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Sample records for pseudomonas putida uw4

  1. Expression and characterization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase from the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida UW4: a key enzyme in bacterial plant growth promotion.

    PubMed

    Hontzeas, Nikos; Zoidakis, Jérôme; Glick, Bernard R; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2004-12-01

    The enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD) converts ACC, the precursor of the plant hormone ethylene, to alpha-ketobutyrate and ammonium. This enzyme has been identified in soil bacteria and has been proposed to play a key role in microbe-plant association. A soluble recombinant ACCD from Pseudomonas putida UW4 of molecular weight 41 kDa has been cloned, expressed, and purified. It showed selectivity and high activity towards the substrate ACC: K(M)=3.4+/-0.2 mM and k(cat)=146+/-5 min(-1) at pH 8.0 and 22 degrees C. The enzyme displayed optimal activity at pH 8.0 with a sharp decline to essentially no activity below pH 6.5 and a slightly less severe tapering in activity at higher pH resulting in loss of activity at pH>10. The major component of the enzyme's secondary structure was determined to be alpha-helical by circular dichroism (CD). P. putida UW4 ACCD unfolded at 60 degrees C as determined by its CD temperature profile as well as by differential scanning microcalorimetry (DSC). Enzyme activity was knocked out in the point mutant Gly44Asp. Modeling this mutation into the known yeast ACCD structure shed light on the role this highly conserved residue plays in allowing substrate accessibility to the active site. This enzyme's biochemical and biophysical properties will serve as an important reference point to which newly isolated ACC deaminases from other organisms can be compared. PMID:15588698

  2. The complete genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas sp. UW4.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jin; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Zhenyu; Heikkila, John J; Glick, Bernard R

    2013-01-01

    The plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB) Pseudomonas sp. UW4, previously isolated from the rhizosphere of common reeds growing on the campus of the University of Waterloo, promotes plant growth in the presence of different environmental stresses, such as flooding, high concentrations of salt, cold, heavy metals, drought and phytopathogens. In this work, the genome sequence of UW4 was obtained by pyrosequencing and the gaps between the contigs were closed by directed PCR. The P. sp. UW4 genome contains a single circular chromosome that is 6,183,388 bp with a 60.05% G+C content. The bacterial genome contains 5,423 predicted protein-coding sequences that occupy 87.2% of the genome. Nineteen genomic islands (GIs) were predicted and thirty one complete putative insertion sequences were identified. Genes potentially involved in plant growth promotion such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis, trehalose production, siderophore production, acetoin synthesis, and phosphate solubilization were determined. Moreover, genes that contribute to the environmental fitness of UW4 were also observed including genes responsible for heavy metal resistance such as nickel, copper, cadmium, zinc, molybdate, cobalt, arsenate, and chromate. Whole-genome comparison with other completely sequenced Pseudomonas strains and phylogeny of four concatenated "housekeeping" genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD) of 128 Pseudomonas strains revealed that UW4 belongs to the fluorescens group, jessenii subgroup. PMID:23516524

  3. The complete genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas sp. UW4.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jin; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Zhenyu; Heikkila, John J; Glick, Bernard R

    2013-01-01

    The plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB) Pseudomonas sp. UW4, previously isolated from the rhizosphere of common reeds growing on the campus of the University of Waterloo, promotes plant growth in the presence of different environmental stresses, such as flooding, high concentrations of salt, cold, heavy metals, drought and phytopathogens. In this work, the genome sequence of UW4 was obtained by pyrosequencing and the gaps between the contigs were closed by directed PCR. The P. sp. UW4 genome contains a single circular chromosome that is 6,183,388 bp with a 60.05% G+C content. The bacterial genome contains 5,423 predicted protein-coding sequences that occupy 87.2% of the genome. Nineteen genomic islands (GIs) were predicted and thirty one complete putative insertion sequences were identified. Genes potentially involved in plant growth promotion such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis, trehalose production, siderophore production, acetoin synthesis, and phosphate solubilization were determined. Moreover, genes that contribute to the environmental fitness of UW4 were also observed including genes responsible for heavy metal resistance such as nickel, copper, cadmium, zinc, molybdate, cobalt, arsenate, and chromate. Whole-genome comparison with other completely sequenced Pseudomonas strains and phylogeny of four concatenated "housekeeping" genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD) of 128 Pseudomonas strains revealed that UW4 belongs to the fluorescens group, jessenii subgroup.

  4. The Complete Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Pseudomonas sp. UW4

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jin; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Zhenyu; Heikkila, John J.; Glick, Bernard R.

    2013-01-01

    The plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB) Pseudomonas sp. UW4, previously isolated from the rhizosphere of common reeds growing on the campus of the University of Waterloo, promotes plant growth in the presence of different environmental stresses, such as flooding, high concentrations of salt, cold, heavy metals, drought and phytopathogens. In this work, the genome sequence of UW4 was obtained by pyrosequencing and the gaps between the contigs were closed by directed PCR. The P. sp. UW4 genome contains a single circular chromosome that is 6,183,388 bp with a 60.05% G+C content. The bacterial genome contains 5,423 predicted protein-coding sequences that occupy 87.2% of the genome. Nineteen genomic islands (GIs) were predicted and thirty one complete putative insertion sequences were identified. Genes potentially involved in plant growth promotion such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis, trehalose production, siderophore production, acetoin synthesis, and phosphate solubilization were determined. Moreover, genes that contribute to the environmental fitness of UW4 were also observed including genes responsible for heavy metal resistance such as nickel, copper, cadmium, zinc, molybdate, cobalt, arsenate, and chromate. Whole-genome comparison with other completely sequenced Pseudomonas strains and phylogeny of four concatenated “housekeeping” genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD) of 128 Pseudomonas strains revealed that UW4 belongs to the fluorescens group, jessenii subgroup. PMID:23516524

  5. Chromium reduction in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Y; Cervantes, C; Silver, S

    1990-01-01

    Reduction of hexavalent chromium (chromate) to less-toxic trivalent chromium was studied by using cell suspensions and cell-free supernatant fluids from Pseudomonas putida PRS2000. Chromate reductase activity was associated with soluble protein and not with the membrane fraction. The crude enzyme activity was heat labile and showed a Km of 40 microM CrO4(2-). Neither sulfate nor nitrate affected chromate reduction either in vitro or with intact cells. PMID:2389940

  6. Genome features of Pseudomonas putida LS46, a novel polyhydroxyalkanoate producer and its comparison with other P. putida strains.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Parveen K; Fu, Jilagamazhi; Zhang, Xiangli; Fristensky, Brian; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David B

    2014-01-01

    A novel strain of Pseudomonas putida LS46 was isolated from wastewater on the basis of its ability to synthesize medium chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs). P.putida LS46 was differentiated from other P.putida strains on the basis of cpn60 (UT). The complete genome of P.putida LS46 was sequenced and annotated. Its chromosome is 5,86,2556 bp in size with GC ratio of 61.69. It is encoding 5316 genes, including 7 rRNA genes and 76 tRNA genes. Nucleotide sequence data of the complete P. putida LS46 genome was compared with nine other P. putida strains (KT2440, F1, BIRD-1, S16, ND6, DOT-T1E, UW4, W619 and GB-1) identified either as biocontrol agents or as bioremediation agents and isolated from different geographical region and different environment. BLASTn analysis of whole genome sequences of the ten P. putida strains revealed nucleotide sequence identities of 86.54 to 97.52%. P.putida genome arrangement was LS46 highly similar to P.putida BIRD1 and P.putida ND6 but was markedly different than P.putida DOT-T1E, P.putida UW4 and P.putida W619. Fatty acid biosynthesis (fab), fatty acid degradation (fad) and PHA synthesis genes were highly conserved among biocontrol and bioremediation P.putida strains. Six genes in pha operon of P. putida LS46 showed >98% homology at gene and proteins level. It appears that polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis is an intrinsic property of P. putida and was not affected by its geographic origin. However, all strains, including P. putida LS46, were different from one another on the basis of house keeping genes, and presence of plasmid, prophages, insertion sequence elements and genomic islands. While P. putida LS46 was not selected for plant growth promotion or bioremediation capacity, its genome also encoded genes for root colonization, pyoverdine synthesis, oxidative stress (present in other soil isolates), degradation of aromatic compounds, heavy metal resistance and nicotinic acid degradation, manganese (Mn II) oxidation

  7. Genome features of Pseudomonas putida LS46, a novel polyhydroxyalkanoate producer and its comparison with other P. putida strains

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A novel strain of Pseudomonas putida LS46 was isolated from wastewater on the basis of its ability to synthesize medium chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs). P.putida LS46 was differentiated from other P.putida strains on the basis of cpn60 (UT). The complete genome of P.putida LS46 was sequenced and annotated. Its chromosome is 5,86,2556 bp in size with GC ratio of 61.69. It is encoding 5316 genes, including 7 rRNA genes and 76 tRNA genes. Nucleotide sequence data of the complete P. putida LS46 genome was compared with nine other P. putida strains (KT2440, F1, BIRD-1, S16, ND6, DOT-T1E, UW4, W619 and GB-1) identified either as biocontrol agents or as bioremediation agents and isolated from different geographical region and different environment. BLASTn analysis of whole genome sequences of the ten P. putida strains revealed nucleotide sequence identities of 86.54 to 97.52%. P.putida genome arrangement was LS46 highly similar to P.putida BIRD1 and P.putida ND6 but was markedly different than P.putida DOT-T1E, P.putida UW4 and P.putida W619. Fatty acid biosynthesis (fab), fatty acid degradation (fad) and PHA synthesis genes were highly conserved among biocontrol and bioremediation P.putida strains. Six genes in pha operon of P. putida LS46 showed >98% homology at gene and proteins level. It appears that polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis is an intrinsic property of P. putida and was not affected by its geographic origin. However, all strains, including P. putida LS46, were different from one another on the basis of house keeping genes, and presence of plasmid, prophages, insertion sequence elements and genomic islands. While P. putida LS46 was not selected for plant growth promotion or bioremediation capacity, its genome also encoded genes for root colonization, pyoverdine synthesis, oxidative stress (present in other soil isolates), degradation of aromatic compounds, heavy metal resistance and nicotinic acid degradation, manganese (Mn II) oxidation

  8. Methylmercury degradation by Pseudomonas putida V1.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Lucélia; Yu, Ri-Qing; Crane, Sharron; Giovanella, Patricia; Barkay, Tamar; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2016-08-01

    Environmental contamination of mercury (Hg) has caused public health concerns with focuses on the neurotoxic substance methylmercury, due to its bioaccumulation and biomagnification in food chains. The goals of the present study were to examine: (i) the transformation of methylmercury, thimerosal, phenylmercuric acetate and mercuric chloride by cultures of Pseudomonas putida V1, (ii) the presence of the genes merA and merB in P. putida V1, and (iii) the degradation pathways of methylmercury by P. putida V1. Strain V1 cultures readily degraded methylmercury, thimerosal, phenylmercury acetate, and reduced mercuric chloride into gaseous Hg(0). However, the Hg transformation in LB broth by P. putida V1 was influenced by the type of Hg compounds. The merA gene was detected in P. putida V1, on the other hand, the merB gene was not detected. The sequencing of this gene, showed high similarity (100%) to the mercuric reductase gene of other Pseudomonas spp. Furthermore, tests using radioactive (14)C-methylmercury indicated an uncommon release of (14)CO2 concomitant with the production of Hg(0). The results of the present work suggest that P. putida V1 has the potential to remove methylmercury from contaminated sites. More studies are warranted to determine the mechanism of removal of methylmercury by P. putida V1. PMID:27062344

  9. Chemotaxis of Pseudomonas putida toward chlorinated benzoates

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, C.S.; Parales, R.E.; Dispensa, M. )

    1990-05-01

    The chlorinated aromatic acids 3-chlorobenzoate and 4-chlorobenzoate are chemoattractants for Pseudomonas putida PRS2000. These compounds are detected by a chromosomally encoded chemotactic response to benzoate which is inducible by {beta}-ketoadipate, and intermediate of benzoate catabolism. Plasmid pAC27, encoding enzymes for 3-chlorobenzoate degradation, does not appear to carry genes for chemotaxis toward chlorinated compounds.

  10. Pseudomonas putida Stimulates Primordia on Agaricus bitorquis.

    PubMed

    Colauto, Nelson B; Fermor, Terry R; Eira, Augusto F; Linde, Giani A

    2016-04-01

    Casing layer is one step of Agaricus bisporus cultivation where there is a competitive environment with a high number of microorganisms and diversity interacting with mycelia. It is suggested that a minimal community of these microorganisms would be necessary to stimulate fructification. However, A. bisporus is not able to produce primordia in sterile casing layers or Petri dishes. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize bacterial microbiota of casing layers from A. bisporus cultivation, isolate, identify and characterize the bacteria responsible for the stimulation of primordium and their action mechanism using Agaricus bitorquis as a primordium stimulation model. Bacterial and Pseudomonas spp. communities of different casing layers of A. bisporus cultivation were collected and quantified. It was concluded that Pseudomonas spp. corresponds to 75-85% of bacterial population of the casing layers in A. bisporus cultivation and among those 12% are Pseudomonas putida. Four biochemical assays were used to identify P. putida. In vitro primordium stimulation of living P. putida and non-living bacterial suspensions, after chemical or physical treatments, was tested using A. bitorquis as a primordium stimulation model. Primordium stimulation assay was registered by photographs, and micrographs of vertical cut of primordium were registered by scanning electron microscope. Interaction of living P. putida with A. bitorquis mycelia is capable of stimulating primordial instead of non-living bacterial suspensions. Stimulation of A. bitorquis primordia does not imply or is related to mycelial growth inhibition, but a hierarchical relation of primordium succession and development is suggested. PMID:26742772

  11. Ethylene Glycol Metabolism by Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Mückschel, Björn; Simon, Oliver; Klebensberger, Janosch; Graf, Nadja; Rosche, Bettina; Altenbuchner, Josef; Pfannstiel, Jens; Huber, Armin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the metabolism of ethylene glycol in the Pseudomonas putida strains KT2440 and JM37 by employing growth and bioconversion experiments, directed mutagenesis, and proteome analysis. We found that strain JM37 grew rapidly with ethylene glycol as a sole source of carbon and energy, while strain KT2440 did not grow within 2 days of incubation under the same conditions. However, bioconversion experiments revealed metabolism of ethylene glycol by both strains, with the temporal accumulation of glycolic acid and glyoxylic acid for strain KT2440. This accumulation was further increased by targeted mutagenesis. The key enzymes and specific differences between the two strains were identified by comparative proteomics. In P. putida JM37, tartronate semialdehyde synthase (Gcl), malate synthase (GlcB), and isocitrate lyase (AceA) were found to be induced in the presence of ethylene glycol or glyoxylic acid. Under the same conditions, strain KT2440 showed induction of AceA only. Despite this difference, the two strains were found to use similar periplasmic dehydrogenases for the initial oxidation step of ethylene glycol, namely, the two redundant pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent enzymes PedE and PedH. From these results we constructed a new pathway for the metabolism of ethylene glycol in P. putida. Furthermore, we conclude that Pseudomonas putida might serve as a useful platform from which to establish a whole-cell biocatalyst for the production of glyoxylic acid from ethylene glycol. PMID:23023748

  12. Ethylene glycol metabolism by Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Mückschel, Björn; Simon, Oliver; Klebensberger, Janosch; Graf, Nadja; Rosche, Bettina; Altenbuchner, Josef; Pfannstiel, Jens; Huber, Armin; Hauer, Bernhard

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the metabolism of ethylene glycol in the Pseudomonas putida strains KT2440 and JM37 by employing growth and bioconversion experiments, directed mutagenesis, and proteome analysis. We found that strain JM37 grew rapidly with ethylene glycol as a sole source of carbon and energy, while strain KT2440 did not grow within 2 days of incubation under the same conditions. However, bioconversion experiments revealed metabolism of ethylene glycol by both strains, with the temporal accumulation of glycolic acid and glyoxylic acid for strain KT2440. This accumulation was further increased by targeted mutagenesis. The key enzymes and specific differences between the two strains were identified by comparative proteomics. In P. putida JM37, tartronate semialdehyde synthase (Gcl), malate synthase (GlcB), and isocitrate lyase (AceA) were found to be induced in the presence of ethylene glycol or glyoxylic acid. Under the same conditions, strain KT2440 showed induction of AceA only. Despite this difference, the two strains were found to use similar periplasmic dehydrogenases for the initial oxidation step of ethylene glycol, namely, the two redundant pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent enzymes PedE and PedH. From these results we constructed a new pathway for the metabolism of ethylene glycol in P. putida. Furthermore, we conclude that Pseudomonas putida might serve as a useful platform from which to establish a whole-cell biocatalyst for the production of glyoxylic acid from ethylene glycol.

  13. Growth of genetically engineered Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida in soil and rhizosphere.

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, K H; Schell, M A; Hartel, P G

    1989-01-01

    The effect of the addition of a recombinant plasmid containing the pglA gene encoding an alpha-1,4-endopolygalacturonase from Pseudomonas solanacearum on the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida in soil and rhizosphere was determined. Despite a high level of polygalacturonase production by genetically engineered P. putida and P. aeruginosa, the results suggest that polygalacturonase production had little effect on the growth of these strains in soil or rhizosphere. PMID:2515805

  14. Biological manganese oxidation by Pseudomonas putida in trickling filters.

    PubMed

    McKee, Kyle P; Vance, Cherish C; Karthikeyan, Raghupathy

    2016-01-01

    Biological oxidation has been researched as a viable alternative for treating waters with high manganese (Mn) concentrations, typically found in mine drainage or in some geological formations. In this study, laboratory-scale trickling filters were constructed to compare the Mn removal efficiency between filters inoculated with the Mn oxidizing bacteria, Pseudomonas putida, and filters without inoculation. Manganese oxidation and removal was found to be significantly greater in trickling filters with Pseudomonas putida after startup times of only 48 h. Mn oxidation in Pseudomonas putida inoculated trickling filters was up to 75% greater than non-inoculated filters. One-dimensional advective-dispersive models were formulated to describe the transport of Mn in trickling filter porous media. Based on the experimental transport parameters obtained, the model predicted that a filter depth of only 16 cm is needed to reduce influent concentration of 10 mg L(-1) to 0.05 mg L(-1).

  15. Engineering the Soil Bacterium Pseudomonas putida for Arsenic Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Qin, Jie; Zhu, Yong-Guan; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of arsenic has potential health risks through consumption of food. Here, we inserted the arsenite [As(III)] S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase (ArsM) gene into the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida KT2440. Recombinant bacteria methylate inorganic arsenic into less toxic organoarsenicals. This has the potential for bioremediation of environmental arsenic and reducing arsenic contamination in food. PMID:23645194

  16. p-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid Metabolism in Pseudomonas putida F6

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Kevin E.; Witholt, Bernard; Duetz, Wouter

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida F6 was found to metabolize p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid through 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde. Cell extracts of P. putida F6 catalyze the NAD(P)H-independent hydroxylation of p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid which is further oxidized to 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid. Oxidation and decarboxylation of the latter yields 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde. A red-brown color accompanies all of the above enzyme activities and is probably due to the polymerization of quinone-like compounds. 3,4-Dihydroxybenzaldehyde is further metabolized through extradiol ring cleavage. PMID:11208791

  17. Biological production of monoethanolamine by engineered Pseudomonas putida S12.

    PubMed

    Foti, Mirjam; Médici, Rosario; Ruijssenaars, Harald J

    2013-09-10

    Pseudomonas putida S12 was engineered for the production of monoethanolamine (MEA) from glucose via the decarboxylation of the central metabolite L-serine, which is catalyzed by the enzyme L-serine decarboxylase (SDC). The host was first evaluated for its tolerance towards MEA as well as its endogenous ability to degrade this alkanolamine. Growth inhibition was observed at MEA concentrations above 100 mM, but growth was never completely arrested even at 750 mM of MEA. P. putida S12 was able to catabolize MEA in the absence of ammonia, but deletion of the eutBC genes that encode ethanolamine ammonia-lyase (EAL) enzyme sufficed to eliminate this capacity. For the biological production of MEA, the sdc genes from Arabidopsis thaliana (full-length and a truncated version) and Volvox carteri were expressed in P. putida S12. From 20 mM of glucose, negligible amounts of MEA were produced by P. putida S12 ΔeutBC expressing the sdc genes from A. thaliana and V. carteri. However, 0.07 mmol of MEA was obtained per g of cell dry weight of P. putida S12 ΔeutBC expressing the truncated variant of the A. thaliana SDC. When the medium was supplemented with L-serine (30 mM), MEA production increased to 1.25 mmol MEA g⁻¹ CDW, demonstrating that L-serine availability was limiting MEA production. PMID:23876477

  18. Bioremediation of p-Nitrophenol by Pseudomonas putida 1274 strain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background p-Nitrophenol (PNP) occurs as contaminants of industrial effluents and it is the most important environmental pollutant and causes significant health and environmental risks, because it is toxic to many living organisms. Nevertheless, the information regarding PNP degradation pathways and their enzymes remain limited. Objective To evaluate the efficacy of the Pseudomonas Putida 1274 for removal of PNP. Methods P. putida MTCC 1274 was obtained from MTCC Chandigarh, India and cultured in the minimal medium in the presence of PNP. PNP degradation efficiency was compared under different pH and temperature ranges. The degraded product was isolated and analyzed with different chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Results P. putida 1274 shows good growth and PNP degradation at 37°C in neutral pH. Acidic and alkali pH retarded the growth of P. putida as well as the PNP degradation. On the basis of specialized techniques, hydroquinone was identified as major degraded product. The pathway was identified for the biodegradation of PNP. It involved initial removal of the nitrate group and formation of hydroquinone as one of the intermediates. Conclusion Our results suggested that P. putida 1274 strain would be a suitable aspirant for bioremediation of nitro-aromatic compounds contaminated sites in the environment. PMID:24581307

  19. Sorption of Pseudomonas putida onto differently structured kaolinite minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliadou, I. A.; Papoulis, D.; Chrysikopoulos, C.; Panagiotaras, D.; Karakosta, E.; Fardis, M.; Papavassiliou, G.

    2010-12-01

    The presence of bio-colloids (e.g. bacteria and viruses) in the subsurface could be attributed to the release of particles from septic tanks, broken sewer lines or from artificial recharge with treated municipal wastewater. Bio-colloid transport in the subsurface is significantly affected by sorption onto the solid matrix. Bio-colloid attachment onto mobile or suspended in the aqueous phase soil particles (e.g. clay or other minerals) also may influence their fate and transport in the subsurface. The present study focuses on the investigation of Pseudomonas (Ps.) putida sorption onto well (KGa-1) and poorly (KGa-2) crystallized kaolinite minerals. Batch experiments were carried out to determine the sorption isotherms of Ps. putida onto both types of kaolinite particles. The sorption process of Ps. putida onto KGa-1 and KGa-2 is adequately described by a Langmuir isotherm. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy as well as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance were employed to study the sorption mechanisms of Ps. putida. Experimental results indicated that KGa-2 presented higher affinity and sorption capacity than KGa-1. It was shown that electrostatic interactions and structural disorders can influence the sorption capacity of clay particles.

  20. Efficient recombinant production of prodigiosin in Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Domröse, Andreas; Klein, Andreas S.; Hage-Hülsmann, Jennifer; Thies, Stephan; Svensson, Vera; Classen, Thomas; Pietruszka, Jörg; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Drepper, Thomas; Loeschcke, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Serratia marcescens and several other bacteria produce the red-colored pigment prodigiosin which possesses bioactivities as an antimicrobial, anticancer, and immunosuppressive agent. Therefore, there is a great interest to produce this natural compound. Efforts aiming at its biotechnological production have so far largely focused on the original producer and opportunistic human pathogen S. marcescens. Here, we demonstrate efficient prodigiosin production in the heterologous host Pseudomonas putida. Random chromosomal integration of the 21 kb prodigiosin biosynthesis gene cluster of S. marcescens in P. putida KT2440 was employed to construct constitutive prodigiosin production strains. Standard cultivation parameters were optimized such that titers of 94 mg/L culture were obtained upon growth of P. putida at 20°C using rich medium under high aeration conditions. Subsequently, a novel, fast and effective protocol for prodigiosin extraction and purification was established enabling the straightforward isolation of prodigiosin from P. putida growth medium. In summary, we describe here a highly efficient method for the heterologous biosynthetic production of prodigiosin which may serve as a basis to produce large amounts of this bioactive natural compound and may provide a platform for further in-depth studies of prodiginine biosynthesis. PMID:26441905

  1. Efficient recombinant production of prodigiosin in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Domröse, Andreas; Klein, Andreas S; Hage-Hülsmann, Jennifer; Thies, Stephan; Svensson, Vera; Classen, Thomas; Pietruszka, Jörg; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Drepper, Thomas; Loeschcke, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Serratia marcescens and several other bacteria produce the red-colored pigment prodigiosin which possesses bioactivities as an antimicrobial, anticancer, and immunosuppressive agent. Therefore, there is a great interest to produce this natural compound. Efforts aiming at its biotechnological production have so far largely focused on the original producer and opportunistic human pathogen S. marcescens. Here, we demonstrate efficient prodigiosin production in the heterologous host Pseudomonas putida. Random chromosomal integration of the 21 kb prodigiosin biosynthesis gene cluster of S. marcescens in P. putida KT2440 was employed to construct constitutive prodigiosin production strains. Standard cultivation parameters were optimized such that titers of 94 mg/L culture were obtained upon growth of P. putida at 20°C using rich medium under high aeration conditions. Subsequently, a novel, fast and effective protocol for prodigiosin extraction and purification was established enabling the straightforward isolation of prodigiosin from P. putida growth medium. In summary, we describe here a highly efficient method for the heterologous biosynthetic production of prodigiosin which may serve as a basis to produce large amounts of this bioactive natural compound and may provide a platform for further in-depth studies of prodiginine biosynthesis.

  2. Specific Gene Loci of Clinical Pseudomonas putida Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Lázaro; Udaondo, Zulema; Duque, Estrella; Fernández, Matilde; Bernal, Patricia; Roca, Amalia; de la Torre, Jesús; Ramos, Juan Luis

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida are ubiquitous inhabitants of soils and clinical isolates of this species have been seldom described. Clinical isolates show significant variability in their ability to cause damage to hosts because some of them are able to modulate the host’s immune response. In the current study, comparisons between the genomes of different clinical and environmental strains of P. putida were done to identify genetic clusters shared by clinical isolates that are not present in environmental isolates. We show that in clinical strains specific genes are mostly present on transposons, and that this set of genes exhibit high identity with genes found in pathogens and opportunistic pathogens. The set of genes prevalent in P. putida clinical isolates, and absent in environmental isolates, are related with survival under oxidative stress conditions, resistance against biocides, amino acid metabolism and toxin/antitoxin (TA) systems. This set of functions have influence in colonization and survival within human tissues, since they avoid host immune response or enhance stress resistance. An in depth bioinformatic analysis was also carried out to identify genetic clusters that are exclusive to each of the clinical isolates and that correlate with phenotypical differences between them, a secretion system type III-like was found in one of these clinical strains, a determinant of pathogenicity in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26820467

  3. Amino Acid Racemization in Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    PubMed Central

    Radkov, Atanas D.

    2013-01-01

    d-Amino acids have been shown to play an increasingly diverse role in bacterial physiology, yet much remains to be learned about their synthesis and catabolism. Here we used the model soil- and rhizosphere-dwelling organism Pseudomonas putida KT2440 to elaborate on the genomics and enzymology of d-amino acid metabolism. P. putida KT2440 catabolized the d-stereoisomers of lysine, phenylalanine, arginine, alanine, and hydroxyproline as the sole carbon and nitrogen sources. With the exception of phenylalanine, each of these amino acids was racemized by P. putida KT2440 enzymes. Three amino acid racemases were identified from a genomic screen, and the enzymes were further characterized in vitro. The putative biosynthetic alanine racemase Alr showed broad substrate specificity, exhibiting measurable racemase activity with 9 of the 19 chiral amino acids. Among these amino acids, activity was the highest with lysine, and the kcat/Km values with l- and d-lysine were 3 orders of magnitude greater than the kcat/Km values with l- and d-alanine. Conversely, the putative catabolic alanine racemase DadX showed narrow substrate specificity, clearly preferring only the alanine stereoisomers as the substrates. However, DadX did show 6- and 9-fold higher kcat/Km values than Alr with l- and d-alanine, respectively. The annotated proline racemase ProR of P. putida KT2440 showed negligible activity with either stereoisomer of the 19 chiral amino acids but exhibited strong epimerization activity with hydroxyproline as the substrate. Comparative genomic analysis revealed differences among pseudomonads with respect to alanine racemase genes that may point to different roles for these genes among closely related species. PMID:23995642

  4. Trace Metal Sequestration by the Manganese Oxidizing Bacterium Pseudomonas putida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toner, B.; Manceau, A.; Marcus, M. A.; Sposito, G.

    2002-12-01

    Bacterial cells are an important source of chemically reactive surfaces in freshwater and soil environments. Pseudomonas putida strain MnB1 cells, like many gram negative bacteria, present an outer membrane studded with phosphate groups and carbohydrates as well as a billowing biofilm of extracellular polysaccharides to the surrounding microenvironment. The cell outer membrane and the biofilm possess functional groups that complex trace metals. During certain growth phases P. putida is also a manganese oxidizing bacterium, causing the cells to coat themselves in Mn(IV) oxide. Therefore, in addition to the cell outer membrane and associated biofilm, trace metals may sorb to the biogenic Mn oxide. To explore the relative contributions to trace metal sorption by the bacterial cells and biogenic Mn oxide, zinc and nickel were added to suspensions of bacterial cells with three different conditions: cells in the absence of Mn, cells in the process of Mn oxidation and cells with preformed biogenic Mn oxide. Adsorption isotherms were measured to quantify Zn and Ni sorption to P. putida in the presence and absence of biogenic Mn oxide. Zinc and Ni K-edge EXAFS spectra were measured to determine how and where the metals were binding to the bacterial cells and biogenic Mn oxide. The Zn and Ni adsorption isotherms exhibited two plateaus. The metal complexation was dependent on concentration with Zn having a higher affinity for phosphate and Ni for carboxyl functional groups. The preformed biogenic Mn oxide has high affinity for Zn and Ni and the bacterial surface contributed little to metal removal from solution under these conditions. However, if the metal is present in solution while Mn oxidation is occurring the bacterial cell surface influences greatly the overall removal of metal. Manganese oxidizing bacteria such as P. putida contribute to environmental metal sequestration by catalyzing the production of Mn oxide minerals, and the bacterial cells are themselves reactive

  5. [Mechanism of cyanide and thiocyanate decomposition by an association of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas stutzeri strains].

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, N V; Kondrat'eva, T F; Krasil'nikova, E N; Karavaĭko, G I

    2006-01-01

    The intermediate and terminal products of cyanide and thiocyanate decomposition by individual strains of the genus Pseudomonas, P. putida strain 21 and P. stutzeri strain 18, and by their association were analyzed. The activity of the enzymes of nitrogen and sulfur metabolism in these strains was compared with that of the collection strains P. putida VKM B-2187T and P. stutzeri VKM B-975T. Upon the introduction of CN- and SCN- into cell suspensions of strains 18 and 21 in phosphate buffer (pH 8.8), the production of NH4+ was observed. Due to the high rate of their utilization, NH3, NH4+, and CNO- were absent from the culture liquids of P. putida strain 21 and P. stutzeri strain 18 grown with CN- or SCN-. Both Pseudomonas strains decomposed SCN- via cyanate production. The cyanase activity was 0.75 micromol/(min mg protein) for P. putida strain 21 and 1.26 micromol/(min mg protein) for P. stutzeri strain 18. The cyanase activity was present in the cells grown with SCN- but absent in cells grown with NH4+. Strain 21 of P. putida was a more active CN- decomposer than strain 18 of P. stutzeri. Ammonium and CO2 were the terminal nitrogen and carbon products of CN- and SCN- decomposition. The terminal sulfur products of SCN- decomposition by P. stutzeri strain 18 and P. putida strain 21 were thiosulfate and tetrathionate, respectively. The strains utilized the toxic compounds in the anabolism only, as sources of nitrogen (CN- and SCN-) and sulfur (SCN-). The pathway of thiocyanate decomposition by the association of bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas is proposed based on the results obtained.

  6. Identification and transcriptional profiling of Pseudomonas putida genes involved in furoic acid metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Furfural (2-furaldehyde) is a furan formed by dehydration of pentose sugars. Pseudomonas putida Fu1 metabolizes furfural through a pathway involving conversion to 2-oxoglutarate, via 2-furoic acid and Coenzyme A intermediates. To identify genes involved in furan metabolism, two P. putida transposo...

  7. Conversion of levoglucosan and cellobiosan by Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    DOE PAGES

    Linger, Jeffrey G.; Hobdey, Sarah E.; Franden, Mary Ann; Fulk, Emily M.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-02-02

    Pyrolysis offers a straightforward approach for the deconstruction of plant cell wall polymers into bio-oil. Recently, there has been substantial interest in bio-oil fractionation and subsequent use of biological approaches to selectively upgrade some of the resulting fractions. A fraction of particular interest for biological upgrading consists of polysaccharide-derived substrates including sugars and sugar dehydration products such as levoglucosan and cellobiosan, which are two of the most abundant pyrolysis products of cellulose. Levoglucosan can be converted to glucose-6-phosphate through the use of a levoglucosan kinase (LGK), but to date, the mechanism for cellobiosan utilization has not been demonstrated. Here, wemore » engineer the microbe Pseudomonas putida KT2440 to use levoglucosan as a sole carbon and energy source through LGK integration. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cellobiosan can be enzymatically converted to levoglucosan and glucose with β-glucosidase enzymes from both Glycoside Hydrolase Family 1 and Family 3. β-glucosidases are commonly used in both natural and industrial cellulase cocktails to convert cellobiose to glucose to relieve cellulase product inhibition and to facilitate microbial uptake of glucose. Using an exogenous β-glucosidase, we demonstrate that the engineered strain of P. putida can grow on levoglucosan up to 60 g/L and can also utilize cellobiosan. Overall, this study elucidates the biological pathway to co-utilize levoglucosan and cellobiosan, which will be a key transformation for the biological upgrading of pyrolysis-derived substrates.« less

  8. Toluene Diffusion and Reaction in Unsaturated Pseudomonas putida Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Patricia A.; Hunt, James R.; Firestone, Mary K.

    2010-01-01

    Biofilms are frequently studied in the context of submerged or aquatic systems. However, much less is known about biofilms in unsaturated systems, despite their importance to such processes as food spoilage, terrestrial nutrient cycling, and biodegradation of environmental pollutants in soils. Using modeling and experimentation, we have described the biodegradation of toluene in unsaturated media by bacterial biofilms as a function of matric water potential, a dominant variable in unsaturated systems. We experimentally determined diffusion and kinetic parameters for Pseudomonas putida biofilms, then predicted biodegradation rates over a range of matric water potentials. For validation, we measured the rate of toluene depletion by intact biofilms and found the results to reasonably follow the model predictions. The diffusion coefficient for toluene through unsaturated P. putida biofilm averaged 1.3 × 10−7 cm2/s, which is approximately two orders of magnitude lower than toluene diffusivity in water. Our studies show that, at the scale of the microbial biofilm, the diffusion of toluene to biodegrading bacteria can limit the overall rate of biological toluene depletion in unsaturated systems. PMID:18642338

  9. Analysis of the pathogenic potential of nosocomial Pseudomonas putida strains

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Matilde; Porcel, Mario; de la Torre, Jesús; Molina-Henares, M. A.; Daddaoua, Abdelali; Llamas, María A.; Roca, Amalia; Carriel, Victor; Garzón, Ingrid; Ramos, Juan L.; Alaminos, Miguel; Duque, Estrella

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida strains are ubiquitous in soil and water but have also been reported as opportunistic human pathogens capable of causing nosocomial infections. In this study we describe the multilocus sequence typing of four P. putida strains (HB13667, HB8234, HB4184, and HB3267) isolated from in-patients at the Besançon Hospital (France). The four isolates (in particular HB3267) were resistant to a number of antibiotics. The pathogenicity and virulence potential of the strains was tested ex vivo and in vivo using different biological models: human tissue culture, mammalian tissues, and insect larvae. Our results showed a significant variability in the ability of the four strains to damage the host; HB13667 did not exhibit any pathogenic traits, HB4184 caused damage only ex vivo in human tissue cultures, and HB8234 had a deleterious effect in tissue culture and in vivo on rat skin, but not in insect larvae. Interestingly, strain HB3267 caused damage in all the model systems studied. The putative evolution of these strains in medical environments is discussed. PMID:26379646

  10. Biofilm formation-defective mutants in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    López-Sánchez, Aroa; Leal-Morales, Antonio; Jiménez-Díaz, Lorena; Platero, Ana I; Bardallo-Pérez, Juan; Díaz-Romero, Alberto; Acemel, Rafael D; Illán, Juan M; Jiménez-López, Julia; Govantes, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    Out of 8000 candidates from a genetic screening for Pseudomonas putida KT2442 mutants showing defects in biofilm formation, 40 independent mutants with diminished levels of biofilm were analyzed. Most of these mutants carried insertions in genes of the lap cluster, whose products are responsible for synthesis, export and degradation of the adhesin LapA. All mutants in this class were strongly defective in biofilm formation. Mutants in the flagellar regulatory genes fleQ and flhF showed similar defects to that of the lap mutants. On the contrary, transposon insertions in the flagellar structural genes fliP and flgG, that also impair flagellar motility, had a modest defect in biofilm formation. A mutation in gacS, encoding the sensor element of the GacS/GacA two-component system, also had a moderate effect on biofilm formation. Additional insertions targeted genes involved in cell envelope function: PP3222, encoding the permease element of an ABC-type transporter and tolB, encoding the periplasmic component of the Tol-OprL system required for outer membrane stability. Our results underscore the central role of LapA, suggest cross-regulation between motility and adhesion functions and provide insights on the role of cell envelope trafficking and maintenance for biofilm development in P. putida.

  11. Investigation of plasmid-induced growth defect in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jia; Sydow, Anne; Schempp, Florence; Becher, Daniela; Schewe, Hendrik; Schrader, Jens; Buchhaupt, Markus

    2016-08-10

    Genetic engineering in bacteria mainly relies on the use of plasmids. But despite their pervasive use for physiological studies as well as for the design and optimization of industrially used production strains, only limited information about plasmid induced growth defects is available for different replicons and organisms. Here, we present the identification and characterization of such a phenomenon for Pseudomonas putida transformants carrying the pBBR1-derived plasmid pMiS1. We identified the kanamycin resistance gene and the transcription factor encoding rhaR gene to be causal for the growth defect in P. putida. In contrast, this effect was not observed in Escherichia coli. The plasmid-induced growth defect was eliminated after introduction of a mutation in the plasmid-encoded rep gene, thus enabling construction of the non-toxic variant pMiS4. GFP reporters construct analyses and qPCR experiments revealed a distinctly lowered plasmid copy number for pMiS4, which is probably the reason for alleviation of the growth defect by this mutation. Our work expands the knowledge about plasmid-induced growth defects and provides a useful low-copy pBBR1 replicon variant. PMID:27287537

  12. Toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Combarros, R G; Collado, S; Díaz, M

    2016-03-01

    The increasing use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in industrial and household applications will very likely lead to the release of such materials into the environment. As wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are usually the last barrier before the water is discharged into the environment, it is important to understand the effects of these materials in the biotreatment processes, since the results in the literature are usually contradictory. We proposed the use of flow cytometry (FC) technology to obtain conclusive results. Aqueous solutions of TiO2 nanoparticles (0-2 mg mL(-1)) were used to check its toxicity effect using Pseudomonas putida as simplified model of real sludge over room light. Physiological changes in P. putida from viable to viable but non-culturable cells were observed by flow cytometry in presence of TiO2. The damaged and dead cell concentrations were below 5% in all cases under study. Both FSC and SSC parameter increased with TiO2 dose dependent manner, indicating nanoparticles uptake by the bacteria. The biological removal of salicylic acid (SA) was also significantly impacted by the presence of TiO2 in the medium reducing the efficiency. The use of FC allows also to develop and fit segregated kinetic models, giving the impact of TiO2 nanoparticles in the physiological subpopulations growth and implications for SA removal.

  13. Toluene diffusion and reaction in unsaturated Pseudomonas putida biofilms

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, P.A.; Hunt, J.R.; Firestone, M.K.

    1997-12-20

    Biofilms are frequently studied in the context of submerged or aquatic systems. However, much less is known about biofilms in unsaturated systems, despite their importance to such processes as food spoilage, terrestrial nutrient cycling, and biodegradation of environmental pollutants in soils. Using modeling and experimentation, the authors have described the biodegradation of toluene in unsaturated media by bacterial biofilms as a function of matric water potential, a dominant variable in unsaturated systems. They experimentally determined diffusion and kinetic parameters for Pseudomonas putida biofilms, then predicted biodegradation rates over a range of matric water potentials. For validation, the authors measured the rate of toluene depletion by intact biofilms and found the results to reasonably follow the model predictions. The diffusion coefficient for toluene through unsaturated P. putida biofilm averaged 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm{sup 2}/s, which is approximately two orders of magnitude lower than toluene diffusivity in water. Their studies show that, at the scale of the microbial biofilm, the diffusion of toluene to biodegrading bacteria can limit the overall rate of biological toluene depletion in unsaturated systems.

  14. Biodegradation of nitrobenzene through a hybrid pathway in Pseudomonas putida

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, K.H.; Lee, J.Y.; Kim, H.S.

    1995-12-20

    The biodegradation of nitrobenzene was attempted by using Pseudomonas putida TB 103 which possesses the hybrid pathway combining the tod and the tol pathways. Analysis of the metabolic flux of nitrobenzene through the hybrid pathway indicated that nitrobenzene was initially oxidized to cis-1,2-dihydroxy-3-nitrocyclohexa-3,5-diene by toluene dioxygenase in the tod pathway and then channeled into the tol pathway, leading to the complete biodegradation of nitrobenzene. A crucial metabolic step redirecting the metabolic flux of nitrobenzene from the tod to the tol pathway was determined from the genetic and biochemical studies on the enzymes involved in the tol pathway. From these results, it was found that toluate-cis-glycol dehydrogenase could convert cis-1,2-dihydroxy-3-nitrocyclohexa-3,5-diene to catechol in the presence of NAD{sup +} with liberation of nitrite and the reduced form of NAD{sup +} (NADH) into the medium.

  15. Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens Species Group Recovery from Human Homes Varies Seasonally and by Environment.

    PubMed

    Remold, Susanna K; Purdy-Gibson, Megan E; France, Michael T; Hundley, Thomas C

    2015-01-01

    By shedding light on variation in time as well as in space, long-term biogeographic studies can help us define organisms' distribution patterns and understand their underlying drivers. Here we examine distributions of Pseudomonas in and around 15 human homes, focusing on the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups. We describe recovery from 10,941 samples collected during up to 8 visits per home, occurring on average 2.6 times per year. We collected a mean of 141 samples per visit, from sites in most rooms of the house, from the surrounding yards, and from human and pet occupants. We recovered Pseudomonas in 9.7% of samples, with the majority of isolates being from the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups (approximately 62% and 23% of Pseudomonas samples recovered respectively). Although representatives of both groups were recovered from every season, every house, and every type of environment sampled, recovery was highly variable across houses and samplings. Whereas recovery of P. putida group was higher in summer and fall than in winter and spring, P. fluorescens group isolates were most often recovered in spring. P. putida group recovery from soils was substantially higher than its recovery from all other environment types, while higher P. fluorescens group recovery from soils than from other sites was much less pronounced. Both species groups were recovered from skin and upper respiratory tract samples from healthy humans and pets, although this occurred infrequently. This study indicates that even species that are able to survive under a broad range of conditions can be rare and variable in their distributions in space and in time. For such groups, determining patterns and causes of stochastic and seasonal variability may be more important for understanding the processes driving their biogeography than the identity of the types of environments in which they can be found.

  16. Transport of C5 dicarboxylate compounds by Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, W V; Sando, J J; Hartline, R A

    1979-01-01

    Induced glutarate and 2-oxoglutarate uptake and transport by Pseudomonas putida were investigated in whole cells and membrane vesicles, respectively. Uptake of 2-oxoglutarate, but not glutarate, was against a concentration gradient to 1.7-fold greater than the initial extracellular concentration. Membrane vesicles transported 2-oxoglutarate and glutarate against gradients to intramembrane concentrations fivefold greater than the initial extravesicle concentrations. The rates of transport of both compounds were greatest in the presence of the artificial electron donor system phenazine methosulfate-ascorbate. Malate and D-lactate were the only naturally occurring compounds that served as electron donors. Uptake and transport were inhibited by KCN, NaN3, and 2,2-dinitrophenol. Kinetic parameters of transport were: glutarate, apparent Km--1.22 mM, Vmax--400 nmol/min per mg of membrane protein; 2-oxoglutarate, apparent Km--131 microM, Vmax--255 nmol/min per mg of membrane protein. Studies of competitive inhibition indicated a common system for transport of five C5 dicarboxylate compounds. The apparent Km and Ki values with 2-oxoglutarate as a substrate placed the substrate affinity for transport in the order 2-oxoglutarate greater than glutarate greater than D-2-hydroxyglutarate and L-2-hydroxyglutarate greater than glutaconate. PMID:479107

  17. Pseudomonas putida CSV86: A Candidate Genome for Genetic Bioaugmentation

    PubMed Central

    Paliwal, Vasundhara; Raju, Sajan C.; Modak, Arnab; Phale, Prashant S.; Purohit, Hemant J.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida CSV86, a plasmid-free strain possessing capability to transfer the naphthalene degradation property, has been explored for its metabolic diversity through genome sequencing. The analysis of draft genome sequence of CSV86 (6.4 Mb) revealed the presence of genes involved in the degradation of naphthalene, salicylate, benzoate, benzylalcohol, p-hydroxybenzoate, phenylacetate and p-hydroxyphenylacetate on the chromosome thus ensuring the stability of the catabolic potential. Moreover, genes involved in the metabolism of phenylpropanoid and homogentisate, as well as heavy metal resistance, were additionally identified. Ability to grow on vanillin, veratraldehyde and ferulic acid, detection of inducible homogentisate dioxygenase and growth on aromatic compounds in the presence of heavy metals like copper, cadmium, cobalt and arsenic confirm in silico observations reflecting the metabolic versatility. In silico analysis revealed the arrangement of genes in the order: tRNAGly, integrase followed by nah operon, supporting earlier hypothesis of existence of a genomic island (GI) for naphthalene degradation. Deciphering the genomic architecture of CSV86 for aromatic degradation pathways and identification of elements responsible for horizontal gene transfer (HGT) suggests that genetic bioaugmentation strategies could be planned using CSV86 for effective bioremediation. PMID:24475028

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Medium-Chain-Length Polyhydroxyalkanoate-Producing Pseudomonas putida Strain LS46.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Parveen K; Fu, Jilagamazhi; Zhang, Xiangli; Fristensky, Brian W; Davenport, Karen; Chain, Patrick S G; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David B

    2013-04-18

    We describe the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas putida strain LS46, a novel isolate that synthesizes medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates. The draft genome of P. putida LS46 consists of approximately 5.86 million bp, with a G+C content of 61.69%. A total of 5,316 annotated genes and 5,219 coding sequences (CDS) were identified.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of the p-Nitrophenol-Degrading Bacterium Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaojun; Wang, Jue; Wang, Fei; Chen, Qiongzhen; Huang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of a p-nitrophenol (PNP)-degrading bacterium is reported here. Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4, a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from methyl-parathion-polluted soil, can utilize PNP as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. P. putida DLL-E4 has a 6,484,062 bp circular chromosome that contains 5,894 genes, with a G+C content of 62.46%. PMID:24948765

  20. Comparative genomics and functional analysis of niche-specific adaptation in Pseudomonas putida

    SciTech Connect

    Wu X.; van der Lelie D.; Monchy, S.; Taghavi, S.; Zhu, W.; Ramos, J.

    2011-03-01

    Pseudomonas putida is a gram-negative rod-shaped gammaproteobacterium that is found throughout various environments. Members of the species P. putida show a diverse spectrum of metabolic activities, which is indicative of their adaptation to various niches, which includes the ability to live in soils and sediments contaminated with high concentrations of heavy metals and organic contaminants. Pseudomonas putida strains are also found as plant growth-promoting rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria. The genome sequences of several P. putida species have become available and provide a unique tool to study the specific niche adaptation of the various P. putida strains. In this review, we compare the genomes of four P. putida strains: the rhizospheric strain KT2440, the endophytic strain W619, the aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading strain F1 and the manganese-oxidizing strain GB-1. Comparative genomics provided a powerful tool to gain new insights into the adaptation of P. putida to specific lifestyles and environmental niches, and clearly demonstrated that horizontal gene transfer played a key role in this adaptation process, as many of the niche-specific functions were found to be encoded on clearly defined genomic islands.

  1. Comparative genomics and functional analysis of niche-specific adaptation in Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao; Monchy, Sébastien; Taghavi, Safiyh; Zhu, Wei; Ramos, Juan; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida is a gram-negative rod-shaped gammaproteobacterium that is found throughout various environments. Members of the species P. putida show a diverse spectrum of metabolic activities, which is indicative of their adaptation to various niches, which includes the ability to live in soils and sediments contaminated with high concentrations of heavy metals and organic contaminants. Pseudomonas putida strains are also found as plant growth-promoting rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria. The genome sequences of several P. putida species have become available and provide a unique tool to study the specific niche adaptation of the various P. putida strains. In this review, we compare the genomes of four P. putida strains: the rhizospheric strain KT2440, the endophytic strain W619, the aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading strain F1 and the manganese-oxidizing strain GB-1. Comparative genomics provided a powerful tool to gain new insights into the adaptation of P. putida to specific lifestyles and environmental niches, and clearly demonstrated that horizontal gene transfer played a key role in this adaptation process, as many of the niche-specific functions were found to be encoded on clearly defined genomic islands. PMID:20796030

  2. Oxidation of substituted phenols by Pseudomonas putida F1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain JS6

    SciTech Connect

    Spain, J.C.; Gibson, D.T.

    1988-06-01

    The biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and chlorobenzenes by Pseudomonas putida involves the initial conversion of the parent molecules to cis-dihydrodiols by dioxygenase enzyme systems. The cis-dihydrodiols are then converted to the corresponding catechols by dihydrodiol dehydrogenase enzymes. Pseudomonas sp. strain JS6 uses a similar system for growth on toluene or dichlorobenzenes. We tested the wild-type organisms and a series of mutants for their ability to transform substituted phenols after induction with toluene. When grown on toluene, both wild-type organisms converted methyl-, chloro-, and nitro-substituted phenols to the corresponding catechols. Mutant strains deficient in dihydrodiol dehydrogenase or catechol oxygenase activities also transformed the phenols. Oxidation of phenols was closely correlated with the induction and activity of the toluene dioxygenase enzyme system.

  3. Physical Forces Shape Group Identity of Swimming Pseudomonas putida Cells

    PubMed Central

    Espeso, David R.; Martínez-García, Esteban; de Lorenzo, Víctor; Goñi-Moreno, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The often striking macroscopic patterns developed by motile bacterial populations on agar plates are a consequence of the environmental conditions where the cells grow and spread. Parameters such as medium stiffness and nutrient concentration have been reported to alter cell swimming behavior, while mutual interactions among populations shape collective patterns. One commonly observed occurrence is the mutual inhibition of clonal bacteria when moving toward each other, which results in a distinct halt at a finite distance on the agar matrix before having direct contact. The dynamics behind this phenomenon (i.e., intolerance to mix in time and space with otherwise identical others) has been traditionally explained in terms of cell-to-cell competition/cooperation regarding nutrient availability. In this work, the same scenario has been revisited from an alternative perspective: the effect of the physical mechanics that frame the process, in particular the consequences of collisions between moving bacteria and the semi-solid matrix of the swimming medium. To this end, we set up a simple experimental system in which the swimming patterns of Pseudomonas putida were tested with different geometries and agar concentrations. A computational analysis framework that highlights cell-to-medium interactions was developed to fit experimental observations. Simulated outputs suggested that the medium is compressed in the direction of the bacterial front motion. This phenomenon generates what was termed a compression wave that goes through the medium preceding the swimming population and that determines the visible high-level pattern. Taken together, the data suggested that the mechanical effects of the bacteria moving through the medium created a factual barrier that impedes to merge with neighboring cells swimming from a different site. The resulting divide between otherwise clonal bacteria is thus brought about by physical forces—not genetic or metabolic programs. PMID

  4. Physical Forces Shape Group Identity of Swimming Pseudomonas putida Cells

    PubMed Central

    Espeso, David R.; Martínez-García, Esteban; de Lorenzo, Víctor; Goñi-Moreno, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The often striking macroscopic patterns developed by motile bacterial populations on agar plates are a consequence of the environmental conditions where the cells grow and spread. Parameters such as medium stiffness and nutrient concentration have been reported to alter cell swimming behavior, while mutual interactions among populations shape collective patterns. One commonly observed occurrence is the mutual inhibition of clonal bacteria when moving toward each other, which results in a distinct halt at a finite distance on the agar matrix before having direct contact. The dynamics behind this phenomenon (i.e., intolerance to mix in time and space with otherwise identical others) has been traditionally explained in terms of cell-to-cell competition/cooperation regarding nutrient availability. In this work, the same scenario has been revisited from an alternative perspective: the effect of the physical mechanics that frame the process, in particular the consequences of collisions between moving bacteria and the semi-solid matrix of the swimming medium. To this end, we set up a simple experimental system in which the swimming patterns of Pseudomonas putida were tested with different geometries and agar concentrations. A computational analysis framework that highlights cell-to-medium interactions was developed to fit experimental observations. Simulated outputs suggested that the medium is compressed in the direction of the bacterial front motion. This phenomenon generates what was termed a compression wave that goes through the medium preceding the swimming population and that determines the visible high-level pattern. Taken together, the data suggested that the mechanical effects of the bacteria moving through the medium created a factual barrier that impedes to merge with neighboring cells swimming from a different site. The resulting divide between otherwise clonal bacteria is thus brought about by physical forces—not genetic or metabolic programs.

  5. Siderotyping of fluorescent pseudomonads: characterization of pyoverdines of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida strains from Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J M; Stintzi, A; Coulanges, V; Shivaji, S; Voss, J A; Taraz, K; Budzikiewicz, H

    1998-11-01

    Five independent fluorescent pseudomonad isolates originating from Antarctica were analysed for their pyoverdine systems. A pyoverdine-related siderotyping, which involved pyoverdine-induced growth stimulation, pyoverdine-mediated iron uptake, pyoverdine analysis by electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing, revealed three different pyoverdine-related siderotypes among the five isolates. One siderotype, including Pseudomonas fluorescens 1W and P. fluorescens 10CW, was identical to that of P. fluorescens ATCC 13525. Two other strains, P. fluorescens 9AW and Pseudomonas putida 9BW, showed identical pyoverdine-related behaviour to each other, whereas the fifth strain, P. fluorescens 51W, had unique features compared to the other strains or to a set of 12 fluorescent Pseudomonas strains used as comparison material. Elucidation of the structure of the pyoverdines produced by the Antarctic strains supported the accuracy of the siderotyping methodology by confirming that pyoverdines from strains 1W and 10CW had the same structures as the P. fluorescens ATCC 13525 pyoverdine, whereas the 9AW and 9BW pyoverdines are probably identical with the pyoverdine of P. fluorescens strain 244. Pyoverdine from strain 51W appeared to be a novel pyoverdine since its structure was different from all previously established pyoverdine structures. Together with the conclusion that the Antarctic Pseudomonas strains have no special features at the level of their pyoverdines and pyoverdine-mediated iron metabolism compared to worldwide strains, the present work demonstrates that siderotyping provides a rapid means of screening for novel pyoverdines. PMID:9846748

  6. Comparative genomics of an endophytic Pseudomonas putida isolated from mango orchard.

    PubMed

    Asif, Huma; Studholme, David J; Khan, Asifullah; Aurongzeb, M; Khan, Ishtiaq A; Azim, M Kamran

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the genome sequence of an endophytic bacterial strain Pseudomonas putida TJI51 isolated from mango bark tissues. Next generation DNA sequencing and short read de novo assembly generated the 5,805,096 bp draft genome of P. putida TJI51. Out of 6,036 protein coding genes in P. putida TJI51 sequences, 4,367 (72%) were annotated with functional specifications, while the remaining encoded hypothetical proteins. Comparative genome sequence analysis revealed that the P. putida TJI51genome contains several regions, not identified in so far sequenced P. putida genomes. Some of these regions were predicted to encode enzymes, including acetylornithine deacetylase, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, benzoylformate decarboxylase, hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase, and uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase. The genome of P. putida TJI51 contained three nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene clusters. Genome sequence analysis of P. putidaTJI51 identified this bacterium as an endophytic resident. The endophytic fitness might be linked with alginate, which facilitates bacterial colonization in plant tissues. Genome sequence analysis shed light on the presence of a diverse spectrum of metabolic activities and adaptation of this isolate to various niches. PMID:27560648

  7. Comparative genomics of an endophytic Pseudomonas putida isolated from mango orchard

    PubMed Central

    Asif, Huma; Studholme, David J.; Khan, Asifullah; Aurongzeb, M.; Khan, Ishtiaq A.; Azim, M. Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We analyzed the genome sequence of an endophytic bacterial strain Pseudomonas putida TJI51 isolated from mango bark tissues. Next generation DNA sequencing and short read de novo assembly generated the 5,805,096 bp draft genome of P. putida TJI51. Out of 6,036 protein coding genes in P. putida TJI51 sequences, 4,367 (72%) were annotated with functional specifications, while the remaining encoded hypothetical proteins. Comparative genome sequence analysis revealed that the P. putida TJI51genome contains several regions, not identified in so far sequenced P. putida genomes. Some of these regions were predicted to encode enzymes, including acetylornithine deacetylase, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, benzoylformate decarboxylase, hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase, and uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase. The genome of P. putida TJI51 contained three nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene clusters. Genome sequence analysis of P. putidaTJI51 identified this bacterium as an endophytic resident. The endophytic fitness might be linked with alginate, which facilitates bacterial colonization in plant tissues. Genome sequence analysis shed light on the presence of a diverse spectrum of metabolic activities and adaptation of this isolate to various niches. PMID:27560648

  8. Acute toxic effects of three pesticides on Pseudomonas putida monitored by microcalorimeter.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Lun; Yao, Jun; Wang, Fei; Bramanti, Emilia; Maskow, Thomas; Zaray, Gyula

    2009-02-01

    A series of calorimetric experiments were performed to investigate the toxic effects of beta-cypermethrin (BCP), bensulfuron-methyl (BSM) and prometryne (PM) on Pseudomonas putida (P. putida). The metabolic action of P. putida on the three pesticides was studied by obtaining power-time curves. The growth of P. putida was inhibited completely in each case when the concentrations of pesticides were up to 80 micro g mL(- 1). The relationships between the inhibitory ratio (k) and doses of contaminants were approximately linear for the three pesticides. The total heat dissipated per milliliter (Q(total)) for the pesticides decreased during the course of the experiment. The OD(600) of P. putida growth in the absence and presence of pesticides was also obtained. The power-time curves of P. putida growth coincided with its turbidity curves. This elucidates that microcalorimetric method agrees well with the routine microbiological method. Among these three pesticides, BSM was found to be the most toxic with an IC(50) of 19.24 micro g mL(- 1) against P. putida. PM exhibited moderate virulence with an IC(50) of 27.86 micro g mL(- 1) and BCP had the lowest toxicity with an IC(50) of 39.64 micro g mL(- 1). PMID:19130374

  9. Engineering mediator-based electroactivity in the obligate aerobic bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Simone; Nies, Salome; Wierckx, Nick; Blank, Lars M.; Rosenbaum, Miriam A.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida strains are being developed as microbial production hosts for production of a range of amphiphilic and hydrophobic biochemicals. P. putida's obligate aerobic growth thereby can be an economical and technical challenge because it requires constant rigorous aeration and often causes reactor foaming. Here, we engineered a strain of P. putida KT2440 that can produce phenazine redox-mediators from Pseudomonas aeruginosa to allow partial redox balancing with an electrode under oxygen-limited conditions. P. aeruginosa is known to employ its phenazine-type redox mediators for electron exchange with an anode in bioelectrochemical systems (BES). We transferred the seven core phenazine biosynthesis genes phzA-G and the two specific genes phzM and phzS required for pyocyanin synthesis from P. aeruginosa on two inducible plasmids into P. putida KT2440. The best clone, P. putida pPhz, produced 45 mg/L pyocyanin over 25 h of growth, which was visible as blue color formation and is comparable to the pyocyanin production of P. aeruginosa. This new strain was then characterized under different oxygen-limited conditions with electrochemical redox control and changes in central energy metabolism were evaluated in comparison to the unmodified P. putida KT2440. In the new strain, phenazine synthesis with supernatant concentrations up to 33 μg/mL correlated linearly with the ability to discharge electrons to an anode, whereby phenazine-1-carboxylic acid served as the dominating redox mediator. P. putida pPhz sustained strongly oxygen-limited metabolism for up to 2 weeks at up to 12 μA/cm2 anodic current density. Together, this work lays a foundation for future oxygen-limited biocatalysis with P. putida strains. PMID:25914687

  10. Comparative genomic and functional analyses: unearthing the diversity and specificity of nematicidal factors in Pseudomonas putida strain 1A00316

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jing; Jing, Xueping; Peng, Wen-Lei; Nie, Qiyu; Zhai, Yile; Shao, Zongze; Zheng, Longyu; Cai, Minmin; Li, Guangyu; Zuo, Huaiyu; Zhang, Zhitao; Wang, Rui-Ru; Huang, Dian; Cheng, Wanli; Yu, Ziniu; Chen, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Jibin

    2016-01-01

    We isolated Pseudomonas putida (P. putida) strain 1A00316 from Antarctica. This bacterium has a high efficiency against Meloidogyne incognita (M. incognita) in vitro and under greenhouse conditions. The complete genome of P. putida 1A00316 was sequenced using PacBio single molecule real-time (SMRT) technology. A comparative genomic analysis of 16 Pseudomonas strains revealed that although P. putida 1A00316 belonged to P. putida, it was phenotypically more similar to nematicidal Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) strains. We characterized the diversity and specificity of nematicidal factors in P. putida 1A00316 with comparative genomics and functional analysis, and found that P. putida 1A00316 has diverse nematicidal factors including protein alkaline metalloproteinase AprA and two secondary metabolites, hydrogen cyanide and cyclo-(l-isoleucyl-l-proline). We show for the first time that cyclo-(l-isoleucyl-l-proline) exhibit nematicidal activity in P. putida. Interestingly, our study had not detected common nematicidal factors such as 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) and pyrrolnitrin in P. putida 1A00316. The results of the present study reveal the diversity and specificity of nematicidal factors in P. putida strain 1A00316. PMID:27384076

  11. ACTIVE EFFLUX OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS BY PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA S12 IS INDUCED BY SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induction of the membrane-associated organic solvent efflux system SrpABC of Pseudomonas putida S12 was examined by cloning a 312-bp DNA fragment, containing the srp promoter, in the broad-host-range reporter vector pKRZ-1. Compounds that are capable of inducing expression of the...

  12. Effect of culture medium on biocalcification by Pseudomonas Putida, Lysinibacillus Sphaericus and Bacillus Subtilis.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Márcia Aiko; Cincotto, Maria Alba; Atencio, Daniel; Gaylarde, Christine C; John, Vanderley M

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the efficiency of calcium carbonate bioprecipitation by Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida, obtained from the Coleção de Culturas do Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saúde (INCQS), as a first step in determining their potential to protect building materials against water uptake. Two culture media were studied: modified B4 containing calcium acetate and 295 with calcium chloride. Calcium consumption in the two media after incubation with and without the bacterial inoculum was determined by atomic absorption analysis. Modified B4 gave the best results and in this medium Pseudomonas putida INQCS 113 produced the highest calcium carbonate precipitation, followed by Lysinibacillus sphaericus INQCS 414; the lowest precipitation was produced by Bacillus subtilis INQCS 328. In this culture medium XRD analysis showed that Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis precipitated calcite and vaterite polymorphs while Lysinibacillus sphaericus produced only vaterite. The shape and size of the crystals were affected by culture medium, bacterial strain and culture conditions, static or shaken. In conclusion, of the three strains Pseudomonas putida INQCS 113 in modified B4 medium gave the best results precipitating 96% of the calcium, this strain thus has good potential for use on building materials. PMID:24031661

  13. Interaction of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633 and Bacteriophage gh-1 in Berea Sandstone Rock

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Philip Lee; Yen, Teh Fu

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the passage of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633 and a phage-resistant mutant through Berea sandstone rock were made. When bacteriophage gh-1 was adsorbed within the rock matrix, a reduction in the passage of the susceptible but not the resistant cells through the rock was observed. PMID:16346956

  14. Interaction of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633 and Bacteriophage gh-1 in Berea Sandstone Rock.

    PubMed

    Chang, P L; Yen, T F

    1985-12-01

    Measurements of the passage of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633 and a phage-resistant mutant through Berea sandstone rock were made. When bacteriophage gh-1 was adsorbed within the rock matrix, a reduction in the passage of the susceptible but not the resistant cells through the rock was observed.

  15. Effect of culture medium on biocalcification by Pseudomonas Putida, Lysinibacillus Sphaericus and Bacillus Subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Shirakawa, Márcia Aiko; Cincotto, Maria Alba; Atencio, Daniel; Gaylarde, Christine C.; John, Vanderley M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the efficiency of calcium carbonate bioprecipitation by Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida, obtained from the Coleção de Culturas do Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saúde (INCQS), as a first step in determining their potential to protect building materials against water uptake. Two culture media were studied: modified B4 containing calcium acetate and 295 with calcium chloride. Calcium consumption in the two media after incubation with and without the bacterial inoculum was determined by atomic absorption analysis. Modified B4 gave the best results and in this medium Pseudomonas putida INQCS 113 produced the highest calcium carbonate precipitation, followed by Lysinibacillus sphaericus INQCS 414; the lowest precipitation was produced by Bacillus subtilis INQCS 328. In this culture medium XRD analysis showed that Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis precipitated calcite and vaterite polymorphs while Lysinibacillus sphaericus produced only vaterite. The shape and size of the crystals were affected by culture medium, bacterial strain and culture conditions, static or shaken. In conclusion, of the three strains Pseudomonas putida INQCS 113 in modified B4 medium gave the best results precipitating 96% of the calcium, this strain thus has good potential for use on building materials. PMID:24031661

  16. Effect of culture medium on biocalcification by Pseudomonas Putida, Lysinibacillus Sphaericus and Bacillus Subtilis.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Márcia Aiko; Cincotto, Maria Alba; Atencio, Daniel; Gaylarde, Christine C; John, Vanderley M

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the efficiency of calcium carbonate bioprecipitation by Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida, obtained from the Coleção de Culturas do Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saúde (INCQS), as a first step in determining their potential to protect building materials against water uptake. Two culture media were studied: modified B4 containing calcium acetate and 295 with calcium chloride. Calcium consumption in the two media after incubation with and without the bacterial inoculum was determined by atomic absorption analysis. Modified B4 gave the best results and in this medium Pseudomonas putida INQCS 113 produced the highest calcium carbonate precipitation, followed by Lysinibacillus sphaericus INQCS 414; the lowest precipitation was produced by Bacillus subtilis INQCS 328. In this culture medium XRD analysis showed that Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis precipitated calcite and vaterite polymorphs while Lysinibacillus sphaericus produced only vaterite. The shape and size of the crystals were affected by culture medium, bacterial strain and culture conditions, static or shaken. In conclusion, of the three strains Pseudomonas putida INQCS 113 in modified B4 medium gave the best results precipitating 96% of the calcium, this strain thus has good potential for use on building materials.

  17. Genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida S11.

    PubMed

    Ponraj, Paramasivan; Shankar, Manoharan; Ilakkiam, Devaraj; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy

    2012-11-01

    Here we report the genome sequence of a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas putida S11. The length of the draft genome sequence is approximately 5,970,799 bp, with a G+C content of 62.4%. The genome contains 6,076 protein-coding sequences.

  18. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Hospital-Associated Pseudomonas putida Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Jane W.; Ezeonwuka, Chinelo D.; Pasculle, Anthony W.; Pacey, Marissa P.; Querry, Ashley M.; Muto, Carlene A.; Harrison, Lee H.

    2016-01-01

    We present here the draft genome sequences of four Pseudomonas putida isolates belonging to a single clone suspected for nosocomial transmission between patients and a bronchoscope in a tertiary hospital. The four genome sequences belong to a single lineage but contain differences in their mobile genetic elements. PMID:27688339

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Hospital-Associated Pseudomonas putida Isolates.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, Mustapha M; Marsh, Jane W; Ezeonwuka, Chinelo D; Pasculle, Anthony W; Pacey, Marissa P; Querry, Ashley M; Muto, Carlene A; Harrison, Lee H

    2016-01-01

    We present here the draft genome sequences of four Pseudomonas putida isolates belonging to a single clone suspected for nosocomial transmission between patients and a bronchoscope in a tertiary hospital. The four genome sequences belong to a single lineage but contain differences in their mobile genetic elements. PMID:27688339

  20. Using "Pseudomonas Putida xylE" Gene to Teach Molecular Cloning Techniques for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Xu; Xin, Yi; Ye, Li; Ma, Yufang

    2009-01-01

    We have developed and implemented a serial experiment in molecular cloning laboratory course for undergraduate students majored in biotechnology. "Pseudomonas putida xylE" gene, encoding catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase, was manipulated to learn molecular biology techniques. The integration of cloning, expression, and enzyme assay gave students a chance…

  1. Complete Genome of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1

    SciTech Connect

    Matilla, M.A.; van der Lelie, D.; Pizarro-Tobias, P.; Roca, A.; Fernandez, M.; Duque, E.; Molina, L.; Wu, X.; Gomez, M. J.; Segura, A.; Ramos, J.-L.

    2011-03-01

    We report the complete sequence of the 5.7-Mbp genome of Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1, a metabolically versatile plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that is highly tolerant to desiccation and capable of solubilizing inorganic phosphate and iron and of synthesizing phytohormones that stimulate seed germination and plant growth.

  2. Molecular determinants of azo reduction activity in the strain Pseudomonas putida MET94.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Sónia; Pereira, Luciana; Batista, Carlos; Martins, Lígia O

    2011-10-01

    Azo dyes are the major group of synthetic colourants used in industry and are serious environmental pollutants. In this study, Pseudomonas putida MET94 was selected from 48 bacterial strains on the basis of its superior ability to degrade a wide range of structurally diverse azo dyes. P. putida is a versatile microorganism with a well-recognised potential for biodegradation or bioremediation applications. P. putida MET94 removes, in 24 h and under anaerobic growing conditions, more than 80% of the majority of the structurally diverse azo dyes tested. Whole cell assays performed under anaerobic conditions revealed up to 90% decolourisation in dye wastewater bath models. The involvement of a FMN dependent NADPH: dye oxidoreductase in the decolourisation process was suggested by enzymatic measurements in cell crude extracts. The gene encoding a putative azoreductase was cloned from P. putida MET94 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified P. putida azoreductase is a 40 kDa homodimer with broad substrate specificity for azo dye reduction. The presence of dioxygen leads to the inhibition of the decolourisation activity in agreement with the results of cell cultures. The kinetic mechanism follows a ping-pong bi-bi reaction scheme and aromatic amine products were detected in stoichiometric amounts by high-performance liquid chromatography. Overall, the results indicate that P. putida MET94 is a promising candidate for bioengineering studies aimed at generating more effective dye-reducing strains.

  3. Manganese (Mn) Oxidation Increases Intracellular Mn in Pseudomonas putida GB-1

    PubMed Central

    Banh, Andy; Chavez, Valarie; Doi, Julia; Nguyen, Allison; Hernandez, Sophia; Ha, Vu; Jimenez, Peter; Espinoza, Fernanda; Johnson, Hope A.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial manganese (Mn) oxidation plays an important role in the global biogeochemical cycling of Mn and other compounds, and the diversity and prevalence of Mn oxidizers have been well established. Despite many hypotheses of why these bacteria may oxidize Mn, the physiological reasons remain elusive. Intracellular Mn levels were determined for Pseudomonas putida GB-1 grown in the presence or absence of Mn by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Mn oxidizing wild type P. putida GB-1 had higher intracellular Mn than non Mn oxidizing mutants grown under the same conditions. P. putida GB-1 had a 5 fold increase in intracellular Mn compared to the non Mn oxidizing mutant P. putida GB-1-007 and a 59 fold increase in intracellular Mn compared to P. putida GB-1 ∆2665 ∆2447. The intracellular Mn is primarily associated with the less than 3 kDa fraction, suggesting it is not bound to protein. Protein oxidation levels in Mn oxidizing and non oxidizing cultures were relatively similar, yet Mn oxidation did increase survival of P. putida GB-1 when oxidatively stressed. This study is the first to link Mn oxidation to Mn homeostasis and oxidative stress protection. PMID:24147089

  4. Characterization of type IV pilus genes in plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas putida WCS358.

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, A; Heijnen, I; de Cock, H; Filloux, A; Tommassen, J

    1994-01-01

    In a search for factors that could contribute to the ability of the plant growth-stimulating Pseudomonas putida WCS358 to colonize plant roots, the organism was analyzed for the presence of genes required for pilus biosynthesis. The pilD gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which has also been designated xcpA, is involved in protein secretion and in the biogenesis of type IV pili. It encodes a peptidase that processes the precursors of the pilin subunits and of several components of the secretion apparatus. Prepilin processing activity could be demonstrated in P. putida WCS358, suggesting that this nonpathogenic strain may contain type IV pili as well. A DNA fragment containing the pilD (xcpA) gene of P. putida was cloned and found to complement a pilD (xcpA) mutation in P. aeruginosa. Nucleotide sequencing revealed, next to the pilD (xcpA) gene, the presence of two additional genes, pilA and pilC, that are highly homologous to genes involved in the biogenesis of type IV pili. The pilA gene encodes the pilin subunit, and pilC is an accessory gene, required for the assembly of the subunits into pili. In comparison with the pil gene cluster in P. aeruginosa, a gene homologous to pilB is lacking in the P. putida gene cluster. Pili were not detected on the cell surface of P. putida itself, not even when pilA was expressed from the tac promoter on a plasmid, indicating that not all the genes required for pilus biogenesis were expressed under the conditions tested. Expression of pilA of P. putida in P. aeruginosa resulted in the production of pili containing P. putida PilA subunits. Images PMID:7905475

  5. Cotransport of TiO2 nanoparticles and Pseudomonas putida in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharis, Ioannis; Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V.

    2015-04-01

    The scope of this study was to investigate the cotransport of Pseudomonas putida and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) in porous media. Flowthrough experiments were conducted in glass columns with diameter of 2.5 cm and length of 30 cm, packed with 2-mm diameter spherical glass beads. Anatase TiO2 NPs solutions were prepared in distilled water of at two different concentrations: 5 and 50 mg/L. The concentration of P. putida solutions varied from 105 to 109 cfu/mL. Initially, transport experiments were conducted separately for P. putida and TiO2 NPs. Subsequently, TiO2 and P. putida cotransport experiments were conducted. The concentration of TiO2 NPs was measured by a fluorescence spectrophotometer and P. putida concentration was determined by plate counts on agar plates and optical density measurements. All experiments were conducted with two different flow rates: 1 and 2 mL/min. The transport experiments with P. putida exhibited similar transport behavior with the tracer (NaBr) indicating that there was not considerable retention. The mass recovery of P. putida was close to 100% in all of the transport experiments conducted. However, the transport experiments with TiO2 NPs suggested that a significant portion of the NPs was retained in the column. Based on the cotransport experimental data, it is evident that the transport of P. putida was not significantly affected by the presence of TiO2. It should be noted that the mass recovery of NPs in the transport and costransport experiments was between 40 and 60%.

  6. Heavy metal tolerance genes alter cellular thermodynamics in Pseudomonas putida and river Pseudomonas spp. and influence amebal predation.

    PubMed

    McTee, Michael R; Gibbons, Sean M; Feris, Kevin; Gordon, Nathan S; Gannon, James E; Ramsey, Philip W

    2013-10-01

    Predation rates were measured for two Acanthamoeba castellanii strains feeding on metal-tolerant and metal-sensitive strains of Pseudomonas putida and compared with cellular thermodynamic data. Predation rates by A. castellanii strain ATCC 30010 correlated with cell volume of the prey. To explore whether this observation could be environmentally relevant, pseudomonad species were isolated from a pristine and a metal-contaminated river and were paired based on phylogenetic and physiological relatedness. Then, cellular thermodynamics and predation rates were measured on the most similar pseudomonad pair. Under cadmium stress, the strain from contaminated river sediments, Pseudomonas sp. CF150, exited metabolic dormancy faster than its pair from pristine sediments, Pseudomonas sp. N9, but consumed available resources less efficiently (more energy was lost as heat). Predation rates by both strains of ameba were greater on Pseudomonas sp. CF150 than on Pseudomonas sp. N9 at the highest cadmium concentration. PMID:23895438

  7. Expression analysis of the fpr (ferredoxin-NADP{sup +} reductase) gene in Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yunho; Pena-Llopis, Samuel; Kang, Yoon-Suk; Shin, Hyeon-Dong; Demple, Bruce; Madsen, Eugene L.; Jeon, Che Ok; Park, Woojun . E-mail: wpark@korea.ac.kr

    2006-01-27

    The ferredoxin-NADP{sup +} reductase (fpr) participates in cellular defense against oxidative damage. The fpr expression in Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is induced by oxidative and osmotic stresses. FinR, a LysR-type transcriptional factor near the fpr gene in the P. putida KT2440 genome, is required for induction of the fpr under both conditions. We have shown that the fpr and finR gene products can counteract the effects of oxidative and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, FinR-independent expression occurs either during a long period of incubation with paraquat or with high concentrations of oxidative stress agent. This result indicates that there may be additional regulators present in the P. putida KT2440 genome. In contrast to in vivo expression kinetics of fpr from the plant pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, the fpr gene from P. putida KT2440 exhibited unusually prolonged expression after oxidative stress. Transcriptional fusion and Northern blot analysis studies indicated that the FinR is negatively autoregulated. Expression of the fpr promoter was higher in minimal media than in rich media during exponential phase growth. Consistent with this result, the fpr and finR mutants had a long lag phase in minimal media in contrast to wild-type growth characteristics. Antioxidants such as ascorbate could increase the growth rate of all tested strains in minimal media. This result confirmed that P. putida KT2440 experienced more oxidative stress during exponential growth in minimal media than in rich media. Endogenous promoter activity of the fpr gene is much higher during exponential growth than during stationary growth. These findings demonstrate new relationships between fpr, finR, and the physiology of oxidative stress in P. putida KT2440.

  8. Redundancy in putrescine catabolism in solvent tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12.

    PubMed

    Bandounas, Luaine; Ballerstedt, Hendrik; de Winde, Johannes H; Ruijssenaars, Harald J

    2011-06-10

    Pseudomonas putida S12 is a promising platform organism for the biological production of substituted aromatic compounds due to its extreme tolerance towards toxic chemicals. Solvent or aromatic stress tolerance may be due to membrane modifications and efflux pumps; however in general, polyamines have also been implicated in stressed cells. Previous transcriptomics results of P. putida strains producing an aromatic compound, or being exposed to the solvent toluene, indicated differentially expressed genes involved in polyamine transport and metabolism. Therefore, the metabolism of the polyamine, putrescine was investigated in P. putida S12, as no putrescine degradation pathways have been described for this strain. Via transcriptome analysis various, often redundant, putrescine-induced genes were identified as being potentially involved in putrescine catabolism via oxidative deamination and transamination. A series of knockout mutants were constructed in which up to six of these genes were sequentially deleted, and although putrescine degradation was affected in some of these mutants, complete elimination of putrescine degradation in P. putida S12 was not achieved. Evidence was found for the presence of an alternative pathway for putrescine degradation involving γ-glutamylation. The occurrence of multiple putrescine degradation routes in the solvent-tolerant P. putida S12 is indicative of the importance of controlling polyamine homeostasis, as well as of the high metabolic flexibility exhibited by this microorganism.

