response to memory encoding may be early indicators of brain dysfunction in individuals at risk for developing AD. PMID:22531427

  5. Cerebral blood flow quantification in the rat: a direct comparison of arterial spin labeling MRI with radioactive microsphere PET

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging (ASL-MRI) has been recognised as a valuable method for non-invasive assessment of cerebral blood flow but validation studies regarding quantification accuracy by comparison against an accepted gold standard are scarce, especially in small animals. We have conducted the present study with the aim of comparing ASL flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR)-derived unidirectional water uptake (K1) and 68Ga/64Cu microsphere (MS)-derived blood flow (f) in the rat brain. Methods In 15 animals, K1and f were determined successively in dedicated small animal positron emission tomography and MR scanners. The Renkin-Crone model modified by a scaling factor was used for the quantification of f and K1. Results Below about 1 mL/min/mL, we obtain an approximately linear relationship between f and K1. At higher flow values, the limited permeability of water at the blood brain barrier becomes apparent. Within the accessed dynamic flow range (0.2 to 1.9 mL/min/mL), the data are adequately described by the Renkin-Crone model yielding a permeability surface area product of (1.53±0.46) mL/min/mL. Conclusion The ASL-FAIR technique is suitable for absolute blood flow quantification in the rat brain when using a one-compartment model including a suitable extraction correction for data evaluation. Trial registration 24-9168.21-4/2004-1 (registered in Freistadt Sachsen, Landesdirektion Dresden) PMID:22978819

  6. Partial volume correction of brain perfusion estimates using the inherent signal data of time-resolved arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Ahlgren, André; Wirestam, Ronnie; Petersen, Esben Thade; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Knutsson, Linda

    2014-09-01

    Quantitative perfusion MRI based on arterial spin labeling (ASL) is hampered by partial volume effects (PVEs), arising due to voxel signal cross-contamination between different compartments. To address this issue, several partial volume correction (PVC) methods have been presented. Most previous methods rely on segmentation of a high-resolution T1 -weighted morphological image volume that is coregistered to the low-resolution ASL data, making the result sensitive to errors in the segmentation and coregistration. In this work, we present a methodology for partial volume estimation and correction, using only low-resolution ASL data acquired with the QUASAR sequence. The methodology consists of a T1 -based segmentation method, with no spatial priors, and a modified PVC method based on linear regression. The presented approach thus avoids prior assumptions about the spatial distribution of brain compartments, while also avoiding coregistration between different image volumes. Simulations based on a digital phantom as well as in vivo measurements in 10 volunteers were used to assess the performance of the proposed segmentation approach. The simulation results indicated that QUASAR data can be used for robust partial volume estimation, and this was confirmed by the in vivo experiments. The proposed PVC method yielded probable perfusion maps, comparable to a reference method based on segmentation of a high-resolution morphological scan. Corrected gray matter (GM) perfusion was 47% higher than uncorrected values, suggesting a significant amount of PVEs in the data. Whereas the reference method failed to completely eliminate the dependence of perfusion estimates on the volume fraction, the novel approach produced GM perfusion values independent of GM volume fraction. The intra-subject coefficient of variation of corrected perfusion values was lowest for the proposed PVC method. As shown in this work, low-resolution partial volume estimation in connection with ASL perfusion

  7. Resting cerebral blood flow alterations in chronic traumatic brain injury: an arterial spin labeling perfusion FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junghoon; Whyte, John; Patel, Sunil; Avants, Brian; Europa, Eduardo; Wang, Jiongjiong; Slattery, John; Gee, James C; Coslett, H Branch; Detre, John A

    2010-08-01

    Non-invasive measurement of resting state cerebral blood flow (CBF) may reflect alterations of brain structure and function after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, previous imaging studies of resting state brain in chronic TBI have been limited by several factors, including measurement in relative rather than absolute units, use of crude spatial registration methods, exclusion of subjects with substantial focal lesions, and exposure to ionizing radiation, which limits repeated assessments. This study aimed to overcome those obstacles by measuring absolute CBF with an arterial spin labeling perfusion fMRI technique, and using an image preprocessing protocol that is optimized for brains with mixed diffuse and focal injuries characteristic of moderate and severe TBI. Resting state CBF was quantified in 27 individuals with moderate to severe TBI in the chronic stage, and 22 demographically matched healthy controls. In addition to global CBF reductions in the TBI subjects, more prominent regional hypoperfusion was found in the posterior cingulate cortices, the thalami, and multiple locations in the frontal cortices. Diffuse injury, as assessed by tensor-based morphometry, was mainly associated with reduced CBF in the posterior cingulate cortices and the thalami, where the greatest volume losses were detected. Hypoperfusion in superior and middle frontal cortices, in contrast, was associated with focal lesions. These results suggest that structural lesions, both focal and diffuse, are the main contributors to the absolute CBF alterations seen in chronic TBI, and that CBF may serve as a tool to assess functioning neuronal volume. We also speculate that resting reductions in posterior cingulate perfusion may reflect alterations in the default-mode network, and may contribute to the attentional deficits common in TBI.

  8. Comparison of Arterial Spin Labeling and Bolus Perfusion-Weighted Imaging for Detecting Mismatch in Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zaharchuk, Greg; El Mogy, Ibraheem S.; Fischbein, Nancy J.; Albers, Gregory W.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE The perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) – diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) mismatch paradigm is widely used in stroke imaging studies. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an alternative perfusion method that does not require contrast. This study compares the agreement of ASL-DWI and PWI-DWI mismatch classification in stroke patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a retrospective study drawn from all 1.5T MRI studies performed in 2010 at a single institution. Inclusion criteria were: symptom onset<5 days, DWI lesion>10 ml, acquisition of both PWI and ASL. DWI and PWI-Tmax>6 sec lesion volumes were determined using automated software. Patients were classified into reperfused, matched, or mismatch groups. Two radiologists classified ASL-DWI qualitatively into the same categories, blinded to DWI-PWI. Agreement between both individual readers and methods was assessed. RESULTS 51 studies met the inclusion criteria. Seven cases were excluded (1 due to PWI susceptibility artifact, 2 due to motion, and 4 due to severe ASL borderzone sign), resulting in 44 studies for comparison. Inter-rater agreement for ASL–DWI mismatch status was high (κ =0.92, 95% CI 0.80–1.00). ASL-DWI and PWI-DWI mismatch categories agreed in 25/44 cases (57%). In the 16 of 19 discrepant cases (84%), ASL overestimated the PWI lesion size. In 34/44 cases (77%), they agreed regarding the presence of mismatch versus no mismatch. CONCLUSION Mismatch classification based on ASL and PWI agree frequently but not perfectly. ASL tends to overestimate the PWI-Tmax lesion volume. Improved ASL methodologies and/or higher field strength are necessary before ASL can be recommended for routine use in acute stroke. PMID:22539548

  9. Implication of cerebral circulation time in intracranial stenosis measured by digital subtraction angiography on cerebral blood flow estimation measured by arterial spin labeling

    PubMed Central

    Jann, Kay; Hauf, Martinus; Kellner-Weldon, Frauke; El-Koussy, Marwan; Kiefer, Claus; Federspiel, Andrea; Schroth, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging to assess cerebral blood flow (CBF) is of increasing interest in basic research and in diagnostic applications, since ASL provides similar information to positron emission tomography about perfusion in vascular territories. However, in patients with steno-occlusive arterial disease (SOAD), CBF as measured by ASL might be underestimated due to delayed bolus arrival, and thus increased spin relaxation. We aimed to estimate the extent to which bolus arrival time (BAT) was delayed in patients with SOAD and whether this resulted in underestimation of CBF. METHODS BAT was measured using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in ten patients with high-grade stenosis of the middle carotid artery (MCA). Regional CBF was assessed with pseudocontinuous ASL. RESULTS BATs were nonsignificantly prolonged in the stenotic hemisphere 4.1±2.0 s compared with the healthy hemisphere 3.3±0.9 s; however, there were substantial individual differences on the stenotic side. CBF in the anterior and posterior MCA territories were significantly reduced on the stenotic hemisphere. Severe stenosis was correlated with longer BAT and lower quantified CBF. CONCLUSION ASL-based perfusion measurement involves a race between the decay of the spins and the delivery of labeled blood to the region of interest. Special caution is needed when interpreting CBF values quantified in individuals with altered blood flow and delayed circulation times. However, from a clinician’s point of view, an accentuation of hypoperfusion (even if caused by underestimation of CBF due to prolonged BATs) might be desirable since it indexes potentially harmful physiologic deficits. PMID:27411297

  10. Cine-ASL: a steady-pulsed arterial spin labeling method for myocardial perfusion mapping in mice. Part I. Experimental study.

    PubMed

    Troalen, Thomas; Capron, Thibaut; Cozzone, Patrick J; Bernard, Monique; Kober, Frank

    2013-11-01

    Arterial spin labeling has been developed and used for the quantitative and completely noninvasive assessment of myocardial perfusion in vivo. Here we propose a novel arterial spin labeling method called cine-ASL, which is based on an electrocardiogram-gated steady-pulsed labeling approach combined with simultaneous readout over the cardiac cycle using cine-fast low-angle shot. This method led to shorter acquisition times than the previously used Look-Locker flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery gradient-echo technique while preserving spatial resolution and robustness with respect to cardiac motion. High resolution perfusion mapping (in-plane resolution = 195 μm × 391 μm) was carried out with both techniques at 4.7 T in a group of 14 healthy mice. Mean perfusion values were 5.0 ± 0.8 mL g(-1) min(-1) with cine-ASL and 5.9 ± 1.4 mL g(-1) min(-1) with Look-Locker flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery. In one animal, physiological stress was induced with higher anesthetic concentration to evaluate the response of both methods under vasodilation. Global myocardial perfusion increased from 5.6 to 16.0 mL g(-1) min(-1) with cine-ASL and from 6.3 to 18.7 mL g(-1) min(-1) with Look-Locker flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery. Although this original scheme requires a separate T1 measurement to be fully quantitative, it improves arterial spin labeling sensitivity while maintaining compatibility with motion constraints in cardiac MRI in small rodents.

  11. 3.0 T MRI arterial spin labeling and magnetic resonance spectroscopy technology in the application of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jian-Xun; Wang, Ming-Jie; Lei, Xin-Jun; Chen, Xu-Gao

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and spectrum variables in the posterior cingulate region of patients with AD under the detection of arterial spin labeling (ASL) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). A total of 20 AD patients (8 males and 12 females; mean age, 64.84±8.82 years) and 20 healthy controls (9 males and 11 females; mean age, 64.94±7.93 years) were included in this study for analysis. All images were obtained using a 3.0-T MR imager and an 8-channel head array receiving coil. MRS measurements were conducted exploring variables of metabolite ratios. Statistical analyses were conducted with the SPSS 11.0 statistical software package. Findings in the present study revealed a significant difference in the mean MMSE scores between the AD group and the healthy control group (16.21±4.01 vs. 27.35±1.01, P<0.01). Compared with the healthy control group, CBF in the bilateral frontal region showed a significant decrease in the AD group (right frontal: 83.5±7.2 vs. 110±11.5, P<0.05; left frontal: 85.6±8.1 vs. 108.7±12.2, P<0.05, respectively), and a similar association was also observed in the TL, TPJ, parietal, and hippocampal regions (all P<0.05). MRS imaging in the posterior cingulate region showed a significant reduction in the NAA/Cr ratio in the AD group (1.43±0.1 vs. 1.49±0.0, P<0.05). Additionally, we found that the MI/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios were higher than normal controls in patients with AD (all P<0.05). Our results suggested that 3D ASL detection combined with MRS in studying AD could show the regional hypo-perfusion with the decrease of CBF and the abnormal metabolic changes of the posterior cingulate cortex.

  12. 1D.09: APPLICABILITY OF MEASUREMENT OF RENAL PERFUSION USING 1.5 TESLA MRI ARTERIAL SPIN LABELLING.

    PubMed

    Kistner, I; Ott, C; Jumar, A; Friedrich, S; Grosso, R; Siegl, C; Schmieder, R E; Janka, R

    2015-06-01

    Renal perfusion is a key parameter of kidney function and the decrement of renal perfusion is a marker of target organ damage caused by hypertension. Detecting these changes in renal perfusion could help to manage antihypertensive therapy and evaluate patients[Combining Acute Accent] prognosis. Measurement of renal perfusion by MRI arterial spin labelling (ASL) is a non-invasive and non-time-consuming method without the need to inject any contrast agent. This study examined reproducibility of renal perfusion measured by 1.5 Tesla MRI. Renal perfusion was measured by ASL technique using an 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. Subjects were scanned 3 times at two different days in an interval of two weeks to assess the test-retest reproducibility. Renal perfusion was automatically calculated for the cortex and medulla of the kidney by dedicated software. 14 patients were included with mean age 48.9 ± 12.7 and mean office blood pressure 132 ± 16/82 ± 10mmHg and estimated glomerular filtration rate> 60 ml/min/1.73m. The change of the mean total, cortical and medullary renal perfusion from the first examination to the second examination was 0.37 ± 13/0.62 ± 18/0.00 ± 12 ml/min/100 g kidney weight (p = 0.915/p = 0.898/p = 0.998), respectively. There was also no significant difference between the three renal perfusion measurements at one time point. For clinical trials these data indicate that to detect a 5% (10%) difference of cortical renal perfusion due to an intervention (vs placebo) only 38 (14) patients are required in face of the observed standard deviation for the change in renal perfusion. The inter and intra-session reproducibility of cortical renal perfusion assessed by MRI ASL 1.5 Tesla is excellent and small study cohorts can be used for examination of renal perfusion.

  13. Perfusion MR imaging of enhancing brain tumors: Comparison of arterial spin labeling technique with dynamic susceptibility contrast technique.

    PubMed

    Soni, Neetu; Dhanota, Devender Pal S; Kumar, Sunil; Jaiswal, Awadhesh K; Srivastava, Arun K

    2017-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion is a noninvasive and repeatable method for quantitatively measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF). This study aims to compare measurements of ASL-derived CBF with dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI in the assessment of enhancing brain tumors (primary and metastatic), with an aim to use ASL as an alternative to DSC. Thirty patients with newly diagnosed brain tumors (16 meningiomas, 6 gliomas, 3 metastases, 2 cerebellopontine angle schwannoma, 1 central neurocytoma, and 2 low-grade gliomas) were examined using a 3T MR scanner. Values of CBF, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), and regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) were determined in the tumor (T) as well as in the contralateral normal gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM). Tumor-to-GM or WM CBF, rCBF, and rCBV ratios were calculated to estimate normalized perfusion values (i.e., ASL normalized tumor blood flow [nTBF], DSC nTBF, and DSC normalized tumor blood volume [nTBV]) from the ASL and DSC techniques. ASL and DSC MRI derived perfusion parameters were compared using paired t-test and correlated using Pearson correlation coefficient. Mean values for ASL nTBF and DSC nTBF using contralateral GM as the reference point were 2.98 ± 1.67and 2.91 ± 1.43, respectively. A very strong correlation coefficient was found between ASL nTBF and DSC nTBF with contralateral GM as the reference region (r = 0.903; R2= 0.813). Mean DSC nTBF and DSC nTBV also showed strong correlation (r = 0.83; R2= 0.701). Our study results suggested that measurement of CBF from ASL possesses the potential for a noninvasive assessment of blood flow in intracranial tumors as an alternate to DSC MRI, in those patients requiring multiple follow-up imaging and in patients with impaired renal functions.

  14. Arterial spin labeling in combination with a look-locker sampling strategy: inflow turbo-sampling EPI-FAIR (ITS-FAIR).

    PubMed

    Günther, M; Bock, M; Schad, L R

    2001-11-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) permits quantification of tissue perfusion without the use of MR contrast agents. With standard ASL techniques such as flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) the signal from arterial blood is measured at a fixed inversion delay after magnetic labeling. As no image information is sampled during this delay, FAIR measurements are inefficient and time-consuming. In this work the FAIR preparation was combined with a Look-Locker acquisition to sample not one but a series of images after each labeling pulse. This new method allows monitoring of the temporal dynamics of blood inflow. To quantify perfusion, a theoretical model for the signal dynamics during the Look-Locker readout was developed and applied. Also, the imaging parameters of the new ITS-FAIR technique were optimized using an expression for the variance of the calculated perfusion. For the given scanner hardware the parameters were: temporal resolution 100 ms, 23 images, flip-angle 25.4 degrees. In a normal volunteer experiment with these parameters an average perfusion value of 48.2 +/- 12.1 ml/100 g/min was measured in the brain. With the ability to obtain ITS-FAIR time series with high temporal resolution arterial transit times in the range of -138 - 1054 ms were measured, where nonphysical negative values were found in voxels containing large vessels. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. A theoretical framework for quantifying blood volume flow rate from dynamic angiographic data and application to vessel-encoded arterial spin labeling MRI☆

    PubMed Central

    Okell, Thomas W.; Chappell, Michael A.; Jezzard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Angiographic methods can provide valuable information on vessel morphology and hemodynamics, but are often qualitative in nature, somewhat limiting their ability for comparison across arteries and subjects. In this work we present a method for quantifying absolute blood volume flow rates within large vessels using dynamic angiographic data. First, a kinetic model incorporating relative blood volume, bolus dispersion and signal attenuation is fitted to the data. A self-calibration method is also described for both 2D and 3D data sets to convert the relative blood volume parameter into absolute units. The parameter values are then used to simulate the signal arising from a very short bolus, in the absence of signal attenuation, which can be readily encompassed within a vessel mask of interest. The volume flow rate can then be determined by calculating the resultant blood volume within the vessel mask divided by the simulated bolus duration. This method is applied to non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging data from a flow phantom and also to the cerebral arteries of healthy volunteers acquired using a 2D vessel-encoded pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling pulse sequence. This allows the quantitative flow contribution in downstream vessels to be determined from each major brain-feeding artery. Excellent agreement was found between the actual and estimated flow rates in the phantom, particularly below 4.5 ml/s, typical of the cerebral vasculature. Flow rates measured in healthy volunteers were generally consistent with values found in the literature. This method is likely to be of use in patients with a variety of cerebrovascular diseases, such as the assessment of collateral flow in patients with steno-occlusive disease or the evaluation of arteriovenous malformations. PMID:23871963

  16. A theoretical framework for quantifying blood volume flow rate from dynamic angiographic data and application to vessel-encoded arterial spin labeling MRI.

    PubMed

    Okell, Thomas W; Chappell, Michael A; Jezzard, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Angiographic methods can provide valuable information on vessel morphology and hemodynamics, but are often qualitative in nature, somewhat limiting their ability for comparison across arteries and subjects. In this work we present a method for quantifying absolute blood volume flow rates within large vessels using dynamic angiographic data. First, a kinetic model incorporating relative blood volume, bolus dispersion and signal attenuation is fitted to the data. A self-calibration method is also described for both 2D and 3D data sets to convert the relative blood volume parameter into absolute units. The parameter values are then used to simulate the signal arising from a very short bolus, in the absence of signal attenuation, which can be readily encompassed within a vessel mask of interest. The volume flow rate can then be determined by calculating the resultant blood volume within the vessel mask divided by the simulated bolus duration. This method is applied to non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging data from a flow phantom and also to the cerebral arteries of healthy volunteers acquired using a 2D vessel-encoded pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling pulse sequence. This allows the quantitative flow contribution in downstream vessels to be determined from each major brain-feeding artery. Excellent agreement was found between the actual and estimated flow rates in the phantom, particularly below 4.5 ml/s, typical of the cerebral vasculature. Flow rates measured in healthy volunteers were generally consistent with values found in the literature. This method is likely to be of use in patients with a variety of cerebrovascular diseases, such as the assessment of collateral flow in patients with steno-occlusive disease or the evaluation of arteriovenous malformations. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Regional and voxel-wise comparisons of blood flow measurements between dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) in brain tumors.

    PubMed

    White, Carissa M; Pope, Whitney B; Zaw, Taryar; Qiao, Joe; Naeini, Kourosh M; Lai, Albert; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L; Wang, J J; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Ellingson, Benjamin M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the regional and voxel-wise correlation between dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with brain tumors. Thirty patients with histologically verified brain tumors were evaluated in the current study. DSC-MRI was performed by first using a preload dose of gadolinium contrast, then collecting a dynamic image acquisition during a bolus of contrast, followed by posthoc contrast agent leakage correction. Pseudocontinuous ASL was collected using 30 pairs of tag and control acquisition using a 3-dimensional gradient-echo spin-echo (GRASE) acquisition. All images were registered to a high-resolution anatomical atlas. Average CBF measurements within regions of contrast-enhancement and T2 hyperintensity were evaluated between the two modalities. Additionally, voxel-wise correlation between CBF measurements obtained with DSC and ASL were assessed. Results demonstrated a positive linear correlation between DSC and ASL measurements of CBF when regional average values were compared; however, a statistically significant voxel-wise correlation was only observed in around 30-40% of patients. These results suggest DSC and ASL may provide regionally similar, but spatially different measurements of CBF.

  18. [Abnormal cerebral blood flow distributions during the post-ictal phase of febrile status epilepticus in three pediatric patients measured by arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI].

    PubMed

    Hirano, Keiko; Fukuda, Tokiko

    2016-05-01

    The ability to visualize brain perfusion is important for identifying epileptic foci. We present three pediatric cases showing asymmetrical cerebral blood flow (CBF) distributions during the post-ictal phase of febrile status epilepticus measured by arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI. During the acute phase, regional CBF measurements in the areas considered including epileptic foci were higher than in the corresponding area of the contralateral hemisphere, though the exact quantitative value varied between cases. We could not identify the correct epileptogenic foci, because those ASL images were taken after the prolonged and extraordinary activation of neurons in the affected area. During the recovery phase, the differences reduced and the average regional CBF measurement was 54.6 ± 6.1 ml/100 g per minute, which was a little less than the number of previous ASL studies. ASL perfusion MRI imaging provides a method for evaluating regional CBF by using magnetically labeled arterial blood water as an endogenous tracer. With this technique, we can repeatedly evaluate both the brain structure and the level of perfusion at the same time. ASL is noninvasive and easily accessible, and therefore it could become a routine tool for assessment of perfusion in daily practice of pediatric neurology.

  19. Quantitative assessment of cerebral hemodynamic parameters by QUASAR arterial spin labeling in Alzheimer's disease and cognitively normal Elderly adults at 3-tesla.

    PubMed

    Mak, Henry K F; Chan, Queenie; Zhang, Zhipeng; Petersen, Esben T; Qiu, Deqiang; Zhang, Linda; Yau, Kelvin K W; Chu, Leung-Wing; Golay, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    QUASAR arterial spin labeling (ASL) was used to investigate the role of vascular impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We hypothesized that the hemodynamic parameters monitoring cerebrovascular integrity, i.e., cerebral blood flow (CBF), arterial blood volume (aBV), and arterial transit time (aTT), would be affected. 13 AD patients and 15 healthy control (HC) subjects underwent 3T MRI scanning. Two separate blood flow acquisitions were obtained with 1 slice overlap for whole brain coverage. CBF, aBV, and aTT maps were calculated using in-house software. Preprocessing and statistical analyses were performed on SPM5. Region-of-interest (ROI) studies of ten selected cerebral regions were also conducted. There were significant differences in mini mental status exam (MMSE) (AD: 16.3 ± 4.55, HC: 28.5 ± 2.00) and Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) scores (AD: 25.25 ± 9.64, HC: 5.51 ± 2.62) between the 2 groups (p < 0.001) but none in age (p = 0.068). CBF decreased significantly (p < 0.01) in AD compared to controls in the right middle cingulate, left cuneus, left inferior and middle frontal, right superior frontal, left inferior parietal, and right supramarginal gyri. ROI studies confirmed significant hemodynamic impairments in AD compared to HC (p < 0.05): CBF in middle and posterior cingulate, aBV in left superior temporal, right inferior parietal, and posterior cingulate, and aTT in left inferior frontal and middle cingulate gyri. CBF correlated positively while aTT correlated negatively to MMSE, and vice versa for ADAS-cog. Using QUASAR ASL, we found patterns of regional hemodynamic impairment typical of moderate AD, suggesting underlying vascular abnormality. As potential biomarkers, these hemodynamic parameters could differentiate patients from volunteers, and possibly indicate the conversion from healthy aging to mild cognitive impairment to AD.

  20. Longitudinal Assessment of Renal Perfusion and Oxygenation in Transplant Donor-Recipient Pairs Using Arterial Spin Labeling and Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Niles, David J; Artz, Nathan S; Djamali, Arjang; Sadowski, Elizabeth A; Grist, Thomas M; Fain, Sean B

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess renal function in kidney transplant recipients and their respective donors over 2 years using arterial spin labeling (ASL) and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to prospectively evaluate the effect of losartan on functional MRI measures in recipients. The study included 15 matched pairs of renal transplant donors and recipients. Arterial spin labeling and BOLD MRI of the kidneys were performed on donors before transplant surgery (baseline) and on both donors and recipients at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years after transplant. After 3 months, 7 of the 15 recipients were prescribed 25 to 50 mg/d losartan for the remainder of the study. A linear mixed-effects model was used to evaluate perfusion, R2*, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and fractional excretion of sodium for changes across time or associated with losartan treatment. In donors, cortical perfusion in the remaining kidney decreased by 50 ± 19 mL/min per 100 g (11.8%) between baseline and 2 years (P < 0.05), while cortical R2* declined modestly by 0.7 ± 0.3 s-1 (5.6%; P < 0.05). In transplanted kidneys, cortical perfusion decreased markedly by 141 ± 21 mL/min per 100 g (34.2%) between baseline and 2 years (P < 0.001), while medullary R2* declined by 1.5 ± 0.8 s-1 (8.3%; P = 0.06). Single-kidney estimated glomerular filtration rate increased between baseline and 2 years by 17.7 ± 2.7 mL/min per 1.73 m (40.3%; P < 0.0001) in donors and to 14.6 ± 4.3 mL/min per 1.73 m (33.3%; P < 0.01) in recipients. Cortical perfusion at 1 and 2 years in recipients receiving 25 to 50 mg/d losartan was 62 ± 24 mL/min per 100 g higher than recipients not receiving the drug (P < 0.05). No significant effects of losartan were observed for any other markers of renal function. The results suggest an important role for noninvasive functional monitoring with ASL and BOLD MRI in kidney transplant recipients and donors, and they indicate a potentially

  1. Simultaneous PET/MR imaging of the brain: feasibility of cerebral blood flow measurements with FAIR-TrueFISP arterial spin labeling MRI.

    PubMed

    Stegger, Lars; Martirosian, Petros; Schwenzer, Nina; Bisdas, Sotirios; Kolb, Armin; Pfannenberg, Christina; Claussen, Claus D; Pichler, Bernd; Schick, Fritz; Boss, Andreas

    2012-11-01

    Hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) with simultaneous data acquisition promises a comprehensive evaluation of cerebral pathophysiology on a molecular, anatomical, and functional level. Considering the necessary changes to the MR scanner design the feasibility of arterial spin labeling (ASL) is unclear. To evaluate whether cerebral blood flow imaging with ASL is feasible using a prototype PET/MRI device. ASL imaging of the brain with Flow-sensitive Alternating Inversion Recovery (FAIR) spin preparation and true fast imaging in steady precession (TrueFISP) data readout was performed in eight healthy volunteers sequentially on a prototype PET/MRI and a stand-alone MR scanner with 128 × 128 and 192 × 192 matrix sizes. Cerebral blood flow values for gray matter, signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios, and relative signal change were compared. Additionally, the feasibility of ASL as part of a clinical hybrid PET/MRI protocol was demonstrated in five patients with intracerebral tumors. Blood flow maps showed good delineation of gray and white matter with no discernible artifacts. The mean blood flow values of the eight volunteers on the PET/MR system were 51 ± 9 and 51 ± 7 mL/100 g/min for the 128 × 128 and 192 × 192 matrices (stand-alone MR, 57 ± 2 and 55 ± 5, not significant). The value for signal-to-noise (SNR) was significantly higher for the PET/MRI system using the 192 × 192 matrix size (P < 0.01), the relative signal change (δS) was significantly lower for the 192 × 192 matrix size (P = 0.02). ASL imaging as part of a clinical hybrid PET/MRI protocol could successfully be accomplished in all patients in diagnostic image quality. ASL brain imaging is feasible with a prototype hybrid PET/MRI scanner, thus adding to the value of this novel imaging technique.

  2. Thyroid perfusion imaging as a diagnostic tool in Graves' disease--arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging vs. colour-coded Doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Müssig, K; Schraml, C; Rietig, R; Martirosian, P; Schwenzer, N F; Claussen, C D; Häring, H-U; Schick, F; Balletshofer, B

    2012-12-01

    Though increased thyroid perfusion assessed by colour-coded Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) is characteristic of Graves' disease (GD), sometimes perfusion assessment by CDUS is not possible. In these cases, arterial spin labelling (ASL), a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique allowing non-invasive thyroid perfusion quantification, may have additional diagnostic value. We aimed to evaluate the potential of ASL-MRI for assessment of increased blood perfusion in patients with GD compared to CDUS. Thyroid perfusion was measured by CDUS (volume flow rate calculated from pulsed wave Doppler signals and vessel diameter) and ASL-MRI at 1.5 T in 7 patients with GD and 10 healthy controls. In patients with GD, average perfusion in both thyroid lobes was markedly increased compared to controls. Both techniques applied for volume related perfusion as well as absolute volume flow in thyroid feeding vessels provided similar results (all p=0.0008). Using a cut-off value of 22 ml/min for the volume flow rate assessed by CDUS in the four feeding vessels allowed discrimination between patients with GD and controls in all cases. After adjusting thyroid perfusion for the differences in organ volume, both CDUS and ASL revealed also complete discrimination between health and disease. Thyroid perfusion measurement by ASL-MRI reliably discriminate GD from normal thyroid glands. In patients in whom thyroid arteries cannot be depicted by CDUS for technical or anatomical reasons, ASL-MRI may have additional diagnostic value. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. The free radical spin-trap alpha-PBN attenuates periinfarct depolarizations following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats without reducing infarct volume.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Thomas; Bruhn, Torben; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    2003-11-14

    The effect of the free radical spin-trap alpha-phenyl-butyl-tert-nitrone (alpha-PBN) in permanent focal cerebral ischemia in rats was examined in two series of experiments. In the first, rats were subjected to permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) and treated 1 h after occlusion with a single dose of alpha-PBN (100 mg/kg) or saline. Body temperature was measured and controlled for the first 24 h to obtain identical temperature curves in the two groups. Cortical infarct volumes were determined on histological sections 7 days later. alpha-PBN did not significantly reduce infarct volume (control: 28.3+/-16.3 mm3 vs. alpha-PBN 23.7+/-7.4 mm3). In the second series of experiments, periinfarct depolarizations (PIDs) were recorded with an extracellular DC electrode at two locations in the ischemic penumbra for the initial 3 h following MCAO. alpha-PBN (100 mg/kg, single dose in conjunction with occlusion) significantly reduced the total number (median value of 3 PIDs in the control groups vs. 1 PID in alpha-PBN groups, p<0.001) and total duration of the PIDs (median value 662 s in the control groups vs. 162 s in the alpha-PBN groups, p<0.006). In spite of this, cortical infarct volumes determined 7 days later in the same rats were not smaller in alpha-PBN-treated rats. The study thus demonstrates that attenuation of PIDs does not always lead to smaller infarcts if permanent arterial occlusion is followed by long survival time and does not support the hypothesis that PIDs per se are critical determinants of infarct size in this situation.

