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Sample records for pseudomonas syringae pathovars1

  1. Ice crystallization by Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Cochet, N; Widehem, P

    2000-08-01

    Several bacterial species can serve as biological ice nuclei. The best characterized of these is Pseudomonas syringae, a widely distributed bacterial epiphyte of plants. These biological ice nuclei find various applications in different fields, but an optimized production method was required in order to obtain the highly active cells which may be exploited as ice nucleators. The results presented here show that P. syringae cells reduce supercooling of liquid or solid media and enhance ice crystal formation at sub-zero temperatures, thus leading to a remarkable control of the crystallization phenomenon and a potential for energy savings. Our discussion focuses on recent and future applications of these ice nucleators in freezing operations, spray-ice technology and biotechnological processes.

  2. Draft genome sequences of pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae ALF3 isolated from alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the annotated draft genome of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain ALF3, isolated in Wyoming, USA. Comparison of this genome sequence with those of closely related strains of P. syringae pv. syringae adapted to other hosts will facilitate research into interactions between this pathoge...

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae ALF3 Isolated from Alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Harrison, James; Dornbusch, Melinda R; Samac, Deborah; Studholme, David J

    2016-02-11

    We report here the annotated draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain ALF3, isolated in Wyoming. A comparison of this genome sequence with those of closely related strains of P. syringae adapted to other hosts will facilitate research into interactions between this pathogen and alfalfa.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae ALF3 Isolated from Alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, James; Dornbusch, Melinda R.; Samac, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    We report here the annotated draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain ALF3, isolated in Wyoming. A comparison of this genome sequence with those of closely related strains of P. syringae adapted to other hosts will facilitate research into interactions between this pathogen and alfalfa. PMID:26868403

  5. Impact of siderophore production by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae 22d/93 on epiphytic fitness and biocontrol activity against Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea 1a/96.

    PubMed

    Wensing, Annette; Braun, Sascha D; Büttner, Petra; Expert, Dominique; Völksch, Beate; Ullrich, Matthias S; Weingart, Helge

    2010-05-01

    The use of naturally occurring microbial antagonists to suppress plant diseases offers a favorable alternative to classical methods of plant protection. The soybean epiphyte Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain 22d/93 shows great potential for controlling P. syringae pv. glycinea, the causal agent of bacterial blight of soybean. Its activity against P. syringae pv. glycinea is highly reproducible even in field trials, and the suppression mechanisms involved are of special interest. In this work we demonstrated that P. syringae pv. syringae 22d/93 produced a significantly larger amount of siderophores than the pathogen P. syringae pv. glycinea produced. While P. syringae pv. syringae 22d/93 and P. syringae pv. glycinea produce the same siderophores, achromobactin and pyoverdin, the regulation of siderophore biosynthesis in the former organism is very different from that in the latter organism. The epiphytic fitness of P. syringae pv. syringae 22d/93 mutants defective in siderophore biosynthesis was determined following spray inoculation of soybean leaves. The population size of the siderophore-negative mutant P. syringae pv. syringae strain 22d/93DeltaSid was 2 orders of magnitude lower than that of the wild type 10 days after inoculation. The growth deficiency was compensated for when wound inoculation was used, indicating the availability of iron in the presence of small lesions on the leaves. Our results suggest that siderophore production has an indirect effect on the biocontrol activity of P. syringae pv. syringae 22d/93. Although siderophore-defective mutants of P. syringae pv. syringae 22d/93 still suppressed development of bacterial blight caused by P. syringae pv. glycinea, siderophore production enhanced the epiphytic fitness and thus the competitiveness of the antagonist.

  6. Chemotaxis by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato.

    PubMed

    Cuppels, Diane A

    1988-03-01

    Optimal laboratory conditions for studying chemotaxis by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato were determined by using the Adler capillary tube assay. Although they are not an absolute requirement for chemotaxis, the presence of 0.1 mM EDTA and 1 mM MgCl(2) in the chemotaxis buffer (10 mM potassium phosphate [pH 7.2]) significantly enhanced the response to attractant. The addition of mannitol as an energy source had little effect. The optimal temperature for chemotaxis was 23 degrees C, which is 5 degrees C below the optimal growth temperature for this pathogen. The best response occurred when the bacteria were exposed to attractant for 60 min at a concentration of approximately 5 x 10 CFU/ml. P. syringae pv. tomato was strongly attracted to citric and malic acids, which are the predominant organic acids in tomato fruit. With the exception of asparagine, the major amino acids of tomatoes were weak to moderate attractants. Glucose and fructose, which account for approximately 47% of tomato dry matter, also elicited poor responses. In assays with tomato intercellular fluid and leaf surface water, the bacterial speck pathogen could not chemotactically distinguish between a resistant and a susceptible cultivar of tomato.

  7. Cellulose production in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae: a compromise between epiphytic and pathogenic lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Arrebola, Eva; Carrión, Víctor J; Gutiérrez-Barranquero, José Antonio; Pérez-García, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; Cazorla, Francisco M; de Vicente, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Genome sequencing and annotation have revealed a putative cellulose biosynthetic operon in the strain Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae UMAF0158, the causal agent of bacterial apical necrosis. Bioinformatics analyses and experimental methods were used to confirm the functionality of the cellulose biosynthetic operon. In addition, the results showed the contribution of the cellulose operon to important aspects of P. syringae pv. syringae biology, such as the formation of biofilms and adhesion to the leaf surface of mango, suggesting that this operon increases epiphytic fitness. However, based on the incidence and severity of the symptoms observed in tomato leaflets, cellulose expression reduces virulence, as cellulose-deficient mutants increased the area of necrosis, whereas the cellulose-overproducing strain decreased the area of necrosis compared with the wild type. In conclusion, the results of this study show that the epiphytic and pathogenic stages of the P. syringae pv. syringae UMAF0158 lifestyle are intimately affected by cellulose production.

  8. New strategies for genetic engineering Pseudomonas syringae using recombination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we report that DNA oligonucleotides (oligos) introduced directly into bacteria by electroporation can recombine with the bacterial chromosome. This phenomenon was identified in Pseudomonas syringae and we subsequently found that Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella flexneri are...