  9. Toxicity of graphene oxide on growth and metabolism of Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Combarros, R G; Collado, S; Díaz, M

    2016-06-01

    The increasing consumption of graphene derivatives leads to greater presence of these materials in wastewater treatment plants and ecological systems. The toxicity effect of graphene oxide (GO) on the microbial functions involved in the biological wastewater treatment process is studied, using Pseudomonas putida and salicylic acid (SA) as bacterial and pollutant models. A multiparametric flow cytometry (FC) method has been developed to measure the metabolic activity and viability of P. putida in contact with GO. A continuous reduction in the percentages of viable cells and a slight increase, lower than 5%, in the percentages of damaged and dead cells, suggest that P. putida in contact with GO loses the membrane integrity but preserves metabolic activity. The growth of P. putida was strongly inhibited by GO, since 0.05mgmL(-1) of GO reduced the maximum growth by a third, and the inhibition was considerably greater for GO concentrations higher than 0.1mgmL(-1). The specific SA removal rate decreased with GO concentration up to 0.1mgmL(-1) indicating that while GO always reduces the growth of P. putida, for concentrations higher than 0.1mgmL(-1), it also reduces its activity. Similar behaviour is observed using simulated urban and industrial wastewaters, the observed effects being more acute in the industrial wastewaters.

  10. Ni2+ removal and recovery from electroplating effluent by Pseudomonas putida 5-x cell biomass.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Chua, H; Wong, P K; Lo, W H; Yu, P H F

    2003-03-01

    Ni2+ and Cu2+ are the major heavy metal ions in electroplating wastewater of Hong Kong. In the present study, Pseudomonas putida 5-x cell biomass was used to remove Ni2+ from electroplating effluent. Ni2+ adsorption capacity of P. putida 5-x cell biomass cultured in sulphate-limiting medium was found to be minimum in early logarithmic growth phase, and maximum of 28.1 mg g(-1) in late stationary growth phase. Pretreated cells by 0.1 mol L(-1) HCl could greatly enhance the Ni2+ adsorption capacity of cell biomass from 28.1 to 36.7 mg g(-1) and had no significant effect on biomass loss. The adsorption process of P. putida 5-x fresh cells and pretreated cell all could be expressed with Freundlich isotherm. TEM analyses indicated that acidic pretreatment degraded the superficial layer-capsule outside of the fresh cell to improve the adsorption capacity of cell to Ni2+. The Ni2+ bound by P. putida 5-x cell biomass could be efficiently recovered using 0.1 mol L(-1) HCl, and the cell biomass could be reused at least five cycles for Ni2+ removal and recovery with 93% above removal efficiency and 98% above recovery rate. Owing to the Cu2+ presented in electroplating wastewater inhibiting Ni2+ adsorption process by P. putida 5-x cell biomass, two-stage biosorption processes should be designed to remove and recover Cu2+ and Ni2+ sequentially from electroplating effluent.

  11. Enhanced Tolerance to Naphthalene and Enhanced Rhizoremediation Performance for Pseudomonas putida KT2440 via the NAH7 Catabolic Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Matilde; Niqui-Arroyo, José Luis; Conde, Susana; Duque, Estrella

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we explore the potential use of the Pseudomonas putida KT2440 strain for bioremediation of naphthalene-polluted soils. Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 thrives in naphthalene-saturated medium, establishing a complex response that activates genes coding for extrusion pumps and cellular damage repair enzymes, as well as genes involved in the oxidative stress response. The transfer of the NAH7 plasmid enables naphthalene degradation by P. putida KT2440 while alleviating the cellular stress brought about by this toxic compound, without affecting key functions necessary for survival and colonization of the rhizosphere. Pseudomonas putida KT2440(NAH7) efficiently expresses the Nah catabolic pathway in vitro and in situ, leading to the complete mineralization of [14C]naphthalene, measured as the evolution of 14CO2, while the rate of mineralization was at least 2-fold higher in the rhizosphere than in bulk soil. PMID:22582075

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Caprolactam-Degrading Pseudomonas putida Strain SJ3

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sung-Jun; Park, Gun-Seok; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Jung, Byung Kown; Park, Yeong-Jun; Yoo, Na-Kyung; Lee, Changhee; Park, Choi Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida strain SJ3, which possesses caprolactam-degrading ability, was isolated from dyeing industry wastewater in Daegu, Republic of Korea. Here, we describe the draft genome sequence and annotation of the strain. The 5,596,765-bp-long genome contains 4,293 protein-coding genes and 68 RNA genes with 61.70% G+C content. PMID:26205864

  13. Poly‐3‐hydroxyalkanoate synthases from Pseudomonas putida U: substrate specificity and ultrastructural studies

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Sagrario; Sandoval, Angel; Arcos, Mario; Cañedo, Librada M.; Maestro, Beatriz; Sanz, Jesús M.; Naharro, Germán; Luengo, José M.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The substrate specificity of the two polymerases (PhaC1 and PhaC2) involved in the biosynthesis of medium‐chain‐length poly‐hydroxyalkanoates (mcl PHAs) in Pseudomonas putida U has been studied in vivo. For these kind of experiments, two recombinant strains derived from a genetically engineered mutant in which the whole pha locus had been deleted (P. putida U Δpha) were employed. These bacteria, which expresses only phaC1 (P. putida U Δpha pMC‐phaC1)or only phaC2(P. putida U Δpha pMC‐phaC2), accumulated different PHAs in function of the precursor supplemented to the culture broth. Thus, the P. putida U Δpha pMC‐phaC1strain was able to synthesize several aliphatic and aromatic PHAs when hexanoic, heptanoic, octanoic decanoic, 5‐phenylvaleric, 6‐phenylhexanoic, 7‐phenylheptanoic, 8‐phenyloctanoic or 9‐phenylnonanoic acid were used as precursors; the highest accumulation of polymers was observed when the precursor used were decanoic acid (aliphatic PHAs) or 6‐phenylhexanoic acid (aromatic PHAs). However, although it synthesizes similar aliphatic PHAs (the highest accumulation was observed when hexanoic acid was the precursor) the other recombinant strain (P. putida U Δpha pMC‐phaC2) only accumulated aromatic PHAs when the monomer to be polymerized was 3‐hydroxy‐5‐phenylvaleryl‐CoA. The possible influence of the putative three‐dimensional structures on the different catalytic behaviour of PhaC1 and PhaC2 is discussed. PMID:21261834

  14. Biosorption of aluminum through the use of non-viable biomass of Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Boeris, Paola Sabrina; Agustín, María Del Rosario; Acevedo, Diego Fernando; Lucchesi, Gloria Inés

    2016-10-20

    Living and non-living biomass of Pseudomonas putida A (ATCC 12633) was used as biosorbent for the removing of Al(3+) from aqueous solutions. The process was stable with time, efficient at pH 4.3 and between 15°C and 42°C. Two isotherms models were applied to describe the interaction between the biosorbent and Al(3+). Non-living biomass of P. putida A (ATCC 12633) was found to be the most efficient at adsorbing Al(3+) with a maximum sorption capacity of 0.55mg Al(3+)/gr adsorbent and with 36×10(5) binding sites of Al(3+)/microorganisms. Infrared spectroscopy analysis shows that the biosorbent present some vibrational band of functional groups that change in presence of Al(3+): hydroxyl, carboxyl and phosphate. Considering that Al(3+) binds to the phosphate group of phosphatidylcholine, non-viable biomass of P. putida PB01 (mutant lacking phosphatidylcholine) was used. Aluminum adsorption of the parental strain was 30 times higher than values registered in P. putida PB01 (36×10(5) sites/microorganism vs 1.2×10(5) sites/microorganism, respectively). This result evidenced that the absence of phosphatidylcholine significantly affected the availability of the binding sites and consequently the efficiency of the biomass to adsorb Al(3+). PMID:27485814

  15. Biosorption of aluminum through the use of non-viable biomass of Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Boeris, Paola Sabrina; Agustín, María Del Rosario; Acevedo, Diego Fernando; Lucchesi, Gloria Inés

    2016-10-20

    Living and non-living biomass of Pseudomonas putida A (ATCC 12633) was used as biosorbent for the removing of Al(3+) from aqueous solutions. The process was stable with time, efficient at pH 4.3 and between 15°C and 42°C. Two isotherms models were applied to describe the interaction between the biosorbent and Al(3+). Non-living biomass of P. putida A (ATCC 12633) was found to be the most efficient at adsorbing Al(3+) with a maximum sorption capacity of 0.55mg Al(3+)/gr adsorbent and with 36×10(5) binding sites of Al(3+)/microorganisms. Infrared spectroscopy analysis shows that the biosorbent present some vibrational band of functional groups that change in presence of Al(3+): hydroxyl, carboxyl and phosphate. Considering that Al(3+) binds to the phosphate group of phosphatidylcholine, non-viable biomass of P. putida PB01 (mutant lacking phosphatidylcholine) was used. Aluminum adsorption of the parental strain was 30 times higher than values registered in P. putida PB01 (36×10(5) sites/microorganism vs 1.2×10(5) sites/microorganism, respectively). This result evidenced that the absence of phosphatidylcholine significantly affected the availability of the binding sites and consequently the efficiency of the biomass to adsorb Al(3+).

  16. Effect of Pseudomonas putida on Growth and Anthocyanin Pigment in Two Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Zulueta-Rodriguez, Ramon; Cordoba-Matson, Miguel Victor; Hernandez-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Rueda-Puente, Edgar; Lara, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida is plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that have the capacity to improve growth in plants. The purpose of this study was to determine growth and anthocyanin pigmentation of the bracts in two poinsettia Euphorbia pulcherrima cultivars (Prestige and Sonora Marble) using three strains of P. putida, as well as a mixture of the three (MIX). Comparison with the control group indicated for the most part that Prestige grew better than the Sonora Marble cultivars with the PGPR strains. Prestige with the MIX strain grew better compared to control for the number of cyathia (83 versus 70.4), volume of roots (45 versus 35 cm3), number of leaves (78 versus 58), and area of leaf (1,788 versus 1,331 cm2), except for the number of flowers (8.8 versus 11.6). To the naked eye, coloration of plants appeared identical in color compared to the control group. For all plants with P. putida strains, there was less anthocyanin pigment, but biomass was always greater with PGPR strains. Nevertheless, to the naked eye, the coloration of the plants appeared identical in color compared to the control group. This is the first study reporting the positive effects of P. putida rhizobacteria treatments on growth of poinsettia cultivars. PMID:25097888

  17. Effect of Pseudomonas putida on growth and anthocyanin pigment in two poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Zulueta-Rodriguez, Ramon; Cordoba-Matson, Miguel Victor; Hernandez-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Rueda-Puente, Edgar; Lara, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida is plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that have the capacity to improve growth in plants. The purpose of this study was to determine growth and anthocyanin pigmentation of the bracts in two poinsettia Euphorbia pulcherrima cultivars (Prestige and Sonora Marble) using three strains of P. putida, as well as a mixture of the three (MIX). Comparison with the control group indicated for the most part that Prestige grew better than the Sonora Marble cultivars with the PGPR strains. Prestige with the MIX strain grew better compared to control for the number of cyathia (83 versus 70.4), volume of roots (45 versus 3  cm(3)), number of leaves (78 versus 58), and area of leaf (1,788 versus 1,331 cm(2)), except for the number of flowers (8.8 versus 11.6). To the naked eye, coloration of plants appeared identical in color compared to the control group. For all plants with P. putida strains, there was less anthocyanin pigment, but biomass was always greater with PGPR strains. Nevertheless, to the naked eye, the coloration of the plants appeared identical in color compared to the control group. This is the first study reporting the positive effects of P. putida rhizobacteria treatments on growth of poinsettia cultivars.

  18. Metal Inhibition of Growth and Manganese Oxidation in Pseudomonas putida GB-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena, J.; Sposito, G.

    2009-12-01

    Biogenic manganese oxides (MnO2) are ubiquitous nanoparticulate minerals that contribute to the adsorption of nutrient and toxicant metals, the oxidative degradation of various organic compounds, and the respiration of metal-reducing bacteria in aquatic and terrestrial environments. The formation of these minerals is catalyzed by a diverse and widely-distributed group of bacteria and fungi, often through the enzymatic oxidation of aqueous Mn(II) to Mn(IV). In metal-impacted ecosystems, toxicant metals may alter the viability and metabolic activity of Mn-oxidizing organisms, thereby limiting the conditions under which biogenic MnO2 can form and diminishing their potential as adsorbent materials. Pseudomonas putida GB-1 (P. putida GB-1) is a model Mn-oxidizing laboratory culture representative of freshwater and soil biofilm-forming bacteria. Manganese oxidation in P. putida GB-1 occurs via two single-electron-transfer reactions, involving a multicopper oxidase enzyme found on the bacterial outer membrane surface. Near the onset of the stationary phase of growth, dark brown MnO2 particles are deposited in a matrix of bacterial cells and extracellular polymeric substances, thus forming heterogeneous biomineral assemblages. In this study, we assessed the influence of various transition metals on microbial growth and manganese oxidation capacity in a P. putida GB-1 culture propagated in a nutrient-rich growth medium. The concentration-response behavior of actively growing P. putida GB-1 cells was investigated for Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn at pH ≈ 6 in the presence and absence of 1 mM Mn. Toxicity parameters such as EC0, EC50 and Hillslope, and EC100 were obtained from the sigmoidal concentration-response curves. The extent of MnO2 formation in the presence of the various metal cations was documented 24, 50, 74 and 104 h after the metal-amended medium was inoculated. Toxicity values were compared to twelve physicochemical properties of the metals tested. Significant

  19. Response of plant-colonizing pseudomonads to hydrogen peroxide. [Pseudomonas putida

    SciTech Connect

    Katsuwon, J.; Anderson, A.J. )

    1989-11-01

    Colonization of plant root surfaces by Pseudomonas putida may require mechanisms that protect this bacterium against superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide produced by the root. Catalase and superoxide dismutase may be important in this bacterial defense system. Stationary-phase cells of P. putida were not killed by hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) at concentrations up to 10 mM, and extracts from these cells possessed three isozymic bands (A, B, and C) of catalase activity in native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Logarithmic-phase cells exposed directly to hydrogen peroxide concentrations above 1 mM were killed. Extracts of logarithmic-phase cells displayed only band A catalase activity. Protection against 5 mM H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was apparent after previous exposure of the logarithmic-phase cells to nonlethal concentrations (30 to 300 {mu}M) of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Extracts of these protected cells possessed enhanced catalase activity of band A and small amounts of bands B and C. A single form of superoxide dismutase and isoforms of catalase were apparent in extracts from a foliar intercellular pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. The mobilities of these P. syringae enzymes were distinct from those of enzymes in P. putida extracts.

  20. Toxic effect of environmentally relevant concentration of silver nanoparticles on environmentally beneficial bacterium Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Khan, S Sudheer; Ghouse, Syed Shabin; Chandran, Preethy

    2015-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are being increasingly used in many consumer products owing to their excellent antimicrobial properties. The continuous use of Ag NPs in consumer products will lead to environmental release. The present study evaluated the toxic effects and the possible underlying mechanism of Ag NPs on Pseudomonas putida. Ag NP exposure inhibited growth of the cells. Increased lipid peroxidation occurred coincident with suppression of the antioxidant defense system. Ag NP exposure caused reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione depletion and inactivation of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase. The addition of superoxide dismutase or pretreatment of P. putida with N-acetyl cysteine that quenches ROS reduced toxicity of the NPs. PMID:25627470

  1. Biofiltration of ethyl acetate by Pseudomonas putida immobilized on walnut shell.

    PubMed

    Zare, Hossein; Najafpour, Ghasem; Rahimnejad, Mostafa; Tardast, Ali; Gilani, Saeedeh

    2012-11-01

    A biofilter packed with walnut shells was used to eliminate ethyl acetate from an air stream. The shells treated with NaOH were used as medium for immobilization of Pseudomonas putida PTCC 1694. At an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 60s, a removal efficiency of 99% was achieved at inlet concentrations lower than 430ppm of ethyl acetate. The removal efficiency decreased below 80% with an increase in inlet concentration of ethyl acetate. When the EBRT was increased to 75 s, the removal efficiency remained above 80% even though the inlet loading rate was increased to 421g/m(3)h. Michaelis-Menten type and zero-order diffusion limited models were employed and the predicted data perfectly matched the experimental data. Thus P. putida immobilized on walnut shell has potential for the removal of ethyl acetate from air streams.

  2. Biotransformation of 6,6-Dimethylfulvene by Pseudomonas putida RE213

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, R. W.; Selifonov, S. A.

    1996-01-01

    The biotransformation of 6,6-dimethylfulvene [5-(1-methylethylidene)-1,3-cyclopentadiene], a nonaromatic C(inf5) carbocyclic analog of isopropylbenzene, was examined by using Pseudomonas putida RE213, a Tn5-generated dihydrodiol-accumulating mutant of the isopropylbenzene-degrading strain P. putida RE204. 6,6-Dimethylfulvene was converted to a single chiral product identified as (+)-(1R,2S)-cis-1,2-dihydroxy-5-(1-methylethylidene)-3-cyclopentene. This isopropylbenzene 2,3-dioxygenase-catalyzed transformation demonstrates the potential of bacterial arene dioxygenases for the direct conversion of cyclopentadienylidene compounds to homochiral C(inf5) carbocyclic cis-diols for use in enantiocontrolled organic syntheses. PMID:16535266

  3. Induction of the tod operon by trichloroethylene in Pseudomonas putida TVA8

    SciTech Connect

    Shingleton, J.T.; Applegate, B.M.; Nagel, A.C.; Bienkowski, P.R.; Sayler, G.S.

    1998-12-01

    Bioluminescence, mRNA levels, and toluene degradation rates in Pseudomonas putida TVA8 were measured as a function of various concentrations of toluene and trichloroethylene (TCE). TVA8 showed an increasing bioluminescence response to increasing TCE and toluene concentrations. Compared to uninduced TVA8 cultures, todC1 mRNA levels increased 11-fold for TCE-treated cultures and 13-fold for toluene-treated cultures. Compared to uninduced P. putida F1 cultures, todC1 mRNA levels increased 4,4-fold for TCE-induced cultures and 4.9-fold for toluene-induced cultures. Initial toluene degradation rates were linearly correlated with specific bioluminescence in TVA8 cultures.

  4. Regulation of Hydroxylation and Nitroreduction Pathways during Metabolism of the Neonicotinoid Insecticide Imidacloprid by Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tian-Qi; Mao, Shi-Yun; Sun, Shi-Lei; Yang, Wen-Long; Ge, Feng; Dai, Yi-Jun

    2016-06-22

    Imidacloprid (IMI) is mainly metabolized via nitroreduction and hydroxylation pathways, which produce different metabolites that are toxic to mammals and insects. However, regulation of IMI metabolic flux between nitroreduction and hydroxylation pathways is still unclear. In this study, Pseudomonas putida was found to metabolize IMI to 5-hydroxy and nitroso IMI and was therefore used for investigating the regulation of IMI metabolic flux. The cell growth time, cosubstrate, dissolved oxygen concentration, and pH showed significant effect on IMI degradation and nitroso and 5-hydroxy IMI formation. Gene cloning and overexpression in Escherichia coli proved that P. putida KT2440 aldehyde oxidase mediated IMI nitroreduction to nitroso IMI, while cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) failed to improve IMI hydroxylation. Moreover, E. coli cells without CYP could hydroxylate IMI, demonstrating the role of a non-CYP enzyme in IMI hydroxylation. Thus, the present study helps to further understand the environmental fate of IMI and its underlying mechanism. PMID:27230024

  5. Biofiltration of ethyl acetate by Pseudomonas putida immobilized on walnut shell.

    PubMed

    Zare, Hossein; Najafpour, Ghasem; Rahimnejad, Mostafa; Tardast, Ali; Gilani, Saeedeh

    2012-11-01

    A biofilter packed with walnut shells was used to eliminate ethyl acetate from an air stream. The shells treated with NaOH were used as medium for immobilization of Pseudomonas putida PTCC 1694. At an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 60s, a removal efficiency of 99% was achieved at inlet concentrations lower than 430ppm of ethyl acetate. The removal efficiency decreased below 80% with an increase in inlet concentration of ethyl acetate. When the EBRT was increased to 75 s, the removal efficiency remained above 80% even though the inlet loading rate was increased to 421g/m(3)h. Michaelis-Menten type and zero-order diffusion limited models were employed and the predicted data perfectly matched the experimental data. Thus P. putida immobilized on walnut shell has potential for the removal of ethyl acetate from air streams. PMID:22940351

  6. Metabolism of chlorofluorocarbons and polybrominated compounds by pseudomonas putida G786(pHG-2) via an engineered metabolic pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, H.G.; Sadowsky, M.J.; Wackett, L.P.

    1994-11-01

    Polyhalogenated EPA Priority Pollutants are among the most toxic and persistent of the xenobiotic compounds found in the environment. In those instances when biodegradation does occure, it is typically via reductive dechlorination reactions in anaerobic sediments. These reactions are very slow and difficult to study. In this study, cytochrome P-450{sub cam} from Pseudomonas putida G786 and toluene dioxygenase from P. putida F1 were used to catalyze consecutive cometabolic dehalogenation reactions. New halogenated substrates for both were identified. The results demonstrate the metabolism of polybrominated compounds and chlorofluoroalkanes via the engineered metabolic pathway in P. putida G786(pHG-2). 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Cytosine chemoreceptor McpC in Pseudomonas putida F1 also detects nicotinic acid.

    PubMed

    Parales, Rebecca E; Nesteryuk, Vasyl; Hughes, Jonathan G; Luu, Rita A; Ditty, Jayna L

    2014-12-01

    Soil bacteria are generally capable of growth on a wide range of organic chemicals, and pseudomonads are particularly adept at utilizing aromatic compounds. Pseudomonads are motile bacteria that are capable of sensing a wide range of chemicals, using both energy taxis and chemotaxis. Whilst the identification of specific chemicals detected by the ≥26 chemoreceptors encoded in Pseudomonas genomes is ongoing, the functions of only a limited number of Pseudomonas chemoreceptors have been revealed to date. We report here that McpC, a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein in Pseudomonas putida F1 that was previously shown to function as a receptor for cytosine, was also responsible for the chemotactic response to the carboxylated pyridine nicotinic acid.

  8. Nucleotide sequencing and characterization of the genes encoding benzene oxidation enzymes of Pseudomonas putida

    SciTech Connect

    Irie, S.; Doi, S.; Yorifuji, T.; Takagi, M.; Yano, K.

    1987-11-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the genes from Pseudomonas putida encoding oxidation of benzene to catechol was determined. Five open reading frames were found in the sequence. Four corresponding protein molecules were detected by a DNA-directed in vitro translation system. Escherichia coli cells containing the fragment with the four open reading frames transformed benzene to cis-benzene glycol, which is an intermediate of the oxidation of benzene to catechol. The relation between the product of each cistron and the components of the benzene oxidation enzyme system is discussed.

  9. Genetic analysis of functions involved in adhesion of Pseudomonas putida to seeds.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Urgel, M; Salido, A; Ramos, J L

    2000-05-01

    Many agricultural uses of bacteria require the establishment of efficient bacterial populations in the rhizosphere, for which colonization of plant seeds often constitutes a critical first step. Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is a strain that colonizes the rhizosphere of a number of agronomically important plants at high population densities. To identify the functions involved in initial seed colonization by P. putida KT2440, we subjected this strain to transposon mutagenesis and screened for mutants defective in attachment to corn seeds. Eight different mutants were isolated and characterized. While all of them showed reduced attachment to seeds, only two had strong defects in their adhesion to abiotic surfaces (glass and different plastics). Sequences of the loci affected in all eight mutants were obtained. None of the isolated genes had previously been described in P. putida, although four of them showed clear similarities with genes of known functions in other organisms. They corresponded to putative surface and membrane proteins, including a calcium-binding protein, a hemolysin, a peptide transporter, and a potential multidrug efflux pump. One other showed limited similarities with surface proteins, while the remaining three presented no obvious similarities with known genes, indicating that this study has disclosed novel functions.

  10. Metabolic engineering of Pseudomonas putida for production of docosahexaenoic acid based on a myxobacterial PUFA synthase.

    PubMed

    Gemperlein, Katja; Zipf, Gregor; Bernauer, Hubert S; Müller, Rolf; Wenzel, Silke C

    2016-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) can be produced de novo via polyketide synthase-like enzymes known as PUFA synthases, which are encoded by pfa biosynthetic gene clusters originally discovered from marine microorganisms. Recently similar gene clusters were detected and characterized in terrestrial myxobacteria revealing several striking differences. As the identified myxobacterial producers are difficult to handle genetically and grow very slowly we aimed to establish heterologous expression platforms for myxobacterial PUFA synthases. Here we report the heterologous expression of the pfa gene cluster from Aetherobacter fasciculatus (SBSr002) in the phylogenetically distant model host bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida. The latter host turned out to be the more promising PUFA producer revealing higher production rates of n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). After several rounds of genetic engineering of expression plasmids combined with metabolic engineering of P. putida, DHA production yields were eventually increased more than threefold. Additionally, we applied synthetic biology approaches to redesign and construct artificial versions of the A. fasciculatus pfa gene cluster, which to the best of our knowledge represents the first example of a polyketide-like biosynthetic gene cluster modulated and synthesized for P. putida. Combination with the engineering efforts described above led to a further increase in LC-PUFA production yields. The established production platform based on synthetic DNA now sets the stage for flexible engineering of the complex PUFA synthase. PMID:26617065

  11. Response of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 to Increased NADH and ATP Demand▿†

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Birgitta E.; Kurth, Felix; Grund, Marcel; Blank, Lars M.; Schmid, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine phosphate and NAD cofactors play a vital role in the operation of cell metabolism, and their levels and ratios are carefully regulated in tight ranges. Perturbations of the consumption of these metabolites might have a great impact on cell metabolism and physiology. Here, we investigated the impact of increased ATP hydrolysis and NADH oxidation rates on the metabolism of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 by titration of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and overproduction of a water-forming NADH oxidase, respectively. Both perturbations resulted in a reduction of the biomass yield and, as a consequence of the uncoupling of catabolic and anabolic activities, in an amplification of the net NADH regeneration rate. However, a stimulation of the specific carbon uptake rate was observed only when P. putida was challenged with very high 2,4-dinitrophenol concentrations and was comparatively unaffected by recombinant NADH oxidase activity. This behavior contrasts with the comparably sensitive performance described, for example, for Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The apparent robustness of P. putida metabolism indicates that it possesses a certain buffering capacity and a high flexibility to adapt to and counteract different stresses without showing a distinct phenotype. These findings are important, e.g., for the development of whole-cell redox biocatalytic processes that impose equivalent burdens on the cell metabolism: stoichiometric consumption of (reduced) redox cofactors and increased energy expenditures, due to the toxicity of the biocatalytic compounds. PMID:21803911

  12. Degradation of chloronitrobenzenes by a coculture of Pseudomonas putida and a Rhodococcus sp.

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.S.; Lim, S.J.; Chang, Y.K.; Kim, H.S.; Livingston, A.G.

    1999-03-01

    A single microorganism able to mineralize chloronitrobenzenes (CNBs) has not been reported, and degradation of CNBs of coculture of two microbial strains was attempted. Pseudomonas putida HS12 was first isolated by analogue enrichment culture using nitrobenzene (NB) as the substrate, and this strain was observed to possess a partial reductive pathway for the degradation of NB. From high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance analyses, NB-grown cells of P. putida HS12 were found to convert 3- and 4-CNBs to the corresponding 5- and 4-chloro-2-hydroxyacetanilides, respectively, by partial reduction and subsequent acetylation. For the degradation of CNBs, Rhodococcus sp. strain HS51, which degrades 4- and 5-chloro-2-hydroxyacetanilides, was isolated and combined with P. putida HS12 to give a coculture. This coculture was confirmed to mineralize 3- and 4-CNBs in the presence of an additional carbon source. A degradation pathway for 3- and 4-CNBs by the two isolated strains was also proposed.

  13. Survival in soils of an herbicide-resistant Pseudomonas putida strain bearing a recombinant TOL plasmid

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, J.L.; Duque, E.; Ramos-Gonzalez, M.-I. )

    1991-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida EEZ15(pWW0-EB62) is a phosphinothricin (PPT)-resistant strain with a recombinant TOL plasmid which allows the strain to grown on p-ethylbenzoate. The survival of this strain in sterile agricultural soils depends on the physicochemical properties of the soil. The recombinant pWW0-EB62 plasmid and its catabolic functions were stable for periods of up to 1 month in bacteria introduced in unamended soils and only conferred selective advantage to the host bacteria without the plasmid or with the natural pWW0 plasmid when the soils were amended with low amounts of p-ethylbenzoate. The addition to soils of aromatics that are cometabolized by P. putida EEZ15(pWW0-EB62) had a detrimental effect on the survival of the bacteria, whereas low amounts of aromatics that are not metabolized by this bacterium had no effect on their survival. Survival of P. putida EEZ15(pWW0-EB62) was better at 4 and 25{degree}C than at 37{degree}C. The host bacterium carrying the recombinant pWW0-EB62 plasmid was established in unsterile soils.

  14. Pseudomonas putida KT2440 response to nickel or cobalt induced stress by quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Ray, Prasun; Girard, Vincent; Gault, Manon; Job, Claudette; Bonneu, Marc; Mandrand-Berthelot, Marie-Andrée; Singh, Surya S; Job, Dominique; Rodrigue, Agnès

    2013-01-01

    Nickel and cobalt are obligate nutrients for the gammaproteobacteria but when present at high concentrations they display toxic effects. These two metals are present in the environment, their origin being either from natural sources or from industrial use. In this study, the effect of inhibitory concentrations of Ni or Co was assessed on the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 using a proteomic approach. The identification of more than 400 spots resulted in the quantification of 160 proteins that underwent significant variations in cells exposed to Co and Ni. This analysis allowed us to depict the cellular response of P. putida cells toward metallic stress. More precisely, the parallel comparison of the two proteomes showed distinct responses of P. putida to Ni or Co toxicity. The most striking effect of Co was revealed by the accumulation of several proteins involved in the defense against oxidative damage, which include proteins involved in the detoxification of the reactive oxygen species, superoxides and peroxides. The up-regulation of the genes encoding these enzymes was confirmed using qRT-PCR. Interestingly, in the Ni-treated samples, sodB, encoding superoxide dismutase, was up-regulated, indicating the apparition of superoxide radicals due to the presence of Ni. However, the most striking effect of Ni was the accumulation of several proteins involved in the synthesis of amino acids. The measurement of the amount of amino acids in Ni-treated cells revealed a strong accumulation of glutamate. PMID:23235558

  15. Metabolomics reveals the physiological response of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 (UWC1) after pharmaceutical exposure.

    PubMed

    Currie, Felicity; Broadhurst, David I; Dunn, Warwick B; Sellick, Christopher A; Goodacre, Royston

    2016-04-01

    Human pharmaceuticals have been detected in wastewater treatment plants, rivers, and estuaries throughout Europe and the United States. It is widely acknowledged that there is insufficient information available to determine whether prolonged exposure to low levels of these substances is having an impact on the microbial ecology in such environments. In this study we attempt to measure the effects of exposing cultures of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 (UWC1) to six pharmaceuticals by looking at differences in metabolite levels. Initially, we used Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis to discriminate between cell cultures exposed to different pharmaceuticals. This suggested that on exposure to propranolol there were significant changes in the lipid complement of P. putida. Metabolic profiling with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), coupled with univariate statistical analyses, was used to identify endogenous metabolites contributing to discrimination between cells exposed to the six drugs. This approach suggested that the energy reserves of exposed cells were being expended and was particularly evident on exposure to propranolol. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations were raised in P. putida exposed to propranolol. Increased energy requirements may be due to energy dependent efflux pumps being used to remove propranolol from the cell. PMID:26932201

  16. Toluene dioxygenase expression correlates with trichloroethylene degradation capacity in Pseudomonas putida F1 cultures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianbo; Amemiya, Takashi; Chang, Qing; Qian, Yi; Itoh, Kiminori

    2012-09-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is extensively used in commercial applications, despite its risk to human health via soil and groundwater contamination. The stability of TCE, which is a useful characteristic for commercial application, makes it difficult to remove it from the environment. Numerous studies have demonstrated that TCE can be effectively removed from the environment using bioremediation. Pseudomonas putida F1 is capable of degrading TCE into less hazardous byproducts via the toluene dioxygenase pathway (TOD). Unfortunately, these bioremediation systems are not self-sustaining, as the degradation capacity declines over time. Fortunately, the replacement of metabolic co-factors is sufficient in many cases to maintain effective TCE degradation. Thus, monitoring systems must be developed to predict when TCE degradation rates are likely to decline. Herein, we show evidence that tod expression levels correlate with the ability of P. putida F1 to metabolize TCE in the presence of toluene. Furthermore, the presence of toluene improves the replication of P. putida F1, even when TCE is present at high concentration. These findings may be applied to real world applications to decide when the bioremediation system requires supplementation with aromatic substrates, in order to maintain maximum TCE removal capacity.

  17. Genetic programming of catalytic Pseudomonas putida biofilms for boosting biodegradation of haloalkanes.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Ilaria; de Lorenzo, Víctor; Nikel, Pablo I

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms outperform planktonic counterparts in whole-cell biocatalysis. The transition between planktonic and biofilm lifestyles of the platform strain Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is ruled by a regulatory network controlling the levels of the trigger signal cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP). This circumstance was exploited for designing a genetic device that over-runs the synthesis or degradation of c-di-GMP--thus making P. putida to form biofilms at user's will. For this purpose, the transcription of either yedQ (diguanylate cyclase) or yhjH (c-di-GMP phoshodiesterase) from Escherichia coli was artificially placed under the tight control of a cyclohexanone-responsive expression system. The resulting strain was subsequently endowed with a synthetic operon and tested for 1-chlorobutane biodegradation. Upon addition of cyclohexanone to the culture medium, the thereby designed P. putida cells formed biofilms displaying high dehalogenase activity. These results show that the morphologies and physical forms of whole-cell biocatalysts can be genetically programmed while purposely designing their biochemical activity.

  18. Metabolic Engineering of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 to Produce Anthranilate from Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Kuepper, Jannis; Dickler, Jasmin; Biggel, Michael; Behnken, Swantje; Jäger, Gernot; Wierckx, Nick; Blank, Lars M.

    2015-01-01

    The Pseudomonas putida KT2440 strain was engineered in order to produce anthranilate (oAB, ortho-aminobenzoate), a precursor of the aromatic amino acid tryptophan, from glucose as sole carbon source. To enable the production of the metabolic intermediate oAB, the trpDC operon encoding an anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase (TrpD) and an indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase (TrpC), were deleted. In addition, the chorismate mutase (pheA) responsible for the conversion of chorismate over prephenate to phenylpyruvate was deleted in the background of the deletion of trpDC to circumvent a potential drain of precursor. To further increase the oAB production, a feedback insensitive version of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase encoded by the aroGD146N gene and an anthranilate synthase (trpES40FG) were overexpressed separately and simultaneously in the deletion mutants. With optimized production conditions in a tryptophan-limited fed-batch process a maximum of 1.54 ± 0.3 g L-1 (11.23 mM) oAB was obtained with the best performing engineered P. putida KT2440 strain (P. putida ΔtrpDC pSEVA234_aroGD146N_trpES40FG). PMID:26635771

  19. Survival in soils of an herbicide-resistant Pseudomonas putida strain bearing a recombinant TOL plasmid.

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, J L; Duque, E; Ramos-Gonzalez, M I

    1991-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida EEZ15(pWW0-EB62) is a phosphinothricin (PPT)-resistant strain with a recombinant TOL plasmid which allows the strain to grow on p-ethylbenzoate. The survival of this strain in sterile agricultural soils depends on the physicochemical properties of the soil. The recombinant pWW0-EB62 plasmid and its catabolic functions were stable for periods of up to 1 month in bacteria introduced in unamended soils and only conferred selective advantage to the host bacteria without the plasmid or with the natural pWW0 plasmid when the soils were amended with low amounts of p-ethylbenzoate. The addition to soils of aromatics that are cometabolized by P. putida EEZ15(pWW0-EB62) had a detrimental effect on the survival of the bacteria, whereas low amounts of aromatics that are not metabolized by this bacterium had no effect on their survival. Survival of P. putida EEZ15(pWW0-EB62) was better at 4 and 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. The host bacterium carrying the recombinant pWW0-EB62 plasmid was established in unsterile soils. PMID:2036014

  20. Metabolic Engineering of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 to Produce Anthranilate from Glucose.

    PubMed

    Kuepper, Jannis; Dickler, Jasmin; Biggel, Michael; Behnken, Swantje; Jäger, Gernot; Wierckx, Nick; Blank, Lars M

    2015-01-01

    The Pseudomonas putida KT2440 strain was engineered in order to produce anthranilate (oAB, ortho-aminobenzoate), a precursor of the aromatic amino acid tryptophan, from glucose as sole carbon source. To enable the production of the metabolic intermediate oAB, the trpDC operon encoding an anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase (TrpD) and an indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase (TrpC), were deleted. In addition, the chorismate mutase (pheA) responsible for the conversion of chorismate over prephenate to phenylpyruvate was deleted in the background of the deletion of trpDC to circumvent a potential drain of precursor. To further increase the oAB production, a feedback insensitive version of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase encoded by the aroG (D146N) gene and an anthranilate synthase (trpE (S40F) G) were overexpressed separately and simultaneously in the deletion mutants. With optimized production conditions in a tryptophan-limited fed-batch process a maximum of 1.54 ± 0.3 g L(-1) (11.23 mM) oAB was obtained with the best performing engineered P. putida KT2440 strain (P. putida ΔtrpDC pSEVA234_aroG (D146N) _trpE (S40F) G). PMID:26635771

  1. Antibiotic Resistance Determinants in a Pseudomonas putida Strain Isolated from a Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Duque, Estrella; Fernández, Matilde; Molina-Santiago, Carlos; Roca, Amalia; Porcel, Mario; de la Torre, Jesús; Segura, Ana; Plesiat, Patrick; Jeannot, Katy; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2014-01-01

    Environmental microbes harbor an enormous pool of antibiotic and biocide resistance genes that can impact the resistance profiles of animal and human pathogens via horizontal gene transfer. Pseudomonas putida strains are ubiquitous in soil and water but have been seldom isolated from humans. We have established a collection of P. putida strains isolated from in-patients in different hospitals in France. One of the isolated strains (HB3267) kills insects and is resistant to the majority of the antibiotics used in laboratories and hospitals, including aminoglycosides, ß-lactams, cationic peptides, chromoprotein enediyne antibiotics, dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors, fluoroquinolones and quinolones, glycopeptide antibiotics, macrolides, polyketides and sulfonamides. Similar to other P. putida clinical isolates the strain was sensitive to amikacin. To shed light on the broad pattern of antibiotic resistance, which is rarely found in clinical isolates of this species, the genome of this strain was sequenced and analysed. The study revealed that the determinants of multiple resistance are both chromosomally-borne as well as located on the pPC9 plasmid. Further analysis indicated that pPC9 has recruited antibiotic and biocide resistance genes from environmental microorganisms as well as from opportunistic and true human pathogens. The pPC9 plasmid is not self-transmissible, but can be mobilized by other bacterial plasmids making it capable of spreading antibiotic resistant determinants to new hosts. PMID:24465371

  2. The c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase BifA regulates biofilm development in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Fernández, Alicia; López-Sánchez, Aroa; Calero, Patricia; Govantes, Fernando

    2015-02-01

    We previously showed the isolation of biofilmpersistent Pseudomonas putida mutants that fail to undergo biofilm dispersal upon entry in stationary phase. Two such mutants were found to bear insertions in PP0914, encoding a GGDEF/EAL domain protein with high similarity to Pseudomon asaeruginosa BifA. Here we show the phenotypic characterization of a ΔbifA mutant in P. putida KT2442.This mutant displayed increased biofilm and pellicle formation, cell aggregation in liquid medium and decreased starvation-induced biofilm dispersal relative to the wild type. Unlike its P. aeruginosa counterpart, P. putida BifA did not affect swarming motility. The hyperadherent phenotype of the ΔbifA mutant correlates with a general increase in cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) levels, Congo Red-binding exopolyaccharide production and transcription of the adhesin-encoding lapA gene. Integrity of the EAL motif and a modified GGDEF motif (altered to GGDQF)were crucial for BifA activity, and c-di-GMP depletion by overexpression of a heterologous c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase in the ΔbifA mutant restored wild-type biofilm dispersal and lapA expression.Our results indicate that BifA is a phosphodiesterase involved in the regulation of the c-di-GMP pool and required for the generation of the low c-di-GMP signal that triggers starvation-induced biofilm dispersal.

  3. Repression of Pseudomonas putida phenanthrene-degrading activity by plant root extracts and exudates.

    PubMed

    Rentz, Jeremy A; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Schnoor, Jerald L

    2004-06-01

    The phenanthrene-degrading activity (PDA) of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17484 was repressed after incubation with plant root extracts of oat (Avena sativa), osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix alba x matsudana), kou (Cordia subcordata) and milo (Thespesia populnea) and plant root exudates of oat (Avena sativa) and hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides x nigra DN34). Total organic carbon content of root extracts ranged from 103 to 395 mg l(-1). Characterization of root extracts identified acetate (not detectable to 8.0 mg l(-1)), amino acids (1.7-17.3 mg l(-1)) and glucose (1.6-14.0 mg l(-1)), indicating a complex mixture of substrates. Repression was also observed after exposure to potential root-derived substrates, including organic acids, glucose (carbohydrate) and glutamate (amino acid). Carbon source regulation (e.g. catabolite repression) was apparently responsible for the observed repression of P. putida PDA by root extracts. However, we showed that P. putida grows on root extracts and exudates as sole carbon and energy sources. Enhanced growth on root products may compensate for partial repression, because larger microbial populations are conducive to faster degradation rates. This would explain the commonly reported increase in phenanthrene removal in the rhizosphere.

  4. Entner-Doudoroff pathway for sulfoquinovose degradation in Pseudomonas putida SQ1.

    PubMed

    Felux, Ann-Katrin; Spiteller, Dieter; Klebensberger, Janosch; Schleheck, David

    2015-08-01

    Sulfoquinovose (SQ; 6-deoxy-6-sulfoglucose) is the polar head group of the plant sulfolipid SQ-diacylglycerol, and SQ comprises a major proportion of the organosulfur in nature, where it is degraded by bacteria. A first degradation pathway for SQ has been demonstrated recently, a "sulfoglycolytic" pathway, in addition to the classical glycolytic (Embden-Meyerhof) pathway in Escherichia coli K-12; half of the carbon of SQ is abstracted as dihydroxyacetonephosphate (DHAP) and used for growth, whereas a C3-organosulfonate, 2,3-dihydroxypropane sulfonate (DHPS), is excreted. The environmental isolate Pseudomonas putida SQ1 is also able to use SQ for growth, and excretes a different C3-organosulfonate, 3-sulfolactate (SL). In this study, we revealed the catabolic pathway for SQ in P. putida SQ1 through differential proteomics and transcriptional analyses, by in vitro reconstitution of the complete pathway by five heterologously produced enzymes, and by identification of all four organosulfonate intermediates. The pathway follows a reaction sequence analogous to the Entner-Doudoroff pathway for glucose-6-phosphate: It involves an NAD(+)-dependent SQ dehydrogenase, 6-deoxy-6-sulfogluconolactone (SGL) lactonase, 6-deoxy-6-sulfogluconate (SG) dehydratase, and 2-keto-3,6-dideoxy-6-sulfogluconate (KDSG) aldolase. The aldolase reaction yields pyruvate, which supports growth of P. putida, and 3-sulfolactaldehyde (SLA), which is oxidized to SL by an NAD(P)(+)-dependent SLA dehydrogenase. All five enzymes are encoded in a single gene cluster that includes, for example, genes for transport and regulation. Homologous gene clusters were found in genomes of other P. putida strains, in other gamma-Proteobacteria, and in beta- and alpha-Proteobacteria, for example, in genomes of Enterobacteria, Vibrio, and Halomonas species, and in typical soil bacteria, such as Burkholderia, Herbaspirillum, and Rhizobium.

  5. Influence of periplasmic oxidation of glucose on pyoverdine synthesis in Pseudomonas putida S11.

    PubMed

    Ponraj, Paramasivan; Shankar, Manoharan; Ilakkiam, Devaraj; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy

    2013-06-01

    Fluorescent pseudomonads catabolize glucose simultaneously by two different pathways, namely, the oxidative pathway in periplasm and the phosphorylative pathway in cytoplasm. This study provides evidence for the role of glucose metabolism in the regulation of pyoverdine synthesis in Pseudomonas putida S11. We have characterized the influence of direct oxidation of glucose in periplasm on pyoverdine synthesis in P. putida S11. We identified a Tn5 transposon mutant of P. putida S11 showing increased pyoverdine production in minimal glucose medium (MGM). This mutant designated as IST1 had Tn5 insertion in glucose dehydrogenase (gcd) gene. To verify the role of periplasmic oxidation of glucose on pyoverdine synthesis, we constructed mutants S11 Gcd(-) and S11 PqqF(-) by antibiotic cassette mutagenesis. These mutants of P. putida S11 with loss of glucose dehydrogenase gene (gcd) or cofactor pyrroloquinoline quinone biosynthesis gene (pqqF) showed increased pyoverdine synthesis and impaired acid production in MGM. In minimal gluconate medium, the pyoverdine production of wild-type strain S11 and mutants S11 Gcd(-) and S11 PqqF(-) was higher than in MGM indicating that gluconate did not affect pyoverdine synthesis. In MGM containing PIPES-NaOH (pH 7.5) buffer which prevent pH changes due to gluconic acid production, strain S11 produced higher amount of pyoverdine similar to mutants S11 Gcd(-) and S11 PqqF(-). Therefore, it is proposed that periplasmic oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid decreases the pH of MGM and thereby influences pyoverdine synthesis of strain S11. The increased pyoverdine synthesis enhanced biotic and abiotic surface colonization of the strain S11.

  6. Entner–Doudoroff pathway for sulfoquinovose degradation in Pseudomonas putida SQ1

    PubMed Central

    Felux, Ann-Katrin; Spiteller, Dieter; Klebensberger, Janosch; Schleheck, David

    2015-01-01

    Sulfoquinovose (SQ; 6-deoxy-6-sulfoglucose) is the polar head group of the plant sulfolipid SQ-diacylglycerol, and SQ comprises a major proportion of the organosulfur in nature, where it is degraded by bacteria. A first degradation pathway for SQ has been demonstrated recently, a “sulfoglycolytic” pathway, in addition to the classical glycolytic (Embden–Meyerhof) pathway in Escherichia coli K-12; half of the carbon of SQ is abstracted as dihydroxyacetonephosphate (DHAP) and used for growth, whereas a C3-organosulfonate, 2,3-dihydroxypropane sulfonate (DHPS), is excreted. The environmental isolate Pseudomonas putida SQ1 is also able to use SQ for growth, and excretes a different C3-organosulfonate, 3-sulfolactate (SL). In this study, we revealed the catabolic pathway for SQ in P. putida SQ1 through differential proteomics and transcriptional analyses, by in vitro reconstitution of the complete pathway by five heterologously produced enzymes, and by identification of all four organosulfonate intermediates. The pathway follows a reaction sequence analogous to the Entner–Doudoroff pathway for glucose-6-phosphate: It involves an NAD+-dependent SQ dehydrogenase, 6-deoxy-6-sulfogluconolactone (SGL) lactonase, 6-deoxy-6-sulfogluconate (SG) dehydratase, and 2-keto-3,6-dideoxy-6-sulfogluconate (KDSG) aldolase. The aldolase reaction yields pyruvate, which supports growth of P. putida, and 3-sulfolactaldehyde (SLA), which is oxidized to SL by an NAD(P)+-dependent SLA dehydrogenase. All five enzymes are encoded in a single gene cluster that includes, for example, genes for transport and regulation. Homologous gene clusters were found in genomes of other P. putida strains, in other gamma-Proteobacteria, and in beta- and alpha-Proteobacteria, for example, in genomes of Enterobacteria, Vibrio, and Halomonas species, and in typical soil bacteria, such as Burkholderia, Herbaspirillum, and Rhizobium. PMID:26195800

  7. Entner-Doudoroff pathway for sulfoquinovose degradation in Pseudomonas putida SQ1.

    PubMed

    Felux, Ann-Katrin; Spiteller, Dieter; Klebensberger, Janosch; Schleheck, David

    2015-08-01

    Sulfoquinovose (SQ; 6-deoxy-6-sulfoglucose) is the polar head group of the plant sulfolipid SQ-diacylglycerol, and SQ comprises a major proportion of the organosulfur in nature, where it is degraded by bacteria. A first degradation pathway for SQ has been demonstrated recently, a "sulfoglycolytic" pathway, in addition to the classical glycolytic (Embden-Meyerhof) pathway in Escherichia coli K-12; half of the carbon of SQ is abstracted as dihydroxyacetonephosphate (DHAP) and used for growth, whereas a C3-organosulfonate, 2,3-dihydroxypropane sulfonate (DHPS), is excreted. The environmental isolate Pseudomonas putida SQ1 is also able to use SQ for growth, and excretes a different C3-organosulfonate, 3-sulfolactate (SL). In this study, we revealed the catabolic pathway for SQ in P. putida SQ1 through differential proteomics and transcriptional analyses, by in vitro reconstitution of the complete pathway by five heterologously produced enzymes, and by identification of all four organosulfonate intermediates. The pathway follows a reaction sequence analogous to the Entner-Doudoroff pathway for glucose-6-phosphate: It involves an NAD(+)-dependent SQ dehydrogenase, 6-deoxy-6-sulfogluconolactone (SGL) lactonase, 6-deoxy-6-sulfogluconate (SG) dehydratase, and 2-keto-3,6-dideoxy-6-sulfogluconate (KDSG) aldolase. The aldolase reaction yields pyruvate, which supports growth of P. putida, and 3-sulfolactaldehyde (SLA), which is oxidized to SL by an NAD(P)(+)-dependent SLA dehydrogenase. All five enzymes are encoded in a single gene cluster that includes, for example, genes for transport and regulation. Homologous gene clusters were found in genomes of other P. putida strains, in other gamma-Proteobacteria, and in beta- and alpha-Proteobacteria, for example, in genomes of Enterobacteria, Vibrio, and Halomonas species, and in typical soil bacteria, such as Burkholderia, Herbaspirillum, and Rhizobium. PMID:26195800

  8. Enhancing Indigo Production by Over-Expression of the Styrene Monooxygenase in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Yin, Sheng; Chen, Min; Sun, Baoguo; Hao, Shuai; Wang, Chengtao

    2016-08-01

    As an important traditional blue dye, indigo has been used in food and textile industry for centuries, which can be produced via the styrene oxygenation pathway in Pseudomonas putida. Hence, the styrene monooxygenase gene styAB and oxide isomerase gene styC are over-expressed in P. putida to investigate their roles in indigo biosynthesis. RT-qPCR analysis indicated that transcriptions of styA and styB were increased by 2500- and 750-folds in the styAB over-expressed strain B4-01, compared with the wild-type strain B4, consequently significantly enhancing the indole monooxygenase activity. Transcription of styC was also increased by 100-folds in the styC over-expressed strain B4-02. Besides, styAB over-expression slightly up-regulated the transcription of styC in B4-01, while styC over-expression hardly exerted an effect on the transcriptional levels of styA and styB and indole monooxygenase activity in B4-02. Furthermore, shaking flask experiments showed that indigo production in B4-01 reached 52.13 mg L(-1) after 24 h, which was sevenfold higher than that in B4. But no obvious increase in indigo yield was observed in B4-02. Over-expression of styAB significantly enhanced the indigo production, revealing that the monooxygenase STYAB rather than oxide isomerase STYC probably acted as the key rate-limiting enzyme in the indigo biosynthesis pathway in P. putida. This work provided a new strategy for enhancing indigo production in Pseudomonas. PMID:27154464

  9. Variability in subpopulation formation propagates into biocatalytic variability of engineered Pseudomonas putida strains

    PubMed Central

    Lindmeyer, Martin; Jahn, Michael; Vorpahl, Carsten; Müller, Susann; Schmid, Andreas; Bühler, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Pivotal challenges in industrial biotechnology are the identification and overcoming of cell-to-cell heterogeneity in microbial processes. While the development of subpopulations of isogenic cells in bioprocesses is well described (intra-population variability), a possible variability between genetically identical cultures growing under macroscopically identical conditions (clonal variability) is not. A high such clonal variability has been found for the recombinant expression of the styrene monooxygenase genes styAB from Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120 in solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E using the alk-regulatory system from P. putida GPo1. In this study, the oxygenase subunit StyA fused to eGFP was used as readout tool to characterize the population structure in P. putida DOT-T1E regarding recombinant protein content. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that in individual cultures, at least two subpopulations with highly differing recombinant StyA-eGFP protein contents appeared (intra-population variability). Interestingly, subpopulation sizes varied from culture-to-culture correlating with the specific styrene epoxidation activity of cells derived from respective cultures (clonal variability). In addition, flow cytometric cell sorting coupled to plasmid copy number (PCN) determination revealed that detected clonal variations cannot be correlated to the PCN, but depend on the combination of the regulatory system and the host strain employed. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first work reporting that intra-population variability (with differing protein contents in the presented case study) causes clonal variability of genetically identical cultures. Respective impacts on bioprocess reliability and performance and strategies to overcome respective reliability issues are discussed. PMID:26483771

  10. Mechanisms of solvent resistance mediated by interplay of cellular factors in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Juan-Luis; Sol Cuenca, Maria; Molina-Santiago, Carlos; Segura, Ana; Duque, Estrella; Gómez-García, María R; Udaondo, Zulema; Roca, Amalia

    2015-07-01

    A number of microorganisms have the ability to thrive in the presence of a range of toxic solvents. Tolerance to these chemicals is a multifactorial process, meaning that bacterial cells use a set of physiological and gene expression changes to overcome the damage imparted by these chemicals. This review focuses mainly on issues related to tolerance to aromatic hydrocarbons and butanol in Pseudomonas, although other microorganisms are also discussed. Pseudomonas putida strains contain a circular chromosome of approximately 6 Mbp which encodes about 5300 genes. A combination of physiological and biochemical assays, a genome-wide collection of mutants and several omics approaches have provided useful information to help identify functions involved in solvent tolerance in P. putida. The solvent response involves fine-tuning of lipid fluidity to adjust membrane functions including impermeabilization, activation of a general stress-response system, increased energy generation and induction of specific efflux pumps that extrude solvents to the medium. These responses are modulated at the transcriptional level by local and global regulators as well as by a number of sRNAs whose levels fluctuate with the presence of solvents in the environment. Taken as a whole these regulatory inputs orchestrate the complex network of metabolic responses observed after solvent addition. PMID:25934123

  11. [Removal of toluene waste gas by Pseudomonas putida with a bio-trickling filter].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Jing; Li, Jian; Li, Yi-Li; Jin, Yu-Quan; Sun, Li

    2007-08-01

    In transient conditions close to the industrialized application situation, the removal of toluene was investigated with a lab-scale bio-trickling filter inoculated with pure bacterial culture (Pseudomonas putida). The start-up process and the ability of resisting different toluene loading in the steady state on the performance of the bio-trickling filter were studied. The microstructure of biofilm in the filter was also observed. With inlet concentration range from 544 to 1044 mg x m(-3) at the temperature ranging from 17 to 26 degrees C, the removal efficiency of toluene was almost 100% at the residence time of 54 s and 43.2 s. The maximum volumetric removal loading of 105.35 g x (m3 x h)(-1) was achieved. The results indicate that it was feasible to remove toluene by Pseudomonas putida which had not be acclimated by toluene. In the steady state, the bio-trickling filter had a high flexibility for the load change and the removal efficiency of the reactor was not influenced by the variance of residence time and inlet concentration. The rapid increase of biofilm can be controlled by adjusting the interval of nutrition liquid accession. There were some changes in bacterial community, and lots of micro-pore existed in the biofilm. It was proved that the absorption of the biofilm was an important precondition for the biodegradation of toluene.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas putida BW11M1, a Banana Rhizosphere Isolate with a Diversified Antimicrobial Armamentarium

    PubMed Central

    Swings, Toon; Michiels, Jan; Gross, Harald; De Mot, René

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the draft genome of Pseudomonas putida BW11M1, a banana rhizosphere isolate producing various antimicrobial compounds, including a lectin-like bacteriocin, an R-type tailocin, the cyclic lipopeptide xantholysin, and the fatty acid–derived pseudopyronine. PMID:27081131

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas putida JLR11, a Facultative Anaerobic 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Biotransforming Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Javier; Udaondo, Zulema; Molina, Lazaro; Segura, Ana; Esteve-Núñez, Abraham; Caballero, Antonio; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan Luis; van Dillewijn, Pieter

    2015-09-03

    We report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas putida JLR11, a facultative anaerobic bacterium that has been studied in detail for its capacity to use the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) as a nitrogen source. The sequence confirms the mechanisms used by this versatile strain to reduce and assimilate nitrogen from TNT.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas putida JLR11, a Facultative Anaerobic 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Biotransforming Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Javier; Udaondo, Zulema; Molina, Lazaro; Segura, Ana; Esteve-Núñez, Abraham; Caballero, Antonio; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas putida JLR11, a facultative anaerobic bacterium that has been studied in detail for its capacity to use the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) as a nitrogen source. The sequence confirms the mechanisms used by this versatile strain to reduce and assimilate nitrogen from TNT. PMID:26337875

  15. Complete genome sequence of solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12 including megaplasmid pTTS12.

    PubMed

    Kuepper, J; Ruijssenaars, H J; Blank, L M; de Winde, J H; Wierckx, N

    2015-04-20

    Pseudomonas putida S12 is a solvent-tolerant gamma-proteobacterium with an extensive track record for production of industrially relevant chemicals. Here we report the annotated complete genome sequence of this organism, including the megaplasmid pTTS12 which encodes many of the unique features of the S12 strain. PMID:25746905

  16. Growth independent rhamnolipid production from glucose using the non-pathogenic Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rhamnolipids are potent biosurfactants with high potential for industrial applications. However, rhamnolipids are currently produced with the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa during growth on hydrophobic substrates such as plant oils. The heterologous production of rhamnolipids entails two essential advantages: Disconnecting the rhamnolipid biosynthesis from the complex quorum sensing regulation and the opportunity of avoiding pathogenic production strains, in particular P. aeruginosa. In addition, separation of rhamnolipids from fatty acids is difficult and hence costly. Results Here, the metabolic engineering of a rhamnolipid producing Pseudomonas putida KT2440, a strain certified as safety strain using glucose as carbon source to avoid cumbersome product purification, is reported. Notably, P. putida KT2440 features almost no changes in growth rate and lag-phase in the presence of high concentrations of rhamnolipids (> 90 g/L) in contrast to the industrially important bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Escherichia coli. P. putida KT2440 expressing the rhlAB-genes from P. aeruginosa PAO1 produces mono-rhamnolipids of P. aeruginosa PAO1 type (mainly C10:C10). The metabolic network was optimized in silico for rhamnolipid synthesis from glucose. In addition, a first genetic optimization, the removal of polyhydroxyalkanoate formation as competing pathway, was implemented. The final strain had production rates in the range of P. aeruginosa PAO1 at yields of about 0.15 g/gglucose corresponding to 32% of the theoretical optimum. What's more, rhamnolipid production was independent from biomass formation, a trait that can be exploited for high rhamnolipid production without high biomass formation. Conclusions A functional alternative to the pathogenic rhamnolipid producer P. aeruginosa was constructed and characterized. P. putida KT24C1 pVLT31_rhlAB featured the highest yield and titer reported from heterologous rhamnolipid

  17. Screening and optimization of low-cost medium for Pseudomonas putida Rs-198 culture using RSM

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yanjie; He, Yanhui; Wu, Zhansheng; Lu, Jianjiang; Li, Chun

    2014-01-01

    The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial strain Pseudomonas putida Rs-198 was isolated from salinized soils from Xinjiang Province. We optimized the composition of the low-cost medium of P. putida Rs-198 based on its bacterial concentration, as well as its phosphate-dissolving and indole acetic acid (IAA)-producing capabilities using the response surface methodology (RSM), and a mathematical model was developed to show the effect of each medium component and its interactions on phosphate dissolution and IAA production. The model predicted a maximum phosphate concentration in medium containing 63.23 mg/L inorganic phosphate with 49.22 g/L corn flour, 14.63 g/L soybean meal, 2.03 g/L K2HPO4, 0.19 g/L MnSO4 and 5.00 g/L NaCl. The maximum IAA concentration (18.73 mg/L) was predicted in medium containing 52.41 g/L corn flour, 15.82 g/L soybean meal, 2.40 g/L K2HPO4, 0.17 g/L MnSO4 and 5.00 g/L NaCl. These predicted values were also verified through experiments, with a cell density of 1013 cfu/mL, phosphate dissolution of 64.33 mg/L, and IAA concentration of 18.08 mg/L. The excellent correlation between predicted and measured values of each model justifies the validity of both the response models. The study aims to provide a basis for industrialized fermentation using P. putida Rs-198. PMID:25763026

  18. Tracing explosives in soil with transcriptional regulators of Pseudomonas putida evolved for responding to nitrotoluenes

    PubMed Central

    Garmendia, Junkal; De Las Heras, Aitor; Galvão, Teca Calcagno; De Lorenzo, Víctor

    2008-01-01

    Summary Although different biological approaches for detection of anti‐personnel mines and other unexploded ordnance (UXO) have been entertained, none of them has been rigorously documented thus far in the scientific literature. The industrial 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT) habitually employed in the manufacturing of mines is at all times tainted with a small but significant proportion of the more volatile 2,4 dinitrotoluene (2,4 DNT) and other nitroaromatic compounds. By using mutation‐prone PCR and DNA sequence shuffling we have evolved in vitro and selected in vivo variants of the effector recognition domain of the toluene‐responsive XylR regulator of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida that responds to mono‐, bi‐ and trinitro substituted toluenes. Re‐introduction of such variants in P. putida settled the transcriptional activity of the cognate promoters (Po and Pu) as a function of the presence of nitrotoluenes in the medium. When strains bearing transcriptional fusions to reporters with an optical output (luxAB, GFP) were spread on soil spotted with nitrotoluenes, the signal triggered by promoter activation allowed localization of the target compounds on the soil surface. Our data provide a proof of concept that non‐natural transcription factors evolved to respond to nitroaromatics can be engineered in soil bacteria and inoculated on a target site to pinpoint the presence of explosives. This approach thus opens new ways to tackle this gigantic humanitarian problem. PMID:21261843

  19. The Cytochrome c Maturation Operon Is Involved in Manganese Oxidation in Pseudomonas putida GB-1

    PubMed Central

    de Vrind, J. P. M.; Brouwers, G. J.; Corstjens, P. L. A. M.; den Dulk, J.; de Vrind-de Jong, E. W.

    1998-01-01

    A Pseudomonas putida strain, strain GB-1, oxidizes Mn2+ to Mn oxide in the early stationary growth phase. It also secretes a siderophore (identified as pyoverdine) when it is subjected to iron limitation. After transposon (Tn5) mutagenesis several classes of mutants with differences in Mn2+ oxidation and/or secretion of the Mn2+-oxidizing activity were identified. Preliminary analysis of the Tn5 insertion site in one of the nonoxidizing mutants suggested that a multicopper oxidase-related enzyme is involved in Mn2+ oxidation. The insertion site in another mutant was preliminarily identified as a gene involved in the general protein secretion pathway. Two mutants defective in Mn2+-oxidizing activity also secreted porphyrins into the medium and appeared to be derepressed for pyoverdine production. These strains were chosen for detailed analysis. Both mutants were shown to contain Tn5 insertions in the ccmF gene, which is part of the cytochrome c maturation operon. They were cytochrome oxidase negative and did not contain c-type cytochromes. Complementation with part of the ccm operon isolated from the wild type restored the phenotype of the parent strain. These results indicate that a functional ccm operon is required for Mn2+ oxidation in P. putida GB-1. A possible relationship between porphyrin secretion resulting from the ccm mutation and stimulation of pyoverdine production is discussed. PMID:9758767

  20. Biodegradation of 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene by selected strains of Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Parisa; Plettner, Erika

    2014-02-01

    Dialkoxybenzenes constitute a class of organic compounds with anti feeding and oviposition effects on the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni. Among them, 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene has the highest feeding deterrence activity and potential for development as commercial insect control agent. To develop this compound, its fate in the environment needs to be studied. The fate of organic compounds in the environment depends on their biodegradability in the soil. We present results of laboratory biodegradation experiments of 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene with three strains of Pseudomonas putida. Two of the three strains of P. putida tested were able to metabolize 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene. Both strains required induction of the catabolic pathway. Specifically, strain ATCC 17453 (which contains the CAM plasmid) metabolized 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene by first dealkylating. This gave both possible monoalkoxy phenols after five days, followed by dihydroquinone after 8 days. In vitro tests with CYP101A1 (cytochrome P450cam, a camphor hydroxylase), revealed that the dealkylation is catalyzed by this enzyme.

  1. Process development for degradation of phenol by Pseudomonas putida in hollow-fiber membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tsuey-Ping; Wu, Pei-Chen; Juang, Ruey-Shin

    2004-07-20

    The degradation of phenol (100-2800 mg/L) by cells Pseudomonas putida CCRC14365 in an extractive hollow-fiber membrane bioreactor (HFMBR) was studied, in which the polypropylene fibers were prewetted with ethanol. The effects of flow velocity, the concentrations of phenol, and the added dispersive agent tetrasodium pyrophosphate on phenol degradation and cell growth were examined. It was shown that about 10% of phenol was sorbed on the fibers at the beginning of the degradation process. The cells P. putida fully degraded 2000 mg/L of phenol within 73 h when the cells were immobilized and separated by the fibers. Even at a level of 2800 mg/L, phenol could be degraded more than 90% after 95-h operation. At low phenol levels (< 400 mg/L) where substrate inhibition was not severe, it was more advantageous to treat the solution in a suspended system. At higher phenol levels (> 1000 mg/L), however, such HFMBR-immobilized cells could degrade phenol to a tolerable concentration with weak substrate-inhibition effect, and the degradation that followed could be completed by suspended cultures due to their larger degradation rate. The process development in an HFMBR system was also discussed.

  2. Pseudomonas putida response in membrane bioreactors under salicylic acid-induced stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Collado, Sergio; Rosas, Irene; González, Elena; Gutierrez-Lavin, Antonio; Diaz, Mario

    2014-02-28

    Starvation and changing feeding conditions are frequently characteristics of wastewater treatment plants. They are typical causes of unsteady-state operation of biological systems and provoke cellular stress. The response of a membrane bioreactor functioning under feed-induced stress conditions is studied here. In order to simplify and considerably amplify the response to stress and to obtain a reference model, a pure culture of Pseudomonas putida was selected instead of an activated sludge and a sole substrate (salicylic acid) was employed. The system degraded salicylic acid at 100-1100mg/L with a high level of efficiency, showed rapid acclimation without substrate or product inhibition phenomena and good stability in response to unsteady states caused by feed variations. Under starvation conditions, specific degradation rates of around 15mg/gh were achieved during the adaptation of the biomass to the new conditions and no biofilm formation was observed during the first days of experimentation using an initial substrate to microorganisms ratio lower than 0.1. When substrate was added to the reactor as pulses resulting in rapidly changing concentrations, P. putida growth was observed only for substrate to microorganism ratios higher than 0.6, with a maximum YX/S of 0.5g/g. Biofilm development under changing feeding conditions was fast, biomass detachment only being significant for biomass concentrations on the membrane surface that were higher than 16g/m(2).

  3. A Pseudomonas putida Strain Genetically Engineered for 1,2,3-Trichloropropane Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Samin, Ghufrana; Pavlova, Martina; Arif, M. Irfan; Postema, Christiaan P.; Damborsky, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP) is a toxic compound that is recalcitrant to biodegradation in the environment. Attempts to isolate TCP-degrading organisms using enrichment cultivation have failed. A potential biodegradation pathway starts with hydrolytic dehalogenation to 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol (DCP), followed by oxidative metabolism. To obtain a practically applicable TCP-degrading organism, we introduced an engineered haloalkane dehalogenase with improved TCP degradation activity into the DCP-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas putida MC4. For this purpose, the dehalogenase gene (dhaA31) was cloned behind the constitutive dhlA promoter and was introduced into the genome of strain MC4 using a transposon delivery system. The transposon-located antibiotic resistance marker was subsequently removed using a resolvase step. Growth of the resulting engineered bacterium, P. putida MC4-5222, on TCP was indeed observed, and all organic chlorine was released as chloride. A packed-bed reactor with immobilized cells of strain MC4-5222 degraded >95% of influent TCP (0.33 mM) under continuous-flow conditions, with stoichiometric release of inorganic chloride. The results demonstrate the successful use of a laboratory-evolved dehalogenase and genetic engineering to produce an effective, plasmid-free, and stable whole-cell biocatalyst for the aerobic bioremediation of a recalcitrant chlorinated hydrocarbon. PMID:24973068

  4. Robustness of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as a host for ethanol biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Nikel, Pablo I; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2014-12-25

    Expansion of the burgeoning biofuels agenda involves not only the design of suitable genetic and metabolic devices but also their deployment into suitable hosts that can endure the stress brought about by the products themselves. The microorganisms that are easiest to genetically manipulate for these endeavors (e.g. Escherichia coli) are often afflicted by an undesirable sensitivity to the very product that they are engineered to synthesize. In this context, we have examined the resistance to the stress arising from ethanol synthesis and/or its addition to cultures of recombinant Pseudomonas putida, using as a benchmark the same trait in an E. coli strain. To this end, ethanologenic strains of these two species were constructed by functionally expressing pdc (pyruvate decarboxylase) and adhB (alcohol dehydrogenase) from Zymomonas mobilis. Recombinants were compared under anoxic conditions as ethanol producers, and cell survival, stress resistance, and phenotypic stability were quantified in each case. P. putida consistently outperformed E. coli in every ethanol tolerance test conducted - whether the alcohol was produced endogenously or added exogenously. These results highlight the value of this bacterium as a microbial cell factory for the production of biofuels owing to its naturally pre-evolved ability to withstand different kinds of chemical stresses.

  5. The cytochrome c maturation operon is involved in manganese oxidation in Pseudomonas putida GB-1

    SciTech Connect

    Vrind, J.P.M. de; Brouwers, G.J.; Corstijens, P.L.A.M.; Dulk, J. den; Vrind-de Jong, E.W. de

    1998-10-01

    A Pseudomonas putida strain, strain GB-1, oxidizes Mn{sup 2+} to Mn oxide in the early stationary growth phase. It also secretes a siderophore (identified as pyoverdine) when it is subjected to iron limitation. After transposon (Tn5) mutagenesis several classes of mutants with differences in Mn{sup 2+} oxidation and/or secretion of the Mn{sup 2+}-oxidizing activity were identified. Preliminary analysis of the Tn5 insertion site in one of the nonoxidizing mutants suggested that a multicopper oxidase-related enzyme is involved in Mn{sup 2+} oxidation. The insertion site in another mutant was preliminarily identified as a gene involved in the general protein secretion pathway. Two mutants defective in Mn{sup 2+}-oxidizing activity also secreted porphyrins into the medium and appeared to be derepressed for pyoverdine production. These strains were chosen for detailed analysis. Both mutants were shown to contain Tn5 insertions in the ccmF gene, which is part of the cytochrome c maturation operon. They were cytochrome oxidase negative and did not contain c-type cytochromes. Complementation with part of the ccm operon isolated from the wild type restored the phenotype of the parent strain. These results indicate that a functional ccm operon is required for Mn{sup 2+} oxidation in P. putida GB-1. A possible relationship between porphyrin secretion resulting from the ccm mutation and stimulation of pyoverdine production is discussed.

  6. Genetic and phenotypic characterization of the heat shock response in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Ito, Fumihiro; Tamiya, Takayuki; Ohtsu, Iwao; Fujimura, Makoto; Fukumori, Fumiyasu

    2014-12-01

    Molecular chaperones function in various important physiological processes. Null mutants of genes for the molecular chaperone ClpB (Hsp104), and those that encode J-domain proteins (DnaJ, CbpA, and DjlA), which may act as Hsp40 co-chaperones of DnaK (Hsp70), were constructed from Pseudomonas putida KT2442 (KT) to elucidate their roles. The KTΔclpB mutant showed the same heat shock response (HSR) as the wild-type, both in terms of heat-shock protein (Hsp) synthesis (other than ClpB) and in hsp gene expression; however, the mutant was quite sensitive to high temperatures and was unable to disaggregate into thermo-mediated protein aggregates, indicating that ClpB is important for cell survival after heat stress and essential for solubilization of protein aggregates. On the other hand, the KTΔdnaJ mutant was temperature-sensitive, and formed more protein aggregates (especially of high molecular weight) upon heat stress than did KT. P. putida CbpA, a probable Hsp, partially substituted the functions of DnaJ in cell growth and solubilization of thermo-mediated protein aggregates, and might be involved in the HSR which was regulated by a fine-tuning system(s) that could sense subtle changes in the ambient temperature and control the levels of σ(32) activity and quantity, as well as the mRNA levels of hsp genes.

  7. Metabolic and regulatory rearrangements underlying glycerol metabolism in Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    PubMed

    Nikel, Pablo I; Kim, Juhyun; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    While the natural niches of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida are unlikely to include significant amounts of free glycerol as a growth substrate, this bacterium is genetically equipped with the functions required for its metabolism. We have resorted to deep sequencing of the transcripts in glycerol-grown P. putida KT2440 cells to gain an insight into the biochemical and regulatory components involved in the shift between customary C sources (e.g. glucose or succinate) to the polyol. Transcriptomic results were contrasted with key enzymatic activities under the same culture conditions. Cognate expression profiles revealed that genes encoding enzymes of the Entner-Doudoroff route and other catabolic pathways, e.g. the gluconate and 2-ketogluconate loops, were significantly downregulated on glycerol. Yet, the compound simultaneously elicited a gluconeogenic response that indicated an efficient channelling of C skeletons back to biomass build-up through the glyoxylate shunt rather than energization of the cells through downwards pathways, i.e. tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. The simultaneous glycolytic and gluconeogenic metabolic regimes on glycerol, paradoxical as they seem, make sense from an ecological point of view by favouring prevalence versus exploration. This metabolic situation was accompanied by a considerably low expression of stress markers as compared with other C sources.

  8. Genetic and phenotypic characterization of the heat shock response in Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Fumihiro; Tamiya, Takayuki; Ohtsu, Iwao; Fujimura, Makoto; Fukumori, Fumiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Molecular chaperones function in various important physiological processes. Null mutants of genes for the molecular chaperone ClpB (Hsp104), and those that encode J-domain proteins (DnaJ, CbpA, and DjlA), which may act as Hsp40 co-chaperones of DnaK (Hsp70), were constructed from Pseudomonas putida KT2442 (KT) to elucidate their roles. The KTΔclpB mutant showed the same heat shock response (HSR) as the wild-type, both in terms of heat-shock protein (Hsp) synthesis (other than ClpB) and in hsp gene expression; however, the mutant was quite sensitive to high temperatures and was unable to disaggregate into thermo-mediated protein aggregates, indicating that ClpB is important for cell survival after heat stress and essential for solubilization of protein aggregates. On the other hand, the KTΔdnaJ mutant was temperature-sensitive, and formed more protein aggregates (especially of high molecular weight) upon heat stress than did KT. P. putida CbpA, a probable Hsp, partially substituted the functions of DnaJ in cell growth and solubilization of thermo-mediated protein aggregates, and might be involved in the HSR which was regulated by a fine-tuning system(s) that could sense subtle changes in the ambient temperature and control the levels of σ32 activity and quantity, as well as the mRNA levels of hsp genes. PMID:25303383

  9. Cd adsorption onto Pseudomonas putida in the presence and absence of extracellular polymeric substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueshima, Masato; Ginn, Brian R.; Haack, Elizabeth A.; Szymanowski, Jennifer E. S.; Fein, Jeremy B.

    2008-12-01

    The role of bacterial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in metal adsorption was determined by studying Cd adsorption onto the gram-negative bacterial species Pseudomonas putida with and without enzymatic removal of EPS from the biomass material. A range of experimental approaches were used to characterize the Cd adsorption reactions, including bulk proton and Cd adsorption measurements, FTIR spectroscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. The proton-reactivities of the biomass samples with EPS are not significantly different from those obtained for EPS-free biomass. Similarly, the presence of EPS does not significantly affect the extent of Cd removal from solution by the biomass on a mass-normalized basis, based on bulk Cd adsorption measurements conducted as a function of pH, nor does it appear to strongly affect the Cd-binding groups as observed by FTIR. However, fluorescence microscopy indicates that Cd, although concentrated on cell walls, is also bound to some extent to EPS. Together, the results from this study suggest that the P. putida EPS can bind significant concentrations of Cd from solution, and that the nature and mass-normalized extent of the binding is similar to that of the cell wall. Therefore, the EPS-bearing systems do not exhibit enhanced mass-normalized removal of Cd from solution relative to the EPS-free systems. The presence of the EPS effectively increases the viability of cells exposed to aqueous Cd, likely due to sequestration of the Cd away from the cells due to Cd-EPS binding.

  10. Characterization of the genes encoding beta-ketoadipate: succinyl-coenzyme A transferase in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Parales, R E; Harwood, C S

    1992-01-01

    beta-Ketoadipate:succinyl-coenzyme A transferase (beta-ketoadipate:succinyl-CoA transferase) (EC 2.8.3.6) carries out the penultimate step in the conversion of benzoate and 4-hydroxybenzoate to tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates in bacteria utilizing the beta-ketoadipate pathway. This report describes the characterization of a DNA fragment from Pseudomonas putida that encodes this enzyme. The fragment complemented mutants defective in the synthesis of the CoA transferase, and two proteins of sizes appropriate to encode the two nonidentical subunits of the enzyme were produced in Escherichia coli when the fragment was placed under the control of a phage T7 promoter. DNA sequence analysis revealed two open reading frames, designated pcaI and pcaJ, that were separated by 8 bp, suggesting that they may comprise an operon. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the P. putida CoA transferase genes with the sequences of two other bacterial CoA transferases and that of succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase from pig heart suggests that the homodimeric structure of the mammalian enzyme may have resulted from a gene fusion of the bacterial alpha and beta subunit genes during evolution. Conserved functional groups important to the catalytic activity of CoA transferases were also identified. Images PMID:1624453

  11. Production of toluene cis-glycol by Pseudomonas putida in glucose fed-batch culture

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.O.; Stephens, G.M.; Dalton, H.