  4. Quantitative measurement of blood flow in paediatric brain tumours—a comparative study of dynamic susceptibility contrast and multi time-point arterial spin labelled MRI

    PubMed Central

    Abernethy, Laurence; Pizer, Barry; Avula, Shivaram; Parkes, Laura M

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Arterial spin-labelling (ASL) MRI uses intrinsic blood water to quantify the cerebral blood flow (CBF), removing the need for the injection of a gadolinium-based contrast agent used for conventional perfusion imaging such as dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC). Owing to the non-invasive nature of the technique, ASL is an attractive option for use in paediatric patients. This work compared DSC and multi-timepoint ASL measures of CBF in paediatric brain tumours. Methods: Patients (n = 23; 20 low-grade tumours and 3 high-grade tumours) had DSC and multi-timepoint ASL with and without vascular crushers (VC). VC removes the contribution from larger vessel blood flow. Mean perfusion metrics were extracted from control and T1-enhanced tumour regions of interest (ROIs): arterial arrival time (AAT) and CBF from the ASL images with and without VC, relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), relative cerebral blood volume, delay time (DT) and mean transit time (MTT) from the DSC images. Results: Significant correlations existed for: AAT and DT (r = 0.77, p = 0.0002) and CBF and rCBF (r = 0.56, p = 0.02) in control ROIs for ASL-noVC. No significant correlations existed between DSC and ASL measures in the tumour region. Significant differences between control and tumour ROI were found for MTT (p < 0.001) and rCBF (p < 0.005) measures. Conclusion: Significant correlations between ASL-noVC and DSC measures in the normal brain suggest that DSC is most sensitive to macrovascular blood flow. The absence of significant correlations within the tumour ROI suggests that ASL is sensitive to different physiological mechanisms compared with DSC measures. Advances in knowledge: ASL provides information which is comparable with that of DSC in healthy tissues, but appears to reflect a different physiology in tumour tissues. PMID:26975495

  5. Arterial Spin Labeling Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Image with Dual Postlabeling Delay: A Correlative Study with Acetazolamide Loading (123)I-Iodoamphetamine Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Haga, Sei; Morioka, Takato; Shimogawa, Takafumi; Akiyama, Tomoaki; Murao, Kei; Kanazawa, Yuka; Sayama, Tetsuro; Arakawa, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    Perfusion magnetic resonance image with arterial spin labeling (ASL) provides a completely noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, arterial transient times can have a marked effect on the ASL signal. For example, a single postlabeling delay (PLD) of 1.5 seconds underestimates the slowly streaming collateral pathways that maintain the cerebrovascular reserve (CVR). To overcome this limitation, we developed a dual PLD method. A dual PLD method of 1.5  and 2.5 seconds was compared with (123)I-iodoamphetamine single-photon emission computed tomography with acetazolamide loading to assess CVR in 10 patients with steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease. In 5 cases (Group A), dual PLD-ASL demonstrated low CBF with 1.5-second PLD in the target area, whereas CBF was improved with 2.5-second PLD. In the other 5 cases (Group B), dual PLD-ASL depicted low CBF with 1.5-second PLD, and no improvement in CBF with 2.5-second PLD in the target area was observed. On single-photon emission computed tomography, CVR was maintained in Group A but decreased in Group B. Although dual PLD methods may not be a completely alternative test for (123)I-iodoamphetamine single-photon emission computed tomography with acetazolamide loading, it is a feasible, simple, noninvasive, and repeatable technique for assessing CVR, even when employed in a routine clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimization of 4D vessel‐selective arterial spin labeling angiography using balanced steady‐state free precession and vessel‐encoding

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Peter; Bi, Xiaoming; Chappell, Michael A.; Tijssen, Rob H. N.; Sheerin, Fintan; Miller, Karla L.; Jezzard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Vessel‐selective dynamic angiograms provide a wealth of useful information about the anatomical and functional status of arteries, including information about collateral flow and blood supply to lesions. Conventional x‐ray techniques are invasive and carry some risks to the patient, so non‐invasive alternatives are desirable. Previously, non‐contrast dynamic MRI angiograms based on arterial spin labeling (ASL) have been demonstrated using both spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) and balanced steady‐state free precession (bSSFP) readout modules, but no direct comparison has been made, and bSSFP optimization over a long readout period has not been fully explored. In this study bSSFP and SPGR are theoretically and experimentally compared for dynamic ASL angiography. Unlike SPGR, bSSFP was found to have a very low ASL signal attenuation rate, even when a relatively large flip angle and short repetition time were used, leading to a threefold improvement in the measured signal‐to‐noise ratio (SNR) efficiency compared with SPGR. For vessel‐selective applications, SNR efficiency can be further improved over single‐artery labeling methods by using a vessel‐encoded pseudo‐continuous ASL (VEPCASL) approach. The combination of a VEPCASL preparation with a time‐resolved bSSFP readout allowed the generation of four‐dimensional (4D; time‐resolved three‐dimensional, 3D) vessel‐selective cerebral angiograms in healthy volunteers with 59 ms temporal resolution. Good quality 4D angiograms were obtained in all subjects, providing comparable structural information to 3D time‐of‐flight images, as well as dynamic information and vessel selectivity, which was shown to be high. A rapid 1.5 min dynamic two‐dimensional version of the sequence yielded similar image features and would be suitable for a busy clinical protocol. Preliminary experiments with bSSFP that included the extracranial vessels showed signal loss in regions of poor magnetic field

  7. Dopaminergic Therapy Modulates Cortical Perfusion in Parkinson Disease With and Without Dementia According to Arterial Spin Labeled Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Che; Chen, Pei-Chin; Huang, Yung-Cheng; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Wang, Hung-Chen; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Chou, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Meng-Hsiang; Chen, Yi-Wen; Lu, Cheng-Hsien

    2016-02-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging analyses allow for the quantification of altered cerebral blood flow, and provide a novel means of examining the impact of dopaminergic treatments. The authors examined the cerebral perfusion differences among 17 Parkinson disease (PD) patients, 17 PD with dementia (PDD) patients, and 17 healthy controls and used ASL-MRI to assess the effects of dopaminergic therapies on perfusion in the patients. The authors demonstrated progressive widespread cortical hypoperfusion in PD and PDD and robust effects for the dopaminergic therapies. Specifically, dopaminergic medications further decreased frontal lobe and cerebellum perfusion in the PD and PDD groups, respectively. These patterns of hypoperfusion could be related to cognitive dysfunctions and disease severity. Furthermore, desensitization to dopaminergic therapies in terms of cortical perfusion was found as the disease progressed, supporting the concept that long-term therapies are associated with the therapeutic window narrowing. The highly sensitive pharmaceutical response of ASL allows clinicians and researchers to easily and effectively quantify the absolute perfusion status, which might prove helpful for therapeutic planning.

  8. Dopaminergic Therapy Modulates Cortical Perfusion in Parkinson Disease With and Without Dementia According to Arterial Spin Labeled Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Che; Chen, Pei-Chin; Huang, Yung-Cheng; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Wang, Hung-Chen; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Chou, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Meng-Hsiang; Chen, Yi-Wen; Lu, Cheng-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging analyses allow for the quantification of altered cerebral blood flow, and provide a novel means of examining the impact of dopaminergic treatments. The authors examined the cerebral perfusion differences among 17 Parkinson disease (PD) patients, 17 PD with dementia (PDD) patients, and 17 healthy controls and used ASL-MRI to assess the effects of dopaminergic therapies on perfusion in the patients. The authors demonstrated progressive widespread cortical hypoperfusion in PD and PDD and robust effects for the dopaminergic therapies. Specifically, dopaminergic medications further decreased frontal lobe and cerebellum perfusion in the PD and PDD groups, respectively. These patterns of hypoperfusion could be related to cognitive dysfunctions and disease severity. Furthermore, desensitization to dopaminergic therapies in terms of cortical perfusion was found as the disease progressed, supporting the concept that long-term therapies are associated with the therapeutic window narrowing. The highly sensitive pharmaceutical response of ASL allows clinicians and researchers to easily and effectively quantify the absolute perfusion status, which might prove helpful for therapeutic planning. PMID:26844450

  9. Repeatability and Variability of Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Techniques in Mice: Comparison of Arterial Spin Labeling and First-pass Contrast-enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    Naresh, Nivedita K.; Chen, Xiao; Moran, Eric; Tian, Yikui; French, Brent A.; Epstein, Frederick H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Preclinical imaging of myocardial blood flow (MBF) can elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease. We compared the repeatability and variability of two methods, first-pass MRI and arterial spin labeling (ASL), for imaging MBF in mice. Methods Quantitative perfusion MRI in mice was performed using both methods at rest, with a vasodilator, and one day after myocardial infarction (MI). Image quality (score of 1–5, 5 best), between-session coefficient of variability (CVbs), intra-user coefficient of variability (CVintra-user) and inter-user coefficient of variability (CVinter-user) were assessed. Acquisition time was 1–2 minutes for first-pass MRI and approximately 40 minutes for ASL. Results Image quality was higher for ASL (3.94±0.09 vs. 2.88±0.10, p<0.05). Infarct zone CVbs was lower with first-pass (17±3% vs. 46±9%, p<0.05). The stress perfusion CVintra-user was lower for ASL (3±1% vs. 14±3%, p<0.05). The stress perfusion CVinter-user was lower for ASL (4±1% vs. 17±4%, p<0.05). Conclusion For low MBF conditions such as infarct, first-pass MRI is preferred due to better repeatability and variability. At high MBF such as at vasodilation, ASL may be more suitable due to superior image quality and lower user variability. First-pass MRI has a substantial speed advantage. PMID:26190350

  10. The role of magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging and three-dimensional arterial spin labelling perfusion imaging in the differentiation of parasellar meningioma and cavernous haemangioma.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hua-Feng; Lou, Xin; Liu, Meng-Yu; Wang, Yu-Lin; Wang, Yan; Chen, Zhi-Ye; Shi, Kai-Ning; Ma, Lin

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and three-dimensional arterial spin labelling perfusion imaging (3D-ASL) in distinguishing cavernous haemangioma from parasellar meningioma, using histological data as a reference standard. Patients with parasellar meningioma or parasellar cavernous haemangioma underwent conventional T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) followed by DWI and 3D-ASL using a 3.0 Tesla MRI. The minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (minADC) from DWI and the maximal normalized cerebral blood flow (nCBF) from 3D-ASL were measured in each tumour. Diagnosis was confirmed by histology. MinADC was significantly lower and nCBF significantly higher in meningioma (n = 19) than cavernous haemangioma (n = 15). There was a significant negative correlation between minADC and nCBF (r = -0.605). DWI and 3D-ASL are useful in differentiating cavernous haemangiomas from parasellar meningiomas, particularly in situations when the appearance on conventional MRI sequences is otherwise ambiguous. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging in children presenting migraine with aura: Association of hypoperfusion detected by arterial spin labelling and vasospasm on MR angiography findings.

    PubMed

    Cadiot, Domitille; Longuet, Romain; Bruneau, Bertrand; Treguier, Catherine; Carsin-Vu, Aline; Corouge, Isabelle; Gomes, Constantin; Proisy, Maïa

    2017-01-01

    Objective A child presenting with a first attack of migraine with aura usually undergoes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to rule out stroke. The purpose of this study was to report vascular and brain perfusion findings in children suffering from migraine with aura on time-of-flight MR angiography (TOF-MRA) and MR perfusion imaging using arterial spin labelling (ASL). Methods We retrospectively included all children who had undergone an emergency MRI examination with ASL and TOF-MRA sequences for acute neurological deficit and were given a final diagnosis of migraine with aura. The ASL perfusion maps and TOF-MRA images were independently assessed by reviewers blinded to clinical data. A mean cerebral blood flow (CBF) value was obtained for each cerebral lobe after automatic data post-processing. Results Seventeen children were finally included. Hypoperfusion was identified in one or more cerebral lobes on ASL perfusion maps by visual assessment in 16/17 (94%) children. Vasospasm was noted within the intracranial vasculature on the TOF-MRA images in 12/17 (71%) children. All (100%) of the abnormal TOF-MRA images were associated with homolateral hypoperfusion. Mean CBF values were significantly lower ( P < 0.05) in visually hypoperfused lobes than in normally perfused lobes. Conclusion ASL and TOF-MRA are two totally non-invasive, easy-to-use MRI sequences for children in emergency settings. Hypoperfusion associated with homolateral vasospasm may suggest a diagnosis of migraine with aura.

  12. Renal plasma flow (RPF) measured with multiple-inversion-time arterial spin labeling (ASL) and tracer kinetic analysis: Validation against a dynamic contrast-enhancement method

    PubMed Central

    Conlin, Christopher C.; Oesingmann, Niels; Bolster, Bradley; Huang, Yufeng; Lee, Vivian S.; Zhang, Jeff L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To propose and validate a method for accurately quantifying renal plasma flow (RPF) with arterial spin labeling (ASL). Materials and methods The proposed method employs a tracer–kinetic approach and derives perfusion from the slope of the ASL difference signal sampled at multiple inversion-times (TIs). To validate the method's accuracy, we performed a HIPAA-compliant and IRB-approved study with 15 subjects (9 male, 6 female; age range 24– 73) to compare RPF estimates obtained from ASL to those from a more established dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI method. We also investigated the impact of TI-sampling density on the accuracy of estimated RPF. Results Good agreement was found between ASL- and DCE-measured RPF, with a mean difference of 9 ± 30 ml/min and a correlation coefficient R = 0.92 when ASL signals were acquired at 16 TIs and a mean difference of 9 ± 57 ml/min and R = 0.81 when ASL signals were acquired at 5 TIs. RPF estimated from ASL signals acquired at only 2 TIs (400 and 1200 ms) showed a low correlation with DCE-measured values (R = 0.30). Conclusion The proposed ASL method is capable of measuring RPF with an accuracy that is comparable to DCE MRI. At least 5 TIs are recommended for the ASL acquisition to ensure reliability of RPF measurements. PMID:27864008

  13. Inverse correlation between cerebral blood flow measured by continuous arterial spin-labeling (CASL) MRI and neurocognitive function in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA).

    PubMed

    Strouse, John J; Cox, Christiane S; Melhem, Elias R; Lu, Hanzhang; Kraut, Michael A; Razumovsky, Alexander; Yohay, Kaleb; van Zijl, Peter C; Casella, James F

    2006-07-01

    Overt stroke, clinically "silent" cerebral infarct, and neurocognitive impairment are frequent complications of sickle cell anemia (SCA). Current imaging techniques have limited sensitivity and specificity to identify children at risk for neurocognitive impairment. We prospectively evaluated 24 children with SCA with a neurologic exam, complete blood count, transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD), measurement of intelligence quotient (IQ), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) using continuous arterial spin-labeling (CASL) MRI. Average CBF to gray matter was 112 +/- 36 mL/100 g/min. We identified a strong inverse relationship between performance IQ and CBF (-1.5 points per 10 mL/100 g/min increase in CBF, P = .013). Elevated steady-state white blood cell count (> or = 14 x 10(9)/L [14,000/microL]) was associated with lower full scale IQ (86 +/- 9 vs 99 +/- 10, P = .005). CASL MRI may identify children with neurocognitive impairment, before damage is evident by structural MRI or TCD.

  14. Clinical application of arterial spin-labeling MR imaging in patients with carotid stenosis: quantitative comparative study with single-photon emission CT.

    PubMed

    Uchihashi, Y; Hosoda, K; Zimine, I; Fujita, A; Fujii, M; Sugimura, K; Kohmura, E

    2011-09-01

    Arterial spin-labeling is an emerging technique for noninvasive measurement of cerebral perfusion, but concerns remain regarding the reliability of CBF quantification and clinical applications. Recently, an ASL implementation called QUASAR was proposed, and it was shown to have good reproducibility of CBF assessment in healthy volunteers. This study aimed to determine the utility of QUASAR for CBF assessment in patients with cerebrovascular diseases. Twenty patients with carotid stenosis underwent CBF quantification by ASL (QUASAR) within 3 days of performance of (123)I-iodoamphetamine-SPECT. CVR to acetazolamide also was assessed by ASL and SPECT. In surgically treated patients, the respective scans before and after the procedures were compared. Regional CBF and CVR values measured by ASL were significantly correlated and agreed with those measured by SPECT (r(s) = 0.92 and 0.88, respectively). A Bland-Altman plot demonstrated good agreement between 2 methods in terms of CBF quantification. Furthermore, ASL could detect pathologic states such as hypoperfusion, impaired vasoreactivity, and postoperative hyperperfusion, equivalent to SPECT. However, ASL tended to overestimate CBF values especially in high-perfusion regions. ASL perfusion MR imaging is clinically applicable and can be an alternative method for CBF assessment in patients with cerebrovascular diseases.

  15. Noncontrast-enhanced three-dimensional (3D) intracranial MR angiography using pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling and accelerated 3D radial acquisition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huimin; Block, Walter F; Turski, Patrick A; Mistretta, Charles A; Johnson, Kevin M

    2013-03-01

    Pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL) can be used to generate noncontrast magnetic resonance angiograms of the cerebrovascular structures. Previously described PCASL-based angiography techniques were limited to two-dimensional projection images or relatively low-resolution three-dimensional (3D) imaging due to long acquisition time. This work proposes a new PCASL-based 3D magnetic resonance angiography method that uses an accelerated 3D radial acquisition technique (VIPR, spoiled gradient echo) as the readout. Benefiting from the sparsity provided by PCASL and noise-like artifacts of VIPR, this new method is able to obtain submillimeter 3D isotropic resolution and whole head coverage with a 8-min scan. Intracranial angiography feasibility studies in healthy (N = 5) and diseased (N = 5) subjects show reduced saturation artifacts in PCASL-VIPR compared with a standard time-of-flight protocol. These initial results show great promise for PCASL-VIPR for static, dynamic, and vessel selective 3D intracranial angiography.

  16. Modeling and optimization of Look-Locker spin labeling for measuring perfusion and transit time changes in activation studies taking into account arterial blood volume.

    PubMed

    Francis, S T; Bowtell, R; Gowland, P A

    2008-02-01

    This work describes a new compartmental model with step-wise temporal analysis for a Look-Locker (LL)-flow-sensitive alternating inversion-recovery (FAIR) sequence, which combines the FAIR arterial spin labeling (ASL) scheme with a LL echo planar imaging (EPI) measurement, using a multireadout EPI sequence for simultaneous perfusion and T*(2) measurements. The new model highlights the importance of accounting for the transit time of blood through the arteriolar compartment, delta, in the quantification of perfusion. The signal expected is calculated in a step-wise manner to avoid discontinuities between different compartments. The optimal LL-FAIR pulse sequence timings for the measurement of perfusion with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and high temporal resolution at 1.5, 3, and 7T are presented. LL-FAIR is shown to provide better SNR per unit time compared to standard FAIR. The sequence has been used experimentally for simultaneous monitoring of perfusion, transit time, and T*(2) changes in response to a visual stimulus in four subjects. It was found that perfusion increased by 83 +/- 4% on brain activation from a resting state value of 94 +/- 13 ml/100 g/min, while T*(2) increased by 3.5 +/- 0.5%. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Arterial Spin Labeling - Fast Imaging with Steady-State Free Precession (ASL-FISP): A Rapid and Quantitative Perfusion Technique for High Field MRI

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ying; Goodnough, Candida L.; Erokwu, Bernadette O.; Farr, George W.; Darrah, Rebecca; Lu, Lan; Dell, Katherine M.; Yu, Xin; Flask, Chris A.

    2014-01-01

    Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) is a valuable non-contrast perfusion MRI technique with numerous clinical applications. Many previous ASL MRI studies have utilized either Echo-Planar Imaging (EPI) or True Fast Imaging with Steady-State Free Precession (True FISP) readouts that are prone to off-resonance artifacts on high field MRI scanners. We have developed a rapid ASL-FISP MRI acquisition for high field preclinical MRI scanners providing perfusion-weighted images with little or no artifacts in less than 2 seconds. In this initial implementation, a FAIR (Flow-Sensitive Alternating Inversion Recovery) ASL preparation was combined with a rapid, centrically-encoded FISP readout. Validation studies on healthy C57/BL6 mice provided consistent estimation of in vivo mouse brain perfusion at 7 T and 9.4 T (249±38 ml/min/100g and 241±17 ml/min/100g, respectively). The utility of this method was further demonstrated in detecting significant perfusion deficits in a C57/BL6 mouse model of ischemic stroke. Reasonable kidney perfusion estimates were also obtained for a healthy C57/BL6 mouse exhibiting differential perfusion in the renal cortex and medulla. Overall, the ASL-FISP technique provides a rapid and quantitative in vivo assessment of tissue perfusion for high field MRI scanners with minimal image artifacts. PMID:24891124

  18. Arterial spin labeling-fast imaging with steady-state free precession (ASL-FISP): a rapid and quantitative perfusion technique for high-field MRI.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Goodnough, Candida L; Erokwu, Bernadette O; Farr, George W; Darrah, Rebecca; Lu, Lan; Dell, Katherine M; Yu, Xin; Flask, Chris A

    2014-08-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a valuable non-contrast perfusion MRI technique with numerous clinical applications. Many previous ASL MRI studies have utilized either echo-planar imaging (EPI) or true fast imaging with steady-state free precession (true FISP) readouts, which are prone to off-resonance artifacts on high-field MRI scanners. We have developed a rapid ASL-FISP MRI acquisition for high-field preclinical MRI scanners providing perfusion-weighted images with little or no artifacts in less than 2 s. In this initial implementation, a flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) ASL preparation was combined with a rapid, centrically encoded FISP readout. Validation studies on healthy C57/BL6 mice provided consistent estimation of in vivo mouse brain perfusion at 7 and 9.4 T (249 ± 38 and 241 ± 17 mL/min/100 g, respectively). The utility of this method was further demonstrated in the detection of significant perfusion deficits in a C57/BL6 mouse model of ischemic stroke. Reasonable kidney perfusion estimates were also obtained for a healthy C57/BL6 mouse exhibiting differential perfusion in the renal cortex and medulla. Overall, the ASL-FISP technique provides a rapid and quantitative in vivo assessment of tissue perfusion for high-field MRI scanners with minimal image artifacts. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Computer-aided classification of patients with dementia of Alzheimer's type based on cerebral blood flow determined with arterial spin labeling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Yasuo; Arimura, Hidetaka; Yoshiura, Takashi; Tokunaga, Chiaki; Magome, Taiki; Monji, Akira; Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Toyofuku, Fukai; Oki, Masafumi; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Honda, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is one of promising non-invasive magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF). The aim of this study was to develop a computer-aided classification system for AD patients based on CBFs measured by the ASL technique. The average CBFs in cortical regions were determined as functional image features based on the CBF map image, which was non-linearly transformed to a Talairach brain atlas by using a free-form deformation. An artificial neural network (ANN) was trained with the CBF functional features in 10 cortical regions, and was employed for distinguishing patients with AD from control subjects. For evaluation of the method, we applied the proposed method to 20 cases including ten AD patients and ten control subjects, who were scanned a 3.0-Tesla MR unit. As a result, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve obtained by the proposed method was 0.893 based on a leave-one-out-by-case test in identification of AD cases among 20 cases. The proposed method would be feasible for classification of patients with AD.

  20. [Renal arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging in normal adults: a study with a 3.0 T scanner].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xuelin; Yang, Li; Shen, Jie; Gao, Wei

    2013-10-01

    To analyze the renal relative blood flow value (rBFV) and image quality in normal adults using single-shot fast spin echo, flow sensitive invention recovery (SSFSE-FAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) sequence and echo planar imaging, and flow sensitive invention recovery (EPI-FAIR) MR sequence, and assess its value for clinical application in routine renal examination. Forty volunteers (25 male and 15 female adults, aged 30 to 62 years) with normal renal function were included in this prospective study. All the subjects underwent 3.0 Tesla MR scanning using 3 MR scan modes, namely breath-holding EPI-FAIR, breath-holding SSFSE-FAIR and free breathing SSFSE-FAIR. SSFSE-FAIR without breath-holding was capable of differentiating the renal cortex and medulla with the corresponding rBFVs of 111.48∓9.23 and 94.98∓3.38, respectively. Breath-holding SSFSE-FAIR and EPI-FAIR failed to distinguish the borders of the renal cortex and medulla. The EPI-FAIR rBFV of mixed cortex and medulla value was 178.50∓17.17 (95%CI: 167.59, 189.41). Breath-holding SSFSE-FAIR and EPI-FAIR can not distinguish the renal cortex and medulla due to a poor spatial resolution but can be used for rough evaluation of renal blood perfusion. Free breathing SSFSE-FAIR with an improved spatial resolution allows evaluation of the status of renal perfusion of the cortex and medulla.

  1. Direct comparison of local cerebral blood flow rates measured by MRI arterial spin-tagging and quantitative autoradiography in a rat model of experimental cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Ewing, James R; Wei, Ling; Knight, Robert A; Pawa, Swati; Nagaraja, Tavarekere N; Brusca, Thomas; Divine, George W; Fenstermacher, Joseph D

    2003-02-01

    The present study determined cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the rat using two different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) arterial spin-tagging (AST) methods and 14C-iodoantipyrine (IAP)-quantitative autoradiography (QAR), a standard but terminal technique used for imaging and quantitating CBF, and compared the resulting data sets to assess the precision and accuracy of the different techniques. Two hours after cerebral ischemia was produced in eight rats via permanent occlusion of one middle cerebral artery (MCA) with an intraluminal suture, MRI-CBF was measured over a 2.0-mm coronal slice using single-coil AST, and tissue magnetization was assessed by either a spin-echo (SE) or a variable tip-angle gradient-echo (VTA-GE) readout. Subsequently ( approximately 2.5 hours after MCA occlusion), CBF was assayed by QAR with the blood flow indicator 14C-IAP, which produced coronal images of local flow rates every 0.4 mm along the rostral-caudal axis. The IAP-QAR images that spanned the 2-mm MRI slice were selected, and regional flow rates (i.e., local CBF [lCBF]) were measured and averaged across this set of images by both the traditional approach, which involved reader interaction and avoidance of sectioning artifacts, and a whole film-scanning technique, which approximated total radioactivity in the entire MRI slice with minimal user bias. After alignment and coregistration, the concordance of the CBF rates generated by the two QAR approaches and the two AST methods was examined for nine regions of interest in each hemisphere. The QAR-lCBF rates were higher with the traditional method of assaying tissue radioactivity than with the MRI-analog approach; although the two sets of rates were highly correlated, the scatter was broad. The flow rates obtained with the whole film-scanning technique were chosen for subsequent comparisons to MRI-CBF results because of the similarity in tissue "sampling" among these three methods. As predicted by previous modeling, "true" flow rates

  2. Using Anatomic Magnetic Resonance Image Information to Enhance Visualization and Interpretation of Functional Images: A Comparison of Methods Applied to Clinical Arterial Spin Labeling Images.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Dai, Weiying; Soman, Salil; Hackney, David B; Wong, Eric T; Robson, Philip M; Alsop, David C

    2017-02-01

    Functional imaging provides hemodynamic and metabolic information and is increasingly being incorporated into clinical diagnostic and research studies. Typically functional images have reduced signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution compared to other non-functional cross sectional images obtained as part of a routine clinical protocol. We hypothesized that enhancing visualization and interpretation of functional images with anatomic information could provide preferable quality and superior diagnostic value. In this work, we implemented five methods (frequency addition, frequency multiplication, wavelet transform, nonsubsampled contourlet transform and intensity-hue-saturation) and a newly proposed ShArpening by Local Similarity with Anatomic images (SALSA) method to enhance the visualization of functional images, while preserving the original functional contrast and quantitative signal intensity characteristics over larger spatial scales. Arterial spin labeling blood flow MR images of the brain were visualization enhanced using anatomic images with multiple contrasts. The algorithms were validated on a numerical phantom and their performance on images of brain tumor patients were assessed by quantitative metrics and neuroradiologist subjective ratings. The frequency multiplication method had the lowest residual error for preserving the original functional image contrast at larger spatial scales (55%-98% of the other methods with simulated data and 64%-86% with experimental data). It was also significantly more highly graded by the radiologists (p<0.005 for clear brain anatomy around the tumor). Compared to other methods, the SALSA provided 11%-133% higher similarity with ground truth images in the simulation and showed just slightly lower neuroradiologist grading score. Most of these monochrome methods do not require any prior knowledge about the functional and anatomic image characteristics, except the acquired resolution. Hence, automatic implementation on

  3. Repeatability and variability of myocardial perfusion imaging techniques in mice: Comparison of arterial spin labeling and first-pass contrast-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Naresh, Nivedita K; Chen, Xiao; Moran, Eric; Tian, Yikui; French, Brent A; Epstein, Frederick H

    2016-06-01

    Preclinical imaging of myocardial blood flow (MBF) can elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease. We compared the repeatability and variability of two methods, first-pass MRI and arterial spin labeling (ASL), for imaging MBF in mice. Quantitative perfusion MRI in mice was performed using both methods at rest, with a vasodilator, and one day after myocardial infarction. Image quality (score of 1-5; 5 best), between-session coefficient of variability (CVbs ), intra-user coefficient of variability (CVintra-user ), and inter-user coefficient of variability (CVinter-user ) were assessed. Acquisition time was 1-2 min for first-pass MRI and approximately 40 min for ASL. Image quality was higher for ASL (3.94 ± 0.09 versus 2.88 ± 0.10; P < 0.05). Infarct zone CVbs was lower with first-pass (17 ± 3% versus 46 ± 9%; P < 0.05). The stress perfusion CVintra-user was lower for ASL (3 ± 1% versus 14 ± 3%; P < 0.05). The stress perfusion CVinter-user was lower for ASL (4 ± 1% versus 17 ± 4%; P < 0.05). For low MBF conditions such as infarct, first-pass MRI is preferred due to better repeatability and variability. At high MBF such as at vasodilation, ASL may be more suitable due to superior image quality and lower user variability. First-pass MRI has a substantial speed advantage. Magn Reson Med 75:2394-2405, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A look‐locker acquisition scheme for quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging with FAIR arterial spin labeling in humans at 3 tesla

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Christopher T.; Chappell, Michael A.; Robson, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A novel method for quantitative measurement of myocardial blood flow (MBF) using arterial spin labeling (ASL) in a single breath‐hold is presented, evaluated by simulations, phantom studies and in vivo studies and tested for reproducibility and variability. Methods A flow‐sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) ASL method with Look‐Locker readout (LL‐FAIR‐ASL) was implemented at 3 tesla. Scans were performed on 10 healthy volunteers and MBF measured in three slices. The method was investigated for reproducibility by Bland‐Altman analysis and statistical measures, the coefficients of reproducibility (CR) and variation (CV) are reported. Results The MBF values for the basal, mid, and apical slices were 1.04 ± 0.40, 1.06 ± 0.46, and 1.06 ± 0.38 ml/g/min, respectively (mean ± SD), which compare well with literature values. The CV across all scans, 43%, was greater than the between‐session and within‐session values, at 16 and 13%, respectively, for the mid‐ventricular slice. The change in MBF required for detection, from the CR, was 61% between‐session and 53% within‐session for the mid‐ventricle. Conclusion This study shows the feasibility of the LL‐FAIR‐ASL method for the quantification of MBF. The statistical measures reported will allow the planning of future clinical research studies involving rest and stress measurements. Magn Reson Med 78:541–549, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:27604183

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of blood-brain barrier permeability in ischemic stroke using diffusion-weighted arterial spin labeling in rats.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Yash V; Lu, Jianfei; Shen, Qiang; Cerqueira, Bianca; Duong, Timothy Q

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging has recently been proposed to quantify the rate of water exchange (Kw) across the blood-brain barrier in humans. This study aimed to evaluate the blood-brain barrier disruption in transient (60 min) ischemic stroke using Kw magnetic resonance imaging with cross-validation by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and Evans blue histology in the same rats. The major findings were: (i) at 90 min after stroke (30 min after reperfusion), group Kw magnetic resonance imaging data showed no significant blood-brain barrier permeability changes, although a few animals showed slightly abnormal Kw. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging confirmed this finding in the same animals. (ii) At two days after stroke, Kw magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant blood-brain barrier disruption. Regions with abnormal Kw showed substantial overlap with regions of hyperintense T2 (vasogenic edema) and hyperperfusion. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and Evans blue histology confirmed these findings in the same animals. The Kw values in the normal contralesional hemisphere and the ipsilesional ischemic core two days after stroke were: 363 ± 17 and 261 ± 18 min(-1), respectively (P < 0.05, n = 9). Kw magnetic resonance imaging is sensitive to blood-brain barrier permeability changes in stroke, consistent with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and Evans blue extravasation. Kw magnetic resonance imaging offers advantages over existing techniques because contrast agent is not needed and repeated measurements can be made for longitudinal monitoring or averaging.

  6. Estimating the sample size required to detect an arterial spin labelling magnetic resonance imaging perfusion abnormality in voxel-wise group analyses.

    PubMed

    Mersov, Anna M; Crane, David E; Chappell, Michael A; Black, Sandra E; MacIntosh, Bradley J

    2015-04-30

    Voxel-based analyses are pervasive across the range of neuroimaging techniques. In the case of perfusion imaging using arterial spin labelling (ASL), a low signal-to-noise technique, there is a tradeoff between the contrast-to-noise required to detect a perfusion abnormality and its spatial localisation. In exploratory studies, the use of an a priori region of interest (ROI), which has the benefit of averaging multiple voxels, may not be justified. Thus the question considered in this study pertains to the sample size that is required to detect a voxel-level perfusion difference between groups and two algorithms are considered. Empirical 3T ASL data were acquired from 25 older adults and simulations were performed based on the group template cerebral blood flow (CBF) images. General linear model (GLM) and permutation-based algorithms were tested for their ability to detect a predefined hypoperfused ROI. Simulation parameters included: inter and intra-subject variability, degree of hypoperfusion and sample size. The true positive rate was used as a measure of sensitivity. For a modest group perfusion difference, i.e., 10%, 37 participants per group were required when using the permutation-based algorithm, whereas 20 participants were required for the GLM-based algorithm. This study advances the perfusion power calculation literature by considering a voxel-wise analysis with correction for multiple comparison. The sample size requirement to detect group differences decreased exponentially in proportion to increased degree of hypoperfusion. In addition, sensitivity to detect a perfusion abnormality was influenced by the choice of algorithm. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Vessel-encoded arterial spin labeling (VE-ASL) reveals elevated flow territory asymmetry in older adults with substandard verbal memory performance.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Manus J; Hussey, Erin; Rane, Swati; Wilson, Tracy; van Osch, Matthias; Hartkamp, Nolan; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Ally, Brandon A

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate how flow territory asymmetry and/or the distribution of blood through collateral pathways may adversely affect the brain's ability to respond to age-related changes in brain function. These patterns have been investigated in cerebrovascular disease; however, here we evaluated how flow-territory asymmetry related to memory generally in older adults. A multi-faceted MRI protocol, including vessel-encoded arterial spin labeling capable of flow territory mapping, was applied to assess how flow territory asymmetry; memory performance (CERAD-Immediate Recall); cortical cerebral blood flow (CBF), white matter lesion (WML) count, and cortical gray matter volume were related in older healthy control volunteers (HC; n = 15; age = 64.5 ± 7 years) and age-matched mild cognitive impairment volunteers (MCI; n = 7; age = 62.7 ± 3.7 years). An inverse relationship was found between memory performance and flow territory asymmetry in HC volunteers (P = 0.04), which reversed in MCI volunteers (P = 0.04). No relationship was found between memory performance and cortical tissue volume in either group (P > 0.05). Group-level differences for HC volunteers performing above versus below average on CERAD-I were observed for flow territory asymmetry (P < 0.02) and cortical volume (P < 0.05) only. Findings suggest that flow territory asymmetry may correlate more sensitively with memory performance than CBF, atrophy and WML count in older adults. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. OP04QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENT OF BLOOD FLOW IN PAEDIATRIC BRAIN TUMOURS - A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DYNAMIC SUSCEPTIBILITY CONTRAST AND MULTI-TIMEPOINT ARTERIAL SPIN LABEL IMAGING

    PubMed Central

    Abernethy, L.J.; Vidyasagar, R.; Pizer, B.L.; Mallucci, C.L.; Avula, S.; Parkes, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a MR technique that allows for noninvasive quantification of cerebral blood flow (CBF). This technique, predominately used in research, has seen significant technical developments in the last few years that have led to more clinical applications. Currently, the main MR method used to provide perfusion measures in brain tumours is dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC). DSC traces the signal changes caused by the transit of a bolus of gadolinium contrast agent. ASL has the advantage of not requiring bolus injection of contrast. We have performed a comparative study of DSC and multi-timepoint ASL in paediatric brain tumours (PBT). METHOD: Data from a total of 19 PBT patients (mean age: 9 ± 5 years; 10 females, 9 males) were included in the analyses for this study. Data used were from first presentation scans performed before any surgical intervention. Comparisons of the quantitative measures of CBF and blood arrival time between the two techniques were carried out to test the feasibility of ASL to provide useful quantification measures of CBF in PBT. RESULTS: DSC measurements of tumour blood flow showed a significant decrease in flow in comparison with normal brain, but this is not seen with ASL. There was a strong correlation between ASL and DSC measures of blood flow in normal brain (r = 0.65, p = 0.009), but not in tumour blood flow (r = 0.33, p = 0.2). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the feasibility and potential utility of ASL as a non-invasive technique for measuring blood flow in PBT. However, there is a discrepancy between ASL and DSC measures, that may be due to leakage of gadolinium contrast, reflecting the abnormal characteristics of tumour blood vessels in PBT.