  9. Strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae from pea are phylogenetically and pathogenically diverse.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sanz, Alberto; de la Vega, Marcelino Pérez; Murillo, Jesús; Caminero, Constantino

    2013-07-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae causes extensive yield losses in the pea crop worldwide, although there is little information on its host specialization and its interactions with pea. A collection of 88 putative P. syringae pv. syringae strains (including 39 strains isolated from pea) was characterized by repetitive polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and syrB amplification and evaluated for pathogenicity and virulence. rep-PCR data grouped the strains from pea into two groups (1B and 1C) together with strains from other hosts; a third group (1A) was formed exclusively with strains isolated from non-legume species. MLST data included all strains from pea in the genomospecies 1 of P. syringae pathovars defined in previous studies; they were distributed in the same three groups defined by rep-PCR. The inoculations performed in two pea cultivars showed that P. syringae pv. syringae strains from groups 1A and 1C were less virulent than strains from group 1B, suggesting a possible pathogenic specialization in this group. This study shows the existence of genetically and pathogenically distinct P. syringae pv. syringae strain groups from pea, which will be useful for the diagnostic and epidemiology of this pathogen and for disease resistance breeding.

  10. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance... Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas...

  11. Gene Expression Profiling in Viable but Nonculturable (VBNC) Cells of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae

    PubMed Central

    Postnikova, Olga A.; Shao, Jonathan; Mock, Norton M.; Baker, Con J.; Nemchinov, Lev G.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae infects diverse crop plants and comprises at least 50 different pathovar strains with different host ranges. More information on the physiological and molecular effects of the host inhibitory environment on the pathogen is needed to develop resistant cultivars. Recently, we reported an in vitro model system that mimics the redox pulse associated with the oxidative burst in plant cells inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Using this system, we demonstrated that oxidation of acetosyringone, a major extracellular phenolic compound induced in some plants in response to bacteria, rendered Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae to a “viable but nonculturable” (VBNC) state. Here we performed a large scale transcriptome profiling of P. s. pv. syringae in the VBNC state induced by acetosyringone treatment and identified bacterial genes and pathways presumably associated with this condition. The findings offer insight into what events occur when bacterial pathogens are first encountered and host defense responses are triggered. The acquired knowledge will improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance. We believe that this is the first work on global gene expression profiling of VBNC cells in plant pathogenic bacteria. PMID:26733964

  12. Gene expression profiling in viable but not culturable (VBNC) cells of Pseudomonas syringae pv syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas syringae infects diverse crop plants and comprises at least 50 different pathovar strains with different host ranges. One of our objectives is related to understanding molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance in alfalfa, the most widely grown forage crop in the wo...

  13. Characterization of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, Causal Agent of Citrus Blast of Mandarin in Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Ivanović, Žarko; Perović, Tatjana; Popović, Tatjana; Blagojević, Jovana; Trkulja, Nenad; Hrnčić, Snježana

    2017-02-01

    Citrus blast caused by bacterium Pseudomonas syringae is a very important disease of citrus occuring in many areas of the world, but with few data about genetic structure of the pathogen involved. Considering the above fact, this study reports genetic characterization of 43 P. syringae isolates obtained from plant tissue displaying citrus blast symptoms on mandarin (Citrus reticulata) in Montenegro, using multilocus sequence analysis of gyrB, rpoD, and gap1 gene sequences. Gene sequences from a collection of 54 reference pathotype strains of P. syringae from the Plant Associated and Environmental Microbes Database (PAMDB) was used to establish a genetic relationship with our isolates obtained from mandarin. Phylogenetic analyses of gyrB, rpoD, and gap1 gene sequences showed that P. syringae pv. syringae causes citrus blast in mandarin in Montenegro, and belongs to genomospecies 1. Genetic homogeneity of isolates suggested that the Montenegrian population might be clonal which indicates a possible common source of infection. These findings may assist in further epidemiological studies of this pathogen and for determining mandarin breeding strategies for P. syringae control.

  14. Characterization of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, Causal Agent of Citrus Blast of Mandarin in Montenegro

    PubMed Central

    Ivanović, Žarko; Perović, Tatjana; Popović, Tatjana; Blagojević, Jovana; Trkulja, Nenad; Hrnčić, Snježana

    2017-01-01

    Citrus blast caused by bacterium Pseudomonas syringae is a very important disease of citrus occuring in many areas of the world, but with few data about genetic structure of the pathogen involved. Considering the above fact, this study reports genetic characterization of 43 P. syringae isolates obtained from plant tissue displaying citrus blast symptoms on mandarin (Citrus reticulata) in Montenegro, using multilocus sequence analysis of gyrB, rpoD, and gap1 gene sequences. Gene sequences from a collection of 54 reference pathotype strains of P. syringae from the Plant Associated and Environmental Microbes Database (PAMDB) was used to establish a genetic relationship with our isolates obtained from mandarin. Phylogenetic analyses of gyrB, rpoD, and gap1 gene sequences showed that P. syringae pv. syringae causes citrus blast in mandarin in Montenegro, and belongs to genomospecies 1. Genetic homogeneity of isolates suggested that the Montenegrian population might be clonal which indicates a possible common source of infection. These findings may assist in further epidemiological studies of this pathogen and for determining mandarin breeding strategies for P. syringae control. PMID:28167885

  15. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  16. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  17. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  18. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  19. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  20. [Pseudomonas syringae - the agent of bacterial diseases of weeds].

    PubMed

    Pasichnik, L A; Savenko, E A; Butsenko, L N; Shcherbina, T N; Patyka, V F

    2013-01-01

    The symptoms of bacterial diseases of the associated weeds have been identified and described in the wheat crops grown in different farming systems. On the basis of its morphological, biochemical and serological properties the agent isolated from frost-blite, barnyard grass, wild radish, couch grass, bottle-brush, bindweed and sow thistle has been identified as Pseudomonas syringae. Serological affinity between the weed bacteria and the agent of bacterial diseases of cereals has been established.

  1. Mangotoxin production of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae is regulated by MgoA

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The antimetabolite mangotoxin is a key factor in virulence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strains which cause apical necrosis of mango trees. Previous studies showed that mangotoxin biosynthesis is governed by the mbo operon. Random mutagenesis led to the identification of two other gene clusters that affect mangotoxin biosynthesis. These are the gacS/gacA genes and mgo operon which harbors the four genes mgoBCAD. Results The current study shows that disruption of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene mgoA resulted in loss of mangotoxin production and reduced virulence on tomato leaves. Transcriptional analyses by qPCR and promoter reporter fusions revealed that mbo expression is regulated by both gacS/gacA and mgo genes. Also, expression of the mgo operon was shown to be regulated by gacS/gacA. Heterologous expression under the native promoter of the mbo operon resulted in mangotoxin production in non-producing P. syringae strains, but not in other Pseudomonas species. Also introduction of the mbo and mgo operons in nonproducing P. protegens Pf-5 did not confer mangotoxin production but did enhance transcription of the mbo promoter. Conclusions From the data obtained in this study, we conclude that both mbo and mgo operons are under the control of the gacS/gacA two-component system and that the MgoA product acts as a positive regulator of mangotoxin biosynthesis. PMID:24555804