    1987-05-01

    Toluene was oxidized by a mutant strain of Pseudomonas putida (strain NG1) to toluene cis-glycol (TCG). Product was accumulated in fed-batch cultures to concentrations (18-24 g/L) higher than hitherto achieved. In vitro activities of toluene dioxygenase from P. putida NG1 were fivefold lower than that from the toluene-grown wild-type organism, whereas comparable activities of both catechol 2,3- and catechol 1,2-oxygenase were obtained; irreversible inhibition of toluene dioxygenase activity by TCG was shown in vitro. Ammonia deprivation during the production phase limited the growth of revertant organisms but had little effect on either the duration (25 h) of the process or the final concentration of TCG achieved. The rates of glucose utilization decreased throughout the biotransformation and cell death accompanied the cessation of TCG accumulation in cultures. The results suggest that TCG is the mediator of a gradual deterioration in the state of the culture which leads to a loss of both in vivo and in vitro toluene dioxygenase activity and a marked decrease in culture viability.

  12. Bypasses in intracellular glucose metabolism in iron-limited Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Sasnow, Samantha S; Wei, Hua; Aristilde, Ludmilla

    2016-02-01

    Decreased biomass growth in iron (Fe)-limited Pseudomonas is generally attributed to downregulated expression of Fe-requiring proteins accompanied by an increase in siderophore biosynthesis. Here, we applied a stable isotope-assisted metabolomics approach to explore the underlying carbon metabolism in glucose-grown Pseudomonas putida KT2440. Compared to Fe-replete cells, Fe-limited cells exhibited a sixfold reduction in growth rate but the glucose uptake rate was only halved, implying an imbalance between glucose uptake and biomass growth. This imbalance could not be explained by carbon loss via siderophore production, which accounted for only 10% of the carbon-equivalent glucose uptake. In lieu of the classic glycolytic pathway, the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway in Pseudomonas is the principal route for glucose catabolism following glucose oxidation to gluconate. Remarkably, gluconate secretion represented 44% of the glucose uptake in Fe-limited cells but only 2% in Fe-replete cells. Metabolic (13) C flux analysis and intracellular metabolite levels under Fe limitation indicated a decrease in carbon fluxes through the ED pathway and through Fe-containing metabolic enzymes. The secreted siderophore was found to promote dissolution of Fe-bearing minerals to a greater extent than the high extracellular gluconate. In sum, bypasses in the Fe-limited glucose metabolism were achieved to promote Fe availability via siderophore secretion and to reroute excess carbon influx via enhanced gluconate secretion. PMID:26377487

  13. Variation in chlorobenzoate catabolism by Pseudomonas putida P111 as a consequence of genetic alterations

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, V.; Focht, D.D. ); Hernandez, B.S. )

    1993-09-01

    Chlorobenzoates are key intermediates in the degradative pathways of polychlorinated biphenyls and benzoate herbicides. Bacteria that cometabolize these pollutants generally accumulate chlorobenzoates because they are not able to grow on them. Special interest has been focused on ortho-chlorobenzoates because they are more refractory to biodegradation. In all of these studies the enzyme responsible for the first attack on the ortho-chlorobenzoates possesses minimal or negligible activity with meta- or para-chlorobenzoates. This study reports evidence for the existence of two separate benzoate dioxygenases in Pseudomonas putida P111 and for the transpostional nature of the clc operon, on the basis of genetic investigations of different phenotypic variants of this strain. 42 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. The purification and characterization of 4-ethylphenol methylenehydroxylase, a flavocytochrome from Pseudomonas putida JD1.

    PubMed

    Reeve, C D; Carver, M A; Hopper, D J

    1989-10-15

    The enzyme 4-ethylphenol methylenehydroxylase was purified from Pseudomonas putida JD1 grown on 4-ethylphenol. It is a flavocytochrome c for which the Mr was found to be 120,000 by ultracentrifuging and 126,000 by gel filtration. The enzyme consists of two flavoprotein subunits each of Mr 50,000 and two cytochrome c subunits each of Mr 10,000. The redox potential of the cytochrome is 240 mV. Hydroxylation proceeds by dehydrogenation and hydration to give 1-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol, which is also dehydrogenated by the same enzyme to 4-hydroxyacetophenone. The enzyme will hydroxylate p-cresol but is more active with alkylphenols with longer-chain alkyl groups. It is located in the periplasm of the bacterium. PMID:2556994

  15. c-Type Cytochromes and Manganese Oxidation in Pseudomonas putida MnB1

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Ron; Tebo, Bradley M.; Haygood, M. G.

    1998-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida MnB1 is an isolate from an Mn oxide-encrusted pipeline that can oxidize Mn(II) to Mn oxides. We used transposon mutagenesis to construct mutants of strain MnB1 that are unable to oxidize manganese, and we characterized some of these mutants. The mutants were divided into three groups: mutants defective in the biogenesis of c-type cytochromes, mutants defective in genes that encode key enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and mutants defective in the biosynthesis of tryptophan. The mutants in the first two groups were cytochrome c oxidase negative and did not contain c-type cytochromes. Mn(II) oxidation capability could be recovered in a c-type cytochrome biogenesis-defective mutant by complementation of the mutation. PMID:9758766

  16. Oxidative stress in bacteria (Pseudomonas putida) exposed to nanostructures of silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, Andrzej; Szala, Mateusz; Kowalczyk, Paweł; Cłapa, Tomasz; Narożna, Dorota; Selwet, Marek

    2015-09-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) nanostructures produced by combustion synthesis can cause oxidative stress in the bacterium Pseudomonas putida. The results of this study showed that SiC nanostructures damaged the cell membrane, which can lead to oxidative stress in living cells and to the loss of cell viability. As a reference, micrometric SiC was also used, which did not exhibit toxicity toward cells. Oxidative stress was studied by analyzing the activity of peroxidases, and the expression of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (zwf1) using real-time PCR and northern blot techniques. Damage to nucleic acid was studied by isolating and hydrolyzing plasmids with the formamidopyrimidine [fapy]-DNA glycosylase (also known as 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase) (Fpg), which is able to detect damaged DNA. The level of viable microbial cells was investigated by propidium iodide and acridine orange staining.

  17. Oxidation of an inhibitory substrate by washed cells (oxidation of phenol by Pseudomonas putida)

    SciTech Connect

    Sokol, W.

    1987-12-01

    The specific uptake rate of phenol by washed cells of Pseudomonas putida grown on phenol in steady-state continuous culture at various dilution rates was studied. The Monod-Haldane-type equation was applied to fit the data and the best kinetic parameters were determined by nonlinear least-squares techniques. The values of the kinetic parameters were found to increase monotonically with the phenol concentration in the original chemostat. The relations between the values of kinetic parameters and phenol concentration in the chemostat were described by empirical equations. The equation governing the instant uptake of phenol by microorganisms in chemostat in the high conversion range of phenol was proposed. This equation together with the mass balance equations can be used to determine the stability range of continuous stirred tank biochemical reactors (CSTBR) utilizing phenol.

  18. Characterization of Pseudooxynicotine Amine Oxidase of Pseudomonas putida S16 that Is Crucial for Nicotine Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Haiyang; Wang, Weiwei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Pseudooxynicotine amine oxidase (Pnao) is essential to the pyrrolidine pathway of nicotine degradation of Pseudomonas putida strain S16, which is significant for the detoxification of nicotine, through removing the CH3NH2 group. However, little is known about biochemical mechanism of this enzyme. Here, we characterized its properties and biochemical mechanism. Isotope labeling experiments provided direct evidence that the newly introduced oxygen atom in 3-succinoylsemialdehyde-pyridine is derived from H2O, but not from O2. Pnao was very stable at temperatures below 50 °C; below this temperature, the enzyme activity increased as temperature rose. Site-directed mutagenesis studies showed that residue 180 is important for its thermal stability. In addition, tungstate may enhance the enzyme activity, which has rarely been reported before. Our findings make a further understanding of the crucial Pnao in nicotine degradation. PMID:26634650

  19. Novel polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymers produced in Pseudomonas putida by metagenomic polyhydroxyalkanoate synthases.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiujun; Charles, Trevor C

    2016-09-01

    Bacterially produced biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) with versatile properties can be achieved using different PHA synthases (PhaCs). This work aims to expand the diversity of known PhaCs via functional metagenomics and demonstrates the use of these novel enzymes in PHA production. Complementation of a PHA synthesis-deficient Pseudomonas putida strain with a soil metagenomic cosmid library retrieved 27 clones expressing either class I, class II, or unclassified PHA synthases, and many did not have close sequence matches to known PhaCs. The composition of PHA produced by these clones was dependent on both the supplied growth substrates and the nature of the PHA synthase, with various combinations of short-chain-length (SCL) and medium-chain-length (MCL) PHA. These data demonstrate the ability to isolate diverse genes for PHA synthesis by functional metagenomics and their use for the production of a variety of PHA polymer and copolymer mixtures. PMID:27333909

  20. c-Type cytochromes and manganese oxidation in Pseudomonas putida MnB1

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, R.; Tebo, B.M.; Haygood, M.G.

    1998-10-01

    Pseudomonas putida MnB1 is an isolate from an Mn oxide-encrusted pipeline that can oxidize Mn(II) to Mn oxides. The authors used transposon mutagenesis to construct mutants of strain MnB1 that are unable to oxidize manganese, and they characterized some of these mutants. The mutants were divided into three groups: mutants defective in the biogenesis of c-type cytochromes, mutants defective in genes that encode key enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and mutants defective in the biosynthesis of tryptophan. The mutants in the first two groups were cytochrome c oxidase negative and did not contain c-type cytochromes. Mn(II) oxidation capability could be recovered in a c-type cytochrome biogenesis-defective mutant by complementation of the mutation.

  1. Oxidation of an inhibitory substrate by washed cells (oxidation of phenol by Pseudomonas putida).

    PubMed

    Sokol, W

    1987-12-01

    The specific uptake rate of phenol by washed cells of Pseudomonas putida grown on phenol in steady-state continuous culture at various dilution rates was studied. The Monod-Haldane-type equation was applied to fit the data and the best kinetic parameters were determined by nonlinear least-squares techniques. The values of the kinetic parameters were found to increase monotonically with the phenol concentration in the original chemostat. The relations between the values of kinetic parameters and phenol concentration in the chemostat were described by empirical equations. Then the equation governing the instant uptake of phenol by microorganisms in chemostat in the high conversion range of phenol was proposed. This equation together with the mass balance equations can be used to determine the stability range of continuous stirred tank biochemical reactors (CSTBR) utilizing phenol.

  2. [The role of mineral phosphorus compounds in naphthalene biodegradation by Pseudomonas putida].

    PubMed

    Puntus, I F; Ryazanova, L P; Zvonarev, A N; Funtikova, T V; Kulakovskaya, T V

    2015-01-01

    The effect of phosphate concentration in the culture medium on the growth and naphthalene degradation by Pseudomonas putida BS 3701 was studied. The limiting concentration of phosphate was 0.4 mM and 0.1 mM under cultivation in media with naphthalene and glucose, respectively The phosphate deficiency correlated with a decrease in the activities of naphthalene dioxygenase and salicylate hydroxylase and with salicylate accumulation in the culture medium. We suggest that this fact indicates the impaired regulation of gene expression of "upper" and "lower" pathways of naphthalene oxidation. Under naphthalene degradation, the cells accumulated three times more inorganic polyphosphates as compared with the consumption of glucose. The involvement of polyphosphates in the regulation of naphthalene metabolism has been considered.

  3. Characterization of Pseudooxynicotine Amine Oxidase of Pseudomonas putida S16 that Is Crucial for Nicotine Degradation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haiyang; Wang, Weiwei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2015-12-04

    Pseudooxynicotine amine oxidase (Pnao) is essential to the pyrrolidine pathway of nicotine degradation of Pseudomonas putida strain S16, which is significant for the detoxification of nicotine, through removing the CH3NH2 group. However, little is known about biochemical mechanism of this enzyme. Here, we characterized its properties and biochemical mechanism. Isotope labeling experiments provided direct evidence that the newly introduced oxygen atom in 3-succinoylsemialdehyde-pyridine is derived from H2O, but not from O2. Pnao was very stable at temperatures below 50 °C; below this temperature, the enzyme activity increased as temperature rose. Site-directed mutagenesis studies showed that residue 180 is important for its thermal stability. In addition, tungstate may enhance the enzyme activity, which has rarely been reported before. Our findings make a further understanding of the crucial Pnao in nicotine degradation.

  4. Understanding butanol tolerance and assimilation in Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1: an integrated omics approach.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, María del Sol; Roca, Amalia; Molina-Santiago, Carlos; Duque, Estrella; Armengaud, Jean; Gómez-Garcia, María R; Ramos, Juan L

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1 has the potential to be used for the industrial production of butanol due to its solvent tolerance and ability to metabolize low-cost compounds. However, the strain has two major limitations: it assimilates butanol as sole carbon source and butanol concentrations above 1% (v/v) are toxic. With the aim of facilitating BIRD-1 strain design for industrial use, a genome-wide mini-Tn5 transposon mutant library was screened for clones exhibiting increased butanol sensitivity or deficiency in butanol assimilation. Twenty-one mutants were selected that were affected in one or both of the processes. These mutants exhibited insertions in various genes, including those involved in the TCA cycle, fatty acid metabolism, transcription, cofactor synthesis and membrane integrity. An omics-based analysis revealed key genes involved in the butanol response. Transcriptomic and proteomic studies were carried out to compare short and long-term tolerance and assimilation traits. Pseudomonas putida initiates various butanol assimilation pathways via alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases that channel the compound to central metabolism through the glyoxylate shunt pathway. Accordingly, isocitrate lyase - a key enzyme of the pathway - was the most abundant protein when butanol was used as the sole carbon source. Upregulation of two genes encoding proteins PPUBIRD1_2240 and PPUBIRD1_2241 (acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and acyl-CoA synthetase respectively) linked butanol assimilation with acyl-CoA metabolism. Butanol tolerance was found to be primarily linked to classic solvent defense mechanisms, such as efflux pumps, membrane modifications and control of redox state. Our results also highlight the intensive energy requirements for butanol production and tolerance; thus, enhancing TCA cycle operation may represent a promising strategy for enhanced butanol production. PMID:26986205

  5. Pyoverdine synthesis by the Mn(II)-oxidizing bacterium Pseudomonas putida GB-1

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Dorothy L.; Lee, Sung-Woo; Geszvain, Kati; Davis, Richard E.; Gruffaz, Christelle; Meyer, Jean-Marie; Torpey, Justin W.; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2014-01-01

    When iron-starved, the Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria Pseudomonas putida strains GB-1 and MnB1 produce pyoverdines (PVDGB-1 and PVDMnB1), siderophores that both influence iron uptake and inhibit manganese(II) oxidation by these strains. To explore the properties and genetics of a PVD that can affect manganese oxidation, LC-MS/MS, and various siderotyping techniques were used to identify the peptides of PVDGB-1 and PVDMnB1 as being (for both PVDs): chromophore-Asp-Lys-OHAsp-Ser-Gly-aThr-Lys-cOHOrn, resembling a structure previously reported for P. putida CFML 90-51, which does not oxidize Mn. All three strains also produced an azotobactin and a sulfonated PVD, each with the peptide sequence above, but with unknown regulatory or metabolic effects. Bioinformatic analysis of the sequenced genome of P. putida GB-1 suggested that a particular non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), coded by the operon PputGB1_4083-4086, could produce the peptide backbone of PVDGB-1. To verify this prediction, plasmid integration disruption of PputGB1_4083 was performed and the resulting mutant failed to produce detectable PVD. In silico analysis of the modules in PputGB1_4083-4086 predicted a peptide sequence of Asp-Lys-Asp-Ser-Ala-Thr-Lsy-Orn, which closely matches the peptide determined by MS/MS. To extend these studies to other organisms, various Mn(II)-oxidizing and non-oxidizing isolates of P. putida, P. fluorescens, P. marincola, P. fluorescens-syringae group, P. mendocina-resinovorans group, and P. stutzerii group were screened for PVD synthesis. The PVD producers (12 out of 16 tested strains) were siderotyped and placed into four sets of differing PVD structures, some corresponding to previously characterized PVDs and some to novel PVDs. These results combined with previous studies suggested that the presence of OHAsp or the flexibility of the pyoverdine polypeptide may enable efficient binding of Mn(III). PMID:24847318

  6. Pyoverdine synthesis by the Mn(II)-oxidizing bacterium Pseudomonas putida GB-1.

    PubMed

    Parker, Dorothy L; Lee, Sung-Woo; Geszvain, Kati; Davis, Richard E; Gruffaz, Christelle; Meyer, Jean-Marie; Torpey, Justin W; Tebo, Bradley M

    2014-01-01

    When iron-starved, the Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria Pseudomonas putida strains GB-1 and MnB1 produce pyoverdines (PVDGB-1 and PVDMnB1), siderophores that both influence iron uptake and inhibit manganese(II) oxidation by these strains. To explore the properties and genetics of a PVD that can affect manganese oxidation, LC-MS/MS, and various siderotyping techniques were used to identify the peptides of PVDGB-1 and PVDMnB1 as being (for both PVDs): chromophore-Asp-Lys-OHAsp-Ser-Gly-aThr-Lys-cOHOrn, resembling a structure previously reported for P. putida CFML 90-51, which does not oxidize Mn. All three strains also produced an azotobactin and a sulfonated PVD, each with the peptide sequence above, but with unknown regulatory or metabolic effects. Bioinformatic analysis of the sequenced genome of P. putida GB-1 suggested that a particular non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), coded by the operon PputGB1_4083-4086, could produce the peptide backbone of PVDGB-1. To verify this prediction, plasmid integration disruption of PputGB1_4083 was performed and the resulting mutant failed to produce detectable PVD. In silico analysis of the modules in PputGB1_4083-4086 predicted a peptide sequence of Asp-Lys-Asp-Ser-Ala-Thr-Lsy-Orn, which closely matches the peptide determined by MS/MS. To extend these studies to other organisms, various Mn(II)-oxidizing and non-oxidizing isolates of P. putida, P. fluorescens, P. marincola, P. fluorescens-syringae group, P. mendocina-resinovorans group, and P. stutzerii group were screened for PVD synthesis. The PVD producers (12 out of 16 tested strains) were siderotyped and placed into four sets of differing PVD structures, some corresponding to previously characterized PVDs and some to novel PVDs. These results combined with previous studies suggested that the presence of OHAsp or the flexibility of the pyoverdine polypeptide may enable efficient binding of Mn(III). PMID:24847318

  7. Modeling of TCE and Toluene Toxicity to Pseudomonas putida F1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R.; Olson, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    Prediction of viable bacterial distribution with respect to contaminants is important for efficient bioremediation of contaminated ground-water aquifers, particularly those contaminated with residual NAPLs. While bacterial motility and chemotaxis may help situate bacteria close to high concentrations of contaminant thereby enhancing bioremediation, prolonged exposure to high concentrations of contaminates is toxic to contaminant-degrading bacteria. The purpose of this work is to model the toxicity of trichloroethylene and toluene to Pseudomonas putida F1. The Live/Dead® bacterial viability assay was used to determine the toxic effect of chemical contaminants on the viability of P. putida F1 in a sealed zero head-space experimental environment. Samples of bacterial suspensions were exposed to common ground-water pollutants, TCE and toluene, for different durations. Changes in live and dead cell populations were monitored over the course of experiments using fluorescence microscopy. Data obtained from these toxicity experiments were fit to simple linear and exponential bacterial decay models using non-linear regression to describe loss of bacterial viability. TCE toxicity to P. putida F1 was best described with an exponential decay model (Figure 1a), with a decay constant kTCE = 0.025 h-4.95 (r2 = 0.956). Toluene toxicity showed a marginally better fit to the linear decay model (Figure 1b) (r2 = 0.971), with a decay constant ktoluene = 0.204 h-1. Best-fit model parameters obtained for both TCE and toluene were used to predict bacterial viability in toxicity experiments with higher contaminant concentrations and matched well with experimental data. Results from this study can be used to predict bacterial accumulation and viability near NAPL sources, and thus may be helpful in improving bioremediation performance assessment of contaminated sites. Figure 1: Survival ratios (S = N/No) of P. putida F1 in TCE- (a) and toluene- (b) stressed samples (observed (

  8. Expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa transposable phages in Pseudomonas putida cells. I. Establishment of lysogeny and lytic growth efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbunova, S.A.; Yanenko, A.S.; Akhverdyan, V.Z.; Reulets, M.A.; Krylov, V.N.

    1986-03-01

    Expression of the genomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa transposable phages (TP) in the cells of a heterologous host, P. putida PpGl, was studied. A high efficiency of TP lytic growth in PpGl cells was obtained both after zygotic induction following RP4::TP plasmid transfer and after thermoinduction of PpGl cells lysogenic for thermoinducible prophage D3112cts15. Characteristic for PpGl cells was a high TP yield (20-25 phage D3112cts15 particles per cell), which was evidence of a high level of TP transposition in cells of this species. The frequency of RP4::TP transfer into PpGl and PA01 cells was equal, but the lysogeny detection rat was somewhat lower in PpGl. Pseudomonas aeruginosa TP can integrate into the PpGl chromosome, producing inducible lysogens. The presence of RP4 is not necessary for the expression of the TP genome in PpGl cells. The D3112cts15 TP may be used for interspecific transduction of plasmids and chromosomal markers.

  9. In situ biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon removal by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 in bioaugmented and biostimulated oil-contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Ángeles, Martínez-Toledo; Refugio, Rodríguez-Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus), P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients). The results were compared against a control treatment that consisted of adding only sterilized water to the soils. In treatment with native microorganisms (non-irradiated soils) supplemented with P. putida, the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was 40.6%, the rhamnolipid production was 1.54 mg/kg, and a surface tension of 64 mN/m was observed as well as a negative correlation (R = −0.54; p < 0.019) between TPH concentration (mg/kg) and surface tension (mN/m), When both bacteria and nutrients were involved, TPH levels were lowered to 33.7%, and biosurfactant production and surface tension were 2.03 mg/kg and 67.3 mN/m, respectively. In irradiated soil treated with P. putida, TPH removal was 24.5% with rhamnolipid generation of 1.79 mg/kg and 65.6 mN/m of surface tension, and a correlation between bacterial growth and biosurfactant production (R = −0.64; p < 0.009) was observed. When the nutrients and P. putida were added, TPH removal was 61.1%, 1.85 mg/kg of biosurfactants were produced, and the surface tension was 55.6 mN/m. In summary, in irradiated and non-irradiated soils, in situ rhamnolipid production by P. putida enhanced TPH decontamination of the soil. PMID:24294259

  10. In situ biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon removal by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 in bioaugmented and biostimulated oil-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Ángeles, Martínez-Toledo; Refugio, Rodríguez-Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus), P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients). The results were compared against a control treatment that consisted of adding only sterilized water to the soils. In treatment with native microorganisms (non-irradiated soils) supplemented with P. putida, the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was 40.6%, the rhamnolipid production was 1.54 mg/kg, and a surface tension of 64 mN/m was observed as well as a negative correlation (R = -0.54; p < 0.019) between TPH concentration (mg/kg) and surface tension (mN/m), When both bacteria and nutrients were involved, TPH levels were lowered to 33.7%, and biosurfactant production and surface tension were 2.03 mg/kg and 67.3 mN/m, respectively. In irradiated soil treated with P. putida, TPH removal was 24.5% with rhamnolipid generation of 1.79 mg/kg and 65.6 mN/m of surface tension, and a correlation between bacterial growth and biosurfactant production (R = -0.64; p < 0.009) was observed. When the nutrients and P. putida were added, TPH removal was 61.1%, 1.85 mg/kg of biosurfactants were produced, and the surface tension was 55.6 mN/m. In summary, in irradiated and non-irradiated soils, in situ rhamnolipid production by P. putida enhanced TPH decontamination of the soil. PMID:24294259

  11. In situ biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon removal by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 in bioaugmented and biostimulated oil-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Ángeles, Martínez-Toledo; Refugio, Rodríguez-Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus), P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients). The results were compared against a control treatment that consisted of adding only sterilized water to the soils. In treatment with native microorganisms (non-irradiated soils) supplemented with P. putida, the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was 40.6%, the rhamnolipid production was 1.54 mg/kg, and a surface tension of 64 mN/m was observed as well as a negative correlation (R = -0.54; p < 0.019) between TPH concentration (mg/kg) and surface tension (mN/m), When both bacteria and nutrients were involved, TPH levels were lowered to 33.7%, and biosurfactant production and surface tension were 2.03 mg/kg and 67.3 mN/m, respectively. In irradiated soil treated with P. putida, TPH removal was 24.5% with rhamnolipid generation of 1.79 mg/kg and 65.6 mN/m of surface tension, and a correlation between bacterial growth and biosurfactant production (R = -0.64; p < 0.009) was observed. When the nutrients and P. putida were added, TPH removal was 61.1%, 1.85 mg/kg of biosurfactants were produced, and the surface tension was 55.6 mN/m. In summary, in irradiated and non-irradiated soils, in situ rhamnolipid production by P. putida enhanced TPH decontamination of the soil.

  12. Crude glycerol as feedstock for the sustainable production of p-hydroxybenzoate by Pseudomonas putida S12.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Suzanne; Gao, Nisi; Ruijssenaars, Harald J; de Winde, Johannes H

    2014-01-25

    Crude glycerol is a promising renewable feedstock in bioconversion processes for the production of fuels and chemicals. Impurities present in crude glycerol can however, negatively impact the fermentation process. Successful crude glycerol utilization requires robust microbial production hosts that tolerate and preferably, can utilize such impurities. We investigated utilization of crude, unpurified glycerol as a substrate for the production of aromatic compounds by solvent tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12. In high-cell density fed-batch fermentations, P. putida S12 surprisingly performed better on crude glycerol than on purified glycerol. By contrast, growth of Escherichia coli was severely compromised under these high cell density cultivation conditions on crude glycerol. For P. putida S12 the biomass-to-substrate yield, maximum biomass production rate and substrate uptake rate were consistently higher on crude glycerol. Moreover, production of p-hydroxybenzoate by engineered P. putida S12palB5 on crude glycerol showed a 10% yield improvement over production on purified glycerol. P. putida S12 is a favorable host for bioconversion processes utilizing crude glycerol as a substrate. Its intrinsic stress-tolerance properties provide the robustness required for efficient growth and metabolism on this renewable substrate. PMID:23999132

  13. The Role of CzcRS Two-Component Systems in the Heavy Metal Resistance of Pseudomonas putida X4

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pulin; Chen, Xi; Huang, Qiaoyun; Chen, Wenli

    2015-01-01

    The role of different czcRS genes in metal resistance and the cross-link between czcRS and czcCBA in Pseudomonas putida X4 were studied to advance understanding of the mechanisms by which P. putida copes with metal stress. Similar to P. putida KT2440, two complete czcRS1 and czcRS2 two-component systems, as well as a czcR3 without the corresponding sensing component were amplified in P. putida X4. The histidine kinase genes czcS1 and czcS2 were inactivated and fused to lacZ by homologous recombination. The lacZ fusion assay revealed that Cd2+ and Zn2+ caused a decrease in the transcription of czcRS1, whereas Cd2+ treatment enhanced the transcription of czcRS2. The mutation of different czcRSs showed that all czcRSs are necessary to facilitate full metal resistance in P. putida X4. A putative gene just downstream of czcR3 is related to metal ion resistance, and its transcription was activated by Zn2+. Data from quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) strongly suggested that czcRSs regulate the expression of czcCBA, and a cross-link exists between different czcRSs. PMID:26225958

  14. Integrated foam fractionation for heterologous rhamnolipid production with recombinant Pseudomonas putida in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Beuker, Janina; Steier, Anke; Wittgens, Andreas; Rosenau, Frank; Henkel, Marius; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2016-03-01

    Heterologeous production of rhamnolipids in Pseudomonas putida is characterized by advantages of a non-pathogenic host and avoidance of the native quorum sensing regulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Yet, downstream processing is a major problem in rhamnolipid production and increases in complexity at low rhamnolipid titers and when using chemical foam control. This leaves the necessity of a simple concentrating and purification method. Foam fractionation is an elegant method for in situ product removal when producing microbial surfactants. However, up to now in situ foam fractionation is nearly exclusively reported for the production of surfactin with Bacillus subtilis. So far no cultivation integrated foam fractionation process for rhamnolipid production has been reported. This is probably due to excessive bacterial foam enrichment in that system. In this article a simple integrated foam fractionation process is reported for heterologous rhamnolipid production in a bioreactor with easily manageable bacterial foam enrichments. Rhamnolipids were highly concentrated in the foam during the cultivation process with enrichment factors up to 200. The described process was evaluated at different pH, media compositions and temperatures. Foam fractionation processes were characterized by calculating procedural parameter including rhamnolipid and bacterial enrichment, rhamnolipid recovery, YX/S, YP/X, and specific as well as volumetric productivities. Comparing foam fractionation parameters of the rhamnolipid process with the surfactin process a high effectiveness of the integrated foam fractionation for rhamnolipid production was demonstrated.

  15. Revised structures of the pyoverdins from Pseudomonas putida CFBP 2461 and from Pseudomonas fluorescens CFBP 2392.

    PubMed

    Beiderbeck, H; Taraz, K; Meyer, J M

    1999-12-01

    Several suggestions for structures of the siderophores (pyoverdins) from Pseudomonas spp. can be found in the literature which are based on a FAB mass spectrometric analysis only. Availability of two original strains of two Pseudomonas spp. allowed to re-investigate the structure of their pyoverdins. In both cases the amino acid sequence had to be corrected. In addition, D- and L-amino acids could be identified and located in the peptide chain. The knowledge of the correct structures is important in view of an ongoing study to establish relationships between the nature of the peptide chains of pyoverdins and their recognition by outer membrane proteins. PMID:10816733

  16. Genomic analysis of the role of RNase R in the turnover of Pseudomonas putida mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Pilar; Moreno, Renata; Rojo, Fernando

    2008-09-01

    RNase R is a 3'-5' highly processive exoribonuclease that can digest RNAs with extensive secondary structure. We analyzed the global effect of eliminating RNase R on the Pseudomonas putida transcriptome and the expression of the rnr gene under diverse conditions. The absence of RNase R led to increased levels of many mRNAs, indicating that it plays an important role in mRNA turnover.

  17. Siderophore-mediated iron acquisition in the entomopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas entomophila L48 and its close relative Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    PubMed

    Matthijs, Sandra; Laus, Georges; Meyer, Jean-Marie; Abbaspour-Tehrani, Kourosch; Schäfer, Mathias; Budzikiewicz, Herbert; Cornelis, Pierre

    2009-12-01

    Pseudomonas entomophila L48 is a recently identified entomopathogenic bacterium which, upon ingestion, kills Drosophila melanogaster, and is closely related to P. putida. The complete genome of this species has been sequenced and therefore a genomic, genetic and structural analysis of the siderophore-mediated iron acquisition was undertaken. P. entomophila produces two siderophores, a structurally new and unique pyoverdine and the secondary siderophore pseudomonine, already described in P. fluorescens species. Structural analysis of the pyoverdine produced by the closely related P. putida KT2440 showed that this strain produces an already characterised pyoverdine, but different from P. entomophila, and no evidence was found for the production of a second siderophore. Growth stimulation assays with heterologous pyoverdines demonstrated that P. entomophila is able to utilize a large variety of structurally distinct pyoverdines produced by other Pseudomonas species. In contrast, P. putida KT2440 is able to utilize only its own pyoverdine and the pyoverdine produced by P. syringae LMG 1247. Our data suggest that although closely related, P. entomophila is a more efficient competitor for iron than P. putida. PMID:19459056

  18. The glycerophospholipid inventory of Pseudomonas putida is conserved between strains and enables growth condition‐related alterations

    PubMed Central

    Rühl, Jana; Hein, Eva‐Maria; Hayen, Heiko; Schmid, Andreas; Blank, Lars M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Microorganisms, such as Pseudomonas putida, utilize specific physical properties of cellular membrane constituents, mainly glycerophospholipids, to (re‐)adjust the membrane barrier to environmental stresses. Building a basis for membrane composition/function studies, we inventoried the glycerophospholipids of different Pseudomonas and challenged membranes of growing cells with n‐butanol. Using a new high‐resolution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method, 127 glycerophospholipid species [e.g. phosphatidylethanolamine PE(32:1)] with up to five fatty acid combinations were detected. The glycerophospholipid inventory consists of 305 distinct glycerophospholipids [e.g. PE(16:0/16:1)], thereof 14 lyso‐glycerophospholipids, revealing conserved compositions within the four investigated pseudomonads P. putida KT2440, DOT‐T1E, S12 and Pseudomonas sp. strain VLB120. Furthermore, we addressed the influence of environmental conditions on the glycerophospholipid composition of Pseudomonas via long‐time exposure to the sublethal n‐butanol concentration of 1% (v/v), focusing on: (i) relative amounts of glycerophospholipid species, (ii) glycerophospholipid head group composition, (iii) fatty acid chain length, (iv) degree of saturation and (v) cis/trans isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids. Observed alterations consist of changing head group compositions and for the solvent‐sensitive strain KT2440 diminished fatty acid saturation degrees. Minor changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of the solvent‐tolerant strains P. putida S12 and Pseudomonas sp. VLB120 suggest different strategies of the investigated Pseudomonas to maintain the barrier function of cellular membranes. PMID:21895997

  19. Physiological and transcriptomic characterization of a fliA mutant of Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Herva, José Juan; Duque, Estrella; Molina-Henares, María Antonia; Navarro-Avilés, Gloria; Van Dillewijn, Pieter; De La Torre, Jesús; Molina-Henares, Antonio J; La Campa, Ana Sánchez-de; Ran, F Ann; Segura, Ana; Shingler, Victoria; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2010-06-01

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440 encodes 23 alternative sigma factors. The fliA gene, which encodes σ(28) , is in a cluster with other genes involved in flagella biosynthesis and chemotaxis. Reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed that this cluster is comprised of four independent transcriptional units: flhAF, fleNfliA, cheYZA and cheBmotAB. We generated a nonpolar fliA mutant by homologous recombination and tested its motility, adhesion to biotic and abiotic surfaces, and responses to various stress conditions. The mutant strain was nonmotile and exhibited decreased capacity to bind to corn seeds, although its ability to colonize the rhizosphere of plants was unaffected. The mutant was also affected in binding to abiotic surfaces and its ability to form biofilms decreased by almost threefold. In the fliA mutant background expression of 25 genes was affected: two genes were upregulated and 23 genes were downregulated. In addition to a number of motility and chemotaxis genes, the fliA gene product is also necessary for the expression of some genes potentially involved in amino acid utilization or stress responses; however, we were unable to assign specific phenotypes linked to these genes since the fliA mutant used the same range of amino acids as the parental strain, and was as tolerant as the wild type to stress imposed by heat, antibiotics, NaCl, sodium dodecyl sulfate, H2 O2 and benzoate. Based on the sequence alignment of promoters recognized by FliA and genome in silico analysis, we propose that P. putidaσ(28) recognizes a TCAAG-t-N12 -GCCGATA consensus sequence located between -34 and -8 and that this sequence is preferentially associated with an AT-rich upstream region. PMID:23766109

  20. The functional structure of central carbon metabolism in Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    PubMed

    Sudarsan, Suresh; Dethlefsen, Sarah; Blank, Lars M; Siemann-Herzberg, Martin; Schmid, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    What defines central carbon metabolism? The classic textbook scheme of central metabolism includes the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway of glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the citric acid cycle. The prevalence of this definition of central metabolism is, however, equivocal without experimental validation. We address this issue using a general experimental approach that combines the monitoring of transcriptional and metabolic flux changes between steady states on alternative carbon sources. This approach is investigated by using the model bacterium Pseudomonas putida with glucose, fructose, and benzoate as carbon sources. The catabolic reactions involved in the initial uptake and metabolism of these substrates are expected to show a correlated change in gene expressions and metabolic fluxes. However, there was no correlation for the reactions linking the 12 biomass precursor molecules, indicating a regulation mechanism other than mRNA synthesis for central metabolism. This result substantiates evidence for a (re)definition of central carbon metabolism including all reactions that are bound to tight regulation and transcriptional invariance. Contrary to expectations, the canonical Entner-Doudoroff and EMP pathways sensu stricto are not a part of central carbon metabolism in P. putida, as they are not regulated differently from the aromatic degradation pathway. The regulatory analyses presented here provide leads on a qualitative basis to address the use of alternative carbon sources by deregulation and overexpression at the transcriptional level, while rate improvements in central carbon metabolism require careful adjustment of metabolite concentrations, as regulation resides to a large extent in posttranslational and/or metabolic regulation.

  1. Potential of Pseudomonas putida PCI2 for the Protection of Tomato Plants Against Fungal Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Nicolás; Masciarelli, Oscar; Fischer, Sonia; Luna, Virginia; Rovera, Marisa

    2016-09-01

    Tomato is one of the most economically attractive vegetable crops due to its high yields. Diseases cause significant losses in tomato production worldwide. We carried out Polymerase Chain Reaction studies to detect the presence of genes encoding antifungal compounds in the DNA of Pseudomonas putida strain PCI2. We also used liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry to detect and quantify the production of compounds that increase the resistance of plants to diseases from culture supernatants of PCI2. In addition, we investigated the presence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase in PCI2. Finally, PCI2 was used for inoculation of tomato seeds to study its potential biocontrol activity against Fusarium oxysporum MR193. The obtained results showed that no fragments for the encoding genes of hydrogen cyanide, pyoluteorin, 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyrrolnitrin, or phenazine-1-carboxylic acid were amplified from the DNA of PCI2. On the other hand, PCI2 produced salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in Luria-Bertani medium and grew in a culture medium containing ACC as the sole nitrogen source. We observed a reduction in disease incidence from 53.33 % in the pathogen control to 30 % in tomato plants pre-inoculated with PCI2 as well as increases in shoot and root dry weights in inoculated plants, as compared to the pathogenicity control. This study suggests that inoculation of tomato seeds with P. putida PCI2 increases the resistance of plants to root rot caused by F. oxysporum and that PCI2 produces compounds that may be involved at different levels in increasing such resistance. Thus, PCI2 could represent a non-contaminating management strategy potentially applicable in vegetable crops such as tomato. PMID:27246499

  2. Physiological and transcriptomic characterization of a fliA mutant of Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Herva, José Juan; Duque, Estrella; Molina-Henares, María Antonia; Navarro-Avilés, Gloria; Van Dillewijn, Pieter; De La Torre, Jesús; Molina-Henares, Antonio J; La Campa, Ana Sánchez-de; Ran, F Ann; Segura, Ana; Shingler, Victoria; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2010-06-01

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440 encodes 23 alternative sigma factors. The fliA gene, which encodes σ(28) , is in a cluster with other genes involved in flagella biosynthesis and chemotaxis. Reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed that this cluster is comprised of four independent transcriptional units: flhAF, fleNfliA, cheYZA and cheBmotAB. We generated a nonpolar fliA mutant by homologous recombination and tested its motility, adhesion to biotic and abiotic surfaces, and responses to various stress conditions. The mutant strain was nonmotile and exhibited decreased capacity to bind to corn seeds, although its ability to colonize the rhizosphere of plants was unaffected. The mutant was also affected in binding to abiotic surfaces and its ability to form biofilms decreased by almost threefold. In the fliA mutant background expression of 25 genes was affected: two genes were upregulated and 23 genes were downregulated. In addition to a number of motility and chemotaxis genes, the fliA gene product is also necessary for the expression of some genes potentially involved in amino acid utilization or stress responses; however, we were unable to assign specific phenotypes linked to these genes since the fliA mutant used the same range of amino acids as the parental strain, and was as tolerant as the wild type to stress imposed by heat, antibiotics, NaCl, sodium dodecyl sulfate, H2 O2 and benzoate. Based on the sequence alignment of promoters recognized by FliA and genome in silico analysis, we propose that P. putidaσ(28) recognizes a TCAAG-t-N12 -GCCGATA consensus sequence located between -34 and -8 and that this sequence is preferentially associated with an AT-rich upstream region.

  3. Fructose 1-Phosphate Is the Preferred Effector of the Metabolic Regulator Cra of Pseudomonas putida*

    PubMed Central

    Chavarría, Max; Santiago, César; Platero, Raúl; Krell, Tino; Casasnovas, José M.; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    The catabolite repressor/activator (Cra) protein is a global sensor and regulator of carbon fluxes through the central metabolic pathways of Gram-negative bacteria. To examine the nature of the effector (or effectors) that signal such fluxes to the protein of Pseudomonas putida, the Cra factor of this soil microorganism has been purified and characterized and its three-dimensional structure determined. Analytical ultracentrifugation, gel filtration, and mobility shift assays showed that the effector-free Cra is a dimer that binds an operator DNA sequence in the promoter region of the fruBKA cluster. Furthermore, fructose 1-phosphate (F1P) was found to most efficiently dissociate the Cra-DNA complex. Thermodynamic parameters of the F1P-Cra-DNA interaction calculated by isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that the factor associates tightly to the DNA sequence 5′-TTAAACGTTTCA-3′ (KD = 26.3 ± 3.1 nm) and that F1P binds the protein with an apparent stoichiometry of 1.06 ± 0.06 molecules per Cra monomer and a KD of 209 ± 20 nm. Other possible effectors, like fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, did not display a significant affinity for the regulator under the assay conditions. Moreover, the structure of Cra and its co-crystal with F1P at a 2-Å resolution revealed that F1P fits optimally the geometry of the effector pocket. Our results thus single out F1P as the preferred metabolic effector of the Cra protein of P. putida. PMID:21239488

  4. The Regulation of para-Nitrophenol Degradation in Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiongzhen; Tu, Hui; Luo, Xue; Zhang, Biying; Huang, Fei; Li, Zhoukun; Wang, Jue; Shen, Wenjing; Wu, Jiale; Cui, Zhongli

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4 can efficiently degrade para-nitrophenol and its intermediate metabolite hydroquinone. The regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation was studied, and PNP induced a global change in the transcriptome of P. putida DLL-E4. When grown on PNP, the wild-type strain exhibited significant downregulation of 2912 genes and upregulation of 845 genes, whereas 2927 genes were downregulated and 891 genes upregulated in a pnpR-deleted strain. Genes related to two non-coding RNAs (ins1 and ins2), para-nitrophenol metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the outer membrane porin OprB, glucose dehydrogenase Gcd, and carbon catabolite repression were significantly upregulated when cells were grown on para-nitrophenol plus glucose. pnpA, pnpR, pnpC1C2DECX1X2, and pnpR1 are key genes in para-nitrophenol degradation, whereas pnpAb and pnpC1bC2bDbEbCbX1bX2b have lost the ability to degrade para-nitrophenol. Multiple components including transcriptional regulators and other unknown factors regulate para-nitrophenol degradation, and the transcriptional regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation is complex. Glucose utilization was enhanced at early stages of para-nitrophenol supplementation. However, it was inhibited after the total consumption of para-nitrophenol. The addition of glucose led to a significant enhancement in para-nitrophenol degradation and up-regulation in the expression of genes involved in para-nitrophenol degradation and carbon catabolite repression (CCR). It seemed that para-nitrophenol degradation can be regulated by CCR, and relief of CCR might contribute to enhanced para-nitrophenol degradation. In brief, the regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation seems to be controlled by multiple factors and requires further study. PMID:27191401

  5. Effects of Cobalt on Manganese Oxidation by Pseudomonas putida MnB1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena, J.; Bargar, J.; Sposito, G.

    2005-12-01

    The oxidation of Mn(II) in the environment is thought to occur predominantly through biologically mediated pathways. During the stationary phase of growth, the well-characterized freshwater and soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida MnB1 oxidizes soluble Mn(II) to a poorly crystalline layer type Mn(IV) oxide. These Mn oxide particles (2 - 5 nm thickness) are deposited in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) surrounding the cell, creating a multi-component system distinct from commonly studied synthetic Mn oxides. Accurate characterization of the reactivity of these biomineral assemblages is essential to understanding trace metal biogeochemistry in natural waters and sediments. Moreover, these biogenic oxides may potentially be used for the remediation of surface and ground waters impacted by mining, industrial pollution, and other anthropogenic activities. In this study, we consider the interactions between Co, P. putida MnB1, and its biogenic Mn oxide. Cobalt is a redox-active transition metal which exists in the environment as Co(II) and Co(III). While Co is not generally found in the environment at toxic concentrations, it may be released as a byproduct of mining activities (e.g. levels of up to 20 μM are found in Pinal Creek, AZ, a stream affected by copper mining). In addition, the radionuclide 60Co, formed by neutron activation in nuclear reactors, is of concern at Department of Energy sites, such as that at Hanford, and has several industrial applications, including radiotherapy. We address the following questions: Do high levels of Co inhibit enzymatic processes such as Mn(II) oxidation? Can the multicopper oxidase enzyme involved in Mn(II) oxidation facilitate Co(II) oxidation? Lastly, does the organic matter surrounding the oxides affect Co or Mn oxide reactivity? These issues were approached via wet chemical analysis, synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD), and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. In the

  6. Decolorization of industrial synthetic dyes using engineered Pseudomonas putida cells with surface-immobilized bacterial laccase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Microbial laccases are highly useful in textile effluent dye biodegradation. However, the bioavailability of cellularly expressed or purified laccases in continuous operations is usually limited by mass transfer impediment or enzyme regeneration difficulty. Therefore, this study develops a regenerable bacterial surface-displaying system for industrial synthetic dye decolorization, and evaluates its effects on independent and continuous operations. Results A bacterial laccase (WlacD) was engineered onto the cell surface of the solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida to construct a whole-cell biocatalyst. Ice nucleation protein (InaQ) anchor was employed, and the ability of 1 to 3 tandemly aligned N-terminal repeats to direct WlacD display were compared. Immobilized WlacD was determined to be surface-displayed in functional form using Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and whole-cell enzymatic activity assay. Engineered P. putida cells were then applied to decolorize the anthraquinone dye Acid Green (AG) 25 and diazo-dye Acid Red (AR) 18. The results showed that decolorization of both dyes is Cu2+- and mediator-independent, with an optimum temperature of 35°C and pH of 3.0, and can be stably performed across a temperature range of 15°C to 45°C. A high activity toward AG25 (1 g/l) with relative decolorization values of 91.2% (3 h) and 97.1% (18 h), as well as high activity to AR18 (1 g/l) by 80.5% (3 h) and 89.0% (18 h), was recorded. The engineered system exhibited a comparably high activity compared with those of separate dyes in a continuous three-round shake-flask decolorization of AG25/AR18 mixed dye (each 1 g/l). No significant decline in decolorization efficacy was noted during first two-rounds but reaction equilibriums were elongated, and the residual laccase activity eventually decreased to low levels. However, the decolorizing capacity of the system was easily retrieved via a subsequent 4-h

  7. Accumulation of inorganic polyphosphate enables stress endurance and catalytic vigour in Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Accumulation of inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), a persistent trait throughout the whole Tree of Life, is claimed to play a fundamental role in enduring environmental insults in a large variety of microorganisms. The share of polyP in the tolerance of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 to a suite of physicochemical stresses has been studied on the background of its capacity as a host of oxidative biotransformations. Results Cells lacking polyphosphate kinase (Ppk), which expectedly presented a low intracellular polyP level, were more sensitive to a number of harsh external conditions such as ultraviolet irradiation, addition of β-lactam antibiotics and heavy metals (Cd2+ and Cu2+). Other phenotypes related to a high-energy phosphate load (e.g., swimming) were substantially weakened as well. Furthermore, the ppk mutant was consistently less tolerant to solvents and its survival in stationary phase was significantly affected. In contrast, the major metabolic routes were not significantly influenced by the loss of Ppk as diagnosed from respiration patterns of the mutant in phenotypic microarrays. However, the catalytic vigour of the mutant decreased to about 50% of that in the wild-type strain as estimated from the specific growth rate of cells carrying the catabolic TOL plasmid pWW0 for m-xylene biodegradation. The catalytic phenotype of the mutant was restored by over-expressing ppk in trans. Some of these deficits could be explained by the effect of the ppk mutation on the expression profile of the rpoS gene, the stationary phase sigma factor, which was revealed by the analysis of a PrpoS → rpoS‘-’lacZ translational fusion. Still, every stress-related effect of lacking Ppk in P. putida was relatively moderate as compared to some of the conspicuous phenotypes reported for other bacteria. Conclusions While polyP can be involved in a myriad of cellular functions, the polymer seems to play a relatively secondary role in the genetic and

  8. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals mechanistic insights into Pseudomonas putida F1 growth on benzoate and citrate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas species are capable to proliferate under diverse environmental conditions and thus have a significant bioremediation potential. To enhance our understanding of their metabolic versatility, this study explores the changes in the proteome and physiology of Pseudomonas putida F1 resulting from its growth on benzoate, a moderate toxic compound that can be catabolized, and citrate, a carbon source that is assimilated through central metabolic pathways. A series of repetitive batch cultivations were performed to ensure a complete adaptation of the bacteria to each of these contrasting carbon sources. After several growth cycles, cell growth stabilized at the maximum level and exhibited a reproducible growth profile. The specific growth rates measured for benzoate (1.01 ± 0.11 h-1) and citrate (1.11 ± 0.12 h-1) were similar, while a higher yield was observed for benzoate (0.6 and 0.3 g cell mass per g of benzoate and citrate, respectively), reflecting the different degrees of carbon reduction in the two substrates. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed an enrichment of several oxygenases/dehydrogenases in benzoate-grown cells, indicative of the higher carbon reduction of benzoate. Moreover, the upregulation of all 14 proteins implicated in benzoate degradation via the catechol ortho-cleavage pathway was observed, while several stress-response proteins were increased to aid cells to cope with benzoate toxicity. Unexpectedly, citrate posed more challenges than benzoate in the maintenance of pH homeostasis, as indicated by the enhancement of the Na+/H+ antiporter and carbonic anhydrase. The study provides important mechanistic insights into Pseudomonas adaptation to varying carbon sources that are of great relevance to bioremediation efforts. PMID:24156539

  9. Fis overexpression enhances Pseudomonas putida biofilm formation by regulating the ratio of LapA and LapF.

    PubMed

    Moor, Hanna; Teppo, Annika; Lahesaare, Andrio; Kivisaar, Maia; Teras, Riho

    2014-12-01

    Bacteria form biofilm as a response to a number of environmental signals that are mediated by global transcription regulators and alarmones. Here we report the involvement of the global transcription regulator Fis in Pseudomonas putida biofilm formation through regulation of lapA and lapF genes. The major component of P. putida biofilm is proteinaceous and two large adhesive proteins, LapA and LapF, are known to play a key role in its formation. We have previously shown that Fis overexpression enhances P. putida biofilm formation. In this study, we used mini-Tn5 transposon mutagenesis to select potential Fis-regulated genes involved in biofilm formation. A total of 90 % of the studied transposon mutants carried insertions in the lap genes. Since our experiments showed that Fis-enhanced biofilm is mostly proteinaceous, the amounts of LapA and LapF from P. putida cells lysates were quantified using SDS-PAGE. Fis overexpression increases the quantity of LapA 1.6 times and decreases the amount of LapF at least 4 times compared to the wild-type cells. The increased LapA expression caused by Fis overexpression was confirmed by FACS analysis measuring the amount of LapA-GFP fusion protein. Our results suggest that the profusion of LapA in the Fis-overexpressed cells causes enhanced biofilm formation in mature stages of P. putida biofilm and LapF has a minor role in P. putida biofilm formation.

  10. Engineering Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for simultaneous degradation of organophosphates and pyrethroids and its application in bioremediation of soil.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Zhenqiang; Gong, Ting; Che, You; Liu, Ruihua; Xu, Ping; Jiang, Hong; Qiao, Chuanling; Song, Cunjiang; Yang, Chao

    2015-06-01

    Agricultural soils are usually co-contaminated with organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid pesticides. To develop a stable and marker-free Pseudomonas putida for co-expression of two pesticide-degrading enzymes, we constructed a suicide plasmid with expression cassettes containing a constitutive promoter J23119, an OP-degrading gene (mpd), a pyrethroid-hydrolyzing carboxylesterase gene (pytH) that utilizes the upp gene as a counter-selectable marker for upp-deficient P. putida. By introduction of suicide plasmid and two-step homologous recombination, both mpd and pytH genes were integrated into the chromosome of a robust soil bacterium P. putida KT2440 and no selection marker was left on chromosome. Functional expression of mpd and pytH in P. putida KT2440 was demonstrated by Western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays. Degradation experiments with liquid cultures showed that the mixed pesticides including methyl parathion, fenitrothion, chlorpyrifos, permethrin, fenpropathrin, and cypermethrin (0.2 mM each) were degraded completely within 48 h. The inoculation of engineered strain (10(6) cells/g) to soils treated with the above mixed pesticides resulted in a higher degradation rate than in noninoculated soils. All six pesticides could be degraded completely within 15 days in fumigated and nonfumigated soils with inoculation. Theses results highlight the potential of the engineered strain to be used for in situ bioremediation of soils co-contaminated with OP and pyrethroid pesticides.

  11. Pseudomonas putida KT2442 as a platform for the biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates with adjustable monomer contents and compositions.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Lakshmi; Wu, Lin-Ping; Dechuan, Meng; Chen, Jinchun; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2013-08-01

    The β-oxidation weakened Pseudomonas putida were established as a platform for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) with adjustable monomer compositions and micro-structures. When mutant P. putida KTOYO6ΔC (phaPCJA.c) was cultivated on mixtures of sodium butyrate and sodium hexanoate (C4:C6), random copolymers of P(3HB-co-3HHx) consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx), were accumulated with 3HHx content ranged from 19 mol% to 75 mol%. While recombinant P. putida KTQQ20 grown on mixtures of sodium hexanoate and decanoic acid (C6:C10), produced random copolymers of P(3HHx-co-3HD) consisting of 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx) and 3-hydroxydecanoate (3HD), the monomer fraction of 3HHx ranged from 16 mol% to 63 mol%. The comonomer compositions were easily regulated by varying the fatty acid concentrations. P. putida KTQQ20 produced a novel diblock copolymer P3HHx-b-P(3HD-co-3HDD) consisting of 49 mol% P3HHx and 51 mol% P(3HD-co-3HDD) [35.25 mol% 3HDD (3-hydroxydodecanoate)], which was characterized by (13)C NMR, HMBC NMR, DSC, GPC and universal testing machine.

  12. Reconstruction of lactate utilization system in Pseudomonas putida KT2440: a novel biocatalyst for l-2-hydroxy-carboxylate production

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yujiao; Lv, Min; Zhang, Yingxin; Xiao, Xieyue; Jiang, Tianyi; Zhang, Wen; Hu, Chunhui; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    As an important method for building blocks synthesis, whole cell biocatalysis is hindered by some shortcomings such as unpredictability of reactions, utilization of opportunistic pathogen, and side reactions. Due to its biological and extensively studied genetic background, Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is viewed as a promising host for construction of efficient biocatalysts. After analysis and reconstruction of the lactate utilization system in the P. putida strain, a novel biocatalyst that only exhibited NAD-independent d-lactate dehydrogenase activity was prepared and used in l-2-hydroxy-carboxylates production. Since the side reaction catalyzed by the NAD-independent l-lactate dehydrogenase was eliminated in whole cells of recombinant P. putida KT2440, two important l-2-hydroxy-carboxylates (l-lactate and l-2-hydroxybutyrate) were produced in high yield and high optical purity by kinetic resolution of racemic 2-hydroxy carboxylic acids. The results highlight the promise in biocatalysis by the biotechnologically important organism P. putida KT2440 through genomic analysis and recombination. PMID:25373400

  13. IHF is the limiting host factor in transposition of Pseudomonas putida transposon Tn4652 in stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Ilves, Heili; Hõrak, Rita; Teras, Riho; Kivisaar, Maia

    2004-03-01

    Transpositional activity of mobile elements is not constant. Conditional regulation of host factors involved in transposition may severely change the activity of mobile elements. We have demonstrated previously that transposition of Tn4652 in Pseudomonas putida is a stationary phase-specific event, which requires functional sigma S (Ilves et al., 2001, J Bacteriol 183: 5445-5448). We hypothesized that integration host factor (IHF), the concentration of which is increased in starving P. putida, might contribute to the transposition of Tn4652 as well. Here, we demonstrate that transposition of Tn4652 in stationary phase P. putida is essentially limited by the amount of IHF. No transposition of Tn4652 occurs in a P. putida ihfA-defective strain. Moreover, overexpression of IHF results in significant enhancement of transposition compared with the wild-type strain. This indicates that the amount of IHF is a bottleneck in Tn4652 transposition. Gel mobility shift and DNase I footprinting studies revealed that IHF is necessary for the binding of transposase to both transposon ends. In vitro, transposase can bind to inverted repeats of transposon only after the binding of IHF. The results obtained in this study indicate that, besides sigma S, IHF is another host factor that is implicated in the elevation of transposition in stationary phase. PMID:15009901

  14. Simultaneous chromium reduction and phenol degradation in a coculture of Escherichia coli ATCC 33456 and Pseudomonas putida DMP-1.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, H; Wang, Y T

    1995-01-01

    In a defined coculture of a Cr(VI) reducer, Escherichia coli ATCC 33456, and a phenol degrader, Pseudomonas putida DMP-1, simultaneous reduction of Cr(VI) and degradation of phenol was observed. When Cr(VI) was present in the coculture, quantitative transformation of Cr(VI) into Cr(III) proceeded with simultaneous degradation of phenol. Cr(VI) reduction was correlated to phenol degradation in the coculture as demonstrated by a regression analysis of the cumulative Cr(VI) reduction and the cumulative phenol degradation. Both the rate and extent of Cr(VI) reduction and phenol degradation were significantly influenced by the population composition of the coculture. Although Cr(VI) reduction occurred as a result of E. coli metabolism, the rate of phenol degradation by P. putida may become a rate-limiting factor for Cr(VI) reduction at a low population ratio of P. putida to E. coli. Phenol degradation by P. putida was very susceptible to the presence of Cr(VI), whereas Cr(VI) reduction by E. coli was significantly influenced by phenol only when phenol was present at high concentrations (> 9 mM). PMID:7618887

  15. Different responses of pyoverdine genes to autoinduction in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the group Pseudomonas fluorescens-Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, Cecilia; Leoni, Livia; Visca, Paolo

    2002-08-01

    We investigated the regulation of the psbA and pvdA pyoverdine biosynthesis genes, which encode the L-ornithine N(5)-oxygenase homologues in Pseudomonas strain B10 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, respectively. We demonstrate that pyoverdine(B10), as the end product of its biosynthetic pathway, is a key participant of the control circuit regulating its own production in Pseudomonas strain B10. In P. aeruginosa PAO1, however, pyoverdine(PAO1) has no apparent role in the positive regulation of the pvdA gene. PMID:12147517

  16. Suicide inactivation of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida mt-2 by 3-halocatechols

    SciTech Connect

    Bartels, I.; Knackmuss, H.J.; Reineke, W.

    1984-03-01

    The inactivation of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida mt-2 by 3-chloro- and 3-fluorocatechol and the iron-chelating agent Tiron (catechol-3,5-disulfonate) was studied. Whereas inactivation by Tiron is an oxygen-independent and mostly reversible process, inactivation by the 3-halocatechols was only observed in the presence of oxygen and was largely irreversible. The rate constants for inactivation (K/sub 2/) were 1.62 x 10/sup -3/ sec/sup -1/ for 3-chlorocatechol and 2.38 x 10/sup -3/ sec/sup -1/ for 3-fluorocatechol. The inhibitor constants (K/sub i/) were 23 ..mu..M for 3-chlorocatechol and 17 ..mu..M for 3-fluorocatechol. The kinetic data for 3-fluorocatechol could only be obtained in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. Besides inactivated enzyme, some 2-hydroxyhexa-2,4-dienoic acid as the actual suicide product of meta-cleavage. A side product of 3-fluorocatechol cleavage is a yellow compound with the spectral characteristics of a 2-hydroxy-6-oxohexa-2,4-dienoci acid indicating 1,6-cleavage. Rates of inactivation by 3-fluorocatechol were reduced in the presence of superoxide dismutase, catalase, formate, and mannitol, which implies that superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical exhibit additional inactivation. 64 references.

  17. Characterization of a plasmid-specified pathway for catabolism of isopropylbenzene in Pseudomonas putida RE204

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, R.W.; Timmis, K.N.

    1986-10-01

    A Pseudomonas putida strain designated RE204, able to utilize isopropylbenzene as the sole carbon and energy source, was isolated. Tn5 transposon mutagenesis by means of the suicide transposon donor plasmid pLG221 yielded mutant derivatives defective in isopropylbenzene metabolism. These were characterized by the identification of the products which they accumulated when grown in the presence of isopropylbenzene and by the assay of enzyme activities in cell extracts. Based on the results obtained, the following metabolic pathway is proposed: isopropylbenzene ..-->.. 2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxyisopropylbenzene ..-->.. 3-isopropylcatechol ..-->.. 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-7-methylocta-2,4-dienoate ..-->.. isobutyrate + 2-oxopent-4-enoate ..-->.. amphibolic intermediates. Plasmid DNA was isolated from strain RE204 and mutant derivatives and characterized by restriction enzyme cleavage analysis. Isopropylbenzene-negative isolates carried a Tn5 insert within a 15-kilobase region of a 105-kilobase plasmid designated pRE4. DNA fragments of pRE4 carrying genes encoding isopropylbenzene catabolic enzymes were cloned in Escherichia coli with various plasmid vectors. These clones were subsequently used to generate a transposon insertion and restriction enzyme cleavage map of the isopropylbenzene metabolic region of pRE4.

  18. Structural and kinetic characterization of recombinant 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida G7.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Simara Semíramis de; Neves, Cíntia Mara Leal; Guimarães, Samuel Leite; Whitman, Christian P; Johnson, William H; Aparicio, Ricardo; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto

    2015-08-01

    The first enzyme in the oxalocrotonate branch of the naphthalene-degradation lower pathway in Pseudomonas putida G7 is NahI, a 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde dehydrogenase which converts 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde to 2-hydroxymuconate in the presence of NAD(+). NahI is in family 8 (ALDH8) of the NAD(P)(+)-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily. In this work, we report the cloning, expression, purification and preliminary structural and kinetic characterization of the recombinant NahI. The nahI gene was subcloned into a T7 expression vector and the enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli ArcticExpress as a hexa-histidine-tagged fusion protein. After purification by affinity and size-exclusion chromatography, dynamic light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments were conducted to analyze the oligomeric state and the overall shape of the enzyme in solution. The protein is a tetramer in solution and has nearly perfect 222 point group symmetry. Protein stability and secondary structure content were evaluated by a circular dichroism spectroscopy assay under different thermal conditions. Furthermore, kinetic assays were conducted and, for the first time, KM (1.3±0.3μM) and kcat (0.9s(-1)) values were determined at presumed NAD(+) saturation. NahI is highly specific for its biological substrate and has no activity with salicylaldehyde, another intermediate in the naphthalene-degradation pathway.

  19. Plasmolysis induced by toluene in a cyoB mutant of Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Duque, Estrella; García, Vanina; de la Torre, Jesús; Godoy, Patricia; Bernal, Patricia; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2004-10-01

    The cyoABCDE gene cluster of Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E encodes a terminal cytochrome oxidase. A 500-bp 'cyoB' DNA fragment was cloned in pCHESI Omega Km and used to generate a cyoB knock-out mutant in vivo. The mutant strain was not limited in the generation of proton-motif force, although when grown on minimal medium with glucose or citrate, the CyoB mutant exhibited a slight increase in duplication time with respect to the wild-type strain. This effect was even more pronounced when toluene was supplied in the gas phase. In consonance with the negative effect of toluene on the growth was the finding that the CyoB mutant was hypersensitive to sudden 0.3% (v/v) toluene shocks, in contrast with the wild-type strain. This effect was particularly exacerbated in cells that reached the stationary phase. The increased sensitivity to solvents of the CyoB mutant did not appear to be related to the inability of the cells to strengthen the membrane package or to induce the efflux pumps in response to the solvent, but rather to solvent-induced plasmolysis that may be triggered by wrinkles in the cytoplasmic membrane at the poles of the mutant cells, and invagination of the outer membranes, which eventually lead to cell death.

  20. Regulation of the pcaIJ genes for aromatic acid degradation in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Parales, R E; Harwood, C S

    1993-01-01

    Six of the genes encoding enzymes of the beta-ketoadipate pathway for benzoate and 4-hydroxybenzoate degradation in Pseudomonas putida are organized into at least three separate transcriptional units. As an initial step to defining this pca regulon at the molecular level, lacZ fusions were made with the pcaI and pcaJ genes, which encode the two subunits of beta-ketoadipate:succinyl-coenzyme A transferase, the enzyme catalyzing the next-to-last step in the beta-ketoadipate pathway. Fusion analyses showed that pcaI and pcaJ constitute an operon which requires beta-ketoadipate or its nonmetabolizable analog, adipate, as well as the pcaR regulatory gene for induction. The pcaIJ promoter is likely to be a sigma 70-type promoter; it has a sigma 70-type consensus sequence and did not require the alternative sigma factor, RpoN, for induction. Deletion analysis of the promoter region of a pcaI-lacZ transcriptional fusion indicated that no specific DNA sequences upstream of the -35 region were required for full induction. This implies that the binding site for the activator protein, PcaR, is unusually close to the transcriptional start site of pcaIJ. PMID:8376330

  1. Effect of silver nanoparticles on Pseudomonas putida biofilms at different stages of maturity.

    PubMed

    Thuptimdang, Pumis; Limpiyakorn, Tawan; McEvoy, John; Prüß, Birgit M; Khan, Eakalak

    2015-06-15

    This study determined the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on Pseudomonas putida KT2440 biofilms at different stages of maturity. Three biofilm stages (1-3, representing early to late stages of development) were identified from bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) activity under static (96-well plate) and dynamic conditions (Center for Disease Control and Prevention biofilm reactor). Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) levels, measured using crystal violet and total carbohydrate assays, and expression of the EPS-associated genes, csgA and alg8, supported the conclusion that biofilms at later stages were older than those at earlier stages. More mature biofilms (stages 2 and 3) showed little to no reduction in ATP activity following exposure to AgNPs. In contrast, the same treatment reduced ATP activity by more than 90% in the less mature stage 1 biofilms. Regardless of maturity, biofilms with EPS stripped off were more susceptible to AgNPs than controls with intact EPS, demonstrating that EPS is critical for biofilm tolerance of AgNPs. The findings from this study show that stage of maturity is an important factor to consider when studying effect of AgNPs on biofilms. PMID:25756827

  2. Electricity Generation and Wastewater Treatment of Oil Refinery in Microbial Fuel Cells Using Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Dip; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Tseng, Min-Jen; Nimje, Vanita Roshan; Chen, Hau-Ren; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Chang, Young-Fo; Yang, Tsui-Chu; Chen, Chen-Yen

    2014-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a novel platform for treating wastewater and at the same time generating electricity. Using Pseudomonas putida (BCRC 1059), a wild-type bacterium, we demonstrated that the refinery wastewater could be treated and also generate electric current in an air-cathode chamber over four-batch cycles for 63 cumulative days. Our study indicated that the oil refinery wastewater containing 2213 mg/L (ppm) chemical oxygen demand (COD) could be used as a substrate for electricity generation in the reactor of the MFC. A maximum voltage of 355 mV was obtained with the highest power density of 0.005 mW/cm2 in the third cycle with a maximum current density of 0.015 mA/cm2 in regard to the external resistor of 1000 Ω. A maximum coulombic efficiency of 6 × 10−2% was obtained in the fourth cycle. The removal efficiency of the COD reached 30% as a function of time. Electron transfer mechanism was studied using cyclic voltammetry, which indicated the presence of a soluble electron shuttle in the reactor. Our study demonstrated that oil refinery wastewater could be used as a substrate for electricity generation. PMID:25247576

  3. Structural and kinetic characterization of recombinant 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida G7.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Simara Semíramis de; Neves, Cíntia Mara Leal; Guimarães, Samuel Leite; Whitman, Christian P; Johnson, William H; Aparicio, Ricardo; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto

    2015-08-01

    The first enzyme in the oxalocrotonate branch of the naphthalene-degradation lower pathway in Pseudomonas putida G7 is NahI, a 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde dehydrogenase which converts 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde to 2-hydroxymuconate in the presence of NAD(+). NahI is in family 8 (ALDH8) of the NAD(P)(+)-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily. In this work, we report the cloning, expression, purification and preliminary structural and kinetic characterization of the recombinant NahI. The nahI gene was subcloned into a T7 expression vector and the enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli ArcticExpress as a hexa-histidine-tagged fusion protein. After purification by affinity and size-exclusion chromatography, dynamic light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments were conducted to analyze the oligomeric state and the overall shape of the enzyme in solution. The protein is a tetramer in solution and has nearly perfect 222 point group symmetry. Protein stability and secondary structure content were evaluated by a circular dichroism spectroscopy assay under different thermal conditions. Furthermore, kinetic assays were conducted and, for the first time, KM (1.3±0.3μM) and kcat (0.9s(-1)) values were determined at presumed NAD(+) saturation. NahI is highly specific for its biological substrate and has no activity with salicylaldehyde, another intermediate in the naphthalene-degradation pathway. PMID:26032336

  4. Electricity generation and wastewater treatment of oil refinery in microbial fuel cells using Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Dip; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Tseng, Min-Jen; Nimje, Vanita Roshan; Chen, Hau-Ren; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Chang, Young-Fo; Yang, Tsui-Chu; Chen, Chen-Yen

    2014-09-22

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a novel platform for treating wastewater and at the same time generating electricity. Using Pseudomonas putida (BCRC 1059), a wild-type bacterium, we demonstrated that the refinery wastewater could be treated and also generate electric current in an air-cathode chamber over four-batch cycles for 63 cumulative days. Our study indicated that the oil refinery wastewater containing 2213 mg/L (ppm) chemical oxygen demand (COD) could be used as a substrate for electricity generation in the reactor of the MFC. A maximum voltage of 355 mV was obtained with the highest power density of 0.005 mW/cm² in the third cycle with a maximum current density of 0.015 mA/cm² in regard to the external resistor of 1000 Ω. A maximum coulombic efficiency of 6 × 10⁻²% was obtained in the fourth cycle. The removal efficiency of the COD reached 30% as a function of time. Electron transfer mechanism was studied using cyclic voltammetry, which indicated the presence of a soluble electron shuttle in the reactor. Our study demonstrated that oil refinery wastewater could be used as a substrate for electricity generation.

  5. Regulatory Tasks of the Phosphoenolpyruvate-Phosphotransferase System of Pseudomonas putida in Central Carbon Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Chavarría, Max; Kleijn, Roelco J.; Sauer, Uwe; Pflüger-Grau, Katharina; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Two branches of the phosphoenolpyruvate-phosphotransferase system (PTS) operate in the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440. One branch encompasses a complete set of enzymes for fructose intake (PTSFru), while the other (N-related PTS, or PTSNtr) controls various cellular functions unrelated to the transport of carbohydrates. The potential of these two systems for regulating central carbon catabolism has been investigated by measuring the metabolic fluxes of isogenic strains bearing nonpolar mutations in PTSFru or PTSNtr genes and grown on either fructose (a PTS substrate) or glucose, the transport of which is not governed by the PTS in this bacterium. The flow of carbon from each sugar was distinctly split between the Entner-Doudoroff, pentose phosphate, and Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathways in a ratio that was maintained in each of the PTS mutants examined. However, strains lacking PtsN (EIIANtr) displayed significantly higher fluxes in the reactions of the pyruvate shunt, which bypasses malate dehydrogenase in the TCA cycle. This was consistent with the increased activity of the malic enzyme and the pyruvate carboxylase found in the corresponding PTS mutants. Genetic evidence suggested that such a metabolic effect of PtsN required the transfer of high-energy phosphate through the system. The EIIANtr protein of the PTSNtr thus helps adjust central metabolic fluxes to satisfy the anabolic and energetic demands of the overall cell physiology. PMID:22434849

  6. Near-zero growth kinetics of Pseudomonas putida deduced from proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Panikov, Nicolai S; Mandalakis, Manolis; Dai, Shujia; Mulcahy, Lawrence R; Fowle, William; Garrett, Wendy S; Karger, Barry L

    2015-01-01

    Intensive microbial growth typically observed in laboratory rarely occurs in nature. Because of severe nutrient deficiency, natural populations exhibit near-zero growth (NZG). There is a long-standing controversy about sustained NZG, specifically whether there is a minimum growth rate below which cells die or whether cells enter a non-growing maintenance state. Using chemostat with cell retention (CCR) of Pseudomonas putida, we resolve this controversy and show that under NZG conditions, bacteria differentiate into growing and VBNC (viable but not non-culturable) forms, the latter preserving measurable catabolic activity. The proliferating cells attained a steady state, their slow growth balanced by VBNC production. Proteomic analysis revealed upregulated (transporters, stress response, self-degrading enzymes and extracellular polymers) and downregulated (ribosomal, chemotactic and primary biosynthetic enzymes) proteins in the CCR versus batch culture. Based on these profiles, we identified intracellular processes associated with NZG and generated a mathematical model that simulated the observations. We conclude that NZG requires controlled partial self-digestion and deep reconfiguration of the metabolic machinery that results in the biosynthesis of new products and development of broad stress resistance. CCR allows efficient on-line control of NZG including VBNC production. A well-nuanced understanding of NZG is important to understand microbial processes in situ and for optimal design of environmental technologies.

  7. Monoclonal Antibodies to Ferric Pseudobactin, the Siderophore of Plant Growth-Promoting Pseudomonas putida B10

    PubMed Central

    Buyer, Jeffrey S.; Sikora, Lawrence J.; Kratzke, Marian G.

    1990-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to ferric pseudobactin, the siderophore (microbial iron transport agent) of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas putida B10, have been developed. Three immunoglobulin G subclass 1-type monoclonal antibodies have been characterized. Each antibody appears to be unique on the basis of their reactions with ferric pseudobactin and with culture supernatants from other pseudomonads. None of the three cross-reacts with ferric pseudobactin-type siderophores produced by seven other pseudomonads. However, P. aeruginosa ATCC 15692 and P. fluorescens ATCC 17400 produced relatively high-molecular-mass compounds (mass greater than approximately 30,000 daltons) that did react with the antibodies. The compound from P. aeruginosa was not iron regulated, while the compound from P. fluorescens was produced only under iron-limiting conditions. A competitive assay using these antibodies has a detection limit of 5 × 10−12 mol of ferric pseudobactin. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of monoclonal antibodies reactive with siderophores. PMID:16348116

  8. New methods for the isolation and characterization of biofilm-persistent mutants in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    López-Sánchez, Aroa; Jiménez-Fernández, Alicia; Calero, Patricia; Gallego, Laura D; Govantes, Fernando

    2013-10-01

    Here we describe two new methods for the genetic characterization of bacterial biofilm development. First, we have designed a microtitre dish-based approach for high-throughput screening of Pseudomonas putida mutants showing increased biofilm under dispersal conditions. Using this method, nine such biofilm-persistent mutants, bearing transposon insertions in four loci: lapG, bifA, mvaB and dksA, were isolated. Second, we have developed a serial dilution-based scheme to monitor biofilm development and dispersal in microtitre dish wells in a simple, time-efficient and reproducible manner. Using this method, we showed that (i) mutants in bifA and dksA do not undergo starvation-induced biofilm dispersal in LB or minimal medium, (ii) a mvaB mutant does not disperse the biofilm in LB, but shows a normal dispersal response in minimal medium, and (iii) unlike the lapG mutant, the bifA, mvaB and dksA mutants do not show an increase in biofilm production. The procedures shown here are useful tools for the identification of previously uncharacterized biofilm-related genes and considerably simplify the characterization of biofilm growth phenotypes.

  9. Quantitative analysis of chemotaxis towards toluene by Pseudomonas putida in a convection-free microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaopu; Atencia, Javier; Ford, Roseanne M

    2015-05-01

    Chemotaxis has been shown to be beneficial for the migration of soil-inhabiting bacteria towards industrial chemical pollutants, which they degrade. Many studies have demonstrated the importance of this microbial property under various circumstances; however, few quantitative analyses have been undertaken to measure the two essential parameters that characterize the chemotaxis of bioremediation bacteria: the chemotactic sensitivity coefficient χ(0) and the chemotactic receptor constant K(c). The main challenge to determine these parameters is that χ(0) and K(c) are coupled together in non-linear mathematical models used to evaluate them. In this study we developed a method to accurately measure these parameters for Pseudomonas putida in the presence of toluene, an important pollutant in groundwater contamination. Our approach uses a multilayer microfluidic device to expose bacteria to a convection-free linear chemical gradient of toluene that is stable over time. The bacterial distribution within the gradient is measured in terms of fluorescence intensity, and is then used to fit the parameters Kc and χ(0) with mathematical models. Critically, bacterial distributions under chemical gradients at two different concentrations were used to solve for both parameters independently. To validate the approach, the chemotaxis parameters of Escherichia coli strains towards α-methylaspartate were experimentally derived and were found to be consistent with published results from related work.

  10. Electricity generation and wastewater treatment of oil refinery in microbial fuel cells using Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Dip; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Tseng, Min-Jen; Nimje, Vanita Roshan; Chen, Hau-Ren; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Chang, Young-Fo; Yang, Tsui-Chu; Chen, Chen-Yen

    2014-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a novel platform for treating wastewater and at the same time generating electricity. Using Pseudomonas putida (BCRC 1059), a wild-type bacterium, we demonstrated that the refinery wastewater could be treated and also generate electric current in an air-cathode chamber over four-batch cycles for 63 cumulative days. Our study indicated that the oil refinery wastewater containing 2213 mg/L (ppm) chemical oxygen demand (COD) could be used as a substrate for electricity generation in the reactor of the MFC. A maximum voltage of 355 mV was obtained with the highest power density of 0.005 mW/cm² in the third cycle with a maximum current density of 0.015 mA/cm² in regard to the external resistor of 1000 Ω. A maximum coulombic efficiency of 6 × 10⁻²% was obtained in the fourth cycle. The removal efficiency of the COD reached 30% as a function of time. Electron transfer mechanism was studied using cyclic voltammetry, which indicated the presence of a soluble electron shuttle in the reactor. Our study demonstrated that oil refinery wastewater could be used as a substrate for electricity generation. PMID:25247576

  11. Environmental stress speeds up DNA replication in Pseudomonas putida in chemostat cultivations.

    PubMed

    Lieder, Sarah; Jahn, Michael; Koepff, Joachim; Müller, Susann; Takors, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Cellular response to different types of stress is the hallmark of the cell's strategy for survival. How organisms adjust their cell cycle dynamics to compensate for changes in environmental conditions is an important unanswered question in bacterial physiology. A cell using binary fission for reproduction passes through three stages during its cell cycle: a stage from cell birth to initiation of replication, a DNA replication phase and a period of cell division. We present a detailed analysis of durations of cell cycle phases, investigating their dynamics under environmental stress conditions. Applying continuous steady state cultivations (chemostats), the DNA content of a Pseudomonas putida KT2440 population was quantified with flow cytometry at distinct growth rates. Data-driven modeling revealed that under stress conditions, such as oxygen deprivation, solvent exposure and decreased iron availability, DNA replication was accelerated correlated to the severity of the imposed stress (up to 1.9-fold). Cells maintained constant growth rates by balancing the shortened replication phase with extended cell cycle phases before and after replication. Transcriptome data underpin the transcriptional upregulation of crucial genes of the replication machinery. Hence adaption of DNA replication speed appears to be an important strategy to withstand environmental stress.

  12. Immobilization and characterization of benzoylformate decarboxylase from Pseudomonas putida on spherical silica carrier.