  9. A look-locker acquisition scheme for quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging with FAIR arterial spin labeling in humans at 3 tesla.

    PubMed

    Keith, Graeme A; Rodgers, Christopher T; Chappell, Michael A; Robson, Matthew D

    2017-08-01

    A novel method for quantitative measurement of myocardial blood flow (MBF) using arterial spin labeling (ASL) in a single breath-hold is presented, evaluated by simulations, phantom studies and in vivo studies and tested for reproducibility and variability. A flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) ASL method with Look-Locker readout (LL-FAIR-ASL) was implemented at 3 tesla. Scans were performed on 10 healthy volunteers and MBF measured in three slices. The method was investigated for reproducibility by Bland-Altman analysis and statistical measures, the coefficients of reproducibility (CR) and variation (CV) are reported. The MBF values for the basal, mid, and apical slices were 1.04 ± 0.40, 1.06 ± 0.46, and 1.06 ± 0.38 ml/g/min, respectively (mean ± SD), which compare well with literature values. The CV across all scans, 43%, was greater than the between-session and within-session values, at 16 and 13%, respectively, for the mid-ventricular slice. The change in MBF required for detection, from the CR, was 61% between-session and 53% within-session for the mid-ventricle. This study shows the feasibility of the LL-FAIR-ASL method for the quantification of MBF. The statistical measures reported will allow the planning of future clinical research studies involving rest and stress measurements. Magn Reson Med 78:541-549, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. Experimental comparison of four FAIR arterial spin labeling techniques for quantification of mouse cerebral blood flow at 4.7 T.

    PubMed

    Kober, Frank; Duhamel, Guillaume; Cozzone, Patrick J

    2008-10-01

    Pulsed arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an attractive and robust method for quantification of rodent cerebral blood flow (CBF) in particular, although there is a need for sensitivity optimization. Look-Locker flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) echo planar imaging (EPI) (LLFAIREPI) was expected to be a likely candidate for assessing sensitivity, although it has not yet been applied to rodents. In this study, the performance of two FAIR techniques and two Look-Locker FAIR techniques were compared in mouse brain at 4.7 T. FAIR-EPI (single inversion time, FAIREPI-1TI), FAIR-EPI (eight inversion times, FAIREPI-8TI), LLFAIREPI and Look-Locker FAIR gradient echo (LLFAIRGE) sequences were implemented with equal spatial resolution and equal FAIR preparation modules. Measurements were carried out sequentially on the brain in 10 healthy mice, and quantitative CBF maps were obtained after different acquisition times up to 23 min. All methods gave similar group variability in CBF. Especially at shorter acquisition times, LLFAIREPI gave lower relative variations in CBF within selected brain regions than the other techniques at the same acquisition time. The Look-Locker techniques, however, overestimated CBF compared with classical FAIR-EPI, which was attributed to bulk flow in arterioles and T(2) effects. The image quality with LLFAIREPI was less reproducible within the group. Both FAIREPI-1TI and LLFAIREPI appear to be good candidates for serial rapid measurement of CBF, but LLFAIREPI has the additional advantage that apparent T(1) can be measured simultaneously with CBF. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Arterial Spin-Labeled Perfusion Combined with Segmentation Techniques to Evaluate Cerebral Blood Flow in White and Gray Matter of Children with Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Helton, Kathleen J.; Paydar, Amir; Glass, John; Weirich, Eric M.; Hankins, Jane; Li, Chin-Shang; Smeltzer, Matthew P.; Wang, Winfred C.; Ware, Russell E.; Ogg, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Changes in cerebral perfusion are an important feature of the pathophysiology of sickle cell anemia (SCA); cerebrovascular ischemia occurs frequently and leads to neurocognitive deficits, silent infarcts, and overt stroke. Non-invasive MRI methods to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) by arterial spin labeling (ASL) afford new opportunities to characterize disease- and therapy-induced changes in cerebral hemodynamics in patients with SCA. Recent studies have documented elevated gray matter (GM) CBF in untreated children with SCA, but no measurements of white matter (WM) CBF have been reported. Procedures Pulsed ASL with automated brain image segmentation-classification techniques were used to determine the CBF in GM, WM, and abnormal white matter (ABWM) of 21 children with SCA, 18 of whom were receiving hydroxyurea therapy. Results GM and WM CBF were highly associated (R2 =.76, p< 0.0001) and the GM to WM CBF ratio was 1.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.43-1.83). Global GM CBF in our treated cohort was 87 ± 24 mL/min/100 g, a value lower than previously reported in untreated patients with SCA. CBF was elevated in normal appearing WM (43 ± 14 mL/min/100 g) but decreased in ABWM (6 ± 12 mL/min/100 g), compared to published normal pediatric controls. Hemispheric asymmetry in CBF was noted in most patients. Conclusions These perfusion measurements suggest that hydroxyurea may normalize GM CBF in children with SCA, but altered perfusion in WM may persist. This novel combined approach for CBF quantification will facilitate prospective studies of cerebral vasculopathy in SCA, particularly regarding the effects of treatments such as hydroxyurea. PMID:18937311

  12. Arterial spin labeling-based Z-maps have high specificity and positive predictive value for neurodegenerative dementia compared to FDG-PET.

    PubMed

    Fällmar, David; Haller, Sven; Lilja, Johan; Danfors, Torsten; Kilander, Lena; Tolboom, Nelleke; Egger, Karl; Kellner, Elias; Croon, Philip M; Verfaillie, Sander C J; van Berckel, Bart N M; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Barkhof, Frederik; Larsson, Elna-Marie

    2017-04-03

    Cerebral perfusion analysis based on arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI has been proposed as an alternative to FDG-PET in patients with neurodegenerative disease. Z-maps show normal distribution values relating an image to a database of controls. They are routinely used for FDG-PET to demonstrate disease-specific patterns of hypometabolism at the individual level. This study aimed to compare the performance of Z-maps based on ASL to FDG-PET. Data were combined from two separate sites, each cohort consisting of patients with Alzheimer's disease (n = 18 + 7), frontotemporal dementia (n = 12 + 8) and controls (n = 9 + 29). Subjects underwent pseudocontinuous ASL and FDG-PET. Z-maps were created for each subject and modality. Four experienced physicians visually assessed the 166 Z-maps in random order, blinded to modality and diagnosis. Discrimination of patients versus controls using ASL-based Z-maps yielded high specificity (84%) and positive predictive value (80%), but significantly lower sensitivity compared to FDG-PET-based Z-maps (53% vs. 96%, p < 0.001). Among true-positive cases, correct diagnoses were made in 76% (ASL) and 84% (FDG-PET) (p = 0.168). ASL-based Z-maps can be used for visual assessment of neurodegenerative dementia with high specificity and positive predictive value, but with inferior sensitivity compared to FDG-PET. • ASL-based Z-maps yielded high specificity and positive predictive value in neurodegenerative dementia. • ASL-based Z-maps had significantly lower sensitivity compared to FDG-PET-based Z-maps. • FDG-PET might be reserved for ASL-negative cases where clinical suspicion persists. • Findings were similar at two study sites.

  13. Patient-Specific Detection of Cerebral Blood Flow Alterations as Assessed by Arterial Spin Labeling in Drug-Resistant Epileptic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Boscolo Galazzo, Ilaria; Storti, Silvia Francesca; Del Felice, Alessandra; Pizzini, Francesca Benedetta; Arcaro, Chiara; Formaggio, Emanuela; Mai, Roberto; Chappell, Michael; Beltramello, Alberto; Manganotti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological and hemodynamic data can be integrated to accurately and precisely identify the generators of abnormal electrical activity in drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL), a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for quantitative noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF), can provide a direct measure of variations in cerebral perfusion associated with the epileptic focus. In this study, we aimed to confirm the ASL diagnostic value in the identification of the epileptogenic zone, as compared to electrical source imaging (ESI) results, and to apply a template-based approach to depict statistically significant CBF alterations. Standard video-electroencephalography (EEG), high-density EEG, and ASL were performed to identify clinical seizure semiology and noninvasively localize the epileptic focus in 12 drug-resistant focal epilepsy patients. The same ASL protocol was applied to a control group of 17 healthy volunteers from which a normal perfusion template was constructed using a mixed-effect approach. CBF maps of each patient were then statistically compared to the reference template to identify perfusion alterations. Significant hypo- and hyperperfused areas were identified in all cases, showing good agreement between ASL and ESI results. Interictal hypoperfusion was observed at the site of the seizure in 10/12 patients and early postictal hyperperfusion in 2/12. The epileptic focus was correctly identified within the surgical resection margins in the 5 patients who underwent lobectomy, all of which had good postsurgical outcomes. The combined use of ESI and ASL can aid in the noninvasive evaluation of drug-resistant epileptic patients. PMID:25946055

  14. Quantification of myocardial blood flow and flow reserve in rats using arterial spin labeling MRI: comparison with a fluorescent microsphere technique.

    PubMed

    Jacquier, Alexis; Kober, Frank; Bun, Soksithikun; Giorgi, Roch; Cozzone, Patrick J; Bernard, Monique

    2011-11-01

    To quantify noninvasively myocardial blood flow (MBF) and MBF reserve in isoflurane-anesthetized rats using the Look-Locker flow-alternating inversion recovery gradient-echo arterial spin labeling technique (LLFAIRGE-ASL), and to compare the results with the fluorescent microsphere (FM) technique. Male Wistar rats (weight = 200-240 g, n = 21) were anesthetized with 2.0% isoflurane. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded. In seven rats, MBF was assessed on a Bruker Biospec 4.7T MR system using an ECG- and respiration-gated LLFAIRGE-ASL (pixel size = 234 × 468µm(2) , TE = 1.52ms) at rest and during adenosine infusion (140 µg/kg/min). A mixture of 200 000 FM was injected into a second group of rats at rest and during adenosine infusion (n = 7 each), under similar physiologic conditions. Hearts and skeletal muscle samples were processed for fluorescence spectroscopy. Two-tailed unpaired, paired Student's t-test and ANOVA were used to compare groups. MBF measured with LLFAIRGE-ASL was 5.2 ± 1.0 mL/g/min at rest and 13.3 ± 3.0 mL/g/min during adenosine infusion. Results obtained with fluorescent microspheres yielded 5.9 ± 2.3 mL/g/min (nonsignificant vs. LLFAIRGE-ASL, p = 0.9) at rest and 13.1 ± 2.1 mL/g/min (nonsignificant vs. LLFAIRGE-ASL, p = 0.4) during adenosine infusion. Myocardial blood flow reserve measured using LLFAIRGE-ASL and FM were not significantly different (2.5 ± 0.6 vs. 2.4 ± 0.9, respectively; p = 0.8). Hemodynamic parameters during the experiments were not different between the groups. The myocardial blood flow reserve determined under isoflurane anesthesia was 2.5 ± 0.6, which was not different from the value obtained with FM. LLFAIRGE-ASL provided MBF maps with high spatial resolution in rats under isoflurane anesthesia. LLFAIRGE-ASL is a noninvasive measure to assess myocardial blood flow reserve and provides an interesting tool for cardiovascular research

  15. Reproducibility of Kidney Perfusion Measurements With Arterial Spin Labeling at 1.5 Tesla MRI Combined With Semiautomatic Segmentation for Differential Cortical and Medullary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Hammon, Matthias; Janka, Rolf; Siegl, Christian; Seuss, Hannes; Grosso, Roberto; Martirosian, Petros; Schmieder, Roland E.; Uder, Michael; Kistner, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Magnetic resonance imaging with arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a noninvasive approach to measure organ perfusion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of ASL kidney perfusion measurements with semiautomatic segmentation, which allows separate quantification of cortical and medullary perfusion. The right kidneys of 14 healthy volunteers were examined 6 times on 2 occasions (3 times at each occasion). There was a 10-minute pause between each examination and a 14-day interval between the 2 occasions. Cortical, medullary, and whole kidney parenchymal perfusion was determined with customized semiautomatic segmentation software. Coefficient of variances (CVs) and intraclass correlations (ICCs) were calculated. Mean whole, cortical, and medullary kidney perfusion was 307.26 ± 25.65, 337.10 ± 34.83, and 279.61 ± 26.73 mL/min/100 g, respectively. On session 1, mean perfusion for the whole kidney, cortex, and medulla was 307.08 ± 26.91, 336.79 ± 36.54, and 279.60 ± 27.81 mL/min/100 g, respectively, and on session 2, 307.45 ± 24.65, 337.41 ± 33.48, and 279.61 ± 25.94 mL/min/100 g, respectively (P > 0.05; R2 = 0.60/0.59/0.54). For whole, cortical, and medullary kidney perfusion, the total ICC/CV were 0.97/3.43 ± 0.86%, 0.97/4.19 ± 1.33%, and 0.96/4.12 ± 1.36%, respectively. Measurements did not differ significantly and showed a very good correlation (P > 0.05; R2 = 0.75/0.76/0.65). ASL kidney measurements combined with operator-independent semiautomatic segmentation revealed high correlation and low variance of cortical, medullary, and whole kidney perfusion. PMID:26986143

  16. Differential diagnosis of mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) and ischemic stroke using 3D pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Xiao, Hua-Feng; Lyu, Jin-Hao; J J Wang, Danny; Ma, Lin; Lou, Xin

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of 3D pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (3D pCASL) in the differential diagnosis between mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) and acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including T2 -weighted imaging (T2 WI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and 3D pCASL perfusion data were obtained on a 3.0T MR scanner in 16 newly appearing lesions in nine patients with MELAS and 14 acute lesions in 12 patients with AIS. A postlabeling delay (PLD) time of 2025 msec was applied. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) values were measured in the central part and the peripheral part of the lesions and the CBF values were compared between MELAS and AIS patients. The lesions of both MELAS and AIS showed high signal intensity on T2 WI and demonstrated hyperintensity on DWI. Compared with the perfusion defects or hypoperfusion in all AIS, hyperperfusion was revealed in 16 acute MELAS lesions, especially in the peripheral part of the lesions. The CBF values of 16 lesions in MELAS were 11.20-73.11 ml/100g/min in the central part and 65.33-169.11 ml/100g/min in the peripheral part. The CBF values of 14 lesions in AIS were 12.32-19.94 ml/100g/min in the central part and 11.66-18.37 ml/100g/min in the peripheral part. The CBF value of the peripheral part (119.80 ± 35.41) in MELAS was significantly higher than that (14.66 ± 2.61) in AIS (P = 0.0001). The whole-brain 3D pCASL technique might be useful in differentiating MELAS from AIS. 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:199-206. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. Arterial spin labeling for motor activation mapping at 3T with a 32-channel coil: reproducibility and spatial accuracy in comparison with BOLD fMRI.

    PubMed

    Raoult, Hélène; Petr, Jan; Bannier, Elise; Stamm, Aymeric; Gauvrit, Jean-Yves; Barillot, Christian; Ferré, Jean-Christophe

    2011-09-01

    Functional arterial spin labeling (fASL) is an innovative biomarker of neuronal activation that allows direct and absolute quantification of activation-related CBF and is less sensitive to venous contamination than BOLD fMRI. This study evaluated fASL for motor activation mapping in comparison with BOLD fMRI in terms of involved anatomical area localization, intra-individual reproducibility of location, quantification of neuronal activation, and spatial accuracy. Imaging was performed at 3T with a 32-channel coil and dedicated post-processing tools were used. Twelve healthy right-handed subjects underwent fASL and BOLD fMRI while performing a right hand motor activation task. Three sessions were performed 7days apart in similar physiological conditions. Our results showed an activation in the left primary hand motor area for all 36 sessions in both fASL and BOLD fMRI. The individual functional maps for fASL demonstrated activation in ipsilateral secondary motor areas more often than the BOLD fMRI maps. This finding was corroborated by the group maps. In terms of activation location, fASL reproducibility was comparable to BOLD fMRI, with a distance between activated volumes of 2.1mm and an overlap ratio for activated volumes of 0.76, over the 3 sessions. In terms of activation quantification, fASL reproducibility was higher, although not significantly, with a CVintra of 11.6% and an ICC value of 0.75. Functional ASL detected smaller activation volumes than BOLD fMRI but the areas had a high degree of co-localization. In terms of spatial accuracy in detecting activation in the hand motor area, fASL had a higher specificity (43.5%) and a higher positive predictive value (69.8%) than BOLD fMRI while maintaining high sensitivity (90.7%). The high intra-individual reproducibility and spatial accuracy of fASL revealed in the present study will subsequently be applied to pathological subjects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effects of Acutely Administered 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine on Spontaneous Brain Function in Healthy Volunteers Measured with Arterial Spin Labeling and Blood Oxygen Level–Dependent Resting State Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L.; Murphy, Kevin; Leech, Robert; Erritzoe, David; Wall, Matthew B.; Ferguson, Bart; Williams, Luke T.J.; Roseman, Leor; Brugger, Stefan; De Meer, Ineke; Tanner, Mark; Tyacke, Robin; Wolff, Kim; Sethi, Ajun; Bloomfield, Michael A.P.; Williams, Tim M.; Bolstridge, Mark; Stewart, Lorna; Morgan, Celia; Newbould, Rexford D.; Feilding, Amanda; Curran, H. Val; Nutt, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The compound 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a potent monoamine releaser that produces an acute euphoria in most individuals. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced-order study, MDMA was orally administered to 25 physically and mentally healthy individuals. Arterial spin labeling and seed-based resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) were used to produce spatial maps displaying changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and RSFC after MDMA administration. Participants underwent two arterial spin labeling and two blood oxygen level–dependent scans in a 90-minute scan session; MDMA and placebo study days were separated by 1 week. Results Marked increases in positive mood were produced by MDMA. Decreased CBF only was observed after MDMA, and this was localized to the right medial temporal lobe (MTL), thalamus, inferior visual cortex, and the somatosensory cortex. Decreased CBF in the right amygdala and hippocampus correlated with ratings of the intensity of global subjective effects of MDMA. The RSFC results complemented the CBF results, with decreases in RSFC between midline cortical regions, the medial prefrontal cortex, and MTL regions, and increases between the amygdala and hippocampus. There were trend-level correlations between these effects and ratings of intense and positive subjective effects. Conclusions The MTLs appear to be specifically implicated in the mechanism of action of MDMA, but further work is required to elucidate how the drug’s characteristic subjective effects arise from its modulation of spontaneous brain activity. PMID:24495461

  19. Spin foams without spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnybida, Jeff

    2016-10-01

    We formulate the spin foam representation of discrete SU(2) gauge theory as a product of vertex amplitudes each of which is the spin network generating function of the boundary graph dual to the vertex. In doing so the sums over spins have been carried out. The boundary data of each n-valent node is explicitly reduced with respect to the local gauge invariance and has a manifest geometrical interpretation as a framed polyhedron of fixed total area. Ultimately, sums over spins are traded for contour integrals over simple poles and recoupling theory is avoided using generating functions.

  20. Accuracy of arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) perfusion in detecting the epileptogenic zone in patients with drug-resistant neocortical epilepsy: comparison with electrophysiological data, structural MRI, SISCOM and FDG-PET.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Marcos, A; Carreño, M; Setoain, X; López-Rueda, A; Aparicio, J; Donaire, A; Bargalló, N

    2016-01-01

    Locating the epileptogenic zone (EZ) in patients with neocortical epilepsy presents major challenges. Our aim was to assess the accuracy of arterial spin labeling (ASL), an emerging non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) perfusion technique, to locate the EZ in patients with drug-resistant neocortical epilepsy. Twenty-five consecutive patients with neocortical epilepsy referred to our epilepsy unit for pre-surgical evaluation underwent a standardized assessment including video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring, structural MRI, subtraction ictal single-photon emission computed tomography co-registered to MRI (SISCOM) and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) studies. An ASL sequence was included in the MRI studies. Areas of hypoperfusion or hyperperfusion on ASL were classified into 15 anatomic-functional cortical regions; these regional cerebral blood flow maps were compared with the EZ determined by the other tests and the strength of concordance was assessed with the kappa coefficient. Of the 25 patients [16 (64%) women; mean age 32.4 (±13.8) years], 18 (72%) had lesions on structural MRI. ASL abnormalities were seen in 15 (60%) patients (nine hypoperfusion, six hyperperfusion). ASL had a very good concordance with FDG-PET (k = 0.84), a good concordance with structural MRI (k = 0.76), a moderate concordance with video-EEG monitoring (k = 0.53) and a fair concordance with SISCOM (k = 0.28). Arterial spin labeling might help to confirm the location and extent of the EZ in the pre-surgical workup of patients with drug-resistant neocortical epilepsy. © 2015 EAN.

  1. Coronary Arteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... and animations for grades K-6. The Coronary Arteries Coronary Circulation The heart muscle, like every other ... into two main coronary blood vessels (also called arteries). These coronary arteries branch off into smaller arteries, ...

  2. Positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance hybrid scanner imaging of cerebral blood flow using (15)O-water positron emission tomography and arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging in newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Julie B; Henning, William S; Lindberg, Ulrich; Ladefoged, Claes N; Højgaard, Liselotte; Greisen, Gorm; Law, Ian

    2015-11-01

    Abnormality in cerebral blood flow (CBF) distribution can lead to hypoxic-ischemic cerebral damage in newborn infants. The aim of the study was to investigate minimally invasive approaches to measure CBF by comparing simultaneous (15)O-water positron emission tomography (PET) and single TI pulsed arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MR) on a hybrid PET/MR in seven newborn piglets. Positron emission tomography was performed with IV injections of 20 MBq and 100 MBq (15)O-water to confirm CBF reliability at low activity. Cerebral blood flow was quantified using a one-tissue-compartment-model using two input functions: an arterial input function (AIF) or an image-derived input function (IDIF). The mean global CBF (95% CI) PET-AIF, PET-IDIF, and ASL at baseline were 27 (23; 32), 34 (31; 37), and 27 (22; 32) mL/100 g per minute, respectively. At acetazolamide stimulus, PET-AIF, PET-IDIF, and ASL were 64 (55; 74), 76 (70; 83) and 79 (67; 92) mL/100 g per minute, respectively. At baseline, differences between PET-AIF, PET-IDIF, and ASL were 22% (P<0.0001) and -0.7% (P=0.9). At acetazolamide, differences between PET-AIF, PET-IDIF, and ASL were 19% (P=0.001) and 24% (P=0.0003). In conclusion, PET-IDIF overestimated CBF. Injected activity of 20 MBq (15)O-water had acceptable concordance with 100 MBq, without compromising image quality. Single TI ASL was questionable for regional CBF measurements. Global ASL CBF and PET CBF were congruent during baseline but not during hyperperfusion.

  3. Pattern of cerebral hyperperfusion in Alzheimer’s disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment using voxel-based analysis of 3D arterial spin-labeling imaging: initial experience

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Bei; Ling, Hua-wei; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Juan; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Tao; Yan, Fu Hua

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A three-dimensional (3D) continuous pulse arterial spin labeling (ASL) technique was used to investigate cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Materials and methods Three groups were recruited for comparison, 24 AD patients, 17 MCI patients, and 21 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Three-dimensional ASL scans covering the entire brain were acquired with a 3.0 T magnetic resonance scanner. Spatial processing was performed with statistical parametric mapping 8. A second-level one-way analysis of variance analysis (threshold at P<0.05) was performed on the preprocessed ASL data. An average whole-brain CBF for each subject was also included as group-level covariates for the perfusion data, to control for individual CBF variations. Results Significantly increased CBF was detected in bilateral frontal lobes and right temporal subgyral regions in aMCI compared with controls. When comparing AD with aMCI, the major hyperperfusion regions were the right limbic lobe and basal ganglia regions, including the putamen, caudate, lentiform nucleus, and thalamus, and hypoperfusion was found in the left medial frontal lobe, parietal cortex, the right middle temporo-occipital lobe, and particularly, the left anterior cingulate gyrus. We also found decreased CBF in the bilateral temporo-parieto-occipital cortices and left limbic lobe in AD patients, relative to the control group. aMCI subjects showed decreased blood flow in the left occipital lobe, bilateral inferior temporal cortex, and right middle temporal cortex. Conclusion Our results indicated that ASL provided useful perfusion information in AD disease and may be used as an appealing alternative for further pathologic and neuropsychological studies, especially of compensatory mechanisms for cerebral hypoperfusion. PMID:24707173

  4. Arterial insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... is atherosclerosis or "hardening of the arteries." Fatty material (called plaque) builds up on the walls of your arteries. This causes them to become narrow and stiff. As a result, it is hard for blood to flow through your arteries. Blood flow may be suddenly ...

  5. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. ...

  6. Brachioradial arteries with anastomotic arteries connecting to brachial arteries bilaterally.

    PubMed

    Hong, Tong; Qiuhong, Dan; Haipeng, Cai

    2010-01-01

    We present a patient with a failed radial coronary angioplasty as a result of bilateral brachioradial arteries, the radial arteries anomalously originating from the axillary arteries. We review the literature concerning abnormal origins of the radial artery and propose the left ulnar artery as optimal access of choice in cases with a right brachioradial artery of relatively small size in its proximal part.

  7. Arterial calcifications

    PubMed Central

    Rennenberg, Roger J M W; Schurgers, Leon J; Kroon, Abraham A; Stehouwer, Coen D A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Arterial calcifications as found with various imaging techniques, like plain X-ray, computed tomography or ultrasound are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The prevalence of arterial calcification increases with age and is stimulated by several common cardiovascular risk factors. In this review, the clinical importance of arterial calcification and the currently known proteins involved are discussed. Arterial calcification is the result of a complex interplay between stimulating (bone morphogenetic protein type 2 [BMP-2], RANKL) and inhibitory (matrix Gla protein, BMP-7, osteoprotegerin, fetuin-A, osteopontin) proteins. Vascular calcification is especially prevalent and related to adverse outcome in patients with renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. We address the special circumstances and mechanisms in these patient groups. Treatment and prevention of arterial calcification is possible by the use of specific drugs. However, it remains to be proven that reduction of vascular calcification in itself leads to a reduced cardiovascular risk. PMID:20716128

  8. Mesenteric artery ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... bowel - mesenteric; Dead gut - mesenteric; Atherosclerosis - mesenteric artery; Hardening of the arteries - mesenteric artery ... the aorta, the main artery from the heart. Hardening of the arteries occurs when fat, cholesterol, and ...

  9. Peripheral Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Peripheral artery disease (PAD) refers to ... is peripheral artery disease treated? What is peripheral artery disease (PAD)? Peripheral artery disease, or PAD, refers ...

  10. Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries

    MedlinePlus

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery; PTA - peripheral artery; Angioplasty - peripheral arteries; Iliac artery -angioplasty; Femoral artery - angioplasty; Popliteal artery - angioplasty; Tibial artery - angioplasty; Peroneal artery - ...

  11. Spin ejector

    DOEpatents

    Andersen, John A.; Flanigan, John J.; Kindley, Robert J.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an apparatus for spin ejecting a body having a flat plate base containing bosses. The apparatus has a base plate and a main ejection shaft extending perpendicularly from the base plate. A compressible cylindrical spring is disposed about the shaft. Bearings are located between the shaft and the spring. A housing containing a helical aperture releasably engages the base plate and surrounds the shaft bearings and the spring. A piston having an aperture follower disposed in the housing aperture is seated on the spring and is guided by the shaft and the aperture. The spring is compressed and when released causes the piston to spin eject the body.

  12. Arterial Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Avolio, Alberto

    2013-04-01

    Stiffness of large arteries has been long recognized as a significant determinant of pulse pressure. However, it is only in recent decades, with the accumulation of longitudinal data from large and varied epidemiological studies of morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease, that it has emerged as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. This has generated substantial interest in investigations related to intrinsic causative and associated factors responsible for the alteration of mechanical properties of the arterial wall, with the aim to uncover specific pathways that could be interrogated to prevent or reverse arterial stiffening. Much has been written on the haemodynamic relevance of arterial stiffness in terms of the quantification of pulsatile relationships of blood pressure and flow in conduit arteries. Indeed, much of this early work regarded blood vessels as passive elastic conduits, with the endothelial layer considered as an inactive lining of the lumen and as an interface to flowing blood. However, recent advances in molecular biology and increased technological sophistication for the detection of low concentrations of biochemical compounds have elucidated the highly important regulatory role of the endothelial cell affecting vascular function. These techniques have enabled research into the interaction of the underlying passive mechanical properties of the arterial wall with the active cellular and molecular processes that regulate the local environment of the load-bearing components. This review addresses these emerging concepts.

  13. Spin Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    is now well established in scientific and engineering communities that Moore’s Law, having been an excellent predictor of integrated circuit density...for semiconductor electronics, spin-electronic devices have the potential to achieve much higher integration densities. Conventional electronics is...devices would include non-volatility permitting data retention in non-powered conditions, increased integration densities, higher data processing

  14. Carotid artery surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  15. Spin pumping and spin Seebeck effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Eiji

    2012-02-01

    Utilization of a spin current, a flow of electrons' spins in a solid, is the key technology in spintronics that will allow the achievement of efficient magnetic memories and computing devices. In this technology, generation and detection of spin currents are necessary. Here, we review inverse spin-Hall effect and spin-current-generation phenomena recently discovered both in metals and insulators: inverse spin-Hall effect, spin pumping, and spin Seebeck effect. (1)Spin pumping and spin torque in a Mott insulator system We found that spin pumping and spin torque effects appear also at an interface between Pt and an insulator YIG.. This means that we can connect a spin current carried by conduction electrons and a spin-wave spin current flowing in insulators. We demonstrate electric signal transmission by using these effects and interconversion of the spin currents [1]. (2) Spin Seebeck effect We have observed, by using the inverse spin-Hall effect [2], spin voltage generation from a heat current in a NiFe, named the spin-Seebeck effect [3]. Surprisingly, spin-Seebeck effect was found to appear even in insulators [4], a situation completely different from conventional charge Seebeck effect. The result implies an important role of elementary excitation in solids beside charge in the spin Seebeck effect. In the talk, we review the recent progress of the research on this effect. This research is collaboration with K. Ando, K. Uchida, Y. Kajiwara, S. Maekawa, G. E. W. Bauer, S. Takahashi, and J. Ieda. [4pt] [1] Y. Kajiwara and E. Saitoh et al. Nature 464 (2010) 262. [0pt] [2] E. Saitoh et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 (2006) 182509. [0pt] [3] K. Uchida and E. Saitoh et al., Nature 455 (2008)778. [0pt] [4] K. Uchida and E. Saitoh et al.,Nature materials 9 (2010) 894 - 897.

  16. Spinning Moons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-10

    Most inner moons in the solar system keep one face pointed toward their central planet; this frame from an animation by NASA New Horizons shows that certainly isnt the case with the small moons of Pluto, which behave like spinning tops. Pluto is shown at center with, in order, from smaller to wider orbit: Charon, Styx, Nix, Kerberos, Hydra. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20152

  17. Spin-Circuit Representation of Spin Pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kuntal

    2017-07-01

    Circuit theory has been tremendously successful in translating physical equations into circuit elements in an organized form for further analysis and proposing creative designs for applications. With the advent of new materials and phenomena in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics, it is imperative to construct the spin-circuit representations for different materials and phenomena. Spin pumping is a phenomenon by which a pure spin current can be injected into the adjacent layers. If the adjacent layer is a material with a high spin-orbit coupling, a considerable amount of charge voltage can be generated via the inverse spin Hall effect allowing spin detection. Here we develop the spin-circuit representation of spin pumping. We then combine it with the spin-circuit representation for the materials having spin Hall effect to show that it reproduces the standard results as in the literature. We further show how complex multilayers can be analyzed by simply writing a netlist.

  18. Carotid Artery Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Carotid Artery Screening What is carotid artery screening? Who should ... information about carotid artery screening? What is carotid artery screening? Screening examinations are tests performed to find ...

  19. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is ... bypass multiple coronary arteries during one surgery. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Figure A shows the location of ...

  20. Arterial embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... for embolization (especially to the brain) is mitral stenosis . Endocarditis (infection of the inside of the heart) can also cause arterial emboli. A common source for an embolus is from areas of hardening (atherosclerosis) in the aorta and other large blood vessels. These clots can ...