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. lapsa Strain ATCC 10859, Isolated from Infected Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jun; Jiang, Hongshan; Li, Baiyun; Zhao, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. lapsa is a pathovar of Pseudomonas syringae that can infect wheat. The complete genome of P. syringae pv. lapsa strain ATCC 10859 contains a 5,918,899-bp circular chromosome with 4,973 coding sequences, 16 rRNAs, 69 tRNAs, and an average GC content of 59.13%. The analysis of this genome revealed several gene clusters that are related to pathogenesis and virulence. PMID:26941133

  3. HOPM1 mediated disease resistance to Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis

    DOEpatents

    He, Sheng Yang [Okemos, MI; Nomura, Kinya [East Lansing, MI

    2011-11-15

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for enhancing plant defenses against pathogens. More particularly, the invention relates to enhancing plant immunity against bacterial pathogens, wherein HopM1.sub.1-300 mediated protection is enhanced, such as increased protection to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 HopM1 and/or there is an increase in activity of an ATMIN associated plant protection protein, such as ATMIN7. Reagents of the present invention further provide a means of studying cellular trafficking while formulations of the present inventions provide increased pathogen resistance in plants.

  4. Draft genome sequences of five Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidifoliorum strains isolated in France.

    PubMed

    Cunty, Amandine; Cesbron, Sophie; Briand, Martial; Carrère, Sébastien; Poliakoff, Françoise; Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Manceau, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidifoliorum causes necrotic spots on the leaves of Actinidia deliciosa and Actinidia chinensis. P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum has been detected in New Zealand, Australia, France and Spain. Four lineages were previously identified within the P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum species group. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of five strains of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum representative of lineages 1, 2 and 4, isolated in France. The whole genomes of strains isolated in New Zealand, representative of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum lineages 1 and 3, were previously sequenced. The availability of supplementary P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum genome sequences will be useful for developing molecular tools for pathogen detection and for performing comparative genomic analyses to study the relationship between P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum and other kiwifruit pathogens, such as P. syringae pv. actinidiae.

  5. Plasmid-determined copper resistance in Pseudomonas syringae from impatiens

    SciTech Connect

    Cooksey, D.A. )

    1990-01-01

    A strain of Pseudomonas syringae was recently identified as the cause of a new foliar blight of impatiens. The bacterium was resistant to copper compounds, which are used on a variety of crops for bacterial and fungal disease control. The bacterium contained a single 47-kilobase plasmid (pPSI1) that showed homology to a copper resistance operon previously cloned and characterized from P. syringae pv. tomato plasmid pPT23D (D. Cooksey, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:454-456, 1987). pPSI1 was transformed by electroporation into a copper-sensitive P. syringae strain, and the resulting transformants were copper resistant. A physical map of pPSI1 was constructed, and the extent of homology to pPT23D outside the copper resistance operon was determined in Southern hybridizations. The two plasmids shared approximately 20 kilobases of homologous DNA, with the remainder of each plasmid showing no detectable homology. The homologous regions hybridized strongly, but there was little or no conservation of restriction enzyme recognition sites.

  6. Analysis of Arabidopsis JAZ gene expression during Pseudomonas syringae pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Demianski, Agnes J; Chung, Kwi Mi; Kunkel, Barbara N

    2012-01-01

    The jasmonates (JAs) comprise a family of plant hormones that regulate several developmental processes and mediate responses to various abiotic and biotic stresses, including pathogens. JA signalling is manipulated by several strains of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, including P. syringae strain DC3000, using the virulence factor coronatine (COR) as a mimic of jasmonyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile). To better understand the JA-Ile-mediated processes contributing to P. syringae disease susceptibility, it is important to investigate the regulation of JA signalling during infection. In Arabidopsis thaliana, JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins are negative regulators of JA signalling. The transcription factor JASMONATE INSENSITIVE1 (JIN1/ATMYC2) has been implicated in the regulation of JAZ gene expression. To investigate the regulation of JAZ genes during P. syringae pathogenesis, we examined JAZ gene expression during infection of Arabidopsis by DC3000. We found that eight of the 12 JAZ genes are induced during infection in a COR-dependent manner. Unexpectedly, the induction of the majority of JAZ genes during infection was not dependent on JIN1, indicating that JIN1 is not the only transcription factor regulating JAZ genes. A T-DNA insertion mutant and an RNA interference line disrupted for the expression of JAZ10, one of the few JAZ genes regulated by JIN1 during infection, exhibited enhanced JA sensitivity and increased susceptibility to DC3000, with the primary effect being increased disease symptom severity. Thus, JAZ10 is a negative regulator of both JA signalling and disease symptom development.

  7. Complete DNA Sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, the Causal Agent of Kiwifruit Canker Disease.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Matthew D; Warren, Benjamin A; Andersen, Mark T; Rikkerink, Erik H A; Fineran, Peter C

    2015-09-17

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is the causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit, a disease that has rapidly spread worldwide. We have fully sequenced and assembled the chromosomal and plasmid DNA from P. syringae pv. actinidiae ICMP 18884 using the PacBio RS II platform.

  8. Characterization of Pseudomonas syringae from blueberry fields in Oregon and Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial canker, caused by Pseudomonas syringae, is a common disease that kills buds and stems in blueberry fields in Oregon and western Washington. Management is primarily through application of copper; antibiotics are not registered for blueberry. Little is known about the diversity of P. syringa...

  9. Pseudomonas syringae coordinates production of a motility-enabling surfactant with flagellar assembly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a sensitive assay, we observed low levels of an unknown surfactant produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a that was undetectable with traditional methods. Much larger quantities of this surfactant were produced by cells colonizing a porous hydrated paper surface than on agar surfac...

  10. Management of Bacterial Blight of Lilac Caused by Pseudomonas syringae by Growing Plants under Plastic Shelters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae causes some of the most economically-important bacterial diseases affecting woody perennials grown by the nursery industry in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. In this study, we evaluated a cultural control practice, placement of plants in plastic shelter...

  11. Substrate and target sequence lengths influence RecTEPsy recombineering efficiency in Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are developing a new recombineering system to assist experimental manipulation of the Pseudomonas syringae genome. P. syringae is a globally dispersed plant pathogen and an important model species used to study the molecular biology of bacteria-plant interactions. We have previously identified ...

  12. Organic ligands reduce copper toxicity in Pseudomonas syringae

    SciTech Connect

    Azenha, M.; Vasconcelos, M.T.; Cabral, J.P.S.