    PubMed

    Peper, Stephanie; Kara, Selin; Long, Wei Sing; Liese, Andreas; Niemeyer, Bernd

    2011-08-01

    If an adequate biocatalyst is identified for a specific reaction, immobilization is one possibility to further improve its properties. The immobilization allows easy recycling, improves the enzyme performance, and it often enhances the stability of the enzyme. In this work, the immobilization of the benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFD) variant, BFD A460I-F464I, from Pseudomonas putida was accomplished on spherical silica. Silicagel is characterized by its high mechanical stability, which allows its application in different reactor types without restrictions. The covalently bound enzyme was characterized in terms of its activity, stability, and kinetics for the formation of chiral 2-hydroxypropiophenone (2-HPP) from benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Moreover, temperature as well as pressure dependency of immobilized BFD A460I-F464I activity and enantioselectivity were analyzed. The used wide-pore silicagel shows a good accessibility of the immobilized enzyme. The activity of the immobilized BFD A460I-F464I variant was determined to be 70% related to the activity of the free enzyme. Thereby, the enantioselectivity of the enzyme was not influenced by the immobilization. In addition, a pressure-induced change in stereoselectivity was found both for the free and for the immobilized enzyme. With increasing pressure, the enantiomeric excess (ee) of (R)-2-HPP can be increased from 44% (0.1 MPa) to 76% (200 MPa) for the free enzyme and from 43% (0.1 MPa) to 66% (200 MPa) for the immobilized enzyme.

  13. Different, overlapping mechanisms for colonization of abiotic and plant surfaces by Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Yousef-Coronado, Fátima; Travieso, María L; Espinosa-Urgel, Manuel

    2008-11-01

    Mechanisms governing biofilm formation have generated considerable interest in recent years, yet comparative analyses of processes for bacterial establishment on abiotic and biotic surfaces are still limited. In this report we have expanded previous information on the genetic determinants required for colonization of plant surfaces by Pseudomonas putida populations and analyzed their correlation with biofilm formation processes on abiotic surfaces. Insertional mutations affecting flagellar genes or the synthesis and transport of the large adhesin LapA lead to decreased adhesion to seeds and biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. The latter also causes reduced fitness in the rhizosphere. Decreased seed adhesion and altered biofilm formation kinetics are observed in mutants affected in heme biosynthesis and a gene that might participate in oxidative stress responses, whereas a mutant in a gene involved in cytochrome oxidase assembly is affected in the bacterium-plant interaction but not in bacterial establishment on abiotic surfaces. Finally, a mutant altered in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis is impaired in seed and root colonization but seems to initiate attachment to plastic faster than the wild type. This variety of phenotypes reflects the complexity of bacterial adaptation to sessile life, and the partial overlap between mechanisms leading to biofilm formation on abiotic and biotic surfaces.

  14. Pseudomonas putida biofilm dynamics following a single pulse of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mallevre, Florian; Fernandes, Teresa F; Aspray, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    Pseudomonas putida mono-species biofilms were exposed to silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in artificial wastewater (AW) under hydrodynamic conditions. Specifically, 48 h old biofilms received a single pulse of Ag NPs at 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg L(-1) for 24 h in confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) compatible flow-cells. The biofilm dynamics (in terms of morphology, viability and activity) were characterised at 48, 72 and 96 h. Consistent patterns were found across flow-cells and experiments at 48 h. Dose dependent impacts of NPs were then shown at 72 h on biofilm morphology (e.g. biomass, surface area and roughness) from 0.01 mg L(-1). The microbial viability was not altered below 10 mg L(-1) Ag NPs. The activity (based on the d-glucose utilisation) was impacted by concentrations of Ag NPs equal and superior to 10 mg L(-1). Partial recovery of morphology, viability and activity were finally observed at 96 h. Comparatively, exposure to Ag salt resulted in ca. one order of magnitude higher toxicity when compared to Ag NPs. Consequently, the use of a continuous culture system and incorporation of a recovery stage extends the value of biofilm assays beyond the standard acute toxicity assessment. PMID:27031799

  15. Quorum sensing triggers the stochastic escape of individual cells from Pseudomonas putida biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Cárcamo-Oyarce, Gerardo; Lumjiaktase, Putthapoom; Kümmerli, Rolf; Eberl, Leo

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘quorum sensing’ (QS) is generally used to describe the phenomenon that bacteria release and perceive signal molecules to coordinate cooperative behaviour in response to their population size. QS-based communication has therefore been considered a social trait. Here we show that QS signals (N-acyl-homoserine lactones, AHLs) are stochastically produced in young biofilms of Pseudomonas putida and act mainly as self-regulatory signals rather than inducing neighbouring cells. We demonstrate that QS induces the expression of putisolvin biosurfactants that are not public goods, thereby triggering asocial motility of induced cells out of microcolonies. Phenotypic heterogeneity is most prominent in the early stages of biofilm development, whereas at later stages behaviour patterns across cells become more synchronized. Our findings broaden our perspective on QS by showing that AHLs can control the expression of asocial (self-directed) traits, and that heterogeneity in QS can serve as a mechanism to drive phenotypic heterogeneity in self-directed behaviour. PMID:25592773

  16. Functional analysis of aromatic biosynthetic pathways in Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    PubMed

    Molina-Henares, M Antonia; García-Salamanca, Adela; Molina-Henares, A Jesús; de la Torre, Jesús; Herrera, M Carmen; Ramos, Juan L; Duque, Estrella

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is a non-pathogenic prototrophic bacterium with high potential for biotechnological applications. Despite all that is known about this strain, the biosynthesis of essential chemicals has not been fully analysed and auxotroph mutants are scarce. We carried out massive mini-Tn5 random mutagenesis and screened for auxotrophs that require aromatic amino acids. The biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids was analysed in detail including physical and transcriptional organization of genes, complementation assays and feeding experiments to establish pathway intermediates. There is a single pathway from chorismate leading to the biosynthesis of tryptophan, whereas the biosynthesis of phenylalanine and tyrosine is achieved through multiple convergent pathways. Genes for tryptophan biosynthesis are grouped in unlinked regions with the trpBA and trpGDE genes organized as operons and the trpI, trpE and trpF genes organized as single transcriptional units. The pheA and tyrA gene-encoding multifunctional enzymes for phenylalanine and tyrosine biosynthesis are linked in the chromosome and form an operon with the serC gene involved in serine biosynthesis. The last step in the biosynthesis of these two amino acids requires an amino transferase activity for which multiple tyrB-like genes are present in the host chromosome. PMID:21261884

  17. Purification and characterization of benzyl alcohol- and benzaldehyde- dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida CSV86.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Rahul; Basu, Aditya; Phale, Prashant S

    2011-08-01

    Pseudomonas putida CSV86 utilizes benzyl alcohol via catechol and methylnaphthalenes through detoxification pathway via hydroxymethylnaphthalenes and naphthaldehydes. Based on metabolic studies, benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase (BADH) and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (BZDH) were hypothesized to be involved in the detoxification pathway. BADH and BZDH were purified to apparent homogeneity and were (1) homodimers with subunit molecular mass of 38 and 57 kDa, respectively, (2) NAD(+) dependent, (3) broad substrate specific accepting mono- and di-aromatic alcohols and aldehydes but not aliphatic compounds, and (4) BADH contained iron and magnesium, while BZDH contained magnesium. BADH in the forward reaction converted alcohol to aldehyde and required NAD(+), while in the reverse reaction it reduced aldehyde to alcohol in NADH-dependent manner. BZDH showed low K (m) value for benzaldehyde as compared to BADH reverse reaction. Chemical cross-linking studies revealed that BADH and BZDH do not form multi-enzyme complex. Thus, the conversion of aromatic alcohol to acid is due to low K (m) and high catalytic efficiency of BZDH. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BADH is a novel enzyme and diverged during the evolution to gain the ability to utilize mono- and di-aromatic compounds. The wide substrate specificity of these enzymes enables strain to detoxify methylnaphthalenes to naphthoic acids efficiently.

  18. Synergistic effect of Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ameliorates drought stress in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Mishra, Sankalp; Dixit, Vijaykant; Kumar, Manoj; Agarwal, Lalit; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    Two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) Pseudomonas putida NBRIRA and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NBRISN13 with ability to tolerate abiotic stress along with multiple PGP traits like ACC deaminase activity, minerals solubilisation, hormones production, biofilm formation, siderophore activity were evaluated for their synergistic effect to ameliorate drought stress in chickpea. Earlier we have reported both the strains individually for their PGP attributes and stress amelioration in host plants. The present study explains in detail the possibilities and benefits of utilizing these 2 PGPR in consortium for improving the chickpea growth under control and drought stressed condition. In vitro results clearly demonstrate that both the PGPR strains are compatible to each other and their synergistic growth enhances the PGP attributes. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of inoculation of both strains individually and consortia in drought tolerant and sensitive cultivars (BG362 and P1003). The growth parameters were observed significantly higher in consortium as compared to individual PGPR. Colonization of both PGPR in chickpea rhizosphere has been visualized by using gfp labeling. Apart from growth parameters, defense enzymes, soil enzymes and microbial diversity were significantly modulated in individually PGPR and in consortia inoculated plants. Negative effects of drought stress has been ameliorated and apparently seen by higher biomass and reversal of stress indicators in chickpea cultivars treated with PGPR individually or in consortia. Findings from the present study demonstrate that synergistic application has better potential to improve plant growth promotion under drought stress conditions.

  19. Toluene degradation by Pseudomonas putida F1: genetic organization of the tod operon

    SciTech Connect

    Zylstra, G.J.; McCombie, W.R.; Gibson, D.T.; Finette, B.A.

    1988-06-01

    Pseudomonas putida PpF1 degrades toluene through cis-toluene dihydrodiol to 3-methylcatechol. The latter compound is metabolized through the well-established meta pathway for catechol degradation. The first four steps in the pathway involve the sequential action of toluene dioxygenase (todABC1C2), cis-toluene, dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (todD), 3-methylcatechol 2,3-dioxygenase (todE), and 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-2,4-heptadienoate hydrolase (todF). The genes for these enzymes form part of the tod operon which is responsible for the degradation of toluene by this organism. A combination of transposon mutagenesis of the PpF1 chromosome, was well as the analysis of cloned chromosomal fragments, was used to determine the physical order of the genes in the tod operon. The genes were determined to be transcribed in the order todF, todC1, todC2, todB, todA, todD, todE.

  20. Environmental stress speeds up DNA replication in Pseudomonas putida in chemostat cultivations.

    PubMed

    Lieder, Sarah; Jahn, Michael; Koepff, Joachim; Müller, Susann; Takors, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Cellular response to different types of stress is the hallmark of the cell's strategy for survival. How organisms adjust their cell cycle dynamics to compensate for changes in environmental conditions is an important unanswered question in bacterial physiology. A cell using binary fission for reproduction passes through three stages during its cell cycle: a stage from cell birth to initiation of replication, a DNA replication phase and a period of cell division. We present a detailed analysis of durations of cell cycle phases, investigating their dynamics under environmental stress conditions. Applying continuous steady state cultivations (chemostats), the DNA content of a Pseudomonas putida KT2440 population was quantified with flow cytometry at distinct growth rates. Data-driven modeling revealed that under stress conditions, such as oxygen deprivation, solvent exposure and decreased iron availability, DNA replication was accelerated correlated to the severity of the imposed stress (up to 1.9-fold). Cells maintained constant growth rates by balancing the shortened replication phase with extended cell cycle phases before and after replication. Transcriptome data underpin the transcriptional upregulation of crucial genes of the replication machinery. Hence adaption of DNA replication speed appears to be an important strategy to withstand environmental stress. PMID:26299279

  1. Effect of silver nanoparticles on Pseudomonas putida biofilms at different stages of maturity.

    PubMed

    Thuptimdang, Pumis; Limpiyakorn, Tawan; McEvoy, John; Prüß, Birgit M; Khan, Eakalak

    2015-06-15

    This study determined the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on Pseudomonas putida KT2440 biofilms at different stages of maturity. Three biofilm stages (1-3, representing early to late stages of development) were identified from bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) activity under static (96-well plate) and dynamic conditions (Center for Disease Control and Prevention biofilm reactor). Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) levels, measured using crystal violet and total carbohydrate assays, and expression of the EPS-associated genes, csgA and alg8, supported the conclusion that biofilms at later stages were older than those at earlier stages. More mature biofilms (stages 2 and 3) showed little to no reduction in ATP activity following exposure to AgNPs. In contrast, the same treatment reduced ATP activity by more than 90% in the less mature stage 1 biofilms. Regardless of maturity, biofilms with EPS stripped off were more susceptible to AgNPs than controls with intact EPS, demonstrating that EPS is critical for biofilm tolerance of AgNPs. The findings from this study show that stage of maturity is an important factor to consider when studying effect of AgNPs on biofilms.

  2. Evaluation of Zosteric Acid for Mitigating Biofilm Formation of Pseudomonas putida Isolated from a Membrane Bioreactor System

    PubMed Central

    Polo, Andrea; Foladori, Paola; Ponti, Benedetta; Bettinetti, Roberta; Gambino, Michela; Villa, Federica; Cappitelli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    This study provides data to define an efficient biocide-free strategy based on zosteric acid to counteract biofilm formation on the membranes of submerged bioreactor system plants. 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis showed that gammaproteobacteria was the prevalent taxa on fouled membranes of an Italian wastewater plant. Pseudomonas was the prevalent genus among the cultivable membrane-fouler bacteria and Pseudomonas putida was selected as the target microorganism to test the efficacy of the antifoulant. Zosteric acid was not a source of carbon and energy for P. putida cells and, at 200 mg/L, it caused a reduction of bacterial coverage by 80%. Biofilm experiments confirmed the compound caused a significant decrease in biomass (−97%) and thickness (−50%), and it induced a migration activity of the peritrichous flagellated P. putida over the polycarbonate surface not amenable to a biofilm phenotype. The low octanol-water partitioning coefficient and the high water solubility suggested a low bioaccumulation potential and the water compartment as its main environmental recipient and capacitor. Preliminary ecotoxicological tests did not highlight direct toxicity effects toward Daphnia magna. For green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata an effect was observed at concentrations above 100 mg/L with a significant growth of protozoa that may be connected to a concurrent algal growth inhibition. PMID:24879523

  3. Draft Genome Sequence Analysis of a Pseudomonas putida W15Oct28 Strain with Antagonistic Activity to Gram-Positive and Pseudomonas sp. Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Lumeng; Hildebrand, Falk; Dingemans, Jozef; Ballet, Steven; Laus, George; Matthijs, Sandra; Berendsen, Roeland; Cornelis, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida is a member of the fluorescent pseudomonads known to produce the yellow-green fluorescent pyoverdine siderophore. P. putida W15Oct28, isolated from a stream in Brussels, was found to produce compound(s) with antimicrobial activity against the opportunistic pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, an unusual characteristic for P. putida. The active compound production only occurred in media with low iron content and without organic nitrogen sources. Transposon mutants which lost their antimicrobial activity had the majority of insertions in genes involved in the biosynthesis of pyoverdine, although purified pyoverdine was not responsible for the antagonism. Separation of compounds present in culture supernatants revealed the presence of two fractions containing highly hydrophobic molecules active against P. aeruginosa. Analysis of the draft genome confirmed the presence of putisolvin biosynthesis genes and the corresponding lipopeptides were found to contribute to the antimicrobial activity. One cluster of ten genes was detected, comprising a NAD-dependent epimerase, an acetylornithine aminotransferase, an acyl CoA dehydrogenase, a short chain dehydrogenase, a fatty acid desaturase and three genes for a RND efflux pump. P. putida W15Oct28 genome also contains 56 genes encoding TonB-dependent receptors, conferring a high capacity to utilize pyoverdines from other pseudomonads. One unique feature of W15Oct28 is also the presence of different secretion systems including a full set of genes for type IV secretion, and several genes for type VI secretion and their VgrG effectors. PMID:25369289

  4. Draft genome sequence analysis of a Pseudomonas putida W15Oct28 strain with antagonistic activity to Gram-positive and Pseudomonas sp. pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lumeng; Hildebrand, Falk; Dingemans, Jozef; Ballet, Steven; Laus, George; Matthijs, Sandra; Berendsen, Roeland; Cornelis, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida is a member of the fluorescent pseudomonads known to produce the yellow-green fluorescent pyoverdine siderophore. P. putida W15Oct28, isolated from a stream in Brussels, was found to produce compound(s) with antimicrobial activity against the opportunistic pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, an unusual characteristic for P. putida. The active compound production only occurred in media with low iron content and without organic nitrogen sources. Transposon mutants which lost their antimicrobial activity had the majority of insertions in genes involved in the biosynthesis of pyoverdine, although purified pyoverdine was not responsible for the antagonism. Separation of compounds present in culture supernatants revealed the presence of two fractions containing highly hydrophobic molecules active against P. aeruginosa. Analysis of the draft genome confirmed the presence of putisolvin biosynthesis genes and the corresponding lipopeptides were found to contribute to the antimicrobial activity. One cluster of ten genes was detected, comprising a NAD-dependent epimerase, an acetylornithine aminotransferase, an acyl CoA dehydrogenase, a short chain dehydrogenase, a fatty acid desaturase and three genes for a RND efflux pump. P. putida W15Oct28 genome also contains 56 genes encoding TonB-dependent receptors, conferring a high capacity to utilize pyoverdines from other pseudomonads. One unique feature of W15Oct28 is also the presence of different secretion systems including a full set of genes for type IV secretion, and several genes for type VI secretion and their VgrG effectors. PMID:25369289

  5. Siderophore receptor PupA as a marker to monitor wild-type Pseudomonas putida WCS358 in natural environments.

    PubMed Central

    Raaijmakers, J M; Bitter, W; Punte, H L; Bakker, P A; Weisbeek, P J; Schippers, B

    1994-01-01

    For application of genetically engineered fluorescent Pseudomonas spp., specific markers are required for monitoring of wild-type Pseudomonas strains and their genetically modified derivatives in natural environments. In this study, the specific siderophore receptor PupA of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas putida WCS358 was used as a marker to monitor wild-type strain WCS358. After introduction into natural soil and rhizosphere environments, strain WCS358 could be recovered efficiently on a medium amended with 300 microM pseudobactin 358. Although low population densisties of indigenous pseudomonads (less than or equal to 10(3)/g of soil or root) were recovered on the pseudobactin 358-amended medium, subsequent agglutination assays with a WCS358-specific polyclonal antiserum enabled accurate monitoring of populations of wild-type strain WCS358 over a range of approximately 10(3) to 10(7) CFU/g of soil or root. Genetic analysis of the background population by PCR and Southern hybridization revealed that natural occurrence of the pupA gene was limited to a very small number of indigenous Pseudomonas spp. which are very closely related to P. putida WCS358. The PupA marker system enabled the study of differences in rhizosphere colonization among wild-type strain WCS358, rifampin-resistant derivative WCS358rr, and Tn5 mutant WCS358::xylE. Chromosomally mediated rifampin resistance did not affect the colonizing ability of P. putida WCS358. However, Tn5 mutant WCS358::xylE colonized the radish rhizosphere significantly less than did its parental strain. Images PMID:8017914

  6. Calcium Causes Multimerization of the Large Adhesin LapF and Modulates Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Gil, Marta; Romero, Diego; Kolter, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    LapF is a large secreted protein involved in microcolony formation and biofilm maturation in Pseudomonas putida. Its C-terminal domain shows the characteristics of proteins secreted through a type I secretion system and includes a predicted calcium binding motif. We provide experimental evidence of specific binding of Ca2+ to the purified C-terminal domain of LapF (CLapF). Calcium promotes the formation of large aggregates, which disappear in the presence of the calcium chelator EGTA. Immunolocalization of LapF also shows the tendency of this protein to accumulate in vivo in certain extracellular regions. These findings, along with results showing that calcium influences biofilm formation, lead us to propose a model in which P. putida cells interact with each other via LapF in a calcium-dependent manner during the development of biofilms. PMID:23042991

  7. Characterization of MazF-Mediated Sequence-Specific RNA Cleavage in Pseudomonas putida Using Massive Parallel Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Tatsuki; Kato, Yuka; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Noda, Naohiro

    2016-01-01

    Under environmental stress, microbes are known to alter their translation patterns using sequence-specific endoribonucleases that we call RNA interferases. However, there has been limited insight regarding which RNAs are specifically cleaved by these RNA interferases, hence their physiological functions remain unknown. In the current study, we developed a novel method to effectively identify cleavage specificities with massive parallel sequencing. This approach uses artificially designed RNAs composed of diverse sequences, which do not form extensive secondary structures, and it correctly identified the cleavage sequence of a well-characterized Escherichia coli RNA interferase, MazF, as ACA. In addition, we also determined that an uncharacterized MazF homologue isolated from Pseudomonas putida specifically recognizes the unique triplet, UAC. Using a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay, the UAC triplet was further proved to be essential for cleavage in P. putida MazF. These results highlight an effective method to determine cleavage specificity of RNA interferases.

  8. The contribution of proteomics to the unveiling of the survival strategies used by Pseudomonas putida in changing and hostile environments.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Renata; Rojo, Fernando

    2013-10-01

    Pseudomonas putida is a ubiquitous, metabolically very versatile, Gram-negative bacterium adapted to habitats as diverse as soil, water and the rhizosphere. Most strains are nonpathogenic, many are used as experimental models, and many others have biotechnological applications in the areas of agriculture, bioremediation, biocatalysis, and the production of bioplastics. This review summarizes the contribution of proteomic technologies to our understanding of how P. putida responds to different carbon sources, how it adapts to living at suboptimal temperatures or attached to surfaces, and how it responds to the presence of toxic compounds such as aromatic molecules and heavy metals. The examples described illustrate the value of proteomics in furthering our knowledge of the physiology and behavior of bacteria, knowledge that is important for understanding how they behave in their natural habitats and for optimizing their behavior in biotechnological applications. PMID:23625785

  9. Bioremoval of Basic Violet 3 and Acid Blue 93 by Pseudomonas putida and its adsorption isotherms and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Arunarani, A; Chandran, Preethy; Ranganathan, B V; Vasanthi, N S; Sudheer Khan, S

    2013-02-01

    Basic Violet 3 and Acid Blue 93 are the most important group of synthetic colourants extensively used in textile industries for dyeing cotton, wool, silk and nylon. Release of these dye pollutants in to the environment adversely affects the human health and aquatic organisms. The present study we used Pseudomonas putida MTCC 4910 for the adsorptive removal of Basic Violet 3 and Acid Blue 93 from the aqueous solutions. The pH (4-9) and NaCl concentrations (1mM-1M) did not influence the adsorption process. The equilibrium adsorption process fitted well to Freundlich model than Langmuir model. The kinetics of adsorption fitted well by pseudo-second-order. Thus in the present study an attempt has been made to exploit the dye removal capability of P. putida MTCC 4910, and it was found to be an efficient microbe that could be used for bio removal of dyes from textile effluents.

  10. Global Regulation of Food Supply by Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Craig; Godoy, Patricia; Duque, Estrella; Molina-Henares, M. Antonia; de la Torre, Jesús; del Arco, José María; Herrera, Carmen; Segura, Ana; Guazzaroni, M. Eugenia; Ferrer, Manuel; Ramos, Juan Luis

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E was used as a model to develop a “phenomics” platform to investigate the ability of P. putida to grow using different carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur sources and in the presence of stress molecules. Results for growth of wild-type DOT-T1E on 90 different carbon sources revealed the existence of a number of previously uncharted catabolic pathways for compounds such as salicylate, quinate, phenylethanol, gallate, and hexanoate, among others. Subsequent screening on the subset of compounds on which wild-type DOT-TIE could grow with four knockout strains in the global regulatory genes Δcrc, Δcrp, ΔcyoB, and ΔptsN allowed analysis of the global response to nutrient supply and stress. The data revealed that most global regulator mutants could grow in a wide variety of substrates, indicating that metabolic fluxes are physiologically balanced. It was found that the Crc mutant did not differ much from the wild-type regarding the use of carbon sources. However, certain pathways are under the preferential control of one global regulator, i.e., metabolism of succinate and d-fructose is influenced by CyoB, and l-arginine is influenced by PtsN. Other pathways can be influenced by more than one global regulator; i.e., l-valine catabolism can be influenced by CyoB and Crp (cyclic AMP receptor protein) while phenylethylamine is affected by Crp, CyoB, and PtsN. These results emphasize the cross talk required in order to ensure proper growth and survival. With respect to N sources, DOT-T1E can use a wide variety of inorganic and organic nitrogen sources. As with the carbon sources, more than one global regulator affected growth with some nitrogen sources; for instance, growth with nucleotides, dipeptides, d-amino acids, and ethanolamine is influenced by Crp, CyoB, and PtsN. A surprising finding was that the Crp mutant was unable to flourish on ammonium. Results for assayed sulfur sources revealed that CyoB controls multiple points in methionine

  11. Activity and three-dimensional distribution of toluene-degrading Pseudomonas putida in a multispecies biofilm assessed by quantitative in situ hybridization and scanning confocal laser microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Møller, S; Pedersen, A R; Poulsen, L K; Arvin, E; Molin, S

    1996-01-01

    As a representative member of the toluene-degrading population in a biofilter for waste gas treatment, Pseudomonas putida was investigated with a 16S rRNA targeting probe. The three-dimensional distribution of P. putida was visualized in the biofilm matrix by scanning confocal laser microscopy, demonstrating that P. putida was present throughout the biofilm. Acridine orange staining revealed a very heterogeneous structure of the fully hydrated biofilm, with cell-free channels extending from the surface into the biofilm. This indicated that toluene may penetrate to deeper layers of the biofilm, and consequently P. putida may be actively degrading toluene in all regions of the biofilm. Furthermore, measurements of growth rate-related parameters for P. putida showed reduced rRNA content and cell size (relative to that in a batch culture), indicating that the P. putida population was not degrading toluene at a maximal rate in the biofilm environment. Assuming that the rRNA content reflected the cellular activity, a lower toluene degradation rate for P. putida present in the biofilm could be estimated. This calculation indicated that P. putida was responsible for a significant part (65%) of the toluene degraded by the entire community. PMID:8953734

  12. Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas fluorescens Strains PA4C2 and PA3G8 and Pseudomonas putida PA14H7, Three Biocontrol Bacteria against Dickeya Phytopathogens

    PubMed Central

    Cigna, Jérémy; Raoul des Essarts, Yannick; Mondy, Samuel; Hélias, Valérie; Beury-Cirou, Amélie

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strains PA4C2 and PA3G8 and Pseudomonas putida strain PA14H7 were isolated from potato rhizosphere and show an ability to inhibit the growth of Dickeya phytopathogens. Here, we report their draft genome sequences, which provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in antibiosis against Dickeya. PMID:25635023

  13. Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas fluorescens Strains PA4C2 and PA3G8 and Pseudomonas putida PA14H7, Three Biocontrol Bacteria against Dickeya Phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Cigna, Jérémy; Raoul des Essarts, Yannick; Mondy, Samuel; Hélias, Valérie; Beury-Cirou, Amélie; Faure, Denis

    2015-01-29

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strains PA4C2 and PA3G8 and Pseudomonas putida strain PA14H7 were isolated from potato rhizosphere and show an ability to inhibit the growth of Dickeya phytopathogens. Here, we report their draft genome sequences, which provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in antibiosis against Dickeya.

  14. New dye-decolorizing peroxidases from Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida MET94: towards biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ana; Mendes, Sónia; Brissos, Vânia; Martins, Lígia O

    2014-03-01

    This work provides spectroscopic, catalytic, and stability fingerprints of two new bacterial dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) from Bacillus subtilis (BsDyP) and Pseudomonas putida MET94 (PpDyP). DyPs are a family of microbial heme-containing peroxidases with wide substrate specificity, including high redox potential aromatic compounds such as synthetic dyes or phenolic and nonphenolic lignin units. The genes encoding BsDyP and PpDyP, belonging to subfamilies A and B, respectively, were cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant PpDyP is a 120-kDa homotetramer while BsDyP enzyme consists of a single 48-kDa monomer. The optimal pH of both enzymes is in the acidic range (pH 4-5). BsDyP has a bell-shape profile with optimum between 20 and 30 °C whereas PpDyP shows a peculiar flat and broad (10-30 °C) temperature profile. Anthraquinonic or azo dyes, phenolics, methoxylated aromatics, and also manganese and ferrous ions are substrates used by the enzymes. In general, PpDyP exhibits higher activities and accepts a wider scope of substrates than BsDyP; the spectroscopic data suggest distinct heme microenvironments in the two enzymes that might account for the distinctive catalytic behavior. However, the Bs enzyme with activity lasting for up to 53 h at 40 °C is more stable towards temperature or chemical denaturation than the PpDyP. The results of this work will guide future optimization of the biocatalytis towards their utilization in the fields of environmental or industrial biotechnology. PMID:23820555

  15. New dye-decolorizing peroxidases from Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida MET94: towards biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ana; Mendes, Sónia; Brissos, Vânia; Martins, Lígia O

    2014-03-01

    This work provides spectroscopic, catalytic, and stability fingerprints of two new bacterial dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) from Bacillus subtilis (BsDyP) and Pseudomonas putida MET94 (PpDyP). DyPs are a family of microbial heme-containing peroxidases with wide substrate specificity, including high redox potential aromatic compounds such as synthetic dyes or phenolic and nonphenolic lignin units. The genes encoding BsDyP and PpDyP, belonging to subfamilies A and B, respectively, were cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant PpDyP is a 120-kDa homotetramer while BsDyP enzyme consists of a single 48-kDa monomer. The optimal pH of both enzymes is in the acidic range (pH 4-5). BsDyP has a bell-shape profile with optimum between 20 and 30 °C whereas PpDyP shows a peculiar flat and broad (10-30 °C) temperature profile. Anthraquinonic or azo dyes, phenolics, methoxylated aromatics, and also manganese and ferrous ions are substrates used by the enzymes. In general, PpDyP exhibits higher activities and accepts a wider scope of substrates than BsDyP; the spectroscopic data suggest distinct heme microenvironments in the two enzymes that might account for the distinctive catalytic behavior. However, the Bs enzyme with activity lasting for up to 53 h at 40 °C is more stable towards temperature or chemical denaturation than the PpDyP. The results of this work will guide future optimization of the biocatalytis towards their utilization in the fields of environmental or industrial biotechnology.

  16. Characterization of the Biogenic Mn-Oxide Produced by Pseudomonas putida Strain MnB1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalobos, M.; Bargar, J.; Sposito, G.

    2001-12-01

    Mn-oxide nanoparticles are common and highly reactive materials in the environment. They occur as dispersed colloids, in nodules, and as coatings having high specific surface areas and, thus, high surface reactivity. Hence, they are believed to play a major role in the fate and transport of contaminant and nutrient species in the environment. Most of these oxides are believed to be microbial in origin, and a wide array of Mn(II) oxidizing bacteria exists in almost all natural aqueous environments. However, little is known about the structures, characteristics and reactivities of these biogenic oxides. The goal of this research was to identify the Mn oxide product from a strain of the fresh water bacterial species Pseudomonas putida, and to characterize it along with analogous synthetic Mn oxides: two different MnIII/MnIV oxides identified as birnessites, and the MnIV oxide, δ -MnO2. These synthetic phases were defined as potential models based on comparison to X-ray absorption and diffraction spectra from a large number of Mn(II/III/IV) references. Characterization of biotic and abiotic Mn oxides was performed with respect to: morphology, surface area, Mn composition, structure, and surface reactivity. In this fashion, randomly-stacked hexagonal birnessite of low crystallinity was identified as a close synthetic analog to the biogenic oxide, making it suitable for reference and comparison purposes, as well as for reactivity prediction studies. This synthetic product is distinct from monoclinic birnessite, but showed some similarities to Mn oxide minerals of very low crystallinity previously identified as vernadite (δ -MnO2). This latter mineral has been identified in the past as comparable to the biogenic oxide produced by the marine Bacillus sp. strain SG-1, which suggests similarities in the biological Mn(II) oxidation processes across natural environments and bacterial species.

  17. Mechanism for Biotransformation of Nonylphenol Polyethoxylates to Xenoestrogens in Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    John, Dominic M.; White, Graham F.

    1998-01-01

    A strain of Pseudomonas putida isolated from activated sewage grew aerobically on the xenoestrogen precursor, nonylphenol polyethoxylate (NPEOx, where x is the number of ethoxylate units) as sole carbon source. Comparative growth yields on NPEOav6, NPEOav9, and NPEOav20 (mixtures with average ethoxylate numbers as indicated) were consistent with utilization of all but two ethoxylate units, and the final accumulating metabolite was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy as nonylphenol diethoxylate (NPEO2). There was no growth on nonylphenol or polyethylene glycols, and there was no evidence for production of carboxylic acid analogs of NPEOx. Biodegradation kinetics measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) for each component in NPEOx mixtures showed that biodegradation proceeded via successive exoscission of the ethoxylate chain and not by direct scission between the second and third ethoxylate residues. The NPEOx-degrading activity was inducible by substrate, and cell extracts of NPEOav9-induced cells were also active on the pure alcohol ethoxylate, dodecyl octaethoxylate (AEO8), producing sequentially, under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions, AEO7, AEO6, AEO5, etc., thus demonstrating that the pathway involved removal of single ethoxylate units. HPLC analysis of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives revealed acetaldehyde (ethanal) as the sole aldehydic product from either NPEOav9 or AEO8 under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. We propose a mechanism for biotransformation which involves an oxygen-independent hydroxyl shift from the terminal to the penultimate carbon of the terminal ethoxylate unit of NPEOx and dissociation of the resulting hemiacetal to release acetaldehyde and the next-lower homolog, NPEOx−1, which then undergoes further cycles of the same reaction until x = 2. PMID:9721266

  18. Protective role of glycerol against benzene stress: insights from the Pseudomonas putida proteome.

    PubMed

    Bhaganna, Prashanth; Bielecka, Agata; Molinari, Gabriella; Hallsworth, John E

    2016-05-01

    Chemical activities of hydrophobic substances can determine the windows of environmental conditions over which microbial systems function and the metabolic inhibition of microorganisms by benzene and other hydrophobes can, paradoxically, be reduced by compounds that protect against cellular water stress (Bhaganna et al. in Microb Biotechnol 3:701-716, 2010; Cray et al. in Curr Opin Biotechnol 33:228-259, 2015a). We hypothesized that this protective effect operates at the macromolecule structure-function level and is facilitated, in part at least, by genome-mediated adaptations. Based on proteome profiling of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida, we present evidence that (1) benzene induces a chaotrope-stress response, whereas (2) cells cultured in media supplemented with benzene plus glycerol were protected against chaotrope stress. Chaotrope-stress response proteins, such as those involved in lipid and compatible-solute metabolism and removal of reactive oxygen species, were increased by up to 15-fold in benzene-stressed cells relative to those of control cultures (no benzene added). By contrast, cells grown in the presence of benzene + glycerol, even though the latter grew more slowly, exhibited only a weak chaotrope-stress response. These findings provide evidence to support the hypothesis that hydrophobic substances induce a chaotropicity-mediated water stress, that cells respond via genome-mediated adaptations, and that glycerol protects the cell's macromolecular systems. We discuss the possibility of using compatible solutes to mitigate hydrocarbon-induced stresses in lignocellulosic biofuel fermentations and for industrial and environmental applications. PMID:26612269

  19. Influence of oxygen transfer on Pseudomonas putida effects on growth rate and biodesulfurization capacity.

    PubMed

    Escobar, S; Rodriguez, A; Gomez, E; Alcon, A; Santos, V E; Garcia-Ochoa, Felix

    2016-04-01

    The growth rate and desulfurization capacity accumulated by the cells during the growth of Pseudomonas putida KTH2 under different oxygen transfer conditions in a stirred and sparged tank bioreactor have been studied. Hydrodynamic conditions were changed using different agitation conditions. During the culture, several magnitudes associated to growth, such as the specific growth rate, the dissolved oxygen concentration and the carbon source consumption have been measured. Experimental results indicate that cultures are influenced by the fluid dynamic conditions into the bioreactor. An increase in the stirrer speed from 400 to 700 rpm has a positive influence on the cell growth rate. Nevertheless, the increase of agitation from 700 to 2000 rpm hardly has any influence on the growth rate. The effect of fluid dynamics on the cells development of the biodesulfurization (BDS) capacity of the cells during growth is different. The activities of the intracellular enzymes involved in the 4S pathway change with dissolved oxygen concentration. The enzyme activities have been evaluated in cells at several growth time and different hydrodynamic conditions. An increase of the agitation from 100 to 300 rpm has a positive influence on the development of the overall BDS capacity of the cells during growth. This capacity shows a decrease for higher stirrer speeds and the activity of the enzymes monooxygenases DszC and DszA decreases dramatically. The highest value of the activity of DszB enzyme was obtained with cells cultured at 100 rpm, while this activity decreases when the stirrer speed was increased higher than this value. PMID:26762940

  20. Structural and kinetic characterization of recombinant 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida G7

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Simara Semíramis; Neves, Cíntia Mara Leal; Guimarães, Samuel Leite; Whitman, Christian P.; Johnson, William H.; Aparicio, Ricardo; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto

    2016-01-01

    The first enzyme in the oxalocrotonate branch of the naphthalene-degradation lower pathway in Pseudomonas putida G7 is NahI, a 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde dehydrogenase required for conversion of 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde to 2-hydroxymuconate in the presence of NAD+. NahI is in one family of the NAD(P)+-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily (ALDH8). In this work, we report the cloning, expression, purification and preliminary structural and kinetic characterization of the recombinant NahI. The nahI gene was subcloned into a T7 expression vector and the enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli ArcticExpress at 12 ºC as an N-terminal hexa-histidine-tagged fusion protein (6xHis-NahI). After the soluble protein was purified by affinity and size-exclusion chromatography, dynamic light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments were conducted to analyze the oligomeric state and the overall shape of the enzyme in solution. The protein is a tetramer in solution and has nearly perfect 222 point group symmetry. Protein stability and secondary structure content were also evaluated by a circular dichroism spectroscopy assay under different thermal conditions. Furthermore, kinetic assays were conducted for the recombinant enzyme and, for the first time, KM (1.3 ± 0.3 μM) and kcat (0.9 s−1) values were determined for this enzyme (at presumed NAD+ saturation). NahI is highly specific for its biological substrate (2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde) and has no activity with salicylaldehyde, another intermediate in the naphthalene-degradation pathway. PMID:26032336

  1. Stereochemical course of two arene-cis-diol dehydrogenases specifically induced in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Morawski, B; Casy, G; Illaszewicz, C; Griengl, H; Ribbons, D W

    1997-01-01

    Catabolism of nonphenolic arenes is frequently initiated by dioxygenases, yielding single isomer products with two adjacent hydroxylated asymmetric centers. The next enzymic reaction dehydrogenates these cyclic cis-diols, with aromatization yielding catechols for ring cleavage. There are two stereochemical questions to answer. (i) To which face of NAD is hydride transferred giving NADH? (ii) Which hydrogen of the arene-cis-diols is donated to NAD? We report the results of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance [1H NMR] experiments for two diol dehydrogenases induced during growth of Pseudomonas putida PaW1(TOL) and JT105 with p-xylene and p-toluate, respectively. per-[2H5]benzoate-1,2-dihydrodiol and per-[2H7]- and specifically [2H]p-toluate-2,3-dihydrodiols were the substrates used to examine this by 1H NMR, as the two protons of the prochiral center (C-4 of the nicotinamide ring) are easily distinguished in the region of 2.6 to 2.7 ppm. We found that with the partially purified dehydrogenases (i) 2H from the (2R) center of per-(1S,2R)-benzoate-1,2-dihydrodiol was donated to the Si-face of NAD to give (4S)-NAD2H; (ii) p-toluate-2,3-diol dehydrogenase also provided exclusively (4S)-NAD2H, but the 2H was transferred from both the 2- and 3-C atoms of (2S,3R)-p-toluate-2,3-dihydrodiol with specifically deuterated species in approximately equal amounts; and (iii) the unexpected lack of stereo- and regioselectivity of p-toluate-2,3-diol dehydrogenase was supported by kinetic isotope effect studies. PMID:9190820

  2. Characterization of a plasmid-specified pathway for catabolism of isopropylbenzene in Pseudomonas putida RE204.

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, R W; Timmis, K N

    1986-01-01

    A Pseudomonas putida strain designated RE204, able to utilize isopropylbenzene as the sole carbon and energy source, was isolated. Tn5 transposon mutagenesis by means of the suicide transposon donor plasmid pLG221 yielded mutant derivatives defective in isopropylbenzene metabolism. These were characterized by the identification of the products which they accumulated when grown in the presence of isopropylbenzene and by the assay of enzyme activities in cell extracts. Based on the results obtained, the following metabolic pathway is proposed: isopropylbenzene----2,3-dihydro -2,3-dihydroxyisopropylbenzene----3-isopropylcatechol----2 -hydroxy-6-oxo-7-methylocta-2,4-dienoate----isobutyrate + 2-oxopent-4-enoate----amphibolic intermediates. Plasmid DNA was isolated from strain RE204 and mutant derivatives and characterized by restriction enzyme cleavage analysis. Isopropylbenzene-negative isolates carried a Tn5 insert within a 15-kilobase region of a 105-kilobase plasmid designated pRE4. DNA fragments of pRE4 carrying genes encoding isopropylbenzene catabolic enzymes were cloned in Escherichia coli with various plasmid vectors; clones were identified by (i) selection for Tn5-encoded kanamycin resistance in the case of Tn5 mutant plasmids, (ii) screening for isopropylbenzene dioxygenase-catalyzed oxidation of indole to indigo, and (iii) use of a Tn5-carrying restriction fragment, derived from a pRE4::Tn5 mutant plasmid, as a probe for clones carrying wild-type restriction fragments. These clones were subsequently used to generate a transposon insertion and restriction enzyme cleavage map of the isopropylbenzene metabolic region of pRE4. Images PMID:3019995

  3. Removal of Pseudomonas putida biofilm and associated extracellular polymeric substances from stainless steel by alkali cleaning.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Katerina; Frank, Joseph F

    2005-02-01

    Alkali (NaOH)-based compounds are commonly used in the food industry to clean food contact surfaces. However, little information is available on the ability of alkali and alkali-based cleaning compounds to remove extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by biofilm bacteria. The objectives of this study were to determine the temperature and NaOH concentration necessary to remove biofilm EPS from stainless steel under turbulent flow conditions (clean-in-place simulation) and to determine the ability of a commercial alkaline cleaner to remove biofilm EPS from stainless steel when applied under static conditions without heat. Biofilms were produced by growing Pseudomonas putida on stainless steel for 72 h at 25 degrees C in a 1:10 dilution of Trypticase soy broth. The biofilms were treated using NaOH at concentrations of 1.28 to 6.0% and temperatures ranging from 66 to 70 degrees C. Other biofilms were treated with commercial alkaline cleaner at 25 or 4 degrees C for 1 to 30 min. Removal of EPS was determined by direct microscopic observation of samples stained with fluorescent-labeled peanut agglutinin lectin. Treatment with 1.2% NaOH at 66 degrees C for 3 min was insufficient to remove biofilm EPS. A minimum of 2.5% NaOH at 66 degrees C and 2.0% NaOH at 68 degrees C for 3 min were both effective for EPS removal. Commercial alkaline cleaner removed over 99% of biofilm EPS within 1 min at 4 and 25 degrees C under static conditions. Selection of appropriated cleaning agent formulation and use at recommended concentrations and temperatures is critical for removal of biofilm EPS from stainless steel. PMID:15726969

  4. Recombinant Pseudomonas putida carrying both the dsz and hcu genes can desulfurize dibenzothiophene in n-tetradecane.

    PubMed

    Noda, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Kimiko; Maruhashi, Kenji

    2003-07-01

    Pseudomonas putida IFO13696, a recombinant strain with dsz desulfurization genes, desulfurized dibenzothiophene (DBT) in water but not in n-tetradecane. By introducing into this recombinant strain the hcuABC genes that take part in the uptake of DBT in the oil phase into the cell, 82% of 1 mM DBT in n-tetradecane was degraded in 24 h by resting cells. The products of hcuABC genes thus acted in the uptake of DBT in n-tetradecane into the cells and were effective in desulfurization of DBT in the hydrocarbon phase.

  5. Evaluation of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate production by Pseudomonas putida LS46 using biodiesel by-product streams.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jilagamazhi; Sharma, Umesh; Sparling, Richard; Cicek, Nazim; Levin, David B

    2014-07-01

    Medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) production by Pseudomonas putida LS46 was analyzed in shake-flask-based batch reactions, using pure chemical-grade glycerol (PG), biodiesel-derived "waste" glycerol (WG), and biodiesel-derived "waste" free fatty acids (WFA). Cell growth, substrate consumption, mcl-PHA accumulation within the cells, and the monomer composition of the synthesized biopolymers were monitored. The patterns of mcl-PHA synthesis in P. putida LS46 cells grown on PG and WG were similar but differed from that of cells grown with WFA. Polymer accumulation in glycerol-based cultures was stimulated by nitrogen limitation and plateaued after 48 h in both PG and WG cultures, with a total accumulation of 17.9% cell dry mass and 16.3% cell dry mass, respectively. In contrast, mcl-PHA synthesis was independent of nitrogen concentration in P. putida LS46 cells cultured with WFA, which accumulated to 29% cell dry mass. In all cases, the mcl-PHAs synthesized consisted primarily of 3-hydroxyoctanoate (C(8)) and 3-hydroxydecanoate (C(10)). WG and WFA supported similar or greater cell growth and mcl-PHA accumulation than PG under the experimental conditions used. These results suggest that biodiesel by-product streams could be used as low-cost carbon sources for sustainable mcl-PHA production.

  6. A 90-Kilobase Conjugative Chromosomal Element Coding for Biphenyl and Salicylate Catabolism in Pseudomonas putida KF715

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Akito; Tominaga, Kiyomi; Furukawa, Kensuke

    2000-01-01

    The biphenyl and salicylate metabolic pathways in Pseudomonas putida KF715 are chromosomally encoded. The bph gene cluster coding for the conversion of biphenyl to benzoic acid and the sal gene cluster coding for the salicylate meta-pathway were obtained from the KF715 genomic cosmid libraries. These two gene clusters were separated by 10-kb DNA and were highly prone to deletion when KF715 was grown in nutrient medium. Two types of deletions took place at the region including only the bph genes (ca. 40 kb) or at the region including both the bph and sal genes (ca. 70 kb). A 90-kb DNA region, including both the bph and sal genes (termed the bph-sal element), was transferred by conjugation from KF715 to P. putida AC30. Such transconjugants gained the ability to grow on biphenyl and salicylate as the sole sources of carbon. The bph and sal element was located on the chromosome of the recipient. The bph-sal element in strain AC30 was also highly prone to deletion; however, it could be mobilized to the chromosome of P. putida KT2440 and the two deletion mutants of KF715. PMID:10715002

  7. Protein as Chemical Cue: Non-Nutritional Growth Enhancement by Exogenous Protein in Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Hiren; Dave, Rachna; Venugopalan, Vayalam P.

    2014-01-01

    Research pertaining to microbe-microbe and microbe-plant interactions has been largely limited to small molecules like quorum sensing chemicals. However, a few recent reports have indicated the role of complex molecules like proteins and polysaccharides in microbial communication. Here we demonstrate that exogenous proteins present in culture media can considerably accelerate the growth of Pseudomonas putida KT2440, even when such proteins are not internalized by the cells. The growth enhancement is observed when the exogenous protein is not used as a source of carbon or nitrogen. The data show non-specific nature of the protein inducing growth; growth enhancement was observed irrespective of the protein type. It is shown that growth enhancement is mediated via increased siderophore secretion in response to the exogenous protein, leading to better iron uptake. We highlight the ecological significance of the observation and hypothesize that exogenous proteins serve as chemical cues in the case of P.putida and are perceived as indicator of the presence of competitors in the environment. It is argued that enhanced siderophore secretion in response to exogenous protein helps P.putida establish numerical superiority over competitors by way of enhanced iron assimilation and quicker utilization of aromatic substrates. PMID:25117434

  8. Experimental and kinetic study on the cometabolic biodegradation of phenol and 4-chlorophenol by psychrotrophic Pseudomonas putida LY1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Li, Yi; Li, Jing; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the kinetics of phenol and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) biodegradation by a cold-adapted bacteria, Pseudomonas putida LY1, isolated from Songhua River sediment. The results showed that P. putida LY1 cannot grow on 4-CP as a sole carbon source. P. putida LY1 had the potential to cometabolic biodegrade phenol and 4-CP in a wide range of temperature (varying from 5 to 35 °C) with the optimal temperature around 25 °C. Mixture of phenol and 4-CP were completely removed at two 4-CP concentrations (15 and 40 mg/L) over a wide range of phenol (20-400 mg/L) concentrations, whereby the ratio of 4-CP/biomass (S 2/X) was lower than 0.03. The kinetic models of cometabolic biodegradation of phenol and 4-CP were proposed, considering the growth and nongrowth substrate inhibition. These models successfully simulate the processes of cometabolic degradation of phenol and 4-CP.

  9. cumA, a Gene Encoding a Multicopper Oxidase, Is Involved in Mn2+ Oxidation in Pseudomonas putida GB-1

    PubMed Central

    Brouwers, Geert-Jan; de Vrind, Johannes P. M.; Corstjens, Paul L. A. M.; Cornelis, Pierre; Baysse, Christine; de Vrind-de Jong, Elisabeth W.

    1999-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida GB-1-002 catalyzes the oxidation of Mn2+. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the transposon insertion site of a nonoxidizing mutant revealed a gene (designated cumA) encoding a protein homologous to multicopper oxidases. Addition of Cu2+ increased the Mn2+-oxidizing activity of the P. putida wild type by a factor of approximately 5. The growth rates of the wild type and the mutant were not affected by added Cu2+. A second open reading frame (designated cumB) is located downstream from cumA. Both cumA and cumB probably are part of a single operon. The translation product of cumB was homologous (level of identity, 45%) to that of orf74 of Bradyrhizobium japonicum. A mutation in orf74 resulted in an extended lag phase and lower cell densities. Similar growth-related observations were made for the cumA mutant, suggesting that the cumA mutation may have a polar effect on cumB. This was confirmed by site-specific gene replacement in cumB. The cumB mutation did not affect the Mn2+-oxidizing ability of the organism but resulted in decreased growth. In summary, our data indicate that the multicopper oxidase CumA is involved in the oxidation of Mn2+ and that CumB is required for optimal growth of P. putida GB-1-002. PMID:10103278

  10. Degradation of Tectilon Yellow 2G by hybrid technique: combination of sonolysis and biodegradation using mutant Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Raman; Kathiravan, Mathur Nadarajan; Gopinath, Kannappan Panchamoorthy

    2011-02-01

    Degradation of Tectilon Yellow 2G (TY2G), an azo dye has been studied by hybrid technique involving pretreatment by sonochemical method and further biological treatment by Pseudomonas putida mutant. Pretreatment experiments were carried out by sonolysis of the dye solution at different concentrations (100-1000 mg/L). Wild type Gram-negative P. putida species isolated from the textile effluent contaminated soil, which was found to be effective towards dye degradation, has been acclimatized so as to consume TY2G as the sole source of nutrition. Mutant strain was obtained from the acclimatized species by random mutagenesis using the chemical mutagen ethidium bromide for various time intervals (6-30 min). The optimum mutagenesis exposure time for obtaining the most efficient species for dye degradation was found to be 18 min. An efficient mutant strain P. putida ACT 1 has been isolated and was used for growth experiments. The mutant strain showed a better growth compared to the wild strain. The substrate utilization kinetics has been modeled using Monod and Haldane model equations of which the Haldane model provided a better fit. The enzyme kinetics of the mutant and wild species was obtained using Michaelis-Menten equation. The mutated species showed better enzyme kinetics towards the degradation of TY2G.

  11. Effect of the introduction of the nitrogen-fixing bacteria Pseudomonas putida 23 on the nitrogen balance in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabayev, V. P.

    2010-04-01

    The inoculation of red beets with the nitrogen-fixing bacteria Pseudomonas putida 23 increased the activity of the nitrogen fixation in the rhizosphere of the plants grown on meadow soil in the central part of the Oka River floodplain. The yield of the red beets and the uptake by plants of nitrogen from the soil and from the 15N-labeled nitrogen fertilizer applied on the trial microplot increased significantly. A statistically significant additional fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphere and a positive balance of nitrogen in the soil-plant system without significant changes in the bulk content of the soil nitrogen after the plant growing were found in a greenhouse experiment with the application of P. putida. It can be supposed that the excessive nitrogen determined in this system is related to the incorporation into plants of atmospheric nitrogen fixed in the rhizosphere of the inoculated plants. The application of P. putida 23 makes it possible to decrease the rates of NPK fertilizer by two times without losses in the yield of red beets.

  12. Bioconversion of Styrene to Poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) by the New Bacterial Strain Pseudomonas putida NBUS12

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Giin-Yu Amy; Chen, Chia-Lung; Ge, Liya; Li, Ling; Tan, Swee Ngin; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Styrene is a toxic pollutant commonly found in waste effluents from plastic processing industries. We herein identified and characterized microorganisms for bioconversion of the organic eco-pollutant styrene into a valuable biopolymer medium-chain-length poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (mcl-PHA). Twelve newly-isolated styrene-degrading Pseudomonads were obtained and partial phaC genes were detected by PCR in these isolates. These isolates assimilated styrene to produce mcl-PHA, forming PHA contents between 0.05±0.00 and 23.10±3.25% cell dry mass (% CDM). The best-performing isolate was identified as Pseudomonas putida NBUS12. A genetic analysis of 16S rDNA and phaZ genes revealed P. putida NBUS12 as a genetically-distinct strain from existing phenotypically-similar bacterial strains. This bacterium achieved a final biomass of 1.28±0.10 g L−1 and PHA content of 32.49±2.40% CDM. The extracted polymer was mainly comprised of 3-hydroxyhexanoate (C6 ), 3-hydroxyoctanoate (C8 ), 3-hydroxydecanoate (C10 ), 3-hydroxydodecanoate (C12 ), and 3-hydroxytetradecanoate (C14 ) monomers at a ratio of 2:42:1257:17:1. These results collectively suggested that P. putida NBUS12 is a promising candidate for the biotechnological conversion of styrene into mcl-PHA. PMID:25740622

  13. Suppressing Erwinia carotovora pathogenicity by projecting N-acyl homoserine lactonase onto the surface of Pseudomonas putida cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Qianqian; Ni, Hong; Meng, Shan; He, Yan; Yu, Ziniu; Li, Lin

    2011-12-01

    N-Acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) serve as the vital quorum-sensing signals that regulate the virulence of the pathogenic bacterium Erwinia carotovora. In the present study, an approach to efficiently restrain the pathogenicity of E. carotovora-induced soft rot disease is described. Bacillus thuringiensis-derived N-acyl homoserine lactonase (AiiA) was projected onto the surface of Pseudomonas putida cells, and inoculation with both strains was challenged. The previously identified N-terminal moiety of the ice nucleation protein, InaQ-N, was applied as the anchoring motif. A surface display cassette with inaQ-N/ aiiA was constructed and expressed under the control of a constitutive promoter in P. putida AB92019. Surface localization of the fusion protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence microscopy. The antagonistic activity of P. putida MB116 expressing InaQ-N/AiiA toward E. carotovora ATCC25270 was evaluated by challenge inoculation in potato slices at different ratios. The results revealed a remarkable suppressing effect on E. carotovora infection. The active component was further analyzed using different cell fractions, and the cell surface-projected fusion protein was found to correspond to the suppressing effect. PMID:22210621

  14. Determination of copper binding in Pseudomonas putida CZ1 by chemical modifications and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, XinCai; Shi, JiYan; Chen, YingXu; Xu, XiangHua; Chen, LiTao; Wang, Hui; Hu, TianDou

    2007-03-01

    Previously performed studies have shown that Pseudomonas putida CZ1 biomass can bind an appreciable amount of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The mechanisms of Cu- and Zn-binding by P. putida CZ1 were ascertained by chemical modifications of the biomass followed by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses of the living or nonliving cells. A dramatic decrease in Cu(II)- and Zn(II)-binding resulted after acidic methanol esterification of the nonliving cells, indicating that carboxyl functional groups play an important role in the binding of metal to the biomaterial. X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the speciation of Cu ions bound by living and nonliving cells, as well as to elucidate which functional groups were involved in binding of the Cu ions. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra analysis showed that the majority of the Cu was bound in both samples as Cu(II). The fitting results of Cu K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectra showed that N/O ligands dominated in living and nonliving cells. Therefore, by combining different techniques, our results indicate that carboxyl functional groups are the major ligands responsible for the metal binding in P. putida CZ1. PMID:17021877

  15. Biosorption of copper(II) and zinc(II) from aqueous solution by Pseudomonas putida CZ1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin Cai; Wang, Yuan Peng; Lin, Qi; Shi, Ji Yan; Wu, Wei Xiang; Chen, Ying Xu

    2005-12-10

    To study Pseudomonas putida CZ1, having high tolerance to copper and zinc on the removal of toxic metals from aqueous solutions, the biosorption of Cu(II) and Zn(II) by living and nonliving P. putida CZ1 were studied as functions of reaction time, initial pH of the solution and metal concentration. It was found that the optimum pH for Zn(II) removal by living and nonliving cells was 5.0, while it was 5.0 and 4.5, respectively, for Cu(II) removal. At the optimal conditions, metal ion biosorption was increased as the initial metal concentration increased. The adsorption data with respect to both metals provide an excellent fit to the Langmuir isotherm. The binding capacity of living cells is significantly higher than that of nonliving cells at tested conditions. It demonstrated that about 40-50% of the metals were actively taken up by P. putida CZ1, with the remainder being passively bound to the bacterium. Moreover, desorption efficiency of Cu(II) and Zn(II) by living cells was 72.5 and 45.6% under 0.1M HCl and it was 95.3 and 83.8% by nonliving cells, respectively. It may be due to Cu(II) and Zn(II) uptake by the living cells enhanced by intracellular accumulation. PMID:16289732

  16. Metabolism of chlorofluorocarbons and polybrominated compounds by Pseudomonas putida G786(pHG-2) via an engineered metabolic pathway.

    PubMed

    Hur, H G; Sadowsky, M J; Wackett, L P

    1994-11-01

    The recombinant bacterium Pseudomonas putida G786(pHG-2) metabolizes pentachloroethane to glyoxylate and carbon dioxide, using cytochrome P-450CAM and toluene dioxygenase to catalyze consecutive reductive and oxidative dehalogenation reactions (L.P. Wackett, M.J. Sadowsky, L.N. Newman, H.-G. Hur, and S. Li, Nature [London] 368:627-629, 1994). The present study investigated metabolism of brominated and chlorofluorocarbon compounds by the recombinant strain. Under anaerobic conditions, P. putida G786(pHG-2) reduced 1,1,2,2-tetrabromoethane, 1,2-dibromo-1,2-dichloroethane, and 1,1,1,2-tetrachloro-2,2-difluoroethane to products bearing fewer halogen substituents. Under aerobic conditions, P. putida G786(pHG-2) oxidized cis- and trans-1,2-dibromoethenes, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-difluoroethene, and 1,2-dichloro-1-fluoroethene. Several compounds were metabolized by sequential reductive and oxidative reactions via the constructed metabolic pathway. For example, 1,1,2,2-tetrabromoethane was reduced by cytochrome P-450CAM to 1,2-dibromoethenes, which were subsequently oxidized by toluene dioxygenase. The same pathway metabolized 1,1,1,2-tetrachloro-2,2-difluoroethane to oxalic acid as one of the final products. The results obtained in this study indicate that P. putida G786(pHG-2) metabolizes polyfluorinated, chlorinated, and brominated compounds and further demonstrates the value of using a knowledge of catabolic enzymes and recombinant DNA technology to construct useful metabolic pathways.

  17. Sustainable production of valuable compound 3-succinoyl-pyridine by genetically engineering Pseudomonas putida using the tobacco waste.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiwei; Xu, Ping; Tang, Hongzhi

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of solid and liquid tobacco wastes with high nicotine content remains a longstanding challenge. Here, we explored an environmentally friendly approach to replace tobacco waste disposal with resource recovery by genetically engineering Pseudomonas putida. The biosynthesis of 3-succinoyl-pyridine (SP), a precursor in the production of hypotensive agents, from the tobacco waste was developed using whole cells of the engineered Pseudomonas strain, S16dspm. Under optimal conditions in fed-batch biotransformation, the final concentrations of product SP reached 9.8 g/L and 8.9 g/L from aqueous nicotine solution and crude suspension of the tobacco waste, respectively. In addition, the crystal compound SP produced from aqueous nicotine of the tobacco waste in batch biotransformation was of high purity and its isolation yield on nicotine was 54.2%. This study shows a promising route for processing environmental wastes as raw materials in order to produce valuable compounds.

  18. Sustainable production of valuable compound 3-succinoyl-pyridine by genetically engineering Pseudomonas putida using the tobacco waste.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiwei; Xu, Ping; Tang, Hongzhi

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of solid and liquid tobacco wastes with high nicotine content remains a longstanding challenge. Here, we explored an environmentally friendly approach to replace tobacco waste disposal with resource recovery by genetically engineering Pseudomonas putida. The biosynthesis of 3-succinoyl-pyridine (SP), a precursor in the production of hypotensive agents, from the tobacco waste was developed using whole cells of the engineered Pseudomonas strain, S16dspm. Under optimal conditions in fed-batch biotransformation, the final concentrations of product SP reached 9.8 g/L and 8.9 g/L from aqueous nicotine solution and crude suspension of the tobacco waste, respectively. In addition, the crystal compound SP produced from aqueous nicotine of the tobacco waste in batch biotransformation was of high purity and its isolation yield on nicotine was 54.2%. This study shows a promising route for processing environmental wastes as raw materials in order to produce valuable compounds. PMID:26574178

  19. Sustainable production of valuable compound 3-succinoyl-pyridine by genetically engineering Pseudomonas putida using the tobacco waste

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiwei; Xu, Ping; Tang, Hongzhi

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of solid and liquid tobacco wastes with high nicotine content remains a longstanding challenge. Here, we explored an environmentally friendly approach to replace tobacco waste disposal with resource recovery by genetically engineering Pseudomonas putida. The biosynthesis of 3-succinoyl-pyridine (SP), a precursor in the production of hypotensive agents, from the tobacco waste was developed using whole cells of the engineered Pseudomonas strain, S16dspm. Under optimal conditions in fed-batch biotransformation, the final concentrations of product SP reached 9.8 g/L and 8.9 g/L from aqueous nicotine solution and crude suspension of the tobacco waste, respectively. In addition, the crystal compound SP produced from aqueous nicotine of the tobacco waste in batch biotransformation was of high purity and its isolation yield on nicotine was 54.2%. This study shows a promising route for processing environmental wastes as raw materials in order to produce valuable compounds. PMID:26574178

  20. Liquid chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry based environmental metabolomics for the analysis of Pseudomonas putida Bacteria in potable water.

    PubMed

    Kouremenos, Konstantinos A; Beale, David J; Antti, Henrik; Palombo, Enzo A

    2014-09-01

    Water supply biofilms have the potential to harbour waterborne diseases, accelerate corrosion, and contribute to the formation of tuberculation in metallic pipes. One particular species of bacteria known to be found in the water supply networks is Pseudomonas sp., with the presence of Pseudomonas putida being isolated to iron pipe tubercles. Current methods for detecting and analysis pipe biofilms are time consuming and expensive. The application of metabolomics techniques could provide an alternative method for assessing biofilm risk more efficiently based on bacterial activity. As such, this paper investigates the application of metabolomic techniques and provides a proof-of-concept application using liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ToF-MS) to three biologically independent P. putida samples, across five different growth conditions exposed to solid and soluble iron (Fe). Analysis of the samples in +ESI and -ESI mode yielded 887 and 1789 metabolite features, respectively. Chemometric analysis of the +ESI and -ESI data identified 34 and 39 significant metabolite features, respectively, where features were considered significant if the fold change was greater than 2 and obtained a p-value less than 0.05. Metabolite features were subsequently identified according to the Metabolomics Standard Initiative (MSI) Chemical Analysis Workgroup using analytical standards and standard online LC-MS databases. Possible markers for P. putida growth, with and without being exposed to solid and soluble Fe, were identified from a diverse range of different chemical classes of metabolites including nucleobases, nucleosides, dipeptides, tripeptides, amino acids, fatty acids, sugars, and phospholipids.

  1. Analysis of Pseudomonas putida alkane-degradation gene clusters and flanking insertion sequences: evolution and regulation of the alk genes.

    PubMed

    van Beilen, J B; Panke, S; Lucchini, S; Franchini, A G; Röthlisberger, M; Witholt, B

    2001-06-01

    The Pseudomonas putida GPo1 (commonly known as Pseudomonas oleovorans GPo1) alkBFGHJKL and alkST gene clusters, which encode proteins involved in the conversion of n-alkanes to fatty acids, are located end to end on the OCT plasmid, separated by 9.7 kb of DNA. This DNA segment encodes, amongst others, a methyl-accepting transducer protein (AlkN) that may be involved in chemotaxis to alkanes. In P. putida P1, the alkBFGHJKL and alkST gene clusters are flanked by almost identical copies of the insertion sequence ISPpu4, constituting a class 1 transposon. Other insertion sequences flank and interrupt the alk genes in both strains. Apart from the coding regions of the GPo1 and P1 alk genes (80-92% sequence identity), only the alkB and alkS promoter regions are conserved. Competition experiments suggest that highly conserved inverted repeats in the alkB and alkS promoter regions bind ALKS: PMID:11390693

  2. Novel Dehalogenase Mechanism for 2,3-Dichloro-1-Propanol Utilization in Pseudomonas putida Strain MC4

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Muhammad Irfan; Samin, Ghufrana; van Leeuwen, Jan G. E.; Oppentocht, Jantien

    2012-01-01

    A Pseudomonas putida strain (MC4) that can utilize 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol (DCP) and several aliphatic haloacids and haloalcohols as sole carbon and energy source for growth was isolated from contaminated soil. Degradation of DCP was found to start with oxidation and concomitant dehalogenation catalyzed by a 72-kDa monomeric protein (DppA) that was isolated from cell lysate. The dppA gene was cloned from a cosmid library and appeared to encode a protein equipped with a signal peptide and that possessed high similarity to quinohemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs), particularly ADH IIB and ADH IIG from Pseudomonas putida HK. This novel dehalogenating dehydrogenase has a broad substrate range, encompassing a number of nonhalogenated alcohols and haloalcohols. With DCP, DppA exhibited a kcat of 17 s−1. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance experiments indicated that DCP oxidation by DppA in the presence of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) and potassium ferricyanide [K3Fe(CN)6] yielded 2-chloroacrolein, which was oxidized to 2-chloroacrylic acid. PMID:22752160

  3. Genetic engineering of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for rapid and high-yield production of vanillin from ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Graf, Nadja; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Vanillin is one of the most important flavoring agents used today. That is why many efforts have been made on biotechnological production from natural abundant substrates. In this work, the nonpathogenic Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 was genetically optimized to convert ferulic acid to vanillin. Deletion of the vanillin dehydrogenase gene (vdh) was not sufficient to prevent vanillin degradation. Additional inactivation of a molybdate transporter, identified by transposon mutagenesis, led to a strain incapable to grow on vanillin as sole carbon source. The bioconversion was optimized by enhanced chromosomal expression of the structural genes for feruloyl-CoA synthetase (fcs) and enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase (ech) by introduction of the strong tac promoter system. Further genetic engineering led to high initial conversion rates and molar vanillin yields up to 86% within just 3 h accompanied with very low by-product levels. To our knowledge, this represents the highest productivity and molar vanillin yield gained with a Pseudomonas strain so far. Together with its high tolerance for ferulic acid, the developed, plasmid-free P. putida strain represents a promising candidate for the biotechnological production of vanillin.

  4. Responses of unsaturated Pseudomonas putida CZ1 biofilms to environmental stresses in relation to the EPS composition and surface morphology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huirong; Chen, Guangcun; Long, Dongyan; Chen, Xincai

    2014-12-01

    The extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and surface properties of unsaturated biofilms of a heavy metal-resistant rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida CZ1, in response to aging, pH, temperature and osmotic stress, were studied by quantitative analysis of EPS and atomic force microscope. It was found that EPS production increased approximately linearly with culture time, cells in the air-biofilm interface enhanced EPS production and decreased cell volume to cope with nutrient depletion during aging. Low pH, high temperature and certain osmotic stress (120 mM NaCl) distinctly stimulated EPS production, and the main component enhanced was extracellular protein. In addition to the enhancement of EPS production in response to high osmotic (328 mM NaCl) stress, cells in the biofilm adhere tightly together to maintain a particular microenvironment. These results indicated the variation of EPS composition and the cooperation of cells in the biofilms is important for the survival of Pseudomonas putida CZ1 from environmental stresses in the unsaturated environments such as rhizosphere.

  5. Organo-mineral interactions in Pseudomonas putida-birnessite assemblages: Impact on mineral reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simanova, Anna; Kroll, Alexandra; Pena, Jasquelin

    2016-04-01

    The ability of microorganisms to precipitate biogenic birnessite nanoparticles is widely spread in the bacterial and fungal trees of life, with this process accounting largely for the formation of birnessite in nature. Birnessite minerals occur typically as nanoparticles that exhibit significant chemical and structural disorder. Furthermore, the mineral is embedded within a biomass matrix composed of microbial cells and extracellular polymeric substances, where the biomass not only provides reactive surfaces but can mediate electron transfer reactions. The overarching question guiding our research is: How do nanoscale properties and admixing with microbial biomass modify the reactivity of Mn oxide minerals? In this study, we investigate the biomass-birnessite composites of Pseudomonas putida GB-1 biomass and δ-MnO2 nanoparticles. We characterized the structure and composition of the mineral fraction using X-ray diffraction, Mn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy and wet-chemical methods. To characterize the biomass fraction, we employed FTIR spectroscopy and size-exclusion chromatography analysis of the extracellular polymeric substances. Finally, we measured Ni(II) sorption isotherms at pH 6 and Ni K-edge EXAFS spectra to determine the extent and mechanism of Ni sorption in the biomass-mineral composites and in biomass-only and mineral-only systems. This approach provided direct and indirect evidence for the extent of organo-mineral interactions in the composites, as well as a direct measure of sorption reactivity in the composites relative to biomass-only and mineral-only systems. We found that admixing of mineral nanoparticles with biomass reduced the reactivity of the edge sites of birnessite particles towards Ni(II) through the attachment of organic moieties to the mineral particles and/or modification of the assemblage surface charge properties. In addition, the interaction of biomass components with MnO2 particles leads to partial Mn(IV) reduction and

  6. Comprehensive analysis of the metabolome of Pseudomonas putida S12 grown on different carbon sources.

    PubMed

    van der Werf, Mariët J; Overkamp, Karin M; Muilwijk, Bas; Koek, Maud M; van der Werff-van der Vat, Bianca J C; Jellema, Renger H; Coulier, Leon; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2008-04-01

    Metabolomics is an emerging, powerful, functional genomics technology that involves the comparative non-targeted analysis of the complete set of metabolites in an organism. We have set-up a robust quantitative metabolomics platform that allows the analysis of 'snapshot' metabolomes. In this study, we have applied this platform for the comprehensive analysis of the metabolite composition of Pseudomonas putida S12 grown on four different carbon sources, i.e. fructose, glucose, gluconate and succinate. This paper focuses on the microbial aspects of analyzing comprehensive metabolomes, and demonstrates that metabolomes can be analyzed reliably. The technical (i.e. sample work-up and analytical) reproducibility was on average 10%, while the biological reproducibility was approximately 40%. Moreover, the energy charge values of the microbial samples generated were determined, and indicated that no biotic or abiotic changes had occurred during sample work-up and analysis. In general, the metabolites present and their concentrations were very similar after growth on the different carbon sources. However, specific metabolites showed large differences in concentration, especially the intermediates involved in the degradation of the carbon sources studied. Principal component discriminant analysis was applied to identify metabolites that are specific for, i.e. not necessarily the metabolites that show those largest differences in concentration, cells grown on either of these four carbon sources. For selected enzymatic reactions, i.e. the glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, triosephosphate isomerase and phosphoglyceromutase reactions, the apparent equilibrium constants (K(app)) were calculated. In several instances a carbon source-dependent deviation between the apparent equilibrium constant (K(app)) and the thermodynamic equilibrium constant (K(eq)) was observed, hinting towards a potential point of metabolic regulation or towards bottlenecks in biosynthesis routes. For glucose-6

  7. Trace Metal Sequestration by and Structure of Mn Oxide Produced by Pseudomonas Putida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manceau, A.; Toner, B.; Lanson, B.; Marcus, M. A.; Villalobos, M.; Sposito, G.

    2002-12-01

    The structure of the manganese oxide produced by Pseudomonas putida strain MnB1, and the sorption mechanism of zinc at the surface of the biogenic manganese oxide, were studied by X-ray diffraction and Mn- and Zn-K edge EXAFS spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction pattern exhibits a broad basal reflection and asymmetrical hk0 bands characteristic of turbostratic birnessite. The average number of layers in birnessite particles and the lateral dimension of the MnO2 layers were estimated from the size of coherent scattering domains in the c* direction and in the ab plane. XRD simulations showed that the relative intensity and shape of the 200 and 020 reflections are sensitive to the amount of interlayer Mn and, therefore, can be used to constrain the composition and structure of the interlayer space. Both XRD and Mn K-edge EXAFS data are consistent with a structural model in which the interlayer space is devoid of manganese, all Mn atoms being located within the birnessite layer. Mn-Mn distances obtained by the two techniques are identical (2.84 \\x8F), and typical of pure Mn4+ manganese layers. The lack of Mn3+ within the manganese layer suggests that the deficit of structural charge from the biogenic birnessite arises from vacant octahedral sites (V). Zn-O and Zn-Mn EXAFS distances are consistent with the formation of tetrahedrally coordinated Zn complex on the face of vacant layer octahedral sites, i.e., with the formation of a tridentate corner-sharing interlayer complexes ([H2O]-IVZn-3Olayer-V-3Mnlayer). This [IV]TC complex was observed at low and high surface coverage, and this result contrasts with that obtained for abiotic hexagonal birnessite (HBi), in which Zn formed a [IV]TC complex at low surface coverage and a [VI]TC complex at higher coverage (Manceau et al., 2002). The structural reasons for this difference will be discussed, and it will be shown that the [IV]TC complex is the main binding form of Zn in natural phyllomanganates. Manceau, A., Lanson, B

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas putida CBF10-2, a Soil Isolate with Bioremediation Potential in Agricultural and Industrial Environmental Settings

    PubMed Central

    Damania, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida CBF10-2 is a microorganism isolated from farmland soil in Fairchild, TX, found to degrade high-impact xenobiotics, including organophosphate insecticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, and both monocyclic and polycyclic aromatics. The versatility of CBF10-2 makes it useful for multipurpose bioremediation of contaminated sites in agricultural and industrial environments. PMID:27417844

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Pseudomonas putida Strain KG-4, Isolated from Soil Samples Collected from Krishna-Godavari Basin in India

    PubMed Central

    Dawar, Chhavi

    2015-01-01

    We report here the 5.58-Mb draft genome of Pseudomonas putida strain KG-4 obtained from the oil fields of the Krishna-Godavari basin, Andhra Pradesh, India. The genome sequence is expected to facilitate identification and understanding of genes associated with hydrocarbon metabolism, which can help in developing strategies for managing oil spills and bioremediation. PMID:26044433

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas putida CBF10-2, a Soil Isolate with Bioremediation Potential in Agricultural and Industrial Environmental Settings.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Rupa; Damania, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida CBF10-2 is a microorganism isolated from farmland soil in Fairchild, TX, found to degrade high-impact xenobiotics, including organophosphate insecticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, and both monocyclic and polycyclic aromatics. The versatility of CBF10-2 makes it useful for multipurpose bioremediation of contaminated sites in agricultural and industrial environments. PMID:27417844

  11. Sequence heterogeneity of the ferripyoverdine uptake (fpvA), but not the ferric uptake regulator (fur), genes among strains of the fluorescent pseudomonads Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas aureofaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Thupvong, T; Wiideman, A; Dunn, D; Oreschak, K; Jankowicz, B; Doering, J; Castignetti, D

    1999-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas aureofaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida are of importance to medicine, agriculture and biocycling. These microbes acquire ferric ion via the use of the siderophores pyochelin and the family known as the pyoverdines or pseudobactins. The ferric uptake regulator (fur) gene is responsible, at least in part, for the regulation of siderophore synthesis and uptake in P. aeruginosa. To determine whether the organisms contain single or multiple homologues of the siderophore-related genes fpvA (ferripyoverdine uptake) and fur, and whether these homologues displayed sequence heterogeneity, their chromosomal DNAs were probed with fur and fpvA sequences. As a representative of a non-fluorescent pseudomonad, the bacterium Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia was also examined. The pseudomonads all contained fpvA- and fur-like homologues, and heterogeneity was observed among the different species. The presence of two or more fpvA-like genes is indicated in all of the fluorescent pseudomonads surveyed. In contrast, B. cepacia DNA either did not hybridize to these probes, or did so only very weakly, suggesting that fur- and fpvA-like homologues are either absent or significantly different in B. cepacia compared to the fluorescent pseudomonads examined.

  12. Altering the substrate specificity of polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase 1 derived from Pseudomonas putida GPo1 by localized semirandom mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Der-Shyan; Lee, Chia-Yin

    2004-07-01

    The substrate specificity of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase 1 (PhaC1(Pp), class II) from Pseudomonas putida GPo1 (formerly known as Pseudomonas oleovorans GPo1) was successfully altered by localized semirandom mutagenesis. The enzyme evolution system introduces multiple point mutations, designed on the basis of the conserved regions of the PHA synthase family, by using PCR-based gene fragmentation with degenerate primers and a reassembly PCR. According to the opaqueness of the colony, indicating the accumulation of large amounts of PHA granules in the cells, 13 PHA-accumulating candidates were screened from a mutant library, with Pseudomonas putida GPp104 PHA- as the host. The in vivo substrate specificity of five candidates, L1-6, D7-47, PS-A2, PS-C2, and PS-E1, was evaluated by the heterologous expression in Ralstonia eutropha PHB(-)4 supplemented with octanoate. Notably, the amount of 3-hydroxybutyrate (short-chain-length [SCL] 3-hydroxyalkanoate [3-HA] unit) was drastically increased in recombinants that expressed evolved mutant enzymes L1-6, PS-A2, PS-C2, and PS-E1 (up to 60, 36, 50, and 49 mol%, respectively), relative to the amount in the wild type (12 mol%). Evolved enzyme PS-E1, in which 14 amino acids had been changed and which was heterologously expressed in R. eutropha PHB(-)4, not only exhibited broad substrate specificity (49 mol% SCL 3-HA and 51 mol% medium-chain-length [MCL] 3-HA) but also conferred the highest PHA production (45% dry weight) among the candidates. The 3-HA and MCL 3-HA units of the PHA produced by R. eutropha PHB(-)4/pPS-E1 were randomly copolymerized in a single polymer chain, as analytically confirmed by acetone fractionation and the 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum. PMID:15205419

  13. Production of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate in metabolic flux optimized Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pseudomnas putida is a natural producer of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA), a polymeric precursor of bioplastics. A two-fold increase of mcl-PHA production via inactivation of the glucose dehydrogenase gene gcd, limiting the metabolic flux towards side products like gluconate was achieved before. Here, we investigated the overproduction of enzymes catalyzing limiting steps of mcl-PHA precursor formation. Results A genome-based in silico model for P. putida KT2440 metabolism was employed to identify potential genetic targets to be engineered for the improvement of mcl-PHA production using glucose as sole carbon source. Here, overproduction of pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit AcoA in the P. putida KT2440 wild type and the Δgcd mutant strains led to an increase of PHA production. In controlled bioreactor batch fermentations PHA production was increased by 33% in the acoA overexpressing wild type and 121% in the acoA overexpressing Δgcd strain in comparison to P. putida KT2440. Overexpression of pgl-encoding 6-phosphoglucolactonase did not influence PHA production. Transcriptome analyses of engineered PHA producing P. putida in comparison to its parental strains revealed the induction of genes encoding glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase. In addition, NADPH seems to be quantitatively consumed for efficient PHA synthesis, since a direct relationship between low levels of NADPH and high concentrations of the biopolymer were observed. In contrast, intracellular levels of NADH were found increased in PHA producing organisms. Conclusion Production of mcl-PHAs was enhanced in P. putida when grown on glucose via overproduction of a pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit (AcoA) in combination with a deletion of the glucose dehydrogenase (gcd) gene as predicted by in silico elementary flux mode analysis. PMID:24948031

  14. Contrasting colonization and plant growth promoting capacity between wild type and gfp-derative of the endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619 in hybrid poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Weyens N.; van der Lelie D.; Boulet, J.; Adriaensen, D.; Timmermans, J.-P.; Prinsen, E.; Van Oevelen, S.; D"Haen, J.; Smeets, K.; Taghavi, S.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2011-06-09

    This study aims to investigate the colonization of poplar by the endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619 and its capacity to promote plant growth. Poplar cuttings were inoculated with P. putida W619 (wild-type or gfp-labelled). The colonization of both strains was investigated and morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were analyzed to evaluate plant growth promotion. Inoculation with P. putida W619 (wild-type) resulted in remarkable growth promotion, decreased activities of antioxidative defence related enzymes, and reduced stomatal resistance, all indicative of improved plant health and growth in comparison with the non-inoculated cuttings. In contrast, inoculation with gfp-labelled P. putida W619 did not promote growth; it even had a negative effect on plant health and growth. Furthermore, compared to the wildtype strain, colonization by the gfp-labelled P. putida W619::gfp1 was much lower; it only colonized the rhizosphere and root cortex while the wild-type strain also colonized the root xylem vessels. Despite the strong plant growth promoting capacity of P. putida W619 (wild-type), after gfp labelling its growth promoting characteristics disappeared and its colonization capacity was strongly influenced; for these reasons gfp labelling should be applied with sufficient caution.