  1. spin pumping occurred under nonlinear spin precession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hengan; Fan, Xiaolong; Ma, Li; Zhou, Shiming; Xue, Desheng

    Spin pumping occurs when a pure-spin current is injected into a normal metal thin layer by an adjacent ferromagnetic metal layer undergoing ferromagnetic resonance, which can be understood as the inverse effect of spin torque, and gives access to the physics of magnetization dynamics and damping. An interesting question is that whether spin pumping occurring under nonlinear spin dynamics would differ from linear case. It is known that nonlinear spin dynamics differ distinctly from linear response, a variety of amplitude dependent nonlinear effect would present. It has been found that for spin precession angle above a few degrees, nonlinear damping term would present and dominated the dynamic energy/spin-moment dissipation. Since spin pumping are closely related to the damping process, it is interesting to ask whether the nonlinear damping term could be involved in spin pumping process. We studied the spin pumping effect occurring under nonlinear spin precession. A device which is a Pt/YIG microstrip coupled with coplanar waveguide was used. High power excitation resulted in spin precession entering in a nonlinear regime. Foldover resonance lineshape and nonlinear damping have been observed. Based on those nonlinear effects, we determined the values of the precession cone angles, and the maximum cone angle can reach a values as high as 21.5 degrees. We found that even in nonlinear regime, spin pumping is still linear, which means the nonlinear damping and foldover would not affect spin pumping process.

  2. Spin currents, spin torques, and the concept of spin superfluidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rückriegel, Andreas; Kopietz, Peter

    2017-03-01

    In magnets with noncollinear spin configuration the expectation value of the conventionally defined spin current operator contains a contribution which renormalizes an external magnetic field and hence affects only the precessional motion of the spin polarization. This term, which has been named angular spin current by Sun and Xie [Phys. Rev. B 72, 245305 (2005)], 10.1103/PhysRevB.72.245305, does not describe the translational motion of magnetic moments. We give a prescription for how to separate these two types of spin transport and show that the translational movement of the spin is always polarized along the direction of the local magnetization. We also show that at vanishing temperature the classical magnetic order parameter in magnetic insulators cannot carry a translational spin current and elucidate how this affects the interpretation of spin supercurrents.

  3. Arterial switch.

    PubMed

    Planche, C; Lacour-Gayet, F; Serraf, A

    1998-01-01

    A relatively large spectra of anatomic variations are found within the unifying features of discordant ventriculoarterial connections. Variants that lend themselves to anatomic repair by the arterial switch operation are discussed, these include transposition of the great arteries with intact ventricular septum (TGA IVS), TGA associated with a ventricular septal defect (TGA VSD), double-outlet right ventricle with subpulmonary VSD (DORV VSD), and TGA or DORV with VSD associated with coarctation. Double discordance with VSD, which is currently treated by double switch or Rastelli and atrial switch and which probably represents, in our department, the only remaining indication for atrial switch, is not discussed. Also, we exclude TGA associated with pulmonary stenosis, which is treated by Rastelli or REV operation.

  4. Spin superfluidity and coherent spin precession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunkov, Yuriy M.

    2009-04-01

    The spontaneous phase coherent precession of the magnetization in superfluid 3He-B was discovered experimentally in 1984 at the Institute for Physical Problems, Moscow by Borovik-Romanov, Bunkov, Dmitriev and Mukharsky and simultaneously explained theoretically by Fomin (Institut Landau, Moscow). Its formation is a direct manifestation of spin superfluidity. The latter is the magnetic counterpart of mass superfluidity and superconductivity. It is also an example of the Bose-Einstein condensation of spin-wave excitations (magnons). The coherent spin precession opened the way for investigations of spin supercurrent magnetization transport and other related phenomena, such as spin-current Josephson effect, process of phase slippage at a critical value of spin supercurrent, spin-current vortices, non-topological solitons (analogous to Q-balls in high energy physics) etc. New measuring techniques based on coherent spin precession made the investigation of mass counterflow and mass vortices possible owing to the spin-mass interaction. New phenomena were observed: mass-spin vortices, the Goldstone mode of the mass vortex with non-axisymmetric core, superfluid density anisotropy etc. Different types of coherent spin precession were later found in superfluid 3He-A and 3He-B confined in anisotropic aerogel, in the states with counterflow and in 3He with reduced magnetization. Finally, spin superfluidity investigations developed the basis for a modern investigation of electron spin supercurrent and spintronics.

  5. Entangled spins and ghost-spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jatkar, Dileep P.; Narayan, K.

    2017-09-01

    We study patterns of quantum entanglement in systems of spins and ghost-spins regarding them as simple quantum mechanical toy models for theories containing negative norm states. We define a single ghost-spin as in [20] as a 2-state spin variable with an indefinite inner product in the state space. We find that whenever the spin sector is disentangled from the ghost-spin sector (both of which could be entangled within themselves), the reduced density matrix obtained by tracing over all the ghost-spins gives rise to positive entanglement entropy for positive norm states, while negative norm states have an entanglement entropy with a negative real part and a constant imaginary part. However when the spins are entangled with the ghost-spins, there are new entanglement patterns in general. For systems where the number of ghost-spins is even, it is possible to find subsectors of the Hilbert space where positive norm states always lead to positive entanglement entropy after tracing over the ghost-spins. With an odd number of ghost-spins however, we find that there always exist positive norm states with negative real part for entanglement entropy after tracing over the ghost-spins.

  6. Spin depolarization in semiconductor spin detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W. M.; Buyanova, I. A.; Oka, Y.; Abernathy, C. R.; Pearton, S. J.

    2006-02-01

    A brief review is given of our recent experimental results from in-depth investigations of spin depolarization and underlying physical mechanisms within semiconductor spin detectors based on II-VIs (e.g. Zn(Cd)Se quantum wells) and III-Vs (e.g. InGaN quantum wells), which are relevant to applications for spin-LEDs based on ZnMnSe/Zn(Cd)Se and GaMnN/InGaN structures. By employing cw and time-resolved magneto-optical and optical spin orientation spectroscopy in combination with tunable laser excitation, we show that spin depolarization within these spin detectors is very efficient and is an important factor limiting efficiency of spin detection. Detailed physical mechanisms leading to efficient spin depolarization will be discussed.

  7. Blood Tracer Kinetics in the Arterial Tree

    PubMed Central

    Kellner, Elias; Gall, Peter; Günther, Matthias; Reisert, Marco; Mader, Irina; Fleysher, Roman; Kiselev, Valerij G.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of blood supply of different organs relies on labeling blood with a suitable tracer. The tracer kinetics is linear: Tracer concentration at an observation site is a linear response to an input somewhere upstream the arterial flow. The corresponding impulse response functions are currently treated empirically without incorporating the relation to the vascular morphology of an organ. In this work we address this relation for the first time. We demonstrate that the form of the response function in the entire arterial tree is reduced to that of individual vessel segments under approximation of good blood mixing at vessel bifurcations. The resulting expression simplifies significantly when the geometric scaling of the vascular tree is taken into account. This suggests a new way to access the vascular morphology in vivo using experimentally determined response functions. However, it is an ill-posed inverse problem as demonstrated by an example using measured arterial spin labeling in large brain arteries. We further analyze transport in individual vessel segments and demonstrate that experimentally accessible tracer concentration in vessel segments depends on the measurement principle. Explicit expressions for the response functions are obtained for the major middle part of the arterial tree in which the blood flow in individual vessel segments can be treated as laminar. When applied to the analysis of regional cerebral blood flow measurements for which the necessary arterial input is evaluated in the carotid arteries, present theory predicts about 20% underestimation, which is in agreement with recent experimental data. PMID:25299048

  8. Spin-Spin Coupling in Asteroidal Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batygin, Konstantin; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    Gravitationally bound binaries constitute a substantial fraction of the small body population of the solar system, and characterization of their rotational states is instrumental to understanding their formation and dynamical evolution. Unlike planets, numerous small bodies can maintain a perpetual aspheroidal shape, giving rise to a richer array of non-trivial gravitational dynamics. In this work, we explore the rotational evolution of triaxial satellites that orbit permanently deformed central objects, with specific emphasis on quadrupole-quadrupole interactions. Our analysis shows that in addition to conventional spin-orbit resonances, both prograde and retrograde spin-spin resonances naturally arise for closely orbiting, highly deformed bodies. Application of our results to the illustrative examples of (87) Sylvia and (216) Kleopatra multi-asteroid systems implies capture probabilities slightly below ~10% for leading-order spin-spin resonances. Cumulatively, our results suggest that spin-spin coupling may be consequential for highly elongated, tightly orbiting binary objects.

  9. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  10. Peripheral arterial line (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A peripheral arterial line is a small, short plastic catheter placed through the skin into an artery of the arm or leg. The purpose of a peripheral arterial line is to allow continuous monitoring of blood pressure ...

  11. RHIC SPIN FLIPPER

    SciTech Connect

    BAI,M.; ROSER, T.

    2007-06-25

    This paper proposes a new design of spin flipper for RHIC to obtain full spin flip with the spin tune staying at half integer. The traditional technique of using an rf dipole or solenoid as spin flipper to achieve full spin flip in the presence of full Siberian snake requires one to change the snake configuration to move the spin tune away from half integer. This is not practical for an operational high energy polarized proton collider like RHIC where beam lifetime is sensitive to small betatron tune change. The design of the new spin flipper as well as numerical simulations are presented.

  12. Spin-1 quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Daichi; Kubo, Toshihiro; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Yamashita, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    We study the quantum walks of two interacting spin-1 bosons. We derive an exact solution for the time-dependent wave function, which describes the two-particle dynamics governed by the one-dimensional spin-1 Bose-Hubbard model. We show that propagation dynamics in real space and mixing dynamics in spin space are correlated via the spin-dependent interaction in this system. The spin-mixing dynamics has two characteristic frequencies in the limit of large spin-dependent interactions. One of the characteristic frequencies is determined by the energy difference between two bound states, and the other frequency relates to the cotunneling process of a pair of spin-1 bosons. Furthermore, we numerically analyze the growth of the spin correlations in quantum walks. We find that long-range spin correlations emerge showing a clear dependence on the sign of the spin-dependent interaction and the initial state.

  13. Magnons, Spin Current and Spin Seebeck Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2012-02-01

    When metals and semiconductors are placed in a temperature gradient, the electric voltage is generated. This mechanism to convert heat into electricity, the so-called Seebeck effect, has attracted much attention recently as the mechanism for utilizing wasted heat energy. [1]. Ferromagnetic insulators are good conductors of spin current, i.e., the flow of electron spins [2]. When they are placed in a temperature gradient, generated are magnons, spin current and the spin voltage [3], i.e., spin accumulation. Once the spin voltage is converted into the electric voltage by inverse spin Hall effect in attached metal films such as Pt, the electric voltage is obtained from heat energy [4-5]. This is called the spin Seebeck effect. Here, we present the linear-response theory of spin Seebeck effect based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem [6-8] and discuss a variety of the devices. [4pt] [1] S. Maekawa et al, Physics of Transition Metal Oxides (Springer, 2004). [0pt] [2] S. Maekawa: Nature Materials 8, 777 (2009). [0pt] [3] Concept in Spin Electronics, eds. S. Maekawa (Oxford University Press, 2006). [0pt] [4] K. Uchida et al., Nature 455, 778 (2008). [0pt] [5] K. Uchida et al., Nature Materials 9, 894 (2010) [0pt] [6] H. Adachi et al., APL 97, 252506 (2010) and Phys. Rev. B 83, 094410 (2011). [0pt] [7] J. Ohe et al., Phys. Rev. B (2011) [0pt] [8] K. Uchida et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 104419 (2010).

  14. Spin Rotation of Formalism for Spin Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Luccio,A.

    2008-02-01

    The problem of which coefficients are adequate to correctly represent the spin rotation in vector spin tracking for polarized proton and deuteron beams in synchrotrons is here re-examined in the light of recent discussions. The main aim of this note is to show where some previous erroneous results originated and how to code spin rotation in a tracking code. Some analysis of a recent experiment is presented that confirm the correctness of the assumptions.

  15. Spin Seebeck power generators

    SciTech Connect

    Cahaya, Adam B.; Tretiakov, O. A.; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.

    2014-01-27

    We derive expressions for the efficiency and figure of merit of two spin caloritronic devices based on the spin Seebeck effect (SSE), i.e., the generation of spin currents by a temperature gradient. The inverse spin Hall effect is conventionally used to detect the SSE and offers advantages for large area applications. We also propose a device that converts spin current into electric one by means of a spin-valve detector, which scales favorably to small sizes and approaches a figure of merit of 0.5 at room temperature.

  16. Spin-Mechatronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Mamoru; Saitoh, Eiji; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the interconversion phenomena between spin and mechanical angular momentum in moving objects. In particular, the recent results on spin manipulation and spin-current generation by mechanical motion are examined. In accelerating systems, spin-dependent gauge fields emerge, which enable the conversion from mechanical angular momentum into spins. Such a spin-mechanical effect is predicted by quantum theory in a non-inertial frame. Experiments which confirm the effect, i.e., the resonance frequency shift in nuclear magnetic resonance, the stray field measurement of rotating metals, and electric voltage generation in liquid metals, are discussed.

  17. Carotid artery anatomy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    There are four carotid arteries, two on each side of the neck: right and left internal carotid arteries, and right and left external carotid arteries. The carotid arteries deliver oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the head and brain.

  18. Vapor resistant arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor); Dussinger, Peter M. (Inventor); Buchko, Matthew T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A vapor block resistant liquid artery structure for heat pipes. A solid tube artery with openings is encased in the sintered material of a heat pipe wick. The openings are limited to that side of the artery which is most remote from the heat source. The liquid in the artery can thus exit the artery through the openings and wet the sintered sheath, but vapor generated at the heat source is unlikely to move around the solid wall of the artery and reverse its direction in order to penetrate the artery through the openings. An alternate embodiment uses finer pore size wick material to resist vapor entry.

  19. Coronary Artery Fistula

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    ascending aorta and pulmonary artery) and congenital coronary artery stenosis . Most coronary artery fistulas are congenital but may also...MILITARY MEDICINE, 172, 4: xi-xii, 2007 Military Medicine, Vol. 172, 4, April 2007 Radiology Corner Case #11 Coronary Artery Fistula...man with a single episode of vague sub- sternal chest pain was referred for evaluation of possible coronary artery disease. His medical history was

  20. Nonmagnetic semiconductor spin transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, K. C.; Lau, Wayne H.; Gündoǧdu, K.; Flatté, Michael E.; Boggess, Thomas F.

    2003-10-01

    We propose a spin transistor using only nonmagnetic materials that exploits the characteristics of bulk inversion asymmetry (BIA) in (110) symmetric quantum wells. We show that extremely large spin splittings due to BIA are possible in (110) InAs/GaSb/AlSb heterostructures, which together with the enhanced spin decay times in (110) quantum wells demonstrates the potential for exploitation of BIA effects in semiconductor spintronics devices. Spin injection and detection is achieved using spin-dependent resonant interband tunneling and spin transistor action is realized through control of the electron spin lifetime in an InAs lateral transport channel using an applied electric field (Rashba effect). This device may also be used as a spin valve, or a magnetic field sensor.

  1. Spinning eggs and ballerinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction between the egg and the surface on which it spins.

  2. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  3. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  4. Wurtzite spin lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria Junior, Paulo E.; Xu, Gaofeng; Chen, Yang-Fang; Sipahi, Guilherme M.; Žutić, Igor

    2017-03-01

    Semiconductor lasers are strongly altered by adding spin-polarized carriers. Such spin lasers could overcome many limitations of their conventional (spin-unpolarized) counterparts. While the vast majority of experiments in spin lasers employed zinc-blende semiconductors, the room-temperature electrical manipulation was first demonstrated in wurtzite GaN-based lasers. However, the underlying theoretical description of wurtzite spin lasers is still missing. To address this situation, focusing on (In,Ga)N-based wurtzite quantum wells, we develop a theoretical framework in which the calculated microscopic spin-dependent gain is combined with a simple rate equation model. A small spin-orbit coupling in these wurtzites supports simultaneous spin polarizations of electrons and holes, providing unexplored opportunities to control spin lasers. For example, the gain asymmetry, as one of the key figures of merit related to spin amplification, can change the sign by simply increasing the carrier density. The lasing threshold reduction has a nonmonotonic dependence on electron-spin polarization, even for a nonvanishing hole spin polarization.

  5. The Steady Spin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuchs, Richard; Schmidt, Wilhelm

    1931-01-01

    With the object of further clarifying the problem of spinning, the equilibrium of the forces and moments acting on an airplane is discussed in light of the most recent test data. Convinced that in a spin the flight attitude by only small angles of yaw is more or less completely steady, the study is primarily devoted to an investigation of steady spin with no side slip. At small angles, wholly arbitrary and perfectly steady spins may be forced, depending on the type of control displacements. But at large angles only very steep and only "approaching steady" spins are possible, no matter what the control displacements.

  6. Cooled artery extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

  7. Spin supplementary conditions for spinning compact binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikóczi, Balázs

    2017-03-01

    We consider different spin supplementary conditions (SSC) for a spinning compact binary with the leading-order spin-orbit (SO) interaction. The Lagrangian of the binary system can be constructed, but it is acceleration-dependent in two cases of SSC. We rewrite the generalized Hamiltonian formalism proposed by Ostrogradsky and compute the conserved quantities and the dissipative part of relative motion during the gravitational radiation of each SSC. We give the orbital elements and observed quantities of the SO dynamics, for instance, the energy and the orbital angular momentum losses and waveforms, and discuss their SSC dependence.

  8. Inverse spin Hall effect by spin injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S. Y.; Horing, Norman J. M.; Lei, X. L.

    2007-09-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment [S. O. Valenzuela and M. Tinkham, Nature (London) 442, 176 (2006)], the authors present a quantitative microscopic theory to investigate the inverse spin-Hall effect with spin injection into aluminum considering both intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit couplings using the orthogonalized-plane-wave method. Their theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. It is also clear that the magnitude of the anomalous Hall resistivity is mainly due to contributions from extrinsic skew scattering.

  9. Spin-transfer torque induced spin waves in antiferromagnetic insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Matthew W.; Guo, Wei; Stocks, George Malcolm; Xiao, Di; Xiao, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    We explore the possibility of exciting spin waves in insulating antiferromagnetic films by injecting spin current at the surface. We analyze both magnetically compensated and uncompensated interfaces. We find that the spin current induced spin-transfer torque can excite spin waves in insulating antiferromagnetic materials and that the chirality of the excited spin wave is determined by the polarization of the injected spin current. Furthermore, the presence of magnetic surface anisotropy can greatly increase the accessibility of these excitations.

  10. Spin-transfer torque induced spin waves in antiferromagnetic insulators

    DOE PAGES

    Daniels, Matthew W.; Guo, Wei; Stocks, George Malcolm; ...

    2015-01-01

    We explore the possibility of exciting spin waves in insulating antiferromagnetic films by injecting spin current at the surface. We analyze both magnetically compensated and uncompensated interfaces. We find that the spin current induced spin-transfer torque can excite spin waves in insulating antiferromagnetic materials and that the chirality of the excited spin wave is determined by the polarization of the injected spin current. Furthermore, the presence of magnetic surface anisotropy can greatly increase the accessibility of these excitations.

  11. Slow spin relaxation in dipolar spin ice.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orendac, Martin; Sedlakova, Lucia; Orendacova, Alzbeta; Vrabel, Peter; Feher, Alexander; Pajerowski, Daniel M.; Cohen, Justin D.; Meisel, Mark W.; Shirai, Masae; Bramwell, Steven T.

    2009-03-01

    Spin relaxation in dipolar spin ice Dy2Ti2O7 and Ho2Ti2O7 was investigated using the magnetocaloric effect and susceptibility. The magnetocaloric behavior of Dy2Ti2O7 at temperatures where the orientation of spins is governed by ``ice rules`` (T < Tice) revealed thermally activated relaxation; however, the resulting temperature dependence of the relaxation time is more complicated than anticipated by a mere extrapolation of the corresponding high temperature data [1]. A susceptibility study of Ho2Ti2O7 was performed at T > Tice and in high magnetic fields, and the results suggest a slow relaxation of spins analogous to the behavior reported in a highly polarized cooperative paramagnet [2]. [1] J. Snyder et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 (2003) 107201. [2] B. G. Ueland et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 027216.

  12. Coronary Artery Anomalies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center for Coronary Artery Anomalies Doctors at the Texas Heart Institute's Center for Coronary Artery Anomalies (CCAA) ... comments. Terms of Use and Privacy Policy © Copyright Texas Heart Institute All rights reserved.

  13. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... coronary artery disease: High levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (bad cholesterol) and triglycerides in the blood. High blood pressure Diabetes Smoking Family history of coronary artery disease Obesity ...

  14. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection

    MedlinePlus

    ... artery dissection (SCAD). It's not yet clear what role these factors play in causing the disease. Common factors include: Female sex. Though spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) can occur ...

  15. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    MedlinePlus

    ... pale. When PAD becomes severe, you may have: Impotence Pain and cramps at night Pain or tingling ... emboli that block small arteries Coronary artery disease Impotence Open sores (ischemic ulcers on the lower legs) ...

  16. Retinal artery occlusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... These blockages are more likely if there is hardening of the arteries ( atherosclerosis ) in the eye. Clots ... Blindness and vision loss Blood clots Diabetes Glaucoma Hardening of the arteries High blood cholesterol levels High ...

  17. Radial Artery Catheterization

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the radial artery for cardiac catheterization procedures. Advantages of Radial Artery Catheterization Any catheter placement into ... walk, and eat immediately. This is a particular advantage for patients with back problems because there is ...

  18. Hardening of the arteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000171.htm Hardening of the arteries To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hardening of the arteries, also called atherosclerosis, occurs when ...

  19. Carotid artery surgery - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100124.htm Carotid artery surgery - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... out of 4 Overview There are four carotid arteries, with a pair located on each side of ...

  20. Peripheral artery bypass - leg

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007394.htm Peripheral artery bypass - leg To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Peripheral artery bypass is surgery to reroute the blood supply ...

  1. Uterine artery embolization

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007384.htm Uterine artery embolization To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a procedure to treat fibroids ...

  2. Coronary artery fistula

    MedlinePlus

    Congenital heart defect - coronary artery fistula; Birth defect heart - coronary artery fistula ... attaches to one of the chambers of the heart (the atrium or ventricle) or another blood vessel ( ...

  3. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death in the United States in both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to ...

  4. Coronary artery disease

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... heart muscle itself. Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. Normally, blood flows through a coronary artery unimpeded. However, a process called atherosclerosis ...

  5. What Is Peripheral Artery Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Peripheral Artery Disease? Peripheral artery disease (P.A.D.) is ... that affects blood flow to the legs. Normal Artery and Artery With Plaque Buildup The illustration shows ...

  6. Spin Coherence in Semiconductor Nanostructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-10

    C. A. Ullrich and M. E. Flatté, ``Intersubband spin -density excitations in quantum wells with Rashba spin splitting ’’, Physical Review B 66...Ge quantum dots, tuning of spin coherence times for electron spin , tuning of dipolar magnetic fields for nuclear spin , spontaneous spin polarization ...unstable to the formation of spin - polarized packets at room temperature. We also predict that orbital angular momentum quenching in quantum dots will

  7. Single-spin entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, G. B.; Meerovich, V. M.; Sokolovsky, V. L.

    2017-09-01

    We show that the operators and the quadrupole and Zeeman Hamiltonians for a spin 3/2 can be represented in terms for a system of two coupling fictitious spins 1/2 using the Kronecker product of Pauli matrices. Particularly, the quadrupole Hamiltonian which describes the interaction of the nuclear quadrupole moment with an electric field gradient is represented as the Hamiltonian of the Ising model in a transverse selective magnetic field. The Zeeman Hamiltonian, which describes interaction of the nuclear spin with the external magnetic field, can be considered as the Hamiltonian of the Heisenberg model in a selective magnetic field. The total Hamiltonian can be interpreted as the Hamiltonian of 3 D Heisenberg model in an inhomogeneous magnetic field applied along the x-axis. The representation of a single spin 3/2 as two-spin 1/2 system allows us to study entanglement in the spin system. One of the features of the fictitious spin system is that, in both the pure and the mixed states, the concurrence tends to 0.5 with increase of an applied magnetic field. The representation of a spin 3/2 as a system of two coupling fictitious spins 1/2 and possibility of formation of the entangled states in this system open a way to the application of a single spin 3/2 in quantum computation.

  8. Spin Hall effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinova, Jairo; Valenzuela, Sergio O.; Wunderlich, J.; Back, C. H.; Jungwirth, T.

    2015-10-01

    Spin Hall effects are a collection of relativistic spin-orbit coupling phenomena in which electrical currents can generate transverse spin currents and vice versa. Despite being observed only a decade ago, these effects are already ubiquitous within spintronics, as standard spin-current generators and detectors. Here the theoretical and experimental results that have established this subfield of spintronics are reviewed. The focus is on the results that have converged to give us the current understanding of the phenomena, which has evolved from a qualitative to a more quantitative measurement of spin currents and their associated spin accumulation. Within the experimental framework, optical-, transport-, and magnetization-dynamics-based measurements are reviewed and linked to both phenomenological and microscopic theories of the effect. Within the theoretical framework, the basic mechanisms in both the extrinsic and intrinsic regimes are reviewed, which are linked to the mechanisms present in their closely related phenomenon in ferromagnets, the anomalous Hall effect. Also reviewed is the connection to the phenomenological treatment based on spin-diffusion equations applicable to certain regimes, as well as the spin-pumping theory of spin generation used in many measurements of the spin Hall angle. A further connection to the spin-current-generating spin Hall effect to the inverse spin galvanic effect is given, in which an electrical current induces a nonequilibrium spin polarization. This effect often accompanies the spin Hall effect since they share common microscopic origins. Both can exhibit the same symmetries when present in structures comprising ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic layers through their induced current-driven spin torques or induced voltages. Although a short chronological overview of the evolution of the spin Hall effect field and the resolution of some early controversies is given, the main body of this review is structured from a pedagogical

  9. Spin caloritronics in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Angsula; Frota, H. O.

    2015-06-14

    Spin caloritronics, the combination of spintronics with thermoelectrics, exploiting both the intrinsic spin of the electron and its associated magnetic moment in addition to its fundamental electronic charge and temperature, is an emerging technology mainly in the development of low-power-consumption technology. In this work, we study the thermoelectric properties of a Rashba dot attached to two single layer/bilayer graphene sheets as leads. The temperature difference on the two graphene leads induces a spin current, which depends on the temperature and chemical potential. We demonstrate that the Rashba dot behaves as a spin filter for selected values of the chemical potential and is able to filter electrons by their spin orientation. The spin thermopower has also been studied where the effects of the chemical potential, temperature, and also the Rashba term have been observed.

  10. Renal artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    González, J; Esteban, M; Andrés, G; Linares, E; Martínez-Salamanca, J I

    2014-01-01

    A renal artery aneurysm is defined as a dilated segment of renal artery that exceeds twice the diameter of a normal renal artery. Although rare, the diagnosis and incidence of this entity have been steadily increasing due to the routine use of cross-sectional imaging. In certain cases, renal artery aneurysms may be clinically important and potentially lethal. However, knowledge of their occurrence, their natural history, and their prognosis with or without treatment is still limited. This article aims to review the recent literature concerning renal artery aneurysms, with special consideration given to physiopathology, indications for treatment, different technical options, post-procedure complications and treatment outcomes.

  11. Extracranial vertebral artery intervention.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Debabrata; Pineda, Guillermo

    2007-12-01

    Atherosclerosis is the commonest cause of vertebral artery stenosis and has a predilection for the origin and proximal section of the extracranial portion of the vessel and also the intracranial portion of the vessel. Although it has generally been thought that extracranial vertebral artery (ECVA) disease has a more benign outcome compared to intracranial vertebral artery disease, significant occlusive disease of the proximal vertebral artery is the primary cause of vertebral artery ischemia in a significant proportion of patients. We focus on the interventional management of patients with proximal ECVA disease in this article.

  12. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  13. Jet pump assisted artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  14. Spin coating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Torczynski, John R.

    2000-01-01

    A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

  15. Picosecond Spin Caloritronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, David G.

    The coupling of spin and heat, i.e., spin caloritronics, gives rise to new physical phenomena in nanoscale spin devices and new ways to manipulate local magnetization. Our work in this field takes advantage of recent advances in the measurement and understanding of heat transport at the nanoscale using ultrafast lasers. We use a picosecond duration pump laser pulses as a source of heat and picosecond duration probe laser pulses to detect changes in temperature, spin accumulation, and spin transfer torque using a combination of time-domain thermoreflectance and time-resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect Our pump-probe optical methods enable us to change the temperature of ferromagnetic layers on a picosecond time-scale and generate enormous heat fluxes on the order of 100 GW m-2 that persist for ~ 30 ps. Thermally-driven ultrafast demagnetization of a perpendicular ferromagnet leads to spin accumulation in a normal metal and spin transfer torque in an in-plane ferromagnet. The data are well described by models of spin generation and transport based on differences and gradients of thermodynamic parameters. The spin-dependent Seebeck effect of a perpendicular ferromagnetic layer converts a heat current into spin current, which in turn can be used to exert a spin transfer torque (STT) on a second ferromagnetic layer with in-plane magnetization. Using a [Co,Ni] multilayer as the source of spin, an energy fluence of ~ 4 J m-2 creates thermal STT sufficient to induce ~ 1 % tilting of the magnetization of a 2 nm-thick CoFeB layer.

  16. Rockets for spin recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The potential effectiveness of rockets as an auxiliary means for an aircraft to effect recovery from spins was investigated. The advances in rocket technology produced by the space effort suggested that currently available systems might obviate many of the problems encountered in earlier rocket systems. A modern fighter configuration known to exhibit a flat spin mode was selected. An analytical study was made of the thrust requirements for a rocket spin recovery system for the subject configuration. These results were then applied to a preliminary systems study of rocket components appropriate to the problem. Subsequent spin tunnel tests were run to evaluate the analytical results.

  17. Picosecond Spin Seebeck Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimling, Johannes; Choi, Gyung-Min; Brangham, Jack T.; Matalla-Wagner, Tristan; Huebner, Torsten; Kuschel, Timo; Yang, Fengyuan; Cahill, David G.

    2017-02-01

    We report time-resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect in normal metal /Y3Fe5 O12 bilayers driven by an interfacial temperature difference between electrons and magnons. The measured time evolution of spin accumulation induced by laser excitation indicates transfer of angular momentum across normal metal /Y3Fe5 O12 interfaces on a picosecond time scale, too short for contributions from a bulk temperature gradient in an yttrium iron garnet. The product of spin-mixing conductance and the interfacial spin Seebeck coefficient determined is of the order of 108 A m-2 K-1 .

  18. Operator spin foam models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, Benjamin; Hellmann, Frank; Kamiński, Wojciech; Kisielowski, Marcin; Lewandowski, Jerzy

    2011-05-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce a systematic approach to spin foams. We define operator spin foams, that is foams labelled by group representations and operators, as our main tool. A set of moves we define in the set of the operator spin foams (among other operations) allows us to split the faces and the edges of the foams. We assign to each operator spin foam a contracted operator, by using the contractions at the vertices and suitably adjusted face amplitudes. The emergence of the face amplitudes is the consequence of assuming the invariance of the contracted operator with respect to the moves. Next, we define spin foam models and consider the class of models assumed to be symmetric with respect to the moves we have introduced, and assuming their partition functions (state sums) are defined by the contracted operators. Briefly speaking, those operator spin foam models are invariant with respect to the cellular decomposition, and are sensitive only to the topology and colouring of the foam. Imposing an extra symmetry leads to a family we call natural operator spin foam models. This symmetry, combined with assumed invariance with respect to the edge splitting move, determines a complete characterization of a general natural model. It can be obtained by applying arbitrary (quantum) constraints on an arbitrary BF spin foam model. In particular, imposing suitable constraints on a spin(4) BF spin foam model is exactly the way we tend to view 4D quantum gravity, starting with the BC model and continuing with the Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine (EPRL) or Freidel-Krasnov (FK) models. That makes our framework directly applicable to those models. Specifically, our operator spin foam framework can be translated into the language of spin foams and partition functions. Among our natural spin foam models there are the BF spin foam model, the BC model, and a model corresponding to the EPRL intertwiners. Our operator spin foam framework can also be used for more general spin

  19. PREFACE: Spin Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieny, B.; Sousa, R.; Prejbeanu, L.

    2007-04-01

    Conventional electronics has in the past ignored the spin on the electron, however things began to change in 1988 with the discovery of giant magnetoresistance in metallic thin film stacks which led to the development of a new research area, so called spin-electronics. In the last 10 years, spin-electronics has achieved a number of breakthroughs from the point of view of both basic science and application. Materials research has led to several major discoveries: very large tunnel magnetoresistance effects in tunnel junctions with crystalline barriers due to a new spin-filtering mechanism associated with the spin-dependent symmetry of the electron wave functions new magnetic tunnelling barriers leading to spin-dependent tunnelling barrier heights and acting as spin-filters magnetic semiconductors with increasingly high ordering temperature. New phenomena have been predicted and observed: the possibility of acting on the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure with a spin-polarized current. This effect, due to a transfer of angular momentum between the spin polarized conduction electrons and the local magnetization, can be viewed as the reciprocal of giant or tunnel magnetoresistance. It can be used to switch the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure or to generate steady magnetic excitations in the system. the possibility of generating and manipulating spin current without charge current by creating non-equilibrium local accumulation of spin up or spin down electrons. The range of applications of spin electronics materials and phenomena is expanding: the first devices based on giant magnetoresistance were the magnetoresistive read-heads for computer disk drives. These heads, introduced in 1998 with current-in plane spin-valves, have evolved towards low resistance tunnel magnetoresistice heads in 2005. Besides magnetic recording technology, these very sensitive magnetoresistive sensors are finding applications in other areas, in particular in biology. magnetic

  20. SPIN FLIPPING IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    BAI,M.; LEHRACH,A.; LUCCIO,A.; MACKAY,W.W.; ROSER,T.; TSOUPAS,N.

    2001-06-18

    At the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), polarized protons will be accelerated and stored for spin physics experiments. Two full helical snakes will be used to eliminate the depolarization due to imperfection and intrinsic spin resonances. Since no resonances are crossed in RHIC, the beam polarization remains fixed through acceleration. However, in order to reduce systematic errors, the experiment often requires the polarization direction reversed. This paper presents a method of using an ac dipole to obtain a full spin flip in the presence of two full snakes [1]. A similar method of using an rf solenoid for spin flip was tested at IUCF [2,3].