    1995-03-01

    Pseudomonas syringae cells were exposed to 100 {mu}M copper alone, or to previously equilibrated copper sulfate-ligand solutions. Ligand concentrations were determined experimentally as those that reduced the free copper concentration to 5 {mu}M (determined with a Cu{sup 2+}-selective electrode). These values were in agreement with those calculated by computational equilibrium simulation based on published stability constants. Exposure of P. syringae cells to copper sulfate, chloride, or nitrate resulted in similar high mortality, suggesting that copper was responsible for cell death. Acetate, succinate, proline, lysine, cysteine, and EDTA significantly reduced both the amount of copper bound to the cells and cell death, indicating that not only strong chelating agents but also weak and moderate copper ligands can effectively antagonize copper toxicity. However, cysteine and EDTA were considerably more effective than acetate, succinate, proline, and lysine, indicating that copper toxicity is not simply a function of free copper concentration but depends on the nature of the ligand. The results suggested that a significant fraction of copper bound to acetate, succinate, proline, or lysine was displaced to the bacteria or, alternatively, mixed copper-ligand-cell complexes could be formed. On the contrary, none of these phenomena occurred for the copper complexes with cysteine or EDTA.

  13. Ethylene Production by Pseudomonas syringae Pathovars In Vitro and In Planta

    PubMed Central

    Weingart, H.; Volksch, B.

    1997-01-01

    Significant amounts of ethylene were produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea, pv. phaseolicola (which had been isolated from viny weed Pueraria lobata [Willd.] Ohwi [common name, kudzu]), and pv. pisi in synthetic medium. On the other hand, the bean strains of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola and strains of 17 other pathovars did not produce ethylene. P. syringae pv. glycinea and P. syringae pv. phaseolicola produced nearly identical levels of ethylene (about 5 x 10(sup-7) nl h(sup-1) cell(sup-1)), which were about 10 times higher than the ethylene level of P. syringae pv. pisi. Two 22-bp oligonucleotide primers derived from the ethylene-forming enzyme (efe) gene of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola PK2 were investigated for their ability to detect ethylene-producing P. syringae strains by PCR analysis. PCR amplification with this primer set resulted in a specific 0.99-kb fragment in all ethylene-producing strains with the exception of the P. syringae pv. pisi strains. Therefore, P. syringae pv. pisi may use a different biosynthetic pathway for ethylene production or the sequence of the efe gene is less conserved in this bacterium. P. syringae pv. phaseolicola isolated from kudzu and P. syringae pv. glycinea also produced ethylene in planta. It could be shown that the enhanced ethylene production in diseased tissue was due to the production of ethylene by the inoculated bacteria. Ethylene production in vitro and in planta was strictly growth associated. PMID:16535480

  14. 40 CFR 180.1145 - Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN... tolerance. Pseudomonas syringae is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance on all raw agricultural commodities when applied postharvest according to good agricultural practices....

  15. Pseudomonas syringae enhances herbivory by suppressing the reactive oxygen burst in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Groen, Simon C.; Humphrey, Parris T.; Chevasco, Daniela; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Pierce, Naomi E.; Whiteman, Noah K.

    2015-01-01

    Plant-herbivore interactions have evolved in the presence of plant-colonizing microbes. These microbes can have important third-party effects on herbivore ecology, as exemplified by drosophilid flies that evolved from ancestors feeding on plant-associated microbes. Leaf-mining flies in the genus Scaptomyza, which is nested within the paraphyletic genus Drosophila, show strong associations with bacteria in the genus Pseudomonas, including Pseudomonas syringae. Adult females are capable of vectoring these bacteria between plants and larvae show a preference for feeding on P. syringae-infected leaves. Here we show that Scaptomyza flava larvae can also vector P. syringae to and from feeding sites, and that they not only feed more, but also develop faster on plants previously infected with P. syringae. Our genetic and physiological data show that P. syringae enhances S. flava feeding on infected plants at least in part by suppressing anti-herbivore defenses mediated by reactive oxygen species. PMID:26205072

  16. Ice nucleating activity of Pseudomonas syringae and Erwinia herbicola.

    PubMed Central

    Kozloff, L M; Schofield, M A; Lute, M

    1983-01-01

    Chemical and biological properties of the ice nucleating sites of Pseudomonas syringae, strain C-9, and Erwinia herbicola have been characterized. The ice nucleating activity (INA) for both bacteria was unchanged in buffers ranging from pH 5.0 to 9.2, suggesting that there were no essential groups for which a change in charge in this range was critical. The INA of both bacteria was also unaffected by the addition of metal chelating compounds. Borate compounds and certain lectins markedly inhibited the INA of both types of bacterial cells. Butyl borate was not an inhibitor, but borate, phenyl borate, and m-nitrophenyl borate were, in order, increasingly potent inhibitors. These compounds have a similar order of affinity for cis hydroxyls, particularly for those found on sugars. Lentil lectin and fava bean lectin, which have binding sites for mannose or glucose, inhibited the INA of both bacteria. All other lectins examined had no effect. The inhibition of INA by these two types of reagents indicate that sugar-like groups are at or near the ice nucleating site. Sulfhydryl reagents were potent inhibitors of the INA of both bacteria. When treated with N-ethylmaleimide, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, or iodoacetamide, the INA was irreversibly inhibited by 99%. The kinetics of inactivation with N-ethylmaleimide suggested that E. herbicola cells have at least two separate ice nucleating sites, whereas P. syringae cells have possibly four or more separate sites. The effect of infection with a virulent phage (Erh 1) on the INA of E. herbicola was examined. After multiple infection of a bacterial culture the INA was unchanged until 40 to 45 min, which was midway through the 95-min latent period. At that time, the INA activity began falling and 99% of the INA was lost by 55 min after infection, well before any cells had lysed. This decrease in INA before lysis is attributed to phage-induced changes in the cell wall. PMID:6848483

  17. Multilocus sequence typing of Pseudomonas syringae sensu lato confirms previously described genomospecies and permits rapid identification of P. syringae pv. coriandricola and P. syringae pv. apii causing bacterial leaf spot on parsley.

    PubMed

    Bull, Carolee T; Clarke, Christopher R; Cai, Rongman; Vinatzer, Boris A; Jardini, Teresa M; Koike, Steven T

    2011-07-01

    Since 2002, severe leaf spotting on parsley (Petroselinum crispum) has occurred in Monterey County, CA. Either of two different pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae sensu lato were isolated from diseased leaves from eight distinct outbreaks and once from the same outbreak. Fragment analysis of DNA amplified between repetitive sequence polymerase chain reaction; 16S rDNA sequence analysis; and biochemical, physiological, and host range tests identified the pathogens as Pseudomonas syringae pv. apii and P. syringae pv. coriandricola. Koch's postulates were completed for the isolates from parsley, and host range tests with parsley isolates and pathotype strains demonstrated that P. syringae pv. apii and P. syringae pv. coriandricola cause leaf spot diseases on parsley, celery, and coriander or cilantro. In a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approach, four housekeeping gene fragments were sequenced from 10 strains isolated from parsley and 56 pathotype strains of P. syringae. Allele sequences were uploaded to the Plant-Associated Microbes Database and a phylogenetic tree was built based on concatenated sequences. Tree topology directly corresponded to P. syringae genomospecies and P. syringae pv. apii was allocated appropriately to genomospecies 3. This is the first demonstration that MLST can accurately allocate new pathogens directly to P. syringae sensu lato genomospecies. According to MLST, P. syringae pv. coriandricola is a member of genomospecies 9, P. cannabina. In a blind test, both P. syringae pv. coriandricola and P. syringae pv. apii isolates from parsley were correctly identified to pathovar. In both cases, MLST described diversity within each pathovar that was previously unknown.