  15. Global Genome Comparative Analysis Reveals Insights of Resistome and Life-Style Adaptation of Pseudomonas putida Strain T2-2 in Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    How, Kah Yan; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    Most Pseudomonas putida strains are environmental microorganisms exhibiting a wide range of metabolic capability but certain strains have been reported as rare opportunistic pathogens and some emerged as multidrug resistant P. putida. This study aimed to assess the drug resistance profile of, via whole genome analysis, P. putida strain T2-2 isolated from oral cavity. At the same time, we also compared the nonenvironmental strain with environmentally isolated P. putida. In silico comparative genome analysis with available reference strains of P. putida shows that T2-2 has lesser gene counts on carbohydrate and aromatic compounds metabolisms, which suggested its little versatility. The detection of its edd gene also suggested T2-2's catabolism of glucose via ED pathway instead of EMP pathway. On the other hand, its drug resistance profile was observed via in silico gene prediction and most of the genes found were in agreement with drug-susceptibility testing in laboratory by automated VITEK 2. In addition, the finding of putative genes of multidrug resistance efflux pump and ATP-binding cassette transporters in this strain suggests a multidrug resistant phenotype. In summary, it is believed that multiple metabolic characteristics and drug resistance in P. putida strain T2-2 helped in its survival in human oral cavity. PMID:25436236

  16. High cell density cultivation of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 using glucose without the need for oxygen enriched air supply.

    PubMed

    Davis, Reeta; Duane, Gearoid; Kenny, Shane T; Cerrone, Federico; Guzik, Maciej W; Babu, Ramesh P; Casey, Eoin; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2015-04-01

    High Cell Density (HCD) cultivation of bacteria is essential for the majority of industrial processes to achieve high volumetric productivity (g L(-1) h(-1) ) of a bioproduct of interest. This study developed a fed batch bioprocess using glucose as sole carbon and energy source for the HCD of the well described biocatalyst Pseudomonas putida KT2440 without the supply of oxygen enriched air. Growth kinetics data from batch fermentations were used for building a bioprocess model and designing feeding strategies. An exponential followed by linearly increasing feeding strategy of glucose was found to be effective in maintaining biomass productivity while also delaying the onset of dissolved oxygen (supplied via compressed air) limitation. A final cell dry weight (CDW) of 102 g L(-1) was achieved in 33 h with a biomass productivity of 3.1 g L(-1) h(-1) which are the highest ever reported values for P. putida strains using glucose without the supply of pure oxygen or oxygen enriched air. The usefulness of the biomass as a biocatalyst was demonstrated through the production of the biodegradable polymer polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). When nonanoic acid (NA) was supplied to the glucose grown cells of P. putida KT2440, it accumulated 32% of CDW as PHA in 11 h (2.85 g L(-1) h(-1) ) resulting in a total of 0.56 kg of PHA in 18 L with a yield of 0.56 g PHA g NA(-1) .

  17. Genome-Scale Reconstruction and Analysis of the Pseudomonas putida KT2440 Metabolic Network Facilitates Applications in Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Godinho, Miguel; Bielecka, Agata; Regenhardt, Daniela; Timmis, Kenneth N.

    2008-01-01

    A cornerstone of biotechnology is the use of microorganisms for the efficient production of chemicals and the elimination of harmful waste. Pseudomonas putida is an archetype of such microbes due to its metabolic versatility, stress resistance, amenability to genetic modifications, and vast potential for environmental and industrial applications. To address both the elucidation of the metabolic wiring in P. putida and its uses in biocatalysis, in particular for the production of non-growth-related biochemicals, we developed and present here a genome-scale constraint-based model of the metabolism of P. putida KT2440. Network reconstruction and flux balance analysis (FBA) enabled definition of the structure of the metabolic network, identification of knowledge gaps, and pin-pointing of essential metabolic functions, facilitating thereby the refinement of gene annotations. FBA and flux variability analysis were used to analyze the properties, potential, and limits of the model. These analyses allowed identification, under various conditions, of key features of metabolism such as growth yield, resource distribution, network robustness, and gene essentiality. The model was validated with data from continuous cell cultures, high-throughput phenotyping data, 13C-measurement of internal flux distributions, and specifically generated knock-out mutants. Auxotrophy was correctly predicted in 75% of the cases. These systematic analyses revealed that the metabolic network structure is the main factor determining the accuracy of predictions, whereas biomass composition has negligible influence. Finally, we drew on the model to devise metabolic engineering strategies to improve production of polyhydroxyalkanoates, a class of biotechnologically useful compounds whose synthesis is not coupled to cell survival. The solidly validated model yields valuable insights into genotype–phenotype relationships and provides a sound framework to explore this versatile bacterium and to

  18. Gibberellin secreting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas putida H-2-3 modulates the hormonal and stress physiology of soybean to improve the plant growth under saline and drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Mo; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Khan, Abdul Latif; Kim, Min-Ji; Park, Jae-Man; Kim, Bo-Ra; Shin, Dong-Hyun; Lee, In-Jung

    2014-11-01

    The physiological changes in tolerant soybean plants under salt and drought stress conditions with Pseudomonas putida H-2-3 were investigated. A bacterial isolate H-2-3 was isolated from soil and identified as Pseudomonas putida H-2-3 by 16S rDNA sequences. The treatment of P. putida H-2-3 significantly increased the length, fresh and dry weight of shoot and chlorophyll content in gibberellins (GAs) deficient mutant Waito-c rice seedlings over the control, it might be the presence of GA1, GA4, GA9 and GA20. The soybean plant growth was retarded in salt (120 mM sodium chloride) and drought (15% polyethylene glycol) stress conditions at 10 days treatments, while P. putida H-2-3 effectively enhanced the shoot length and fresh weight of plants suffered at salt and drought stress. The chlorophyll content was lower in abiotic stress conditions and bacterial inoculant P. putida H-2-3 mitigated the stress effects by an evidence of higher quantity of chlorophyll content in plants exposed to salt and drought. The stress hormonal analysis revealed that individual treatment of P. putida H-2-3, salt and drought significantly enhanced the abscisic acid and salicylic acid content than their control. P. putida H-2-3 applied to salt and drought stressed plants showed a lower level of abscisic acid and salicylic acid and a higher level of jasmonic acid content. Under stress condition induced by salt and drought in plants expressed higher level of total polyphenol, superoxide dismutase and radical scavenging activity and no significant changes in flavonoids. The bio-inoculant, P. putida H-2-3 modulated those antioxidants by declining superoxide dismutase, flavonoids and radical scavenging activity. P. putida H-2-3 induced tolerance against abiotic stress was confirmed by a reduction of Na content in abiotic stressed plants. The results suggest that P. putida H-2-3 application reprograms the chlorophyll, stress hormones and antioxidants expression in abiotic stress affected

  19. Immobilization of heavy metals by Pseudomonas putida CZ1/goethite composites from solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, XinCai; Chen, LiTao; Shi, JiYan; Wu, WeiXiang; Chen, YingXu

    2008-02-15

    Bacterial-mineral composites are important in the retention of heavy metals due to their large sorption capacity under a wide range of environmental conditions. This study provides the first quantitative comparison of the metal-binding capacities of P. putida CZ1-goethite composite to its individual components. When the same amount (on a dry weight basis) of living and nonliving cells of P. putida CZ1, goethite or their composites was separately exposed to solutions of 0.5 mM Cu(II) and Zn(II) in 0.01 M KNO(3), the living cells removed the largest quantity of heavy metals. The results of calculated metal retention values indicated that the adsorption of goethite to bacteria has not mask or neutralize chemically reactive adsorption sites normally available to metal ions. Moreover, the nonliving cells-goethite composite retained approximately 82% more Zn than that predicted by their individual behavior. The preferential association of Zn with P. putida CZ1 was observed by TEM and EDS analyses of a mixture consisting of the bacteria and goethite. Desorption of Cu and Zn with 1.0M CH(3)COOK solution from P. putida CZ1 and goethite indicated the differences in the functional groups able to bind heavy metals. PMID:17869490

  20. Toxicities effects of pharmaceutical, olive mill and textile wastewaters before and after degradation by Pseudomonas putida mt-2

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Removal of numerous classes of chemical pollutants from the industrial wastewater such as textile, pharmaceutical and olive mill using conventional wastewater treatment, is incomplete and several studies suggested that improvement of this situation would require the application of biological treatment techniques. Dyes, polyphenols and drugs are an environmental pollutants extremely toxics to plants and other living organisms including humans. These effluents were previously treated by Pseudomonas putida. The main of this work was to evaluate the in vivo toxicity of the three wastewaters. Methods Writhes and convulsant effect of effluents were carried out and were compared to the treated effluents. Only pharmaceutical wastewater was exhibited a convulsant effect which observed in mice treated by effluent. On the other hand, all industrial wastewater induced significantly an algogenic effects particularly when mice were treated by the pharmaceutical wastewater (Number of writhes = 44). Conclusion Toxicity was totally removed when mice were treated by the bio remediated effluent. This indicates that P. putida was able to completely detoxify the toxic industrial effluent. PMID:22314194

  1. A Pseudomonas putida double mutant deficient in butanol assimilation: a promising step for engineering a biological biofuel production platform.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, María Del Sol; Molina-Santiago, Carlos; Gómez-García, María R; Ramos, Juan L

    2016-03-01

    Biological production in heterologous hosts is of interest for the production of the C4 alcohol (butanol) and other chemicals. However, some hurdles need to be overcome in order to achieve an economically viable process; these include avoiding the consumption of butanol and maintaining tolerance to this solvent during production. Pseudomonas putida is a potential host for solvent production; in order to further adapt P. putida to this role, we generated mini-Tn5 mutant libraries in strain BIRD-1 that do not consume butanol. We analyzed the insertion site of the mini-Tn5 in a mutant that was deficient in assimilation of butanol using arbitrary PCR followed by Sanger sequencing and found that the transposon was inserted in the malate synthase B gene. Here, we show that in a second round of mutagenesis a double mutant unable to take up butanol had an insertion in a gene coding for a multisensor hybrid histidine kinase. The genetic context of the histidine kinase sensor revealed the presence of a set of genes potentially involved in butanol assimilation; qRT-PCR analysis showed induction of this set of genes in the wild type and the malate synthase mutant but not in the double mutant. PMID:26818251

  2. Pseudomonas putida Fis Binds to the lapF Promoter In Vitro and Represses the Expression of LapF

    PubMed Central

    Lahesaare, Andrio; Moor, Hanna; Kivisaar, Maia; Teras, Riho

    2014-01-01

    The biofilm matrix of the rhizospheric bacterium Pseudomonas putida consists mainly of a proteinaceous component. The two largest P. putida proteins, adhesins LapA and LapF, are involved in biofilm development but prevail in different developmental stages of the biofilm matrix. LapA is abundant in the initial stage of biofilm formation whereas LapF is found in the mature biofilm. Although the transcriptional regulation of the adhesins is not exhaustively studied, some factors that can be involved in their regulation have been described. For example, RpoS, the major stress response sigma factor, activates, and Fis represses LapF expression. This study focused on the LapF expression control by Fis. Indeed, using DNase I footprint analysis a Fis binding site Fis-F2 was located 150 bp upstream of the lapF gene coding sequence. The mapped 5′ end of the lapF mRNA localized the promoter to the same region, overlapping with the Fis binding site Fis-F2. Monitoring the lapF promoter activity by a β-galactosidase assay revealed that Fis overexpression causes a 4-fold decrease in the transcriptional activity. Furthermore, mutations that diminished Fis binding to the Fis-F2 site abolished the repression of the lapF promoter. Thus, these data suggest that Fis is involved in the biofilm regulation via repression of LapF expression. PMID:25545773

  3. Quantifying NAD(P)H production in the upper Entner–Doudoroff pathway from Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    PubMed Central

    Olavarria, Karel; Marone, Marina Pupke; da Costa Oliveira, Henrique; Roncallo, Juan Camilo; da Costa Vasconcelos, Fernanda Nogales; da Silva, Luiziana Ferreira; Gomez, José Gregório Cabrera

    2015-01-01

    Despite the lack of biochemical information, all available in silico metabolic models of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 consider NADP as the only cofactor accepted by the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenases. Because the Entner–Doudoroff pathway is the main glycolytic route in this bacterium, determining how much NADH and NADPH are produced in the reaction catalyzed by these enzymes is very important for the correct interpretation of metabolic flux distributions. To determine the actual cofactor preference of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase encoded by the zwf-1 gene (PputG6PDH-1), the major isoform during growth on glucose, we purified this protein and studied its kinetic properties. Based on simple kinetic principles, we estimated the in vivo relative production of NADH and NADPH during the oxidation of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P). Contrary to the general assumption, our calculations showed that the reaction catalyzed by PputG6PDH-1 yields around 1/3 mol of NADPH and 2/3 mol of NADH per mol of oxidized G6P. Additionally, we obtained data suggesting that the reaction catalyzed by the 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase is active during growth on glucose, and it also produces NADH. These results indicate that the stoichiometric matrix of in silico models of P. putida KT2440 must be corrected and highlight the importance of considering the physiological concentrations of the involved metabolites to estimate the actual proportion of NADH and NADPH produced by a dehydrogenase. PMID:26702395

  4. Purification of Pseudomonas putida acyl coenzyme A ligase active with a range of aliphatic and aromatic substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Valverde, M; Reglero, A; Martinez-Blanco, H; Luengo, J M

    1993-01-01

    Acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) ligase (acyl-CoA synthetase [ACoAS]) from Pseudomonas putida U was purified to homogeneity (252-fold) after this bacterium was grown in a chemically defined medium containing octanoic acid as the sole carbon source. The enzyme, which has a mass of 67 kDa, showed maximal activity at 40 degrees C in 10 mM K2PO4H-NaPO4H2 buffer (pH 7.0) containing 20% (wt/vol) glycerol. Under these conditions, ACoAS showed hyperbolic behavior against acetate, CoA, and ATP; the Kms calculated for these substrates were 4.0, 0.7, and 5.2 mM, respectively. Acyl-CoA ligase recognizes several aliphatic molecules (acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric, hexanoic, heptanoic, and octanoic acids) as substrates, as well as some aromatic compounds (phenylacetic and phenoxyacetic acids). The broad substrate specificity of ACoAS from P. putida was confirmed by coupling it with acyl-CoA:6-aminopenicillanic acid acyltransferase from Penicillium chrysogenum to study the formation of several penicillins. Images PMID:8476289

  5. cis/trans isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids as possible control mechanism of membrane fluidity in Pseudomonas putida P8.

    PubMed

    Loffeld, B; Keweloh, H

    1996-08-01

    Exponentially growing cells of Pseudomonas putida had an increased ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in response to increased growth temperatures. Resting cells in which fatty acid biosynthesis was stopped reacted to a thermal increase by converting cis-monounsaturated fatty acids to trans isomers. cis/trans Isomerization of up to 60% of the unsaturated fatty acids was also activated by alcohols of different chain length. Their effective concentrations apparently depended on the lipophilic character of the alcohols. Also, a salt shock caused by the addition of NaCl resulted in the production of trans fatty acids. However, cells that were adapted to growth media of high osmolarity synthesized cyclopropane fatty acids instead of trans fatty acids. Activity of cis/trans-isomerase was dependent on the growth phase and was significantly higher during logarithmic growth than during the stationary phase. The results of this study agree with the hypothesis that the isomerization of cis into trans unsaturated fatty acids is an emergency action of cells of P. putida to adapt membrane fluidity to drastic changes of environmental conditions.

  6. Interaction of Pseudomonas putida CZ1 with clays and ability of the composite to immobilize copper and zinc from solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, XinCai; Hu, ShaoPing; Shen, ChaoFeng; Dou, ChangMing; Shi, JiYan; Chen, YingXu

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the abilities of the living and nonliving Pseudomonas putida CZ1 cells, clays (goethite, kaolinite, smectite and manganite) and their composites to accumulate copper and zinc from a liquid medium, and elucidate the role of microbes on the mobility of heavy metals. Various mixtures of bacteria and clays were exposed to solutions of 0.025 mM or 0.5mM Cu(II) and Zn(II) in 0.01M KNO(3) to differentiate between so-called "high-affinity" sites and "low-affinity" sites. Clays associated in an edge-on orientation to the cells was observed by electron microscope (EM) examination of these metal-treated bacteria-clay aggregates. Adsorption experiments and desorption with 1.0M CH(3)COOK solution indicated that clays contain more high-affinity copper binding sites and less high-affinity zinc binding sites than that of bacteria, however, bacteria are involved in more low-affinity heavy-metal-binding sites. Carboxyl group activity is more important at weak-binding sites than at strong-binding sites. TEM-EDS analysis confirmed that most of Zn removed from solution was associated with P. putida CZ1 in the composites. These results suggest that bacteria play an important role in regulating the mobility of heavy metals in the soil environment. PMID:18513961

  7. Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Analysis of the Response of Pseudomonas putida KT2442 to 2-Chlorophenol

    PubMed Central

    Lupi, C. G.; Colangelo, T.; Mason, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of exposure of Pseudomonas putida KT2442 to 2-chlorophenol as a model for the chemical stress response were examined by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Individual protein concentrations were determined at 45, 65, and 95 min following the addition of 2-chlorophenol at a concentration of 1.63 mM to exponentially growing cultures of P. putida KT2442 by silver staining the separated proteins. The changes in the protein concentrations could be classified into four categories, namely those which increased continuously during exposure, those which decreased in concentration, those which showed a concentration peak at some point following exposure, and those which were essentially unaffected. Thirty proteins with isoelectric points between pH 4 and 6 increased in concentration, 27 decreased, and 90 had a concentration maximum or minimum between 45 and 95 min. Of those proteins with isoelectric points between 5.5 and 10, 68 increased in concentration, 39 decreased in concentration, and 47 showed a concentration peak in the middle of the sampling period. Thus, in the evaluation of the stress response, a functional description requires an understanding both of proteins which are required at higher concentrations and of those whose presence appears to be no longer essential. PMID:16535093

  8. Mechanisms of trace metal sorption in Pseudomonas putida-birnessite assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, J.; Kwon, K. D.; Bargar, J. R.; Sposito, G.

    2012-04-01

    Biogenic manganese oxides (MnO2) are ubiquitous nanoparticulate minerals that contribute strongly to the adsorption of nutrient and toxicant metals in aquatic and terrestrial environments. The formation of these minerals is catalyzed by a diverse and widely-distributed group of bacteria and fungi, often through the enzymatic oxidation of aqueous Mn(II) to Mn(IV). The biogenic Mn(IV) oxide found in field settings, as well as that produced by model bacteria in laboratory culture, is typically layer-type hexagonal birnessite containing abundant cation vacancy sites and enmeshed in an organic matrix of bacterial cells and extracellular polymeric substances. In this talk I summarize the results from laboratory-scale research designed to investigate the mechanisms of metal sorption by the bacterial biomass-birnessite assemblages formed by Pseudomonas putida GB-1 when grown in the presence of 1 mM Mn(II) at circumneutral pH values. The goals of this research were first, to identify the structure of the surface complexes formed by trace metals (e.g., Ni, Cu and Zn) on biogenic birnessite and second, to determine the conditions under which the bacterial cell surfaces and extracellular polymeric substances contribute to metal sorption. Macroscopic and spectroscopic experiments were performed at varying pH values (6 - 8) and over a wide-range of metal concentrations. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and first-principles calculations based on density functional theory showed that cation vacancy sites in birnessite drive mineral reactivity, but that surface speciation varies from metal to metal. For, Ni we identified two species, Ni bonded to three surface oxygen atoms vacancy sites as a triple-corner-sharing (TCS) complex and Ni incorporated at vacancy sites, with surface speciation varying with pH and surface loading. Zinc formed TCS complexes at vacancy sites, with the proportion of Zn in tetrahedral or octahedral coordination geometry influenced

  9. Assessment of the metabolic capacity and adaptability of aromatic hydrocarbon degrading strain Pseudomonas putida CSV86 in aerobic chemostat culture.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Anshul; Phale, Prashant S; Wangikar, Pramod P

    2012-06-01

    Pseudomonas putida CSV86 utilizes aromatic compounds preferentially over sugars and co-metabolizes aromatics along with organic acids. In the present study, the metabolic capacity and adaptability of strain CSV86 were assessed in a chemostat at benzyl alcohol concentrations ranging from 1 g l(-1) to 3 g l(-1) and in the presence of glucose and succinate by systematically varying the dilution rate. Complete removal of benzyl alcohol was achieved for loadings up to 640 mg l(-1) h(-1) in presence of benzyl alcohol alone. The strain responded within 1 min towards step changes in substrate loading as indicated by an increase in the oxygen uptake rate, presumably as a result of excess metabolic capacity. These results suggest that CSV86 exhibits considerable metabolic elasticity upon increase in substrate load. Metabolic elasticity of the microorganism is an important parameter in wastewater treatment plants due to the changing substrate loads. PMID:22494573

  10. High cell density cultivation of Pseudomonas putida strain HKT554 and its application for optically active sulfoxide production.

    PubMed

    Ramadhan, Said Hamad; Matsui, Toru; Nakano, Kazuma; Minami, Hirofumi

    2013-03-01

    Culture conditions with Pseudomonas putida strain HKT554, expressing naphthalene dioxygenase, known as the biocatalyst showing wide substrate specificity, were optimized for high cell density cultivation (HCDC). Culture in a medium TK-B modified from that for HCDC of Escherichia coli with glucose fed-batch and dissolved oxygen stat resulted in a high cell density growth of 114 g dry cell/l at 40 h of cultivation. This system was further applied for S-(+)-methyl phenyl sulfoxide (MPSO) production from methyl phenyl sulfide. Addition of nonpolar organic solvent, such as n-hexadecane, greatly enhanced the MPSO production due to the prevention of substrate evaporation, resulting in a MPSO production up to 39 mM in 30 h with a conversion rate of 95.7 mol%.

  11. Genetic organization and transcriptional analysis of a major gene cluster involved in siderophore biosynthesis in Pseudomonas putida WCS358.

    PubMed Central

    Marugg, J D; Nielander, H B; Horrevoets, A J; van Megen, I; van Genderen, I; Weisbeek, P J

    1988-01-01

    In iron-limited environments, the plant-growth-stimulating Pseudomonas putida WCS358 produces a yellow-green fluorescent siderophore called pseudobactin 358. The transcriptional organization and the iron-regulated expression of a major gene cluster involved in the biosynthesis and transport of pseudobactin 358 were analyzed in detail. The cluster comprises a region with a minimum length of 33.5 kilobases and contains at least five transcriptional units, of which some are relatively large. The directions of transcription of four transcriptional units were determined by RNA-RNA hybridization and by analysis in Escherichia coli minicells. The latter also demonstrated that large polypeptides were encoded by these transcriptional units. The results allowed us to localize several promoter regions on the DNA. The iron-dependent expression of at least two genes within this cluster appears to be regulated at the transcriptional level. Images PMID:2450869

  12. Influence of siderophore pyoverdine synthesis and iron-uptake on abiotic and biotic surface colonization of Pseudomonas putida S11.

    PubMed

    Ponraj, Paramasivan; Shankar, Manoharan; Ilakkiam, Devaraj; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy

    2012-12-01

    Fluorescent pseudomonads produce a characteristic fluorescent pigment, pyoverdines as their primary siderophore for iron acquisition under iron-limiting conditions. Here, we report the identification of a random transposon mutant IST3 of Pseudomonas putida S11 showing tolerance to iron starvation stress condition and increased pyoverdine production. The insertion of the Tn5 transposon was found to be in pstS gene of pstSR operon encoding sensor histidine kinase protein of the two-component signal transduction system. A pyoverdine negative derivative of IST3 mutant constructed was sensitive to iron stress condition. It indicated that increased survival of IST3 under iron-limiting condition was due to higher pyoverdine production. The iron starvation tolerant mutant (IST3) exhibited enhanced pyoverdine-mediated iron uptake in minimal medium which significantly improved its biofilm formation, seed adhesion and competitive root colonization.

  13. Effects of LB broth, naphthalene concentration, and acetone on the naphthalene degradation activities by Pseudomonas putida G7.

    PubMed

    Chang, Su-Yun; Liu, Xue-Gong; Ren, Bi-Qiong; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Honggui; Wan, Yao

    2015-01-01

    Luria-Bertani broth and acetone were usually used in naphthalene degradation experiments as nutrient and solvent. However, their effect on the degradation was seldom mentioned. In this work, we investigated the effect of LB, naphthalene concentration, and acetone on the degradation of naphthalene by Pseudomonas putida G7, which is useful for the degradation of naphthalene on future field remediation. By adding LB, the naphthalene degradation efficiencies and naphthalene dioxygenase were both decreased by 98%, while the catechol dioxygenase was decreased by 90%. Degradation of naphthalene was also inhibited when naphthalene concentration was 56 ppm and higher, which was accompanied with the accumulation of orange-colored metabolism products. However, acetone can stimulate the degradation of naphthalene, and the stimulation was more obvious when naphthalene concentration was lower than 2000 ppm. By assaying the enzyme activities of naphthalene dioxygenase and catechol dioxygenase, it was thought that the degradation efficiency was depending on the more sensitive enzymes on the complicated conditions.

  14. Combination of the tod and the tol pathways in redesigning a metabolic route of Pseudomonas putida for the mineralization of a benzene, toluene, and p-xylene mixture.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J Y; Jung, K H; Choi, S H; Kim, H S

    1995-01-01

    Construction of a hybrid strain which is capable of mineralizing components of a benzene, toluene, and p-xylene mixture simultaneously was attempted by redesigning the metabolic pathway of Pseudomonas putida. Genetic and biochemical analyses of the tod and the tol pathways revealed that dihydrodiols formed from benzene, toluene, and p-xylene by toluene dioxygenase in the tod pathway could be channeled into the tol pathway by the action of cis-p-toluate-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, leading to complete mineralization of a benzene, toluene, and p-xylene mixture. Consequently, a hybrid strain was constructed by cloning todC1C2BA genes encoding toluene dioxygenase on RSF1010 and introducing the resulting plasmid into P. putida mt-2. The hybrid strain of P. putida TB105 was found to mineralize a benzene, toluene, and p-xylene mixture without accumulation of any metabolic intermediate. PMID:7793941

  15. Confirming Pseudomonas putida as a reliable bioassay for demonstrating biocompatibility enhancement by solar photo-oxidative processes of a biorecalcitrant effluent.

    PubMed

    García-Ripoll, A; Amat, A M; Arques, A; Vicente, R; Ballesteros Martín, M M; Pérez, J A Sánchez; Oller, I; Malato, S

    2009-03-15

    Experiments based on Vibrio fischeri, activated sludge and Pseudomonas putida have been employed to check variation in the biocompatibility of an aqueous solution of a commercial pesticide, along solar photo-oxidative process (TiO(2) and Fenton reagent). Activated sludge-based experiments have demonstrated a complete detoxification of the solution, although important toxicity is still detected according to the more sensitive V. fischeri assays. In parallel, the biodegradability of organic matter is strongly enhanced, with BOD(5)/COD ratio above 0.8. Bioassays run with P. putida have given similar trends, remarking the convenience of using P. putida culture as a reliable and reproducible method for assessing both toxicity and biodegradability, as a substitute to other more time consuming methods.

  16. Engineering an anaerobic metabolic regime in Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for the anoxic biodegradation of 1,3-dichloroprop-1-ene.

    PubMed

    Nikel, Pablo I; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440, a microbial cell factory of reference for industrial whole-cell biocatalysis, is unable to support biochemical reactions that occur under anoxic conditions, limiting its utility for a large number of relevant biotransformations. Unlike (facultative) anaerobes, P. putida resorts to NADH oxidation via an oxic respiratory chain and completely lacks a true fermentation metabolism. Therefore, it cannot achieve the correct balances of energy and redox couples (i.e., ATP/ADP and NADH/NAD(+)) that are required to sustain an O(2)-free lifestyle. To overcome this state of affairs, the acetate kinase (ackA) gene of the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli and the pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase II (adhB) genes of the aerotolerant Zymomonas mobilis were knocked-in to a wild-type P. putida strain. Biochemical and genetic assays showed that conditional expression of the entire enzyme set allowed the engineered bacteria to adopt an anoxic regime that maintained considerable metabolic activity. The resulting strain was exploited as a host for the heterologous expression of a 1,3-dichloroprop-1-ene degradation pathway recruited from Pseudomonas pavonaceae 170, enabling the recombinants to degrade this recalcitrant chlorinated compound anoxically. These results underscore the value of P. putida as a versatile agent for biotransformations able to function at progressively lower redox statuses.

  17. Functional Identification of a Novel Gene, moaE, for 3-Succinoylpyridine Degradation in Pseudomonas putida S16

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yi; Tang, Hongzhi; Wu, Geng; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Microbial degradation of N-heterocyclic compounds, including xanthine, quinoline, nicotinate, and nicotine, frequently requires molybdenum hydroxylases. The intramolecular electron transfer chain of molybdenum hydroxylases consists of a molybdenum cofactor, two distinct [2Fe-2S] clusters, and flavin adenine dinucleotide. 3-Succinoylpyridine monooxygenase (Spm), responsible for the transformation from 3-succinoylpyridine to 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine, is a crucial enzyme in the pyrrolidine pathway of nicotine degradation in Pseudomonas. Our previous work revealed that the heterotrimeric enzyme (SpmA, SpmB, and SpmC) requires molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide as a cofactor for their activities. In this study, we knocked out four genes, including PPS_1556, PPS_2936, PPS_4063, and PPS_4397, and found that a novel gene, PPS_4397 encoding moaE, is necessary for molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide biosynthesis. Resting cell reactions of the moaE deletion mutant incubated with 3 g l−1 nicotine at 30 °C resulted in accumulation of 3-succinoylpyridine, and the strain complemented by the moaE gene regained the ability to convert 3-succinoylpyridine. In addition, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the transcriptional levels of the genes of moaE, spmA, and spmC of Pseudomonas putida S16 were distinctly higher when grown in nicotine medium than in glycerol medium. PMID:26304596

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bacterium Pseudomonas putida CBB5, Which Can Utilize Caffeine as a Sole Carbon and Nitrogen Source

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Erik M.; Summers, Ryan M.; Subramanian, Mani V.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida CBB5 was isolated from soil by enriching for growth on caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine). The draft genome of this strain is 6.9 Mb, with 5,941 predicted coding sequences. It includes the previously studied Alx gene cluster encoding alkylxanthine N-demethylase enzymes and other genes that enable the degradation of purine alkaloids. PMID:26067973

  19. Use of SNAREs for the immobilization of poly-3-hydroxyalkanoate polymerase type II of Pseudomonas putida CA-3 in secretory vesicles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763.

    PubMed

    Muniasamy, Gurusamy; Pérez-Guevara, Fermín

    2014-02-20

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase, the key enzyme in polyester biosynthesis of bacteria, has been targeted to various organelles in yeasts and plants using respective signal peptides. Here, we report that the sequences derived from SNARE domains efficiently target and integrate the PHA synthase from Pseudomonas putida CA-3 to the membrane of secretory vesicles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The studies with the enhanced green fluorescent protein confirm the localization of synthase enzyme in the vesicles of S. cerevisiae. PMID:24368219

  20. Identification of the pcaRKF gene cluster from Pseudomonas putida: involvement in chemotaxis, biodegradation, and transport of 4-hydroxybenzoate.

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, C S; Nichols, N N; Kim, M K; Ditty, J L; Parales, R E

    1994-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida PRS2000 is chemotactic to 4-hydroxybenzoate and other aromatic acids. This behavioral response is induced when cells are grown on 4-hydroxybenzoate or benzoate, compounds that are degraded via the beta-ketoadipate pathway. Isolation of a transposon mutant defective in 4-hydroxybenzoate chemotaxis allowed identification of a new gene cluster designated pcaRKF. DNA sequencing, mutational analysis, and complementation studies revealed that pcaR encodes a regulatory protein required for induction of at least four of the enzymes of the beta-ketoadipate pathway and that pcaF encodes beta-ketoadipyl-coenzyme A thiolase, the last enzyme in the pathway. The third gene, pcaK, encodes a transporter for 4-hydroxybenzoate, and this protein is also required for chemotaxis to aromatic acids. The predicted PcaK protein is 47 kDa in size, with a deduced amino acid sequence indicative of membership in the major facilitator superfamily of transport proteins. The protein, expressed in Escherichia coli, catalyzed 4-hydroxybenzoate transport. In addition, whole cells of P. putida pcaK mutants accumulated 4-hydroxybenzoate at reduced rates compared with that in wild-type cells. The pcaK mutation did not impair growth at the expense of 4-hydroxybenzoate under most conditions; however, mutant cells grew somewhat more slowly than the wild type on 4-hydroxybenzoate at a high pH. The finding that 4-hydroxybenzoate chemotaxis can be disrupted without an accompanying effect on metabolism indicates that this chemotactic response is receptor mediated. It remains to be determined, however, whether PcaK itself is a chemoreceptor for 4-hydroxybenzoate or whether it plays an indirect role in chemotaxis. These findings indicate that aromatic acid detection and transport are integral features of aromatic degradation pathways. Images PMID:7961399

  1. Identification of a Two-Component Regulatory Pathway Essential for Mn(II) Oxidation in Pseudomonas putida GB-1▿

    PubMed Central

    Geszvain, Kati; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial manganese(II) oxidation has a profound impact on the biogeochemical cycling of Mn and the availability of the trace metals adsorbed to the surfaces of solid Mn(III, IV) oxides. The Mn(II) oxidase enzyme was tentatively identified in Pseudomonas putida GB-1 via transposon mutagenesis: the mutant strain GB-1-007, which fails to oxidize Mn(II), harbors a transposon insertion in the gene cumA. cumA encodes a putative multicopper oxidase (MCO), a class of enzymes implicated in Mn(II) oxidation in other bacterial species. However, we show here that an in-frame deletion of cumA did not affect Mn(II) oxidation. Through complementation analysis of the oxidation defect in GB-1-007 with a cosmid library and subsequent sequencing of candidate genes we show the causative mutation to be a frameshift within the mnxS1 gene that encodes a putative sensor histidine kinase. The frameshift mutation results in a truncated protein lacking the kinase domain. Multicopy expression of mnxS1 restored Mn(II) oxidation to GB-1-007 and in-frame deletion of mnxS1 resulted in a loss of oxidation in the wild-type strain. These results clearly demonstrated that the oxidation defect of GB-1-007 is due to disruption of mnxS1, not cumA::Tn5, and that CumA is not the Mn(II) oxidase. mnxS1 is located upstream of a second sensor histidine kinase gene, mnxS2, and a response regulator gene, mnxR. In-frame deletions of each of these genes also led to the loss of Mn(II) oxidation. Therefore, we conclude that the MnxS1/MnxS2/MnxR two-component regulatory pathway is essential for Mn(II) oxidation in P. putida GB-1. PMID:20038702

  2. Study of factors which negatively affect expression of the phenol degradation operon pheBA in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Putrins, Marta; Tover, Andres; Tegova, Radi; Saks, Ulle; Kivisaar, Maia

    2007-06-01

    Transcription of the plasmid-borne phenol catabolic operon pheBA in Pseudomonas putida is activated by the LysR-family regulator CatR in the presence of the effector molecule cis,cis-muconate (CCM), which is an intermediate of the phenol degradation pathway. In addition to the positive control of the operon, several factors negatively affect transcription initiation from the pheBA promoter. First, the activation of the pheBA operon depends on the extracellular concentration of phenol. The pheBA promoter is rapidly activated in the presence of micromolar concentrations of phenol in minimal growth medium, but the initiation of transcription from this promoter is severely delayed after sudden exposure of bacteria to 2.5 mM phenol. Second, the transcriptional activation from this promoter is impeded when the growth medium of bacteria contains amino acids. The negative effects of amino acids can be suppressed either by overproducing CatR or by increasing, the intracellular amount of CCM. However, the intracellular amount of CCM is a major limiting factor for the transcriptional activation of the pheBA operon, as accumulation of CCM in a P. putida catB-defective strain, unable to metabolize CCM (but expressing CatR at a natural level), almost completely relieves the negative effects of amino acids. The intracellular amount of CCM is negatively affected by the catabolite repression control protein via downregulating at the post-transcriptional level the expression of the pheBA-encoded catechol 1,2-dioxygenase and the phenol monooxygenase, the enzymes needed for CCM production. PMID:17526843

  3. Inoculation effects of Pseudomonas putida, Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans, and Azospirillum lipoferum on corn plant growth under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Mehnaz, Samina; Lazarovits, George

    2006-04-01

    Alcohol production from corn is gaining importance in Ontario, Canada, and elsewhere. A major cost of corn production is the cost of chemical fertilizers and these continue to increase in price. The competitiveness of alcohol with fossil fuels depends on access to low-cost corn that allows growers to earn a sustainable income. In this study we set out to determine if we can identify root-associated microorganisms from Ontario-grown corn that can enhance the nutrient flow to corn roots, directly or indirectly, and help minimize the use of extraneous fertilizer. Bacteria were isolated from corn rhizosphere and screened for their capacity to enhance corn growth. The bacteria were examined for their ability to fix nitrogen, solubilize phosphate, and produce indole acetic acid (IAA) and antifungal substances on potato dextrose agar. Bacterial suspensions were applied to pregerminated seed of four corn varieties (39D82, 39H84, 39M27, and 39T68) planted in sterilized sand and unsterilized cornfield soil. The plants were grown under greenhouse conditions for 30 days. Three isolates were identified as having growth-promoting effect. These bacteria were identified as to species by biochemical tests, fatty acid profiles, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Corn rhizosphere isolates, Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans DS1, Pseudomonas putida CQ179, and Azospirillum lipoferum N7, provided significant plant growth promotion expressed as increased root/shoot weight when compared to uninoculated plants, in sand and/or soil. All strains except P. putida CQ179 were capable of nitrogen fixation and IAA production. Azospirillum brasilense, however, produced significantly more IAA than the other isolates. Although several of the strains were also able to solubilize phosphate and produce metabolites inhibitory to various fungal pathogens, these properties are not considered as contributing to growth promotion under the conditions used in this study. These bacteria will undergo field tests for

  4. Large-scale production of poly(3-hydroxyoctanoic acid) by Pseudomonas putida GPo1 and a simplified downstream process.

    PubMed

    Elbahloul, Yasser; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2009-02-01

    The suitability of Pseudomonas putida GPo1 for large-scale cultivation and production of poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) (PHO) was investigated in this study. Three fed-batch cultivations of P. putida GPo1 at the 350- or 400-liter scale in a bioreactor with a capacity of 650 liters were done in mineral salts medium containing initially 20 mM sodium octanoate as the carbon source. The feeding solution included ammonium octanoate, which was fed at a relatively low concentration to promote PHO accumulation under nitrogen-limited conditions. During cultivation, the pH was regulated by addition of NaOH, NH(4)OH, or octanoic acid, which was used as an additional carbon source. Partial O(2) pressure (pO(2)) was adjusted to 20 to 40% by controlling the airflow and stirrer speed. Under the optimized conditions, P. putida GPo1 was able to grow to cell densities as high as 18, 37, and 53 g cells (dry mass) (CDM) per liter containing 49, 55, and 60% (wt/wt) of PHO, respectively. The resulting 40 kg CDM from these three cultivations was used directly for extraction of PHO. Three different methods of extraction of PHO were applied. From these, only acetone extraction showed better performance and resulted in 94% recovery of the PHO contents of cells. A novel mixture of precipitation solvents composed of 70% (vol/vol) methanol and 70% (vol/vol) ethanol was identified in this study. The ratio of PHO concentrate to the mixture was 0.2:1 (vol/vol) and allowed complete precipitation of PHO as white flakes. However, at a ratio of 1:1 (vol/vol) of the solvent mixture to PHO concentrate, a highly purified PHO was obtained. Precipitation yielded a dough-like polymeric material which was cast into thin layers and then shredded into small strips to allow evaporation of the remaining solvents. Gas chromatographic analysis revealed a purity of about 99% +/- 0.2% (wt/wt) of the polymer, which consisted mainly of 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid (96 mol%). PMID:19047387

  5. Functional Characterization of the Mannitol Promoter of Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 50106 and Its Application for a Mannitol-Inducible Expression System for Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Jana; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2015-01-01

    A new pBBR1MCS-2-derived vector containing the Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM10506 mannitol promoter PmtlE and mtlR encoding its AraC/XylS type transcriptional activator was constructed and optimized for low basal expression. Mannitol, arabitol, and glucitol-inducible gene expression was demonstrated with Pseudomonas putida and eGFP as reporter gene. The new vector was applied for functional characterization of PmtlE. Identification of the DNA binding site of MtlR was achieved by in vivo eGFP measurement with PmtlE wild type and mutants thereof. Moreover, purified MtlR was applied for detailed in vitro investigations using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNaseI footprinting experiments. The obtained data suggest that MtlR binds to PmtlE as a dimer. The proposed DNA binding site of MtlR is AGTGC-N5-AGTAT-N7-AGTGC-N5-AGGAT. The transcription activation mechanism includes two binding sites with different binding affinities, a strong upstream binding site and a weaker downstream binding site. The presence of the weak downstream binding site was shown to be necessary to sustain mannitol-inducibility of PmtlE. Two possible functions of mannitol are discussed; the effector might stabilize binding of the second monomer to the downstream half site or promote transcription activation by inducing a conformational change of the regulator that influences the contact to the RNA polymerase. PMID:26207762

  6. Functional Characterization of the Mannitol Promoter of Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 50106 and Its Application for a Mannitol-Inducible Expression System for Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Jana; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2015-01-01

    A new pBBR1MCS-2-derived vector containing the Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM10506 mannitol promoter PmtlE and mtlR encoding its AraC/XylS type transcriptional activator was constructed and optimized for low basal expression. Mannitol, arabitol, and glucitol-inducible gene expression was demonstrated with Pseudomonas putida and eGFP as reporter gene. The new vector was applied for functional characterization of PmtlE. Identification of the DNA binding site of MtlR was achieved by in vivo eGFP measurement with PmtlE wild type and mutants thereof. Moreover, purified MtlR was applied for detailed in vitro investigations using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNaseI footprinting experiments. The obtained data suggest that MtlR binds to PmtlE as a dimer. The proposed DNA binding site of MtlR is AGTGC-N5-AGTAT-N7-AGTGC-N5-AGGAT. The transcription activation mechanism includes two binding sites with different binding affinities, a strong upstream binding site and a weaker downstream binding site. The presence of the weak downstream binding site was shown to be necessary to sustain mannitol-inducibility of PmtlE. Two possible functions of mannitol are discussed; the effector might stabilize binding of the second monomer to the downstream half site or promote transcription activation by inducing a conformational change of the regulator that influences the contact to the RNA polymerase.

  7. Functional Characterization of the Mannitol Promoter of Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 50106 and Its Application for a Mannitol-Inducible Expression System for Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Jana; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2015-01-01

    A new pBBR1MCS-2-derived vector containing the Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM10506 mannitol promoter PmtlE and mtlR encoding its AraC/XylS type transcriptional activator was constructed and optimized for low basal expression. Mannitol, arabitol, and glucitol-inducible gene expression was demonstrated with Pseudomonas putida and eGFP as reporter gene. The new vector was applied for functional characterization of PmtlE. Identification of the DNA binding site of MtlR was achieved by in vivo eGFP measurement with PmtlE wild type and mutants thereof. Moreover, purified MtlR was applied for detailed in vitro investigations using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNaseI footprinting experiments. The obtained data suggest that MtlR binds to PmtlE as a dimer. The proposed DNA binding site of MtlR is AGTGC-N5-AGTAT-N7-AGTGC-N5-AGGAT. The transcription activation mechanism includes two binding sites with different binding affinities, a strong upstream binding site and a weaker downstream binding site. The presence of the weak downstream binding site was shown to be necessary to sustain mannitol-inducibility of PmtlE. Two possible functions of mannitol are discussed; the effector might stabilize binding of the second monomer to the downstream half site or promote transcription activation by inducing a conformational change of the regulator that influences the contact to the RNA polymerase. PMID:26207762

  8. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the structural genes for the cytochrome and flavoprotein subunits of p-cresol methylhydroxylase from two strains of Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J; Fuller, J H; Cecchini, G; McIntire, W S

    1994-01-01

    The structural genes for the flavoprotein subunit and cytochrome c subunit of p-cresol (4-methylphenol) methylhydroxylase (PCMH) from Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 9869 (National Collection of Industrial and Marine Bacteria, Aberdeen, Scotland) and P. putida NCIMB 9866 were cloned and sequenced. The genes from P.putida NCIMB 9869 were for the plasmid-encoded A form of PCMH, and the genes from P.putida NCIMB 9866 were also plasmid encoded. The nucleotide sequences of the two flavoprotein genes from P.putida NCIMB 9869 and P.putida NCIMB 9866 (pchF69A and pchF66, respectively) were the same except for 5 bases out of 1,584, and the translated amino acid sequences were identical. The nucleotide sequences of the genes for the cytochrome subunits of PCMH from the two bacteria (pchC69A and pchC66) varied by a single nucleotide in their 303-base sequences, and the translated amino acid sequences differed by a single residue at position 41 (Asp in PchC69A and Ala in PchC66). Both cytochromes had 21-residue signal sequences, as expected for periplasmic proteins, and these sequences were identical. On the other hand, no signal sequences were found for the flavoproteins.pchF69A and pchC69A were expressed, separately or together, in Escherichia coli JM109 and P.putida RA4007, with active PCMH produced in both bacteria. The E. coli-expressed flavocytochrome was purified. Our studies indicated that the E.coli-expressed subunits were identical to the subunits expressed in P.putida NCIMB 9869: molecular weights, isoelectric points, UV-visible spectra, and steady-state kinetic parameters were the same for the two sets of proteins. The subunits readily associated upon mixing two crude extracts of E.coli, one extract containing PchC69A and the other containing PchF69A. The courses of association of PchC69A and PchF69A were essentially identical for pure E. coli-expressed subunits and pure P. putida 9869-expressed subunits. E. coli-expressed PchC69A and PchF69A contained covalently bound

  9. A DNA polymerase V homologue encoded by TOL plasmid pWW0 confers evolutionary fitness on Pseudomonas putida under conditions of environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Tark, Mariliis; Tover, Andres; Tarassova, Kairi; Tegova, Radi; Kivi, Gaily; Hõrak, Rita; Kivisaar, Maia

    2005-08-01

    Plasmids in conjunction with other mobile elements such as transposons are major players in the genetic adaptation of bacteria in response to changes in environment. Here we show that a large catabolic TOL plasmid, pWW0, from Pseudomonas putida carries genes (rulAB genes) encoding an error-prone DNA polymerase Pol V homologue which increase the survival of bacteria under conditions of accumulation of DNA damage. A study of population dynamics in stationary phase revealed that the presence of pWW0-derived rulAB genes in the bacterial genome allows the expression of a strong growth advantage in stationary phase (GASP) phenotype of P. putida. When rulAB-carrying cells from an 8-day-old culture were mixed with Pol V-negative cells from a 1-day-old culture, cells derived from the aged culture out-competed cells from the nonaged culture and overtook the whole culture. At the same time, bacteria from an aged culture lacking the rulAB genes were only partially able to out-compete cells from a fresh overnight culture of the parental P. putida strain. Thus, in addition to conferring resistance to DNA damage, the plasmid-encoded Pol V genes significantly increase the evolutionary fitness of bacteria during prolonged nutritional starvation of a P. putida population. The results of our study indicate that RecA is involved in the control of expression of the pWW0-encoded Pol V. PMID:16030214

  10. Molecular and functional analysis of the TOL plasmid pWWO from Pseudomonas putida and cloning of genes for the entire regulated aromatic ring meta cleavage pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, F C; Bagdasarian, M; Bagdasarian, M M; Timmis, K N

    1981-01-01

    The genetic organization of the Pseudomonas putida plasmid pWWO-161, which encodes enzymes for the degradation of toluene and related aromatic hydrocarbons, has been investigated by transposition mutagenesis and gene cloning. Catabolic genes were localized to two clusters, one for upper pathway (hydrocarbon leads to carboxylic acid) enzymes and the other for lower pathway (carboxylic acid leads to tricarboxylic acid cycle) enzymes, that are separated by a 14-kilobase DNA segment. The physical organization of the catabolic genes thus reflects their functional organization into two regulatory blocks. The pWWO-161 DNA fragments Sst I fragment C and fragment D were cloned in a broad host range vector to produce plasmid pKT530. This hybrid encodes toluate oxygenase and all meta cleavage pathway enzymes, and it enables P. putida mt-2 and Escherichia coli K-12 cells to grow on m-toluate as sole carbon source. The pKT530 plasmid also carries xylS (a gene whose product has been postulated to regulate expression of the lower pathway genes) and the control sequences of the pathway that interact with this product, because catechol 2,3-oxygenase synthesis is specifically induced by m-toluate in both P. putida and E. coli. Evidence is presented that suggests the promoter operator of the meta pathway gene functions less effectively with the RNA polymerase or xylS product of E. coli than with the enzyme or product of P. putida. PMID:6950388

  11. Volatilization of arsenic from polluted soil by Pseudomonas putida engineered for expression of the arsM Arsenic(III) S-adenosine methyltransferase gene.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Sun, Guo-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Xue; Lorenzo, Víctor de; Rosen, Barry P; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2014-09-01

    Even though arsenic is one of the most widespread environmental carcinogens, methods of remediation are still limited. In this report we demonstrate that a strain of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 endowed with chromosomal expression of the arsM gene encoding the As(III) S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) methyltransfase from Rhodopseudomonas palustris to remove arsenic from contaminated soil. We genetically engineered the P. putida KT2440 with stable expression of an arsM-gfp fusion gene (GE P. putida), which was inserted into the bacterial chromosome. GE P. putida showed high arsenic methylation and volatilization activity. When exposed to 25 μM arsenite or arsenate overnight, most inorganic arsenic was methylated to the less toxic methylated arsenicals methylarsenate (MAs(V)), dimethylarsenate (DMAs(V)) and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAs(V)O). Of total added arsenic, the species were about 62 ± 2.2% DMAs(V), 25 ± 1.4% MAs(V) and 10 ± 1.2% TMAs(V)O. Volatilized arsenicals were trapped, and the predominant species were dimethylarsine (Me2AsH) (21 ± 1.0%) and trimethylarsine (TMAs(III)) (10 ± 1.2%). At later times, more DMAs(V) and volatile species were produced. Volatilization of Me2AsH and TMAs(III) from contaminated soil is thus possible with this genetically engineered bacterium and could be instrumental as an agent for reducing the inorganic arsenic content of soil and agricultural products. PMID:25122054

  12. Potential of the TCE-degrading endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE to improve plant growth and reduce TCE phytotoxicity and evapotranspiration in poplar cuttings

    SciTech Connect

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Truyens, S.; Dupae, J.; Newman, L.; Taghavi, S.; Carleer, R.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2010-09-01

    The TCE-degrading poplar endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE was inoculated in poplar cuttings, exposed to 0, 200 and 400 mg l{sup -1} TCE, that were grown in two different experimental setups. During a short-term experiment, plants were grown hydroponically in half strength Hoagland nutrient solution and exposed to TCE for 3 days. Inoculation with P. putida W619-TCE promoted plant growth, reduced TCE phytotoxicity and reduced the amount of TCE present in the leaves. During a mid-term experiment, plants were grown in potting soil and exposed to TCE for 3 weeks. Here, inoculation with P. putida W619-TCE had a less pronounced positive effect on plant growth and TCE phytotoxicity, but resulted in strongly reduced amounts of TCE in leaves and roots of plants exposed to 400 mg l{sup -1} TCE, accompanied by a lowered evapotranspiration of TCE. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), which are known intermediates of TCE degradation, were not detected. The endophyte P. putida W619-TCE degrades TCE during its transport through the xylem, leading to reduced TCE concentrations in poplar, and decreased TCE evapotranspiration.

  13. Volatilization of Arsenic from Polluted Soil by Pseudomonas putida Engineered for Expression of the arsM Arsenic(III) S-Adenosine Methyltransferase Gene

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Even though arsenic is one of the most widespread environmental carcinogens, methods of remediation are still limited. In this report we demonstrate that a strain of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 endowed with chromosomal expression of the arsM gene encoding the As(III) S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) methyltransfase from Rhodopseudomonas palustris to remove arsenic from contaminated soil. We genetically engineered the P. putida KT2440 with stable expression of an arsM-gfp fusion gene (GE P. putida), which was inserted into the bacterial chromosome. GE P. putida showed high arsenic methylation and volatilization activity. When exposed to 25 μM arsenite or arsenate overnight, most inorganic arsenic was methylated to the less toxic methylated arsenicals methylarsenate (MAs(V)), dimethylarsenate (DMAs(V)) and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAs(V)O). Of total added arsenic, the species were about 62 ± 2.2% DMAs(V), 25 ± 1.4% MAs(V) and 10 ± 1.2% TMAs(V)O. Volatilized arsenicals were trapped, and the predominant species were dimethylarsine (Me2AsH) (21 ± 1.0%) and trimethylarsine (TMAs(III)) (10 ± 1.2%). At later times, more DMAs(V) and volatile species were produced. Volatilization of Me2AsH and TMAs(III) from contaminated soil is thus possible with this genetically engineered bacterium and could be instrumental as an agent for reducing the inorganic arsenic content of soil and agricultural products. PMID:25122054

  14. A Set of Activators and Repressors Control Peripheral Glucose Pathways in Pseudomonas putida To Yield a Common Central Intermediate▿

    PubMed Central

    del Castillo, Teresa; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan L.

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440 channels glucose to the central Entner-Doudoroff intermediate 6-phosphogluconate through three convergent pathways. The genes for these convergent pathways are clustered in three independent regions on the host chromosome. A number of monocistronic units and operons coexist within each of these clusters, favoring coexpression of catabolic enzymes and transport systems. Expression of the three pathways is mediated by three transcriptional repressors, HexR, GnuR, and PtxS, and by a positive transcriptional regulator, GltR-2. In this study, we generated mutants in each of the regulators and carried out transcriptional assays using microarrays and transcriptional fusions. These studies revealed that HexR controls the genes that encode glucokinase/glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase that yield 6-phosphogluconate; the genes for the Entner-Doudoroff enzymes that yield glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and pyruvate; and gap-1, which encodes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. GltR-2 is the transcriptional regulator that controls specific porins for the entry of glucose into the periplasmic space, as well as the gtsABCD operon for glucose transport through the inner membrane. GnuR is the repressor of gluconate transport and gluconokinase responsible for the conversion of gluconate into 6-phosphogluconate. PtxS, however, controls the enzymes for oxidation of gluconate to 2-ketogluconate, its transport and metabolism, and a set of genes unrelated to glucose metabolism. PMID:18245293

  15. Integration of chemotaxis, transport and catabolism in Pseudomonas putida and identification of the aromatic acid chemoreceptor PcaY.

    PubMed

    Luu, Rita A; Kootstra, Joshua D; Nesteryuk, Vasyl; Brunton, Ceanne N; Parales, Juanito V; Ditty, Jayna L; Parales, Rebecca E

    2015-04-01

    Aromatic and hydroaromatic compounds that are metabolized through the β-ketoadipate catabolic pathway serve as chemoattractants for Pseudomonas putida F1. A screen of P. putida F1 mutants, each lacking one of the genes encoding the 18 putative methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs), revealed that pcaY encodes the MCP required for metabolism-independent chemotaxis to vanillate, vanillin, 4-hydroxybenzoate, benzoate, protocatechuate, quinate, shikimate, as well as 10 substituted benzoates that do not serve as growth substrates for P. putida F1. Chemotaxis was induced during growth on aromatic compounds, and an analysis of a pcaY-lacZ fusion revealed that pcaY is expressed in the presence of β-ketoadipate, a common intermediate in the pathway. pcaY expression also required the transcriptional activator PcaR, indicating that pcaY is a member of the pca regulon, which includes three unlinked gene clusters that encode five enzymes required for the conversion of 4-hydroxybenzoate to tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates as well as the major facilitator superfamily transport protein PcaK. The 4-hydroxybenzoate permease PcaK was shown to modulate the chemotactic response by facilitating the uptake of 4-hydroxybenzoate, which leads to the accumulation of β-ketoadipate, thereby increasing pcaY expression. The results show that chemotaxis, transport and metabolism of aromatic compounds are intimately linked in P. putida.

  16. Indole-based assay to assess the effect of ethanol on Pseudomonas putida F1 dioxygenase activity.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Márcio Luis Busi; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2010-06-01

    Toluene dioxygenase (TDO) is ubiquitous in nature and has a broad substrate range, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). Pseudomonas putida F1 (PpF1) induced on toluene is known to produce indigo from indole through the activity of TDO. In this work, a spectrophotometric assay previously developed to measure indole to indigo production rates was modified to characterize the effects of various ethanol concentrations on toluene aerobic biodegradation activity and assess catabolite repression of TDO. Indigo production rate by cells induced on toluene alone was 0.0012 +/- 0.0006 OD(610) min(-1). The presence of ethanol did not fully repress TDO activity when toluene was also available as a carbon source. However, indigo production rates by PpF1 grown on ethanol:toluene mixtures (3:1 w/w) decreased by approximately 50%. Overall, the proposed spectrophotometric assay is a simple approach to quantify TDO activity, and demonstrates how the presence of ethanol in groundwater contaminated with reformulated gasoline is likely to interfere with naturally occurring microorganisms from fully expressing their aerobic catabolic potential towards hydrocarbons bioremediation.

  17. ColRS two-component system prevents lysis of subpopulation of glucose-grown Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Putrins, Marta; Ilves, Heili; Kivisaar, Maia; Hõrak, Rita

    2008-10-01

    ColRS two-component system is well conserved in pseudomonads, but its exact role has remained obscure. Here, we report that Pseudomonas putida deficient in ColR experiences serious carbon source-specific stress that leads to the lysis of a subpopulation of bacteria growing on solid glucose medium. We observed that on glucose medium colR-deficient bacteria aggregated, produced a Congo Red-binding substance and had enhanced membrane permeability. Detection of a large amount of cytoplasmic beta-galactosidase and other proteins as well as chromosomal DNA in the growth medium of a colR mutant indicated that cell lysis took place if ColR was absent. Investigation of colony morphology revealed concavities in the centre of the colonies of colR mutant suggesting that cell lysis occurred mainly in the areas of the highest cell density. Analysis of bacteria at a single cell level by flow cytometry showed that population of glucose-grown colR-deficient cells was heterogeneous. In addition to the wild type-like population, we detected a subpopulation of cells with damaged membrane permeable to propidium iodide. Interestingly, inactivation of oprB1 encoding a glucose porin eliminated the cell lysis as well as autoaggregation and membrane leakiness of a colR mutant indicating that glucose influx could be responsible for membrane stress in the absence of ColRS system. PMID:18657172

  18. U(VI) biosorption by bi-functionalized Pseudomonas putida @ chitosan bead: Modeling and optimization using RSM.

    PubMed

    Sohbatzadeh, Hozhabr; Keshtkar, Ali Reza; Safdari, Jaber; Fatemi, Faezeh

    2016-08-01

    In this work, Pseudomonas putida cells immobilized into chitosan beads (PICB) were synthesized to investigate the impact of microorganism entrapment on biosorption capacity of prepared biosorbent for U(VI) biosorption from aqueous solutions. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on Central Composite Design (CCD) was utilized to evaluate the performance of the PICB in comparison with chitosan beads (CB) under batch mode. Performing experiments under optimal condition sets viz. pH 5, initial U(VI) concentration 500mg/L, biosorbent dosage 0.4g/L and 20wt.% bacterial cells showed that the observed biosorption capacity enhanced by 1.27 times from 398mg/g (CB) to 504mg/g (PICB) that confirmed the effectiveness of cells immobilization process. FTIR and potentiometric titration were then utilized to characterize the prepared biosorbents. While the dominant functional group in the binding process was NH3(+) (4.78meq/g) in the CB, the functional groups of NH3(+), NH2, OH, COOH (6.00meq/g) were responsible for the PICB. The equilibrium and kinetic studies revealed that the Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model were in better fitness with the CB and PICB experimental data. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the PICB could be a suitable biosorbent for uranium (VI) biosorption from aqueous solutions. PMID:27180295

  19. Sorption and distribution of copper in unsaturated Pseudomonas putida CZ1 biofilms as determined by X-ray fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guangcun; Chen, Xincai; Yang, Yuanqiang; Hay, Anthony G; Yu, Xiaohan; Chen, Yingxu

    2011-07-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of metals in unsaturated Pseudomonas putida CZ1 biofilms was determined using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XRF). It was found that Fe, Mn, and Ca were mainly distributed near the air-biofilm interface of a biofilm grown on 40 mM citrate, while there were two Fe-, Mn-, and Ca-rich layers within a biofilm grown on 10 mM citrate. The sorption of copper by biofilm grown in medium containing 10 mM citrate was rapid, with copper being found throughout the biofilm after only 1 h of exposure. Copper initially colocalized with Fe and Mn element layers in the biofilm and then precipitated in a 40-μm-thick layer near the air-biofilm interface when exposed for 12 h. Cu K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis revealed that Cu was primarily bound with citrate within the biofilm, and the precipitate formed in the biofilm exposed to copper for 12 h was most similar to copper phosphate. LIVE/DEAD staining revealed that cells at the biofilm-membrane interface were mostly alive even when the copper concentration reached 80.5 mg copper g(-1) biomass. This suggests that the biofilm matrix provided significant protection for cells in this area. These results significantly improve our understanding of metal acquisition, transportation, and immobilization in unsaturated biofilm systems. PMID:21642411

  20. Stability of a Pseudomonas putida KT2440 bacteriophage-carried genomic island and its impact on rhizosphere fitness.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Jose M; Soriano, María Isabel; Espinosa-Urgel, Manuel

    2012-10-01

    The stability of seven genomic islands of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 with predicted potential for mobilization was studied in bacterial populations associated with the rhizosphere of corn plants by multiplex PCR. DNA rearrangements were detected for only one of them (GI28), which was lost at high frequency. This genomic island of 39.4 kb, with 53 open reading frames, shows the characteristic organization of genes belonging to tailed phages. We present evidence indicating that it corresponds to the lysogenic state of a functional bacteriophage that we have designated Pspu28. Integrated and rarely excised forms of Pspu28 coexist in KT2440 populations. Pspu28 is self-transmissible, and an excisionase is essential for its removal from the bacterial chromosome. The excised Pspu28 forms a circular element that can integrate into the chromosome at a specific location, att sites containing a 17-bp direct repeat sequence. Excision/insertion of Pspu28 alters the promoter sequence and changes the expression level of PP_1531, which encodes a predicted arsenate reductase. Finally, we show that the presence of Pspu28 in the lysogenic state has a negative effect on bacterial fitness in the rhizosphere under conditions of intraspecific competition, thus explaining why clones having lost this mobile element are recovered from that environment. PMID:22843519

  1. Growth kinetics, effect of carbon substrate in biosynthesis of mcl-PHA by Pseudomonas putida Bet001

    PubMed Central

    Gumel, A.M.; Annuar, M.S.M.; Heidelberg, T.

    2014-01-01

    Growth associated biosynthesis of medium chain length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA) in Pseudomonas putida Bet001 isolated from palm oil mill effluent was studied. Models with substrate inhibition terms described well the kinetics of its growth. Selected fatty acids (C8:0 to C18:1) and ammonium were used as carbon and nitrogen sources during growth and PHA biosynthesis, resulting in PHA accumulation of about 50 to 69% (w/w) and PHA yields ranging from 10.12 g L−1 to 15.45 g L−1, respectively. The monomer composition of the PHA ranges from C4 to C14, and was strongly influenced by the type of carbon substrate fed. Interestingly, an odd carbon chain length (C7) monomer was also detected when C18:1 was fed. Polymer showed melting temperature (Tm) of 42.0 (± 0.2) °C, glass transition temperature (Tg) of −1.0 (± 0.2) °C and endothermic melting enthalpy of fusion (ΔHf) of 110.3 (± 0.1) J g−1. The molecular weight (Mw) range of the polymer was relatively narrow between 55 to 77 kDa. PMID:25242925

  2. Genes involved in nutrient competition by Pseudomonas putida JBC17 to suppress green mold in postharvest satsuma mandarin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sang-Mi; Lee, Yong Hoon

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying biocontrol activity in biocontrol agents is indispensable to implement biological control. However, the understanding of specific mechanisms for nutrient competition in nutrient limited environments is still limited. This study was performed to control green mold of postharvest satsuma mandarin (mandarin) using Pseudomonas putida JBC17 (JBC17), and identify the genes involved in nutrient competition. Treatment with JBC17 on wounded mandarin fruits at a concentration of 10(6) and 10(7)  cfu ml(-1) suppressed the incidence of green mold with efficacy of 74.1 and 91.4%, respectively, compared to the untreated control. In spite of there being no antifungal activity in a dual culture test, JBC17 significantly inhibited the conidial germination of Penicillium digitatum. The results from the nutrient competition assay revealed that the inhibition of conidial germination was exerted by nutrient starvation. From the constructed transposon (Tn) library of JBC17, exopolyphosphatase (ppx) and Xaa-Pro aminopeptidase (pepP) were recognized as potential factors responsible for the inhibition of conidial germination. In conclusion, the understanding of nutrient depletion specific to the inhibition of conidial germination by JBC17 may ultimately lead to a deeper understanding of the bacterial metabolism and conidial metabolism for germination as well as biocontrol activity.

  3. A phthalate family oxygenase reductase supports terpene alcohol oxidation by CYP238A1 from Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    PubMed

    Bell, Stephen Graham; French, Laura; Rees, Nicholas Huw; Cheng, Sophia Shuyi; Preston, Gail; Wong, Luet-Lok

    2013-01-01

    CYP238A1, one of the two P450 enzymes in the genome of Pseudomonas putida KT2440, has been produced heterologously in Escherichia coli, purified, and found to bind acyclic and cyclic terpene alcohols such as farnesol, nerolidol, linalool, and terpineol. The other P450 enzyme in this organism (gene locus: PP1950) was also produced in E. coli but no substrate has been identified from a limited screen. A phthalate family oxygenase reductase (PFOR) encoded by the PP1957 gene, just downstream of the PP1955 gene for CYP238A1, accepts electrons from the reduced form of both nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and is able to support monooxygenase activity of CYP238A1, both in vitro and in E. coli, in which both enzymes are produced. CYP238A1 oxidizes cis- and trans-nerolidol to the 9-hydroxy product, with no evidence of attack at the olefinic double bonds. The NADH turnover rate of 170 nmol(nmol-P450)⁻¹ Min⁻¹ for CYP238A1 with cis-nerolidol as substrate at a PP1957:CYP238A1 concentration ratio of 8:1 suggests that this PFOR could function as the physiological redox partner for CYP238A1. The physiological role of CYP238A1 may be related to the PP1955 gene being part of an island/cluster of inducible genes associated with energy metabolism and response to xenobiotics. PMID:23586988

  4. The Crc protein inhibits the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates in Pseudomonas putida under balanced carbon/nitrogen growth conditions.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Ruggero; de la Peña, Fernando; Prieto, María Axiliadora; Rojo, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida synthesizes polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) as storage compounds. PHA synthesis is more active when the carbon source is in excess and the nitrogen source is limiting, but can also occur at a lower rate under balanced carbon/nitrogen ratios. This work shows that PHA synthesis is controlled by the Crc global regulator, a protein that optimizes carbon metabolism by inhibiting the expression of genes involved in the use of non-preferred carbon sources. Crc acts post-transcriptionally. The mRNAs of target genes contain characteristic catabolite activity (CA) motifs near the ribosome binding site. Sequences resembling CA motifs can be predicted for the phaC1 gene, which codes for a PHA polymerase, and for phaI and phaF, which encode proteins associated to PHA granules. Our results show that Crc inhibits the translation of phaC1 mRNA, but not that of phaI or phaF, reducing the amount of PHA accumulated in the cell. Crc inhibited PHA synthesis during exponential growth in media containing a balanced carbon/nitrogen ratio. No inhibition was seen when the carbon/nitrogen ratio was imbalanced. This extends the role of Crc beyond that of controlling the hierarchical utilization of carbon sources and provides a link between PHA synthesis and the global regulatory networks controlling carbon flow.

  5. Growth kinetics, effect of carbon substrate in biosynthesis of mcl-PHA by Pseudomonas putida Bet001.

    PubMed

    Gumel, A M; Annuar, M S M; Heidelberg, T

    2014-01-01

    Growth associated biosynthesis of medium chain length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA) in Pseudomonas putida Bet001 isolated from palm oil mill effluent was studied. Models with substrate inhibition terms described well the kinetics of its growth. Selected fatty acids (C8:0 to C18:1) and ammonium were used as carbon and nitrogen sources during growth and PHA biosynthesis, resulting in PHA accumulation of about 50 to 69% (w/w) and PHA yields ranging from 10.12 g L(-1) to 15.45 g L(-1), respectively. The monomer composition of the PHA ranges from C4 to C14, and was strongly influenced by the type of carbon substrate fed. Interestingly, an odd carbon chain length (C7) monomer was also detected when C18:1 was fed. Polymer showed melting temperature (T m) of 42.0 (± 0.2) °C, glass transition temperature (T g) of -1.0 (± 0.2) °C and endothermic melting enthalpy of fusion (ΔHf) of 110.3 (± 0.1) J g(-1). The molecular weight (M w) range of the polymer was relatively narrow between 55 to 77 kDa. PMID:25242925

  6. Cloning, Expression, Characterization, and Biocatalytic Investigation of the 4-Hydroxyacetophenone Monooxygenase from Pseudomonas putida JD1▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Rehdorf, Jessica; Zimmer, Christian L.; Bornscheuer, Uwe T.

    2009-01-01

    While the number of available recombinant Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) has grown significantly over the last few years, there is still the demand for other BVMOs to expand the biocatalytic diversity. Most BVMOs that have been described are dedicated to convert efficiently cyclohexanone and related cyclic aliphatic ketones. To cover a broader range of substrate types and enantio- and/or regioselectivities, new BVMOs have to be discovered. The gene encoding a BVMO identified in Pseudomonas putida JD1 converting aromatic ketones (HAPMO; 4-hydroxyacetophenone monooxygenase) was amplified from genomic DNA using SiteFinding-PCR, cloned, and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. Furthermore, four other open reading frames could be identified clustered around this HAPMO. It has been suggested that these proteins, including the HAPMO, might be involved in the degradation of 4-hydroxyacetophenone. Substrate specificity studies revealed that a large variety of other arylaliphatic ketones are also converted via Baeyer-Villiger oxidation into the corresponding esters, with preferences for para-substitutions at the aromatic ring. In addition, oxidation of aldehydes and some heteroaromatic compounds was observed. Cycloketones and open-chain ketones were not or poorly accepted, respectively. It was also found that this enzyme oxidizes aromatic ketones such as 3-phenyl-2-butanone with excellent enantioselectivity (E ≫100). PMID:19251889

  7. The role of amino acid residues in the active site of L-methionine γ-lyase from Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Mitsuki; Kudou, Daizou; Murano, Shouko; Shiba, Tomoo; Sato, Dan; Tamura, Takashi; Harada, Shigeharu; Inagaki, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Cys116, Lys240*, and Asp241* (asterisks indicate residues from the second subunit of the active dimer) at the active site of L-methionine γ-lyase of Pseudomonas putida (MGL_Pp) are highly conserved among heterologous MGLs. In a previous study, we found that substitution of Cys116 for His led to a drastic increase in activity toward L-cysteine and a decrease in that toward L-methionine. In this study, we examined some properties of the C116H mutant by kinetic analysis and 3D structural analysis. We assumed that substitution of Cys116 for His broke the original hydrogen-bond network and that this induced a significant effect of Tyr114 as a general acid catalyst, possibly due to the narrow space in the active site. The C116H mutant acquired a novel β-elimination activity and lead a drastic conformation change in the histidine residue at position 116 by binding the substrate, suggesting that this His residue affects the reaction specificity of C116H. Furthermore, we suggest that Lys240* is important for substrate recognition and structural stability and that Asp241* is also involved in substrate specificity in the elimination reaction. Based on this, we suggest that the hydrogen-bond network among Cys116, Lys240*, and Asp241* contributes to substrate specificity that is, to L-methionine recognition at the active site in MGL_Pp.

  8. Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Diffraction Analysis of Recombinant Chlorocatechol 1 2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas Putida

    SciTech Connect

    J Rustiguel; M Pinheiro; A Araujo; M Nonato

    2011-12-31

    Chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase from the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas putida (Pp 1,2-CCD) is considered to be an important biotechnological tool owing to its ability to process a broad spectrum of organic pollutants. In the current work, the crystallization, crystallographic characterization and phasing of the recombinant Pp 1,2-CCD enzyme are described. Reddish-brown crystals were obtained in the presence of polyethylene glycol and magnesium acetate by utilizing the vapor-diffusion technique in sitting drops. Crystal dehydration was the key step in obtaining data sets, which were collected on the D03B-MX2 beamline at the CNPEM/MCT - LNLS using a MAR CCD detector. Pp 1,2-CCD crystals belonged to space group P6{sub 1}22 and the crystallographic structure of Pp 1,2-CCD has been solved by the MR-SAD technique using Fe atoms as scattering centres and the coordinates of 3-chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase from Rhodococcus opacus (PDB entry 2boy) as the search model. The initial model, which contains three molecules in the asymmetric unit, has been refined to 3.4 {angstrom} resolution.

  9. Repression of the glucose-inducible outer-membrane protein OprB during utilization of aromatic compounds and organic acids in Pseudomonas putida CSV86.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Rahul; Basu, Bhakti; Godbole, Ashwini; Mathew, M K; Apte, Shree K; Phale, Prashant S

    2011-05-01

    Pseudomonas putida CSV86 shows preferential utilization of aromatic compounds over glucose. Protein analysis and [¹⁴C]glucose-binding studies of the outer membrane fraction of cells grown on different carbon sources revealed a 40 kDa protein that was transcriptionally induced by glucose and repressed by aromatics and succinate. Based on 2D gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, the 40 kDa protein closely resembled the porin B of P. putida KT2440 and carbohydrate-selective porin OprB of various Pseudomonas strains. The purified native protein (i) was estimated to be a homotrimer of 125 kDa with a subunit molecular mass of 40 kDa, (ii) displayed heat modifiability of electrophoretic mobility, (iii) showed channel conductance of 166 pS in 1 M KCl, (iv) permeated various sugars (mono-, di- and tri-saccharides), organic acids, amino acids and aromatic compounds, and (v) harboured a glucose-specific and saturable binding site with a dissociation constant of 1.3 µM. These results identify the glucose-inducible outer-membrane protein of P. putida CSV86 as a carbohydrate-selective protein OprB. Besides modulation of intracellular glucose-metabolizing enzymes and specific glucose-binding periplasmic space protein, the repression of OprB by aromatics and organic acids, even in the presence of glucose, also contributes significantly to the strain's ability to utilize aromatics and organic acids over glucose.

  10. Effects of low-density static magnetic fields on the growth and activities of wastewater bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Filipič, Jasmina; Kraigher, Barbara; Tepuš, Brigita; Kokol, Vanja; Mandic-Mulec, Ines

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the influence of a moderate static magnetic field (SMF) of different densities on Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida that are commonly found in wastewater treatment plants. In line with literature reports that SMF increases the efficiency of wastewater treatment the findings of this study indicated that SMF negatively influenced the growth but positively influenced the enzymatic activities and ATP levels of the two model bacteria. The inhibitory effect of SMF on growth of E. coli and P. putida was most pronounced at their optimal growth temperature (37°C and 28°C respectively) and was reversible shortly after the SMF had been terminated. Finally, the results suggested that the induced energy metabolism reflected in higher dehydrogenase activities and ATP levels may be more important for survival, and adaptation to SMF induced stress than the increase in the expression of the rpoS gene.