  1. Transradial artery coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Kiemeneij, F; Laarman, G J; de Melker, E

    1995-01-01

    This study explored the feasibility and safety of percutaneous coronary balloon angioplasty (PTCA) with miniaturized PTCA equipment via the radial artery. Coronary angioplasty (PTCA) via the femoral or brachial arteries may be associated with rare vascular complications such as bleeding and damage to the artery and adjacent structures. It was postulated that PTCA via the radial artery with miniaturized angioplasty equipment is feasible and that no major puncture site-related complications occur because hemostasis is obtained easily and because no major structures are near the radial artery. With double blood supply to the hand, radial artery occlusion is well tolerated. In 100 patients with collateral blood supply to the right hand, PTCA was attempted with 6F guiding catheters and rapid-exchange balloon catheters for exertional angina (87 patients) or nonexertional angina (13 patients). Angioplasty was attempted in 122 lesions (type A n = 67 [55%], Type B n = 37 [30%], and type C n = 18 [15%]). Pre- and post-PTCA computerized quantitative coronary analysis was performed. Radial artery function and structure were assessed clinically and with Doppler and two-dimensional ultrasound on the day of discharge. Coronary catheterization via the radial artery was successful in 94 patients (94%). The 6 remaining patients had successful PTCA via the femoral artery (n = 5) or the brachial artery (n = 1). Procedural success (120 of 122 lesions) was achieved in 92 patients (98%) via the radial artery and in 98 patients of the total study population.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Quantum spin liquid states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yi; Kanoda, Kazushi; Ng, Tai-Kai

    2017-04-01

    This is an introductory review of the physics of quantum spin liquid states. Quantum magnetism is a rapidly evolving field, and recent developments reveal that the ground states and low-energy physics of frustrated spin systems may develop many exotic behaviors once we leave the regime of semiclassical approaches. The purpose of this article is to introduce these developments. The article begins by explaining how semiclassical approaches fail once quantum mechanics become important and then describe the alternative approaches for addressing the problem. Mainly spin-1 /2 systems are discussed, and most of the time is spent in this article on one particular set of plausible spin liquid states in which spins are represented by fermions. These states are spin-singlet states and may be viewed as an extension of Fermi liquid states to Mott insulators, and they are usually classified in the category of so-called S U (2 ), U (1 ), or Z2 spin liquid states. A review is given of the basic theory regarding these states and the extensions of these states to include the effect of spin-orbit coupling and to higher spin (S >1 /2 ) systems. Two other important approaches with strong influences on the understanding of spin liquid states are also introduced: (i) matrix product states and projected entangled pair states and (ii) the Kitaev honeycomb model. Experimental progress concerning spin liquid states in realistic materials, including anisotropic triangular-lattice systems [κ -(ET )2Cu2(CN )3 and EtMe3Sb [Pd (dmit )2]2 ], kagome-lattice system [ZnCu3(OH )6Cl2 ], and hyperkagome lattice system (Na4 Ir3 O8 ), is reviewed and compared against the corresponding theories.

  3. Effect of spin rotation coupling on spin transport

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, Debashree Basu, B.

    2013-12-15

    We have studied the spin rotation coupling (SRC) as an ingredient to explain different spin-related issues. This special kind of coupling can play the role of a Dresselhaus like coupling in certain conditions. Consequently, one can control the spin splitting, induced by the Dresselhaus like term, which is unusual in a semiconductor heterostructure. Within this framework, we also study the renormalization of the spin-dependent electric field and spin current due to the k{sup →}⋅p{sup →} perturbation, by taking into account the interband mixing in the rotating system. In this paper we predict the enhancement of the spin-dependent electric field resulting from the renormalized spin rotation coupling. The renormalization factor of the spin electric field is different from that of the SRC or Zeeman coupling. The effect of renormalized SRC on spin current and Berry curvature is also studied. Interestingly, in the presence of this SRC-induced SOC it is possible to describe spin splitting as well as spin galvanic effect in semiconductors. -- Highlights: •Studied effect of spin rotation coupling on the spin electric field, spin current and Berry curvature. •In the k{sup →}⋅p{sup →} framework we study the renormalization of spin electric field and spin current. •For an inertial system we have discussed the spin splitting. •Expression for the Berry phase in the inertial system is discussed. •The inertial spin galvanic effect is studied.

  4. Spin Pumping and Measurement of Spin Currents in Optical Superlattices.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, C; Lohse, M; Citro, R; Bloch, I

    2016-10-21

    We report on the experimental implementation of a spin pump with ultracold bosonic atoms in an optical superlattice. In the limit of isolated double wells, it represents a 1D dynamical version of the quantum spin Hall effect. Starting from an antiferromagnetically ordered spin chain, we periodically vary the underlying spin-dependent Hamiltonian and observe a spin current without charge transport. We demonstrate a novel detection method to measure spin currents in optical lattices via superexchange oscillations emerging after a projection onto static double wells. Furthermore, we directly verify spin transport through in situ measurements of the spins' center-of-mass displacement.

  5. Spin Pumping and Measurement of Spin Currents in Optical Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, C.; Lohse, M.; Citro, R.; Bloch, I.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the experimental implementation of a spin pump with ultracold bosonic atoms in an optical superlattice. In the limit of isolated double wells, it represents a 1D dynamical version of the quantum spin Hall effect. Starting from an antiferromagnetically ordered spin chain, we periodically vary the underlying spin-dependent Hamiltonian and observe a spin current without charge transport. We demonstrate a novel detection method to measure spin currents in optical lattices via superexchange oscillations emerging after a projection onto static double wells. Furthermore, we directly verify spin transport through in situ measurements of the spins' center-of-mass displacement.

  6. Electron spin susceptibility of superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Levitov, L.S.; Nazarov, Y.V.; Eliashberg, G.M.

    1985-03-10

    The effect of spin polarization due to the Meissner currents on the electron spin susceptibility of a superconductor is studied. This effect accounts for a susceptibility considerably stronger than that of a normal metal. The spin distribution is discussed.

  7. Topological Spin Glass in Diluted Spin Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Arnab; Moessner, R.

    2015-06-01

    It is a salient experimental fact that a large fraction of candidate spin liquid materials freeze as the temperature is lowered. The question naturally arises whether such freezing is intrinsic to the spin liquid ("disorder-free glassiness") or extrinsic, in the sense that a topological phase simply coexists with standard freezing of impurities. Here, we demonstrate a surprising third alternative, namely, that freezing and topological liquidity are inseparably linked. The topological phase reacts to the introduction of disorder by generating degrees of freedom of a new type (along with interactions between them), which in turn undergo a freezing transition while the topological phase supporting them remains intact.

  8. Topological Spin Glass in Diluted Spin Ice.

    PubMed

    Sen, Arnab; Moessner, R

    2015-06-19

    It is a salient experimental fact that a large fraction of candidate spin liquid materials freeze as the temperature is lowered. The question naturally arises whether such freezing is intrinsic to the spin liquid ("disorder-free glassiness") or extrinsic, in the sense that a topological phase simply coexists with standard freezing of impurities. Here, we demonstrate a surprising third alternative, namely, that freezing and topological liquidity are inseparably linked. The topological phase reacts to the introduction of disorder by generating degrees of freedom of a new type (along with interactions between them), which in turn undergo a freezing transition while the topological phase supporting them remains intact.

  9. Spin Waves in Quasiequilibrium Spin Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bedell, Kevin S.; Dahal, Hari P.

    2006-07-28

    Using the Landau Fermi liquid theory we discovered a new propagating transverse spin wave in a paramagnetic system which is driven slightly out of equilibrium without applying an external magnetic field. We find a gapless mode which describes the uniform precession of the magnetization in the absence of a magnetic field. We also find a gapped mode associated with the precession of the spin current around the internal field. The gapless mode has a quadratic dispersion leading to a T{sup 3/2} contribution to the specific heat. These modes significantly contribute to the dynamic structure function.

  10. Single spin magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrachtrup, Jörg; Finkler, Amit

    2016-08-01

    Different approaches have improved the sensitivity of either electron or nuclear magnetic resonance to the single spin level. For optical detection it has essentially become routine to observe a single electron spin or nuclear spin. Typically, the systems in use are carefully designed to allow for single spin detection and manipulation, and of those systems, diamond spin defects rank very high, being so robust that they can be addressed, read out and coherently controlled even under ambient conditions and in a versatile set of nanostructures. This renders them as a new type of sensor, which has been shown to detect single electron and nuclear spins among other quantities like force, pressure and temperature. Adapting pulse sequences from classic NMR and EPR, and combined with high resolution optical microscopy, proximity to the target sample and nanoscale size, the diamond sensors have the potential to constitute a new class of magnetic resonance detectors with single spin sensitivity. As diamond sensors can be operated under ambient conditions, they offer potential application across a multitude of disciplines. Here we review the different existing techniques for magnetic resonance, with a focus on diamond defect spin sensors, showing their potential as versatile sensors for ultra-sensitive magnetic resonance with nanoscale spatial resolution.

  11. Sparkling and Spinning Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Ruth Kearney

    1964-01-01

    Teachers should foster in children's writing the use of words with "sparkle" and "spin"--"sparkle" implying brightness and vitality, "spin" connoting industry, patience, and painstaking work. By providing creative listening experiences with good children's or adult literature, the teacher can encourage students to broaden their imaginations and…

  12. Antiferromagnetic Spin Seebeck Effect.

    PubMed

    Wu, Stephen M; Zhang, Wei; Kc, Amit; Borisov, Pavel; Pearson, John E; Jiang, J Samuel; Lederman, David; Hoffmann, Axel; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2016-03-04

    We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF_{2}. A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF_{2} (110) (30  nm)/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF_{2} (110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF_{2} through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2-80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop transition corresponding to the sudden rotation of antiferromagnetic spins out of the easy axis is observed in the spin Seebeck signal when large magnetic fields (>9  T) are applied parallel to the easy axis of the MnF_{2} thin film. When the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis, the spin-flop transition is absent, as expected.

  13. Antiferromagnetic Spin Seebeck Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Stephen M.; Zhang, Wei; KC, Amit; Borisov, Pavel; Pearson, John E.; Jiang, J. Samuel; Lederman, David; Hoffmann, Axel; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2016-03-01

    We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF2 . A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF2 (110) (30 nm )/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF2 (110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF2 through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2-80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop transition corresponding to the sudden rotation of antiferromagnetic spins out of the easy axis is observed in the spin Seebeck signal when large magnetic fields (>9 T ) are applied parallel to the easy axis of the MnF2 thin film. When the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis, the spin-flop transition is absent, as expected.

  14. Spin coating of electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Stetter, Joseph R.; Maclay, G. Jordan

    1989-01-01

    Methods for spin coating electrolytic materials onto substrates are disclosed. More particularly, methods for depositing solid coatings of ion-conducting material onto planar substrates and onto electrodes are disclosed. These spin coating methods are employed to fabricate electrochemical sensors for use in measuring, detecting and quantifying gases and liquids.

  15. Single spin magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Wrachtrup, Jörg; Finkler, Amit

    2016-08-01

    Different approaches have improved the sensitivity of either electron or nuclear magnetic resonance to the single spin level. For optical detection it has essentially become routine to observe a single electron spin or nuclear spin. Typically, the systems in use are carefully designed to allow for single spin detection and manipulation, and of those systems, diamond spin defects rank very high, being so robust that they can be addressed, read out and coherently controlled even under ambient conditions and in a versatile set of nanostructures. This renders them as a new type of sensor, which has been shown to detect single electron and nuclear spins among other quantities like force, pressure and temperature. Adapting pulse sequences from classic NMR and EPR, and combined with high resolution optical microscopy, proximity to the target sample and nanoscale size, the diamond sensors have the potential to constitute a new class of magnetic resonance detectors with single spin sensitivity. As diamond sensors can be operated under ambient conditions, they offer potential application across a multitude of disciplines. Here we review the different existing techniques for magnetic resonance, with a focus on diamond defect spin sensors, showing their potential as versatile sensors for ultra-sensitive magnetic resonance with nanoscale spatial resolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Spin, mass, and symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, M.E.

    1994-12-01

    When the strong interactions were a mystery, spin seemed to be just a complication on top of an already puzzling set of phenomena. But now that particle physicists have understood the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions, to be gauge theories, with matter built of quarks and leptons, it is recognized that the special properties of spin 1/2 and spin 1 particles have taken central role in the understanding of Nature. The lectures in this summer school will be devoted to the use of spin in unravelling detailed questions about the fundamental interactions. Thus, why not begin by posing a deeper question: Why is there spin? More precisely, why do the basic pointlike constituents of Nature carry intrinsic nonzero quanta of angular momentum? Though the authos has found no definite answer to this question, the pursuit of an answer has led through a wonderful tangle of speculations on the deep structure of Nature. Is spin constructed or is it fundamental? Is it the requirement of symmetry? In the furthest flights taken, it seems that space-time itself is too restrictive a notion, and that this must be generalized in order to gain a full appreciation of spin. In any case, there is no doubt that spin must play a central role in unlocking the mysteries of fundamental physics.

  17. Antiferromagnetic spin Seebeck effect.

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Stephen M.; Zhang, Wei; KC, Amit; Borisov, Pavel; Pearson, John E.; Jiang, J. Samuel; Lederman, David; Hoffmann, Axel; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2016-03-03

    We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF2. A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF2 (110) (30nm)/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF2(110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF2 through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2–80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop transition corresponding to the sudden rotation of antiferromagnetic spins out of the easy axis is observed in the spin Seebeck signal when large magnetic fields (>9T) are applied parallel to the easy axis of the MnF2 thin film. When the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis, the spin-flop transition is absent, as expected.

  18. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  19. Observing Black Hole Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2015-08-01

    Black hole spin is important in both the fundamental physics and astrophysics realms. In fundamental terms, many extensions and alternatives to General Relativity (GR) reveal themselves through effects related to (or at least of the same order as) spin. Astrophysically, spin is a fossil record of how black holes have grown and may, in addition, be an important source of energy (e.g., powering relativistic jets from black hole systems). I shall review recent progress on observational studies of black hole spin, especially those made in the X-ray waveband. We now have multiple techniques that can be applied in our search for black hole spin; I shall discuss the concordance (or, sometimes, lack thereof) between these techniques. Finally, I shall discuss what we can expect in the next few years with the launch of new X-ray instrumentation as well as the deployment of the Event Horizon Telescope.

  20. Spin Seebeck insulator.

    PubMed

    Uchida, K; Xiao, J; Adachi, H; Ohe, J; Takahashi, S; Ieda, J; Ota, T; Kajiwara, Y; Umezawa, H; Kawai, H; Bauer, G E W; Maekawa, S; Saitoh, E

    2010-11-01

    Thermoelectric generation is an essential function in future energy-saving technologies. However, it has so far been an exclusive feature of electric conductors, a situation which limits its application; conduction electrons are often problematic in the thermal design of devices. Here we report electric voltage generation from heat flowing in an insulator. We reveal that, despite the absence of conduction electrons, the magnetic insulator LaY(2)Fe(5)O(12) can convert a heat flow into a spin voltage. Attached Pt films can then transform this spin voltage into an electric voltage as a result of the inverse spin Hall effect. The experimental results require us to introduce a thermally activated interface spin exchange between LaY(2)Fe(5)O(12) and Pt. Our findings extend the range of potential materials for thermoelectric applications and provide a crucial piece of information for understanding the physics of the spin Seebeck effect.

  1. Prematurity and brain perfusion: Arterial spin labeling MRI.

    PubMed

    Tortora, Domenico; Mattei, Peter Angelo; Navarra, Riccardo; Panara, Valentina; Salomone, Rita; Rossi, Andrea; Detre, John A; Caulo, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal brain perfusion is a critical mechanism in neonatal brain injury. The aim of the present study was to compare Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) evaluated with ASL MRI in three groups of neonates: preterms without brain lesions on MRI (PN), preterms with periventricular white matter lesions (PNp) and term neonates with normal MRI (TN). The correlation between CBF and clinical outcome was explored. The institutional review board approved this prospective study and waived informed consent. The perfusion ASL data from 49 consecutive preterm neonates (PN) studied at term-equivalent age and 15 TN were evaluated. Statistically significant differences in gray matter CBF were evaluated by using a linear mixed-model analysis and Mann-Whitney U test. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relation between CBF and neuromotor outcome at 12 months. Comparison of means indicated that the CBF of the whole brain were significantly higher in PN compared to TN (P = 0.011). This difference remained significant when considering the frontal (P = 0.038), parietal (P = 0.002), temporal (P = 0.030), occipital (P = 0.041) and cerebellar (P = 0.010) gray matter. In the PN group, lower CBF in basal ganglia was associated with a worse neuromotor outcome (P = 0.012). ASL MRI demonstrated differences in brain perfusion of the basal ganglia between PN and TN. In PN, a positive correlation between CBF and neuromotor outcome was demonstrated in this area.

  2. Fractionalized spin-wave continuum in kagome spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Jia-Wei; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    Motivated by spin-wave continuum (SWC) observed in recent neutron scattering experiments in Herbertsmithite, we use Gutzwiller-projected wave functions to study dynamic spin structure factor S (q , ω) of spin liquid states on the kagome lattice. Spin-1 excited states in spin liquids are represented by Gutzwiller-projected two-spinon excited wave functions. We investigate three different spin liquid candidates, spinon Fermi-surface spin liquid (FSL), Dirac spin liquid (DSL) and random-flux spin liquid (RSL). FSL and RSL have low energy peaks in S (q , ω) at K points in the extended magnetic Brillouin zone, in contrast to experiments where low energy peaks are found at M points. There is no obviuos contradiction between DSL and neutron scattering measurements. Besides a fractionalized spin (i.e. spin-1/2), spinons in DSL carry a fractionalized crystal momentum which is potentially detectable in SWC in the neutron scattering measurements.

  3. Synchronization of spin-transfer torque oscillators by spin pumping, inverse spin Hall, and spin Hall effects

    SciTech Connect

    Elyasi, Mehrdad; Bhatia, Charanjit S.; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2015-02-14

    We have proposed a method to synchronize multiple spin-transfer torque oscillators based on spin pumping, inverse spin Hall, and spin Hall effects. The proposed oscillator system consists of a series of nano-magnets in junction with a normal metal with high spin-orbit coupling, and an accumulative feedback loop. We conduct simulations to demonstrate the effect of modulated charge currents in the normal metal due to spin pumping from each nano-magnet. We show that the interplay between the spin Hall effect and inverse spin Hall effect results in synchronization of the nano-magnets.

  4. Spin superconductor in ferromagnetic graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qing-Feng; Jiang, Zhao-Tan; Yu, Yue; Xie, X. C.

    2011-12-01

    We show a spin superconductor in ferromagnetic graphene as the counterpart to the charge superconductor in which a spin-polarized electron-hole pair plays the role of the spin 2(ℏ/2) “Cooper pair” with a neutral charge. We present a BCS-type theory for the spin superconductor. With the “London-type equations” of the super-spin-current density, we show the existence of an electric “Meissner effect” against a spatial varying electric field. We further study a spin superconductor/normal conductor/spin superconductor junction and predict a spin-current Josephson effect.

  5. Transverse Spin Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullin, William

    2014-05-01

    Transverse spin diffusion is a relatively new transport coefficient and a review of its history and physical basis will be presented. In NMR spin diffusion is often measured by spin echo techniques, which involve spin currents perpendicular to the direction of the magnetization, in contrast with the usual longitudinal case where the current is parallel to the magnetization. The first indication that this involved new physics was the Leggett-Rice effect (1970) in which spin waves, new spin-echo behavior, and an altered spin diffusion coefficient were predicted in liquid 3He. This effect gave the possibility of the first measurement of F1a, the parameter of the Landau Fermi-liquid theory mean-field responsible for the effect. In 1982 Lhuillier and Laloe found a transport equation very similar to the Leggett equation, but valid for highly-polarized dilute Boltzmann Bose and Fermi gases, and describing the ``identical spin rotation effect'' (ISRE), the analog of a Landau mean field. Coincidentally Bashkin and Meyerovich had also given equivalent descriptions of transport in polarized Boltzmann gases. That a mean-field effect could exists in dilute Boltzmann gases was theoretically surprising, but was confirmed experimentally. At low polarization the basic transverse diffusion constant D⊥ coincides with the longitudinal value D∥ however Meyerovich first pointed out that they could differ in highly polarized degenerate gases. Indeed detailed calculations (Jeon and Mullin) showed that, while D∥ is proportional to T-2, D⊥ approaches a constant (depending on polarization) at low T. Considerable controversy existed until experimental verification was achieved in 2004. The importance of ISRE again arose in 2008 as the basis of ``anomalous spin-state segregation'' in Duke and JILA experiments. More recently application of the ideas of transverse spin diffusion to strongly interacting Fermi gases has resulted in the observation of the diffusion constants at the quantum

  6. Spin transport at interfaces with spin-orbit coupling: Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, V. P.; Stiles, M. D.

    2016-09-01

    We generalize magnetoelectronic circuit theory to account for spin transfer to and from the atomic lattice via interfacial spin-orbit coupling. This enables a proper treatment of spin transport at interfaces between a ferromagnet and a heavy-metal nonmagnet. This generalized approach describes spin transport in terms of drops in spin and charge accumulations across the interface (as in the standard approach), but additionally includes the responses from in-plane electric fields and offsets in spin accumulations. A key finding is that in-plane electric fields give rise to spin accumulations and spin currents that can be polarized in any direction, generalizing the Rashba-Edelstein and spin Hall effects. The spin accumulations exert torques on the magnetization at the interface when they are misaligned from the magnetization. The additional out-of-plane spin currents exert torques via the spin-transfer mechanism on the ferromagnetic layer. To account for these phenomena we also describe spin torques within the generalized circuit theory. The additional effects included in this generalized circuit theory suggest modifications in the interpretations of experiments involving spin-orbit torques, spin pumping, spin memory loss, the Rashba-Edelstein effect, and the spin Hall magnetoresistance.

  7. Duplicated middle cerebral artery.

    PubMed

    Perez, Jesus; Machado, Calixto; Scherle, Claudio; Hierro, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Duplicated middle cerebral artery (DMCA) is an anomalous vessel arising from the internal carotid artery. The incidence DMCA is relatively law, and an association between this anomaly and cerebral aneurysms has been documented. There is a controversy whether DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is an important fact to consider in aneurysm surgery. We report the case of a 34-year-old black woman who suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage and the angiography a left DMCA, and an aneurysm in an inferior branch of the main MCA. The DMCA and the MCA had perforating arteries. The aneurysm was clipped without complications. The observation of perforating arteries in our patient confirms that the DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is very important to be considered in cerebral aneurysms surgery. Moreover, the DMCA may potentially serve as a collateral blood supply to the MCA territory in cases of MCA occlusion.

  8. Spin Polarized Transport and Spin Relaxation in Quantum Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenk, Paul; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Ohe, Jun-Ichiro; Ohtsuki, Tomi; Kramer, Bernhard; Kettemann, Stefan

    We give an introduction to spin dynamics in quantum wires. After a review of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) mechanisms in semiconductors, the spin diffusion equation with SOC is introduced. We discuss the particular conditions in which solutions of the spin diffusion equation with vanishing spin relaxation rates exist, where the spin density forms persistent spin helices. We give an overview of spin relaxation mechanisms, with particular emphasis on the motional narrowing mechanism in disordered conductors, the D'yakonov-Perel' spin relaxation. The solution of the spin diffusion equation in quantum wires shows that the spin relaxation becomes diminished when reducing the wire width below the spin precession length L SO. This corresponds to an effective alignment of the spin-orbit field in quantum wires and the formation of persistent spin helices whose form as well as amplitude is a measure of the particular SOCs, the linear Rashba and the linear Dresselhaus coupling. Cubic Dresselhaus coupling is found to yield in diffusive wires an undiminished contribution to the spin relaxation rate, however. We discuss recent experimental results which confirm the reduction of the spin relaxation rate. We next review theoretical proposals for creating spin-polarized currents in a T-shape structure with Rashba-SOC. For relatively small SOC, high spin polarization can be obtained. However, the corresponding conductance has been found to be small. Due to the self-duality of the scattering matrix for a system with spin-orbit interaction, no spin polarization of the current can be obtained for single-channel transport in two-terminal devices. Therefore, one has to consider at least a conductor with three terminals. We review results showing that the amplitude of the spin polarization becomes large if the SOC is sufficiently strong. We argue that the predicted effect should be experimentally accessible in InAs. For a possible experimental realization of InAs spin filters, see [1].

  9. Palmar artery aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Shutze, Ryan A.; Liechty, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Aneurysms of the hand are rarely encountered and more rarely reported. The least common locations of these aneurysms are the palmar and digital arteries. The etiologies of these entities are quite varied, although they usually present as a pulsatile mass. Following a thorough evaluation, including arterial anatomic imaging, they should be repaired. The reported results following repair have been good. Herein we report a girl with a spontaneous palmar artery aneurysm and its management. PMID:28127131

  10. Arterial waveform analysis.

    PubMed

    Esper, Stephen A; Pinsky, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    The bedside measurement of continuous arterial pressure values from waveform analysis has been routinely available via indwelling arterial catheterization for >50 years. Invasive blood pressure monitoring has been utilized in critically ill patients, in both the operating room and critical care units, to facilitate rapid diagnoses of cardiovascular insufficiency and monitor response to treatments aimed at correcting abnormalities before the consequences of either hypo- or hypertension are seen. Minimally invasive techniques to estimate cardiac output (CO) have gained increased appeal. This has led to the increased interest in arterial waveform analysis to provide this important information, as it is measured continuously in many operating rooms and intensive care units. Arterial waveform analysis also allows for the calculation of many so-called derived parameters intrinsically created by this pulse pressure profile. These include estimates of left ventricular stroke volume (SV), CO, vascular resistance, and during positive-pressure breathing, SV variation, and pulse pressure variation. This article focuses on the principles of arterial waveform analysis and their determinants, components of the arterial system, and arterial pulse contour. It will also address the advantage of measuring real-time CO by the arterial waveform and the benefits to measuring SV variation. Arterial waveform analysis has gained a large interest in the overall assessment and management of the critically ill and those at a risk of hemodynamic deterioration.

  11. Buckling instability in arteries.

    PubMed

    Vandiver, Rebecca M

    2015-04-21

    Arteries can become tortuous in response to abnormal growth stimuli, genetic defects and aging. It is suggested that a buckling instability is a mechanism that might lead to artery tortuosity. Here, the buckling instability in arteries is studied by examining asymmetric modes of bifurcation of two-layer cylindrical structures that are residually stressed. These structures are loaded by an axial force, internal pressure and have nonlinear, anisotropic, hyperelastic responses to stresses. Strain-softening and reduced opening angle are shown to lower the critical internal pressure leading to buckling. In addition, the ratio of the media thickness to the adventitia thickness is shown to have a dramatic impact on arterial instability.

  12. [Platelets and arterial thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Gachet, Christian; Lanza, François; Wiesel, Marie-Louise

    2003-01-01

    The pathological mechanisms involved in arterial thrombus formation are similar to the mechanisms involved in physiological hemostasis. Arterial thrombosis is initiated following lesion of the vessel wall, either through rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque containing lipids, adhesive proteins and tissue factor or after angioplasty exposing the thrombogenic subendothelial matrix. Platelets play a major role in arterial thrombus formation through ADP secretion and thrombin generation on their activated surface. Arterial thrombosis is a frequent complication of atherosclerotic lesions and leads to acute ischemic events. These events are therapeutic emergencies which require administration of antithrombotic drugs inhibiting platelet functions and thrombin.

  13. Single Umbilical Artery

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, J. David; McKee, James

    1964-01-01

    A prospective study of 2000 obstetrical deliveries was undertaken to establish the incidence of single umbilical artery in the newborn and the frequency of congenital malformations reported to be associated with this disorder. Twenty cases of single umbilical artery were discovered; two proved to have an associated congenital malformation. In neither of these cases was medical management affected by the discovery of a single artery. In addition, the vascular arrangement in the cords of 31 concurrently occurring congenitally malformed babies was examined, and in no instance was a single umbilical artery found. PMID:14214230

  14. Spin forming development

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, W.G.

    1982-05-01

    Bendix product applications require the capability of fabricating heavy gage, high strength materials. Five commercial sources have been identified that have the capability of spin forming metal thicknesses greater than 9.5 mm and four equiment manufacturers produce machines with this capability. Twelve assemblies selected as candidates for spin forming applications require spin forming of titanium, 250 maraging steel, 17-4 pH stainless steel, Nitronic 40 steel, 304 L stainless steel, and 6061 aluminum. Twelve parts have been cold spin formed from a 250 maraging steel 8.1 mm wall thickness machine preform, and six have been hot spin formed directly from 31.8-mm-thick flat plate. Thirty-three Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy parts and 26 17-4 pH stainless steel parts have been hot spin formed directly from 31.8-mm-thick plate. Hot spin forming directly from plate has demonstrated the feasibility and favorable economics of this fabrication technique for Bendix applications.

  15. Towards a Compositional SPIN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Giannakopoulou, Dimitra

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses our initial experience with introducing automated assume-guarantee verification based on learning in the SPIN tool. We believe that compositional verification techniques such as assume-guarantee reasoning could complement the state-reduction techniques that SPIN already supports, thus increasing the size of systems that SPIN can handle. We present a "light-weight" approach to evaluating the benefits of learning-based assume-guarantee reasoning in the context of SPIN: we turn our previous implementation of learning for the LTSA tool into a main program that externally invokes SPIN to provide the model checking-related answers. Despite its performance overheads (which mandate a future implementation within SPIN itself), this approach provides accurate information about the savings in memory. We have experimented with several versions of learning-based assume guarantee reasoning, including a novel heuristic introduced here for generating component assumptions when their environment is unavailable. We illustrate the benefits of learning-based assume-guarantee reasoning in SPIN through the example of a resource arbiter for a spacecraft. Keywords: assume-guarantee reasoning, model checking, learning.

  16. Resonant Tunneling Spin Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    The resonant tunneling spin pump is a proposed semiconductor device that would generate spin-polarized electron currents. The resonant tunneling spin pump would be a purely electrical device in the sense that it would not contain any magnetic material and would not rely on an applied magnetic field. Also, unlike prior sources of spin-polarized electron currents, the proposed device would not depend on a source of circularly polarized light. The proposed semiconductor electron-spin filters would exploit the Rashba effect, which can induce energy splitting in what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. Theoretical studies have suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling.

  17. Spin forming development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, W. G.

    1982-05-01

    Bendix product applications require the capability of fabricating heavy gage, high strength materials. Five commercial sources have been identified that have the capability of spin forming metal thicknesses greater than 9.5 mm and four equipment manufacturers produce machines with this capability. Twelve assemblies selected as candidates for spin forming applications require spin forming of titanium, 250 maraging steel, 17-4 pH stainless steel, Nitronic 40 steel, 304 L stainless steel, and 6061 aluminum. Twelve parts have been cold spin formed from a 250 maraging steel 8.1 mm wall thickness machine preform, and six have been hot spin formed directly from 31.8-mm-thick flat plate. Thirty-three Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy parts and 26 17-4 pH stainless steel parts have been hot spin formed directly from 31.8-mm-thick plate. Hot spin forming directly from plate has demonstrated the feasibility and favorable economics of this fabrication technique for Bendix applications.

  18. The Scattering of Particles with Spin from Targets with Spin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Noel M.

    1978-01-01

    The density matrix is used to obtain an expression for the mean value of any spin operator in the scattering of particles with arbitrary spin. The example of spin-1/2-spin-1 scattering is developed and physical information obtained by establishing connections with the polarization tensor and Wolfenstein observables. (Author/GA)

  19. The Scattering of Particles with Spin from Targets with Spin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Noel M.