  18. Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae Uses Proteasome Inhibitor Syringolin A to Colonize from Wound Infection Sites

    PubMed Central

    Misas-Villamil, Johana C.; Kolodziejek, Izabella; Crabill, Emerson; Kaschani, Farnusch; Niessen, Sherry; Shindo, Takayuki; Kaiser, Markus; Alfano, James R.; van der Hoorn, Renier A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Infection of plants by bacterial leaf pathogens at wound sites is common in nature. Plants defend wound sites to prevent pathogen invasion, but several pathogens can overcome spatial restriction and enter leaf tissues. The molecular mechanisms used by pathogens to suppress containment at wound infection sites are poorly understood. Here, we studied Pseudomonas syringae strains causing brown spot on bean and blossom blight on pear. These strains exist as epiphytes that can cause disease upon wounding caused by hail, sand storms and frost. We demonstrate that these strains overcome spatial restriction at wound sites by producing syringolin A (SylA), a small molecule proteasome inhibitor. Consequently, SylA-producing strains are able to escape from primary infection sites and colonize adjacent tissues along the vasculature. We found that SylA diffuses from the primary infection site and suppresses acquired resistance in adjacent tissues by blocking signaling by the stress hormone salicylic acid (SA). Thus, SylA diffusion creates a zone of SA-insensitive tissue that is prepared for subsequent colonization. In addition, SylA promotes bacterial motility and suppresses immune responses at the primary infection site. These local immune responses do not affect bacterial growth and were weak compared to effector-triggered immunity. Thus, SylA facilitates colonization from wounding sites by increasing bacterial motility and suppressing SA signaling in adjacent tissues. PMID:23555272

  19. A Mathematical model to investigate quorum sensing regulation and its heterogenecity in pseudomonas syringae on leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bacterium Pseudomonas syringae is a plant-pathogen, which through quorum sensing (QS), controls virulence. In this paper, by means of mathematical modeling, we investigate QS of this bacterium when living on leaf surfaces. We extend an existing stochastic model for the formation of Pseudomonas s...

  20. Plant lectin-like antibacterial proteins from phytopathogens Pseudomonas syringae and Xanthomonas citri.

    PubMed

    Ghequire, Maarten G K; Li, Wen; Proost, Paul; Loris, Remy; De Mot, René

    2012-08-01

    The genomes of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae 642 and Xanthomonas citri pv. malvacearum LMG 761 each carry a putative homologue of the plant lectin-like bacteriocin (llpA) genes previously identified in the rhizosphere isolate Pseudomonas putida BW11M1 and the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. The respective purified recombinant proteins, LlpAPss642 and LlpAXcm761 , display genus-specific antibacterial activity across species boundaries. The inhibitory spectrum of the P. syringae bacteriocin overlaps partially with those of the P. putida and P. fluorescens LlpAs. Notably, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri str. 306 secretes a protein identical to LlpAXcm761 . The functional characterization of LlpA proteins from two different phytopathogenic γ-proteobacterial species expands the lectin-like bacteriocin family beyond the Pseudomonas genus and suggests its involvement in competition among closely related plant-associated bacteria with different lifestyles.

  1. Application of high-throughput genome sequencing to intrapathovar variation in Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Studholme, David J

    2011-10-01

    One reason for the success of Pseudomonas syringae as a model pathogen has been the availability of three complete genome sequences since 2005. Now, at the beginning of 2011, more than 25 strains of P. syringae have been sequenced and many more will soon be released. To date, published analyses of P. syringae have been largely descriptive, focusing on catalogues of genetic differences among strains and between species. Numerous powerful statistical tools are now available that have yet to be applied to P. syringae genomic data for robust and quantitative reconstruction of evolutionary events. The aim of this review is to provide a snapshot of the current status of P. syringae genome sequence data resources, including very recent and unpublished studies, and thereby demonstrate the richness of resources available for this species. Furthermore, certain specific opportunities and challenges in making the best use of these data resources are highlighted.

  2. Pseudomonas syringae Catalases Are Collectively Required for Plant Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming; Block, Anna; Bryan, Crystal D; Becker, Donald F; Alfano, James R

    2012-09-01

    The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 must detoxify plant-produced hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in order to survive in its host plant. Candidate enzymes for this detoxification include the monofunctional catalases KatB and KatE and the bifunctional catalase-peroxidase KatG of DC3000. This study shows that KatG is the major housekeeping catalase of DC3000 and provides protection against menadione-generated endogenous H(2)O(2). In contrast, KatB rapidly and substantially accumulates in response to exogenous H(2)O(2). Furthermore, KatB and KatG have nonredundant roles in detoxifying exogenous H(2)O(2) and are required for full virulence of DC3000 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Therefore, the nonredundant ability of KatB and KatG to detoxify plant-produced H(2)O(2) is essential for the bacteria to survive in plants. Indeed, a DC3000 catalase triple mutant is severely compromised in its ability to grow in planta, and its growth can be partially rescued by the expression of katB, katE, or katG. Interestingly, our data demonstrate that although KatB and KatG are the major catalases involved in the virulence of DC3000, KatE can also provide some protection in planta. Thus, our results indicate that these catalases are virulence factors for DC3000 and are collectively required for pathogenesis.