  11. Transcription from fusion promoters generated during transposition of transposon Tn4652 is positively affected by integration host factor in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Teras, R; Hõrak, R; Kivisaar, M

    2000-02-01

    We have previously shown that both ends of the Tn3 family transposon Tn4652 contain integration host factor (IHF) binding sites and that IHF positively regulates expression of the Tn4652 transposase gene tnpA in Pseudomonas putida (R. Hõrak, and M. Kivisaar, J. Bacteriol. 180:2822-2829, 1998). Tn4652 can activate silent genes by creating fusion promoters during the transposition. The promoters are created as fusions between the -35 hexamer provided by the terminal inverted repeats of Tn4652 and the -10 hexamers in the target DNA. Two fusion promoters, PRA1 and PLA1, that contain sequences of the right and left termini of Tn4652, respectively, were chosen for the study of mechanisms of transcription activation. Gel mobility shift analysis using crude extracts from P. putida cells allowed us to detect specific binding of P. putida IHF to the ends of the transposon Tn4652. We found that the rate of transcription from the fusion promoter PRA1 is enhanced by IHF. Notably, the positive effect of IHF on transcription from the promoter PRA1 appeared only when cells of P. putida reached the stationary growth phase. We speculate that the intracellular concentration of IHF might be critical for the in vivo effect of IHF on transcription from the fusion promoters in P. putida. In the case of PLA1, the mechanism of transcription modulation by IHF is different than that observed for PRA1. Our results demonstrate that transcription of neighboring genes from outwardly directed promoters at the ends of a mobile DNA element could be influenced by the same factors that control transposition of the element. PMID:10633090

  12. Identification and Characterization of an N-Acylhomoserine Lactone-Dependent Quorum-Sensing System in Pseudomonas putida Strain IsoF

    PubMed Central

    Steidle, Anette; Allesen-Holm, Marie; Riedel, Kathrin; Berg, Gabriele; Givskov, Michael; Molin, Søren; Eberl, Leo

    2002-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that several strains of Pseudomonas putida produce N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). These signal molecules enable bacteria to coordinately express certain phenotypic traits in a density-dependent manner in a process referred to as quorum sensing. In this study we have cloned a genomic region of the plant growth-promoting P. putida strain IsoF that, when present in trans, provoked induction of a bioluminescent AHL reporter plasmid. Sequence analysis identified a gene cluster consisting of four genes: ppuI and ppuR, whose predicted amino acid sequences are highly similar to proteins of the LuxI-LuxR family, an open reading frame (ORF) located in the intergenic region between ppuI and ppuR with significant homology to rsaL from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a gene, designated ppuA, present upstream of ppuR, the deduced amino acid sequence of which shows similarity to long-chain fatty acid coenzyme A ligases from various organisms. Using a transcriptional ppuA::luxAB fusion we demonstrate that expression of ppuA is AHL dependent. Furthermore, transcription of the AHL synthase ppuI is shown to be subject to quorum-sensing regulation, creating a positive feedback loop. Sequencing of the DNA regions flanking the ppu gene cluster indicated that the four genes form an island in the suhB-PA3819 intergenic region of the currently sequenced P. putida strain KT2440. Moreover, we provide evidence that the ppu genes are not present in other AHL-producing P. putida strains, indicating that this gene cluster is so far unique for strain IsoF. While the wild-type strain formed very homogenous biofilms, both a ppuI and a ppuA mutant formed structured biofilms with characteristic microcolonies and water-filled channels. These results suggest that the quorum-sensing system influences biofilm structural development. PMID:12450862

  13. Isolation of a Gene Responsible for the Oxidation of trans-Anethole to para-Anisaldehyde by Pseudomonas putida JYR-1 and Its Expression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Han, Dongfei; Ryu, Ji-Young; Kanaly, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    A plasmid, pTA163, in Escherichia coli contained an approximately 34-kb gene fragment from Pseudomonas putida JYR-1 that included the genes responsible for the metabolism of trans-anethole to protocatechuic acid. Three Tn5-disrupted open reading frame 10 (ORF 10) mutants of plasmid pTA163 lost their abilities to catalyze trans-anethole. Heterologously expressed ORF 10 (1,047 nucleotides [nt]) under a T7 promoter in E. coli catalyzed oxidative cleavage of a propenyl group of trans-anethole to an aldehyde group, resulting in the production of para-anisaldehyde, and this gene was designated tao (trans-anethole oxygenase). The deduced amino acid sequence of TAO had the highest identity (34%) to a hypothetical protein of Agrobacterium vitis S4 and likely contained a flavin-binding site. Preferred incorporation of an oxygen molecule from water into p-anisaldehyde using 18O-labeling experiments indicated stereo preference of TAO for hydrolysis of the epoxide group. Interestingly, unlike the narrow substrate range of isoeugenol monooxygenase from Pseudomonas putida IE27 and Pseudomonas nitroreducens Jin1, TAO from P. putida JYR-1 catalyzed isoeugenol, O-methyl isoeugenol, and isosafrole, all of which contain the 2-propenyl functional group on the aromatic ring structure. Addition of NAD(P)H to the ultrafiltered cell extracts of E. coli (pTA163) increased the activity of TAO. Due to the relaxed substrate range of TAO, it may be utilized for the production of various fragrance compounds from plant phenylpropanoids in the future. PMID:22610435

  14. The TOL network of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 processes multiple environmental inputs into a narrow response space.

    PubMed

    Silva-Rocha, Rafael; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    The TOL system encoded by plasmid pWW0 of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 is able to sense a large number of both exogenous and endogenous signals as inputs for the genetic and metabolic circuit that determines the biodegradation of m-xylene. However, whether the enormous combinatorial space of inputs is translated into an equally variable response landscape or is processed into very few outcomes remains unclear. To address this question, we set out to define the number of states that can be obtained by a network of a given set of genes under the control of a specified regulatory circuit that is exposed to all possible combinations of inputs. To this end, the TOL network and its regulatory wiring were formalized as a synchronous logic Boolean circuit that had 10 signals (i.e. pathway substrates, temperature, sugars, amino acids, metabolic regimes and global regulators) as possible inputs. The analysis of the attractors of the circuit using a satisfiability (SAT) algorithm revealed that only eight transcriptional states are reached in response to the 1024 possible combinations of stimuli. The experimental validation resulted in a refinement of the model through the addition of a previously unknown interaction that controls the meta catabolic pathway. The full induction of the two xyl operons occurred with only 1.6% of the input combinations, which suggests that the architecture of the network allows the expression of the xyl genes only under a very narrow range of conditions. These data not only explain much of the unusual layout of the TOL circuit but also strengthen the view of the regulatory circuits of environmental bacteria as digital decision-making devices.

  15. Deciphering the genetic determinants for aerobic nicotinic acid degradation: the nic cluster from Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, José I; Canales, Angeles; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Ginalski, Krzysztof; Rychlewski, Leszek; García, José L; Díaz, Eduardo

    2008-08-12

    The aerobic catabolism of nicotinic acid (NA) is considered a model system for degradation of N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds, some of which are major environmental pollutants; however, the complete set of genes as well as the structural-functional relationships of most of the enzymes involved in this process are still unknown. We have characterized a gene cluster (nic genes) from Pseudomonas putida KT2440 responsible for the aerobic NA degradation in this bacterium and when expressed in heterologous hosts. The biochemistry of the NA degradation through the formation of 2,5-dihydroxypyridine and maleamic acid has been revisited, and some gene products become the prototype of new types of enzymes with unprecedented molecular architectures. Thus, the initial hydroxylation of NA is catalyzed by a two-component hydroxylase (NicAB) that constitutes the first member of the xanthine dehydrogenase family whose electron transport chain to molecular oxygen includes a cytochrome c domain. The Fe(2+)-dependent dioxygenase (NicX) converts 2,5-dihydroxypyridine into N-formylmaleamic acid, and it becomes the founding member of a new family of extradiol ring-cleavage dioxygenases. Further conversion of N-formylmaleamic acid to formic and maleamic acid is catalyzed by the NicD protein, the only deformylase described so far whose catalytic triad is similar to that of some members of the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold superfamily. This work allows exploration of the existence of orthologous gene clusters in saprophytic bacteria and some pathogens, where they might stimulate studies on their role in virulence, and it provides a framework to develop new biotechnological processes for detoxification/biotransformation of N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds.

  16. Caffeine Junkie: an Unprecedented Glutathione S-Transferase-Dependent Oxygenase Required for Caffeine Degradation by Pseudomonas putida CBB5

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ryan M.; Seffernick, Jennifer L.; Quandt, Erik M.; Yu, Chi Li; Barrick, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine and other N-methylated xanthines are natural products found in many foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. Therefore, it is not surprising that bacteria have evolved to live on caffeine as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. The caffeine degradation pathway of Pseudomonas putida CBB5 utilizes an unprecedented glutathione-S-transferase-dependent Rieske oxygenase for demethylation of 7-methylxanthine to xanthine, the final step in caffeine N-demethylation. The gene coding this function is unusual, in that the iron-sulfur and non-heme iron domains that compose the normally functional Rieske oxygenase (RO) are encoded by separate proteins. The non-heme iron domain is located in the monooxygenase, ndmC, while the Rieske [2Fe-2S] domain is fused to the RO reductase gene, ndmD. This fusion, however, does not interfere with the interaction of the reductase with N1- and N3-demethylase RO oxygenases, which are involved in the initial reactions of caffeine degradation. We demonstrate that the N7-demethylation reaction absolutely requires a unique, tightly bound protein complex composed of NdmC, NdmD, and NdmE, a novel glutathione-S-transferase (GST). NdmE is proposed to function as a noncatalytic subunit that serves a structural role in the complexation of the oxygenase (NdmC) and Rieske domains (NdmD). Genome analyses found this gene organization of a split RO and GST gene cluster to occur more broadly, implying a larger function for RO-GST protein partners. PMID:23813729

  17. Tight coupling of polymerization and depolymerization of polyhydroxyalkanoates ensures efficient management of carbon resources in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Arias, Sagrario; Bassas-Galia, Monica; Molinari, Gabriella; Timmis, Kenneth N

    2013-09-01

    Environmental microbes oscillate between feast and famine and need to carefully manage utilization, storage and conversion of reserve products to exploitable sources of carbon and energy. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are storage polymers that serve bacteria as sources of food materials under physiological conditions of carbon demand. In order to obtain insights into the role of PHA depolymerase (PhaZ) and its relationship to a PHA polymerase (PhaC2) in the carbon management activity of Pseudomonas putida strain U, we created a polymerase hyperexpression strain and a depolymerase knockout mutant of this strain, and examined their synthesis of PHA and expression of their PHA genes. This study revealed that hyperexpression of PhaC2 led to the accumulation of higher amounts of PHA (44%wt) than in the wild-type strain (24%wt) after 24 h of cultivation, which then returned to wild-type levels by 48 h, as a result of elevated depolymerization. The phaZ mutant, however, accumulated higher levels of PHA than the parental strain (62%wt), which were maintained for at least 96 h. Transcriptional analysis of the pha cluster by RT-PCR revealed that PHA operon proteins, including depolymerase, are expressed from the beginning of the growth phase. Hyperexpression of the PhaC2 polymerase was accompanied by an increase in the expression of the PhaZ depolymerase and a decrease in expression of another PHA polymerase, PhaC1. This suggests tight regulatory coupling of PHA polymerase and depolymerase activities that act in synergy, and in concert with other PHA proteins, to provide dynamic PHA granule synthesis and remodelling that rapidly and sensitively respond to changes in availability of carbon and the physiological-metabolic needs of the cell, to ensure optimal carbon resource management.

  18. Pseudomonas putida attunes morphophysiological, biochemical and molecular responses in Cicer arietinum L. during drought stress and recovery.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Shalini; Lata, Charu; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2016-02-01

    Drought is one of the most important abiotic stresses that adversely affect plant growth and yield potential. However, some drought resistant rhizosphere competent bacteria are known to improve plant health and promote growth during abiotic stresses. Present study showed the role of Pseudomonas putida MTCC5279 (RA) in ameliorating drought stress on cv. BG-362 (desi) and cv. BG-1003 (kabuli) chickpea cultivars under in vitro and green house conditions. Polyethylene glycol-induced drought stress severely affected seed germination in both cultivars which was considerably improved on RA-inoculation. Drought stress significantly affected various growth parameters, water status, membrane integrity, osmolyte accumulation, ROS scavenging ability and stress-responsive gene expressions, which were positively modulated upon application of RA in both chickpea cultivars. Quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR analysis showed differential expression of genes involved in transcription activation (DREB1A and NAC1), stress response (LEA and DHN), ROS scavenging (CAT, APX, GST), ethylene biosynthesis (ACO and ACS), salicylic acid (PR1) and jasmonate (MYC2) signalling in both chickpea cultivars exposed to drought stress and recovery in the presence or absence of RA. The observations imply that RA confers drought tolerance in chickpea by altering various physical, physiological and biochemical parameters, as well as by modulating differential expression of at least 11 stress-responsive genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on detailed analysis of plant growth promotion and stress alleviation in one month old desi and kabuli chickpea subjected to drought stress for 0, 1, 3 and 7 days and recovery in the presence of a PGPR. PMID:26744996

  19. Genetic analysis of plant endophytic Pseudomonas putida BP25 and chemo-profiling of its antimicrobial volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Sheoran, Neelam; Valiya Nadakkakath, Agisha; Munjal, Vibhuti; Kundu, Aditi; Subaharan, Kesavan; Venugopal, Vibina; Rajamma, Suseelabhai; Eapen, Santhosh J; Kumar, Aundy

    2015-04-01

    Black pepper associated bacterium BP25 was isolated from root endosphere of apparently healthy cultivar Panniyur-5 that protected black pepper against Phytophthora capsici and Radopholus similis - the major production constraints. The bacterium was characterized and mechanisms of its antagonistic action against major pathogens are elucidated. The polyphasic phenotypic analysis revealed its identity as Pseudomonas putida. Multi locus sequence typing revealed that the bacterium shared gene sequences with several other isolates representing diverse habitats. Tissue localization assays exploiting green fluorescence protein expression clearly indicated that PpBP25 endophytically colonized not only its host plant - black pepper, but also other distantly related plants such as ginger and arabidopsis. PpBP25 colonies could be enumerated from internal tissues of plants four weeks post inoculation indicated its stable establishment and persistence in the plant system. The bacterium inhibited broad range of pathogens such as Phytophthora capsici, Pythium myriotylum, Giberella moniliformis, Rhizoctonia solani, Athelia rolfsii, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and plant parasitic nematode, Radopholus similis by its volatile substances. GC/MS based chemical profiling revealed presence of Heneicosane; Tetratetracontane; Pyrrolo [1,2-a] pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro-3-(2-methylpropyl); Tetracosyl heptafluorobutyrate; 1-3-Eicosene, (E)-; 1-Heneicosanol; Octadecyl trifluoroacetate and 1-Pentadecene in PpBP25 metabolite. Dynamic head space GC/MS analysis of airborne volatiles indicated the presence of aromatic compounds such as 1-Undecene;Disulfide dimethyl; Pyrazine, methyl-Pyrazine, 2,5-dimethyl-; Isoamyl alcohol; Pyrazine, methyl-; Dimethyl trisulfide, etc. The work paved way for profiling of broad spectrum antimicrobial VOCs in endophytic PpBP25 for crop protection. PMID:25801973

  20. Evidence of the Participation of Remote Residues in the Catalytic Activity of Co-Type Nitrile Hydratase from Pseudomonas putida

    SciTech Connect

    Brodkin, Heather R.; Novak, Walter R.P.; Milne, Amy C.; D’Aquino, J. Alejandro; Karabacak, N.M.; Goldberg, Ilana G.; Agar, Jeffrey N.; Payne, Mark S.; Petsko, Gregory A.; Ondrechen, Mary Jo; Ringe, Dagmar

    2011-09-28

    Active sites may be regarded as layers of residues, whereby the residues that interact directly with substrate also interact with residues in a second shell and these in turn interact with residues in a third shell. These residues in the second and third layers may have distinct roles in maintaining the essential chemical properties of the first-shell catalytic residues, particularly their spatial arrangement relative to the substrate binding pocket, and their electrostatic and dynamic properties. The extent to which these remote residues participate in catalysis and precisely how they affect first-shell residues remains unexplored. To improve our understanding of the roles of second- and third-shell residues in catalysis, we used THEMATICS to identify residues in the second and third shells of the Co-type nitrile hydratase from Pseudomonas putida (ppNHase) that may be important for catalysis. Five of these predicted residues, and three additional, conserved residues that were not predicted, have been conservatively mutated, and their effects have been studied both kinetically and structurally. The eight residues have no direct contact with the active site metal ion or bound substrate. These results demonstrate that three of the predicted second-shell residues ({alpha}-Asp164, {beta}-Glu56, and {beta}-His147) and one predicted third-shell residue ({beta}-His71) have significant effects on the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme. One of the predicted residues ({alpha}-Glu168) and the three residues not predicted ({alpha}-Arg170, {alpha}-Tyr171, and {beta}-Tyr215) do not have any significant effects on the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme.

  1. Maintenance and induction of naphthalene degradation activity in Pseudomonas putida and an Alcaligenes sp. under different culture conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, W.F.; Boyd, S.A.

    1995-11-01

    The expression of xenobiotic-degradative genes in indigenous bacteria or in bacteria introduced into an ecosystem is essential for the successful bioremediation of contaminated environments. The maintenance of naphthalene utilization activity is studied in Pseudomonas putida (ATCC 17484) and an Alcaligenes sp. (strain NP-Alk) under different batch culture conditions. Levels of activity decreased exponentially in stationary phase with half-lives of 43 and 13 h for strains ATCC 17484 nad NP-Alk, respectively. Activity half-lives were 2.7 and 5.3 times longer, respectively, in starved cultures than in stationary-phase cultures following growth on naphthalene. The treatment of starved cultures with chloramphenicol caused a loss of activity more rapid than that measured in untreated starved cultures, suggesting a continued enzyme synthesis in starved cultures in the absence of a substrate. Following growth in nutrient medium, activity decreased to undetectable levels in the Alcaligenes sp. but remained at measureable levels int he pseudomonad even after 9 months. The induction of naphthalene degradation activities in these cultures, when followed by radiorespirometry with {sup 14}C-labeled naphthalene as the substrate, was consistent with activity maintenance data. In the pseudomonad, naphthalene degradation activity was present constitutively at low levels under all growth conditions and was rapidly (in approximately 15 min) induced to high levels upon exposure to naphthalene. Adaptation in the uninduced Alcaligenes sp. occurred after many hours of exposure to naphthalene. In vivo labeling with {sup 35}S, to monitor the extent of de novo enzyme synthesis by naphthalene-challenged cells, provided an independent confirmation of the results. 43 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Genetic Dissection of the Regulatory Network Associated with High c-di-GMP Levels in Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-González, María Isabel; Travieso, María L.; Soriano, María I.; Matilla, Miguel A.; Huertas-Rosales, Óscar; Barrientos-Moreno, Laura; Tagua, Víctor G.; Espinosa-Urgel, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Most bacteria grow in nature forming multicellular structures named biofilms. The bacterial second messenger cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a key player in the regulation of the transition from planktonic to sessile lifestyles and this regulation is crucial in the development of biofilms. In Pseudomonas putida KT2440, Rup4959, a multidomain response regulator with diguanylate cyclase activity, when overexpressed causes an increment in the intracellular levels of c-di-GMP that gives rise to a pleiotropic phenotype consisting of increased biofilm formation and crinkly colony morphology. In a broad genomic screen we have isolated mutant derivatives that lose the crinkly morphology, designed as cfc (crinkle free colony). A total of 19 different genes have been identified as being related with the emergence of the cfc phenotype either because the expression or functionality of Rup4959 is compromised, or due to a lack of transduction of the c-di-GMP signal to downstream elements involved in the acquisition of the phenotype. Discernment between these possibilities was investigated by using a c-di-GMP biosensor and by HPLC-MS quantification of the second messenger. Interestingly five of the identified genes encode proteins with AAA+ ATPase domain. Among the bacterial determinants found in this screen are the global transcriptional regulators GacA, AlgU and FleQ and two enzymes involved in the arginine biosynthesis pathway. We present evidences that this pathway seems to be an important element to both the availability of the free pool of the second messenger c-di-GMP and to its further transduction as a signal for biosynthesis of biopolimers. In addition we have identified an uncharacterized hybrid sensor histidine kinase whose phosphoaceptor conserved histidine residue has been shown in this work to be required for in vivo activation of the orphan response regulator Rup4959, which suggests these two elements constitute a two-component phosphorelay system

  3. Pseudomonas putida attunes morphophysiological, biochemical and molecular responses in Cicer arietinum L. during drought stress and recovery.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Shalini; Lata, Charu; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2016-02-01

    Drought is one of the most important abiotic stresses that adversely affect plant growth and yield potential. However, some drought resistant rhizosphere competent bacteria are known to improve plant health and promote growth during abiotic stresses. Present study showed the role of Pseudomonas putida MTCC5279 (RA) in ameliorating drought stress on cv. BG-362 (desi) and cv. BG-1003 (kabuli) chickpea cultivars under in vitro and green house conditions. Polyethylene glycol-induced drought stress severely affected seed germination in both cultivars which was considerably improved on RA-inoculation. Drought stress significantly affected various growth parameters, water status, membrane integrity, osmolyte accumulation, ROS scavenging ability and stress-responsive gene expressions, which were positively modulated upon application of RA in both chickpea cultivars. Quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR analysis showed differential expression of genes involved in transcription activation (DREB1A and NAC1), stress response (LEA and DHN), ROS scavenging (CAT, APX, GST), ethylene biosynthesis (ACO and ACS), salicylic acid (PR1) and jasmonate (MYC2) signalling in both chickpea cultivars exposed to drought stress and recovery in the presence or absence of RA. The observations imply that RA confers drought tolerance in chickpea by altering various physical, physiological and biochemical parameters, as well as by modulating differential expression of at least 11 stress-responsive genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on detailed analysis of plant growth promotion and stress alleviation in one month old desi and kabuli chickpea subjected to drought stress for 0, 1, 3 and 7 days and recovery in the presence of a PGPR.

  4. Genetic Dissection of the Regulatory Network Associated with High c-di-GMP Levels in Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    PubMed

    Ramos-González, María Isabel; Travieso, María L; Soriano, María I; Matilla, Miguel A; Huertas-Rosales, Óscar; Barrientos-Moreno, Laura; Tagua, Víctor G; Espinosa-Urgel, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Most bacteria grow in nature forming multicellular structures named biofilms. The bacterial second messenger cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a key player in the regulation of the transition from planktonic to sessile lifestyles and this regulation is crucial in the development of biofilms. In Pseudomonas putida KT2440, Rup4959, a multidomain response regulator with diguanylate cyclase activity, when overexpressed causes an increment in the intracellular levels of c-di-GMP that gives rise to a pleiotropic phenotype consisting of increased biofilm formation and crinkly colony morphology. In a broad genomic screen we have isolated mutant derivatives that lose the crinkly morphology, designed as cfc (crinkle free colony). A total of 19 different genes have been identified as being related with the emergence of the cfc phenotype either because the expression or functionality of Rup4959 is compromised, or due to a lack of transduction of the c-di-GMP signal to downstream elements involved in the acquisition of the phenotype. Discernment between these possibilities was investigated by using a c-di-GMP biosensor and by HPLC-MS quantification of the second messenger. Interestingly five of the identified genes encode proteins with AAA+ ATPase domain. Among the bacterial determinants found in this screen are the global transcriptional regulators GacA, AlgU and FleQ and two enzymes involved in the arginine biosynthesis pathway. We present evidences that this pathway seems to be an important element to both the availability of the free pool of the second messenger c-di-GMP and to its further transduction as a signal for biosynthesis of biopolimers. In addition we have identified an uncharacterized hybrid sensor histidine kinase whose phosphoaceptor conserved histidine residue has been shown in this work to be required for in vivo activation of the orphan response regulator Rup4959, which suggests these two elements constitute a two-component phosphorelay system.

  5. Genetic Dissection of the Regulatory Network Associated with High c-di-GMP Levels in Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    PubMed

    Ramos-González, María Isabel; Travieso, María L; Soriano, María I; Matilla, Miguel A; Huertas-Rosales, Óscar; Barrientos-Moreno, Laura; Tagua, Víctor G; Espinosa-Urgel, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Most bacteria grow in nature forming multicellular structures named biofilms. The bacterial second messenger cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a key player in the regulation of the transition from planktonic to sessile lifestyles and this regulation is crucial in the development of biofilms. In Pseudomonas putida KT2440, Rup4959, a multidomain response regulator with diguanylate cyclase activity, when overexpressed causes an increment in the intracellular levels of c-di-GMP that gives rise to a pleiotropic phenotype consisting of increased biofilm formation and crinkly colony morphology. In a broad genomic screen we have isolated mutant derivatives that lose the crinkly morphology, designed as cfc (crinkle free colony). A total of 19 different genes have been identified as being related with the emergence of the cfc phenotype either because the expression or functionality of Rup4959 is compromised, or due to a lack of transduction of the c-di-GMP signal to downstream elements involved in the acquisition of the phenotype. Discernment between these possibilities was investigated by using a c-di-GMP biosensor and by HPLC-MS quantification of the second messenger. Interestingly five of the identified genes encode proteins with AAA+ ATPase domain. Among the bacterial determinants found in this screen are the global transcriptional regulators GacA, AlgU and FleQ and two enzymes involved in the arginine biosynthesis pathway. We present evidences that this pathway seems to be an important element to both the availability of the free pool of the second messenger c-di-GMP and to its further transduction as a signal for biosynthesis of biopolimers. In addition we have identified an uncharacterized hybrid sensor histidine kinase whose phosphoaceptor conserved histidine residue has been shown in this work to be required for in vivo activation of the orphan response regulator Rup4959, which suggests these two elements constitute a two-component phosphorelay system

  6. Genetic analysis of plant endophytic Pseudomonas putida BP25 and chemo-profiling of its antimicrobial volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Sheoran, Neelam; Valiya Nadakkakath, Agisha; Munjal, Vibhuti; Kundu, Aditi; Subaharan, Kesavan; Venugopal, Vibina; Rajamma, Suseelabhai; Eapen, Santhosh J; Kumar, Aundy

    2015-04-01

    Black pepper associated bacterium BP25 was isolated from root endosphere of apparently healthy cultivar Panniyur-5 that protected black pepper against Phytophthora capsici and Radopholus similis - the major production constraints. The bacterium was characterized and mechanisms of its antagonistic action against major pathogens are elucidated. The polyphasic phenotypic analysis revealed its identity as Pseudomonas putida. Multi locus sequence typing revealed that the bacterium shared gene sequences with several other isolates representing diverse habitats. Tissue localization assays exploiting green fluorescence protein expression clearly indicated that PpBP25 endophytically colonized not only its host plant - black pepper, but also other distantly related plants such as ginger and arabidopsis. PpBP25 colonies could be enumerated from internal tissues of plants four weeks post inoculation indicated its stable establishment and persistence in the plant system. The bacterium inhibited broad range of pathogens such as Phytophthora capsici, Pythium myriotylum, Giberella moniliformis, Rhizoctonia solani, Athelia rolfsii, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and plant parasitic nematode, Radopholus similis by its volatile substances. GC/MS based chemical profiling revealed presence of Heneicosane; Tetratetracontane; Pyrrolo [1,2-a] pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro-3-(2-methylpropyl); Tetracosyl heptafluorobutyrate; 1-3-Eicosene, (E)-; 1-Heneicosanol; Octadecyl trifluoroacetate and 1-Pentadecene in PpBP25 metabolite. Dynamic head space GC/MS analysis of airborne volatiles indicated the presence of aromatic compounds such as 1-Undecene;Disulfide dimethyl; Pyrazine, methyl-Pyrazine, 2,5-dimethyl-; Isoamyl alcohol; Pyrazine, methyl-; Dimethyl trisulfide, etc. The work paved way for profiling of broad spectrum antimicrobial VOCs in endophytic PpBP25 for crop protection.

  7. The use of oxygen uptake rate measurements to control the supply of toxic substrate: toluene hydroxylation by Pseudomonas putida UV4.

    PubMed

    Carragher, J M.; McClean, W S.; Woodley, J M.; Hack, C J.

    2001-02-01

    During toluene hydroxylation, catalyzed by Pseudomonas putida UV4 one molecule of oxygen is added to the aromatic ring to produce the dihydroxylated (non-aromatic) ring structure, toluene cis-glycol. Toluene, which is toxic to the cells at aqueous phase concentration above ( approximately 2.4 mmol), is fed to the reactor. A feed-back control system based on oxygen uptake rate measurements was used to control the feed rate, and thus maintain the aqueous phase toluene concentration in the desired range for zero order kinetics.

  8. Development of a visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas putida of the large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea).

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhijuan; Qiu, Yangyu; Zheng, Lei; Chen, Jigang; Yang, Jifang

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, the large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea), an important marine fish farmed in the coastal areas of Zhejiang province, east China, has become severely endangered as a result of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas putida. This paper reports the development of a visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of the pathogen. Four primers, F3, B3, FIP and BIP, were designed on the basis of DNA sequence of the rpoN gene of P. putida. After optimization of the reaction conditions, the detection limit of LAMP assay was 4.8cfu per reaction, 10-fold higher than that of conventional PCR. The assay showed high specificity to discriminate all P. putida isolates from nine other Gram-negative bacteria. The assay also successfully detected the pathogen DNA in the tissues of infected fish. For visual LAMP without cross-contamination, SYBR Green I was embedded in a microcrystalline wax capsule and preset in the reaction tubes; after the reaction the wax was melted at 85°C to release the dye and allow intercalation with the amplicons. The simple, highly sensitive, highly specific and cost-effective characteristics of visual LAMP may encourage its application in the rapid diagnosis of this pathogen.

  9. Effects of impurities in biodiesel-derived glycerol on growth and expression of heavy metal ion homeostasis genes and gene products in Pseudomonas putida LS46.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jilagamazhi; Sharma, Parveen; Spicer, Vic; Krokhin, Oleg V; Zhang, Xiangli; Fristensky, Brian; Wilkins, John A; Cicek, Nazim; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David B

    2015-07-01

    Biodiesel production-derived waste glycerol (WG) was previously investigated as potential carbon source for medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) production by Pseudomonas putida LS46. In this study, we evaluated the effect of impurities in the WG on P. putida LS46 physiology during exponential growth and corresponding changes in transcription and protein expression profiles compared with cells grown on pure, reagent grade glycerol. High concentration of metal ions, such as Na(+), and numbers of heavy metals ion, such as copper, ion, zinc, were detected in biodiesel-derived WG. Omics analysis from the corresponding cultures suggested altered expression of genes involved in transport and metabolism of ammonia and heavy metal ions. Expression of three groups of heavy metal homeostasis genes was significantly changed (mostly upregulated) in WG cultures and included the following: copper-responded cluster 1 and 2 genes, primarily containing cusABC; two copies of copAB and heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase; Fur-regulated, TonB-dependent siderophore receptor; and several cobalt/zinc/cadmium transporters. Expression of these genes suggests regulation of intracellular concentrations of heavy metals during growth on biodiesel-derived glycerol. Finally, a number of genes involved in adapting to, or metabolizing free fatty acids and other nonheavy metal contaminants, such as Na(+), were also upregulated in P. putida LS46 grown on biodiesel-derived glycerol.

  10. cumA, a gene encoding a multicopper oxidase, is involved in Mn{sup 2+} oxidation in Pseudomonas putida GB-1

    SciTech Connect

    Brouwers, G.J.; Vrind, J.P.M. de; Corstjens, P.L.A.M.; Vrind-de Jong, E.W. de; Cornelis, P.; Baysse, C.

    1999-04-01

    Pseudomonas putida GB-1-002 catalyzes the oxidation of Mn{sup 2+}. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the transposon insertion site of a nonoxidizing mutant revealed a gene (designated cumA) encoding a protein homologous to multicopper oxidases. Addition of Cu{sup 2+} increased the Mn{sup 2+}-oxidizing activity of the P. putida wild type by a factor of approximately 5. The growth rates of the wild type and the mutant were not affected by added Cu{sup 2+}. A second open reading frame (designated cumB) is located downstream from cumA. Both cumA and cumB probably are part of a single operon. The translation product of cumB was homologous to that of orf74 of Bradyrhizobium japonicum. A mutation in orf74 resulted in an extended lag phase and lower cell densities. Similar growth-related observations were made for the cumA mutant, suggesting that the cumA mutation may have a polar effect on cumB. This was confirmed by site-specific gene replacement in cumB. The cumB mutation did not affect the Mn{sup 2+}-oxidizing ability of the organism but resulted in decreased growth. In summary, the data indicate that the multicopper oxidase CumA is involved in the oxidation of Mn{sup 2+} and that CumB is required for optimal growth of P. putida GB-1-002.

  11. A newly isolated Pseudomonas putida S-1 strain for batch-mode-propanethiol degradation and continuous treatment of propanethiol-containing waste gas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong-Zhi; Sun, Yi-Ming; Han, Li-Mei; Chen, Jing; Ye, Jie-Xu; Chen, Jian-Meng

    2016-01-25

    Pseudomonas putida S-1 was isolated from activated sludge. This novel strain was capable of degrading malodorous 1-propanethiol (PT). PT degradation commenced with no lag phase by cells pre-grown in nutrition-rich media, such as Luria-Bertani (LB), and PT-contained mineral medium at specific growth rates of 0.10-0.19 h(-1); this phenomenon indicated the operability of a large-scale cell culture. A possible PT degradation pathway was proposed on the basis of the detected metabolites, including dipropyl disulfide, 3-hexanone, 2-hexanone, 3-hexanol, 2-hexanol, S(0), SO4(2-), and CO2. P. putida S-1 could degrade mixed pollutants containing PT, diethyl disulfide, isopropyl alcohol, and acetaldehyde, and LB-pre-cultured cells underwent diauxic growth. Waste gas contaminated with 200-400 mg/m(3) PT was continuously treated by P. putida S-1 pre-cultured in LB medium in a completely stirred tank reactor. The removal efficiencies exceeded 88% when PT stream was mixed with 200 mg/m(3) isopropanol; by contrast, the removal efficiencies decreased to 60% as the empty bed residence time was shortened from 40 s to 20 s. PMID:26476310

  12. Control of microorganisms in the rhizosphere of wheat by inoculation of seeds with Pseudomonas putida and by foliar application of urea.

    PubMed

    Vraný, J; Vancura, V; Stanĕk, M

    1981-01-01

    After inoculation of wheat seeds with various bacterial strains germination of plants was usually inhibited at first but growth was stimulated later. After inoculation with Pseudomonas putida K 11 producing physiologically active compounds the total number of bacteria increased together with the bacteria: fungi ratio in the rhizosphere. These characteristic were further increased after foliar application of urea due to increased root exudation. Dry mass of upper wheat parts was about 14--80% higher in green-house experiments, in which the plants were treated in the two above ways. More reliable results were usually obtained by bacterization of P. putida and foliar application of urea as compared with the situation when the seeds were inoculated without the foliar application or, on the contrary, after foliar application without inoculation of the seeds. Only when urea was applied early and ain a soil contaminated with the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (causing "take-all" of the wheat) no favourable results could be detected. In these cases the foliar application without inoculation of the seeds was more successful. Symptoms of the disease of wheat roots caused by G. graminis were less frequently observed after the inoculation of the seeds with the strain P. putida K 11 and after the foliar application of urea. PMID:7203287

  13. Quantitative 'Omics Analyses of Medium Chain Length Polyhydroxyalkanaote Metabolism in Pseudomonas putida LS46 Cultured with Waste Glycerol and Waste Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jilagamazhi; Sharma, Parveen; Spicer, Vic; Krokhin, Oleg V; Zhang, Xiangli; Fristensky, Brian; Cicek, Nazim; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David B

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptomes and proteomes of Pseudomonas putida LS46 cultured with biodiesel-derived waste glycerol or waste free fatty acids, as sole carbon sources, were compared under conditions that were either permissive or non-permissive for synthesis of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA). The objectives of this study were to elucidate mechanisms that influence activation of biopolymer synthesis, intra-cellular accumulation, and monomer composition, and determine if these were physiologically specific to the carbon sources used for growth of P. putida LS46. Active mcl-PHA synthesis by P. putida LS46 was associated with high expression levels of key mcl-PHA biosynthesis genes and/or gene products including monomer-supplying proteins, PHA synthases, and granule-associated proteins. 'Omics data suggested that expression of these genes were regulated by different genetic mechanisms in P. putida LS46 cells in different physiological states, when cultured on the two waste carbon sources. Optimal polymer production by P. putida LS46 was primarily limited by less efficient glycerol metabolism during mcl-PHA synthesis on waste glycerol. Mapping the 'Omics data to the mcl-PHA biosynthetic pathway revealed significant variations in gene expression, primarily involved in: 1) glycerol transportation; 2) enzymatic reactions that recycle reducing equivalents and produce key mcl-PHA biosynthesis pathway intermediates (e.g. NADH/NADPH, acetyl-CoA). Active synthesis of mcl-PHAs was observed during exponential phase in cultures with waste free fatty acids, and was associated with the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. A putative Thioesterase in the beta-oxidation pathway that may regulate the level of fatty acid beta-oxidation intermediates, and thus carbon flux to mcl-PHA biosynthesis, was highly up-regulated. Finally, the data suggested that differences in expression of selected fatty acid metabolism and mcl-PHA monomer-supplying enzymes may play a role in determining the

  14. Quantitative ‘Omics Analyses of Medium Chain Length Polyhydroxyalkanaote Metabolism in Pseudomonas putida LS46 Cultured with Waste Glycerol and Waste Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jilagamazhi; Sharma, Parveen; Spicer, Vic; Krokhin, Oleg V.; Zhang, Xiangli; Fristensky, Brian; Cicek, Nazim; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David. B.

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptomes and proteomes of Pseudomonas putida LS46 cultured with biodiesel-derived waste glycerol or waste free fatty acids, as sole carbon sources, were compared under conditions that were either permissive or non-permissive for synthesis of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA). The objectives of this study were to elucidate mechanisms that influence activation of biopolymer synthesis, intra-cellular accumulation, and monomer composition, and determine if these were physiologically specific to the carbon sources used for growth of P. putida LS46. Active mcl-PHA synthesis by P. putida LS46 was associated with high expression levels of key mcl-PHA biosynthesis genes and/or gene products including monomer-supplying proteins, PHA synthases, and granule-associated proteins. ‘Omics data suggested that expression of these genes were regulated by different genetic mechanisms in P. putida LS46 cells in different physiological states, when cultured on the two waste carbon sources. Optimal polymer production by P. putida LS46 was primarily limited by less efficient glycerol metabolism during mcl-PHA synthesis on waste glycerol. Mapping the ‘Omics data to the mcl-PHA biosynthetic pathway revealed significant variations in gene expression, primarily involved in: 1) glycerol transportation; 2) enzymatic reactions that recycle reducing equivalents and produce key mcl-PHA biosynthesis pathway intermediates (e.g. NADH/NADPH, acetyl-CoA). Active synthesis of mcl-PHAs was observed during exponential phase in cultures with waste free fatty acids, and was associated with the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. A putative Thioesterase in the beta-oxidation pathway that may regulate the level of fatty acid beta-oxidation intermediates, and thus carbon flux to mcl-PHA biosynthesis, was highly up-regulated. Finally, the data suggested that differences in expression of selected fatty acid metabolism and mcl-PHA monomer-supplying enzymes may play a role in determining

  15. Metabolomics Analysis Reveals the Participation of Efflux Pumps and Ornithine in the Response of Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E Cells to Challenge with Propranolol

    PubMed Central

    Sayqal, Ali; Xu, Yun; Trivedi, Drupad K.; AlMasoud, Najla; Ellis, David I.; Rattray, Nicholas J. W.; Goodacre, Royston

    2016-01-01

    Efflux pumps are critically important membrane components that play a crucial role in strain tolerance in Pseudomonas putida to antibiotics and aromatic hydrocarbons that result in these toxicants being expelled from the bacteria. Here, the effect of propranolol on P. putida was examined by sudden addition of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg mL-1 of this β-blocker to several strains of P. putida, including the wild type DOT-T1E and the efflux pump knockout mutants DOT-T1E-PS28 and DOT-T1E-18. Bacterial viability measurements reveal that the efflux pump TtgABC plays a more important role than the TtgGHI pump in strain tolerance to propranolol. Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy was then used as a rapid, high-throughput screening tool to investigate any phenotypic changes resulting from exposure to varying levels of propranolol. Multivariate statistical analysis of these MIR data revealed gradient trends in resultant ordination scores plots, which were related to the concentration of propranolol. MIR illustrated phenotypic changes associated with the presence of this drug within the cell that could be assigned to significant changes that occurred within the bacterial protein components. To complement this phenotypic fingerprinting approach metabolic profiling was performed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify metabolites of interest during the growth of bacteria following toxic perturbation with the same concentration levels of propranolol. Metabolic profiling revealed that ornithine, which was only produced by P. putida cells in the presence of propranolol, presents itself as a major metabolic feature that has important functions in propranolol stress tolerance mechanisms within this highly significant and environmentally relevant species of bacteria. PMID:27331395

  16. Engineering multiple genomic deletions in Gram-negative bacteria: analysis of the multi-resistant antibiotic profile of Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Esteban; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2011-10-01

    The genome of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 has been erased of various determinants of resistance to antibiotics encoded in its extant chromosome. To this end, we employed a coherent genetic platform that allowed the precise deletion of multiple genomic segments in a large variety of Gram-negative bacteria including (but not limited to) P. putida. The method is based on the obligatory recombination between free-ended homologous DNA sequences that are released as linear fragments generated upon the cleavage of the chromosome with unique I-SceI sites, added to the segment of interest by the vector system. Despite the potential for a SOS response brought about by the appearance of double stranded DNA breaks during the process, fluctuation experiments revealed that the procedure did not increase mutation rates - perhaps due to the protection exerted by I-SceI bound to the otherwise naked DNA termini. With this tool in hand we made sequential deletions of genes mexC, mexE, ttgA and ampC in the genome of the target bacterium, orthologues of which are known to determine various degrees of antibiotic resistance in diverse microorganisms. Inspection of the corresponding phenotypes demonstrated that the efflux pump encoded by ttgA sufficed to endow P. putida with a high-level of tolerance to β-lactams, chloramphenicol and quinolones, but had little effect on, e.g. aminoglycosides. Analysis of the mutants revealed also a considerable diversity in the manifestation of the resistance phenotype within the population and suggested a degree of synergism between different pumps. The directed edition of the P. putida chromosome shown here not only enhances the amenability of this bacterium to deep genomic engineering, but also validates the corresponding approach for similar handlings of a large variety of Gram-negative microorganisms.

  17. Chromosomal Locus for Cadmium Resistance in Pseudomonas putida Consisting of a Cadmium-Transporting ATPase and a MerR Family Response Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seon-Woo; Glickmann, Eric; Cooksey, Donald A.

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonads from environmental sources vary widely in their sensitivity to cadmium, but the basis for this resistance is largely uncharactarized. A chromosomal fragment encoding cadmium resistance was cloned from Pseudomonas putida 06909, a rhizosphere bacterium, and sequence analysis revealed two divergently transcribed genes, cadA and cadR. CadA was similar to cadmium-transporting ATPases known mostly from gram-positive bacteria, and to ZntA, a lead-, zinc-, and cadmium-transporting ATPase from Escherichia coli. CadR was related to the MerR family of response regulators that normally control mercury detoxification in other bacterial systems. A related gene, zntR, regulates zntA in E. coli, but it is not contiguous with zntA in the E. coli genome as cadA and cadR were in P. putida. In addition, unlike ZntA and other CadA homologs, but similar to the predicted product of gene PA3690 in the P. aeruginosa genome, the P. putida CadA sequence had a histidine-rich N-terminal extension. CadR and the product of PA3689 of P. aeruginosa also had histidine-rich C-terminal extensions not found in other MerR family response regulators. Mutational analysis indicated that cadA and cadR are fully responsible for cadmium resistance and partially for zinc resistance. However, unlike zntA, they did not confer significant levels of lead resistance. The cadA promoter was responsive to Cd(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II), while the cadR promoter was only induced by Cd(II). CadR apparently represses its own expression at the transcriptional level. However, CadR apparently does not repress cadA. Homologs of the cadmium-transporting ATPase were detected in many other Pseudomonas species. PMID:11282588

  18. Effects of exogenous pyoverdines on Fe availability and their impacts on Mn(II) oxidation by Pseudomonas putida GB-1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Woo; Parker, Dorothy L.; Geszvain, Kati; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida GB-1 is a Mn(II)-oxidizing bacterium that produces pyoverdine-type siderophores (PVDs), which facilitate the uptake of Fe(III) but also influence MnO2 formation. Recently, a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase mutant that does not synthesize PVD was described. Here we identified a gene encoding the PVDGB-1 (PVD produced by strain GB-1) uptake receptor (PputGB1_4082) of strain GB-1 and confirmed its function by in-frame mutagenesis. Growth and other physiological responses of these two mutants and of wild type were compared during cultivation in the presence of three chemically distinct sets of PVDs (siderotypes n°1, n°2, and n°4) derived from various pseudomonads. Under iron-limiting conditions, Fe(III) complexes of various siderotype n°1 PVDs (including PVDGB-1) allowed growth of wild type and the synthetase mutant, but not the receptor mutant, confirming that iron uptake with any tested siderotype n°1 PVD depended on PputGB1_4082. Fe(III) complexes of a siderotype n°2 PVD were not utilized by any strain and strongly induced PVD synthesis. In contrast, Fe(III) complexes of siderotype n°4 PVDs promoted the growth of all three strains and did not induce PVD synthesis by the wild type, implying these complexes were utilized for iron uptake independent of PputGB1_4082. These differing properties of the three PVD types provided a way to differentiate between effects on MnO2 formation that resulted from iron limitation and others that required participation of the PVDGB-1 receptor. Specifically, MnO2 production was inhibited by siderotype n°1 but not n°4 PVDs indicating PVD synthesis or PputGB1_4082 involvement rather than iron-limitation caused the inhibition. In contrast, iron limitation was sufficient to explain the inhibition of Mn(II) oxidation by siderotype n°2 PVDs. Collectively, our results provide insight into how competition for iron via siderophores influences growth, iron nutrition and MnO2 formation in more complex environmental

  19. Crystal structure of putidaredoxin, the [2Fe-2S] component of the P450cam monooxygenase system from Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Sevrioukova, Irina F; Garcia, Carlos; Li, Huiying; Bhaskar, B; Poulos, Thomas L

    2003-10-17

    Stability of the [2Fe-2S]-containing putidaredoxin (Pdx), the electron donor to cytochrome P450cam in Pseudomonas putida, was improved by mutating non-ligating cysteine residues, Cys73 and Cys85, to serine singly and in combination. The increasing order of stability is Cys73Ser/Cys85Ser>Cys73Ser>Cys85Ser>WT Pdx. Crystal structures of Cys73Ser/Cys85Ser and Cys73Ser mutants of Pdx, solved by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing using the [2Fe-2S] iron atoms to 1.47 A and 1.65 A resolution, respectively, are nearly identical and very similar to those of bovine adrenodoxin (Adx) and Escherichia coli ferredoxin. However, unlike the Adx structure, no motion between the core and interaction domains of Pdx is observed. This higher conformational stability of Pdx might be due to the presence of a more extensive hydrogen bonding network at the interface between the two structural domains around the conserved His49. In particular, formation of a hydrogen bond between the side-chain of Tyr51 and the carbonyl oxygen atom of Glu77 and the presence of two well-ordered water molecules linking the interaction domain and the C-terminal peptide to the core of the molecule are unique to Pdx. The folding topology of the NMR model is similar to that of the X-ray structure of Pdx. The overall rmsd of Calpha positions between the two models is 1.59 A. The largest positional differences are observed for residues 18-21 and 33-37 in the loop regions and the C terminus. The latter two peptides display conformational heterogeneity in the crystal structures. Owing to flexibility, the aromatic ring of the C-terminal Trp106 can closely approach the side-chains of Asp38 and Thr47 (3.2-3.9 A) or move away and leave the active site solvent-exposed. Therefore, Trp106, previously shown to be important in the Pdr-to-Pdx and Pdx-to-P450cam electron transfer reactions is in a position to regulate and/or mediate electron transfer to or from the [2Fe-2S] center of Pdx.

  20. Effects of exogenous pyoverdines on Fe availability and their impacts on Mn(II) oxidation by Pseudomonas putida GB-1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Woo; Parker, Dorothy L; Geszvain, Kati; Tebo, Bradley M

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida GB-1 is a Mn(II)-oxidizing bacterium that produces pyoverdine-type siderophores (PVDs), which facilitate the uptake of Fe(III) but also influence MnO2 formation. Recently, a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase mutant that does not synthesize PVD was described. Here we identified a gene encoding the PVDGB-1 (PVD produced by strain GB-1) uptake receptor (PputGB1_4082) of strain GB-1 and confirmed its function by in-frame mutagenesis. Growth and other physiological responses of these two mutants and of wild type were compared during cultivation in the presence of three chemically distinct sets of PVDs (siderotypes n°1, n°2, and n°4) derived from various pseudomonads. Under iron-limiting conditions, Fe(III) complexes of various siderotype n°1 PVDs (including PVDGB-1) allowed growth of wild type and the synthetase mutant, but not the receptor mutant, confirming that iron uptake with any tested siderotype n°1 PVD depended on PputGB1_4082. Fe(III) complexes of a siderotype n°2 PVD were not utilized by any strain and strongly induced PVD synthesis. In contrast, Fe(III) complexes of siderotype n°4 PVDs promoted the growth of all three strains and did not induce PVD synthesis by the wild type, implying these complexes were utilized for iron uptake independent of PputGB1_4082. These differing properties of the three PVD types provided a way to differentiate between effects on MnO2 formation that resulted from iron limitation and others that required participation of the PVDGB-1 receptor. Specifically, MnO2 production was inhibited by siderotype n°1 but not n°4 PVDs indicating PVD synthesis or PputGB1_4082 involvement rather than iron-limitation caused the inhibition. In contrast, iron limitation was sufficient to explain the inhibition of Mn(II) oxidation by siderotype n°2 PVDs. Collectively, our results provide insight into how competition for iron via siderophores influences growth, iron nutrition and MnO2 formation in more complex environmental

  1. In situ detection of aromatic compounds with biosensor Pseudomonas putida cells preserved and delivered to soil in water-soluble gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    de las Heras, Aitor; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2011-05-01

    While many types of bacteria have been engineered to produce an optical output in response to given analytes in a culture, their use for extensive, in situ monitoring of distinct chemical species in soil is hampered by a dearth of practicable spreading schemes. In this work, we report and validate a comprehensive system for the long-term preservation of Pseudomonas putida cells genetically designed for biosensing benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) in soil, along with a procedure to formulate, spread, and vigorously activate such bacteria at the desired site and occasion. To this end, various known lyoprotectants were tested for promoting the long-term maintenance of biosensor cells with quite variable outcomes. While a formulation of inositol and maltodextrines was optimal for preservation of freeze-dried BTEX-sensing bacteria, adsorption of P. putida cells to corncob powder (an abundant residue of the corn industry) endowed the resulting material with a lasting viability at ambient conditions. In any case, the thereby preserved bacterial biomass acquired physical and mechanical properties adequate for formulating the biosensor agent in water-soluble but otherwise hard dry gelatine capsules with a long shelf life. When such capsules were spread in a soil microcosm and subsequently liquefied with water or high humidity, the released microorganisms formed spots that gave an intense luminiscent signal upon exposure to effectors of the sensor circuit implanted in the chromosome of the P. putida strain. We argue that the procedures described here can facilitate implementation of wide-area biological detection strategies for revealing the location of toxic or perilous chemicals.

  2. Surface display of monkey metallothionein α tandem repeats and EGFP fusion protein on Pseudomonas putida X4 for biosorption and detection of cadmium.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaochuan; Chen, Wenli; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2012-09-01

    Monkey metallothionein α domain tandem repeats (4mMTα), which exhibit high cadmium affinity, have been displayed for the first time on the surface of a bacterium using ice nucleation protein N-domain (inaXN) protein from the Xanthomonas campestris pv (ACCC-10049) as an anchoring motif. The shuttle vector pIME, which codes for INAXN-4mMTα-EGFP fusion, was constructed and used to target 4mMTα and EGFP on the surface of Pseudomonas putida X4 (CCTCC-209319). The surface location of the INAXN-4mMTα-EGFP fusion was further verified by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy. The growth of X4 showed resistance to cadmium presence. The presence of surface-exposed 4mMTα on the engineered strains was four times higher than that of the wild-type X4. The Cd²⁺ accumulation by X4/pIME was not only four times greater than that of the original host bacterial cells but was also remarkably unaffected by the presence of Cu²⁺ and Zn²⁺. Moreover, the surface-engineered strains could effectively bind Cd²⁺ under a wide range of pH levels, from 4 to 7. P. putida X4/pIME with surface-expressed 4mMTα-EGFP had twice the cadmium binding capacity as well as 1.4 times the fluorescence as the cytoplasmic 4mMTa-EGFP. These results suggest that P. putida X4 expressing 4mMTα-EGFP with the INAXN anchor motif on the surface would be a useful tool for the remediation and biodetection of environmental cadmium contaminants.

  3. Effect of complexing ligands on the surface adsorption, internalization, and bioresponse of copper and cadmium in a soil bacterium, Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    McLean, Joan E; Pabst, Mindy W; Miller, Charles D; Dimkpa, Christian O; Anderson, Anne J

    2013-04-01

    Environmental quality criteria for metals toxic to soil and water organisms, using the free ion activity model or the biotic ligand model, are based on the concept that the major form of the metal available to the organism is the free metal ion, yet various metal complexes are bioavailable to a variety of soil and water organisms. We test here whether neutral copper or cadmium sulfates, negatively-charged copper or cadmium citrates and positively-charged copper acetate and cadmium chloride are bioavailable to a soil bacterium, Pseudomonas putida. Adsorption onto the cell surface and uptake into the periplasm and cytoplasm of this Gram-negative root colonizing bacterium was studied by adding a single concentration of Cu or Cd and varying the concentration of the ligands to complex 10-100% of the metal. Metal association from the complexes on and within the cell was defined using selective extraction procedures and compared with free ion controls using the Langmuir isotherm. Cellular responses also were assessed using a P. putida biosensor. Both uptake and bioresponse methodologies showed that P. putida was sensitive to the metal complexes. In particular, the bioresponse to Cu and Cd supplied as a citrate complex occurred with activities of free metal ions two orders of magnitude lower than for the control. We concluded that the tested metal complexes for Cu and Cd are taken up into the cell, where they trigger a bioresponse. We also discuss the implications of these findings on interactions between soil and water organisms and nanoparticles that release metal ions.

  4. Isolation and characterization of a Pseudomonas putida strain able to grow with trimethyl-1,2-dihydroxy-propyl-ammonium as sole source of carbon, energy and nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Kaech, A; Egli, T

    2001-07-01

    Trimethyl-1,2-dihydroxypropyl-ammonium (TM) originates from the hydrolysis of the parent esterquat surfactant, which is widely used as softener in fabric care. Based on test procedures mimicking complex biological systems, TM is supposed to degrade completely when reaching the environment. However, no organisms able to degrade TM were isolated nor has the degradation pathway been elucidated so far. We isolated a Gram-negative rod able to grow with TM as sole source of carbon, energy and nitrogen. The strain reached a maximum specific growth rate of 0.4(h-1) when growing with TM as the sole source of carbon, energy and nitrogen. TM was degraded to completion and surplus nitrogen was excreted as ammonium into the growth medium. A high percentage of the carbon in TM (68% in continuous culture and 60% in batch culture) was combusted to CO2 resulting in a low yield of 0.54 mg cell dry weight per mg carbon during continuous cultivation and 0.73 mg cell dry weight per mg carbon in batch cultures. Choline, a natural structurally related compound, served as a growth substrate, whereas a couple of similar other quaternary aminoalcohols also used in softeners did not. The isolated bacterium was identified by 165-rDNA sequencing as a strain of Pseudomonas putida with a difference of only one base pair to P. putida DSM 291T. Despite their high identity, the reference strain P. putida DSM 291T was not able to grow with TM and the two strains differed even in shape when growing on the same medium. This is the first microbial isolate able to degrade a quaternary ammonium softener head group to completion. Previously described strains growing on quaternary ammonium surfactants (decyltrimethylammonium, hexadecyltrimethylammonium and didecyldimethylammonium) either excreted metabolites or a consortium of bacteria was required for complete degradation. PMID:11518329

  5. Pb remobilization by bacterially mediated dissolution of pyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3Cl in presence of phosphate-solubilizing Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Topolska, Justyna; Latowski, Dariusz; Kaschabek, Stefan; Manecki, Maciej; Merkel, Broder J; Rakovan, John

    2014-01-01

    Remediation of lead (Pb)-contaminated sites with phosphate amendments is one of the best studied and cost-effective methods for in situ immobilization. In this treatment, a very stable mineral, pyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3Cl, is formed. Several studies propose to improve this treatment method with the addition of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB). The effect of bacteria on solubilization of pyromorphite is unknown. In this study, the effect of the soil microorganisms on the stability of pyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3Cl has been investigated in a set of batch solution experiments. The mineral was reacted with Pseudomonas putida, a common soil microorganism. Dissolution of pyromorphite was enhanced by the presence of P. putida, resulting in an elevated Pb concentration in the solution. This occurred even when the bacteria were provided with an additional source of phosphate in the solution. Pyromorphite has been shown to be a potential source of nutrient phosphorus for common soil bacteria. Thus, the use of PSB in remediation treatments of Pb contaminated sites may have adverse long-term impacts on Pb immobilization. Conscious phosphate management is suggested for long-term sustainability of the in situ Pb immobilization by pyromorphite formation.

  6. Pseudomonas putida KT2440 Strain Metabolizes Glucose through a Cycle Formed by Enzymes of the Entner-Doudoroff, Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas, and Pentose Phosphate Pathways.

    PubMed

    Nikel, Pablo I; Chavarría, Max; Fuhrer, Tobias; Sauer, Uwe; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2015-10-23

    The soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 lacks a functional Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway, and glycolysis is known to proceed almost exclusively through the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) route. To investigate the raison d'être of this metabolic arrangement, the distribution of periplasmic and cytoplasmic carbon fluxes was studied in glucose cultures of this bacterium by using (13)C-labeled substrates, combined with quantitative physiology experiments, metabolite quantification, and in vitro enzymatic assays under both saturating and non-saturating, quasi in vivo conditions. Metabolic flux analysis demonstrated that 90% of the consumed sugar was converted into gluconate, entering central carbon metabolism as 6-phosphogluconate and further channeled into the ED pathway. Remarkably, about 10% of the triose phosphates were found to be recycled back to form hexose phosphates. This set of reactions merges activities belonging to the ED, the EMP (operating in a gluconeogenic fashion), and the pentose phosphate pathways to form an unforeseen metabolic architecture (EDEMP cycle). Determination of the NADPH balance revealed that the default metabolic state of P. putida KT2440 is characterized by a slight catabolic overproduction of reducing power. Cells growing on glucose thus run a biochemical cycle that favors NADPH formation. Because NADPH is required not only for anabolic functions but also for counteracting different types of environmental stress, such a cyclic operation may contribute to the physiological heftiness of this bacterium in its natural habitats.

  7. [Search for destruction factors of bacterial biofilms: comparison of phage properties in a group of Pseudomonas putida bacteriophages and specificity of their halo-formation products].

    PubMed

    Shaburova, O V; Krylov, S V; Veĭko, V P; Pleteneva, E A; Burkal'tseva, M V; Miroshnokov, K A; Kornelissen, A; Lavogne, R; Sykilinda, N N; Kadykov, V A; Mesianzhinov, V V; Volckaert, G; Krylov, V N

    2009-02-01

    Comparison of Pseudomonas putida group of phages attributed to five species (af, phi15, phi27, phi2F, and pf16) with their common property of halo-formation (formation of lightening zones) around phage plaques was conducted. The halo around phage plaques appears as a result of reduction or disappearance of bacterial polysaccharide capsules. The concentration of viable bacteria remains unchanged within the halo. A comparison of specificities of halo-formation products from various phages was conducted by a simple method. These products were shown to be highly specific and inactive on other species of pseudomonads. Phage-resistant P. putida mutants scored with respect to various phages, which lost phage adsorption ability, were tolerant to the effect of halo-formation products in most cases. Apparently, the capsular polysaccharides, which serve as a substrate for depolymerases and are the primary phage receptors, may be often lost. Results of partial sequencing of the af phage genome revealed an open reading frame that encodes the enzyme transglycosylase similar rather to transglycosylases of oligotrophic bacteria belonging to different species than to lysozymes of other phages. Possibly, it is a polyfunctional enzyme combining functions of lysozyme and an enzyme that executes the penetration of phage particle across extracellular slime and capsule. PMID:19334612

  8. Pseudomonas putida KT2440 Strain Metabolizes Glucose through a Cycle Formed by Enzymes of the Entner-Doudoroff, Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas, and Pentose Phosphate Pathways.

    PubMed

    Nikel, Pablo I; Chavarría, Max; Fuhrer, Tobias; Sauer, Uwe; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2015-10-23

    The soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 lacks a functional Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway, and glycolysis is known to proceed almost exclusively through the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) route. To investigate the raison d'être of this metabolic arrangement, the distribution of periplasmic and cytoplasmic carbon fluxes was studied in glucose cultures of this bacterium by using (13)C-labeled substrates, combined with quantitative physiology experiments, metabolite quantification, and in vitro enzymatic assays under both saturating and non-saturating, quasi in vivo conditions. Metabolic flux analysis demonstrated that 90% of the consumed sugar was converted into gluconate, entering central carbon metabolism as 6-phosphogluconate and further channeled into the ED pathway. Remarkably, about 10% of the triose phosphates were found to be recycled back to form hexose phosphates. This set of reactions merges activities belonging to the ED, the EMP (operating in a gluconeogenic fashion), and the pentose phosphate pathways to form an unforeseen metabolic architecture (EDEMP cycle). Determination of the NADPH balance revealed that the default metabolic state of P. putida KT2440 is characterized by a slight catabolic overproduction of reducing power. Cells growing on glucose thus run a biochemical cycle that favors NADPH formation. Because NADPH is required not only for anabolic functions but also for counteracting different types of environmental stress, such a cyclic operation may contribute to the physiological heftiness of this bacterium in its natural habitats. PMID:26350459

  9. Low temperature growth, freezing survival, and production of antifreeze protein by the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida GR12-2.

    PubMed

    Sun, X; Griffith, M; Pasternak, J J; Glick, B R

    1995-09-01

    The plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida GR12-2 was originally isolated from the rhizosphere of plants growing in the Canadian High Arctic. Here we report that this bacterium was able to grow and promote root elongation of both spring and winter canola at 5 degrees C, a temperature at which only a relatively small number of bacteria are able to proliferate and function. In addition, the bacterium survived exposure to freezing temperatures, i.e., -20 and -50 degrees C. In an effort to determine the mechanistic basis for this behaviour, it was discovered that following growth at 5 degrees C, P. putida GR12-2 synthesized and secreted to the growth medium a protein with antifreeze activity. Analysis of the spent growth medium, following concentration by ultrafiltration, by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of one major protein with a molecular mass of approximately 32-34 kDa and a number of minor proteins. However, at this point it is not known which of these proteins contains the antifreeze activity. PMID:7585354

  10. Pseudomonas putida KT2440 Strain Metabolizes Glucose through a Cycle Formed by Enzymes of the Entner-Doudoroff, Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas, and Pentose Phosphate Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Nikel, Pablo I.; Chavarría, Max; Fuhrer, Tobias; Sauer, Uwe; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    The soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 lacks a functional Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway, and glycolysis is known to proceed almost exclusively through the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) route. To investigate the raison d'être of this metabolic arrangement, the distribution of periplasmic and cytoplasmic carbon fluxes was studied in glucose cultures of this bacterium by using 13C-labeled substrates, combined with quantitative physiology experiments, metabolite quantification, and in vitro enzymatic assays under both saturating and non-saturating, quasi in vivo conditions. Metabolic flux analysis demonstrated that 90% of the consumed sugar was converted into gluconate, entering central carbon metabolism as 6-phosphogluconate and further channeled into the ED pathway. Remarkably, about 10% of the triose phosphates were found to be recycled back to form hexose phosphates. This set of reactions merges activities belonging to the ED, the EMP (operating in a gluconeogenic fashion), and the pentose phosphate pathways to form an unforeseen metabolic architecture (EDEMP cycle). Determination of the NADPH balance revealed that the default metabolic state of P. putida KT2440 is characterized by a slight catabolic overproduction of reducing power. Cells growing on glucose thus run a biochemical cycle that favors NADPH formation. Because NADPH is required not only for anabolic functions but also for counteracting different types of environmental stress, such a cyclic operation may contribute to the physiological heftiness of this bacterium in its natural habitats. PMID:26350459

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the ISC-like [2Fe–2S] ferredoxin (FdxB) from Pseudomonas putida JCM 20004

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasaki, Toshio; Ohmori, Daijiro; Shimizu, Nobutaka; Kumasaka, Takashi

    2007-12-01

    A vertebrate-type [2Fe–2S] ferredoxin (FdxB), which is probably involved in the iron–sulfur cluster-biosynthesis system of the γ-proteobacterium P. putida JCM 20004, has been crystallized in space group P6{sub 1}22. The needle-shaped crystals of recombinant FdxB diffract to 1.90 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The iron–sulfur (Fe–S) cluster-biosynthesis (ISC) system of the γ-proteobacterium Pseudomonas putida JCM 20004 contains a constitutively expressed vertebrate-type [2Fe–2S] ferredoxin, FdxB, which lacks the conserved free cysteine residue near the Fe–S cluster site that has been proposed to function in the catalysis of biological Fe–S cluster assembly in other bacterial homologues. Recombinant FdxB was heterologously overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized in its oxidized form by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion and streak-seeding methods using 1.6 M trisodium citrate dihydrate pH 6.5. The thin needle-shaped crystals diffract to 1.90 Å resolution and belong to the hexagonal space group P6{sub 1}22, with unit-cell parameters a = 87.58, c = 73.14 Å. The asymmetric unit contains one protein molecule.

  12. Purification of 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida OU83 and characterization of the gene (bphC).

    PubMed Central

    Khan, A A; Wang, R F; Nawaz, M S; Cao, W W; Cerniglia, C E

    1996-01-01

    The 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase (2,3-DBPD) of Pseudomonas putida OU83 was constitutively expressed and purified to apparent homogeneity. The apparent molecular mass of the native enzyme was 256 kDa, and the subunit molecular mass was 32 kDa. The data suggested that 2,3-DBPD was an octamer of identical subunits. The nucleotide sequence of a DNA fragment containing the bphC region was determined. The deduced protein sequence for 2,3-DBPD consisted of 292 amino acid residues, with a calculated molecular mass of 31.9 kDa, which was in agreement with data for the purified 2,3-DBPD. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence analyses of the bphC gene and its product, respectively, revealed that there was a high degree of homology between the OU83 bphC gene and the bphC genes of Pseudomonas cepacia LB400 and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. PMID:8633883

  13. Endophytic Colonization of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by a Novel Competent Bacterial Endophyte, Pseudomonas putida Strain P9, and Its Effect on Associated Bacterial Communities▿

    PubMed Central

    Andreote, Fernando Dini; de Araújo, Welington L.; de Azevedo, João L.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; van Overbeek, Leonard S.

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida strain P9 is a novel competent endophyte from potato. P9 causes cultivar-dependent suppression of Phytophthora infestans. Colonization of the rhizoplane and endosphere of potato plants by P9 and its rifampin-resistant derivative P9R was studied. The purposes of this work were to follow the fate of P9 inside growing potato plants and to establish its effect on associated microbial communities. The effects of P9 and P9R inoculation were studied in two separate experiments. The roots of transplants of three different cultivars of potato were dipped in suspensions of P9 or P9R cells, and the plants were planted in soil. The fate of both strains was followed by examining colony growth and by performing PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Colonies of both strains were recovered from rhizoplane and endosphere samples of all three cultivars at two growth stages. A conspicuous band, representing P9 and P9R, was found in all Pseudomonas PCR-DGGE fingerprints for treated plants. The numbers of P9R CFU and the P9R-specific band intensities for the different replicate samples were positively correlated, as determined by linear regression analysis. The effects of plant growth stage, genotype, and the presence of P9R on associated microbial communities were examined by multivariate and unweighted-pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster analyses of PCR-DGGE fingerprints. The presence of strain P9R had an effect on bacterial groups identified as Pseudomonas azotoformans, Pseudomonas veronii, and Pseudomonas syringae. In conclusion, strain P9 is an avid colonizer of potato plants, competing with microbial populations indigenous to the potato phytosphere. Bacterization with a biocontrol agent has an important and previously unexplored effect on plant-associated communities. PMID:19329656

  14. Carbon-limited fed-batch production of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates by a phaZ-knockout strain of Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    PubMed

    Vo, Minh Tri; Ko, Kenton; Ramsay, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    A medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanote (MCL-PHA) depolymerase knockout mutant of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 was produced by double homologous recombination. A carbon-limited shake-flask study confirmed that depolymerase activity was eliminated. Lysis of both mutant and wild-type strains occurred under these conditions. In carbon-limited, fed-batch culture, the yield of unsaturated monomers from unsaturated substrate averaged only 0.62 mol mol(-1) for the phaZ minus strain compared to 0.72 mol mol(-1) for the wild type. The mutant strain also produced more CO2 and less residual biomass from the same amount of carbon substrate. However, most results indicated that elimination of PHA depolymerase activity had little impact on the overall yield of biomass and PHA.

  15. The oxygenating constituent of 3,6-diketocamphane monooxygenase from the CAM plasmid of Pseudomonas putida: the first crystal structure of a type II Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Isupov, Michail N.; Schröder, Ewald; Gibson, Robert P.; Beecher, Jean; Donadio, Giuliana; Saneei, Vahid; Dcunha, Stephlina A.; McGhie, Emma J.; Sayer, Christopher; Davenport, Colin F.; Lau, Peter C.; Hasegawa, Yoshie; Iwaki, Hiroaki; Kadow, Maria; Balke, Kathleen; Bornscheuer, Uwe T.; Bourenkov, Gleb; Littlechild, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    The three-dimensional structures of the native enzyme and the FMN complex of the overexpressed form of the oxygenating component of the type II Baeyer–Villiger 3,6-diketocamphane monooxygenase have been determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structure of this dimeric FMN-dependent enzyme, which is encoded on the large CAM plasmid of Pseudomonas putida, has been solved by a combination of multiple anomalous dispersion from a bromine crystal soak and molecular replacement using a bacterial luciferase model. The orientation of the isoalloxazine ring of the FMN cofactor in the active site of this TIM-barrel fold enzyme differs significantly from that previously observed in enzymes of the bacterial luciferase-like superfamily. The Ala77 residue is in a cis conformation and forms a β-bulge at the C-terminus of β-strand 3, which is a feature observed in many proteins of this superfamily. PMID:26527149

  16. Elimination of Manganese(II,III) Oxidation in Pseudomonas putida GB-1 by a Double Knockout of Two Putative Multicopper Oxidase Genes

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, James K.; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial manganese(II) oxidation impacts the redox cycling of Mn, other elements, and compounds in the environment; therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms of and enzymes responsible for Mn(II) oxidation. In several Mn(II)-oxidizing organisms, the identified Mn(II) oxidase belongs to either the multicopper oxidase (MCO) or the heme peroxidase family of proteins. However, the identity of the oxidase in Pseudomonas putida GB-1 has long remained unknown. To identify the P. putida GB-1 oxidase, we searched its genome and found several homologues of known or suspected Mn(II) oxidase-encoding genes (mnxG, mofA, moxA, and mopA). To narrow this list, we assumed that the Mn(II) oxidase gene would be conserved among Mn(II)-oxidizing pseudomonads but not in nonoxidizers and performed a genome comparison to 11 Pseudomonas species. We further assumed that the oxidase gene would be regulated by MnxR, a transcription factor required for Mn(II) oxidation. Two loci met all these criteria: PputGB1_2447, which encodes an MCO homologous to MnxG, and PputGB1_2665, which encodes an MCO with very low homology to MofA. In-frame deletions of each locus resulted in strains that retained some ability to oxidize Mn(II) or Mn(III); loss of oxidation was attained only upon deletion of both genes. These results suggest that PputGB1_2447 and PputGB1_2665 encode two MCOs that are independently capable of oxidizing both Mn(II) and Mn(III). The purpose of this redundancy is unclear; however, differences in oxidation phenotype for the single mutants suggest specialization in function for the two enzymes. PMID:23124227

  17. Genetic and cell-free studies of PCB biodegradation in pseudomonas putida LB400. Book chapter. [PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)

    SciTech Connect

    Mondello, F.J.; Bopp, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation into the ability of strains defective in biphenyl metabolism to degrade PCBs, strongly suggests that the same enzymes are used for both substrates. The genes encoding these enzymes have been isolated and are being characterized. The ability of cell-free extracts of P. putida LB400 to degrade PCBs has been examined. Results indicate that the enzymes for PCB metabolism are present in the soluble portion of the extract.

  18. Membrane Vesicle Formation as a Multiple-Stress Response Mechanism Enhances Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E Cell Surface Hydrophobicity and Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Baumgarten, Thomas; Sperling, Stefanie; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen, Martin; Steiniger, Frank; Wick, Lukas Y.

    2012-01-01

    Among the adaptive responses of bacteria to rapid changes in environmental conditions, those of the cell envelope are known to be the most crucial. Therefore, several mechanisms with which bacteria change their cell surface and membranes in the presence of different environmental stresses have been elucidated. Among these mechanisms, the release of outer membrane vesicles (MV) in Gram-negative bacteria has attracted particular research interest because of its involvement in pathogenic processes, such as that of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation in cystic fibrosis lungs. In this study, we investigated the role of MV formation as an adaptive response of Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E to several environmental stress factors and correlated it to the formation of biofilms. In the presence of toxic concentrations of long-chain alcohols, under osmotic stress caused by NaCl, in the presence of EDTA, and after heat shock, cells of this strain released MV within 10 min in the presence of a stressor. The MV formed showed similar size and charge properties, as well as comparable compositions of proteins and fatty acids. MV release caused a significant increase in cell surface hydrophobicity, and an enhanced tendency to form biofilms was demonstrated in this study. Therefore, the release of MV as a stress response could be put in a physiological context. PMID:22752175

  19. Cloning, sequencing, and expression in Escherichia coli of the D-hydantoinase gene from Pseudomonas putida and distribution of homologous genes in other microorganisms.

    PubMed Central

    LaPointe, G; Viau, S; LeBlanc, D; Robert, N; Morin, A

    1994-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida DSM 84 produces N-carbamyl-D-amino acids from the corresponding D-5-monosubstituted hydantoins. The gene encoding this D-hydantoinase enzyme was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequence of the 1.8-kb insert of subclone pGES19 was determined. One open reading frame of 1,104 bp was found and was predicted to encode a polypeptide with a molecular size of 40.5 kDa. Local regions of identity between the predicted amino acid sequence and that of other known amidohydrolases (two other D-hydantoinases, allantionase and dihydroorotase) were found. The D-hydantoinase gene was used as a probe to screen DNA isolated from diverse organisms. Within Pseudomonas strains of rRNA group I, the probe was specific. The probe did not detect D-hydantoinase genes in pseudomonads not in rRNA group I, other bacteria, or plants known to express D-hydantoinase activity. Images PMID:8161181

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of DehI, a group I α-haloacid dehalogenase from Pseudomonas putida strain PP3

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidberger, Jason W.; Wilce, Jackie A.; Weightman, Andrew J.; Wilce, Matthew C. J.

    2008-07-01

    The α-haloacid dehalogenase DehI from P. putida strain PP3 was cloned into a vector with an N-terminal His tag and expressed in E. coli Nova Blue strain. Purified protein was crystallized in a primitive monoclinic form and a complete native data set was collected and analysed. Pseudomonas putida strain PP3 produces two dehalogenases, DehI and DehII, which belong to the group I and II α-haloacid dehalogenases, respectively. Group I dehalogenases catalyse the removal of halides from d-haloalkanoic acids and in some cases also the l-enantiomers, both substituted at their chiral centres. Studies of members of this group have resulted in the proposal of general catalytic mechanisms, although no structural information is available in order to better characterize their function. This work presents the initial stages of the structural investigation of the group I α-haloacid dehalogenase DehI. The DehI gene was cloned into a pET15b vector with an N-terminal His tag and expressed in Escherichia coli Nova Blue strain. Purified protein was crystallized in 25% PEG 3350, 0.4 M lithium sulfate and 0.1 M bis-tris buffer pH 6.0. The crystals were primitive monoclinic (space group P2{sub 1}), with unit-cell parameters a = 68.32, b = 111.86, c = 75.13 Å, α = 90, β = 93.7, γ = 90°, and a complete native data set was collected. Molecular replacement is not an option for structure determination, so further experimental phasing methods will be necessary.

  1. Metabolic Fingerprinting of Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E Strains: Understanding the Influence of Divalent Cations in Adaptation Mechanisms Following Exposure to Toluene

    PubMed Central

    Sayqal, Ali; Xu, Yun; Trivedi, Drupad K.; AlMasoud, Najla; Ellis, David I.; Goodacre, Royston

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida strains can adapt and overcome the activity of toxic organic solvents by the employment of several resistant mechanisms including efflux pumps and modification to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in their membranes. Divalent cations such as magnesium and calcium play a crucial role in the development of solvent tolerance in bacterial cells. Here, we have used Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy directly on cells (metabolic fingerprinting) to monitor bacterial response to the absence and presence of toluene, along with the influence of divalent cations present in the growth media. Multivariate analysis of the data using principal component-discriminant function analysis (PC-DFA) showed trends in scores plots, illustrating phenotypic alterations related to the effect of Mg2+, Ca2+ and toluene on cultures. Inspection of PC-DFA loadings plots revealed that several IR spectral regions including lipids, proteins and polysaccharides contribute to the separation in PC-DFA space, thereby indicating large phenotypic response to toluene and these cations. Finally, the saturated fatty acid ratio from the FT-IR spectra showed that upon toluene exposure, the saturated fatty acid ratio was reduced, while it increased in the presence of divalent cations. This study clearly demonstrates that the combination of metabolic fingerprinting with appropriate chemometric analysis can result in practicable knowledge on the responses of important environmental bacteria to external stress from pollutants such as highly toxic organic solvents, and indicates that these changes are manifest in the bacterial cell membrane. Finally, we demonstrate that divalent cations improve solvent tolerance in P. putida DOT‑T1E strains. PMID:27128955

  2. Molecular level biodegradation of phenol and its derivatives through dmp operon of Pseudomonas putida: A bio-molecular modeling and docking analysis.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sujay; Banerjee, Arundhati

    2015-10-01

    Participation of Pseudomonas putida-derived methyl phenol (dmp) operon and DmpR protein in the biodegradation of phenol or other harmful, organic, toxic pollutants was investigated at a molecular level. Documentation documents that P. putida has DmpR protein which positively regulates dmp operon in the presence of inducers; like phenols. From the operon, phenol hydroxylase encoded by dmpN gene, participates in degrading phenols after dmp operon is expressed. For the purpose, the 3-D models of the four domains from DmpR protein and of the DNA sequences from the two Upstream Activation Sequences (UAS) present at the promoter region of the operon were demonstrated using discrete molecular modeling techniques. The best modeled structures satisfying their stereo-chemical properties were selected in each of the cases. To stabilize the individual structures, energy optimization was performed. In the presence of inducers, probable interactions among domains and then the two independent DNA structures with the fourth domain were perused by manifold molecular docking simulations. The complex structures were made to be stable by minimizing their overall energy. Responsible amino acid residues, nucleotide bases and binding patterns for the biodegradation, were examined. In the presence of the inducers, the biodegradation process is initiated by the interaction of phe50 from the first protein domain with the inducers. Only after the interaction of the last domain with the DNA sequences individually, the operon is expressed. This novel residue level study is paramount for initiating transcription in the operon; thereby leading to expression of phenol hydroxylase followed by phenol biodegradation. PMID:26456616

  3. Improved production of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates in glucose-based fed-batch cultivations of metabolically engineered Pseudomonas putida strains.

    PubMed

    Poblete-Castro, Ignacio; Rodriguez, Andre Luis; Lam, Carolyn Ming Chi; Kessler, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges in metabolic engineering for enhanced synthesis of value-added chemicals is to design and develop new strains that can be translated into well-controlled fermentation processes using bioreactors. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of various fed-batch strategies in the performance of metabolically engineered Pseudomonas putida strains, Δgcd and Δgcd-pgl, for improving production of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs) using glucose as the only carbon source. First we developed a fed-batch process that comprised an initial phase of biomass accumulation based on an exponential feeding carbon-limited strategy. For the mcl-PHA accumulation stage, three induction techniques were tested under nitrogen limitation. The substrate-pulse feeding was more efficient than the constant-feeding approach to promote the accumulation of the desirable product. Nonetheless, the most efficient approach for maximum PHA synthesis was the application of a dissolved-oxygen-stat feeding strategy (DO-stat), where P. putida Δgcd mutant strain showed a final PHA content and specific PHA productivity of 67% and 0.83 g·l(-1)·h(-1), respectively. To our knowledge, this mcl-PHA titer is the highest value that has been ever reported using glucose as the sole carbon and energy source. Our results also highlighted the effect of different fed-batch strategies upon the extent of realization of the intended metabolic modification of the mutant strains.