    1978-01-01

    The density matrix is used to obtain an expression for the mean value of any spin operator in the scattering of particles with arbitrary spin. The example of spin-1/2-spin-1 scattering is developed and physical information obtained by establishing connections with the polarization tensor and Wolfenstein observables. (Author/GA)

  20. Spin drift and spin diffusion currents in semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Idrish Miah, M

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of a spin drift-diffusion model, we show how the spin current is composed and find that spin drift and spin diffusion contribute additively to the spin current, where the spin diffusion current decreases with electric field while the spin drift current increases, demonstrating that the extension of the spin diffusion length by a strong field does not result in a significant increase in spin current in semiconductors owing to the competing effect of the electric field on diffusion. We also find that there is a spin drift-diffusion crossover field for a process in which the drift and diffusion contribute equally to the spin current, which suggests a possible method of identifying whether the process for a given electric field is in the spin drift or spin diffusion regime. Spin drift-diffusion crossover fields for GaAs are calculated and are found to be quite small. We derive the relations between intrinsic spin diffusion length and the spin drift-diffusion crossover field of a semiconductor for different electron statistical regimes. The findings resulting from this investigation might be important for semiconductor spintronics. PMID:27878011

  1. Higher spins and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Per; Ross, Simon F.

    2013-05-01

    The principles of quantum mechanics and relativity impose rigid constraints on theories of massless particles with nonzero spin. Indeed, Yang-Mills theory and General Relativity are the unique solution in the case of spin-1 and spin-2. In asymptotically flat spacetime, there are fundamental obstacles to formulating fully consistent interacting theories of particles of spin greater than 2. However, indications are that such theories are just barely possible in asymptotically anti-de Sitter or de Sitter spacetimes, where the non-existence of an S-matrix provides an escape from the theorems restricting theories in Minkowski spacetime. These higher spin gravity theories are therefore of great intrinsic interest, since they, along with supergravity, provide the only known field theories generalizing the local invariance principles of Yang-Mills theory and General Relativity. While work on higher spin gravity goes back several decades, the subject has gained broader appeal in recent years due to its appearance in the AdS/CFT correspondence. In three and four spacetime dimensions, there exist duality proposals linking higher spin gravity theories to specific conformal field theories living in two and three dimensions respectively. The enlarged symmetry algebra of the conformal field theories renders them exactly soluble, which makes them excellent laboratories for understanding in detail the holographic mechanism behind AdS/CFT duality. Steady progress is also being made on better understanding the space of possible higher spin gravity theories and their physical content. This work includes classifying the possible field multiplets and their interactions, constructing exact solutions of the nonlinear field equations, and relating higher spin theories to string theory. A full understanding of these theories will involve coming to grips with the novel symmetry principles that enlarge those of General Relativity and Yang-Mills theory, and one can hope that this will provide

  2. Spin transport in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özyilmaz, Barbaros

    2012-02-01

    Conventional electronic transistors involve the control of electronic charge at the nanoscale to realize memory, logic and communication functions. All these electronic charges, however, also carry a spin that remains unutilized in present commercial devices. This has motivated the search for new materials that propagate spin-polarized currents over large distances. Among the most promising materials for spintronics has been graphene. Micron-scale spin relaxation lengths have been previously demonstrated in single-layer graphene. Recently, we showed that bilayer graphene is a far more interesting candidate for spintronics. By fabricating spin valves on bilayer graphene we have achieved at room temperature spin relaxation times up to 2 nanoseconds, which are an order of magnitude higher than for single layer graphene [1]. Furthermore, the spin-relaxation time scales inversely with the mobility of BLG sample. This indicates the importance of D'yakonov-Perel' spin scattering in BLG. Last not but least, the presence of an electric field tunable band gap in bilayer graphene makes it particularly appealing. Our work provides fundamental insight into the unique properties of bilayer graphene for spintronic applications. Remarkably, a similar difference between single layer and bilayer graphene is also observed in large area graphene grown by the CVD method on copper. These results demonstrate the potential of CVD graphene in realistic spintronics devices [2]. [4pt] [1] T - Y. Yang et al., Observation of Long Spin-Relaxation Times in Bilayer Graphene at Room Temperature, PRL (2011). [0pt] [2] A. Avsar et al., Towards Wafer Scale Fabrication of Graphene Based Spin Valve Devices, Nano Lett. (2011).

  3. Nonlocality without inequality for spin-s systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kunkri, Samir; Choudhary, Sujit K.

    2005-08-15

    We critically review earlier works on Hardy's nonlocality argument for two spin-s systems and show that solutions previously found in this regard were restricted due to imposition of some conditions which have no role in the argument of nonlocality. We provide a compact form of the nonlocality condition for two spin-s particles, and we also extend it to n number of spin-s particles. Finally we apply a more general kind of nonlocality argument, still without an inequality, to higher-spin systems.

  4. Higher spin cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash; Roy, Shubho; Thakur, Somyadip

    2014-02-01

    We construct cosmological solutions of higher spin gravity in 2+1 dimensional de Sitter space. We show that a consistent thermodynamics can be obtained for their horizons by demanding appropriate holonomy conditions. This is equivalent to demanding the integrability of the Euclidean boundary conformal field theory partition function, and it reduces to Gibbons-Hawking thermodynamics in the spin-2 case. By using the prescription of Maldacena, we relate the thermodynamics of these solutions to those of higher spin black holes in AdS3.

  5. Spin of the proton

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan Isgur

    1996-12-01

    The author argues that their response to the spin crisis should not be to abandon the naive quark model baby, but rather to allow it to mature. In particular, he advocates dressing the baby in qq pairs, first showing that this can be done without compromising the naive quark model's success with either spectroscopy or the OZI rule. Finally, he shows that despite their near invisibility elsewhere, pairs do play an important role in the proton's spin structure by creating an antipolarized qq sea. In the context of an explicit calculation he demonstrates that it is plausible that the entire ''spin crisis'' arises from this effect.

  6. Absolutely classical spin states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnet-Waldraff, F.; Giraud, O.; Braun, D.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the concept of "absolutely classical" spin states, in analogy to absolutely separable states of bipartite quantum systems. Absolutely classical states are states that remain classical (i.e., a convex sum of projectors on coherent states of a spin j ) under any unitary transformation applied to them. We investigate the maximal size of the ball of absolutely classical states centered on the maximally mixed state and derive a lower bound for its radius as a function of the total spin quantum number. We also obtain a numerical estimate of this maximal radius and compare it to the case of absolutely separable states.

  7. Quantum Spin Hall Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Bernevig, B.Andrei; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-01-15

    The quantum Hall liquid is a novel state of matter with profound emergent properties such as fractional charge and statistics. Existence of the quantum Hall effect requires breaking of the time reversal symmetry caused by an external magnetic field. In this work, we predict a quantized spin Hall effect in the absence of any magnetic field, where the intrinsic spin Hall conductance is quantized in units of 2 e/4{pi}. The degenerate quantum Landau levels are created by the spin-orbit coupling in conventional semiconductors in the presence of a strain gradient. This new state of matter has many profound correlated properties described by a topological field theory.

  8. Spin line groups.

    PubMed

    Lazić, Nataša; Milivojević, Marko; Damnjanović, Milan

    2013-11-01

    Spin line groups describe the symmetries of spin arrangements in quasi-one-dimensional systems. These groups are derived for the first family of line groups. Among them, magnetic groups are singled out as a special case. Spin arrangements generated by the derived groups are first discussed for single-orbit systems and then the conclusions are extended to multi-orbit cases. The results are illustrated by the examples of a CuO2 zigzag chain, a (13)C nanotube and the hexaferrite Ba2Mg2Fe12O22. Applications to neutron diffraction and classical ground-state determination are indicated.

  9. Method for estimating spin-spin interactions from magnetization curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Ryo; Hukushima, Koji

    2017-02-01

    We develop a method to estimate the spin-spin interactions in the Hamiltonian from the observed magnetization curve by machine learning based on Bayesian inference. In our method, plausible spin-spin interactions are determined by maximizing the posterior distribution, which is the conditional probability of the spin-spin interactions in the Hamiltonian for a given magnetization curve with observation noise. The conditional probability is obtained with the Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations combined with an exchange Monte Carlo method. The efficiency of our method is tested using synthetic magnetization curve data, and the results show that spin-spin interactions are estimated with a high accuracy. In particular, the relevant terms of the spin-spin interactions are successfully selected from the redundant interaction candidates by the l1 regularization in the prior distribution.

  10. Anisotropic spin relaxation induced by surface spin-orbit effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao; Kandaz, Fatih; Cai, Yunjiao; Qin, Chuan; Jia, Mengwen; Yuan, Zhe; Wu, Yizheng; Ji, Yi

    2017-09-01

    It is a common perception that the transport of a spin current in polycrystalline metal is isotropic and independent of the polarization direction, even though spin current is a tensorlike quantity and its polarization direction is a key variable. We demonstrate surprising anisotropic spin relaxation in mesoscopic polycrystalline Cu channels in nonlocal spin valves. For directions in the substrate plane, the spin-relaxation length is longer for spins parallel to the Cu channel than for spins perpendicular to it, by as much as 9% at 10 K. Spin-orbit effects on the surfaces of Cu channels can account for this anisotropic spin relaxation. The finding suggests novel tunability of spin current, not only by its polarization direction but also by electrostatic gating.

  11. Spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effects—Insights for future spin-orbitronics (invited)

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Wei; Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Jiang, Wanjun; ...

    2015-03-13

    Quantification of spin-charge interconversion has become increasingly important in the fast-developing field of spin-orbitronics. Pure spin current generated by spin pumping acts a sensitive probe for many bulk and interface spin-orbit effects, which has been indispensable for the discovery of many promising new spin-orbit materials. Here, we apply spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effect experiments, as a useful metrology, and study spin-orbit effects in a variety of metals and metal interfaces. We also quantify the spin Hall effects in Ir and W using the conventional bilayer structures, and discuss the self-induced voltage in a single layer of ferromagnetic permalloy.more » Finally, we extend our discussions to multilayer structures and quantitatively reveal the spin current flow in two consecutive normal metal layers.« less

  12. Spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effects—Insights for future spin-orbitronics (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Jiang, Wanjun; Sklenar, Joseph; Fradin, Frank Y.; Pearson, John E.; Ketterson, John B.; Hoffmann, Axel

    2015-05-01

    Quantification of spin-charge interconversion has become increasingly important in the fast-developing field of spin-orbitronics. Pure spin current generated by spin pumping acts as a sensitive probe for many bulk and interface spin-orbit effects, which has been indispensable for the discovery of many promising new spin-orbit materials. We apply spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effect experiments, as a useful metrology, and study spin-orbit effects in a variety of metals and metal interfaces. We quantify the spin Hall effects in Ir and W using the conventional bilayer structures and discuss the self-induced voltage in a single layer of ferromagnetic permalloy. Finally, we extend our discussions to multilayer structures and quantitatively reveal the spin current flow in two consecutive normal metal layers.

  13. Spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effects—Insights for future spin-orbitronics (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Jiang, Wanjun; Fradin, Frank Y.; Pearson, John E.; Hoffmann, Axel; Sklenar, Joseph; Ketterson, John B.

    2015-05-07

    Quantification of spin-charge interconversion has become increasingly important in the fast-developing field of spin-orbitronics. Pure spin current generated by spin pumping acts as a sensitive probe for many bulk and interface spin-orbit effects, which has been indispensable for the discovery of many promising new spin-orbit materials. We apply spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effect experiments, as a useful metrology, and study spin-orbit effects in a variety of metals and metal interfaces. We quantify the spin Hall effects in Ir and W using the conventional bilayer structures and discuss the self-induced voltage in a single layer of ferromagnetic permalloy. Finally, we extend our discussions to multilayer structures and quantitatively reveal the spin current flow in two consecutive normal metal layers.

  14. When measured spin polarization is not spin polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowben, P. A.; Wu, Ning; Binek, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Spin polarization is an unusually ambiguous scientific idiom and, as such, is rarely well defined. A given experimental methodology may allow one to quantify a spin polarization but only in its particular context. As one might expect, these ambiguities sometimes give rise to inappropriate interpretations when comparing the spin polarizations determined through different methods. The spin polarization of CrO2 and Cr2O3 illustrate some of the complications which hinders comparisons of spin polarization values.

  15. Algebraic spin liquid in an exactly solvable spin model

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Hong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Kivelson, Steven A.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-03-25

    We have proposed an exactly solvable quantum spin-3/2 model on a square lattice. Its ground state is a quantum spin liquid with a half integer spin per unit cell. The fermionic excitations are gapless with a linear dispersion, while the topological 'vison' excitations are gapped. Moreover, the massless Dirac fermions are stable. Thus, this model is, to the best of our knowledge, the first exactly solvable model of half-integer spins whose ground state is an 'algebraic spin liquid.'

  16. Spin waves in a persistent spin-current Fermi liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Feldmann, J. D.; Bedell, K. S.

    2010-06-15

    We report two theoretical results for transverse spin waves, which arise in a system with a persistent spin current. Using Fermi liquid theory, we introduce a spin current in the ground state of a polarized or unpolarized Fermi liquid, and we derive the resultant spin waves using the Landau kinetic equation. The resulting spin waves have a q{sup 1} and q{sup 1/2} dispersion to leading order for the polarized and unpolarized systems, respectively.

  17. When measured spin polarization is not spin polarization.

    PubMed

    Dowben, P A; Wu, Ning; Binek, Christian

    2011-05-04

    Spin polarization is an unusually ambiguous scientific idiom and, as such, is rarely well defined. A given experimental methodology may allow one to quantify a spin polarization but only in its particular context. As one might expect, these ambiguities sometimes give rise to inappropriate interpretations when comparing the spin polarizations determined through different methods. The spin polarization of CrO(2) and Cr(2)O(3) illustrate some of the complications which hinders comparisons of spin polarization values.

  18. Measuring How Elastic Arteries Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMont, M. Edwin; MacGillivray, Patrick S.; Davison, Ian G.; McConnell, Colin J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a procedure used to measure force and pressure in elastic arteries. Discusses the physics of the procedure and recommends the use of bovine arteries. Explains the preparation of the arteries for the procedure. (DDR)

  19. Living with Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Carotid Artery Disease If you have carotid artery disease, you can take steps to manage the ... treatment plan, and getting ongoing care. Having carotid artery disease raises your risk of having a stroke . ...

  20. What Is Carotid Artery Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid artery disease is a disease in ... blood to your face, scalp, and neck. Carotid Arteries Figure A shows the location of the right ...

  1. Peripheral Artery Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Peripheral Artery Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 26,2016 People with ... developing atherosclerosis, the most common cause of peripheral artery disease (PAD) . And individuals with PAD have a ...

  2. Measuring How Elastic Arteries Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMont, M. Edwin; MacGillivray, Patrick S.; Davison, Ian G.; McConnell, Colin J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a procedure used to measure force and pressure in elastic arteries. Discusses the physics of the procedure and recommends the use of bovine arteries. Explains the preparation of the arteries for the procedure. (DDR)

  3. Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of screening for carotid artery stenosis: Health professionals ... blood flow through the arteries. Potential Benefits and Harms of Carotid Artery Stenosis Screening and Treatment The ...

  4. On nonlinear higher spin curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manvelyan, Ruben; Mkrtchyan, Karapet; Rühl, Werner; Tovmasyan, Murad

    2011-05-01

    We present the first nonlinear term of the higher spin curvature which is covariant with respect to deformed gauge transformations that are linear in the field. We consider the case of spin 3 after presenting spin 2 as an example, and then construct the general spin s quadratic term of the de Wit-Freedman curvature.

  5. Genetics in Arterial Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Rutsch, Frank; Nitschke, Yvonne; Terkeltaub, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Artery calcification reflects an admixture of factors such as ectopic osteochondral differentiation with primary host pathological conditions. We review how genetic factors, as identified by human genome-wide association studies, and incomplete correlations with various mouse studies, including knockout and strain analyses, fit into “pieces of the puzzle” in intimal calcification in human atherosclerosis, and artery tunica media calcification in aging, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease. We also describe in sharp contrast how ENPP1, CD73, and ABCC6 serve as “cogs in a wheel” of arterial calcification. Specifically, each is a minor component in the function of a much larger network of factors that exert balanced effects to promote and suppress arterial calcification. For the network to normally suppress spontaneous arterial calcification, the “cogs” ENPP1, CD73, and ABCC6 must be present and in working order. Monogenic ENPP1, CD73, and ABCC6 deficiencies each drive a molecular pathophysiology of closely related but phenotypically different diseases (generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI), pseudoxan-thoma elasticum (PXE) and arterial calcification caused by CD73 deficiency (ACDC)), in which premature onset arterial calcification is a prominent but not the sole feature. PMID:21852556

  6. Coronary artery stent (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open. ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open.

  7. [Pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma].

    PubMed

    Bourry, N; Chabrot, P; Jeannin, G; Filaire, M; Charpy, C; Bay, J O; Kemeny, J L; Caillaud, D; Escande, G; Boyer, L

    2008-02-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma is a rare tumor. We present a case of intimal sarcoma arising from right pulmonary artery and left lower pulmonary vein observed in a 44-year-old man with a non-productive cough. Computed tomographic scans and magnetic resonance imaging showing filling defect enhancement contributed early, suggesting the diagnosis of primary vascular tumor, hypothesis confirmed by pathologist findings.

  8. Coronary artery disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of fatty material and plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis. As the ... blood to the heart can slow or stop, causing chest pain (stable ...

  9. Arterial Pressure Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heusner, A. A.; Tracy, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a simple hydraulic analog which allows students to explore some physical aspects of the cardiovascular system and provides them with a means to visualize and conceptualize these basic principles. Simulates the behavior of arterial pressure in response to changes in heart rate, stroke volume, arterial compliance, and peripheral…

  10. Spin Hall effect and spin swapping in diffusive superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espedal, Camilla; Lange, Peter; Sadjina, Severin; Mal'shukov, A. G.; Brataas, Arne

    2017-02-01

    We consider the spin-orbit-induced spin Hall effect and spin swapping in diffusive superconductors. By employing the nonequilibrium Keldysh Green's function technique in the quasiclassical approximation, we derive coupled transport equations for the spectral spin and particle distributions and for the energy density in the elastic scattering regime. We compute four contributions to the spin Hall conductivity, namely, skew scattering, side jump, anomalous velocity, and the Yafet contribution. The reduced density of states in the superconductor causes a renormalization of the spin Hall angle. We demonstrate that all four of these contributions to the spin Hall conductivity are renormalized in the same way in the superconducting state. In its simplest manifestation, spin swapping transforms a primary spin current into a secondary spin current with swapped current and polarization directions. We find that the spin-swapping coefficient is not explicitly but only implicitly affected by the superconducting gap through the renormalized diffusion coefficients. We discuss experimental consequences for measurements of the (inverse) spin Hall effect and spin swapping in four-terminal geometries. In our geometry, below the superconducting transition temperature, the spin-swapping signal is increased an order of magnitude while changes in the (inverse) spin Hall signal are moderate.

  11. Microscopic studies of nonlocal spin dynamics and spin transport (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Cardellino, Jeremy; Scozzaro, Nicolas; Wolfe, Christopher S.; Wang, Hailong; Herman, Michael; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P. Chris

    2015-05-07

    Understanding the behavior of spins coupling across interfaces in the study of spin current generation and transport is a fundamental challenge that is important for spintronics applications. The transfer of spin angular momentum from a ferromagnet into an adjacent normal material as a consequence of the precession of the magnetization of the ferromagnet is a process known as spin pumping. We find that, in certain circumstances, the insertion of an intervening normal metal can enhance spin pumping between an excited ferromagnetic magnetization and a normal metal layer as a consequence of improved spin conductance matching. We have studied this using inverse spin Hall effect and enhanced damping measurements. Scanned probe magnetic resonance techniques are a complementary tool in this context offering high resolution magnetic resonance imaging, localized spin excitation, and direct measurement of spin lifetimes or damping. Localized magnetic resonance studies of size-dependent spin dynamics in the absence of lithographic confinement in both ferromagnets and paramagnets reveal the close relationship between spin transport and spin lifetime at microscopic length scales. Finally, detection of ferromagnetic resonance of a ferromagnetic film using the photoluminescence of nitrogen vacancy spins in neighboring nanodiamonds demonstrates long-range spin transport between insulating materials, indicating the complexity and generality of spin transport in diverse, spatially separated, material systems.

  12. Microscopic studies of nonlocal spin dynamics and spin transport (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Cardellino, Jeremy; Scozzaro, Nicolas; Wolfe, Christopher S.; Wang, Hailong; Herman, Michael; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P. Chris

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the behavior of spins coupling across interfaces in the study of spin current generation and transport is a fundamental challenge that is important for spintronics applications. The transfer of spin angular momentum from a ferromagnet into an adjacent normal material as a consequence of the precession of the magnetization of the ferromagnet is a process known as spin pumping. We find that, in certain circumstances, the insertion of an intervening normal metal can enhance spin pumping between an excited ferromagnetic magnetization and a normal metal layer as a consequence of improved spin conductance matching. We have studied this using inverse spin Hall effect and enhanced damping measurements. Scanned probe magnetic resonance techniques are a complementary tool in this context offering high resolution magnetic resonance imaging, localized spin excitation, and direct measurement of spin lifetimes or damping. Localized magnetic resonance studies of size-dependent spin dynamics in the absence of lithographic confinement in both ferromagnets and paramagnets reveal the close relationship between spin transport and spin lifetime at microscopic length scales. Finally, detection of ferromagnetic resonance of a ferromagnetic film using the photoluminescence of nitrogen vacancy spins in neighboring nanodiamonds demonstrates long-range spin transport between insulating materials, indicating the complexity and generality of spin transport in diverse, spatially separated, material systems.

  13. Diagnosis of Intracranial Artery Dissection

    PubMed Central

    KANOTO, Masafumi; HOSOYA, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral arterial dissection is defined as a hematoma in the wall of a cervical or an intracranial artery. Cerebral arterial dissection causes arterial stenosis, occlusion, and aneurysm, resulting in acute infarction and hemorrhage. Image analysis by such methods as conventional angiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and so on plays an important role in diagnosing cerebral arterial dissection. In this study, we explore the methods and findings involved in the diagnosis of cerebral arterial dissection. PMID:27180630

  14. Compact photonic spin filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Yougang; Liu, Zhenxing; Liu, Yachao; Zhou, Junxiao; Shu, Weixing; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2016-10-01

    In this letter, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a compact photonic spin filter formed by integrating a Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens (focal length of ±f ) into a conventional plano-concave lens (focal length of -f). By choosing the input port of the filter, photons with a desired spin state, such as the right-handed component or the left-handed one, propagate alone its original propagation direction, while the unwanted spin component is quickly diverged after passing through the filter. One application of the filter, sorting the spin-dependent components of vector vortex beams on higher-order Poincaré sphere, is also demonstrated. Our scheme provides a simple method to manipulate light, and thereby enables potential applications for photonic devices.

  15. Quantum Hall Spin Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenstein, J. P.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.

    2017-05-01

    Double layer two-dimensional electron systems at high perpendicular magnetic field are used to realize magnetic tunnel junctions in which the electrons at the Fermi level in the two layers have either parallel or antiparallel spin magnetizations. In the antiparallel case the tunnel junction, at low temperatures, behaves as a nearly ideal spin diode. At elevated temperatures the diode character degrades as long-wavelength spin waves are thermally excited. These tunnel junctions provide a demonstration that the spin polarization of the electrons in the N =1 Landau level at filling factors ν =5 /2 and 7 /2 is essentially complete, and, with the aid of an in-plane magnetic field component, that Landau level mixing at these filling factors is weak in the samples studied.

  16. MMS Spin Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The four Magnetospheric Multiscale observatories all undergo what's called a spin test, to learn how well the spacecraft are balanced. It also provides information on how well the mass properties o...

  17. Picosecond Spin Seebeck Effect.

    PubMed

    Kimling, Johannes; Choi, Gyung-Min; Brangham, Jack T; Matalla-Wagner, Tristan; Huebner, Torsten; Kuschel, Timo; Yang, Fengyuan; Cahill, David G

    2017-02-03

    We report time-resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect in normal metal/Y_{3}Fe_{5}O_{12} bilayers driven by an interfacial temperature difference between electrons and magnons. The measured time evolution of spin accumulation induced by laser excitation indicates transfer of angular momentum across normal metal/Y_{3}Fe_{5}O_{12} interfaces on a picosecond time scale, too short for contributions from a bulk temperature gradient in an yttrium iron garnet. The product of spin-mixing conductance and the interfacial spin Seebeck coefficient determined is of the order of 10^{8}  A m^{-2} K^{-1}.

  18. Pluto's Spinning Moons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Most inner moons in the solar system keep one face pointed toward their central planet; this animation shows that certainly isn’t the case with the small moons of Pluto, which behave like spinning ...

  19. Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tao; Zhang, Chong; Feng, Zhiying; Ni, Yiming

    2008-08-01

    Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma is an uncommon tumor. We report a case of a 73-year-old male patient with a two-week history of palpitations and shortness of breath, aggravated for two days and was believed to be pulmonary hypertension. Emergency heart ultrasound after admission presented a massive pulmonary embolism in the pulmonary artery. The patient's condition was successfully managed with urgent pulmonary artery embolectomy. The patient demonstrated improvement in hemodynamics after the operation. Histologic and immunohistochemical assays were performed and a diagnosis was made as primary pulmonary artery sarcoma arising from the left pulmonary artery. Resection of the tumor is recommended for the treatment of this rare malignant tumor. The corresponding chemotherapy, follow-up and prognosis are described as well in this case report.

  20. Quantum Spin Gyroscope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-15

    strengths can be applied to other electron-nuclear systems, such as phosphorus or antimony donors in silicon, defects in silicon carbide or quantum dots ...Progress Report (ONR Award No. N00014-14-1-0804) Quantum Spin Gyroscope August 2014-July 2015 Report Type: Annual Report Primary Contact E-mail... Quantum Spin Gyroscope Grant/Contract Number: N00014-14-1-0804 Principal Investigator Name: Paola Cappellaro Program Manager: Richard Tommy Willis

  1. Litter-Spinning Retarders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Aerodynamic plates stop litter from spinning during hoisting by helicopter. Features of proposed litter-spinning retarders include convenience of deployment and independence from ground restraint. Retarder plate(s) folded flat against bottom of litter during storage or while litter is loaded. Plate(s) held in storage position by latch that releases manually or automatically as litter is hoisted. Upon release, springs move plates into deployed position.

  2. Litter-Spinning Retarders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Aerodynamic plates stop litter from spinning during hoisting by helicopter. Features of proposed litter-spinning retarders include convenience of deployment and independence from ground restraint. Retarder plate(s) folded flat against bottom of litter during storage or while litter is loaded. Plate(s) held in storage position by latch that releases manually or automatically as litter is hoisted. Upon release, springs move plates into deployed position.

  3. Spider Spinning for Dummies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Richard S.

    Spider spinning is a snappy name for the problem of listing the ideals of a totally acyclic poset in such a way that each ideal is computed from its predecessor in constant time. Such an algorithm is said to be loopless. Our aim in these lectures is to show how to calculate a loopless algorithm for spider spinning. The calculation makes use of the fundamental laws of functional programming and the real purpose of the exercise is to show these laws in action.

  4. Imaging electrical spin generation and spin Hall dynamics in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, N. P.

    2009-03-01

    The capability to generate and manipulate spin polarization through the spin-orbit interaction drives interest in all-electrical techniques to exploit electron spins for semiconductor spintronics. The spin Hall effect refers to the generation of a pure spin current transverse to a charge current, resulting in a spontaneous spin accumulation near sample boundaries without the need for magnetic fields or materials. Recent experiments toward imaging this electrically generated spin polarization with both spatially and temporally resolved Kerr rotation microscopy in bulk zincblende semiconductors are discussed. Both current-induced in-plane spin polarization and out-of-plane spin accumulation from the spin Hall effect are observed in ZnSe up to room temperatureootnotetextN. P. Stern, S. Ghosh, G. Xiang, M. Zhu, N. Samarth, and D. D. Awschalom, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 126603 (2006). In GaAs devices, spatially resolved measurements of steady-state spin Hall accumulation and associated modeling clarify the important role of drift and diffusion in transporting spins generated at sample boundaries to the device interiorootnotetextN. P. Stern, D. W. Steuerman, S. Mack, A. C. Gossard, and D. D. Awschalom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062109 (2007). In these typical optical experiments, electrically-generated spin accumulation is measured using steady-state techniques that do not directly observe dynamics at timescales important for device operation. Here we discuss a time- and spatially-resolved measurement of the spin Hall effect using a pulsed current to drive spin accumulationootnotetextN. P. Stern, D. W. Steuerman, S. Mack, A. C. Gossard, and D. D. Awschalom, Nat. Physics 4, 843 (2008). The dynamical processes of spin accumulation and diffusion reveal spatially-dependent nanosecond timescales comparable to the electric-field dependent spin coherence time. A time-dependent diffusion analysis reconciles the observed spatial and temporal dynamics of spin accumulation from the spin

  5. Quantum model of spin noise.

    PubMed

    Annabestani, R; Cory, D G; Emerson, J

    2015-03-01

    Any ensemble of quantum particles exhibits statistical fluctuations known as spin noise. Here, we provide a description of spin noise in the language of open quantum systems. The description unifies the signatures of spin noise under both strong and weak measurements. Further, the model accounts for arbitrary spin dynamics from an arbitrary initial state. In all cases we can find both the spin noise and its time correlation function.

  6. Oscillatory spin transport in spin Hall multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsukov, Igor; Gonçalves, A. M.; Soledade, P.; Passos, C. A. C.; Costa, M.; Souza-Neto, N. M.; Garcia, F.; Lee, H. K.; Smith, A.; Tretiakov, O.; Krivorotov, I. N.; Sampaio, L. C.

    We study multilayers of sputtered Pt/(d)Cu/Py as a function of the Cu thickness d using ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). The FMR linewidth reveals a linear dependence on the frequency with negligible inhomogeneous contribution. The Gilbert damping falls smoothly with increasing d, but presents a strong superimposed oscillation with a period of ~1.5nm. We attribute this behavior to RKKY-like spin transport in the confinement of the Cu layer. The induced perpendicular anisotropy due to the proximity effect shows a similar behavior. We evaluate the induced magnetic moment on Pt using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and find that it decreases with increasing Cu thickness smoothly. Again, we see oscillations of the magnetic moment and show that the oscillatory spin transport affects proximity induced magnetism in Pt. We extend our study to multilayer systems with increased oxidation levels and with out-of-plane crystal texture, in order to investigate the effects of disorder and electron's k-vectors that are responsible for the oscillatory spin transport.

  7. Testing Reciprocity of Spin Pumping and Spin Transfer Torque in Ferromagnet/Spin-Orbit Metal Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, Carl; Emori, Satoru; Nan, Tianxiang; Sun, Nian

    2015-03-01

    Spin pumping from a ferromagnet (FM) to a normal metal (NM) and spin transfer torque (STT) generated in a FM from an injected spin current should be reciprocal processes governed by the spin mixing conductance. The same should be true for the spin Hall effect (SHE) and inverse SHE, which are used to generate and measure spin currents. Past experiments on multilayer thin films involving FM and NM interfaces have measured only spin pumping or spin injection, and have utilized incomplete modeling that results in different effective values for the same parameter such as the spin mixing conductance or spin Hall angle. This gives rise to a large range of values reported in the literature. Here we develop a complete model for spin flow in the FM/NM system including SHE, spin diffusion and spin pumping that allows us to determine the true values of the spin transport parameters. To explore the physcis we use STT-ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) experiments of NM/FM/NM trilayers, and FMR spectroscopy of FM/NM bilayers where we simultaneously measure damping changes due to spin pumping, voltage generated by the inverse SHE, and STT generated by the SHE. These experiments, combined with the complete modeling, allow us to test the reciprocity of spin pumping and STT plus the SHE and its inverse.

  8. Contact-Induced Spin Relaxation in Graphene Nonlocal Spin Valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stecklein, Gordon; Crowell, Paul A.; Li, Jing; Anugrah, Yoska; Su, Qun; Koester, Steven J.

    2016-11-01

    We report on a systematic study of contact-induced spin relaxation in gated graphene nonlocal spin valves. We demonstrate the enhancement of the nonlocal magnetoresistance (Δ RNL) as the Co /Al Ox/graphene interface resistance increases relative to the graphene spin resistance. We measure Hanle precession at many gate voltages on 14 separate spin-valve devices fabricated from graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). These measurements are compared by normalizing Δ RNL to the ideal limit of large contact resistance, and the result is shown to be consistent with isotropic contact-induced spin relaxation caused by spin current flowing from the graphene into the Co contacts. After accounting for this source of spin relaxation, we extract spin lifetimes of up to 600 ps in CVD graphene with a gate-voltage dependence which can be described by a combination of both Elliott-Yafet and D'yakonov-Perel' spin-relaxation mechanisms.

  9. Spin-current emission governed by nonlinear spin dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, Takaharu; Matsuura, Saki; Nomura, Akiyo; Watanabe, Shun; Kang, Keehoon; Sirringhaus, Henning; Ando, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    Coupling between conduction electrons and localized magnetization is responsible for a variety of phenomena in spintronic devices. This coupling enables to generate spin currents from dynamical magnetization. Due to the nonlinearity of magnetization dynamics, the spin-current emission through the dynamical spin-exchange coupling offers a route for nonlinear generation of spin currents. Here, we demonstrate spin-current emission governed by nonlinear magnetization dynamics in a metal/magnetic insulator bilayer. The spin-current emission from the magnetic insulator is probed by the inverse spin Hall effect, which demonstrates nontrivial temperature and excitation power dependences of the voltage generation. The experimental results reveal that nonlinear magnetization dynamics and enhanced spin-current emission due to magnon scatterings are triggered by decreasing temperature. This result illustrates the crucial role of the nonlinear magnon interactions in the spin-current emission driven by dynamical magnetization, or nonequilibrium magnons, from magnetic insulators. PMID:26472712

  10. Spin-Current and Spin-Splitting in Helicoidal Molecules Due to Spin-Orbit Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of organic materials in spintronic devices has been seriously considered after recent experimental works have shown unexpected spin-dependent electrical properties. The basis for the confection of any spintronic device is ability of selecting the appropriated spin polarization. In this direction, DNA has been pointed out as a potential candidate for spin selection due to the spin-orbit coupling originating from the electric field generated by accumulated electrical charges along the helix. Here, we demonstrate that spin-orbit coupling is the minimum ingredient necessary to promote a spatial spin separation and the generation of spin-current. We show that the up and down spin components have different velocities that give rise to a spin-current. By using a simple situation where spin-orbit coupling is present, we provide qualitative justifications to our results that clearly point to helicoidal molecules as serious candidates to integrate spintronic devices. PMID:27009836

  11. Electrical spin manipulation in spin-orbit coupling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Akihito; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2014-03-01

    Generation of spin by applying as electric current in a spin-orbit coupling system has been investigated with much theoretical and experimental attention in spintronics. Although the electronic spin is the well-defined quantity, the spin is not conserved in the presence of spin-orbit interaction and therefore the theoretical definition of spin current is not uniquely given. To resolve this ambiguity in the definition, the non-Abelian gauge theory is one of the possible solutions. By associating the spin-orbit interaction with the non-Abelian vector potential, a proper definition of spin current is given on the basis of the SU(2) gauge invariance and the electronic spin is covariantly conserved. In this context, we present theoretically a general form of spin polarization in terms of an effective Yang-Mills field corresponding to the spin-orbit interaction and usual U(1) Maxwell electromagnetic field. In particular, we focus on a purely electrical spin manipulation, and we find that both of the spin Hall effect and the inverse of the spin galvanic effect arise from the same origin, i.e., the SU(2) ×U(1) Hall effect.