  3. Coronatine Facilitates Pseudomonas syringae Infection of Arabidopsis Leaves at Night

    PubMed Central

    Panchal, Shweta; Roy, Debanjana; Chitrakar, Reejana; Price, Lenore; Breitbach, Zachary S.; Armstrong, Daniel W.; Melotto, Maeli

    2016-01-01

    In many land plants, the stomatal pore opens during the day and closes during the night. Thus, periods of darkness could be effective in decreasing pathogen penetration into leaves through stomata, the primary sites for infection by many pathogens. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 produces coronatine (COR) and opens stomata, raising an intriguing question as to whether this is a virulence strategy to facilitate bacterial infection at night. In fact, we found that (a) biological concentration of COR is effective in opening dark-closed stomata of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, (b) the COR defective mutant Pst DC3118 is less effective in infecting Arabidopsis in the dark than under light and this difference in infection is reduced with the wild type bacterium Pst DC3000, and (c) cma, a COR biosynthesis gene, is induced only when the bacterium is in contact with the leaf surface independent of the light conditions. These findings suggest that Pst DC3000 activates virulence factors at the pre-invasive phase of its life cycle to infect plants even when environmental conditions (such as darkness) favor stomatal immunity. This functional attribute of COR may provide epidemiological advantages for COR-producing bacteria on the leaf surface. PMID:27446113

  4. A Pseudomonas syringae diversity survey reveals a differentiated phylotype of the pathovar syringae associated with the mango host and mangotoxin production.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Barranquero, José A; Carrión, Víctor J; Murillo, Jesús; Arrebola, Eva; Arnold, Dawn L; Cazorla, Francisco M; de Vicente, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, the causal agent of bacterial apical necrosis (BAN) in mango crops, has been isolated in different mango-producing areas worldwide. An extensive collection of 87 P. syringae pv. syringae strains isolated from mango trees affected by BAN from different countries, but mainly from Southern Spain, were initially examined by repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) to analyze the genetic diversity with an epidemiological aim. rep-PCR was powerful in assessing intrapathovar distribution and also allowing clustering of the P. syringae pv. syringae strains isolated from mango, depending on the isolation area. A clear pattern of clustering was observed for all the P. syringae pv. syringae strains isolated from mango distinct from strains from other hosts, including strains for the same geographical regions as the mango isolates. For this reason, a representative group of 51 P. syringae pv. syringae strains isolated from mango and other hosts, as well as some P. syringae strains from other pathovars, were further characterized to determine their possible genetic, phenotypic, and phylogenetic relationships. Similar to the rep-PCR results, the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) and catabolic diversity analysis using the Biolog GN2 profile grouped 90% of the mango isolates together in a unique cluster. Interestingly, the majority of P. syringae pv. syringae strains isolated from mango produced mangotoxin. The analysis of the phylogenetic distribution using the multilocus sequence typing analysis strongly supports the existence of a differentiated phylotype of the pathovar syringae mainly associated with the mango host and characterized by the mangotoxin production.

  5. Pseudomonas syringae strains naturally lacking the classical P. syringae hrp/hrc Locus are common leaf colonizers equipped with an atypical type III secretion system.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Christopher R; Cai, Rongman; Studholme, David J; Guttman, David S; Vinatzer, Boris A

    2010-02-01

    Pseudomonas syringae is best known as a plant pathogen that causes disease by translocating immune-suppressing effector proteins into plant cells through a type III secretion system (T3SS). However, P. syringae strains belonging to a newly described phylogenetic subgroup (group 2c) are missing the canonical P. syringae hrp/hrc cluster coding for a T3SS, flanking effector loci, and any close orthologue of known P. syringae effectors. Nonetheless, P. syringae group 2c strains are common leaf colonizers and grow on some tested plant species to population densities higher than those obtained by other P. syringae strains on nonhost species. Moreover, group 2c strains have genes necessary for the production of phytotoxins, have an ice nucleation gene, and, most interestingly, contain a novel hrp/hrc cluster, which is only distantly related to the canonical P. syringae hrp/hrc cluster. This hrp/hrc cluster appears to encode a functional T3SS although the genes hrpK and hrpS, present in the classical P. syringae hrp/hrc cluster, are missing. The genome sequence of a representative group 2c strain also revealed distant orthologues of the P. syringae effector genes avrE1 and hopM1 and the P. aeruginosa effector genes exoU and exoY. A putative life cycle for group 2c P. syringae is discussed.

  6. Arabidopsis PECTIN METHYLESTERASEs contribute to immunity against Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Bethke, Gerit; Grundman, Rachael E; Sreekanta, Suma; Truman, William; Katagiri, Fumiaki; Glazebrook, Jane

    2014-02-01

    Pectins, major components of dicot cell walls, are synthesized in a heavily methylesterified form in the Golgi and are partially deesterified by pectin methylesterases (PMEs) upon export to the cell wall. PME activity is important for the virulence of the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Here, the roles of Arabidopsis PMEs in pattern-triggered immunity and immune responses to the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola and the bacterial hemibiotroph Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola ES4326 (Pma ES4326) were studied. Plant PME activity increased during pattern-triggered immunity and after inoculation with either pathogen. The increase of PME activity in response to pathogen treatment was concomitant with a decrease in pectin methylesterification. The pathogen-induced PME activity did not require salicylic acid or ethylene signaling, but was dependent on jasmonic acid signaling. In the case of induction by A. brassicicola, the ethylene response factor, but not the MYC2 branch of jasmonic acid signaling, contributed to induction of PME activity, whereas in the case of induction by Pma ES4326, both branches contributed. There are 66 PME genes in Arabidopsis, suggesting extensive genetic redundancy. Nevertheless, selected pme single, double, triple and quadruple mutants allowed significantly more growth of Pma ES4326 than wild-type plants, indicating a role of PMEs in resistance to this pathogen. No decreases in total PME activity were detected in these pme mutants, suggesting that the determinant of immunity is not total PME activity; rather, it is some specific effect of PMEs such as changes in the pattern of pectin methylesterification.

  7. Relationship of total viable and culturable cells in epiphytic populations of Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M; Lindow, S E

    1992-12-01

    The direct viable count method, used to detect viable but nonculturable bacteria in aquatic systems, was modified to examine epiphytic populations of Pseudomonas syringae. Viable-population sizes determined from the number of cells that elongated when incubated with yeast extract and nalidixic acid were compared with those determined by the conventional plate count method. The plate count method accurately determined the number of viable cells in epiphytic P. syringae populations in a state of active growth under conditions of high relative humidity. The plate count method also accurately determined the number of viable cells in P. syringae inoculum, or a growing P. syringae population, subject to desiccation stress under conditions of low relative humidity. In epiphytic populations of P. syringae older than 80 h, however, the plate count underestimated the viable-population size by about two- to fourfold, suggesting that up to 75% of the P. syringae population was nonculturable. These nonculturable cells may have entered a starvation-survival state, induced by low nutrient availability in the phyllosphere environment. Epiphytic P. syringae populations undergoing rapid size changes due to growth and death under fluctuating environmental conditions in the field should be accurately enumerated by the plate count method. However, the possible underestimation of viable-population size under some circumstances should be considered in epidemiological studies of phytopathogenic bacteria and when genetically engineered microorganisms in terrestrial ecosystems are monitored.

  8. Diversity and Abundance of Ice Nucleating Strains of Pseudomonas syringae in a Freshwater Lake in Virginia, USA

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Renée B.; Vinatzer, Boris A.; Schmale, David G.