  4. pH-stat fed-batch process to enhance the production of cis, cis-muconate from benzoate by Pseudomonas putida KT2440-JD1.

    PubMed

    van Duuren, Jozef B J H; Wijte, Dorien; Karge, Bianka; dos Santos, Vítor A P Martins; Yang, Yu; Mars, Astrid E; Eggink, Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440-JD1 is able to cometabolize benzoate to cis, cis-muconate in the presence of glucose as growth substrate. P. putida KT2440-JD1 was unable to grow in the presence of concentrations above 50 mM benzoate or 600 mM cis, cis-muconate. The inhibitory effects of both compounds were cumulative. The maximum specific uptake rate of benzoate was higher than the specific production rate of cis, cis-muconate during growth on glucose in the presence of benzoate, indicating that a benzoate derivative accumulated in the cells, which is likely to be catechol. Catechol was shown to reduce the expression level of the ben operon, which encodes the conversion of benzoate to cis, cis-muconate. To prevent overdoses of benzoate, a pH-stat fed-batch process for the production of cis, cis-muconate from benzoate was developed, in which the addition of benzoate was coupled to the acidification of the medium. The maximum specific production rate during the pH-stat fed-batch process was 0.6 g (4.3 mmol) g dry cell weight(-1) h(-1), whereas 18.5 g L(-1) cis, cis-muconate accumulated in the culture medium with a molar product yield of close to 100%. Proteome analysis revealed that the outer membrane protein H1 was upregulated during the pH-stat fed-batch process, whereas the expression of 10 other proteins was reduced. The identified proteins are involved in energy household, transport, translation of RNA, and motility.

  5. Molecular level biodegradation of phenol and its derivatives through dmp operon of Pseudomonas putida: A bio-molecular modeling and docking analysis.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sujay; Banerjee, Arundhati

    2015-10-01

    Participation of Pseudomonas putida-derived methyl phenol (dmp) operon and DmpR protein in the biodegradation of phenol or other harmful, organic, toxic pollutants was investigated at a molecular level. Documentation documents that P. putida has DmpR protein which positively regulates dmp operon in the presence of inducers; like phenols. From the operon, phenol hydroxylase encoded by dmpN gene, participates in degrading phenols after dmp operon is expressed. For the purpose, the 3-D models of the four domains from DmpR protein and of the DNA sequences from the two Upstream Activation Sequences (UAS) present at the promoter region of the operon were demonstrated using discrete molecular modeling techniques. The best modeled structures satisfying their stereo-chemical properties were selected in each of the cases. To stabilize the individual structures, energy optimization was performed. In the presence of inducers, probable interactions among domains and then the two independent DNA structures with the fourth domain were perused by manifold molecular docking simulations. The complex structures were made to be stable by minimizing their overall energy. Responsible amino acid residues, nucleotide bases and binding patterns for the biodegradation, were examined. In the presence of the inducers, the biodegradation process is initiated by the interaction of phe50 from the first protein domain with the inducers. Only after the interaction of the last domain with the DNA sequences individually, the operon is expressed. This novel residue level study is paramount for initiating transcription in the operon; thereby leading to expression of phenol hydroxylase followed by phenol biodegradation.

  6. The Glycerol-Dependent Metabolic Persistence of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 Reflects the Regulatory Logic of the GlpR Repressor

    PubMed Central

    Nikel, Pablo I.; Romero-Campero, Francisco J.; Zeidman, Joshua A.; Goñi-Moreno, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The growth of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 on glycerol as the sole carbon source is characterized by a prolonged lag phase, not observed with other carbon substrates. We examined the bacterial growth in glycerol cultures while monitoring the metabolic activity of individual cells. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, as well as the analysis of the temporal start of growth in single-cell cultures, revealed that adoption of a glycerol-metabolizing regime was not the result of a gradual change in the whole population but rather reflected a time-dependent bimodal switch between metabolically inactive (i.e., nongrowing) and fully active (i.e., growing) bacteria. A transcriptional Φ(glpD-gfp) fusion (a proxy of the glycerol-3-phosphate [G3P] dehydrogenase activity) linked the macroscopic phenotype to the expression of the glp genes. Either deleting glpR (encoding the G3P-responsive transcriptional repressor that controls the expression of the glpFKRD gene cluster) or altering G3P formation (by overexpressing glpK, encoding glycerol kinase) abolished the bimodal glpD expression. These manipulations eliminated the stochastic growth start by shortening the otherwise long lag phase. Provision of glpR in trans restored the phenotypes lost in the ΔglpR mutant. The prolonged nongrowth regime of P. putida on glycerol could thus be traced to the regulatory device controlling the transcription of the glp genes. Since the physiological agonist of GlpR is G3P, the arrangement of metabolic and regulatory components at this checkpoint merges a positive feedback loop with a nonlinear transcriptional response, a layout fostering the observed time-dependent shift between two alternative physiological states. PMID:25827416

  7. Prediction of the adaptability of Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E to a second phase of a solvent for economically sound two-phase biotransformations.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Grit; Kabelitz, Nadja; Zehnsdorf, Andreas; Miltner, Anja; Lippold, Holger; Meyer, Daniel; Schmid, Andreas; Heipieper, Hermann J

    2005-11-01

    The strain Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E was tested for its ability to tolerate second phases of different alkanols for their use as solvents in two-liquid-phase biotransformations. Although 1-decanol showed an about 10-fold higher toxicity to the cells than 1-octanol, the cells were able to adapt completely to 1-decanol only and could not be adapted in order to grow stably in the presence of a second phase of 1-octanol. The main explanation for this observation can be seen in the higher water and membrane solubility of 1-octanol. The hydrophobicity (log P) of a substance correlates with a certain partitioning of that compound into the membrane. Combining the log P value with the water solubility, the maximum membrane concentration of a compound can be calculated. With this simple calculation, it is possible to predict the property of an organic chemical for its potential applicability as a solvent for two-liquid-phase biotransformations with solvent-tolerant P. putida strains. Only compounds that show a maximum membrane concentration of less than 400 mM, such as 1-decanol, seem to be tolerated by these bacterial strains when applied in supersaturating concentrations to the medium. Taking into consideration that a solvent for a two-liquid-phase system should possess partitioning properties for potential substrates and products of a fine chemical synthesis, it can be seen that 1-decanol is a suitable solvent for such biotransformation processes. This was also demonstrated in shake cultures, where increasing amounts of a second phase of 1-decanol led to bacteria tolerating higher concentrations of the model substrate 3-nitrotoluene. Transferring this example to a 5-liter-scale bioreactor with 10% (vol/vol) 1-decanol, the amount of 3-nitrotoluene tolerated by the cells is up to 200-fold higher than in pure aqueous medium. The system demonstrates the usefulness of two-phase biotransformations utilizing solvent-tolerant bacteria.

  8. Rationally rewiring the connectivity of the XylR/Pu regulatory node of the m-xylene degradation pathway in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    de Las Heras, Aitor; Martínez-García, Esteban; Domingo-Sananes, Maria Rosa; Fraile, Sofia; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2016-04-18

    The XylR/Pu regulatory node of the m-xylene biodegradation pathway of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 is one of the most intricate cases of processing internal and external cues into a single controlling element. Despite this complexity, the performance of the regulatory system is determined in vivo only by the occupation of Pu by m-xylene-activated XylR and σ(54)-RNAP. The stoichiometry between these three elements defines natural system boundaries that outline a specific functional space. This space can be expanded artificially following different strategies that involve either the increase of XylR or σ(54) or both elements at the same time (each using a different inducer). In this work we have designed a new regulatory architecture that drives the system to reach a maximum performance in response to one single input. To this end, we first explored using a simple mathematical model whether the output of the XylR/Pu node could be amended by simultaneously increasing σ(54) and XylR in response to only natural inducers. The exacerbation of Pu activity in vivo was tested in strains bearing synthetic transposons encoding xylR and rpoN (the σ(54) coding gene) controlled also by Pu, thereby generating a P. putida strain with the XylR/Pu output controlled by two intertwined feed forward loops (FFLs). The lack of a negative feedback loop in the expression node enables Pu activity to reach its physiological maximum in response to a single input. Only competition for cell resources might ultimately check the upper activity limit of such a rewired m-xylene sensing device.

  9. Kinetics studies of p-cresol biodegradation by using Pseudomonas putida in batch reactor and in continuous bioreactor packed with calcium alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Mathur, A K; Bala, Shashi; Majumder, C B; Sarkar, S

    2010-01-01

    Present study deals with the biodegradation of p-cresol by using Pseudomonas putida in a batch reactor and a continuous bioreactor packed with calcium alginate beads. The maximum specific growth rate of 0.8121 h(-1) was obtained at 200 mg L(-1) concentration of p-cresol in batch reactor. The maximum p-cresol degradation rate was obtained 6.598 mg L(-1) h(-1) at S(o)=200 mg L(-1) and 62.8 mg L(-1) h(-1) at S(o)=500 mg L(-1) for batch reactor and a continuous bioreactor, respectively. The p-cresol degradation rate of continuous bioreactor was 9 to 10-fold higher than those of the batch reactor. It shows that the continuous bioreactor could tolerate a higher concentration of p-cresol. A Haldane model was also used for p-cresol inhibition in batch reactor and a modified equation similar to Haldane model for continuous bioreactor. The Haldane parameters were obtained as µ(max) 0.3398 h(-1), K(s) 110.9574 mg L(-1), and K(I) 497.6169 mg L(-1) in batch reactor. The parameters used in continuous bioreactor were obtained as D(max) 91.801 mg L(-1) h(-1), K(s) 131.292 mg L(-1), and K(I) 1217.7 mg L(-1). The value K(I) of continuous bioreactor is approximately 2.5 times higher than the batch reactor. Higher K(I) value of continuous bioreactor indicates P. putida can grow at high range of p-cresol concentration. The ability of tolerance of higher p-cresol concentrations may be one reason for biofilm attachment on the packed bed in the continuous operation.

  10. Impact of pnpR, a LysR-type regulator-encoding gene, on the cellular processes of Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiongzhen; Tu, Hui; Huang, Fei; Wang, Yicheng; Dong, Weiliang; Wang, Wenhui; Li, Zhoukun; Wang, Fei; Cui, Zhongli

    2016-06-01

    LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTRs) regulate various cellular processes in bacteria. pnpR is an LTTR-encoding gene involved in the regulation of hydroquinone (HQ) degradation, and its effects on the cellular processes of Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4 were investigated at the physiological, biochemical and molecular levels. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that pnpR positively regulated its own expression and that of the pnpC1C2DECX1X2 operon; additionally, pnpR partially regulated the expression of pnpA when P. putida was grown on para-nitrophenol (PNP) or HQ. Strains DLL-E4 and DLL-ΔpnpR exhibited similar cellular morphologies and growth rates. Transcriptome analysis revealed that pnpR regulated the expression of genes in addition to those involved in PNP degradation. A total of 20 genes were upregulated and 19 genes were downregulated by at least 2-fold in strain DLL-ΔpnpR relative to strain DLL-E4. Bioinformatic analysis revealed putative PnpR-binding sites located in the upstream regions of genes involved in PNP degradation, carbon catabolite repression and other cellular processes. The utilization of L-aspartic acid, L-histidine, L-pyroglutamic acid, L-serine, γ-aminobutyric acid, D,L-lactic acid, D-saccharic acid, succinic acid and L-alaninamide was increased at least 1.3-fold in strain DLL-ΔpnpR as shown by BIOLOG assays, indicating that pnpR plays a potential negative regulation role in the utilization of carbon sources. PMID:27190157

  11. Rationally rewiring the connectivity of the XylR/Pu regulatory node of the m-xylene degradation pathway in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    de Las Heras, Aitor; Martínez-García, Esteban; Domingo-Sananes, Maria Rosa; Fraile, Sofia; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2016-04-18

    The XylR/Pu regulatory node of the m-xylene biodegradation pathway of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 is one of the most intricate cases of processing internal and external cues into a single controlling element. Despite this complexity, the performance of the regulatory system is determined in vivo only by the occupation of Pu by m-xylene-activated XylR and σ(54)-RNAP. The stoichiometry between these three elements defines natural system boundaries that outline a specific functional space. This space can be expanded artificially following different strategies that involve either the increase of XylR or σ(54) or both elements at the same time (each using a different inducer). In this work we have designed a new regulatory architecture that drives the system to reach a maximum performance in response to one single input. To this end, we first explored using a simple mathematical model whether the output of the XylR/Pu node could be amended by simultaneously increasing σ(54) and XylR in response to only natural inducers. The exacerbation of Pu activity in vivo was tested in strains bearing synthetic transposons encoding xylR and rpoN (the σ(54) coding gene) controlled also by Pu, thereby generating a P. putida strain with the XylR/Pu output controlled by two intertwined feed forward loops (FFLs). The lack of a negative feedback loop in the expression node enables Pu activity to reach its physiological maximum in response to a single input. Only competition for cell resources might ultimately check the upper activity limit of such a rewired m-xylene sensing device. PMID:26961967

  12. Genetic and Functional Characterization of Cyclic Lipopeptide White-Line-Inducing Principle (WLIP) Production by Rice Rhizosphere Isolate Pseudomonas putida RW10S2

    PubMed Central

    Rokni-Zadeh, Hassan; Li, Wen; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Aminael; Sinnaeve, Davy; Rozenski, Jef; Martins, José C.

    2012-01-01

    The secondary metabolite mediating the GacS-dependent growth-inhibitory effect exerted by the rice rhizosphere isolate Pseudomonas putida RW10S2 on phytopathogenic Xanthomonas species was identified as white-line-inducing principle (WLIP), a member of the viscosin group of cyclic lipononadepsipeptides. WLIP producers are commonly referred to by the taxonomically invalid name “Pseudomonas reactans,” based on their capacity to reveal the presence of a nearby colony of Pseudomonas tolaasii by inducing the formation of a visible precipitate (“white line”) in agar medium between both colonies. This phenomenon is attributed to the interaction of WLIP with a cyclic lipopeptide of a distinct structural group, the fungitoxic tolaasin, and has found application as a diagnostic tool to identify tolaasin-producing bacteria pathogenic to mushrooms. The genes encoding the WLIP nonribosomal peptide synthetases WlpA, WlpB, and WlpC were identified in two separate genomic clusters (wlpR-wlpA and wlpBC) with an operon organization similar to that of the viscosin, massetolide, and entolysin biosynthetic systems. Expression of wlpR is dependent on gacS, and the encoded regulator of the LuxR family (WlpR) activates transcription of the biosynthetic genes and the linked export genes, which is not controlled by the RW10S2 quorum-sensing system PmrR/PmrI. In addition to linking the known phenotypes of white line production and hemolytic activity of a WLIP producer with WLIP biosynthesis, additional properties of ecological relevance conferred by WLIP production were identified, namely, antagonism against Xanthomonas and involvement in swarming and biofilm formation. PMID:22544260

  13. Role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from Pseudomonas putida strain MnB1 in dissolution of natural rhodochrosite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Pan, X.

    2014-05-01

    Microbially mediated oxidation of Mn(II) to Mn oxides have been demonstrated in previous studies, however, the mechanisms of bacteria how to dissolve and oxidize using a solid Mn(II) origin are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from P. putida strain MnB1 in enhancing dissolution of natural rhodochrosite. The results showed that P. putida strain MnB1 cell can effectively dissolve and oxidize natural rhodochrosite to generate Mn oxides, and EPS were found to play an important role in increasing dissolution of natural rhodochrosite. Compared with EPS-free treatment, dissolution rate of natural rhodochrosite in the presence of bacterial EPS was significantly increased with decreasing initial pH and increasing EPS concentration, ionic strength and rhodochrosite dosage (p < 0.05). The fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis implies that the functional groups like N-H, C=O and C-H in EPS contributed to the dissolution of natural rhodochrosite. This study is helpful for understanding the mechanisms of the formation of biogenic Mn oxides using a solid Mn(II) origin.

  14. Bacteria mediated dissolution of pyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3Cl in presence of Pseudomonas putida bacteria - an effect on Pb remobilization in the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flis, Justyna; Manecki, Maciej; Merkel, Broder J.; Latowski, Dariusz

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the mechanisms of microbially enhanced dissolution of lead phosphate-pyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3Cl). Contrary to the current literature, the results of our experiments indicate a great potential for Pb remobilization in the environment by an aerobic microorganism acquiring phosphates. Broad knowledge exists about the role of Pb-apatites in regulating the behavior and the bioavailability of Pb in soils and wastewater. In situ Pb immobilization is one of the methods now routinely applied for the reclamation of Pb-contaminated soils, including shallow unconfined aquifers (Magalhaes & Silva, 2003; Magalhaes, 2002; Ma et al. 1993). This method is based on the principle that aqueous phosphates added to soil pore solutions form a very stable (insoluble) mineral pyromorphite (Pb-apatite) Pb5(PO4)3Cl. Bioavailability of aqueous Pb is thus minimized due to the very low solubility and the high thermodynamic stability of pyromorphite (Flis, 2007; Nriagu, 1974). Several reports have examined the ability of different bacterial species including Pseudomonas to solubilise insoluble inorganic phosphate compounds for example apatites (Welch et al., 2002; Maurice et al., 1999; Rodriguez and Fraga, 1999 ). Various species of Pseudomonas genera are encountered as common inhabitants of soils and wastes in the industrial areas under strong pollution influence. To date, there has not been any published evidence of microbial dissolution of pyromorphite. The major objective of the project was to study Pseudomonas putida growth in the presence of Pb-apatite (Pb5(PO4)3Cl) as the sole source of phosphate. It was to test the hypothesis that in the phosphate deficient environment bacteria are able to actively scavenge for P from the Pb-apatite which results in remobilization of Pb in the environment. The bacteria growth was investigated at 22oC. Commercially available Pseudomonas putida strain was used throughout. The experiment and its controls were run in

  15. Reconciling in vivo and in silico key biological parameters of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 during growth on glucose under carbon-limited condition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genome scale metabolic reconstructions are developed to efficiently engineer biocatalysts and bioprocesses based on a rational approach. However, in most reconstructions, due to the lack of appropriate measurements, experimentally determined growth parameters are simply taken from literature including other organisms, which reduces the usefulness and suitability of these models. Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is an outstanding biocatalyst given its versatile metabolism, its ability to generate sufficient energy and turnover of NADH and NAD. To apply this strain optimally in industrial production, a previously developed genome-scale metabolic model (iJP815) was experimentally assessed and streamlined to enable accurate predictions of the outcome of metabolic engineering approaches. Results To substantially improve the accuracy of the genome scale model (iJP815), continuous bioreactor cultures on a mineral medium with glucose as a sole carbon source were carried out at different dilution rates, which covered pulling analysis of the macromolecular composition of the biomass. Besides, the maximum biomass yield (on substrate) of 0.397 gDCW · gglc-1, the maintenance coefficient of 0.037 gglc · gDCW-1 · h-1 and the maximum specific growth rate of 0.59 h-1 were determined. Only the DNA fraction increased with the specific growth rate. This resulted in reliable estimation for the Growth-Associated Maintenance (GAM) of 85 mmolATP · gDCW-1 and the Non Growth-Associated Maintenance (NGAM) of 3.96 mmolATP · gDCW-1 · h-1. Both values were found significantly different from previous assignment as a consequence of a lower yield and higher maintenance coefficient than originally assumed. Contrasting already published 13C flux measurements and the improved model allowed for constraining the solution space, by eliminating futile cycles. Furthermore, the model predictions were compared with transcriptomic data at overall good consistency, which

  16. Crystallization and crystallographic analysis of the ligand-binding domain of the Pseudomonas putida chemoreceptor McpS in complex with malate and succinate

    PubMed Central

    Gavira, J. A.; Lacal, J.; Ramos, J. L.; García-Ruiz, J. M.; Krell, T.; Pineda-Molina, E.

    2012-01-01

    Methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) are transmembrane proteins that sense changes in environmental signals, generating a chemotactic response and regulating other cellular processes. MCPs are composed of two main domains: a ligand-binding domain (LBD) and a cytosolic signalling domain (CSD). Here, the crystallization of the LBD of the chemoreceptor McpS (McpS-LBD) is reported. McpS-LBD is responsible for sensing most of the TCA-cycle intermediates in the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440. McpS-LBD was expressed, purified and crystallized in complex with two of its natural ligands (malate and succinate). Crystals were obtained by both the counter-diffusion and the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion techniques after pre-incubation of McpS-LBD with the ligands. The crystals were isomorphous and belonged to space group C2, with two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data were collected at the ESRF synchrotron X-ray source to resolutions of 1.8 and 1.9 Å for the malate and succinate complexes, respectively. PMID:22505412

  17. A preliminary crystallographic study of recombinant NicX, an Fe2+-dependent 2,5-dihydroxypyridine dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, José Ignacio; Acebrón, Iván; García, José Luis; Díaz, Eduardo; Mancheño, José Miguel

    2010-01-01

    NicX from Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is an Fe2+-dependent dioxygenase that is involved in the aerobic degradation of nicotinic acid. The enzyme converts 2,5-­dihydroxypyridine to N-formylmaleamic acid when overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Biophysical characterization of NicX by analytical gel-filtration chromatography revealed that it behaves as an oligomeric assembly in solution, with an apparent molecular weight that is consistent with a hexameric species. NicX was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 291 K. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.0 Å at the ESRF. The crystals most probably belong to the orthorhombic space group C222 or C2221. The estimated Matthews coefficient was 2.4 Å3 Da−1, corresponding to 50% solvent content, which is consistent with the presence of three protein molecules in the asymmetric unit. Analysis of the crystal data together with chromatographic results supports NicX being a hexameric assembly composed of two cyclic trimers. Currently, crystallization of recombinant selenomethionine-containing NicX is in progress. PMID:20445257

  18. In situ X-ray data collection from highly sensitive crystals of Pseudomonas putida PtxS in complex with DNA

    PubMed Central

    Pineda-Molina, E.; Daddaoua, A.; Krell, T.; Ramos, J. L.; García-Ruiz, J. M.; Gavira, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida PtxS is a member of the LacI protein family of transcriptional regulators involved in glucose metabolism. All genes involved in this pathway are clustered into two operons, kgu and gad. PtxS controls the expression of the kgu and gad operons as well as its own transcription. The PtxS operator is a perfect palindrome, 5′-TGAAACCGGTTTCA-3′, which is present in all three promoters. Crystallization of native PtxS failed, and PtxS–DNA crystals were finally produced by the counter-diffusion technique. A portion of the capillary used for crystal growth was attached to the end of a SPINE standard cap and directly flash-cooled in liquid nitrogen for diffraction tests. A full data set was collected with a beam size of 10 × 10 µm. The crystal belonged to the trigonal space group P3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 213.71, c = 71.57 Å. Only unhandled crystals grown in capillaries of 0.1 mm inner diameter diffracted X-rays to 1.92 Å resolution. PMID:23143237

  19. A novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteriophage, Ab31, a Chimera Formed from Temperate Phage PAJU2 and P. putida Lytic Phage AF: Characteristics and Mechanism of Bacterial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Latino, Libera; Essoh, Christiane; Blouin, Yann; Vu Thien, Hoang; Pourcel, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A novel temperate bacteriophage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, phage vB_PaeP_Tr60_Ab31 (alias Ab31) is described. Its genome is composed of structural genes related to those of lytic P. putida phage AF, and regulatory genes similar to those of temperate phage PAJU2. The virion structure resembles that of phage AF and other lytic Podoviridae (S. enterica Epsilon 15 and E. coli phiv10) with similar tail spikes. Ab31 was able to infect P. aeruginosa strain PA14 and two genetically related strains called Tr60 and Tr162, out of 35 diverse strains from cystic fibrosis patients. Analysis of resistant host variants revealed different phenotypes, including induction of pigment and alginate overproduction. Whole genome sequencing of resistant variants highlighted the existence of a large deletion of 234 kbp in two strains, encompassing a cluster of genes required for the production of CupA fimbriae. Stable lysogens formed by Ab31 in strain Tr60, permitted the identification of the insertion site. During colonization of the lung in cystic fibrosis patients, P. aeruginosa adapts by modifying its genome. We suggest that bacteriophages such as Ab31 may play an important role in this adaptation by selecting for bacterial characteristics that favor persistence of bacteria in the lung. PMID:24699529

  20. Numerical modelling of biophysicochemical effects on multispecies reactive transport in porous media involving Pseudomonas putida for potential microbial enhanced oil recovery application.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, P; Rajesh Kanna, A; Suresh Kumar, G; Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N

    2016-07-01

    pH and resident time of injected slug plays a critical role in characterizing the reservoir for potential microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) application. To investigate MEOR processes, a multispecies (microbes-nutrients) reactive transport model in porous media was developed by coupling kinetic and transport model. The present work differs from earlier works by explicitly determining parametric values required for kinetic model by experimental investigations using Pseudomonas putida at different pH conditions and subsequently performing sensitivity analysis of pH, resident time and water saturation on concentrations of microbes, nutrients and biosurfactant within reservoir. The results suggest that nutrient utilization and biosurfactant production are found to be maximum at pH 8 and 7.5 respectively. It is also found that the sucrose and biosurfactant concentrations are highly sensitive to pH rather than reservoir microbial concentration, while at larger resident time and water saturation, the microbial and nutrient concentrations were lesser due to enhanced dispersion.

  1. The catabolism of 2,4-xylenol and p-cresol share the enzymes for the oxidation of para-methyl group in Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 9866.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Fei; Chao, Hongjun; Zhou, Ning-Yi

    2014-02-01

    Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 9866 utilizes p-cresol or 2,4-xylenol as a sole carbon and energy source. Enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of the para-methyl group of p-cresol have been studied in detail. However, those responsible for the oxidation of the para-methyl group in 2,4-xylenol catabolism are still not reported. In this study, real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated pchC- and pchF-encoded p-cresol methylhydroxylase (PCMH) and pchA-encoded p-hydroxybenzaldehyde dehydrogenase (PHBDD) in p-cresol catabolism were also likely involved in the catabolism of 2,4-xylenol. Enzyme activity assays and intermediate identification indicated that the PCMH and PHBDD catalyzed the oxidations of 2,4-xylenol to 4-hydroxy-3-methylbenzaldehyde and 4-hydroxy-3-methylbenzaldehyde to 4-hydroxy-3-methylbenzoic acid, respectively. Furthermore, the PCMH-encoding gene pchF was found to be necessary for the catabolism of 2,4-xylenol, whereas the PHBDD-encoding gene pchA was not essential for the catabolism by gene knockout and complementation. Analyses of the maximum specific growth rate (μ m) and specific activity of the gene-knockout strain to different intermediates revealed the presence of other enzyme(s) with PHBDD activity in strain 9866. However, PHBDD played a major role in the catabolism of 2,4-xylenol in contrast to the other enzyme(s).

  2. Dynamic Response of Pseudomonas putida S12 to Sudden Addition of Toluene and the Potential Role of the Solvent Tolerance Gene trgI

    PubMed Central

    Volkers, Rita J. M.; Snoek, L. Basten; Ruijssenaars, Harald J.; de Winde, Johannes H.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida S12 is exceptionally tolerant to various organic solvents. To obtain further insight into this bacterium’s primary defence mechanisms towards these potentially harmful substances, we studied its genome wide transcriptional response to sudden addition of toluene. Global gene expression profiles were monitored for 30 minutes after toluene addition. During toluene exposure, high oxygen-affinity cytochrome c oxidase is specifically expressed to provide for an adequate proton gradient supporting solvent efflux mechanisms. Concomitantly, the glyoxylate bypass route was up-regulated, to repair an apparent toluene stress-induced redox imbalance. A knock-out mutant of trgI, a recently identified toluene-repressed gene, was investigated in order to identify TrgI function. Remarkably, upon addition of toluene the number of differentially expressed genes initially was much lower in the trgI-mutant than in the wild-type strain. This suggested that after deletion of trgI cells were better prepared for sudden organic solvent stress. Before, as well as after, addition of toluene many genes of highly diverse functions were differentially expressed in trgI-mutant cells as compared to wild-type cells. This led to the hypothesis that TrgI may not only be involved in the modulation of solvent-elicited responses but in addition may affect basal expression levels of large groups of genes. PMID:26181384

  3. The regulatory logic of m-xylene biodegradation by Pseudomonas putida mt-2 exposed by dynamic modelling of the principal node Ps/Pr of the TOL plasmid.

    PubMed

    Koutinas, Michalis; Lam, Ming-Chi; Kiparissides, Alexandros; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Godinho, Miguel; Livingston, Andrew G; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N; de Lorenzo, Victor; Dos Santos, Vitor A P Martins; Mantalaris, Athanasios

    2010-06-01

    The structure of the extant transcriptional control network of the TOL plasmid pWW0 born by Pseudomonas putida mt-2 for biodegradation of m-xylene is far more complex than one would consider necessary from a mere engineering point of view. In order to penetrate the underlying logic of such a network, which controls a major environmental cleanup bioprocess, we have developed a dynamic model of the key regulatory node formed by the Ps/Pr promoters of pWW0, where the clustering of control elements is maximal. The model layout was validated with batch cultures estimating parameter values and its predictive capability was confirmed with independent sets of experimental data. The model revealed how regulatory outputs originated in the divergent and overlapping Ps/Pr segment, which expresses the transcription factors XylS and XylR respectively, are computed into distinct instructions to the upper and lower catabolic xyl operons for either simultaneous or stepwise consumption of m-xylene and/or succinate. In this respect, the model reveals that the architecture of the Ps/Pr is poised to discriminate the abundance of alternative and competing C sources, in particular m-xylene versus succinate. The proposed framework provides a first systemic understanding of the causality and connectivity of the regulatory elements that shape this exemplary regulatory network, facilitating the use of model analysis towards genetic circuit optimization.

  4. Decaffeination and measurement of caffeine content by addicted Escherichia coli with a refactored N-demethylation operon from Pseudomonas putida CBB5.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Erik M; Hammerling, Michael J; Summers, Ryan M; Otoupal, Peter B; Slater, Ben; Alnahhas, Razan N; Dasgupta, Aurko; Bachman, James L; Subramanian, Mani V; Barrick, Jeffrey E

    2013-06-21

    The widespread use of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) and other methylxanthines in beverages and pharmaceuticals has led to significant environmental pollution. We have developed a portable caffeine degradation operon by refactoring the alkylxanthine degradation (Alx) gene cluster from Pseudomonas putida CBB5 to function in Escherichia coli. In the process, we discovered that adding a glutathione S-transferase from Janthinobacterium sp. Marseille was necessary to achieve N 7 -demethylation activity. E. coli cells with the synthetic operon degrade caffeine to the guanine precursor, xanthine. Cells deficient in de novo guanine biosynthesis that contain the refactored operon are ″addicted″ to caffeine: their growth density is limited by the availability of caffeine or other xanthines. We show that the addicted strain can be used as a biosensor to measure the caffeine content of common beverages. The synthetic N-demethylation operon could be useful for reclaiming nutrient-rich byproducts of coffee bean processing and for the cost-effective bioproduction of methylxanthine drugs.

  5. A novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage, Ab31, a chimera formed from temperate phage PAJU2 and P. putida lytic phage AF: characteristics and mechanism of bacterial resistance.

    PubMed

    Latino, Libera; Essoh, Christiane; Blouin, Yann; Vu Thien, Hoang; Pourcel, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A novel temperate bacteriophage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, phage vB_PaeP_Tr60_Ab31 (alias Ab31) is described. Its genome is composed of structural genes related to those of lytic P. putida phage AF, and regulatory genes similar to those of temperate phage PAJU2. The virion structure resembles that of phage AF and other lytic Podoviridae (S. enterica Epsilon 15 and E. coli phiv10) with similar tail spikes. Ab31 was able to infect P. aeruginosa strain PA14 and two genetically related strains called Tr60 and Tr162, out of 35 diverse strains from cystic fibrosis patients. Analysis of resistant host variants revealed different phenotypes, including induction of pigment and alginate overproduction. Whole genome sequencing of resistant variants highlighted the existence of a large deletion of 234 kbp in two strains, encompassing a cluster of genes required for the production of CupA fimbriae. Stable lysogens formed by Ab31 in strain Tr60, permitted the identification of the insertion site. During colonization of the lung in cystic fibrosis patients, P. aeruginosa adapts by modifying its genome. We suggest that bacteriophages such as Ab31 may play an important role in this adaptation by selecting for bacterial characteristics that favor persistence of bacteria in the lung.

  6. Isolation of oxygenase genes for indigo-forming activity from an artificially polluted soil metagenome by functional screening using Pseudomonas putida strains as hosts.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Tomonori; Endo, Ryo; Ono, Akira; Kato, Hiromi; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Nagata, Yuji; Tsuda, Masataka

    2015-05-01

    Metagenomes contain the DNA from many microorganisms, both culturable and non-culturable, and are a potential resource of novel genes. In this study, a 5.2-Gb metagenomic DNA library was constructed from a soil sample (artificially polluted with four aromatic compounds, i.e., biphenyl, phenanthrene, carbazole, and 3-chlorobenzoate) in Escherichia coli by using a broad-host-range cosmid vector. The resultant library was introduced into naphthalene-degrading Pseudomonas putida-derived strains having deficiencies in their naphthalene dioxygenase components, and indigo-forming clones on the indole-containing agar plates were screened. Cosmids isolated from 29 positive clones were classified by their various properties (original screening hosts, hosts showing indigo-forming activity, and digestion patterns with restriction enzymes), and six representative cosmids were chosen. Sequencing and in vitro transposon mutagenesis of the six cosmids resulted in the identification of genes encoding putative class B and D flavoprotein monooxygenases, a multicomponent hydroxylase, and a reductase that were responsible for the indigo-forming activity in the host cells. Among them, the genes encoding the multicomponent hydroxylase were demonstrated to be involved in phenol degradation. Furthermore, two genes encoding ring-cleavage dioxygenases were also found adjacent to the genes responsible for the indigo formation, and their functions were experimentally confirmed.

  7. Toxicity of fungal-generated silver nanoparticles to soil-inhabiting Pseudomonas putida KT2440, a rhizospheric bacterium responsible for plant protection and bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Indarchand R; Anderson, Anne J; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles have attracted considerable attention due to their beneficial properties. But toxicity issues associated with them are also rising. The reports in the past suggested health hazards of silver nanoparticles at the cellular, molecular, or whole organismal level in eukaryotes. Whereas, there is also need to examine the exposure effects of silver nanoparticle to the microbes, which are beneficial to humans as well as environment. The available literature suggests the harmful effects of physically and chemically synthesised silver nanoparticles. The toxicity of biogenically synthesized nanoparticles has been less studied than physically and chemically synthesised nanoparticles. Hence, there is a greater need to study the toxic effects of biologically synthesised silver nanoparticles in general and mycosynthesized nanoparticles in particular. In the present study, attempts have been made to assess the risk associated with the exposure of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles on a beneficial soil microbe Pseudomonas putida. KT2440. The study demonstrates mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and their characterisation by UV-vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, X-ray diffraction, nanosight LM20--a particle size distribution analyzer and TEM. Silver nanoparticles obtained herein were found to exert the hazardous effect at the concentration of 0.4 μg/ml, which warrants further detailed investigations concerning toxicity. PMID:25562807

  8. Heterofunctional Magnetic Metal-Chelate-Epoxy Supports for the Purification and Covalent Immobilization of Benzoylformate Decarboxylase From Pseudomonas Putida and Its Carboligation Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Tural, Servet; Tural, Bilsen; Demir, Ayhan S

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the combined use of the selectivity of metal chelate affinity chromatography with the capacity of epoxy supports to immobilize poly-His-tagged recombinant benzoylformate decarboxylase from Pseudomonas putida (BFD, E.C. 4.1.1.7) via covalent attachment is shown. This was achieved by designing tailor-made magnetic chelate-epoxy supports. In order to selectively adsorb and then covalently immobilize the poly-His-tagged BFD, the epoxy groups (300 µmol epoxy groups/g support) and a very small density of Co(2+)-chelate groups (38 µmol Co(2+)/g support) was introduced onto magnetic supports. That is, it was possible to accomplish, in a simple manner, the purification and covalent immobilization of a histidine-tagged recombinant BFD. The magnetically responsive biocatalyst was tested to catalyze the carboligation reactions. The benzoin condensation reactions were performed with this simple and convenient heterogeneous biocatalyst and were comparable to that of a free-enzyme-catalyzed reaction. The enantiomeric excess (ee) of (R)-benzoin was obtained at 99 ± 2% for the free enzyme and 96 ± 3% for the immobilized enzyme. To test the stability of the covalently immobilized enzyme, the immobilized enzyme was reused in five reaction cycles for the formation of chiral 2-hydroxypropiophenone (2-HPP) from benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde, and it retained 96% of its original activity after five reaction cycles.

  9. Recombinant expression and purification of the 2,5-diketocamphane 1,2-monooxygenase from the camphor metabolizing Pseudomonas putida strain NCIMB 10007

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Three different Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) were reported to be involved in the camphor metabolism by Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 10007. During (+)-camphor degradation, 2,5-diketocamphane is formed serving as substrate for the 2,5-diketocamphane 1,2-monooxygenase. This enzyme is encoded on the CAM plasmid and depends on the cofactors FMN and NADH and hence belongs to the group of type II BVMOs. We have cloned and recombinantly expressed the oxygenating subunit of the 2,5-diketocamphane 1,2-monooxygenase (2,5-DKCMO) in E. coli followed by His-tag-based affinity purification. A range of compounds representing different BVMO substrate classes were then investigated, but only bicyclic ketones were converted by 2,5-DKCMO used as crude cell extract or after purification. Interestingly, also (-)-camphor was oxidized, but conversion was about 3-fold lower compared to (+)-camphor. Moreover, activity of purified 2,5-DKCMO was observed in the absence of an NADH-dehydrogenase subunit. PMID:21906366

  10. Toxicity of fungal-generated silver nanoparticles to soil-inhabiting Pseudomonas putida KT2440, a rhizospheric bacterium responsible for plant protection and bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Indarchand R; Anderson, Anne J; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles have attracted considerable attention due to their beneficial properties. But toxicity issues associated with them are also rising. The reports in the past suggested health hazards of silver nanoparticles at the cellular, molecular, or whole organismal level in eukaryotes. Whereas, there is also need to examine the exposure effects of silver nanoparticle to the microbes, which are beneficial to humans as well as environment. The available literature suggests the harmful effects of physically and chemically synthesised silver nanoparticles. The toxicity of biogenically synthesized nanoparticles has been less studied than physically and chemically synthesised nanoparticles. Hence, there is a greater need to study the toxic effects of biologically synthesised silver nanoparticles in general and mycosynthesized nanoparticles in particular. In the present study, attempts have been made to assess the risk associated with the exposure of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles on a beneficial soil microbe Pseudomonas putida. KT2440. The study demonstrates mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and their characterisation by UV-vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, X-ray diffraction, nanosight LM20--a particle size distribution analyzer and TEM. Silver nanoparticles obtained herein were found to exert the hazardous effect at the concentration of 0.4 μg/ml, which warrants further detailed investigations concerning toxicity.

  11. Alkanols and chlorophenols cause different physiological adaptive responses on the level of cell surface properties and membrane vesicle formation in Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E.

    PubMed

    Baumgarten, Thomas; Vazquez, José; Bastisch, Christian; Veron, Wilfried; Feuilloley, Marc G J; Nietzsche, Sandor; Wick, Lukas Y; Heipieper, Hermann J

    2012-01-01

    In order to cope with the toxicity imposed by the exposure to environmental hydrocarbons, many bacteria have developed specific adaptive responses such as modifications in the cell envelope. Here we compared the influence of n-alkanols and chlorophenols on the surface properties of the solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E. In the presence of toxic concentrations of n-alkanols, this strain significantly increased its cell surface charge and hydrophobicity with changes depending on the chain length of the added n-alkanols. The adaptive response occurred within 10 min after the addition of the solvent and was demonstrated to be of physiological nature. Contrary to that, chlorophenols of similar hydrophobicity and potential toxicity as the corresponding alkanols caused only minor effects in the surface properties. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of differences in the cellular adaptive response of bacteria to compound classes of quasi equal hydrophobicity and toxicity. The observed adaptation of the physico-chemical surface properties of strain DOT-T1E to the presence of alkanols was reversible and correlated with changes in the composition of the lipopolysaccharide content of the cells. The reaction is explained by previously described reactions allowing the release of membrane vesicles that was demonstrated for cells affected by 1-octanol and heat shock, whereas no membrane vesicles were released after the addition of chlorophenols.

  12. Toxicity of synthetic herbicides containing 2,4-D and MCPA moieties towards Pseudomonas putida mt-2 and its response at the level of membrane fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Syguda, Anna; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Heipieper, Hermann J

    2016-02-01

    One of the attempts to create more effective herbicidal compounds includes the use of ionic liquids. Herbicidal ionic liquids have more effective biological activity, they are less volatile, more thermally stable, and exhibit superior efficiency in comparison to typically employed herbicides, allowing the reduction of the herbicide dose applied per hectare. However, studies on the environmental toxicity of this group of compounds are very rarely available. Environmental toxicity is an important factor, showing the concentration of compounds that has negative effects on soil bacteria including those responsible for biodegradation processes. Therefore, potential toxicity of four herbicidal ionic liquids (HILs) precursors containing 2,4-D and MCPA moieties was tested with the well investigated model organism for toxicity and adaptation, Pseudomonas putida mt-2. Results were compared to those obtained for commercial 2,4-D and MCPA herbicides. Next to growth inhibition, given as EC50, changes in the isomerisation of cis to trans unsaturated fatty acids were applied as proxy for cellular stress adaptation to toxic substances. The results revealed that all investigated precursors of HILs showed lower toxicity compared to commercialized synthetic herbicides 2,4-D and MCPA. The collected data on toxicity of HILs together with their physico-chemical properties might be useful for assessing the potential risk of the environmental pollution as well as guidelines for setting the legislation for their future use. PMID:26347932

  13. Toxicity of synthetic herbicides containing 2,4-D and MCPA moieties towards Pseudomonas putida mt-2 and its response at the level of membrane fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Syguda, Anna; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Heipieper, Hermann J

    2016-02-01

    One of the attempts to create more effective herbicidal compounds includes the use of ionic liquids. Herbicidal ionic liquids have more effective biological activity, they are less volatile, more thermally stable, and exhibit superior efficiency in comparison to typically employed herbicides, allowing the reduction of the herbicide dose applied per hectare. However, studies on the environmental toxicity of this group of compounds are very rarely available. Environmental toxicity is an important factor, showing the concentration of compounds that has negative effects on soil bacteria including those responsible for biodegradation processes. Therefore, potential toxicity of four herbicidal ionic liquids (HILs) precursors containing 2,4-D and MCPA moieties was tested with the well investigated model organism for toxicity and adaptation, Pseudomonas putida mt-2. Results were compared to those obtained for commercial 2,4-D and MCPA herbicides. Next to growth inhibition, given as EC50, changes in the isomerisation of cis to trans unsaturated fatty acids were applied as proxy for cellular stress adaptation to toxic substances. The results revealed that all investigated precursors of HILs showed lower toxicity compared to commercialized synthetic herbicides 2,4-D and MCPA. The collected data on toxicity of HILs together with their physico-chemical properties might be useful for assessing the potential risk of the environmental pollution as well as guidelines for setting the legislation for their future use.

  14. Effects of even and odd number fatty acids cofeeding on PHA production and composition in Pseudomonas putida Bet001 isolated from palm oil mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Mohd Razaif-Mazinah, Mohd Rafais; Mohamad Annuar, Mohamad Suffian; Sharifuddin, Yusrizam

    2016-01-01

    The biosynthesis of medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates by Pseudomonas putida Bet001 cultivated on mixed carbon sources was investigated. The mixed carbon sources consisted of heptanoic acid (HA) and oleic acid (OA). A relatively low PHA content at 1.2% (w/w) and 11.4% (w/w) was obtained when HA or OA was used as the sole carbon source. When these fatty acids were supplied as a mixture, PHA content increased threefold. Interestingly, the mixture-derived PHA composed of both odd and even monomer units, namely. 3-hydroxyheptanoate, 3-hydroxyoctanoate, 3-hydroxydecanoate, and 3-hydroxydodecanoate and no unsaturated monomer was detected. It is hypothesized that the even-numbered monomers were derived primarily from OA, whereas the odd-numbered monomer was derived from HA. This also points out to an efficient and yet distinct fatty acids metabolism that fed the PHA biosynthesis machinery of this particular microorganism. PHA obtained was elastomeric because melting temperature (Tm ) and crystallinity were absent. It showed good thermal stability with degradation temperature (Td ) ranging from 275.96 to 283.05 °C. PMID:25643814

  15. 2-ketogluconic acid secretion by incorporation of Pseudomonas putida KT 2440 gluconate dehydrogenase (gad) operon in Enterobacter asburiae PSI3 improves mineral phosphate solubilization.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Chanchal; Yadav, Kavita; Archana, G; Naresh Kumar, G

    2013-09-01

    Enterobacter asburiae PSI3 is known to efficiently solubilize rock phosphate by secretion of approximately 50 mM gluconic acid in Tris-buffered medium in the presence of 75 mM glucose and in a mixture of seven aldosugars each at 15 mM concentration, mimicking alkaline vertisol soils. Efficacy of this bacterium in the rhizosphere requires P release in the presence of low amount of sugars. To achieve this, E. asburiae PSI3 has been manipulated to express gluconate dehydrogenase (gad) operon of Pseudomonas putida KT 2440 to produce 2-ketogluconic acid. E. asburiae PSI3 harboring gad operon had 438 U of GAD activity, secreted 11.63 mM 2-ketogluconic and 21.65 mM gluconic acids in Tris-rock phosphate-buffered medium containing 45 mM glucose. E. asburiae PSI3 gad transformant solubilized 0.84 mM P from rock phosphate in TRP-buffered liquid medium. In the presence of a mixture of seven sugars each at 12 mM, the transformant brought about a drop in pH to 4.1 and released 0.53 mM P. PMID:23666029

  16. 3-Chloro-1,2-propanediol biodegradation by Ca-alginate immobilized Pseudomonas putida DSM 437 cells applying different processes: mass transfer effects.

    PubMed

    Konti, Aikaterini; Mamma, Diomi; Hatzinikolaou, Dimitios G; Kekos, Dimitris

    2016-10-01

    3-Chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-CPD) biodegradation by Ca-alginate immobilized Pseudomonas putida cells was performed in batch system, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), and packed-bed reactor (PBR). Batch system exhibited higher biodegradation rates and 3-CPD uptakes compared to CSTR and PBR. The two continuous systems (CSTR and PBR) when compared at 200 mg/L 3-CPD in the inlet exhibited the same removal of 3-CPD at steady state. External mass-transfer limitations are found negligible at all systems examined, since the observable modulus for external mass transfer Ω ≪ 1 and the Biot number Bi > 1. Intra-particle diffusion resistance had a significant effect on 3-CPD biodegradation in all systems studied, but to a different extent. Thiele modulus was in the range of 2.5 in batch system, but it was increased at 11 when increasing cell loading in the beads, thus lowering significantly the respective effectiveness factor. Comparing the systems at the same cell loading in the beads PBR was less affected by internal diffusional limitations compared to CSTR and batch system, and, as a result, exhibited the highest overall effectiveness factor.

  17. Decaffeination and measurement of caffeine content by addicted Escherichia coli with a refactored N-demethylation operon from Pseudomonas putida CBB5.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Erik M; Hammerling, Michael J; Summers, Ryan M; Otoupal, Peter B; Slater, Ben; Alnahhas, Razan N; Dasgupta, Aurko; Bachman, James L; Subramanian, Mani V; Barrick, Jeffrey E

    2013-06-21

    The widespread use of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) and other methylxanthines in beverages and pharmaceuticals has led to significant environmental pollution. We have developed a portable caffeine degradation operon by refactoring the alkylxanthine degradation (Alx) gene cluster from Pseudomonas putida CBB5 to function in Escherichia coli. In the process, we discovered that adding a glutathione S-transferase from Janthinobacterium sp. Marseille was necessary to achieve N 7 -demethylation activity. E. coli cells with the synthetic operon degrade caffeine to the guanine precursor, xanthine. Cells deficient in de novo guanine biosynthesis that contain the refactored operon are ″addicted″ to caffeine: their growth density is limited by the availability of caffeine or other xanthines. We show that the addicted strain can be used as a biosensor to measure the caffeine content of common beverages. The synthetic N-demethylation operon could be useful for reclaiming nutrient-rich byproducts of coffee bean processing and for the cost-effective bioproduction of methylxanthine drugs. PMID:23654268

  18. A New Family of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins: Structural Characterization of the Major Phasin PhaF from Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    PubMed Central

    Maestro, Beatriz; Galán, Beatriz; Alfonso, Carlos; Rivas, Germán; Prieto, Maria A.; Sanz, Jesús M.

    2013-01-01

    Phasins are intracellular polyhydroxyalkanoat4e (PHA)-associated proteins involved in the stabilization of these bacterial carbon storage granules. Despite its importance in PHA metabolism and regulation, only few reports have focused so far on the structure of these proteins. In this work we have investigated the structure and stability of the PhaF phasin from Pseudomonas putida KT2440, a protein that is involved in PHA granule stabilization and distribution to daughter cells upon cell division. A structural, three-dimensional model of the protein was built from homology modeling procedures and consensus secondary structure predictions. The model predicts that PhaF is an elongated protein, with a long, amphipathic N-terminal helix with PHA binding capacity, followed by a short leucine zipper involved in protein oligomerization and a superhelical C-terminal domain wrapped around the chromosomal DNA. Hydrodynamic, spectroscopical and thermodynamic experiments validated the model and confirmed both that free PhaF is a tetramer in solution and that most part of the protein is intrinsically disordered in the absence of its ligands. The results lay a molecular basis for the explanation of the biological role of PhaF and, along with an exhaustive analysis of phasin sequence databases, suggest that intrinsic disorder and oligomerization through coiled-coils may be a widespread mechanism among these proteins. PMID:23457638

  19. The oxygenating constituent of 3,6-diketocamphane monooxygenase from the CAM plasmid of Pseudomonas putida: the first crystal structure of a type II Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Isupov, Michail N.; Schröder, Ewald; Gibson, Robert P.; Beecher, Jean; Donadio, Giuliana; Saneei, Vahid; Dcunha, Stephlina A.; McGhie, Emma J.; Sayer, Christopher; Davenport, Colin F.; Lau, Peter C.; Hasegawa, Yoshie; Iwaki, Hiroaki; Kadow, Maria; Balke, Kathleen; Bornscheuer, Uwe T.; Bourenkov, Gleb; Littlechild, Jennifer A.

    2015-10-31

    The first crystal structure of a type II Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase reveals a different ring orientation of its FMN cofactor compared with other related bacterial luciferase-family enzymes. The three-dimensional structures of the native enzyme and the FMN complex of the overexpressed form of the oxygenating component of the type II Baeyer–Villiger 3,6-diketocamphane monooxygenase have been determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structure of this dimeric FMN-dependent enzyme, which is encoded on the large CAM plasmid of Pseudomonas putida, has been solved by a combination of multiple anomalous dispersion from a bromine crystal soak and molecular replacement using a bacterial luciferase model. The orientation of the isoalloxazine ring of the FMN cofactor in the active site of this TIM-barrel fold enzyme differs significantly from that previously observed in enzymes of the bacterial luciferase-like superfamily. The Ala77 residue is in a cis conformation and forms a β-bulge at the C-terminus of β-strand 3, which is a feature observed in many proteins of this superfamily.

  20. 3-Chloro-1,2-propanediol biodegradation by Ca-alginate immobilized Pseudomonas putida DSM 437 cells applying different processes: mass transfer effects.

    PubMed

    Konti, Aikaterini; Mamma, Diomi; Hatzinikolaou, Dimitios G; Kekos, Dimitris

    2016-10-01

    3-Chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-CPD) biodegradation by Ca-alginate immobilized Pseudomonas putida cells was performed in batch system, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), and packed-bed reactor (PBR). Batch system exhibited higher biodegradation rates and 3-CPD uptakes compared to CSTR and PBR. The two continuous systems (CSTR and PBR) when compared at 200 mg/L 3-CPD in the inlet exhibited the same removal of 3-CPD at steady state. External mass-transfer limitations are found negligible at all systems examined, since the observable modulus for external mass transfer Ω ≪ 1 and the Biot number Bi > 1. Intra-particle diffusion resistance had a significant effect on 3-CPD biodegradation in all systems studied, but to a different extent. Thiele modulus was in the range of 2.5 in batch system, but it was increased at 11 when increasing cell loading in the beads, thus lowering significantly the respective effectiveness factor. Comparing the systems at the same cell loading in the beads PBR was less affected by internal diffusional limitations compared to CSTR and batch system, and, as a result, exhibited the highest overall effectiveness factor. PMID:27262716

  1. Characterization of alkylphenol degradation gene cluster in Pseudomonas putida MT4 and evidence of oxidation of alkylphenols and alkylcatechols with medium-length alkyl chain.

    PubMed

    Takeo, Masahiro; Prabu, Subbuswamy K; Kitamura, Chitoshi; Hirai, Makoto; Takahashi, Hana; Kato, Dai-Ichiro; Negoro, Seiji

    2006-10-01

    Alkylphenols (APs) are ubiquitous contaminants in aquatic environments and have endocrine disrupting and toxic effects on aquatic organisms. To investigate biodegradation mechanisms of APs, an AP degradation gene cluster was cloned from a butylphenol (BP)-degrading bacterium, Pseudomonas putida MT4. The gene cluster consisted of 13 genes named bupBA1A2A3A4A5A6CEHIFG. From the nucleotide sequences, bupA1A2A3A4A5A6 were predicted to encode a multicomponent phenol hydroxylase (PH), whereas bupBCEHIFG were expected to encode meta-cleavage pathway enzymes. A partial sequence of a putative NtrC-type regulatory gene, bupR, was also found upstream of the gene bupB. This result indicates that APs can be initially oxidized into alkylcatechols (ACs), followed by the meta-cleavage of the aromatic rings. To confirm this pathway, AP degradation tests were carried out using the recombinant P. putida KT2440 harboring the PH genes (bupA1A2A3A4A5A6). The recombinant strain oxidized 4-n-APs with an alkyl chain of up to C7 (< or = C7) efficiently and also several BPs including those with an alkyl chain with some degree of branching. Therefore, it was found that PH had a broad substrate specificity for APs with a medium-length alkyl chain (C3-C7). Moreover, the cell extract of a recombinant Escherichia coli harboring bupB (a catechol 2,3-dioxygenase gene) converted 4-n-ACs with an alkyl chain of < or = C9 into yellow meta-cleavage products with a maximum absorbance at 379 nm, indicating that the second step enzyme in this pathway is also responsible for the degradation of ACs with a medium-length alkyl chain. These results suggest that MT4 is a very useful strain in the biodegradation of a wide range of APs with a medium-length alkyl chain, which known nonylphenol-degrading Sphingomonas strains have never degraded. PMID:17116584

  2. The two paralogue phoN (phosphinothricin acetyl transferase) genes of Pseudomonas putida encode functionally different proteins.

    PubMed

    Páez-Espino, A David; Chavarría, Max; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2015-09-01

    Phosphinothricin (PPT) is a non-specific inhibitor of glutamine synthetase that has been employed as herbicide for selection of transgenic plants expressing cognate resistance genes. While the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 has been generally considered PPT-sensitive, inspection of its genome sequence reveals the presence of two highly similar open reading frames (PP_1924 and PP_4846) encoding acetylases with a potential to cause tolerance to the herbicide. To explore this possibility, each of these genes (named phoN1 and phoN2) was separately cloned and their activities examined in vivo and in vitro. Genetic and biochemical evidence indicated that phoN1 encodes a bona fide PPT-acetyl transferase, the expression of which suffices to make P. putida tolerant to high concentrations of the herbicide. In contrast, PhoN2 does not act on PPT but displays instead activity against methionine sulfoximine (MetSox), another glutamine synthetase inhibitor. When the geometry of the substrate-binding site of PhoN1 was grafted with the equivalent residues of the predicted PhoN2 structure, the resulting protein increased significantly MetSox resistance of the expression host concomitantly with the loss of activity on PPT. These observations uncover intricate biochemical and genetic interactions among soil microorganisms and how they can be perturbed by exposure to generic herbicides in soil. PMID:25684119

  3. Transcriptional induction kinetics from the promoters of the catabolic pathways of TOL plasmid pWW0 of Pseudomonas putida for metabolism of aromatics.

    PubMed Central

    Marqués, S; Holtel, A; Timmis, K N; Ramos, J L

    1994-01-01

    We determined, under several growth conditions, the kinetics of mRNA synthesis from the four Pseudomonas putida pWW0 plasmid promoters involved in degradation of xylenes and methylbenzyl alcohols via toluates. Transcription by XylS of the meta-cleavage pathway operon promoter (Pm) for the metabolism of alkylbenzoates was stimulated immediately after the addition of an effector, both in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium and in minimal medium. Activation of the sigma 54-dependent upper-pathway operon promoter (Pu) and the xylS gene promoter (Ps) by effector-activated XylR was dependent on the growth medium used: on minimal medium, activation of transcription from Pu and Ps occurred immediately after the addition of a XylR effector; in contrast, activation appeared only after several hours when cells were growing on LB medium. When Pm was induced through the physiological overexpression of XylS, mediated by XylR when this regulator was activated by upper-pathway effectors, the kinetics of transcription from Pm was similar to that of Pu and Ps: maximum values were reached after delays of several hours in rich medium and after several minutes in minimal medium. The delay in the induction of transcription of sigma 54-dependent promoters reflects catabolite inhibition exerted by LB components, since the addition of yeast extracts, Casamino Acids, or several combinations of amino acids dramatically inhibited the synthesis of XylR-controlled sigma 54-dependent promoters. Expression from xylR gene tandem promoters occurred independently of the growth medium used. Images PMID:8169200

  4. Characterization of the pcaR regulatory gene from Pseudomonas putida, which is required for the complete degradation of p-hydroxybenzoate.

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Steiner, S; Parales, R E; Harwood, C S; Houghton, J E

    1994-01-01

    The pca branch of the beta-ketoadipate pathway in Pseudomonas putida is responsible for the complete degradation of p-hydroxybenzoate through ortho cleavage of the initial pathway metabolite, protocatechuate. The pcaR regulatory locus has been found to be required for both induction of all of the genes within the pca regulon (pcaBDC, pcaIJ, and pcaF) and the chemotactic response of the bacteria to aromatic compounds. Insertional inactivation mutagenesis, using Tn5 and mini-Tn5 transposons, was used to locate, clone, and sequence this pcaR regulatory gene. The pcaR gene product, when overexpressed in Escherichia coli, possessed a specific affinity for the pcaIJ promoter region and demonstrated that the entire PcaR protein was required for this function. The deduced amino acid sequence of the PcaR regulatory peptide bears little resemblance to its counterpart in the other branch of the pathway, CatR, but exhibits significant homology to its regulatory antecedent, PobR, which regulates the initial breakdown of p-hydroxybenzoate into protocatechuate. Comparisons of the pcaIJ and pcaR promoter regions revealed conservation of a 15-bp sequence centered around the -10 region in both sequences. This, together with previously defined deletional studies with the pcaIJ promoter region, suggests that PcaR exerts its regulatory effect through protein-DNA interactions within this region, which would be unusually close to the transcriptional start site of pcaIJ for a positive regulator. Images PMID:8083169

  5. Characterization of a phosphate solubilizing and antagonistic strain of Pseudomonas putida (B0) isolated from a sub-alpine location in the Indian Central Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Anita; Trivedi, Pankaj; Kumar, Bhavesh; Palni, Lok Man S

    2006-08-01

    The morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics of a phosphate solubilizing and antagonistic bacterial strain, designated as B0, isolated from a sub-alpine Himalayan forest site have been described. The isolate is gram negative, rod shaped, 0.8 x 1.6 microm in size, and psychrotrophic in nature that could grow from 0 to 35 degrees C (optimum temp. 25 degrees C). It exhibited tolerance to a wide pH range (3-12; optimum 8.0) and salt concentration up to 4% (w/v). Although it was sensitive to kanamycin, gentamicin, and streptomycin (<10 microg mL(-1)), it showed resistance to higher concentrations of ampicillin, penicillin, and carbenicillin (>1000 microg mL(-1)). The isolate showed maximum similarity with Pseudomonas putida based on 16S rRNA analysis. It solubilized tricalcium phosphate under in vitro conditions. The phosphate solubilization was estimated along a temperature range (4-28 degrees C), and maximum activity (247 microg mL(-1)) was recorded at 21 degrees C after 15 days of incubation. The phosphate solubilizing activity coincided with a concomitant decrease in pH of the medium. The isolate also exhibited antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi in Petri dish assays and produced chitinase, ss-l,3-glucanase, salicylic acid, siderophore, and hydrogen cyanide. The plant growth promotion and antifungal properties were demonstrated through a maize-based bioassay under greenhouse conditions. Although the bacterial inoculation was found to result in significant increment in plant biomass, it stimulated bacterial and suppressed fungal counts in the rhizosphere. The present study is important with respect to enumerating microbial diversity of the colder regions as well as understanding the potential biotechnological applications of native microbes. PMID:16832725

  6. An integrated view of redox and catalytic properties of B-type PpDyP from Pseudomonas putida MET94 and its distal variants.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Sónia; Brissos, Vânia; Gabriel, Antonieta; Catarino, Teresa; Turner, David L; Todorovic, Smilja; Martins, Lígia O

    2015-05-15

    PpDyP from Pseudomonas putida MET94 is an extremely versatile B-type dye-decolourising peroxidase (DyP) capable of efficient oxidation of a wide range of anthraquinonic and azo dyes, phenolic substrates, the non-phenolic veratryl alcohol and even manganese and ferrous ions. In reaction with H2O2 it forms a stable Compound I at a rate of (1.4±0.3)×10(6)M(-1)s(-1), comparable to those of classical peroxidases and other DyPs. We provide the first report of standard redox potential (E(0')) of the Compound I/Native redox couple in a DyP-type peroxidase. The value of E(0')Cpd I/N=1.10±0.04 (V) is similar to those found in peroxidases from the mammalian superfamily but higher than in peroxidases from the plant superfamily. Site-directed mutagenesis has been used to investigate the role of conserved distal residues, i.e. to replace aspartate 132 by asparagine, and arginine 214 and asparagine 136 by leucine. The structural, redox and catalytic properties of variants are addressed by spectroscopic, electrochemical and kinetic measurements. Our data point to the importance of the distal arginine in the catalytic mechanism of PpDyP, as also observed in DyPB from Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 but not in DyPs from the A and D subfamilies. This work reinforces the idea of existence of mechanistic variations among members of the different sub-families of DyPs with direct implications for their enzymatic properties and potential for biotechnological applications.

  7. Structural and Kinetic Characterization of the 4-Carboxy-2-hydroxymuconate Hydratase from the Gallate and Protocatechuate 4,5-Cleavage Pathways of Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    PubMed

    Mazurkewich, Scott; Brott, Ashley S; Kimber, Matthew S; Seah, Stephen Y K

    2016-04-01

    The bacterial catabolism of lignin and its breakdown products is of interest for applications in industrial processing of ligno-biomass. The gallate degradation pathway ofPseudomonas putidaKT2440 requires a 4-carboxy-2-hydroxymuconate (CHM) hydratase (GalB), which has a 12% sequence identity to a previously identified CHM hydratase (LigJ) fromSphingomonassp. SYK-6. The structure of GalB was determined and found to be a member of the PIG-LN-acetylglucosamine deacetylase family; GalB is structurally distinct from the amidohydrolase fold of LigJ. LigJ has the same stereospecificity as GalB, providing an example of convergent evolution for catalytic conversion of a common metabolite in bacterial aromatic degradation pathways. Purified GalB contains a bound Zn(2+)cofactor; however the enzyme is capable of using Fe(2+)and Co(2+)with similar efficiency. The general base aspartate in the PIG-L deacetylases is an alanine in GalB; replacement of the alanine with aspartate decreased the GalB catalytic efficiency for CHM by 9.5 × 10(4)-fold, and the variant enzyme did not have any detectable hydrolase activity. Kinetic analyses and pH dependence studies of the wild type and variant enzymes suggested roles for Glu-48 and His-164 in the catalytic mechanism. A comparison with the PIG-L deacetylases led to a proposed mechanism for GalB wherein Glu-48 positions and activates the metal-ligated water for the hydration reaction and His-164 acts as a catalytic acid. PMID:26867578

  8. Xanthine dehydrogenase and 2-furoyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida Fu1: two molybdenum-containing dehydrogenases of novel structural composition.

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, K; Andreesen, J R

    1990-01-01

    The constitutive xanthine dehydrogenase and the inducible 2-furoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase could be labeled with [185W]tungstate. This labeling was used as a reporter to purify both labile proteins. The radioactivity cochromatographed predominantly with the residual enzymatic activity of both enzymes during the first purification steps. Both radioactive proteins were separated and purified to homogeneity. Antibodies raised against the larger protein also exhibited cross-reactivity toward the second smaller protein and removed xanthine dehydrogenase and 2-furoyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity up to 80 and 60% from the supernatant of cell extracts, respectively. With use of cell extract, Western immunoblots showed only two bands which correlated exactly with the activity stains for both enzymes after native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Molybdate was absolutely required for incorporation of 185W, formation of cross-reacting material, and enzymatic activity. The latter parameters showed a perfect correlation. This evidence proves that the radioactive proteins were actually xanthine dehydrogenase and 2-furoyl-CoA dehydrogenase. The apparent molecular weight of the native xanthine dehydrogenase was about 300,000, and that of 2-furoyl-CoA dehydrogenase was 150,000. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of both enzymes revealed two protein bands corresponding to molecular weights of 55,000 and 25,000. The xanthine dehydrogenase contained at least 1.6 mol of molybdenum, 0.9 ml of cytochrome b, 5.8 mol of iron, and 2.4 mol of labile sulfur per mol of enzyme. The composition of the 2-furoyl-CoA dehydrogenase seemed to be similar, although the stoichiometry was not determined. The oxidation of furfuryl alcohol to furfural and further to 2-furoic acid by Pseudomonas putida Fu1 was catalyzed by two different dehydrogenases. Images PMID:2170335

  9. Complex Interplay between FleQ, Cyclic Diguanylate and Multiple σ Factors Coordinately Regulates Flagellar Motility and Biofilm Development in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Fernández, Alicia; López-Sánchez, Aroa; Jiménez-Díaz, Lorena; Navarrete, Blanca; Calero, Patricia; Platero, Ana Isabel; Govantes, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Most bacteria alternate between a free living planktonic lifestyle and the formation of structured surface-associated communities named biofilms. The transition between these two lifestyles requires a precise and timely regulation of the factors involved in each of the stages that has been likened to a developmental process. Here we characterize the involvement of the transcriptional regulator FleQ and the second messenger cyclic diguanylate in the coordinate regulation of multiple functions related to motility and surface colonization in Pseudomonas putida. Disruption of fleQ caused strong defects in flagellar motility, biofilm formation and surface attachment, and the ability of this mutation to suppress multiple biofilm-related phenotypes associated to cyclic diguanylate overproduction suggests that FleQ mediates cyclic diguanylate signaling critical to biofilm growth. We have constructed a library containing 94 promoters potentially involved in motility and biofilm development fused to gfp and lacZ, screened this library for FleQ and cyclic diguanylate regulation, and assessed the involvement of alternative σ factors σN and FliA in the transcription of FleQ-regulated promoters. Our results suggest a dual mode of action for FleQ. Low cyclic diguanylate levels favor FleQ interaction with σN-dependent promoters to activate the flagellar cascade, encompassing the flagellar cluster and additional genes involved in cyclic diguanylate metabolism, signal transduction and gene regulation. On the other hand, characterization of the FleQ-regulated σN- and FliA-independent PlapA and PbcsD promoters revealed two disparate regulatory mechanisms leading to a similar outcome: the synthesis of biofilm matrix components in response to increased cyclic diguanylate levels.

  10. Complex Interplay between FleQ, Cyclic Diguanylate and Multiple σ Factors Coordinately Regulates Flagellar Motility and Biofilm Development in Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Fernández, Alicia; López-Sánchez, Aroa; Jiménez-Díaz, Lorena; Navarrete, Blanca; Calero, Patricia; Platero, Ana Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Most bacteria alternate between a free living planktonic lifestyle and the formation of structured surface-associated communities named biofilms. The transition between these two lifestyles requires a precise and timely regulation of the factors involved in each of the stages that has been likened to a developmental process. Here we characterize the involvement of the transcriptional regulator FleQ and the second messenger cyclic diguanylate in the coordinate regulation of multiple functions related to motility and surface colonization in Pseudomonas putida. Disruption of fleQ caused strong defects in flagellar motility, biofilm formation and surface attachment, and the ability of this mutation to suppress multiple biofilm-related phenotypes associated to cyclic diguanylate overproduction suggests that FleQ mediates cyclic diguanylate signaling critical to biofilm growth. We have constructed a library containing 94 promoters potentially involved in motility and biofilm development fused to gfp and lacZ, screened this library for FleQ and cyclic diguanylate regulation, and assessed the involvement of alternative σ factors σN and FliA in the transcription of FleQ-regulated promoters. Our results suggest a dual mode of action for FleQ. Low cyclic diguanylate levels favor FleQ interaction with σN-dependent promoters to activate the flagellar cascade, encompassing the flagellar cluster and additional genes involved in cyclic diguanylate metabolism, signal transduction and gene regulation. On the other hand, characterization of the FleQ-regulated σN- and FliA-independent PlapA and PbcsD promoters revealed two disparate regulatory mechanisms leading to a similar outcome: the synthesis of biofilm matrix components in response to increased cyclic diguanylate levels. PMID:27636892

  11. HipH Catalyzes the Hydroxylation of 4-Hydroxyisophthalate to Protocatechuate in 2,4-Xylenol Catabolism by Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 9866

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Hong-Jun; Chen, Yan-Fei; Fang, Ti; Xu, Ying; Huang, Wei E.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to growing on p-cresol, Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 9866 is the only reported strain capable of aerobically growing on 2,4-xylenol, which is listed as a priority pollutant by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Several enzymes involved in the oxidation of the para-methyl group, as well as the corresponding genes, have previously been reported. The enzyme catalyzing oxidation of the catabolic intermediate 4-hydroxyisophthalate to the ring cleavage substrate protocatechuate was also purified from strain NCIMB 9866, but its genetic determinant is still unavailable. In this study, the gene hipH, encoding 4-hydroxyisophthalate hydroxylase, from strain NCIMB 9866 was cloned by transposon mutagenesis. Purified recombinant HipH-His6 was found to be a dimer protein with a molecular mass of approximately 110 kDa. HipH-His6 catalyzed the hydroxylation of 4-hydroxyisophthalate to protocatechuate with a specific activity of 1.54 U mg−1 and showed apparent Km values of 11.40 ± 3.05 μM for 4-hydroxyisophthalate with NADPH and 11.23 ± 2.43 μM with NADH and similar Km values for NADPH and NADH (64.31 ± 13.16 and 72.76 ± 12.06 μM, respectively). The identity of protocatechuate generated from 4-hydroxyisophthalate hydroxylation by HipH-His6 has also been confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Gene transcriptional analysis, gene knockout, and complementation indicated that hipH is essential for 2,4-xylenol catabolism but not for p-cresol catabolism in this strain. This fills a gap in our understanding of the gene that encodes a critical step in 2,4-xylenol catabolism and also provides another example of biochemical and genetic diversity of microbial catabolism of structurally similar compounds. PMID:26567311

  12. High Resolution Structures of Periplasmic Glucose-binding Protein of Pseudomonas putida CSV86 Reveal Structural Basis of Its Substrate Specificity.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Suman; Modak, Arnab; Phale, Prashant S; Bhaumik, Prasenjit

    2016-04-01

    Periplasmic substrate-binding proteins (SBPs) bind to the specific ligand with high affinity and mediate their transport into the cytoplasm via the cognate inner membrane ATP-binding cassette proteins. Because of low sequence identities, understanding the structural basis of substrate recognition by SBPs has remained very challenging. There are several structures available for the ligand-bound sugar SBPs, but very few unliganded structures are reported. No structural data are available for sugar SBPs fromPseudomonassp. to date. This study reports the first high resolution crystal structures of periplasmic glucose-binding protein fromPseudomonas putidaCSV86 (ppGBP) in unliganded form (2.5 Å) and complexed with glucose (1.25 Å) and galactose (1.8 Å). Asymmetric domain closure of ppGBP was observed upon substrate binding. The ppGBP was found to have an affinity of ∼ 0.3 μmfor glucose. The structural analysis showed that the sugars are bound to the protein mainly by hydrogen bonds, and the loss of two strong hydrogen bonds between ppGBP and galactose compared with glucose may be responsible for lowering its affinity toward galactose. The higher stability of ppGBP-glucose complex was also indicated by an 8 °C increase in the melting temperature compared with unliganded form and ppGBP-galactose complex. ppGBP binds to monosaccharide, but the structural features revealed it to have an oligosaccharide-binding protein fold, indicating that during evolution the sugar binding pocket may have undergone structural modulation to accommodate monosaccharide only.

  13. Decreasing the Level of Ethyl Acetate in Ethanolic Fermentation Broths of Escherichia coli KO11 by Expression of Pseudomonas putida estZ Esterase†

    PubMed Central

    Hasona, Adnan; York, S. W.; Yomano, L. P.; Ingram, L. O.; Shanmugam, K. T.

    2002-01-01

    During the fermentation of sugars to ethanol relatively high levels of an undesirable coproduct, ethyl acetate, are also produced. With ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain KO11 as the biocatalyst, the level of ethyl acetate in beer containing 4.8% ethanol was 192 mg liter−1. Although the E. coli genome encodes several proteins with esterase activity, neither wild-type strains nor KO11 contained significant ethyl acetate esterase activity. A simple method was developed to rapidly screen bacterial colonies for the presence of esterases which hydrolyze ethyl acetate based on pH change. This method allowed identification of Pseudomonas putida NRRL B-18435 as a source of this activity and the cloning of a new esterase gene, estZ. Recombinant EstZ esterase was purified to near homogeneity and characterized. It belongs to family IV of lipolytic enzymes and contains the conserved catalytic triad of serine, aspartic acid, and histidine. As expected, this serine esterase was inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and the histidine reagent diethylpyrocarbonate. The native and subunit molecular weights of the recombinant protein were 36,000, indicating that the enzyme exists as a monomer. By using α-naphthyl acetate as a model substrate, optimal activity was observed at pH 7.5 and 40°C. The Km and Vmax for α-naphthyl acetate were 18 μM and 48.1 μmol · min−1 · mg of protein−1, respectively. Among the aliphatic esters tested, the highest activity was obtained with propyl acetate (96 μmol · min−1 · mg of protein−1), followed by ethyl acetate (66 μmol · min−1 · mg of protein−1). Expression of estZ in E. coli KO11 reduced the concentration of ethyl acetate in fermentation broth (4.8% ethanol) to less than 20 mg liter−1. PMID:12039716

  14. Complex Interplay between FleQ, Cyclic Diguanylate and Multiple σ Factors Coordinately Regulates Flagellar Motility and Biofilm Development in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Fernández, Alicia; López-Sánchez, Aroa; Jiménez-Díaz, Lorena; Navarrete, Blanca; Calero, Patricia; Platero, Ana Isabel; Govantes, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Most bacteria alternate between a free living planktonic lifestyle and the formation of structured surface-associated communities named biofilms. The transition between these two lifestyles requires a precise and timely regulation of the factors involved in each of the stages that has been likened to a developmental process. Here we characterize the involvement of the transcriptional regulator FleQ and the second messenger cyclic diguanylate in the coordinate regulation of multiple functions related to motility and surface colonization in Pseudomonas putida. Disruption of fleQ caused strong defects in flagellar motility, biofilm formation and surface attachment, and the ability of this mutation to suppress multiple biofilm-related phenotypes associated to cyclic diguanylate overproduction suggests that FleQ mediates cyclic diguanylate signaling critical to biofilm growth. We have constructed a library containing 94 promoters potentially involved in motility and biofilm development fused to gfp and lacZ, screened this library for FleQ and cyclic diguanylate regulation, and assessed the involvement of alternative σ factors σN and FliA in the transcription of FleQ-regulated promoters. Our results suggest a dual mode of action for FleQ. Low cyclic diguanylate levels favor FleQ interaction with σN-dependent promoters to activate the flagellar cascade, encompassing the flagellar cluster and additional genes involved in cyclic diguanylate metabolism, signal transduction and gene regulation. On the other hand, characterization of the FleQ-regulated σN- and FliA-independent PlapA and PbcsD promoters revealed two disparate regulatory mechanisms leading to a similar outcome: the synthesis of biofilm matrix components in response to increased cyclic diguanylate levels. PMID:27636892

  15. Constitutive synthesis of enzymes of the protocatechuate pathway and of the beta-ketoadipate uptake system in mutant strains of Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Parke, D; Ornston, L N

    1976-01-01

    Mutant Pseudomonas putida strains that produce constitutive levels of the beta-ketoadipate uptake system are selected by the sequential transfer of cultures between mineral growth media supplemented with the noninducing growth substrate succinate and growth media containing beta-ketoadipate as the sole carbon and energy source. The mutant strains also produce constitutively three catabolic enzymes that give rise to beta-ketoadipate from the metabolic precursor beta-carboxy-cis, cis-muconate, and thus a single regulatory gene appears to govern the expression of the enzymes as well as the uptake system. The three enzymes that convert beta-carboxy-cis, cis-muconate to beta-ketoadipate are induced to higher levels when the orgainisms are grown with p-hydroxybenzoate (a compound that is catabolized via beta-ketoadipate); the beta-ketoadipate uptake system is partially repressed when the cells are grwon at the expense of p-hydroxybenzoate. The transferase that acts upon beta-ketoadipate remains inducible in the constitutive mutant strains. Thus a minimum of three biosynthetic controls must be exerted over the expression of the five genes. Since the regulatory mutation does not alter the expression of the gene for the transferase, the physiological target of the selection procedure appears to be mutant strains that produce the uptake system constitutively. Levels of the uptake system are higher in uninduced constitutive mutant cultures than in induced cultures of the wild type. Hence procedures analogous to the one we employed may be of general use in obtaining mutant strains that produce high levels of uptake systems. PMID:1262305

  16. DNA sequence determination of the TOL plasmid (pWWO) xylGFJ genes of Pseudomonas putida: implications for the evolution of aromatic catabolism.

    PubMed

    Horn, J M; Harayama, S; Timmis, K N

    1991-10-01

    The meta operon of the Pseudomonas putida TOL plasmid (pWWO) encodes all enzymes of a meta-cleavage pathway for the metabolism of benzoic acids to Krebs-cycle intermediates. We have determined and analysed the nucleic acid sequence of a 3442 bp region of the meta operon containing the xyl-GFJ genes whose products are involved in the post meta-ring fission transformation of catechols. Homology analysis of the xylGFJ gene products revealed evidence of biochemical relatedness, suggested enzymatic mechanisms, and permitted us to propose evolutionary events which may have generated the current variety of aromatic degradative pathways. The xylG gene, which specifies 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (HMSD), was found to encode a protein of 51.7 kDa. The predicted protein sequence exhibits significant homology to eukaryotic aldehyde dehydrogenases (ADHs) and to the products of two other Pseudomonas catabolic genes, i.e. xylC and alkH. Expansion of the ADH superfamily to include these prokaryotic enzymes permitted a broader analysis of functionally critical ADH residues and phylogenetic relationships among superfamily members. The importance of three regions of these enzymes previously thought to be critical to ADH activity was reinforced by this analysis. However glutamine-487, also thought to be critical, is less well conserved. The revised ADH phylogeny proposed here suggests early catabolic ADH divergence with subsequent interkingdom gene exchange. The xylF gene, which specifies 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde hydrolase (HMSH), was delineated by N-terminal sequence analysis of the purified gene product and is shown to encode a protein of 30.6 kDa. Homology analysis revealed sequence similarity to a chromosomally encoded serine hydrolase, especially in the region of the previously identified active-site serine residue, suggesting that HMSH may also possess a serine hydrolytic enzymatic mechanism. Likewise, the xylJ gene, which specifies 2-hydroxy-pent-2

  17. The Potential of the Ni-Resistant TCE-Degrading Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE to Reduce Phytotoxicity and Improve Phytoremediation Efficiency of Poplar Cuttings on A Ni-TCE Co-Contamination.