  12. Supersymmetric higher spin theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezgin, Ergin; Sundell, Per

    2013-05-01

    We revisit the higher spin extensions of the anti de Sitter algebra in four dimensions that incorporate internal symmetries and admit representations that contain fermions, classified long ago by Konstein and Vasiliev. We construct the dS4, Euclidean and Kleinian version of these algebras, as well as the corresponding fully nonlinear Vasiliev type higher spin theories, in which the reality conditions we impose on the master fields play a crucial role. The N=2 supersymmetric higher spin theory in dS4, on which we elaborate further, is included in this class of models. A subset of the Konstein-Vasiliev algebras are the minimal higher spin extensions of the AdS4 superalgebra osp(4|N ) with N=1, 2, 4 mod 4, whose R-symmetry can be realized using fermionic oscillators. We tensor these algebras with appropriate internal symmetry algebras, namely u(n) for N= 2 mod 4 and so(n) or usp(n) for N=1,4 mod 4. We show that the N= 3 mod 4 higher spin algebras are isomorphic to those with N = 4 mod 4. We describe the fully nonlinear higher spin theories based on these algebras, including the coupling between the adjoint and twisted-adjoint master fields. We elaborate further on the N = 6 model in AdS4, and provide two equivalent descriptions one of which exhibits manifestly its relation to the N = 8 model. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Higher spin theories and holography’.

  13. Measurements of nuclear spin dynamics by spin-noise spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhov, I. I.; Poltavtsev, S. V.; Kozlov, G. G.; Zapasskii, V. S.; Kavokin, K. V.; Glazov, M. M.; Vladimirova, M.; Scalbert, D.; Cronenberger, S.; Lemaître, A.; Bloch, J.

    2015-06-15

    We exploit the potential of the spin noise spectroscopy (SNS) for studies of nuclear spin dynamics in n-GaAs. The SNS experiments were performed on bulk n-type GaAs layers embedded into a high-finesse microcavity at negative detuning. In our experiments, nuclear spin polarisation initially prepared by optical pumping is monitored in real time via a shift of the peak position in the electron spin noise spectrum. We demonstrate that this shift is a direct measure of the Overhauser field acting on the electron spin. The dynamics of nuclear spin is shown to be strongly dependent on the electron concentration.

  14. Measurements of nuclear spin dynamics by spin-noise spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhov, I. I.; Poltavtsev, S. V.; Kavokin, K. V.; Glazov, M. M.; Kozlov, G. G.; Vladimirova, M.; Scalbert, D.; Cronenberger, S.; Kavokin, A. V.; Lemaître, A.; Bloch, J.; Zapasskii, V. S.

    2015-06-01

    We exploit the potential of the spin noise spectroscopy (SNS) for studies of nuclear spin dynamics in n-GaAs. The SNS experiments were performed on bulk n-type GaAs layers embedded into a high-finesse microcavity at negative detuning. In our experiments, nuclear spin polarisation initially prepared by optical pumping is monitored in real time via a shift of the peak position in the electron spin noise spectrum. We demonstrate that this shift is a direct measure of the Overhauser field acting on the electron spin. The dynamics of nuclear spin is shown to be strongly dependent on the electron concentration.

  15. Lattice spin models for non-Abelian chiral spin liquids

    DOE PAGES

    Lecheminant, P.; Tsvelik, A. M.

    2017-04-26

    Here, we suggest a class of two-dimensional lattice spin Hamiltonians describing non-Abelian SU(2) chiral spin liquids—spin analogs of fractional non-Abelian quantum Hall states—with gapped bulk and gapless chiral edge excitations described by the SU(2)n Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten conformal field theory. The models are constructed from an array of generalized spin-n/2 ladders with multi-spin-exchange interactions which are coupled by isolated spins. Such models allow a controllable analytic treatment starting from the one-dimensional limit and are characterized by a bulk gap and non-Abelian SU(2)n gapless edge excitations.

  16. Spin pumping due to spin waves in magnetic vortex structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Norinobu; Kondou, Kouta; Kimata, Motoi; Otani, YoshiChika

    2017-05-01

    We performed spin pumping into a Pt wire by using various spin-wave modes excited in a magnetic vortex structure. Radial and azimuthal modes were excited by applying an in-plane radiofrequency magnetic field with a variable frequency. We observed a mode-dependent sign change in the inverse spin Hall voltage induced along the Pt wire. Micromagnetic simulation revealed that the observed behavior reflected the spatial distribution of the spin wave. These findings suggest that spin pumping can be used for the electrical detection of the spatial distribution of confined spin-wave modes in small magnetic structures.

  17. Mesenteric Artery Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Coles, John C.; Walker, John B.; Gergely, N. F.; Buttigliero, Jorge

    1963-01-01

    The syndromes of superior mesenteric artery insufficiency are briefly reviewed. Three cases associated with infarction of bowel which were treated with restoration of arterial flow and resection of residual irretrievable bowel are reported. In two patients an embolectomy and in one patient a bypass graft were used to restore arterial continuity. The importance of the recognition and removal of irretrievable bowel at the time of vascular reconstruction is emphasized. Success is not necessarily predicated by the time factor alone, although the importance of early diagnosis and surgical intervention cannot be denied. PMID:14042788

  18. Ruptured visceral artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Chiaradia, M; Novelli, L; Deux, J-F; Tacher, V; Mayer, J; You, K; Djabbari, M; Luciani, A; Rahmouni, A; Kobeiter, H

    2015-01-01

    Visceral artery aneurysms are rare but their estimated mortality due to rupture ranges between 25 and 70%. Treatment of visceral artery aneurysm rupture is usually managed by interventional radiology. Specific embolization techniques depend on the location, affected organ, locoregional arterial anatomy, and interventional radiologist skill. The success rate following treatment by interventional radiology is greater than 90%. The main complication is recanalization of the aneurysm, showing the importance of post-therapeutic monitoring, which should preferably be performed using MR imaging. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Bilateral variant testicular arteries with double renal arteries

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The testicular arteries normally arise from the abdominal aorta. There are reports about the variant origin of these arteries. Accessory renal arteries are also a common finding but their providing origin to testicular arteries is an important observation. The variations described here are unique and provide significant information to surgeons dissecting the abdominal cavity. Case presentation During routine dissection classes of abdominal region of a 60-year-old male cadaver, we observed bilateral variant testicular arteries and double renal arteries. Conclusion Awareness of variations of the testicular arteries such as those presented here becomes important during surgical procedures like varicocele and undescended testes. PMID:19187540

  20. Basic spin physics.

    PubMed

    Pipe, J G

    1999-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is fundamentally a measurement of the magnetism inherent in some nuclear isotopes; of these the proton, or hydrogen atom, is of particular interest for clinical applications. The magnetism in each nucleus is often referred to as spin. A strong, static magnetic field B0 is used to align spins, forming a magnetic density within the patient. A second, rotating magnetic field B1 (RF pulse) is applied for a short duration, which rotates the spins away from B0 in a process called excitation. After the spins are rotated away from B0, the RF pulse is turned off, and the spins precess about B0. As long as the spins are all pointing in the same direction at any one time (have phase coherence), they act in concert to create rapidly oscillating magnetic fields. These fields in turn create a current in an appropriately placed receiver coil, in a manner similar to that of an electrical generator. The precessing magnetization decays rapidly in a duration roughly given by the T2 time constant. At the same time, but at a slower rate, magnetization forms again along the direction of B0; the duration of this process is roughly expressed by the T1 time constant. The precessional frequency of each spin is proportional to the magnetic field experienced at the nucleus. Small variations in this magnetic field can have dramatic effects on the MR image, caused in part by loss of phase coherence. These magnetic field variations can arise because of magnet design, the magnetic properties (susceptibility) of tissues and other materials, and the nuclear environment unique to various sites within any given molecule. The loss of phase coherence can be effectively eliminated by the use of RF refocusing pulses. Conventional MR imaging experiments can be characterized as either gradient echo or spin echo, the latter indicating the use of a RF refocusing pulse, and by the parameters TR, TE, and flip angle alpha. Tissues, in turn, are characterized by their individual spin

  1. Postoperative internal thoracic artery spasm after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Harskamp, Ralf E; McNeil, Jeffrey D; van Ginkel, Margreet W; Bastos, Renata B; Baisden, Clinton E; Calhoon, John H

    2008-02-01

    Spasm of the left internal thoracic artery in the perioperative period represents a life-threatening complication after coronary artery bypass grafting. We present a case in which graft spasm was treated with the administration of intra-arterial nitroglycerin and verapamil. Although vasospasm is more often seen in radial artery grafts, this case demonstrates that left internal thoracic artery grafts are also prone to spasm.

  2. Anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery with mitral stenosis.

    PubMed

    Das, Mrinalendu; Mahindrakar, Pallavi; Das, Debasis; Behera, Sukanta Kumar; Chowdhury, Saibal Roy; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit

    2011-08-01

    The usual presentation of anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery is severe left-sided heart failure and mitral valve insufficiency presenting during the first months of life. The manifestations of left heart failure may be masked if pulmonary artery pressure remains high. We believe this is a rarest of rare case of anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery with severe mitral stenosis and pulmonary hypertension in which pulmonary hypertension, along with good collateral circulation helped to preserve left ventricular function.

  3. Overview of spin physics

    SciTech Connect

    Yokosawa, A.

    1992-12-23

    Spin physics activities at medium and high energies became significantly active when polarized targets and polarized beams became accessible for hadron-hadron scattering experiments. My overview of spin physics will be inclined to the study of strong interaction using facilities at Argonne ZGS, Brookhaven AGS (including RHIC), CERN, Fermilab, LAMPF, an SATURNE. In 1960 accelerator physicists had already been convinced that the ZGS could be unique in accelerating a polarized beam; polarized beams were being accelerated through linear accelerators elsewhere at that time. However, there was much concern about going ahead with the construction of a polarized beam because (i) the source intensity was not high enough to accelerate in the accelerator, (ii) the use of the accelerator would be limited to only polarized-beam physics, that is, proton-proton interaction, and (iii) p-p elastic scattering was not the most popular topic in high-energy physics. In fact, within spin physics, [pi]-nucleon physics looked attractive, since the determination of spin and parity of possible [pi]p resonances attracted much attention. To proceed we needed more data beside total cross sections and elastic differential cross sections; measurements of polarization and other parameters were urgently needed. Polarization measurements had traditionally been performed by analyzing the spin of recoil protons. The drawbacks of this technique are: (i) it involves double scattering, resulting in poor accuracy of the data, and (ii) a carbon analyzer can only be used for a limited region of energy.

  4. Spin-wave diode

    DOE PAGES

    Lan, Jin; Yu, Weichao; Wu, Ruqian; ...

    2015-12-28

    A diode, a device allowing unidirectional signal transmission, is a fundamental element of logic structures, and it lies at the heart of modern information systems. The spin wave or magnon, representing a collective quasiparticle excitation of the magnetic order in magnetic materials, is a promising candidate for an information carrier for the next-generation energy-saving technologies. Here, we propose a scalable and reprogrammable pure spin-wave logic hardware architecture using domain walls and surface anisotropy stripes as waveguides on a single magnetic wafer. We demonstrate theoretically the design principle of the simplest logic component, a spin-wave diode, utilizing the chiral bound statesmore » in a magnetic domain wall with a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, and confirm its performance through micromagnetic simulations. As a result, these findings open a new vista for realizing different types of pure spin-wave logic components and finally achieving an energy-efficient and hardware-reprogrammable spin-wave computer.« less

  5. Spinning Witten diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleight, Charlotte; Taronna, Massimo

    2017-06-01

    We develop a systematic framework to compute the conformal partial wave expansions (CPWEs) of tree-level four-point Witten diagrams with totally symmetric external fields of arbitrary mass and integer spin in AdS d+1. As an intermediate step, we identify convenient bases of three-point bulk and boundary structures to invert linear map between spinning three-point conformal structures and spinning cubic couplings in AdS. Given a CFT d , this provides the complete holographic reconstruction of all cubic couplings involving totally symmetric fields in the putative dual theory on AdS d+1. Employing this framework, we determine the CPWE of a generic four-point exchange Witten diagram with spinning exchanged field. As a concrete application, we compute all four-point exchange Witten diagrams in the type A higher-spin gauge theory on AdS d+1, which is conjectured to be dual to the free scalar O ( N ) model.

  6. Spin hydrodynamic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, R.; Matsuo, M.; Ono, M.; Harii, K.; Chudo, H.; Okayasu, S.; Ieda, J.; Takahashi, S.; Maekawa, S.; Saitoh, E.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic generation is the conversion of fluid kinetic energy into electricity. Such conversion, which has been applied to various types of electric power generation, is driven by the Lorentz force acting on charged particles and thus a magnetic field is necessary. On the other hand, recent studies of spintronics have revealed the similarity between the function of a magnetic field and that of spin-orbit interactions in condensed matter. This suggests the existence of an undiscovered route to realize the conversion of fluid dynamics into electricity without using magnetic fields. Here we show electric voltage generation from fluid dynamics free from magnetic fields; we excited liquid-metal flows in a narrow channel and observed longitudinal voltage generation in the liquid. This voltage has nothing to do with electrification or thermoelectric effects, but turned out to follow a universal scaling rule based on a spin-mediated scenario. The result shows that the observed voltage is caused by spin-current generation from a fluid motion: spin hydrodynamic generation. The observed phenomenon allows us to make mechanical spin-current and electric generators, opening a door to fluid spintronics.

  7. Harnessing spin precession with dissipation.

    PubMed

    Crisan, A D; Datta, S; Viennot, J J; Delbecq, M R; Cottet, A; Kontos, T

    2016-01-27

    Non-collinear spin transport is at the heart of spin or magnetization control in spintronics devices. The use of nanoscale conductors exhibiting quantum effects in transport could provide new paths for that purpose. Here we study non-collinear spin transport in a quantum dot. We use a device made out of a single-wall carbon nanotube connected to orthogonal ferromagnetic electrodes. In the spin transport signals, we observe signatures of out of equilibrium spin precession that are electrically tunable through dissipation. This could provide a new path to harness spin precession in nanoscale conductors.

  8. Harnessing spin precession with dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisan, A. D.; Datta, S.; Viennot, J. J.; Delbecq, M. R.; Cottet, A.; Kontos, T.

    2016-01-01

    Non-collinear spin transport is at the heart of spin or magnetization control in spintronics devices. The use of nanoscale conductors exhibiting quantum effects in transport could provide new paths for that purpose. Here we study non-collinear spin transport in a quantum dot. We use a device made out of a single-wall carbon nanotube connected to orthogonal ferromagnetic electrodes. In the spin transport signals, we observe signatures of out of equilibrium spin precession that are electrically tunable through dissipation. This could provide a new path to harness spin precession in nanoscale conductors.

  9. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...

  10. Uterine artery embolization - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... your uterus (uterine artery). Small plastic or gelatin particles were injected into the blood vessels that carry blood to the fibroids. These particles block the blood supply to the fibroids. Without ...

  11. Carotid artery disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... a stroke recover most or all of their functions. Others die of the stroke itself or from complications. About half of people ... patients with extracranial carotid and vertebral artery disease: executive summary: ... American Association of Neuroscience Nurses, American Association ...

  12. Peripheral Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... needed to restore blood flow: Angioplasty : In an angioplasty procedure, an interventional radiologist threads a catheter through a blood vessel to the affected artery and inflates a small balloon to reopen it. In some cases, the insertion ...

  13. Renal arteries (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A renal angiogram is a test used to examine the blood vessels of the kidneys. The test is performed ... main vessel of the pelvis, up to the renal artery that leads into the kidney. Contrast medium ...

  14. Coronary artery spasm

    MedlinePlus

    ... blocker or a long-acting nitrate long-term. Beta-blockers are another type of medicine that is used with other coronary artery problems. However, beta-blockers may make this problem worse. They should be ...

  15. Median artery revisited

    PubMed Central

    RODRÍGUEZ-NIEDENFÜHR, M.; SAÑUDO, J. R.; VÁZQUEZ, T.; NEARN, L.; LOGAN, B.; PARKIN, I.

    1999-01-01

    This study confirms that the median artery may persist in adult life in 2 different patterns, palmar and antebrachial, based on their vascular territory. The palmar type, which represents the embryonic pattern, is large, long and reaches the palm. The antebrachial type, which represents a partial regression of the embryonic artery is slender, short, and terminates before reaching the wrist. These 2 arterial patterns appear with a different incidence. The palmar pattern was studied in the whole sample (120 cadavers) and had an incidence of 20%, being more frequent in females than in males (1.3∶1), occurring unilaterally more often than bilaterally (4∶1) and slightly more frequently on the right than on the left (1.1∶1). The antebrachial pattern was studied in only 79 cadavers and had an incidence of 76%, being more frequent in females than in males (1.6∶1); it was commoner unilaterally than bilaterally (1.5∶1) and was again slightly more prevalent on the right than on the left (1.2∶1). The origin of the median artery was variable in both patterns. The palmar type most frequently arose from the caudal angle between the ulnar artery and its common interosseous trunk (59%). The antebrachial pattern most frequently originated from the anterior interosseous artery (55%). Other origins, for both patterns, were from the ulnar artery or from the common interosseous trunk. The median artery in the antebrachial pattern terminated in the upper third (74%) or in the distal third of the forearm (26%). However, the palmar pattern ended as the 1st, 2nd or 1st and 2nd common digital arteries (65%) or joined the superficial palmar arch (35%). The median artery passed either anterior (67%) or posterior (25%) to the anterior interosseous nerve. It pierced the median nerve in the upper third of the forearm in 41% of cases with the palmar pattern and in none of the antebrachial cases. In 1 case the artery pierced both the anterior interosseous and median nerves. PMID

  16. Design of spin-Seebeck diode with spin semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhao-Qian; Yang, Yu-Rong; Fu, Hua-Hua; Wu, Ruqian

    2016-12-01

    We report a new design of spin-Seebeck diode using two-dimensional spin semiconductors such as sawtooth-like (ST) silicence nanoribbons (SiNRs), to generate unidirectional spin currents with a temperature gradient. ST SiNRs have subbands with opposite spins across the Fermi level and hence the flow of thermally excited carriers may produce a net spin current but not charge current. Moreover, we found that even-width ST SiNRs display a remarkable negative differential thermoelectric resistance due to a charge-current compensation mechanism. In contrast, odd-width ST SiNRs manifest features of a thermoelectric diode and can be used to produce both charge and spin currents with temperature gradient. These findings can be extended to other spin semiconductors and open the door for designs of new materials and spin caloritronic devices.

  17. Spin-orbit coupling and spin relaxation in phosphorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurpas, Marcin; Gmitra, Martin; Fabian, Jaroslav

    We employ first principles density functional theory calculations to study intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit coupling in monolayer phosphorene. We also extract the spin-mixing amplitudes of the Bloch wave functions to give realistic estimates of the Elliott-Yafet spin relaxation rate. The most remarkable result is the striking anisotropy in both spin-orbit coupling and spin relaxation rates, which could be tested experimentally in spin injection experiments. We also identify spin hot spots in the electronic structure of phosphorene at accidental bands anticrossings. We compare the Elliott-Yafet with Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation times, obtained from extrinsic couplings in an applied electric field. We also compare the results in phosphorene with those of black phosphorous. This work is supported by the DFG SPP 1538, SFB 689, and by the EU Seventh Framework Programme under Grant Agreement No. 604391 Graphene Flagship.

  18. Spatially Separated Spin Carriers in Spin-Semiconducting Graphene Nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. F.; Jin, Shuo; Liu, Feng

    2013-08-01

    A graphene nanoribbon with sawtooth edges has a ferromagnetic ground state. Using first-principles and tight-binding model calculations, we show that, under a transverse electrical field, the sawtooth graphene nanoribbons become a spin semiconductor whose charge carriers are not only spin polarized in energy space but also spatially separated at different edges. Low-energy excitation produces spin-up electrons localized at one edge and spin-down holes at the opposite edge, and the excitation energy of spin carries can be tuned by the electric field to reach a new state of spin gapless semiconductor. Also, the spin semiconducting states are shown to be robust against at least 10% edge disorder. These features demonstrate a good tunability of spin carriers for spintronics applications.

  19. Spatially Separated Spin Carriers in Spin-Semiconducting Graphene Nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengfei; Jin, Shuo; Liu, Feng

    2014-03-01

    A graphene nanoribbon with sawtooth edges has a ferromagnetic ground state. Using first-principles and tight-binding model calculations, we show that, under a transverse electrical field, the sawtooth graphene nanoribbons become a spin semiconductor whose charge carriers are not only spin polarized in energy space but also spatially separated at different edges. Low-energy excitation produces spin-up electrons localized at one edge and spin-down holes at the opposite edge, and the excitation energy of spin carries can be tuned by the electric field to reach a new state of spin gapless semiconductor. Also, the spin semiconducting states are shown to be robust against at least 10% edge disorder. These features demonstrate a good tunability of spin carriers for spintronics applications. This work was supported by DOE-BES (No. DE-FG02-04ER46148) and NSF-MRSEC (No. DMR-1121252).

  20. Spin-Orbit Twisted Spin Waves: Group Velocity Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, F.; Baboux, F.; Ullrich, C. A.; D'Amico, I.; Vignale, G.; Karczewski, G.; Wojtowicz, T.

    2016-09-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of the interplay between spin-orbit coupling (SOC), Coulomb interaction, and motion of conduction electrons in a magnetized two-dimensional electron gas. Via a transformation of the many-body Hamiltonian we introduce the concept of spin-orbit twisted spin waves, whose energy dispersions and damping rates are obtained by a simple wave-vector shift of the spin waves without SOC. These theoretical predictions are validated by Raman scattering measurements. With optical gating of the density, we vary the strength of the SOC to alter the group velocity of the spin wave. The findings presented here differ from that of spin systems subject to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. Our results pave the way for novel applications in spin-wave routing devices and for the realization of lenses for spin waves.

  1. Mechanisms of Spin-Dependent Heat Generation in Spin Valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xue; Zhu, Yao-Hui; He, Pei-Song; Li, Bao-He

    2017-06-01

    The extra heat generation in spin transport is usually interpreted in terms of the spin relaxation. By reformulating the heat generation rate, we found alternative current-force pairs without cross effects, which enable us to interpret the product of each pair as a distinct mechanism of heat generation. The results show that the spin-dependent part of the heat generation includes two terms. One of them is proportional to the square of the spin accumulation and arises from the spin relaxation. However, the other is proportional to the square of the spin-accumulation gradient and should be attributed to another mechanism, the spin diffusion. We illustrated the characteristics of the two mechanisms in a typical spin valve with a finite nonmagnetic spacer layer.

  2. Quantum spin transistor with a Heisenberg spin chain

    PubMed Central

    Marchukov, O. V.; Volosniev, A. G.; Valiente, M.; Petrosyan, D.; Zinner, N. T.

    2016-01-01

    Spin chains are paradigmatic systems for the studies of quantum phases and phase transitions, and for quantum information applications, including quantum computation and short-distance quantum communication. Here we propose and analyse a scheme for conditional state transfer in a Heisenberg XXZ spin chain which realizes a quantum spin transistor. In our scheme, the absence or presence of a control spin excitation in the central gate part of the spin chain results in either perfect transfer of an arbitrary state of a target spin between the weakly coupled input and output ports, or its complete blockade at the input port. We also discuss a possible proof-of-concept realization of the corresponding spin chain with a one-dimensional ensemble of cold atoms with strong contact interactions. Our scheme is generally applicable to various implementations of tunable spin chains, and it paves the way for the realization of integrated quantum logic elements. PMID:27721438

  3. Spin filter and spin valve in ferromagnetic graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Yu Dai, Gang

    2015-06-01

    We propose and demonstrate that a EuO-induced and top-gated graphene ferromagnetic junction can be simultaneously operated as a spin filter and a spin valve. We attribute such a remarkable result to a coexistence of a half-metal band and a common energy gap for opposite spins in ferromagnetic graphene. We show that both the spin filter and the spin valve can be effectively controlled by a back gate voltage, and they survive for practical metal contacts and finite temperature. Specifically, larger single spin currents and on-state currents can be reached with contacts with work functions similar to graphene, and the spin filter can operate at higher temperature than the spin valve.

  4. Design of spin-Seebeck diode with spin semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhao-Qian; Yang, Yu-Rong; Fu, Hua-Hua; Wu, Ruqian

    2016-12-16

    We report a new design of spin-Seebeck diode using two-dimensional spin semiconductors such as sawtooth-like (ST) silicence nanoribbons (SiNRs), to generate unidirectional spin currents with a temperature gradient. ST SiNRs have subbands with opposite spins across the Fermi level and hence the flow of thermally excited carriers may produce a net spin current but not charge current. Moreover, we found that even-width ST SiNRs display a remarkable negative differential thermoelectric resistance due to a charge-current compensation mechanism. In contrast, odd-width ST SiNRs manifest features of a thermoelectric diode and can be used to produce both charge and spin currents with temperature gradient. These findings can be extended to other spin semiconductors and open the door for designs of new materials and spin caloritronic devices.

  5. The major cerebral arteries proximal to the Circle of Willis contribute to cerebrovascular resistance in humans.

    PubMed

    Warnert, Esther Ah; Hart, Emma C; Hall, Judith E; Murphy, Kevin; Wise, Richard G

    2016-08-01

    Cerebral autoregulation ensures constant cerebral blood flow during periods of increased blood pressure by increasing cerebrovascular resistance. However, whether this increase in resistance occurs at the level of major cerebral arteries as well as at the level of smaller pial arterioles is still unknown in humans. Here, we measure cerebral arterial compliance, a measure that is inversely related to cerebrovascular resistance, with our novel non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging-based measurement, which employs short inversion time pulsed arterial spin labelling to map arterial blood volume at different phases of the cardiac cycle. We investigate the differential response of the cerebrovasculature during post exercise ischemia (a stimulus which leads to increased cerebrovascular resistance because of increases in blood pressure and sympathetic outflow). During post exercise ischemia in eight normotensive men (30.4 ± 6.4 years), cerebral arterial compliance decreased in the major cerebral arteries at the level of and below the Circle of Willis, while no changes were measured in arteries above the Circle of Willis. The reduction in arterial compliance manifested as a reduction in the arterial blood volume during systole. This study provides the first evidence that in humans the major cerebral arteries may play an important role in increasing cerebrovascular resistance. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis after Spinning

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Youjin; Oh, Eun-Jung; Ahn, Ah-Leum; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Cho, Dong-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Any strenuous muscular exercise may trigger rhabdomyolysis. We report an episode of clinically manifested exertional rhabdomyolysis due to stationary cycling, commonly known as spinning. Reports of spinning-related rhabdomyolysis are rare in the English literature, and the current case appears to be the first such case reported in South Korea. A previously healthy 21-year-old Asian woman presented with severe thigh pain and reddish-brown urinary discoloration 24–48 hours after attending a spinning class at a local gymnasium. Paired with key laboratory findings, her symptoms were suggestive of rhabdomyolysis. She required hospital admission to sustain renal function through fluid resuscitation therapy and fluid balance monitoring. Because exertional rhabdomyolysis may occur in any unfit but otherwise healthy individual who indulges in stationary cycling, the potential health risks of this activity must be considered. PMID:27900075

  7. Chiral higher spin gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash

    2017-06-01

    We construct a candidate for the most general chiral higher spin theory with AdS3 boundary conditions. In the Chern-Simons language, on the left it has the Drinfeld-Sokolov reduced form, but on the right all charges and chemical potentials are turned on. Altogether (for the spin-3 case) these are 19 functions. Despite this, we show that the resulting metric has the form of the "most general" AdS3 boundary conditions discussed by Grumiller and Riegler. The asymptotic symmetry algebra is a product of a W3 algebra on the left and an affine s l (3 )k current algebra on the right, as desired. The metric and higher spin fields depend on all the 19 functions. We compare our work with previous results in the literature.

  8. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis after Spinning.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Youjin; Kweon, Hyuk-Jung; Oh, Eun-Jung; Ahn, Ah-Leum; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Cho, Dong-Yung

    2016-11-01

    Any strenuous muscular exercise may trigger rhabdomyolysis. We report an episode of clinically manifested exertional rhabdomyolysis due to stationary cycling, commonly known as spinning. Reports of spinning-related rhabdomyolysis are rare in the English literature, and the current case appears to be the first such case reported in South Korea. A previously healthy 21-year-old Asian woman presented with severe thigh pain and reddish-brown urinary discoloration 24-48 hours after attending a spinning class at a local gymnasium. Paired with key laboratory findings, her symptoms were suggestive of rhabdomyolysis. She required hospital admission to sustain renal function through fluid resuscitation therapy and fluid balance monitoring. Because exertional rhabdomyolysis may occur in any unfit but otherwise healthy individual who indulges in stationary cycling, the potential health risks of this activity must be considered.

  9. Spinning fluids reactor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  10. Paramagnetic Spin Seebeck Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Stephen M.; Pearson, John E.; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2015-05-01

    We report the observation of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect in paramagnetic insulators. By using a microscale on-chip local heater, we generate a large thermal gradient confined to the chip surface without a large increase in the total sample temperature. Using this technique at low temperatures (<20 K ), we resolve the paramagnetic spin Seebeck effect in the insulating paramagnets Gd3Ga5O12 (gadolinium gallium garnet) and DyScO3 (DSO), using either W or Pt as the spin detector layer. By taking advantage of the strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy of DSO, we eliminate contributions from the Nernst effect in W or Pt, which produces a phenomenologically similar signal.

  11. Mechanical spin bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spin bearing assembly including, a pair of mutually opposing complementary bearing support members having mutually spaced apart bearing support surfaces which may be, for example, bearing races and a set of spin bearings located therebetween. Each spin bearing includes a pair of end faces, a central rotational axis passing through the end faces, a waist region substantially mid-way between the end faces and having a first thickness dimension, and discrete side surface regions located between the waist region and the end faces and having a second thickness dimension different from the first thickness dimension of the waist region and wherein the side surface regions further have respective curvilinear contact surfaces adapted to provide a plurality of bearing contact points on the bearing support members.

  12. Paramagnetic spin seebeck effect.

    PubMed

    Wu, Stephen M; Pearson, John E; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2015-05-08

    We report the observation of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect in paramagnetic insulators. By using a microscale on-chip local heater, we generate a large thermal gradient confined to the chip surface without a large increase in the total sample temperature. Using this technique at low temperatures (<20  K), we resolve the paramagnetic spin Seebeck effect in the insulating paramagnets Gd3Ga5O12 (gadolinium gallium garnet) and DyScO3 (DSO), using either W or Pt as the spin detector layer. By taking advantage of the strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy of DSO, we eliminate contributions from the Nernst effect in W or Pt, which produces a phenomenologically similar signal.

  13. Paramagnetic Spin Seebeck Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Stephen M.; Pearson, John E.; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2015-05-01

    We report the observation of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect in paramagnetic insulators. By using a microscale on-chip local heater, we generate a large thermal gradient confined to the chip surface without a large increase in the total sample temperature. Using this technique at low temperatures (< 20 K), we resolve the paramagnetic spin Seebeck effect in the insulating paramagnets Gd3Ga5O12 (gadolinium gallium garnet) and DyScO3 (DSO), using either W or Pt as the spin detector layer. By taking advantage of the strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy of DSO, we eliminate contributions from the Nernst effect in W or Pt, which produces a phenomenologically similar signal.

  14. Internal mammary artery.

    PubMed

    Calafiore, Antonio M; Weltert, Luca; Mauro, Michele Di; Actis-Dato, Guglielmo; Iacò, Angela L; Centofanti, Paolo; Torre, Michele La; Patanè, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    The internal mammary artery (IMA) has been already used in some pioneering experiences since the middle of last century but it became the graft of choice only in the 1980s, after widespread angiographic and clinical demonstration of its superiority over the saphenous vein graft (SVG). The use of both mammary arteries was then explored in order to achieve better long-term results when compared to single IMA and SVG. The IMA can be harvested pedicled or skeletonized and used as an in situ graft or as a source for composite graft (Y-graft, lengthened graft). When the bilateral internal mammary artery (BIMA) is grafted in situ, the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) is generally used for the left descending artery (LAD) and the RIMA for the right coronary artery (RCA), or for the lateral wall, usually going through the transverse sinus. In the case of Y-graft, the left coronary system is more frequently chosen as the target site of revascularization. Our experience shows that: (1) The use of IMA provides better 15-year clinical results when compared to SVG. (2) The use of BIMA in patients younger than 75 years can produce higher 10-year freedom from cardiac-related events than the single one, even in diabetic patients.

  15. Squeezed spin states: Squeezing the spin uncertainty relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitagawa, Masahiro; Ueda, Masahito

    1993-01-01

    The notion of squeezing in spin systems is clarified, and the principle for spin squeezing is shown. Two twisting schemes are proposed as building blocks for spin squeezing and are shown to reduce the standard quantum noise, s/2, of the coherent S-spin state down to the order of S(sup 1/3) and 1/2. Applications to partition noise suppression are briefly discussed.

  16. Spin Interactions and Spin Dynamics in Electronic Nanostructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    and of nanomagnet dynamics excited by spin polarized currents. Major accomplishments achieved during this project include the development and...Reversal Induced by a Spin - Polarized Current,” E. B Myers, F. J. Albert, J. C. Sankey, E. Bonet, R. A. Buhrman, and D. C. Ralph, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89...196801 (2002). 4. “Using single quantum states as spin filters to study spin polarization in ferromagnets,” Mandar M. Deshmukh and D. C. Ralph, Phys

  17. Spin Wave Genie

    SciTech Connect

    2015-02-16

    The four-dimensional scattering function S(Q,w) obtained by inelastic neutron scattering measurements provides unique "dynamical fingerprints" of the spin state and interactions present in complex magnetic materials. Extracting this information however is currently a slow and complex process that may take an expert -depending on the complexity of the system- up to several weeks of painstaking work to complete. Spin Wave Genie was created to abstract and automate this process. It strives to both reduce the time to complete this analysis and make these calculations more accessible to a broader group of scientists and engineers.