    2017-01-01

    The bacterium Pseudomonas syringae is found in a variety of terrestrial and aquatic environments. Some strains of P. syringae express an ice nucleation protein (hereafter referred to as Ice+) allowing them to catalyze the heterogeneous freezing of water. Though P. syringae has been sampled intensively from freshwater sources in France, little is known about the genetic diversity of P. syringae in natural aquatic habitats in North America. We collected samples of freshwater from three different depths in Claytor Lake, Virginia, USA between November 2015 and June 2016. Samples were plated on non-selective medium (TSA) and on medium selective for Pseudomonas (KBC) and closely related species to estimate the total number of culturable bacteria and of Pseudomonas, respectively. A droplet freezing assay was used to screen colonies for the Ice+ phenotype. Ice+ colonies were then molecularly identified based on the cts (citrate synthase) gene and the 16S rDNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis of cts sequences showed a surprising diversity of phylogenetic subgroups of P. syringae. Frequencies of Ice+ isolates on P. syringae selective medium ranged from 0 to 15% per sample with the highest frequency being found in spring. Our work shows that freshwater lakes can be a significant reservoir of Ice+ P. syringae. Future work is needed to determine the contribution of P. syringae from freshwater lakes to the P. syringae populations present in the atmosphere and on plants and, in particular, if freshwater lakes could be an inoculum source of P. syringae-caused plant disease outbreaks. PMID:28337177

  9. Diversity and Abundance of Ice Nucleating Strains of Pseudomonas syringae in a Freshwater Lake in Virginia, USA.

    PubMed

    Pietsch, Renée B; Vinatzer, Boris A; Schmale, David G

    2017-01-01

    The bacterium Pseudomonas syringae is found in a variety of terrestrial and aquatic environments. Some strains of P. syringae express an ice nucleation protein (hereafter referred to as Ice+) allowing them to catalyze the heterogeneous freezing of water. Though P. syringae has been sampled intensively from freshwater sources in France, little is known about the genetic diversity of P. syringae in natural aquatic habitats in North America. We collected samples of freshwater from three different depths in Claytor Lake, Virginia, USA between November 2015 and June 2016. Samples were plated on non-selective medium (TSA) and on medium selective for Pseudomonas (KBC) and closely related species to estimate the total number of culturable bacteria and of Pseudomonas, respectively. A droplet freezing assay was used to screen colonies for the Ice+ phenotype. Ice+ colonies were then molecularly identified based on the cts (citrate synthase) gene and the 16S rDNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis of cts sequences showed a surprising diversity of phylogenetic subgroups of P. syringae. Frequencies of Ice+ isolates on P. syringae selective medium ranged from 0 to 15% per sample with the highest frequency being found in spring. Our work shows that freshwater lakes can be a significant reservoir of Ice+ P. syringae. Future work is needed to determine the contribution of P. syringae from freshwater lakes to the P. syringae populations present in the atmosphere and on plants and, in particular, if freshwater lakes could be an inoculum source of P. syringae-caused plant disease outbreaks.

  10. Drought Stress Predominantly Endures Arabidopsis thaliana to Pseudomonas syringae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aarti; Dixit, Sandeep K.; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

    2016-01-01

    Plant responses to a combination of drought and bacterial pathogen infection, an agronomically important and altogether a new stress, are not well-studied. While occurring concurrently, these two stresses can lead to synergistic or antagonistic effects on plants due to stress-interaction. It is reported that plant responses to the stress combinations consist of both strategies, unique to combined stress and those shared between combined and individual stresses. However, the combined stress response mechanisms governing stress interaction and net impact are largely unknown. In order to study these adaptive strategies, an accurate and convenient methodology is lacking even in model plants like Arabidopsis thaliana. The gradual nature of drought stress imposition protocol poses a hindrance in simultaneously applying pathogen infection under laboratory conditions to achieve combined stress. In present study we aimed to establish systematic combined stress protocol and to study physiological responses of the plants to various degrees of combined stress. Here, we have comprehensively studied the impact of combined drought and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 infection on A. thaliana. Further, by employing different permutations of drought and pathogen stress intensities, an attempt was made to dissect the contribution of each individual stress effects during their concurrence. We hereby present two main aspects of combined stress viz., stress interaction and net impact of the stress on plants. Mainly, this study established a systematic protocol to assess the impact of combined drought and bacterial pathogen stress. It was observed that as a result of net impact, some physiological responses under combined stress are tailored when compared to the plants exposed to individual stresses. We also infer that plant responses under combined stress in this study are predominantly influenced by the drought stress. Our results show that pathogen multiplication was reduced by

  11. AlgU controls expression of virulence genes in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant pathogenic bacteria are able to integrate information about their environment and adjust gene expression to provide adaptive functions. AlgU, an ECF sigma factor encoded by Pseudomonas syringae, controls expression of genes for alginate biosynthesis and is active while the bacteria are associa...

  12. Identification of a previously uncharacterized global regulator in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst) is used as a model system to understand the dynamics behind molecular plant-microbe interactions. Identification of conserved genes necessary for survival of bacterial plant pathogens in the apoplast could lead to new management methods. We have identifie...

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of a Diazotrophic, Plant Growth–Promoting Rhizobacterium of the Pseudomonas syringae Complex

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Blakney, Andrew J. C.; Wallace, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas syringae GR12-2, a nitrogen-fixing, plant growth–promoting bacterium, isolated from the rhizosphere of an Arctic grass. The 6.6-Mbp genome contains 5,676 protein-coding genes, including a nitrogen-fixation island similar to that in P. stutzeri. PMID:27660794

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of a Diazotrophic, Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium of the Pseudomonas syringae Complex.

    PubMed

    Patten, Cheryl L; Jeong, Haeyoung; Blakney, Andrew J C; Wallace, Natalie

    2016-09-22

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas syringae GR12-2, a nitrogen-fixing, plant growth-promoting bacterium, isolated from the rhizosphere of an Arctic grass. The 6.6-Mbp genome contains 5,676 protein-coding genes, including a nitrogen-fixation island similar to that in P. stutzeri.

  15. Multilocus sequence typing of Pseudomonas syringae sensu lato confirms previously described genomospecies and permits rapid identification.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2002, severe leaf spotting on parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) has occurred in Monterey County, California. One of two different pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae sensu lato were isolated from diseased leaves from seven distinct outbreaks and twice from the same outbreak (2002 and 2009). Frag...

  16. Immunomodulation by the Pseudomonas syringae HopZ Type III Effector Family in Aribidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas syringae employs a type III secretion system to inject 20-30 different type III effector (T3SE) proteins into plant host cells. A major role of T3SEs is to suppress plant immune responses and promote bacterial infection. The YopJ/HopZ acetyltransferases are a superfamily of T3SEs found i...