    PubMed

    Weyens, Nele; Beckers, Bram; Schellingen, Kerim; Ceulemans, Reinhart; van der Lelie, Daniel; Newman, Lee; Taghavi, Safiyh; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    To examine the potential of Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE to improve phytoremediation of Ni-TCE co-contamination, the effects of inoculation of a Ni-resistant, TCE-degrading root endophyte on Ni-TCE phytotoxicity, Ni uptake and trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation of Ni-TCE-exposed poplar cuttings are evaluated. After inoculation with P. putida W619-TCE, root weight of non-exposed poplar cuttings significantly increased. Further, inoculation induced a mitigation of the Ni-TCE phytotoxicity, which was illustrated by a diminished exposure-induced increase in activity of antioxidative enzymes. Considering phytoremediation efficiency, inoculation with P. putida W619-TCE resulted in a 45% increased Ni uptake in roots as well as a slightly significant reduction in TCE concentration in leaves and TCE evapotranspiration to the atmosphere. These results indicate that endophytes equipped with the appropriate characteristics can assist their host plant to deal with co-contamination of toxic metals and organic contaminants during phytoremediation. Furthermore, as poplar is an excellent plant for biomass production as well as for phytoremediation, the obtained results can be exploited to produce biomass for energy and industrial feedstock applications in a highly productive manner on contaminated land that is not suited for normal agriculture. Exploiting this land for biomass production could contribute to diminish the conflict between food and bioenergy production.

  18. Degradation of the metal-cyano complex tetracyanonickelate(II) by cyanide-utilizing bacterial isolates. [Klebsiella; Pseudomonas putida

    SciTech Connect

    Silva-Avalos, J.; Richmond, M.G.; Nagappan, O.; Kunz, D.A. )

    1990-12-01

    Ten bacterial isolates capable of growth on tetracyanonickelate(II) {l brace}K{sub 2}(Ni(CN){sub 4}){r brace} (TCN) as the sole nitrogen source were isolated from soil, freshwater, and sewage sludge enrichments. Seven of the 10 were identified as pseudomonads, while the remaining 3 were classified as Klebsiella species. A detailed investigation of one isolate, Pseudomonas putide BCN3, revealed a rapid growth rate on TCN (generation time, 2 h), with substrate removal and growth occurring in parallel. In addition to TCN, all isolates were able to utilize KCN, although the latter was significantly more toxic; MICs ranged from 0.2 to 0.8 mM for KCN and {ge}50 mM for TCN. While growth occurred over a wide range of TCN concentrations (0.25 to 16 mM), degradation was most substantial under growth-limiting conditions and did not occur when ammonia was present. In addition, cells grown on TCN were found to accumulate nickel cyanide (Ni(CN){sub 2}) as a major biodegradation product. The results show that bacteria capable of growth on TCN can readily be isolated and that degradation (i) appears to parallel the capacity for growth on KCN, (ii) does not occur in the presence of ammonia, and (iii) proceeds via the formation of Ni(CN){sub 2} as a biological metabolite.

  19. Metabolic potential of the organic-solvent tolerant Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E deduced from its annotated genome

    PubMed Central

    Udaondo, Zulema; Molina, Lazaro; Daniels, Craig; Gómez, Manuel J; Molina-Henares, María A; Matilla, Miguel A; Roca, Amalia; Fernández, Matilde; Duque, Estrella; Segura, Ana; Ramos, Juan Luis

    2013-01-01

    Summary Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E is an organic solvent tolerant strain capable of degrading aromatic hydrocarbons. Here we report the DOT-T1E genomic sequence (6 394 153 bp) and its metabolic atlas based on the classification of enzyme activities. The genome encodes for at least 1751 enzymatic reactions that account for the known pattern of C, N, P and S utilization by this strain. Based on the potential of this strain to thrive in the presence of organic solvents and the subclasses of enzymes encoded in the genome, its metabolic map can be drawn and a number of potential biotransformation reactions can be deduced. This information may prove useful for adapting desired reactions to create value-added products. This bioengineering potential may be realized via direct transformation of substrates, or may require genetic engineering to block an existing pathway, or to re-organize operons and genes, as well as possibly requiring the recruitment of enzymes from other sources to achieve the desired transformation. Funding Information Work in our laboratory was supported by Fondo Social Europeo and Fondos FEDER from the European Union, through several projects (BIO2010-17227, Consolider-Ingenio CSD2007-00005, Excelencia 2007 CVI-3010, Excelencia 2011 CVI-7391 and EXPLORA BIO2011-12776-E). PMID:23815283

  20. FTIR Spectroscopic Study of Mn(II) Oxidizing Pseudomonas putida GB1 Biofilms on ZnSe, Ge, and CdTe Crystal Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parikh, S. J.; Gilbert, H. L.; Conklin, M. H.; Chorover, J.

    2003-12-01

    Pseudomonas putida strain GB1 is an aerobic, gram-negative bacterium capable of gaining energy from the biological oxidation of Mn(II). The increased kinetics of Mn(II) oxidation resulting from this microbial catalysis is known to contribute to the formation of Mn(IV) oxides in natural waters. Environmental conditions, including aqueous and surface chemistry, greatly affect the macromolecular composition and surface adhesion behavior of bacteria. For example, the chemistry of GB1 biofilms forming on crystal surfaces is expected to vary with Mn(II) concentration in solution. We used Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to probe the formation of GB1 biofilms on the surfaces of negatively-charged IR transparent ZnSe, Ge, and CdTe crystal windows. Bacterial adhesion experiments were carried out both in the presence and absence of Mn(II)(aq) with FTIR windows suspended in a bioreactor comprising GB1 cells in a mineral growth medium at pH 7.6 and 30° C. After 85 h, windows were removed from the reactor and IR spectra were collected. Oxidation of Mn(II) was confirmed via leucoberbelin blue (LBB) indicator and the appearance of Mn-O stretches in biofilm IR spectra. Transmission FTIR spectra do not reveal detectable effects of crystal type on biofilm composition, but do indicate changes in chemistry resulting from introduction of Mn(II). In the presence of Mn(II), spectra of biofilms show higher relative intensity in the carbohydrate region (specifically 1160, 1052 cm-1). A down frequency shift in the P=O absorbance was also observed (1240 to 1222 cm-1). These results indicate a modification of bacterial cell/biofilm composition resulting during biological oxidation of Mn(II). The CdTe transmission window permits measurements to low wavenumbers (<600 cm-1) and a peak at 588 cm-1 was observed when bacteria were surface-adhered in the presence of Mn(II). This peak, which has been attributed to Mn-O stretching vibrations, may provide an index of Mn oxide crystal

  1. Increasing Signal Specificity of the TOL Network of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 by Rewiring the Connectivity of the Master Regulator XylR

    PubMed Central

    de las Heras, Aitor; Fraile, Sofia; de Lorenzo, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Prokaryotic transcription factors (TFs) that bind small xenobiotic molecules (e.g., TFs that drive genes that respond to environmental pollutants) often display a promiscuous effector profile for analogs of the bona fide chemical signals. XylR, the master TF for expression of the m-xylene biodegradation operons encoded in the TOL plasmid pWW0 of Pseudomonas putida, responds not only to the aromatic compound but also, albeit to a lesser extent, to many other aromatic compounds, such as 3-methylbenzylalcohol (3MBA). We have examined whether such a relaxed regulatory scenario can be reshaped into a high-capacity/high-specificity regime by changing the connectivity of this effector-sensing TF within the rest of the circuit rather than modifying XylR structure itself. To this end, the natural negative feedback loop that operates on xylR transcription was modified with a translational attenuator that brings down the response to 3MBA while maintaining the transcriptional output induced by m-xylene (as measured with a luxCDABE reporter system). XylR expression was then subject to a positive feedback loop in which the TF was transcribed from its own target promoters, each known to hold different input/output transfer functions. In the first case (xylR under the strong promoter of the upper TOL operon, Pu), the reporter system displayed an increased transcriptional capacity in the resulting network for both the optimal and the suboptimal XylR effectors. In contrast, when xylR was expressed under the weaker Ps promoter, the resulting circuit unmistakably discriminated m-xylene from 3MBA. The non-natural connectivity engineered in the network resulted both in a higher promoter activity and also in a much-increased signal-to-background ratio. These results indicate that the working regimes of given genetic circuits can be dramatically altered through simple changes in the way upstream transcription factors are self-regulated by positive or negative feedback loops. PMID:23071444

  2. Binary combination of epsilon-poly-L-lysine and isoeugenol affect progression of spoilage microbiota in fresh turkey meat, and delay onset of spoilage in Pseudomonas putida challenged meat.

    PubMed

    Hyldgaard, Morten; Meyer, Rikke L; Peng, Min; Hibberd, Ashley A; Fischer, Jana; Sigmundsson, Arnar; Mygind, Tina

    2015-12-23

    Proliferation of microbial population on fresh poultry meat over time elicits spoilage when reaching unacceptable levels, during which process slime production, microorganism colony formation, negative organoleptic impact and meat structure change are observed. Spoilage organisms in raw meat, especially Gram-negative bacteria can be difficult to combat due to their cell wall composition. In this study, the natural antimicrobial agents ε-poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) and isoeugenol were tested individually and in combinations for their activities against a selection of Gram-negative strains in vitro. All combinations resulted in additive interactions between ε-PL and isoeugenol towards the bacteria tested. The killing efficiency of different ratios of the two antimicrobial agents was further evaluated in vitro against Pseudomonas putida. Subsequently, the most efficient ratio was applied to a raw turkey meat model system which was incubated for 96 h at spoilage temperature. Half of the samples were challenged with P. putida, and the bacterial load and microbial community composition was followed over time. CFU counts revealed that the antimicrobial blend was able to lower the amount of viable Pseudomonas spp. by one log compared to untreated samples of challenged turkey meat, while the single compounds had no effect on the population. However, the compounds had no effect on Pseudomonas spp. CFU in unchallenged meat. Next-generation sequencing offered culture-independent insight into population diversity and changes in microbial composition of the meat during spoilage and in response to antimicrobial treatment. Spoilage of unchallenged turkey meat resulted in decreasing species diversity over time, regardless of whether the samples received antimicrobial treatment. The microbiota composition of untreated unchallenged meat progressed from a Pseudomonas spp. to a Pseudomonas spp., Photobacterium spp., and Brochothrix thermosphacta dominated food matrix on the expense of low

  3. Binary combination of epsilon-poly-L-lysine and isoeugenol affect progression of spoilage microbiota in fresh turkey meat, and delay onset of spoilage in Pseudomonas putida challenged meat.

    PubMed

    Hyldgaard, Morten; Meyer, Rikke L; Peng, Min; Hibberd, Ashley A; Fischer, Jana; Sigmundsson, Arnar; Mygind, Tina

    2015-12-23

    Proliferation of microbial population on fresh poultry meat over time elicits spoilage when reaching unacceptable levels, during which process slime production, microorganism colony formation, negative organoleptic impact and meat structure change are observed. Spoilage organisms in raw meat, especially Gram-negative bacteria can be difficult to combat due to their cell wall composition. In this study, the natural antimicrobial agents ε-poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) and isoeugenol were tested individually and in combinations for their activities against a selection of Gram-negative strains in vitro. All combinations resulted in additive interactions between ε-PL and isoeugenol towards the bacteria tested. The killing efficiency of different ratios of the two antimicrobial agents was further evaluated in vitro against Pseudomonas putida. Subsequently, the most efficient ratio was applied to a raw turkey meat model system which was incubated for 96 h at spoilage temperature. Half of the samples were challenged with P. putida, and the bacterial load and microbial community composition was followed over time. CFU counts revealed that the antimicrobial blend was able to lower the amount of viable Pseudomonas spp. by one log compared to untreated samples of challenged turkey meat, while the single compounds had no effect on the population. However, the compounds had no effect on Pseudomonas spp. CFU in unchallenged meat. Next-generation sequencing offered culture-independent insight into population diversity and changes in microbial composition of the meat during spoilage and in response to antimicrobial treatment. Spoilage of unchallenged turkey meat resulted in decreasing species diversity over time, regardless of whether the samples received antimicrobial treatment. The microbiota composition of untreated unchallenged meat progressed from a Pseudomonas spp. to a Pseudomonas spp., Photobacterium spp., and Brochothrix thermosphacta dominated food matrix on the expense of low

  4. The Copper-Inducible cin Operon Encodes an Unusual Methionine-Rich Azurin-Like Protein and a Pre-Q0 Reductase in Pseudomonas putida KT2440▿

    PubMed Central

    Quaranta, Davide; McCarty, Reid; Bandarian, Vahe; Rensing, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The genome sequences of several pseudomonads have revealed a gene cluster containing genes for a two-component heavy metal histidine sensor kinase and response regulator upstream of cinA and cinQ, which we show herein to encode a copper-containing azurin-like protein and a pre-Q0 reductase, respectively. In the presence of copper, Pseudomonas putida KT2440 produces the CinA and CinQ proteins from a bicistronic mRNA. UV-visible spectra of CinA show features at 439, 581, and 719 nm, which is typical of the plastocyanin family of proteins. The redox potential of the protein was shown to be 456 ± 4 mV by voltametric titrations. Surprisingly, CinQ is a pyridine nucleotide-dependent nitrile oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of pre-Q0 to pre-Q1 in the nucleoside queuosine biosynthetic pathway. Gene disruptions of cinA and cinQ did not lead to a significant increase in the copper sensitivity of P. putida KT2440 under the conditions tested. Possible roles of CinA and CinQ to help pseudomonads adapt and survive under prolonged copper stress are discussed. PMID:17483220

  5. Evaluation of genotoxicity and pro-oxidant effect of the azo dyes: acids yellow 17, violet 7 and orange 52, and of their degradation products by Pseudomonas putida mt-2.

    PubMed

    Ben Mansour, Hedi; Corroler, David; Barillier, Daniel; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir, Leila; Mosrati, Ridha

    2007-09-01

    Acids yellow 17, violet 7 and orange 52, very important commercial azo dyes used in the textile, food, paper and cosmetic industries, were degraded by Pseudomonas putida mt-2 at concentrations up to 100mg/l. The culture media was completely decolorized under static incubation for 60 h, this faster than under continuous shaking incubation. SOS chromotest using Escherichia coli PQ37, with and without metabolic activation (S-9 preparations), was used to assess genotoxicity potential of these dyes before and after biodegradation. None of these dyes or their metabolites was found to be genotoxic in the absence of "Araclor-Induced rat liver microsome" preparations (S-9). However, in presence of the preparation S-9, the genotoxicity of the biodegradation products was highlighted. Metabolites resulting from static cultures were more genotoxic than those obtained in shaken conditions. In addition to genotoxic effects, metabolites have shown a significant ability to induce the formation of superoxide free radical anion (O(2)(*-)). The toxicities generated by the pure azo dyes and the pure azo-reduction products (sulfanilic acid, N,N'-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine and 4'-aminoacetanilid) were compared. These results suggest that P. putida mt-2 degrades the studied azo dyes in two steps: an azo-reduction followed by an oxygen-dependent metabolization. Some of the derived metabolites would be responsible of genotoxicity and metabolic toxicity.

  6. Polymicrobial Ventriculitis Involving Pseudomonas fulva

    PubMed Central

    Rebolledo, Paulina A.; Vu, Catphuong Cathy L.; Carlson, Renee Donahue; Kraft, Colleen S.; Anderson, Evan J.

    2014-01-01

    Infections due to Pseudomonas fulva remain a rare but emerging concern. A case of ventriculitis due to Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas fulva following placement of an external ventricular drain is described. Similar to other reports, the organism was initially misidentified as Pseudomonas putida. The infection was successfully treated with levofloxacin. PMID:24648556

  7. Camphor Pathway Redux: Functional Recombinant Expression of 2,5- and 3,6-Diketocamphane Monooxygenases of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17453 with Their Cognate Flavin Reductase Catalyzing Baeyer-Villiger Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Iwaki, Hiroaki; Grosse, Stephan; Bergeron, Hélène; Leisch, Hannes; Morley, Krista; Hasegawa, Yoshie

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the biochemical properties of the monooxygenase components that catalyze the oxidation of 2,5-diketocamphane and 3,6-diketocamphane (2,5-DKCMO and 3,6-DKCMO, respectively) in the initial catabolic steps of (+) and (−) isomeric forms of camphor (CAM) metabolism in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17453 are relatively well characterized, the actual identity of the flavin reductase (Fred) component that provides the reduced flavin to the oxygenases has hitherto been ill defined. In this study, a 37-kDa Fred was purified from a camphor-induced culture of P. putida ATCC 17453 and this facilitated cloning and characterization of the requisite protein. The active Fred is a homodimer with a subunit molecular weight of 18,000 that uses NADH as an electron donor (Km = 32 μM), and it catalyzes the reduction of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) (Km = 3.6 μM; kcat = 283 s−1) in preference to flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) (Km = 19 μM; kcat = 128 s−1). Sequence determination of ∼40 kb of the CAM degradation plasmid revealed the locations of two isofunctional 2,5-DKCMO genes (camE25–1 for 2,5-DKCMO-1 and camE25–2 for 2,5-DKCMO-2) as well as that of a 3,6-DKCMO-encoding gene (camE36). In addition, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, the CAM plasmid was established to be linear and ∼533 kb in length. To enable functional assessment of the two-component monooxygenase system in Baeyer-Villiger oxidations, recombinant plasmids expressing Fred in tandem with the respective 2,5-DKCMO- and 3,6-DKCMO-encoding genes in Escherichia coli were constructed. Comparative substrate profiling of the isofunctional 2,5-DCKMOs did not yield obvious differences in Baeyer-Villiger biooxidations, but they are distinct from 3,6-DKCMO in the stereoselective oxygenations with various mono- and bicyclic ketone substrates. PMID:23524667

  8. High specificity in CheR methyltransferase function: CheR2 of Pseudomonas putida is essential for chemotaxis, whereas CheR1 is involved in biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    García-Fontana, Cristina; Reyes-Darias, José Antonio; Muñoz-Martínez, Francisco; Alfonso, Carlos; Morel, Bertrand; Ramos, Juan Luis; Krell, Tino

    2013-06-28

    Chemosensory pathways are a major signal transduction mechanism in bacteria. CheR methyltransferases catalyze the methylation of the cytosolic signaling domain of chemoreceptors and are among the core proteins of chemosensory cascades. These enzymes have primarily been studied Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, which possess a single CheR involved in chemotaxis. Many other bacteria possess multiple cheR genes. Because the sequences of chemoreceptor signaling domains are highly conserved, it remains to be established with what degree of specificity CheR paralogues exert their activity. We report here a comparative analysis of the three CheR paralogues of Pseudomonas putida. Isothermal titration calorimetry studies show that these paralogues bind the product of the methylation reaction, S-adenosylhomocysteine, with much higher affinity (KD of 0.14-2.2 μM) than the substrate S-adenosylmethionine (KD of 22-43 μM), which indicates product feedback inhibition. Product binding was particularly tight for CheR2. Analytical ultracentrifugation experiments demonstrate that CheR2 is monomeric in the absence and presence of S-adenosylmethionine or S-adenosylhomocysteine. Methylation assays show that CheR2, but not the other paralogues, methylates the McpS and McpT chemotaxis receptors. The mutant in CheR2 was deficient in chemotaxis, whereas mutation of CheR1 and CheR3 had either no or little effect on chemotaxis. In contrast, biofilm formation of the CheR1 mutant was largely impaired but not affected in the other mutants. We conclude that CheR2 forms part of a chemotaxis pathway, and CheR1 forms part of a chemosensory route that controls biofilm formation. Data suggest that CheR methyltransferases act with high specificity on their cognate chemoreceptors.

  9. Cloning, Baeyer-Villiger Biooxidations, and Structures of the Camphor Pathway 2-Oxo-Δ3-4,5,5-Trimethylcyclopentenylacetyl-Coenzyme A Monooxygenase of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17453

    PubMed Central

    Leisch, Hannes; Shi, Rong; Grosse, Stephan; Morley, Krista; Bergeron, Hélène; Cygler, Miroslaw; Iwaki, Hiroaki; Hasegawa, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    A dimeric Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) catalyzing the lactonization of 2-oxo-Δ3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetyl-coenzyme A (CoA), a key intermediate in the metabolism of camphor by Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17453, had been initially characterized in 1983 by Ougham and coworkers (H. J. Ougham, D. G. Taylor, and P. W. Trudgill, J. Bacteriol. 153:140–152, 1983). Here we cloned and overexpressed the 2-oxo-Δ3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetyl-CoA monooxygenase (OTEMO) in Escherichia coli and determined its three-dimensional structure with bound flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) at a 1.95-Å resolution as well as with bound FAD and NADP+ at a 2.0-Å resolution. OTEMO represents the first homodimeric type 1 BVMO structure bound to FAD/NADP+. A comparison of several crystal forms of OTEMO bound to FAD and NADP+ revealed a conformational plasticity of several loop regions, some of which have been implicated in contributing to the substrate specificity profile of structurally related BVMOs. Substrate specificity studies confirmed that the 2-oxo-Δ3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetic acid coenzyme A ester is preferred over the free acid. However, the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) favors 2-n-hexyl cyclopentanone (4.3 × 105 M−1 s−1) as a substrate, although its affinity (Km = 32 μM) was lower than that of the CoA-activated substrate (Km = 18 μM). In whole-cell biotransformation experiments, OTEMO showed a unique enantiocomplementarity to the action of the prototypical cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) and appeared to be particularly useful for the oxidation of 4-substituted cyclohexanones. Overall, this work extends our understanding of the molecular structure and mechanistic complexity of the type 1 family of BVMOs and expands the catalytic repertoire of one of its original members. PMID:22267661

  10. Comparative one-factor-at-a-time, response surface (statistical) and bench-scale bioreactor level optimization of thermoalkaline protease production from a psychrotrophic Pseudomonas putida SKG-1 isolate

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Production of alkaline protease from various bacterial strains using statistical methods is customary now-a-days. The present work is first attempt for the production optimization of a solvent stable thermoalkaline protease by a psychrotrophic Pseudomonas putida isolate using conventional, response surface methods, and fermentor level optimization. Results The pre-screening medium amended with optimized (w/v) 1.0% glucose, 2.0% gelatin and 0.5% yeast extract, produced 278 U protease ml-1 at 72 h incubation. Enzyme production increased to 431 Uml-1 when Mg2+ (0.01%, w/v) was supplemented. Optimization of physical factors further enhanced protease to 514 Uml-1 at pH 9.0, 25°C and 200 rpm within 60 h. The combined effect of conventionally optimized variables (glucose, yeast extract, MgSO4 and pH), thereafter predicted by response surface methodology yielded 617 U protease ml-1 at glucose 1.25% (w/v), yeast extract 0.5% (w/v), MgSO4 0.01% (w/v) and pH 8.8. Bench-scale bioreactor level optimization resulted in enhanced production of 882 U protease ml-1 at 0.8 vvm aeration and 150 rpm agitation during only 48 h incubation. Conclusions The optimization of fermentation variables using conventional, statistical approaches and aeration/agitation at fermentor level resulted in ~13.5 folds increase (882 Uml-1) in protease production compared to un-optimized conditions (65 Uml-1). This is the highest level of thermoalkaline protease reported so far by any psychrotrophic bacterium. PMID:22204659

  11. Type III secretion system and virulence markers highlight similarities and differences between human- and plant-associated pseudomonads related to Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. putida.

    PubMed

    Mazurier, Sylvie; Merieau, Annabelle; Bergeau, Dorian; Decoin, Victorien; Sperandio, Daniel; Crépin, Alexandre; Barbey, Corinne; Jeannot, Katy; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Plésiat, Patrick; Lemanceau, Philippe; Latour, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is commonly considered a saprophytic rhizobacterium devoid of pathogenic potential. Nevertheless, the recurrent isolation of strains from clinical human cases could indicate the emergence of novel strains originating from the rhizosphere reservoir, which could be particularly resistant to the immune system and clinical treatment. The importance of type three secretion systems (T3SSs) in the related Pseudomonas aeruginosa nosocomial species and the occurrence of this secretion system in plant-associated P. fluorescens raise the question of whether clinical isolates may also harbor T3SSs. In this study, isolates associated with clinical infections and identified in hospitals as belonging to P. fluorescens were compared with fluorescent pseudomonads harboring T3SSs isolated from plants. Bacterial isolates were tested for (i) their genetic relationships based on their 16S rRNA phylogeny, (ii) the presence of T3SS genes by PCR, and (iii) their infectious potential on animals and plants under environmental or physiological temperature conditions. Two groups of bacteria were delineated among the clinical isolates. The first group encompassed thermotolerant (41°C) isolates from patients suffering from blood infections; these isolates were finally found to not belong to P. fluorescens but were closely related and harbored highly conserved T3SS genes belonging to the Ysc-T3SS family, like the T3SSs from P. aeruginosa. The second group encompassed isolates from patients suffering from cystic fibrosis; these isolates belonged to P. fluorescens and harbored T3SS genes belonging to the Hrp1-T3SS family found commonly in plant-associated P. fluorescens.

  12. Type III secretion system and virulence markers highlight similarities and differences between human- and plant-associated pseudomonads related to Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. putida.

    PubMed

    Mazurier, Sylvie; Merieau, Annabelle; Bergeau, Dorian; Decoin, Victorien; Sperandio, Daniel; Crépin, Alexandre; Barbey, Corinne; Jeannot, Katy; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Plésiat, Patrick; Lemanceau, Philippe; Latour, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is commonly considered a saprophytic rhizobacterium devoid of pathogenic potential. Nevertheless, the recurrent isolation of strains from clinical human cases could indicate the emergence of novel strains originating from the rhizosphere reservoir, which could be particularly resistant to the immune system and clinical treatment. The importance of type three secretion systems (T3SSs) in the related Pseudomonas aeruginosa nosocomial species and the occurrence of this secretion system in plant-associated P. fluorescens raise the question of whether clinical isolates may also harbor T3SSs. In this study, isolates associated with clinical infections and identified in hospitals as belonging to P. fluorescens were compared with fluorescent pseudomonads harboring T3SSs isolated from plants. Bacterial isolates were tested for (i) their genetic relationships based on their 16S rRNA phylogeny, (ii) the presence of T3SS genes by PCR, and (iii) their infectious potential on animals and plants under environmental or physiological temperature conditions. Two groups of bacteria were delineated among the clinical isolates. The first group encompassed thermotolerant (41°C) isolates from patients suffering from blood infections; these isolates were finally found to not belong to P. fluorescens but were closely related and harbored highly conserved T3SS genes belonging to the Ysc-T3SS family, like the T3SSs from P. aeruginosa. The second group encompassed isolates from patients suffering from cystic fibrosis; these isolates belonged to P. fluorescens and harbored T3SS genes belonging to the Hrp1-T3SS family found commonly in plant-associated P. fluorescens. PMID:25636837

  13. Type III Secretion System and Virulence Markers Highlight Similarities and Differences between Human- and Plant-Associated Pseudomonads Related to Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. putida

    PubMed Central

    Mazurier, Sylvie; Merieau, Annabelle; Bergeau, Dorian; Decoin, Victorien; Sperandio, Daniel; Crépin, Alexandre; Barbey, Corinne; Jeannot, Katy; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Plésiat, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is commonly considered a saprophytic rhizobacterium devoid of pathogenic potential. Nevertheless, the recurrent isolation of strains from clinical human cases could indicate the emergence of novel strains originating from the rhizosphere reservoir, which could be particularly resistant to the immune system and clinical treatment. The importance of type three secretion systems (T3SSs) in the related Pseudomonas aeruginosa nosocomial species and the occurrence of this secretion system in plant-associated P. fluorescens raise the question of whether clinical isolates may also harbor T3SSs. In this study, isolates associated with clinical infections and identified in hospitals as belonging to P. fluorescens were compared with fluorescent pseudomonads harboring T3SSs isolated from plants. Bacterial isolates were tested for (i) their genetic relationships based on their 16S rRNA phylogeny, (ii) the presence of T3SS genes by PCR, and (iii) their infectious potential on animals and plants under environmental or physiological temperature conditions. Two groups of bacteria were delineated among the clinical isolates. The first group encompassed thermotolerant (41°C) isolates from patients suffering from blood infections; these isolates were finally found to not belong to P. fluorescens but were closely related and harbored highly conserved T3SS genes belonging to the Ysc-T3SS family, like the T3SSs from P. aeruginosa. The second group encompassed isolates from patients suffering from cystic fibrosis; these isolates belonged to P. fluorescens and harbored T3SS genes belonging to the Hrp1-T3SS family found commonly in plant-associated P. fluorescens. PMID:25636837

  14. Aerobic catabolism of phenylacetic acid in Pseudomonas putida U: biochemical characterization of a specific phenylacetic acid transport system and formal demonstration that phenylacetyl-coenzyme A is a catabolic intermediate.

    PubMed Central

    Schleissner, C; Olivera, E R; Fernández-Valverde, M; Luengo, J M

    1994-01-01

    The phenylacetic acid transport system (PATS) of Pseudomonas putida U was studied after this bacterium was cultured in a chemically defined medium containing phenylacetic acid (PA) as the sole carbon source. Kinetic measurement was carried out, in vivo, at 30 degrees C in 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). Under these conditions, the uptake rate was linear for at least 3 min and the value of Km was 13 microM. The PATS is an active transport system that is strongly inhibited by 2,4-dinitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol (100%), KCN (97%), 2-nitrophenol (90%), or NaN3 (80%) added at a 1 mM final concentration (each). Glucose or D-lactate (10 mM each) increases the PATS in starved cells (140%), whereas arsenate (20 mM), NaF, or N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (1 mM) did not cause any effect. Furthermore, the PATS is insensitive to osmotic shock. These data strongly suggest that the energy for the PATS is derived only from an electron transport system which causes an energy-rich membrane state. The thiol-containing compounds mercaptoethanol, glutathione, and dithiothreitol have no significant effect on the PATS, whereas thiol-modifying reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide and iodoacetate strongly inhibit uptake (100 and 93%, respectively). Molecular analogs of PA with a substitution (i) on the ring or (ii) on the acetyl moiety or those containing (iii) a different ring but keeping the acetyl moiety constant inhibit uptake to different extents. None of the compounds tested significantly increase the PA uptake rate except adipic acid, which greatly stimulates it (163%). The PATS is induced by PA and also, gratuitously, by some phenyl derivatives containing an even number of carbon atoms on the aliphatic moiety (4-phenyl-butyric, 6-phenylhexanoic, and 8-phenyloctanoic acids). However, similar compounds with an odd number of carbon atoms (benzoic, 3-phenylpropionic, 5-phenylvaleric, 7-phenylheptanoic, and 9-phenylnonanoic acids) as well as many other PA derivatives do not induce the system

  15. Plasmids Responsible for Horizontal Transfer of Naphthalene Catabolism Genes between Bacteria at a Coal Tar-Contaminated Site Are Homologous to pDTG1 from Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9816-4

    PubMed Central

    Stuart-Keil, K. G.; Hohnstock, A. M.; Drees, K. P.; Herrick, J. B.; Madsen, E. L.

    1998-01-01

    The presence of a highly conserved nahAc allele among phylogenetically diverse bacteria carrying naphthalene-catabolic plasmids provided evidence for in situ horizontal gene transfer at a coal tar-contaminated site (J. B. Herrick, K. G. Stuart-Keil, W. C. Ghiorse, and E. L. Madsen, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:2330–2337, 1997). The objective of the present study was to identify and characterize the different-sized naphthalene-catabolic plasmids in order to determine the probable mechanism of horizontal transfer of the nahAc gene in situ. Filter matings between naphthalene-degrading bacterial isolates and their cured progeny revealed that the naphthalene-catabolic plasmids were self-transmissible. Limited interstrain transfer was also found. Analysis of the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns indicated that catabolic plasmids from 12 site-derived isolates were closely related to each other and to the naphthalene-catabolic plasmid (pDTG1) of Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9816-4, which was isolated decades ago in Bangor, Wales. The similarity among all site-derived naphthalene-catabolic plasmids and pDTG1 was confirmed by using the entire pDTG1 plasmid as a probe in Southern hybridizations. Two distinct but similar naphthalene-catabolic plasmids were retrieved directly from the microbial community indigenous to the contaminated site in a filter mating by using a cured, rifampin-resistant site-derived isolate as the recipient. RFLP patterns and Southern hybridization showed that both of these newly retrieved plasmids, like the isolate-derived plasmids, were closely related to pDTG1. These data indicate that a pDTG1-like plasmid is the mobile genetic element responsible for transferring naphthalene-catabolic genes among bacteria in situ. The pervasiveness and persistence of this naphthalene-catabolic plasmid suggest that it may have played a role in the adaptation of this microbial community to the coal tar contamination at our study site. PMID:9758778

  16. The role of the fatty acid beta-oxidation multienzyme complex from Pseudomonas oleovorans in polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis: molecular characterization of the fadBA operon from P. oleovorans and of the enoyl-CoA hydratase genes phaJ from P. oleovorans and Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Silke; Steinbüchel, Alexander; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2002-08-01

    In order to investigate the role of the putative epimerase function of the beta-oxidation multienzyme complex (FadBA) in the provision of (R)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA thioesters for medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA(MCL)) biosynthesis, the fadBA(Po) operon of Pseudomonas oleovorans was cloned and characterized. The fadBA(Po) operon and a class-II PHA synthase gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were heterologously co-expressed in Escherichia coli to determine whether the putative epimerase function of FadBA(Po) has the ability to provide precursors for PHA accumulation in a non-PHA-accumulating bacterium. Cultivation studies with fatty acids as carbon source revealed that FadBA(Po) did not mediate PHA(MCL) biosynthesis in the E. coli wild-type strain harboring a PHA synthase gene. However, PHA accumulation was strongly impaired in a recombinant E. coli fadB mutant, which harbored a PHA synthase gene. These data indicate that in pseudomonads FadBA does not possess the inherent property, based on a putative epimerase function, to provide the ( R)-enantiomer of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA efficiently and that other linking enzymes are required to efficiently channel intermediates of beta-oxidation towards PHA(MCL) biosynthesis. However, the phaJ gene from P. oleovorans and from Pseudomonas putida, both of which encoded a 3- Re enoyl-CoA hydratase, was identified. The co-expression of phaJ(Po/Pp) with either a class-II PHA synthase gene or the PHA synthase gene from Aeromonas punctata in E. coli revealed that PhaJ(Po/Pp) mediated biosynthesis of either PHA(MCL), contributing to about 1% of cellular dry mass, or of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate- co-3-hydroxyhexanoate), contributing to 3.6% of cellular dry mass, when grown on decanoate. These data indicate that FadBA(Po)does not mediate the provision of (R)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA, which resembles FadBA of non-PHA-accumulating bacteria, and that 3- Re enoyl-CoA hydratases are required to divert intermediates of fatty acid beta

  17. Comparative in vitro activities of newer quinolones against Pseudomonas species and Xanthomonas maltophilia isolated from patients with cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Rolston, K V; Messer, M; Ho, D H

    1990-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of three Pseudomonas species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida, and Pseudomonas fluorescens) and Xanthomonas maltophilia to quinolone antimicrobial agents were determined. Several newer agents, particularly PD117558, PD117596, PD127391, sparfloxacin (AT-4140), A-56620, and temafloxacin, were active against Pseudomonas species. X. maltophilia isolates were generally less susceptible than were Pseudomonas isolates but were inhibited by some of the newer quinolones. PMID:2285297

  18. Biodegradation of p-nitrophenol by P. putida.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Meenal; Chaudhari, Ambalal

    2006-05-01

    A strain of Pseudomonas putida was found capable of metabolizing p-nitrophenol (PNP) as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen and energy. To explore the applicability of this strain for bioremediation for controlling environmental PNP pollution, its degradation potential at 300 and 500 ppm was examined in a medium devoid of carbon and nitrogen source (minimal medium). At A600, 0.5 OD inoculum, the strain metabolized 300 and 500 ppm within 36 and 72 h, respectively. The degradation was accompanied by release of stoichiometric amount of nitrite. Effect of glucose and nitrogen on PNP degradation under similar conditions revealed that (i) glucose (0.4 g/l) at 20 and 50 ppm PNP did not accelerate the rate of PNP degradation, while glucose (0.4 g/l) at 300 ppm PNP inhibited its degradation, (ii) nitrogen supplement viz. sodium nitrate and ammonium sulphate (0.04 and 0.4 g/l) in minimal medium with PNP (300 ppm) showed no effect on PNP degradation, while glutamate alone (0.04 and 0.4 g/l) showed mere rise in biomass (from 0.5 to 1.6 OD units), and (iii) acidic pH (4.0-6.5) did not support PNP degradation, while alkaline pH (7.5-9.5) significantly enhanced the rate of PNP degradation. The complete degradation of PNP at high concentration (300 ppm) was confirmed by HPTLC analysis. In order to probe root cause of higher PNP degradation, preliminary studies on genetic analysis of P. putida were undertaken, which revealed the prevalence of a degradative plasmid of approximately 15 kb, while cured derivatives of P. putida (PNP-) did not show ability to degrade PNP. Further conjugal transfer of PNP+ phenotype from P. putida to standard strain of E. coli Nova blue (PNP-) confirmed the degradative type of plasmid. PMID:16009549

  19. 3-Fluorophenmetrazine, a fluorinated analogue of phenmetrazine: Studies on in vivo metabolism in rat and human, in vitro metabolism in human CYP isoenzymes and microbial biotransformation in Pseudomonas Putida and wastewater using GC and LC coupled to (HR)-MS techniques.

    PubMed

    Mardal, Marie; Miserez, Bram; Bade, Richard; Portolés, Tania; Bischoff, Markus; Hernández, Félix; Meyer, Markus R

    2016-09-01

    Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) as means to estimate illicit drug and new psychoactive substance (NPS) consumption with spatial and temporal resolution is gaining increasing attention. In order to evaluate a given NPS using WBE, in vivo metabolism and microbial biotransformation of excretion products and unchanged compounds need evaluation. The aims of this study were to identify in vivo phase I and II metabolites of the NPS 3-fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM) in human and rat urine and study the in vitro contribution of Cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes in phase I metabolism. Additionally, to study microbial biotransformation products (MBPs) of 3-FPM from incubations in wastewater and in a wastewater isolated Pseudomonas Putida strain. To these aims gas chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry were applied. Metabolites and MBPs were isolated from urine and microbial incubations after solid phase extraction and precipitation with or without enzymatic conjungate cleaving. The main transformation pathways were N-oxidation, aryl hydroxylation and subsequent O-methylation, alkyl hydroxylation, oxidation, and degradation of the ethyl-bridge yielding the O/N-bis-dealkylated metabolite, combinations thereof and further glucuronidation or sulfations. The main excretion products in the human urine sample were the unchanged compound and the N-oxide, and the main MBPs were the N-oxide and hydroxylation with subsequent oxidations on the alpha-methyl position. Based on these findings, the proposed strategy for WBE analysis of 3-FPM is quantitative determination of unchanged 3-FPM together with qualitative verification of a number of selected metabolites to verify consumption and rule out discharge. PMID:27372653

  20. The loss of function of PhaC1 is a survival mechanism that counteracts the stress caused by the overproduction of poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates in Pseudomonas putidaΔfadBA.

    PubMed

    Obeso, José I; Maestro, Beatriz; Sanz, Jesús M; Olivera, Elías R; Luengo, José M

    2015-09-01

    The poly-3-hydroxylkanoate (PHA)-overproducing mutant Pseudomonas putida U ΔfadBA (PpΔfadBA) lacks the genes encoding the main β-oxidation pathway (FadBA). This strain accumulates enormous amounts of bioplastics when cultured in chemically defined media containing PHA precursors (different n-alkanoic or n-aryl-alkanoic acids) and an additional carbon source. In medium containing glucose or 4-hydroxy-phenylacetate, the mutant does not accumulate PHAs and grows just as the wild type (P. putida U). However, when the carbon source is octanoate, growth is severely impaired, suggesting that in PpΔfadBA, the metabolic imbalance resulting from a lower rate of β-oxidation, together with the accumulation of bioplastics, causes severe physiological stress. Here, we show that PpΔfadBA efficiently counteracts this latter effect via a survival mechanism involving the introduction of spontaneous mutations that block PHA accumulation. Surprisingly, genetic analyses of the whole pha cluster revealed that these mutations occurred only in the gene encoding one of the polymerases (phaC1) and that the loss of PhaC1 function was enough to prevent PHA synthesis. The influence of these mutations on the structure of PhaC1 and the existence of a protein-protein (PhaC1-PhaC2) interaction that explains the functionality of the polymerization system are discussed herein.

  1. The loss of function of PhaC1 is a survival mechanism that counteracts the stress caused by the overproduction of poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates in Pseudomonas putidaΔfadBA.

    PubMed

    Obeso, José I; Maestro, Beatriz; Sanz, Jesús M; Olivera, Elías R; Luengo, José M

    2015-09-01

    The poly-3-hydroxylkanoate (PHA)-overproducing mutant Pseudomonas putida U ΔfadBA (PpΔfadBA) lacks the genes encoding the main β-oxidation pathway (FadBA). This strain accumulates enormous amounts of bioplastics when cultured in chemically defined media containing PHA precursors (different n-alkanoic or n-aryl-alkanoic acids) and an additional carbon source. In medium containing glucose or 4-hydroxy-phenylacetate, the mutant does not accumulate PHAs and grows just as the wild type (P. putida U). However, when the carbon source is octanoate, growth is severely impaired, suggesting that in PpΔfadBA, the metabolic imbalance resulting from a lower rate of β-oxidation, together with the accumulation of bioplastics, causes severe physiological stress. Here, we show that PpΔfadBA efficiently counteracts this latter effect via a survival mechanism involving the introduction of spontaneous mutations that block PHA accumulation. Surprisingly, genetic analyses of the whole pha cluster revealed that these mutations occurred only in the gene encoding one of the polymerases (phaC1) and that the loss of PhaC1 function was enough to prevent PHA synthesis. The influence of these mutations on the structure of PhaC1 and the existence of a protein-protein (PhaC1-PhaC2) interaction that explains the functionality of the polymerization system are discussed herein. PMID:25627209

  2. High quality draft genome sequences of Pseudomonas fulva DSM 17717(T), Pseudomonas parafulva DSM 17004(T) and Pseudomonas cremoricolorata DSM 17059(T) type strains.

    PubMed

    Peña, Arantxa; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Mulet, Magdalena; Gomila, Rosa M; Reddy, T B K; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Markowitz, Victor; García-Valdés, Elena; Göker, Markus; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos; Lalucat, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas has the highest number of species out of any genus of Gram-negative bacteria and is phylogenetically divided into several groups. The Pseudomonas putida phylogenetic branch includes at least 13 species of environmental and industrial interest, plant-associated bacteria, insect pathogens, and even some members that have been found in clinical specimens. In the context of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project, we present the permanent, high-quality draft genomes of the type strains of 3 taxonomically and ecologically closely related species in the Pseudomonas putida phylogenetic branch: Pseudomonas fulva DSM 17717(T), Pseudomonas parafulva DSM 17004(T) and Pseudomonas cremoricolorata DSM 17059(T). All three genomes are comparable in size (4.6-4.9 Mb), with 4,119-4,459 protein-coding genes. Average nucleotide identity based on BLAST comparisons and digital genome-to-genome distance calculations are in good agreement with experimental DNA-DNA hybridization results. The genome sequences presented here will be very helpful in elucidating the taxonomy, phylogeny and evolution of the Pseudomonas putida species complex. PMID:27594974

  3. High quality draft genome sequences of Pseudomonas fulva DSM 17717(T), Pseudomonas parafulva DSM 17004(T) and Pseudomonas cremoricolorata DSM 17059(T) type strains.

    PubMed

    Peña, Arantxa; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Mulet, Magdalena; Gomila, Rosa M; Reddy, T B K; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Markowitz, Victor; García-Valdés, Elena; Göker, Markus; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos; Lalucat, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas has the highest number of species out of any genus of Gram-negative bacteria and is phylogenetically divided into several groups. The Pseudomonas putida phylogenetic branch includes at least 13 species of environmental and industrial interest, plant-associated bacteria, insect pathogens, and even some members that have been found in clinical specimens. In the context of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project, we present the permanent, high-quality draft genomes of the type strains of 3 taxonomically and ecologically closely related species in the Pseudomonas putida phylogenetic branch: Pseudomonas fulva DSM 17717(T), Pseudomonas parafulva DSM 17004(T) and Pseudomonas cremoricolorata DSM 17059(T). All three genomes are comparable in size (4.6-4.9 Mb), with 4,119-4,459 protein-coding genes. Average nucleotide identity based on BLAST comparisons and digital genome-to-genome distance calculations are in good agreement with experimental DNA-DNA hybridization results. The genome sequences presented here will be very helpful in elucidating the taxonomy, phylogeny and evolution of the Pseudomonas putida species complex.

  4. A new P. putida instrumental toxicity bioassay.

    PubMed

    Figueredo, Federico; Abrevaya, Ximena C; Cortón, Eduardo

    2015-05-01

    Here, we present a new toxicity bioassay (CO2-TOX), able to detect toxic or inhibitory compounds in water samples, based on the quantification of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 CO2 production. The metabolically produced CO2 was measured continuously and directly in the liquid assay media, with a potentiometric gas electrode. The optimization studies were performed using as a model toxicant 3,5-DCP (3,5-dichlorophenol); later, heavy metals (Pb(2+), Cu(2+), or Zn(2+)) and a metalloid (As(5+)) were assayed. The response to toxics was evident after 15 min of incubation and at relatively low concentrations (e.g., 1.1 mg/L of 3,5-DCP), showing that the CO2-TOX bioassay is fast and sensitive. The EC50 values obtained were 4.93, 0.12, 6.05, 32.17, and 37.81 mg/L for 3,5-DCP, Cu(2+), Zn(2+), As(5+), and Pb(2+), respectively, at neutral pH. Additionally, the effect of the pH of the sample and the use of lyophilized bacteria were also analyzed showing that the bioassay can be implemented in different conditions. Moreover, highly turbid samples and samples with very low oxygen levels were measured successfully with the new instrumental bioassay described here. Finally, simulated samples containing 3,5-DCP or a heavy metal mixture were tested using the proposed bioassay and a standard ISO bioassay, showing that our test is more sensible to the phenol but less sensible to the metal mixtures. Therefore, we propose CO2-TOX as a rapid, sensitive, low-cost, and robust instrumental bioassay that could perform as an industrial wastewater-process monitor among other applications.

  5. Structure of C73G putidaredoxin from Pseudomonas putida

    SciTech Connect

    Smith,N.; Mayhew, M.; Holden, M.; Kelly, H.; Robinson, H.; Heroux, A.; Vilker, V.; Gallagher, D.

    2004-01-01

    The structure of the C73G mutant of putidaredoxin (Pdx), the Fe{sub 2}S{sub 2} ferredoxin that supplies electrons to cytochrome CYP101 (P450cam) for camphor oxidation, is reported at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution in a C2 crystal form. The structure was solved by single-wavelength iron anomalous diffraction, which yielded electron density above the 2{sigma} level for over 97% of the non-H atoms in the protein. The final structure with R = 0.19 and R{sub free} = 0.21 has been deposited in the Protein Data Bank with accession code 1r7s. The C2 crystal contains three Pdx molecules in the asymmetric unit, giving three independent models of the protein that are very similar (r.m.s.d. < 0.3 {angstrom} for the 106 C{sup {alpha}} atoms). The unusually high solvent fraction of 80% results in comparatively few crystal-packing artifacts. The structure is briefly compared with the recently reported crystal structures of the C73S and C73S/C85S mutants. In general, the eight independent molecules in the three crystal structures (three in C73G, three in C73S and two in C73S/C85S) are much more similar to each other than to the previously reported NMR structure of wild-type Pdx in solution. The present findings show a unanimous structure in some regions crucial for electron-transfer interactions, including the cluster-binding loop 39-48 and the cytochrome-interaction region of Asp38 and Trp106. In addition, the Cys45 amide group donates a hydrogen bond to cluster sulfur S1, with Ala46 adopting an L conformation, in all three molecules in the crystal.

  6. CrcZ and CrcX regulate carbon utilization in Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato strain DC3000

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are important components of many regulatory pathways in bacteria and play key roles in regulating factors important for virulence. Carbon catabolite repression control is modulated by small RNAs (crcZ or crcZ and crcY) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida. ...

  7. Flagellin gene sequence variation in the genus Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Bellingham, N F; Morgan, J A; Saunders, J R; Winstanley, C

    2001-07-01

    Flagellin gene (fliC) sequences from 18 strains of Pseudomonas sensu stricto representing 8 different species, and 9 representative fliC sequences from other members of the gamma sub-division of proteobacteria, were compared. Analysis was performed on N-terminal, C-terminal and whole fliC sequences. The fliC analyses confirmed the inferred relationship between P. mendocina, P. oleovorans and P. aeruginosa based on 16S rRNA sequence comparisons. In addition, the analyses indicated that P. putida PRS2000 was closely related to P. fluorescens SBW25 and P. fluorescens NCIMB 9046T, but suggested that P. putida PaW8 and P. putida PRS2000 were more closely related to other Pseudomonas spp. than they were to each other. There were a number of inconsistencies in inferred evolutionary relationships between strains, depending on the analysis performed. In particular, whole flagellin gene comparisons often differed from those obtained using N- and C-terminal sequences. However, there were also inconsistencies between the terminal region analyses, suggesting that phylogenetic relationships inferred on the basis of fliC sequence should be treated with caution. Although the central domain of fliC is highly variable between Pseudomonas strains, there was evidence of sequence similarities between the central domains of different Pseudomonas fliC sequences. This indicates the possibility of recombination in the central domain of fliC genes within Pseudomonas species, and between these genes and those from other bacteria. PMID:11518318

  8. Microbial degradation of quinoline and methylquinolines. [Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Aislabie, J.; Bej, A.K.; Hurst, H.; Rothenburger, S.; Atlas, R.M. )

    1990-02-01

    Several bacterial cultures were isolated that are able to degrade quinoline and to transform or to degrade methylquinolines. The degradation of quinoline by strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa QP and Pseudomonas. putida QP produced hydroxyquinolines, a transient pink compound, and other undetermined products. The quinoline-degrading strains of P. aeruginosa QP and P. putida QP hydroxylated a limited number of methylquinolines but could not degrade them, nor could they transform 2-methylquinoline, isoquinoline, or pyridine. Another pseudomonad, Pseudomonas sp. strain MQP, was isolated that could degrade 2-methylquinoline. P. aeruginosa QP was able to degrade or to transform quinoline and a few methylquinolines in a complex heterocyclic nitrogen-containing fraction of a shale oil. All of the quinoline- and methylquinoline-degrading strains have multiple plasmids including a common 250-kilobase plasmid. The 225-, 250-, and 320-kilobase plasmids of the P. aeruginosa QP strain all contained genes involved in quinoline metabolism.

  9. Molecular analysis of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa regulatory genes ptxR and ptxS.

    PubMed

    Colmer, J A; Hamood, A N

    2001-09-01

    We have previously described two Pseudomonas aeruginosa genes, ptxR, which enhances toxA and pvc (the pyoverdine chromophore operon) expression, and ptxS, the first gene of the kgu operon for the utilization of 2-ketogluconate by P. aeruginosa. ptxS interferes with the effect of ptxR on toxA expression. In this study, we have utilized DNA hybridization experiments to determine the presence of ptxR and ptxS homologous sequences in several gram-negative bacteria. ptxR homologous sequences were detected in P. aeruginosa strains only, while ptxS homologous sequences were detected in P. aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Using Northern blot hybridization experiments and a ptxS-lacZ fusion plasmid, we have shown that P. aeruginosa ptxR and ptxS are expressed in P. putida and P. fluorescens. Additional Northern blot hybridization experiments confirmed that ptxS is transcribed in P. putida and P. fluorescens strains that carried no plasmid. The presence of a PtxS homologue in these strains was examined by DNA-gel shift experiments. Specific gel shift bands were detected when the lysates of P. aeruginosa, P. putida, and P. fluorescens were incubated with the ptxS operator site as probe. kgu-hybridizing sequences were detected in P. putida and P. fluorescens. These results suggest that (i) ptxR is present in P. aeruginosa, while ptxS is present in P. aeruginosa, P. putida, and P. fluorescens; (ii) both ptxR and ptxS are expressed in P. putida and P fluorescens; and (iii) a PtxS homologue may exist in P. putida and P. fluorescens. PMID:11683464

  10. New alkane-responsive expression vectors for Escherichia coli and pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Smits, T H; Seeger, M A; Witholt, B; van Beilen, J B

    2001-07-01

    We have developed Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas expression vectors based on the alkane-responsive Pseudomonas putida (oleovorans) GPo1 promoter PalkB. The expression vectors were tested in several E. coli strains, P. putida GPo12 and P. fluorescens KOB2Delta1 with catechol-2,3-dioxygenase (XylE). Induction factors ranged between 100 and 2700 for pKKPalk in E. coli and pCom8 in Pseudomonas strains, but were clearly lower for pCom8, pCom9, and pCom10 in E. coli. XylE expression levels of more than 10% of total cell protein were obtained for E. coli as well as for Pseudomonas strains. PMID:11535032

  11. Plant lectin-like antibacterial proteins from phytopathogens Pseudomonas syringae and Xanthomonas citri.

    PubMed

    Ghequire, Maarten G K; Li, Wen; Proost, Paul; Loris, Remy; De Mot, René

    2012-08-01

    The genomes of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae 642 and Xanthomonas citri pv. malvacearum LMG 761 each carry a putative homologue of the plant lectin-like bacteriocin (llpA) genes previously identified in the rhizosphere isolate Pseudomonas putida BW11M1 and the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. The respective purified recombinant proteins, LlpAPss642 and LlpAXcm761 , display genus-specific antibacterial activity across species boundaries. The inhibitory spectrum of the P. syringae bacteriocin overlaps partially with those of the P. putida and P. fluorescens LlpAs. Notably, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri str. 306 secretes a protein identical to LlpAXcm761 . The functional characterization of LlpA proteins from two different phytopathogenic γ-proteobacterial species expands the lectin-like bacteriocin family beyond the Pseudomonas genus and suggests its involvement in competition among closely related plant-associated bacteria with different lifestyles. PMID:23760822

  12. Different Ancestries of R Tailocins in Rhizospheric Pseudomonas Isolates.

    PubMed

    Ghequire, Maarten G K; Dillen, Yörg; Lambrichts, Ivo; Proost, Paul; Wattiez, Ruddy; De Mot, René

    2015-09-26

    Bacterial genomes accommodate a variety of mobile genetic elements, including bacteriophage-related clusters that encode phage tail-like protein complexes playing a role in interactions with eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells. Such tailocins are unable to replicate inside target cells due to the lack of a phage head with associated DNA. A subset of tailocins mediate antagonistic activities with bacteriocin-like specificity. Functional characterization of bactericidal tailocins of two Pseudomonas putida rhizosphere isolates revealed not only extensive similarity with the tail assembly module of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa R-type pyocins but also differences in genomic integration site, regulatory genes, and lytic release modules. Conversely, these three features are quite similar between strains of the P. putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens clades, although phylogenetic analysis of tail genes suggests them to have evolved separately. Unlike P. aeruginosa R pyocin elements, the tailocin gene clusters of other pseudomonads frequently carry cargo genes, including bacteriocins. Compared with P. aeruginosa, the tailocin tail fiber sequences that act as specificity determinants have diverged much more extensively among the other pseudomonad species, mostly isolates from soil and plant environments. Activity of the P. putida antibacterial particles requires a functional lipopolysaccharide layer on target cells, but contrary to R pyocins from P. aeruginosa, strain susceptibilities surpass species boundaries.

  13. Different Ancestries of R Tailocins in Rhizospheric Pseudomonas Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ghequire, Maarten G.K.; Dillen, Yörg; Lambrichts, Ivo; Proost, Paul; Wattiez, Ruddy; De Mot, René

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial genomes accommodate a variety of mobile genetic elements, including bacteriophage-related clusters that encode phage tail-like protein complexes playing a role in interactions with eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells. Such tailocins are unable to replicate inside target cells due to the lack of a phage head with associated DNA. A subset of tailocins mediate antagonistic activities with bacteriocin-like specificity. Functional characterization of bactericidal tailocins of two Pseudomonas putida rhizosphere isolates revealed not only extensive similarity with the tail assembly module of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa R-type pyocins but also differences in genomic integration site, regulatory genes, and lytic release modules. Conversely, these three features are quite similar between strains of the P. putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens clades, although phylogenetic analysis of tail genes suggests them to have evolved separately. Unlike P. aeruginosa R pyocin elements, the tailocin gene clusters of other pseudomonads frequently carry cargo genes, including bacteriocins. Compared with P. aeruginosa, the tailocin tail fiber sequences that act as specificity determinants have diverged much more extensively among the other pseudomonad species, mostly isolates from soil and plant environments. Activity of the P. putida antibacterial particles requires a functional lipopolysaccharide layer on target cells, but contrary to R pyocins from P. aeruginosa, strain susceptibilities surpass species boundaries. PMID:26412856

  14. Antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from wastewater and wastewater-impacted marine coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Luczkiewicz, Aneta; Kotlarska, Ewa; Artichowicz, Wojciech; Tarasewicz, Katarzyna; Fudala-Ksiazek, Sylwia

    2015-12-01

    In this study, species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of cultivated Pseudomonas spp. were studied in influent (INF), effluent (EFF), and marine outfall (MOut) of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The susceptibility was tested against 8 antimicrobial classes, active against Pseudomonas spp.: aminoglycosides, carbapenems, broad-spectrum cephalosporins from the 3rd and 4th generation, extended-spectrum penicillins, as well as their combination with the β-lactamase inhibitors, monobactams, fluoroquinolones, and polymyxins. Among identified species, resistance to all antimicrobials but colistin was shown by Pseudomonas putida, the predominant species in all sampling points. In other species, resistance was observed mainly against ceftazidime, ticarcillin, ticarcillin-clavulanate, and aztreonam, although some isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, and Pseudomonas protegens showed multidrug-resistance (MDR) phenotype. Among P. putida, resistance to β-lactams and to fluoroquinolones as well as multidrug resistance become more prevalent after wastewater treatment, but the resistance rate decreased in marine water samples. Obtained data, however, suggests that Pseudomonas spp. are equipped or are able to acquire a wide range of antibiotic resistance mechanisms, and thus should be monitored as possible source of resistance genes.

  15. Cloning of Pseudomonas sp. strain CBS3 genes specifying dehalogenation of 4-chlorobenzoate

    SciTech Connect

    Savard, P.; Peloquin, L.; Sylvestre, M.

    1986-10-01

    Halogenated benzoates have been used as models for the study of the biodegradation of herbicides and PCBs. The degradation of 4-chlorobenzoate (4-CBA) by Pseudomonas sp. strain CBS3 is thought to proceed first by the dehalogenation of 4-CBA to 4-hydroxybenzoate (4-HBA), which is then metabolized following the protocatechuate branch of the ..beta..-ketoadipate pathway. The cloning of the 4-CBA dehalogenation system was carried out by constructing a gene bank of Pseudomonas sp. strain CBS3 in Pseudomonas putida. Hybrid plasmid pPSA843 contains a 9.5-kilobase-pair fragment derived from the chromosome of Pseudomonas sp. strain CBS3. This plasmid confers on P. putida the ability to dehalogenate 4-CBA and grow on 4-CBA as the only source of carbon. However, pPSA843 did not complement mutants of P. putida unable to grow on 4-HBA (POB/sup -/), showing that the genes involved in the metabolism of 4-HBA were not cloned. Subcloning of Pseudomonas sp. strain CBS3 genes revealed that most of the insert is required for the dehalogenation of 4-CBA, suggesting that more than one gene product is involved in this dehalogenation.

  16. Generation of a catR deficient mutant of P. putida KT2440 that produces cis, cis-muconate from benzoate at high rate and yield.

    PubMed

    van Duuren, J B J H; Wijte, D; Leprince, A; Karge, B; Puchałka, J; Wery, J; Dos Santos, V A P Martins; Eggink, G; Mars, A E

    2011-12-10

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440-JD1 was derived from P. putida KT2440 after N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG)-mutagenesis and exposure to 3-fluorobenzoate (3-FB). The mutant was no longer able to grow using benzoate as a sole carbon source, but co-metabolized benzoate to cis, cis-muconate during growth on glucose, which accumulated in the growth medium. The specific production rate (q(pm)) was 0.18±0.03 g cis, cis-muconate/(g(DCW) h) in continuous cultures, and increased to 1.4 g cis, cis-muconate/(g(DCW) h) during wash-out cultivation. Transcriptome analysis showed that the cat operon was not induced in P. putida KT2440-JD1 in the presence of 5mM benzoate, due to a point mutation in the highly conserved DNA binding domain of the transcriptional regulator (catR) of the cat operon. The ben operon was highly expressed in the presence of benzoate in the mutant and its parental strain. This operon contains PP_3166 (catA2), which was shown to be a second catechol 1,2-dioxygenase besides catA. P. putida KT2440-JD1 is the first cis, cis-muconate-accumulating mutant that was characterized at the genetic level. The specific production rate achieved is at least eight times higher than those reported for other cis, cis-muconate-producing strains.

  17. Biotransformation of substituted benzoates to the corresponding cis-diols by an engineered strain of Pseudomonas oleovorans producing the TOL plasmid-specified enzyme toluate-1,2-dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Wubbolts, M.G.; Timmis, K.N. )

    1990-02-01

    The conversion of substituted benzoates into 1,2-cis-dihydroxycyclohexa-3,5-diene carboxylic acids (cis-diols) was affected by using Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas recombinants carrying the xylXYZ genes originating from the Pseudomonas putida mt-2 TOL plasmid, thus producing toluate-1,2-dioxygenase. Pseudomonas oleovorans GPo12 recombinants readily produced meta-and para-substituted cis-diols, but were limited in their oxidation of ortho-substituted substrates.

  18. Induction of toluene oxidation activity in pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and pseudomonas sp. strain ENVPC5 by chlorinated solvents and alkanes

    SciTech Connect

    McClay, K.; Streger, S.H.; Steffan, R.J.

    1995-09-01

    Toluene oxidation activity in Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain ENVPC5 was induced by trichloroethylene (TCE), and induction was followed by the degradation of TCE. Higher levels of toluene oxidation activity were achieved in the presence of a supplemental growth substrate such as glutamate, with levels of activity of up to 86% of that observed with toluene-induced cells. Activity in P. mendocina KR1 was also induced by cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, chloroethane, hexane, pentane, and octane, but not by trans-1,2-dichloroethylene. Toluene oxidation was not induced by TCE in Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia G4, P. putida F1, Pseudomonas sp. strain ENV110, or Pseudomonas sp. strain ENV113. 22 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial genus Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO(2), H(2)O, and NH(3). Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides.

  20. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial genus Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO(2), H(2)O, and NH(3). Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides. PMID:26837064

  1. Tolerance of transgenic canola plants (Brassica napus) amended with plant growth-promoting bacteria to flooding stress at a metal-contaminated field site.

    PubMed

    Farwell, Andrea J; Vesely, Susanne; Nero, Vincent; Rodriguez, Hilda; McCormack, Kimberley; Shah, Saleh; Dixon, D George; Glick, Bernard R

    2007-06-01

    The growth of transgenic canola (Brassica napus) expressing a gene for the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase was compared to non-transformed canola exposed to flooding and elevated soil Ni concentration, in situ. In addition, the ability of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas putida UW4, which also expresses ACC deaminase, to facilitate the growth of non-transformed and transgenic canola under the above mentioned conditions was examined. Transgenic canola and/or canola treated with P. putida UW4 had greater shoot biomass compared to non-transformed canola under low flood-stress conditions. Under high flood-stress conditions, shoot biomass was reduced and Ni accumulation was increased in all instances relative to low flood-stress conditions. This is the first field study to document the increase in plant tolerance utilizing transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria exposed to multiple stressors. PMID:17141927

  2. Differential habitat use and niche partitioning by Pseudomonas species in human homes.

    PubMed

    Remold, Susanna K; Brown, Christopher K; Farris, Justin E; Hundley, Thomas C; Perpich, Jessica A; Purdy, Megan E

    2011-10-01

    Many species of Pseudomonas have the ability to use a variety of resources and habitats, and as a result Pseudomonas are often characterized as having broad fundamental niches. We questioned whether actual habitat use by Pseudomonas species is equally broad. To do this, we sampled extensively to describe the biogeography of Pseudomonas within the human home, which presents a wide variety of habitats for microbes that live in close proximity to humans but are not part of the human flora, and for microbes that are opportunistic pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. From 960 samples taken in 20 homes, we obtained 163 Pseudomonas isolates. The most prevalent based on identification using the SepsiTest BLAST analysis of 16S rRNA (http://www.sepsitest-blast.de) were Pseudomonas monteilii (42 isolates), Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, Pseudomonas fulva, and P. aeruginosa (approximately 25 each). Of these, all but P. fulva differed in recovery rates among evaluated habitat types (drains, soils, water, internal vertebrate sites, vertebrate skin, inanimate surfaces, and garbage/compost) and all four species also differed in recovery rates among subcategories of habitat types (e.g., types of soils or drains). We also found that at both levels of habitat resolution, each of these six most common species (the four above plus Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans) were over- or under-represented in some habitats relative to their contributions to the total Pseudomonas collected across all habitats. This pattern is consistent with niche partitioning. These results suggest that, whereas Pseudomonas are often characterized as generalists with broad fundamental niches, these species in fact have more restricted realized niches. Furthermore, niche partitioning driven by competition among Pseudomonas species may be contributing to the observed variability in habitat use by Pseudomonas in this system.

  3. Differential habitat use and niche partitioning by Pseudomonas species in human homes.

    PubMed

    Remold, Susanna K; Brown, Christopher K; Farris, Justin E; Hundley, Thomas C; Perpich, Jessica A; Purdy, Megan E

    2011-10-01

    Many species of Pseudomonas have the ability to use a variety of resources and habitats, and as a result Pseudomonas are often characterized as having broad fundamental niches. We questioned whether actual habitat use by Pseudomonas species is equally broad. To do this, we sampled extensively to describe the biogeography of Pseudomonas within the human home, which presents a wide variety of habitats for microbes that live in close proximity to humans but are not part of the human flora, and for microbes that are opportunistic pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. From 960 samples taken in 20 homes, we obtained 163 Pseudomonas isolates. The most prevalent based on identification using the SepsiTest BLAST analysis of 16S rRNA (http://www.sepsitest-blast.de) were Pseudomonas monteilii (42 isolates), Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, Pseudomonas fulva, and P. aeruginosa (approximately 25 each). Of these, all but P. fulva differed in recovery rates among evaluated habitat types (drains, soils, water, internal vertebrate sites, vertebrate skin, inanimate surfaces, and garbage/compost) and all four species also differed in recovery rates among subcategories of habitat types (e.g., types of soils or drains). We also found that at both levels of habitat resolution, each of these six most common species (the four above plus Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans) were over- or under-represented in some habitats relative to their contributions to the total Pseudomonas collected across all habitats. This pattern is consistent with niche partitioning. These results suggest that, whereas Pseudomonas are often characterized as generalists with broad fundamental niches, these species in fact have more restricted realized niches. Furthermore, niche partitioning driven by competition among Pseudomonas species may be contributing to the observed variability in habitat use by Pseudomonas in this system. PMID:21503776

  4. DNA sequence-based analysis of the Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Mulet, Magdalena; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2010-06-01

    Partial sequences of four core 'housekeeping' genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD) of the type strains of 107 Pseudomonas species were analysed in order to obtain a comprehensive view regarding the phylogenetic relationships within the Pseudomonas genus. Gene trees allowed the discrimination of two lineages or intrageneric groups (IG), called IG P. aeruginosa and IG P. fluorescens. The first IG P. aeruginosa, was divided into three main groups, represented by the species P. aeruginosa, P. stutzeri and P. oleovorans. The second IG was divided into six groups, represented by the species P. fluorescens, P. syringae, P. lutea, P. putida, P. anguilliseptica and P. straminea. The P. fluorescens group was the most complex and included nine subgroups, represented by the species P. fluorescens, P. gessardi, P. fragi, P. mandelii, P. jesseni, P. koreensis, P. corrugata, P. chlororaphis and P. asplenii. Pseudomonas rhizospherae was affiliated with the P. fluorescens IG in the phylogenetic analysis but was independent of any group. Some species were located on phylogenetic branches that were distant from defined clusters, such as those represented by the P. oryzihabitans group and the type strains P. pachastrellae, P. pertucinogena and P. luteola. Additionally, 17 strains of P. aeruginosa, 'P. entomophila', P. fluorescens, P. putida, P. syringae and P. stutzeri, for which genome sequences have been determined, have been included to compare the results obtained in the analysis of four housekeeping genes with those obtained from whole genome analyses.

  5. DNA sequence-based analysis of the Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Mulet, Magdalena; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2010-06-01

    Partial sequences of four core 'housekeeping' genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD) of the type strains of 107 Pseudomonas species were analysed in order to obtain a comprehensive view regarding the phylogenetic relationships within the Pseudomonas genus. Gene trees allowed the discrimination of two lineages or intrageneric groups (IG), called IG P. aeruginosa and IG P. fluorescens. The first IG P. aeruginosa, was divided into three main groups, represented by the species P. aeruginosa, P. stutzeri and P. oleovorans. The second IG was divided into six groups, represented by the species P. fluorescens, P. syringae, P. lutea, P. putida, P. anguilliseptica and P. straminea. The P. fluorescens group was the most complex and included nine subgroups, represented by the species P. fluorescens, P. gessardi, P. fragi, P. mandelii, P. jesseni, P. koreensis, P. corrugata, P. chlororaphis and P. asplenii. Pseudomonas rhizospherae was affiliated with the P. fluorescens IG in the phylogenetic analysis but was independent of any group. Some species were located on phylogenetic branches that were distant from defined clusters, such as those represented by the P. oryzihabitans group and the type strains P. pachastrellae, P. pertucinogena and P. luteola. Additionally, 17 strains of P. aeruginosa, 'P. entomophila', P. fluorescens, P. putida, P. syringae and P. stutzeri, for which genome sequences have been determined, have been included to compare the results obtained in the analysis of four housekeeping genes with those obtained from whole genome analyses. PMID:20192968

  6. Effect of osmotic stress on plant growth promoting Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed

    Sandhya, V; Ali, Sk Z; Venkateswarlu, B; Reddy, Gopal; Grover, Minakshi

    2010-10-01

    In this study we isolated and screened drought tolerant Pseudomonas isolates from arid and semi arid crop production systems of India. Five isolates could tolerate osmotic stress up to -0.73 MPa and possessed multiple PGP properties such as P-solubilization, production of phytohormones (IAA, GA and cytokinin), siderophores, ammonia and HCN however under osmotic stress expression of PGP traits was low compared to non-stressed conditions. The strains were identified as Pseudomonas entomophila, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas syringae and Pseudomonas monteilli respectively on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Osmotic stress affected growth pattern of all the isolates as indicated by increased mean generation time. An increase level of intracellular free amino acids, proline, total soluble sugars and exopolysaccharides was observed under osmotic stress suggesting bacterial response to applied stress. Further, strains GAP-P45 and GRFHYTP52 showing higher levels of EPS and osmolytes (amino acids and proline) accumulation under stress as compared to non-stress conditions, also exhibited higher expression of PGP traits under stress indicating a relationship between stress response and expression of PGP traits. We conclude that isolation and screening of indigenous, stress adaptable strains possessing PGP traits can be a method for selection of efficient stress tolerant PGPR strains.

  7. Efficacy of lactoferricin B in controlling ready-to-eat vegetable spoilage caused by Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed

    Federico, Baruzzi; Pinto, Loris; Quintieri, Laura; Carito, Antonia; Calabrese, Nicola; Caputo, Leonardo

    2015-12-23

    The microbial content of plant tissues has been reported to cause the spoilage of ca. 30% of chlorine-disinfected fresh vegetables during cold storage. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial peptides in controlling microbial vegetable spoilage under cold storage conditions. A total of 48 bacterial isolates were collected from ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables and identified as belonging to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Aeromonas media, Pseudomonas cichorii, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas jessenii, Pseudomonas koreensis, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas simiae and Pseudomonas viridiflava species. Reddish or brownish pigmentation was found when Pseudomonas strains were inoculated in wounds on leaves of Iceberg and Trocadero lettuce and escarole chicory throughout cold storage. Bovine lactoferrin (BLF) and its hydrolysates (LFHs) produced by pepsin, papain and rennin, were assayed in vitro against four Pseudomonas spp. strains selected for their heavy spoiling ability. As the pepsin-LFH showed the strongest antimicrobial effect, subsequent experiments were carried out using the peptide lactoferricin B (LfcinB), well known to be responsible for its antimicrobial activity. LfcinB significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) spoilage by a mean of 36% caused by three out of four inoculated spoiler pseudomonads on RTE lettuce leaves after six days of cold storage. The reduction in the extent of spoilage was unrelated to viable cell density in the inoculated wounds. This is the first paper providing direct evidence regarding the application of an antimicrobial peptide to control microbial spoilage affecting RTE leafy vegetables during cold storage. PMID:26453993

  8. Combined inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum for enhancing plant growth of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia).

    PubMed

    Sandheep, A R; Asok, A K; Jisha, M S

    2013-06-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the plant growth promoting efficiency of combined inoculation of rhizobacteria on Vanilla plants. Based on the in vitro performance of indigenous Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas spp., four effective antagonists were selected and screened under greenhouse experiment for their growth enhancement potential. The maximum percentage of growth enhancement were observed in the combination of Trichoderma harzianum with Pseudomonas fluorescens treatment followed by Pseudomonas fluorescens, Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas putida and Trichoderma virens, respectively in decreasing order. Combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens registered the maximum length of vine (82.88 cm), highest number of leaves (26.67/plant), recorded the highest fresh weight of shoots (61.54 g plant(-1)), fresh weight of roots (4.46 g plant(-1)) and dry weight of shoot (4.56 g plant(-1)) where as the highest dry weight of roots (2.0806 g plant(-1)) were achieved with treatments of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Among the inoculated strains, combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens recorded the maximum nitrogen uptake (61.28 mg plant(-1)) followed by the combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum (std) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (std) (55.03 mg plant(-1)) and the highest phosphorus uptake (38.80 mg plant(-1)) was recorded in dual inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

  9. Efficacy of lactoferricin B in controlling ready-to-eat vegetable spoilage caused by Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed

    Federico, Baruzzi; Pinto, Loris; Quintieri, Laura; Carito, Antonia; Calabrese, Nicola; Caputo, Leonardo

    2015-12-23

    The microbial content of plant tissues has been reported to cause the spoilage of ca. 30% of chlorine-disinfected fresh vegetables during cold storage. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial peptides in controlling microbial vegetable spoilage under cold storage conditions. A total of 48 bacterial isolates were collected from ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables and identified as belonging to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Aeromonas media, Pseudomonas cichorii, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas jessenii, Pseudomonas koreensis, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas simiae and Pseudomonas viridiflava species. Reddish or brownish pigmentation was found when Pseudomonas strains were inoculated in wounds on leaves of Iceberg and Trocadero lettuce and escarole chicory throughout cold storage. Bovine lactoferrin (BLF) and its hydrolysates (LFHs) produced by pepsin, papain and rennin, were assayed in vitro against four Pseudomonas spp. strains selected for their heavy spoiling ability. As the pepsin-LFH showed the strongest antimicrobial effect, subsequent experiments were carried out using the peptide lactoferricin B (LfcinB), well known to be responsible for its antimicrobial activity. LfcinB significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) spoilage by a mean of 36% caused by three out of four inoculated spoiler pseudomonads on RTE lettuce leaves after six days of cold storage. The reduction in the extent of spoilage was unrelated to viable cell density in the inoculated wounds. This is the first paper providing direct evidence regarding the application of an antimicrobial peptide to control microbial spoilage affecting RTE leafy vegetables during cold storage.

  10. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Two Pseudomonas Flavoprotein Xenobiotic Reductases

    PubMed Central

    Blehert, David S.; Fox, Brian G.; Chambliss, Glenn H.

    1999-01-01

    The genes encoding flavin mononucleotide-containing oxidoreductases, designated xenobiotic reductases, from Pseudomonas putida II-B and P. fluorescens I-C that removed nitrite from nitroglycerin (NG) by cleavage of the nitroester bond were cloned, sequenced, and characterized. The P. putida gene, xenA, encodes a 39,702-Da monomeric, NAD(P)H-dependent flavoprotein that removes either the terminal or central nitro groups from NG and that reduces 2-cyclohexen-1-one but did not readily reduce 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). The P. fluorescens gene, xenB, encodes a 37,441-Da monomeric, NAD(P)H-dependent flavoprotein that exhibits fivefold regioselectivity for removal of the central nitro group from NG and that transforms TNT but did not readily react with 2-cyclohexen-1-one. Heterologous expression of xenA and xenB was demonstrated in Escherichia coli DH5α. The transcription initiation sites of both xenA and xenB were identified by primer extension analysis. BLAST analyses conducted with the P. putida xenA and the P. fluorescens xenB sequences demonstrated that these genes are similar to several other bacterial genes that encode broad-specificity flavoprotein reductases. The prokaryotic flavoprotein reductases described herein likely shared a common ancestor with old yellow enzyme of yeast, a broad-specificity enzyme which may serve a detoxification role in antioxidant defense systems. PMID:10515912

  11. Pseudomonas chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Sampedro, Inmaculada; Parales, Rebecca E; Krell, Tino; Hill, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonads sense changes in the concentration of chemicals in their environment and exhibit a behavioral response mediated by flagella or pili coupled with a chemosensory system. The two known chemotaxis pathways, a flagella-mediated pathway and a putative pili-mediated system, are described in this review. Pseudomonas shows chemotaxis response toward a wide range of chemicals, and this review includes a summary of them organized by chemical structure. The assays used to measure positive and negative chemotaxis swimming and twitching Pseudomonas as well as improvements to those assays and new assays are also described. This review demonstrates that there is ample research and intellectual space for future investigators to elucidate the role of chemotaxis in important processes such as pathogenesis, bioremediation, and the bioprotection of plants and animals.

  12. Biosurfactant production in sugar beet molasses by some Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed

    Onbasli, Dilsad; Aslim, Belma

    2009-01-01

    In this study rhamnolipid biosurfactant production was investigated in eighteen strains of Pseudomonas spp.. Rhamnolipid by these strains was determined by a spectrophotometric method in nutrient broth medium (NB). From the 18 strains screened, two Pseudomonas strains (Pseudomonas luteola B17 and Pseudomonas putida B12) which had produced the highest percentage yield of rhamnolipid were examined for rhamnolipid production at different incubation times (24, 48 and 72 hr) and different sugar beet molasses concentrations [1-5% w/v concentration (1-5 g molasses/100 ml water)]. The rhamnolipid production increased with the increase in the concentration of molasses and maximum production occurred when 5 % (w/v) of molasses were used. At the same time, maximu