  18. Measuring Black Hole Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmire, Gordon

    1999-09-01

    WE PROPOSE TO CARRY OUT A SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF EMISSION AND ABSORPTION SPECTRAL FEATURES THAT ARE OFTEN SEEN IN X-RAY SPECTRA OF BLACK HOLE BINARIES. THE EXCELLENT SENSITIVITY AND ENERGY RESOLUTION OF THE ACIS/HETG COMBINATION WILL NOT ONLY HELP RESOLVE AMBIGUITIES IN INTERPRETING THESE FEATURES, BUT MAY ALLOW MODELLING OF THE EMISSION LINE PROFILES IN DETAIL. THE PROFILES MAY CONTAIN INFORMATION ON SUCH FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES AS THE SPIN OF BLACK HOLES. THEREFORE, THIS STUDY COULD LEAD TO A MEASUREMENT OF BLACK HOLE SPIN FOR SELECTED SOURCES. THE RESULT CAN THEN BE DIRECTLY COMPARED WITH THOSE FROM PREVIOUS STUDIES BASED ON INDEPENDENT METHODS.

  19. Spin Physics at NICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaytsev, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    The NICA-SPD project is under preparation at the 2nd interaction point of the NICA collider. The main purpose of this experiment is the study of the nucleon spin structure with high intensity polarized proton and deuteron beams. The design of the collider can allow us to reach a very high collision proton (deuteron) energy up to √s ˜26 (12) GeV with the average luminosity up to 1032 (1031) cm2/s. Both proton and deuteron beams will be effectively polarized. The one gives us unique possibilities to investigate the polarized phenomena and nucleon spin structure at NICA. The comprehensive program of these studies is presented.

  20. Fragmentation of spinning branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, D.

    2008-07-01

    The near-horizon geometries of spinning D3-, M2- and M5-branes are examined by the probes immersed in a co-rotating frame. It is found that the geometries become unstable at critical values of the spin angular velocity by emitting the branes. We show that this instability corresponds to the metastability of the black hole systems and different from the known (local) thermodynamic instability. For the D3 case, the instability found here is in complete agreement with the known metastability of the \\mathcal{N}=4 super-Yang Mills theory with R-symmetry chemical potentials.

  1. Spin echo in synchrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Alexander W.; Courant, Ernest D.

    2007-01-01

    As a polarized beam is accelerated through a depolarization resonance, its polarization is reduced by a well-defined calculable reduction factor. When the beam subsequently crosses a second resonance, the final beam polarization is considered to be reduced by the product of the two reduction factors corresponding to the two crossings, each calculated independently of the other. This is a good approximation when the spread of spin precession frequency Δνspin of the beam (particularly due to its energy spread) is sufficiently large that the spin precession phases of individual particles smear out completely during the time τ between the two crossings. This approximate picture, however, ignores two spin dynamics effects: an interference-overlap effect and a spin echo effect. This paper is to address these two effects. The interference-overlap effect occurs when Δνspin is too small, or when τ is too short, to complete the smearing process. In this case, the two resonance crossings overlap each other, and the final polarization exhibits constructive or destructive interference patterns depending on the exact value of τ. Typically, the beam’s energy spread is large and this interference-overlap effect does not occur. To study this effect, therefore, it is necessary to reduce the beam energy spread and to consider two resonance crossings very close to each other. The other mechanism, also due to the interplay between two resonance crossings, is spin echo. It turns out that even when the precession phases appear to be completely smeared between the two crossings, there will still be a sudden and short-lived echo signal of beam polarization at a time τ after the second crossing; the magnitude of which can be as large as 57%. This echo signal exists even when the beam has a sizable energy spread and when τ is very large, and could be a sensitive (albeit challenging) way to experimentally test the intricate spin dynamics in a synchrotron. After giving an analysis

  2. Spin Echo in Synchrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Alexander W.; Courant, Ernest D.; /Brookhaven

    2006-12-01

    As a polarized beam is accelerated through a depolarization resonance, its polarization is reduced by a well-defined calculable reduction factor. When the beam subsequently crosses a second resonance, the final beam polarization is considered to be reduced by the product of the two reduction factors corresponding to the two crossings, each calculated independently of the other. This is a good approximation when the spread of spin precession frequency {Delta}{nu}{sub spin} of the beam (particularly due to its energy spread) is sufficiently large that the spin precession phases of individual particles smear out completely during the time {tau} between the two crossings. This approximate picture, however, ignores two spin dynamics effects: an interference effect and a spin echo effect. This paper is to address these two effects. The interference effect occurs when {Delta}{nu}{sub spin} is too small, or when {tau} is too short, to complete the smearing process. In this case, the two resonance crossings interfere with each other, and the final polarization exhibits constructive or destructive patterns depending on the exact value of {tau}. Typically, the beam's energy spread is large and this interference effect does not occur. To study this effect, therefore, it is necessary to reduce the beam energy spread and to consider two resonance crossings very close to each other. The other mechanism, also due to the interplay between two resonance crossings, is spin echo. It turns out that even when the precession phases appear to be completely smeared between the two crossings, there will still be a sudden and short-lived echo signal of beam polarization at a time {tau} after the second crossing; the magnitude of which can be as large as 57%. This echo signal exists even when the beam has a sizable energy spread and when {tau} is very large, and could be a sensitive (albeit challenging) way to experimentally test the intricate spin dynamics in a synchrotron. After giving an

  3. Arterial stump pressure: a determinant of arterial patency?

    PubMed

    Nunley, J A; Goldner, R D; Koman, L A; Gelberman, R; Urbaniak, J R

    1987-03-01

    Twenty-seven patients with acute injuries to the radial or ulnar arteries had arterial repairs using microvascular techniques. No patient had an ischemic hand secondary to his arterial injury. The overall patency rate for all repaired vessels was 56%. For sharp, clean lacerations, the success rate for repairs was 55%. Repairs of acute, sharp lacerations yielded no better results than delayed reconstructions. The average distal end arterial stump pressure for patent arteries was 66% of mean, while for thrombosed vessels it was 76% of mean; this was not a statistically significant difference (p = 0.9). There was no statistical correlation between forearm arterial patency, age, sex, vessel injured, mechanism of injury, time of repair, or clinically measured distal arterial stump pressure. At the present time, it does not appear to be possible to predict arterial patency by measuring arterial stump pressure at the time of definitive repair.

  4. Evolution of complete arterial grafting. For coronary artery disease.

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, B F; Fuller, J A; Tatoulis, J

    1998-01-01

    Arterial grafting for the correction of coronary artery disease preceded the use of saphenous vein grafts, but the overwhelming popularity of the saphenous vein from 1970 to 1985 left the development of arterial grafting dormant. Excellent graft patency results from pedicled internal thoracic artery grafting and continued saphenous vein graft failure prompted our unit to explore complete arterial grafting with internal thoracic artery and radial artery grafts. One thousand and fifty-three patients who received a combination of internal thoracic artery and radial artery grafts were compared with 1,156 patients who received internal thoracic artery and saphenous vein grafts. All patients underwent primary coronary artery bypass surgery between 1995 and 1998. The early mortality and morbidity and the probability of survival at 2 years were similar in both groups of patients. Early graft patency studies of 35 radial artery grafts showed 33 (94%) were patent at a mean of 12 months. Complete arterial grafting using internal thoracic and radial arteries is safe and may provide a long-term benefit. Images PMID:9566058

  5. Transverse Spin Physics: Recent Developments

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Feng

    2008-12-10

    Transverse-spin physics has been very active and rapidly developing in the last few years. In this talk, I will briefly summarize recent theoretical developments, focusing on the associated QCD dynamics in transverse spin physics.

  6. Attitude stability of spinning satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caughey, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    Some problems of attitude stability of spinning satellites are treated in a rigorous manner. With certain restrictions, linearized stability analysis correctly predicts the attitude stability of spinning satellites, even in the critical cases of the Liapunov-Poincare stability theory.

  7. Organic semiconductors: What makes the spin relax?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobbert, Peter A.

    2010-04-01

    Spin relaxation in organic materials is expected to be slow because of weak spin-orbit coupling. The effects of deuteration and coherent spin excitation show that the spin-relaxation time is actually limited by hyperfine fields.

  8. Arterial pressure suffices to increase liver stiffness.

    PubMed

    Piecha, Felix; Peccerella, Teresa; Bruckner, Tom; Seitz, Helmut-Karl; Rausch, Vanessa; Mueller, Sebastian

    2016-11-01

    Noninvasive measurement of liver stiffness (LS) has been established to screen for liver fibrosis. Since LS is also elevated in response to pressure-related conditions such as liver congestion, this study was undertaken to learn more about the role of arterial pressure on LS. LS was measured by transient elastography (μFibroscan platform, Echosens, Paris, France) during single intravenous injections of catecholamines in anesthetized rats with and without thioacetamide (TAA)-induced fibrosis. The effect of vasodilating glycerol trinitrate (GTN) on LS was also studied. Pressures in the abdominal aorta and caval and portal veins were measured in real time with the PowerLab device (AD Instruments, Dunedin, New Zealand). Baseline LS values in all rats (3.8 ± 0.5 kPa, n = 25) did not significantly differ from those in humans. Epinephrine and norepinephrine drastically increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) from 82 to 173 and 156 mmHg. Concomitantly, LS almost doubled from 4 to 8 kPa, while central venous pressure remained unchanged. Likewise, portal pressure only showed a slight and delayed increase. In the TAA-induced fibrosis model, LS increased from 9.5 ± 1.0 to 25.6 ± 14.7 kPa upon epinephrine injection and could efficiently be decreased by GTN. We finally show a direct association in humans in a physiological setting of elevated cardiac output and MAP. During continuous spinning at 200 W, MAP increased from 84 ± 8 to 99 ± 11 mmHg while LS significantly increased from 4.4 ± 1.8 to 6.7 ± 2.1 kPa. In conclusion, our data show that arterial pressure suffices to increase LS. Moreover, lowering MAP efficiently decreases LS in fibrotic livers that are predominantly supplied by arterial blood. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Spin waves and magnetic excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Borovik-Romanov, A.S.; Sinha, S.K.

    1988-01-01

    This book describes both simple spin waves (magnons) and complicated excitations in magnetic systems. The following subjects are covered: - various methods of magnetic excitation investigations such as neutron scattering on magnetic excitations, spin-wave excitation by radio-frequency, power light scattering on magnons and magnetic excitation observation within the light-absorption spectrum; - oscillations of magnetic electron systems coupled with phonons, nuclear spin systems and localized impurity modes: - low-dimensional magnetics, amorphous magnetics and spin glasses.

  10. Spin Physics with CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Yelena Prok

    2010-05-01

    Inelastic scattering using polarized nucleon targets and polarized charged lepton beams allows the extraction of double and single spin asymmetries that provide information about the helicity structure of the nucleon. A program designed to study such processes at low and intermediate $Q^2$ for the proton and deuteron has been pursued by the CLAS Collaboration at Jefferson Lab since 1998. Our inclusive data with high statistical precision and extensive kinematic coverage allow us to better constrain the polarized parton distributions and to accurately determine various moments of spin structure function $g_1$ as a function of $Q^2$. The latest results will be shown, illustrating our contribution to the world data, with comparisons of the data with NLO global fits, phenomenological models, chiral perturbation theory and the GDH and Bjorken sum rules. The semi-inclusive measurements of single and double spin asymmetries for charged and neutral pions are also show, indicating the importance of the orbital motion of quarks in understanding the spin structure of the nucleon.

  11. Polyoxometalates as spin qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaita-Ariño, A.; Aldamen, M.; Clemente-Juan, J.-M.; Coronado, E.; Lehmann, J.; Loss, D.; Stamp, P.

    2008-03-01

    Polyoxometalates (POMs) are discrete fragments of metal oxides, clusters of regular MOn polyhedra. POMs show a remarkable flexibility in composition, structure and charge state, and thus can be designed according to specific electric and magnetic needs. The two localized spins with S = 1/2 on the V atoms in [PMo12O40(VO)2]^q- can be coupled through the delocalized electrons of the central core. This system was recently used for a theoretical scheme involving two-qubit gates and readout: the electrical manipulation of the molecular redox potential changes the charge of the core and thus the effective magnetic exchange between the qubits. Polyoxometalates can encapsulate magnetic ions, protecting them by a diamagnetic shell of controlled geometry. A great potential of POMs as spin qubits is that they can be constructed using only even elements, such as O, W, Mo and/or Si. Thus, there is a high abundance of polyoxometalate molecules without any nuclear spin, which could result in unusually low decoherence rates. There is currently an effort involving highly anisotropic, high magnetic moment, lanthanide@polyoxometalate molecules acting as spin qubits.

  12. Does the Moon Spin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Robert; Simpson, Frances

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the question, "Does the Moon spin?", and show how the question is investigated. They emphasise the importance of the process by which people work out what they know, by "learning from the inside out." They stress that those involved in science education have to challenge current conceptions and ideas, making…

  13. Stabilizing a spinning Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seltzer, S. M.; Patel, J. S.; Justice, D. W.; Schweitzer, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of the dynamics of a spinning Skylab space station. The stability of motion of several simplified models with flexible appendages was investigated. A digital simulation model that more accurately portrays the complex Skylab vehicle is described, and simulation results are compared with analytically derived results.

  14. Does the Moon Spin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Robert; Simpson, Frances

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the question, "Does the Moon spin?", and show how the question is investigated. They emphasise the importance of the process by which people work out what they know, by "learning from the inside out." They stress that those involved in science education have to challenge current conceptions and ideas, making…

  15. TRANSVERSITY SINGLE SPIN ASYMMETRIES.

    SciTech Connect

    BOER,D.

    2001-04-27

    The theoretical aspects of two leading twist transversity single spin asymmetries, one arising from the Collins effect and one from the interference fragmentation functions, are reviewed. Issues of factorization, evolution and Sudakov factors for the relevant observables are discussed. These theoretical considerations pinpoint the most realistic scenarios towards measurements of transversity.

  16. Spin Transport in Semiconductor heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Domnita Catalina Marinescu

    2011-02-22

    The focus of the research performed under this grant has been the investigation of spin transport in magnetic semiconductor heterostructures. The interest in these systems is motivated both by their intriguing physical properties, as the physical embodiment of a spin-polarized Fermi liquid, as well as by their potential applications as spintronics devices. In our work we have analyzed several different problems that affect the spin dynamics in single and bi-layer spin-polarized two-dimensional (2D) systems. The topics of interests ranged from the fundamental aspects of the electron-electron interactions, to collective spin and charge density excitations and spin transport in the presence of the spin-orbit coupling. The common denominator of these subjects is the impact at the macroscopic scale of the spin-dependent electron-electron interaction, which plays a much more subtle role than in unpolarized electron systems. Our calculations of several measurable parameters, such as the excitation frequencies of magneto-plasma modes, the spin mass, and the spin transresistivity, propose realistic theoretical estimates of the opposite-spin many-body effects, in particular opposite-spin correlations, that can be directly connected with experimental measurements.

  17. An overview of spin physics

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1991-07-01

    Spin physics is playing an increasingly important role in high energy experiments and theory. This review looks at selected topics in high energy spin physics that were discussed at the 9th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics at Bonn in September 1990.

  18. Microwave generation by spin Hall nanooscillators with nanopatterned spin injector

    SciTech Connect

    Zholud, A. Urazhdin, S.

    2014-09-15

    We experimentally study spin Hall nano-oscillators based on Pt/ferromagnet bilayers with nanopatterned Pt spin injection layer. We demonstrate that both the spectral characteristics and the electrical current requirements can be simultaneously improved by reducing the spin injection area. Moreover, devices with nanopatterned Pt spin injector exhibit microwave generation over a wide temperature range that extends to room temperature. Studies of devices with additional Pt spacers under the device electrodes show that the oscillation characteristics are affected not only by the spin injection geometry but also by the effects of Pt/ferromagnet interface on the dynamical properties of the ferromagnet.

  19. Lifting SU(2) spin networks to projected spin networks

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuis, Maiete; Livine, Etera R.

    2010-09-15

    Projected spin network states are the canonical basis of quantum states of geometry for the recent EPRL-FK spinfoam models for quantum gravity introduced by Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine and Freidel-Krasnov. They are functionals of both the Lorentz connection and the time-normal field. We analyze in detail the map from these projected spin networks to the standard SU(2) spin networks of loop quantum gravity. We show that this map is not one to one and that the corresponding ambiguity is parameterized by the Immirzi parameter. We conclude with a comparison of the scalar products between projected spin networks and SU(2) spin network states.

  20. Spin rectification in thermally driven XXZ spin chain via the spin-Seebeck effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thingna, Juzar; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    We study the phenomenon of spin-current rectification in a one-dimensional XXZ spin chain in the presence of a thermal drive. In our model a pure spin current is generated by a temperature difference between two harmonic heat baths which in turn creates a spin voltage via the spin-Seebeck effect. Along with a local spin-current operator definition and the nonequilibrium modified Redfield solution we study the spin-rectification ratio as a function of system size and external magnetic field. Intriguing effects are observed at low temperatures such as oscillations with system size and high range of tunability with external magnetic field making magnetic insulators, which are well described by the XXZ model, ideal candidates to build spin devices based on rectification.

  1. Inertial effect on spin-orbit coupling and spin transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, B.; Chowdhury, Debashree

    2013-08-01

    We theoretically study the renormalization of inertial effects on the spin dependent transport of conduction electrons in a semiconductor by taking into account the interband mixing on the basis of k→ṡp→ perturbation theory. In our analysis, for the generation of spin current we have used the extended Drude model where the spin-orbit coupling plays an important role. We predict enhancement of the spin current resulting from the renormalized spin-orbit coupling effective in our model in cubic and non-cubic crystals. Attention has been paid to clarify the importance of gauge fields in the spin transport of this inertial system. A theoretical proposition of a perfect spin filter has been done through the Aharonov-Casher like phase corresponding to this inertial system. For a time dependent acceleration, effect of k→ ṡp→ perturbation on the spin current and spin polarization has also been addressed. Furthermore, achievement of a tunable source of polarized spin current through the non uniformity of the inertial spin-orbit coupling strength has also been discussed.

  2. Spin Circuit Representation of Spin Pumping in Topological Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kuntal

    Earlier we developed spin circuit representation of spin pumping and combined it with the spin circuit representation for the inverse spin Hall effect to show that it reproduces the established results in literature. Here we construct the spin circuit representation of spin pumping in topological insulators. The discovery of spin-polarized surface states in three-dimensional (3D) topological insulators (TIs) with strong spin-orbit coupling is promising for the development of spintronics. There is considerable bulk conduction too in 3D TIs (e.g., Bi2Se3) apart from possessing the surface states. We utilize the spin circuit model for spin orbit torques in topological insulator surface states to develop the equivalent circuit model of spin pumping in topological insulators. Such equivalent circuit model developed here can be utilized to analyze available experimental results and evaluate more complex structures. This work was supported by FAME, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  3. Characterization of spin relaxation anisotropy in Co using spin pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Cao, Wei; Bailey, W. E.

    2016-11-01

    Ferromagnets are believed to exhibit strongly anisotropic spin relaxation, with relaxation lengths for spin longitudinal to the magnetization significantly longer than those for spin transverse to the magnetization. Here, we characterize the anisotropy of spin relaxation in Co using the spin pumping contribution to Gilbert damping in noncollinearly magnetized Py1 -xCux /Cu/Co trilayer structures. The static magnetization angle between Py1 -xCux and Co, adjusted under field bias perpendicular to film planes, controls the projections of longitudinal and transverse spin current pumped from Py1 -xCux into Co. We find nearly isotropic absorption of pure spin current in Co using this technique; fits to a diffusive transport model yield the longitudinal spin relaxation length <2 nm in Co. The longitudinal spin relaxation lengths found are an order of magnitude smaller than those determined by current-perpendicular-to-planes giant magnetoresistance measurements, but comparable with transverse spin relaxation lengths in Co determined by spin pumping.

  4. Blood Flow in Arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, David N.

    Blood flow in arteries is dominated by unsteady flow phenomena. The cardiovascular system is an internal flow loop with multiple branches in which a complex liquid circulates. A nondimensional frequency parameter, the Womersley number, governs the relationship between the unsteady and viscous forces. Normal arterial flow is laminar with secondary flows generated at curves and branches. The arteries are living organs that can adapt to and change with the varying hemodynamic conditions. In certain circumstances, unusual hemodynamic conditions create an abnormal biological response. Velocity profile skewing can create pockets in which the direction of the wall shear stress oscillates. Atherosclerotic disease tends to be localized in these sites and results in a narrowing of the artery lumena stenosis. The stenosis can cause turbulence and reduce flow by means of viscous head losses and flow choking. Very high shear stresses near the throat of the stenosis can activate platelets and thereby induce thrombosis, which can totally block blood flow to the heart or brain. Detection and quantification of stenosis serve as the basis for surgical intervention. In the future, the study of arterial blood flow will lead to the prediction of individual hemodynamic flows in any patient, the development of diagnostic tools to quantify disease, and the design of devices that mimic or alter blood flow. This field is rich with challenging problems in fluid mechanics involving three-dimensional, pulsatile flows at the edge of turbulence.

  5. Hydrodynamics of spin-polarized transport and spin pendulum

    SciTech Connect

    Gurzhi, R. N. Kalinenko, A. N.; Kopeliovich, A. I.; Pyshkin, P. V.; Yanovsky, A. V.

    2007-07-15

    The dynamics of a nonequilibrium spin system dominated by collisions preserving the total quasimomentum of the interacting electrons and quasiparticles is considered. An analysis of the derived hydrodynamic equations shows that weakly attenuated spin-polarization waves associated with an oscillating drift current can exist in a magnetically inhomogeneous conducting ring. Spin-polarized transport in a ballistic regime of wave propagation through a conductor is also considered, and a simple method is proposed for distinguishing these waves from spin and current oscillations that develop in the hydrodynamic regime. It is shown that a potential difference arises between the leads of an open nonuniformly spin-polarized conductor as a manifestation of spin polarization of electron density. This spin-mediated electrical phenomenon occurs in both hydrodynamic and diffusive limits.

  6. State diagram of an orthogonal spin transfer spin valve device

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Li; Wolf, Georg; Pinna, Daniele; Chaves-O'Flynn, Gabriel D.; Kent, Andrew D.

    2015-05-21

    We present the switching characteristics of a spin-transfer device that incorporates a perpendicularly magnetized spin-polarizing layer with an in-plane magnetized free and fixed magnetic layer, known as an orthogonal spin transfer spin valve device. This device shows clear switching between parallel (P) and antiparallel (AP) resistance states and the reverse transition (AP → P) for both current polarities. Further, hysteretic transitions are shown to occur into a state with a resistance intermediate between that of the P and AP states, again for both current polarities. These unusual spin-transfer switching characteristics can be explained within a simple macrospin model that incorporates thermal fluctuations and considers a spin-polarized current that is tilted with respect to the free layer's plane, due to the presence of the spin-transfer torque from the polarizing layer.

  7. Spin-wave-induced spin torque in Rashba ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umetsu, Nobuyuki; Miura, Daisuke; Sakuma, Akimasa

    2015-05-01

    We study the effects of Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the spin torque induced by spin waves, which are the plane-wave dynamics of magnetization. The spin torque is derived from linear-response theory, and we calculate the dynamic spin torque by considering the impurity-ladder-sum vertex corrections. This dynamic spin torque is divided into three terms: a damping term, a distortion term, and a correction term for the equation of motion. The distorting torque describes a phenomenon unique to the Rashba spin-orbit coupling system, where the distorted motion of magnetization precession is subjected to the anisotropic force from the Rashba coupling. The oscillation mode of the precession exhibits an elliptical trajectory, and the ellipticity depends on the strength of the nesting effects, which could be reduced by decreasing the electron lifetime.

  8. Nanowire spin torque oscillator driven by spin orbit torques.

    PubMed

    Duan, Zheng; Smith, Andrew; Yang, Liu; Youngblood, Brian; Lindner, Jürgen; Demidov, Vladislav E; Demokritov, Sergej O; Krivorotov, Ilya N

    2014-12-05

    Spin torque from spin current applied to a nanoscale region of a ferromagnet can act as negative magnetic damping and thereby excite self-oscillations of its magnetization. In contrast, spin torque uniformly applied to the magnetization of an extended ferromagnetic film does not generate self-oscillatory magnetic dynamics but leads to reduction of the saturation magnetization. Here we report studies of the effect of spin torque on a system of intermediate dimensionality--a ferromagnetic nanowire. We observe coherent self-oscillations of magnetization in a ferromagnetic nanowire serving as the active region of a spin torque oscillator driven by spin orbit torques. Our work demonstrates that magnetization self-oscillations can be excited in a one-dimensional magnetic system and that dimensions of the active region of spin torque oscillators can be extended beyond the nanometre length scale.

  9. Spin-optical metamaterial route to spin-controlled photonics.

    PubMed

    Shitrit, Nir; Yulevich, Igor; Maguid, Elhanan; Ozeri, Dror; Veksler, Dekel; Kleiner, Vladimir; Hasman, Erez

    2013-05-10

    Spin optics provides a route to control light, whereby the photon helicity (spin angular momentum) degeneracy is removed due to a geometric gradient onto a metasurface. The alliance of spin optics and metamaterials offers the dispersion engineering of a structured matter in a polarization helicity-dependent manner. We show that polarization-controlled optical modes of metamaterials arise where the spatial inversion symmetry is violated. The emerged spin-split dispersion of spontaneous emission originates from the spin-orbit interaction of light, generating a selection rule based on symmetry restrictions in a spin-optical metamaterial. The inversion asymmetric metasurface is obtained via anisotropic optical antenna patterns. This type of metamaterial provides a route for spin-controlled nanophotonic applications based on the design of the metasurface symmetry properties.

  10. Excitation of coherent propagating spin waves by pure spin currents

    PubMed Central

    Demidov, Vladislav E.; Urazhdin, Sergei; Liu, Ronghua; Divinskiy, Boris; Telegin, Andrey; Demokritov, Sergej O.

    2016-01-01

    Utilization of pure spin currents not accompanied by the flow of electrical charge provides unprecedented opportunities for the emerging technologies based on the electron's spin degree of freedom, such as spintronics and magnonics. It was recently shown that pure spin currents can be used to excite coherent magnetization dynamics in magnetic nanostructures. However, because of the intrinsic nonlinear self-localization effects, magnetic auto-oscillations in the demonstrated devices were spatially confined, preventing their applications as sources of propagating spin waves in magnonic circuits using these waves as signal carriers. Here, we experimentally demonstrate efficient excitation and directional propagation of coherent spin waves generated by pure spin current. We show that this can be achieved by using the nonlocal spin injection mechanism, which enables flexible design of magnetic nanosystems and allows one to efficiently control their dynamic characteristics. PMID:26818232

  11. Coronary artery imaging in children.

    PubMed

    Goo, Hyun Woo

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery problems in children usually have a significant impact on both short-term and long-term outcomes. Early and accurate diagnosis, therefore, is crucial but technically challenging due to the small size of the coronary artery, high heart rates, and limited cooperation of children. Coronary artery visibility on CT and MRI in children is considerably improved with recent technical advancements. Consequently, CT and MRI are increasingly used for evaluating various congenital and acquired coronary artery abnormalities in children, such as coronary artery anomalies, aberrant coronary artery anatomy specific to congenital heart disease, Kawasaki disease, Williams syndrome, and cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

  12. Coronary Artery Imaging in Children

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery problems in children usually have a significant impact on both short-term and long-term outcomes. Early and accurate diagnosis, therefore, is crucial but technically challenging due to the small size of the coronary artery, high heart rates, and limited cooperation of children. Coronary artery visibility on CT and MRI in children is considerably improved with recent technical advancements. Consequently, CT and MRI are increasingly used for evaluating various congenital and acquired coronary artery abnormalities in children, such as coronary artery anomalies, aberrant coronary artery anatomy specific to congenital heart disease, Kawasaki disease, Williams syndrome, and cardiac allograft vasculopathy. PMID:25741188

  13. Traumatic Distal Ulnar Artery Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Karaarslan, Ahmet A.; Karakaşlı, Ahmet; Mayda, Aslan; Karcı, Tolga; Aycan, Hakan; Kobak, Şenol

    2014-01-01

    This paper is about a posttraumatic distal ulnar artery thrombosis case that has occurred after a single blunt trauma. The ulnar artery thrombosis because of chronic trauma is a frequent condition (hypothenar hammer syndrome) but an ulnar artery thrombosis because of a single direct blunt trauma is rare. Our patient who has been affected by a single blunt trauma to his hand and developed ulnar artery thrombosis has been treated by resection of the thrombosed ulnar artery segment. This report shows that a single blunt trauma can cause distal ulnar artery thrombosis in the hand and it can be treated merely by thrombosed segment resection in suitable cases. PMID:25276455

  14. Electrical spin injection and detection of spin precession in room temperature bulk GaN lateral spin valves

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Aniruddha; Baten, Md Zunaid; Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2016-01-25

    We report the measurement of diffusive electronic spin transport characteristics in an epitaxial wurtzite GaN lateral spin valve at room temperature. Hanle spin precession and non-local spin accumulation measurements have been performed with the spin valves fabricated with FeCo/MgO spin contacts. Electron spin relaxation length and spin-flip lifetime of 176 nm and 37 ps, respectively, are derived from analysis of results obtained from four-terminal Hanle spin precession measurements at 300 K. The role of dislocations and defects in bulk GaN has also been examined in the context of electronic spin relaxation dynamics.

  15. RHIC spin flipper commissioning results

    SciTech Connect

    Bai M.; Roser, T.; Dawson, C.; Kewisch, J.; Makdisi, Y.; Oddo, P.; Pai, C.; Pile, P.

    2012-05-20

    The five AC dipole RHIC spin flipper design in the RHIC Blue ring was first tested during the RHIC 2012 polarized proton operation. The advantage of this design is to eliminate the vertical coherent betatron oscillations outside the spin flipper. The closure of each ac dipole vertical bump was measured with orbital response as well as spin. The effect of the rotating field on the spin motion by the spin flipper was also confirmed by measuring the suppressed resonance at Q{sub s} = 1 - Q{sub osc}.

  16. Quantum dissipative Rashba spin ratchets.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Sergey; Bercioux, Dario; Grifoni, Milena; Richter, Klaus

    2008-06-13

    We predict the possibility to generate a finite stationary spin current by applying an unbiased ac driving to a quasi-one-dimensional asymmetric periodic structure with Rashba spin-orbit interaction and strong dissipation. We show that under a finite coupling strength between the orbital degrees of freedom the electron dynamics at low temperatures exhibits a pure spin ratchet behavior, i.e., a finite spin current and the absence of charge transport in spatially asymmetric structures. It is also found that the equilibrium spin currents are not destroyed by the presence of strong dissipation.

  17. Representation of orthofermion spin operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore, R.; Mishra, A. K.

    2008-04-01

    The algebraic expressions for the total spin operators expressed in terms of orthofermion creation and annihilation operators are combined into a single equation. The terms in this expressions are rearranged to provide representations of local spin operators. This task is essential for modelling a system of orthofermions in the presence of a magnetic field. By factorizing the orthofermion annihilation (creation) operators into charge and spin dependent parts, it is shown that the latter part suffices to represent spin number, raising and lowering operators. Finally a connection is provided between the spin systems and Greenberg’s infinite statistics.

  18. Theory of spin hydrodynamic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, M.; Ohnuma, Y.; Maekawa, S.

    2017-07-01

    Spin-current generation by fluid motion is theoretically investigated. Based on quantum kinetic theory, the spin-diffusion equation coupled with fluid vorticity is derived. We show that spin currents are generated by the vorticity gradient in both laminar and turbulent flows and that the generated spin currents can be detected by the inverse spin Hall voltage measurements, which are predicted to be proportional to the flow velocity in a laminar flow. In contrast, the voltage in a turbulent flow is proportional to the square of the flow velocity. This study will pave the way to fluid spintronics.

  19. Ruptured jejunal artery aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sílvia; Costa, Alexandre; Pereira, Tiago; Maciel, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Visceral artery aneurysms (VAAs), unlike aortic aneurysms, are very rare, but are also a potentially lethal vascular disease. Jejunal artery aneurysms only account for less than 3% of VAAs, but have a 30% risk of rupture, with 20% death rate, presenting with only few and vague symptoms. We report the case of a 76-year-old man presenting at the emergency department (ED) with a crampy epigastric pain and vomiting. An ultrasound performed diagnosed free abdominal fluid and immediate CT scan diagnosed jejunal artery aneurysm spontaneously rupturing, followed by hypovolaemic shock. Emergent surgery was undertaken, and aneurysmectomy, followed by partial enterectomy with primary anastomosis were performed, because of segmentary jejunal ischaemia. The patient's recovery was unremarkable. High level of suspicion, rapid diagnosis capability and prompt surgical or endovascular intervention, as well as an effective teamwork in the ED are critical to avoid the devastating consequences of ruptured VAAs. PMID:23771962

  20. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Spontaneous Rupture of the Omental Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Yamagami, Takuji; Morishita, Hiroyuki; Iida, Shigeharu; Tazoe, Jun; Asai, Shunsuke; Masui, Koji; Ikeda, Jun; Nagata, Akihiro; Sato, Osamu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2011-02-15

    We encountered a rare case of spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. A 25-year-old man without any episode of abdominal trauma or bleeding disorders came to the emergency unit with left upper abdominal pain. Hematoma with extravasation of the greater omentum and a hemoperitoneum was confirmed on abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Bleeding from the omental artery was suspected based on these findings. Transcatheter arterial embolization was successfully performed after extravasation of the omental artery, which arises from the left gastroepiploic artery, was confirmed on arteriography. Partial ometectomy was performed 10 days after transcatheter arterial embolization, revealing that the hematoma measured 10 cm in diameter in the greater omentum. Pathological examination showed rupture of the branch of an omental artery without abnormal findings, such as an aneurysm or neoplasm. Thus, we diagnosed him with spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. The patient recovered and was discharged from the hospital 10 days after the surgery, with a favorable postoperative course.