  17. The small RNA transcriptome of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato DC3000

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are regarded as important global regulators in prokaryotes and play critical roles in a variety of metabolic and cellular processes. Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato strain DC3000 (DC3000) is an important plant pathogenic bacterium that causes bacterial speck of to...

  18. Evaluation of Pseudomonas syringae Strain ESC11 for Biocontrol of Crown Rot and Anthracnose of Banana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas syringae strain ESC11, and 250 'g/ml each of thiabendazole (TBZ) and imazalil reduced crown rot of banana caused by a Fusarium sp. by 0-88% and 73-88%, respectively, in laboratory experiments. ESC11 alone did not significantly reduce rot, mold, or anthracnose in most field trials. TBZ an...

  19. Differences between Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a and Pantoea agglomerans BRT98 in Epiphytic and Endophytic Colonization of Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Sabaratnam, Siva; Beattie, Gwyn A.

    2003-01-01

    The leaf colonization strategies of two bacterial strains were investigated. The foliar pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain B728a and the nonpathogen Pantoea agglomerans strain BRT98 were marked with a green fluorescent protein, and surface (epiphytic) and subsurface (endophytic) sites of bean and maize leaves in the laboratory and the field were monitored to see if populations of these strains developed. The populations were monitored using both fluorescence microscopy and counts of culturable cells recovered from nonsterilized and surface-sterilized leaves. The P. agglomerans strain exclusively colonized epiphytic sites on the two plant species. Under favorable conditions, the P. agglomerans strain formed aggregates that often extended over multiple epidermal cells. The P. syringae pv. syringae strain established epiphytic and endophytic populations on asymptomatic leaves of the two plant species in the field, with most of the P. syringae pv. syringae B728a cells remaining in epiphytic sites of the maize leaves and an increasing number occupying endophytic sites of the bean leaves in the 15-day monitoring period. The epiphytic P. syringae pv. syringae B728a populations appeared to originate primarily from multiplication in surface sites rather than from the movement of cells from subsurface to surface sites. The endophytic P. syringae pv. syringae B728a populations appeared to originate primarily from inward movement through the stomata, with higher levels of multiplication occurring in bean than in maize. A rainstorm involving a high raindrop momentum was associated with rapid growth of the P. agglomerans strain on both plant species and with rapid growth of both the epiphytic and endophytic populations of the P. syringae pv. syringae strain on bean but not with growth of the P. syringae pv. syringae strain on maize. These results demonstrate that the two bacterial strains employed distinct colonization strategies and that the epiphytic and

  20. The mbo operon is specific and essential for biosynthesis of mangotoxin in Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Carrión, Víctor J; Arrebola, Eva; Cazorla, Francisco M; Murillo, Jesús; de Vicente, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Mangotoxin is an antimetabolite toxin produced by certain Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strains. This toxin is an oligopeptide that inhibits ornithine N-acetyl transferase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ornithine and arginine. Previous studies have reported the involvement of the putative nonribosomal peptide synthetase MgoA in virulence and mangotoxin production. In this study, we analyse a new chromosomal region of P. syringae pv. syringae UMAF0158, which contains six coding sequences arranged as an operon (mbo operon). The mbo operon was detected in only mangotoxin-producing strains, and it was shown to be essential for the biosynthesis of this toxin. Mutants in each of the six ORFs of the mbo operon were partially or completely impaired in the production of the toxin. In addition, Pseudomonas spp. mangotoxin non-producer strains transformed with the mbo operon gained the ability to produce mangotoxin, indicating that this operon contains all the genetic information necessary for mangotoxin biosynthesis. The generation of a single transcript for the mbo operon was confirmed and supported by the allocation of a unique promoter and Rho-independent terminator. The phylogenetic analysis of the P. syringae strains harbouring the mbo operon revealed that these strains clustered together.

  1. Diversifying selection drives the evolution of the type III secretion system pilus of Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Guttman, David S; Gropp, Susan J; Morgan, Robyn L; Wang, Pauline W

    2006-12-01

    The plant pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae uses a type III secretion system to inject virulence proteins directly into the cytoplasm of its hosts. The P. syringae type III secretion apparatus is encoded, in part, by the HrpZ operon, which carries the hrpA gene encoding the pilin subunit of the pilus, various components of the structural apparatus, and the HrpZ harpin protein that is believed to produce pores in the host cell membrane. The pilus of the type III system comes into direct contact with the host cell and is, therefore, a likely target of the host's pathogen surveillance systems. We sequenced and analyzed 22 HrpZ operons from P. syringae strains spanning the diversity of the species. Selection analyses, including K(a)/K(s) tests and Tajima's D, revealed strong diversifying selection acting on the hrpA gene. This form of selection enables pathogens to maintain genetic diversity within their populations and is often driven by selection imposed by host defense systems. The HrpZ operon also revealed a single significant recombination event that dramatically changed the evolutionary relationships among P. syringae strains from 2 quite distinct phylogroups. This recombination event appears to have introduced genetic diversity into a clade of strains that may now be undergoing positive selection. The identification of diversifying selection acting on the Hrp pilus across the whole population sample and positive selection within one P. syringae lineage supports a trench warfare coevolutionary model between P. syringae and its plant hosts.

  2. Soil water flow is a source of the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae in subalpine headwaters.

    PubMed

    Monteil, Caroline L; Lafolie, François; Laurent, Jimmy; Clement, Jean-Christophe; Simler, Roland; Travi, Yves; Morris, Cindy E

    2014-07-01

    The airborne plant pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae is ubiquitous in headwaters, snowpack and precipitation where its populations are genetically and phenotypically diverse. Here, we assessed its population dynamics during snowmelt in headwaters of the French Alps. We revealed a continuous and significant transport of P.syringae by these waters in which the population density is correlated with water chemistry. Via in situ observations and laboratory experiments, we validated that P.syringae is effectively transported with the snow melt and rain water infiltrating through the soil of subalpine grasslands, leading to the same range of concentrations as measured in headwaters (10(2) -10(5) CFU l(-1) ). A population structure analysis confirmed the relatedness between populations in percolated water and those above the ground (i.e. rain, leaf litter and snowpack). However, the transport study in porous media suggested that water percolation could have different efficiencies for different strains of P.syringae. Finally, leaching of soil cores incubated for up to 4 months at 8°C showed that indigenous populations of P.syringae were able to survive in subalpine soil under cold temperature. This study brings to light the underestimated role of hydrological processes involved in the long distance dissemination of P.syringae.

  3. Comparison of the complete genome sequences of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a and pv. tomato DC3000

    SciTech Connect

    Feil, H; Feil, W S; Chain, P; Larimer, F; DiBartolo, G; Copeland, A; Lykidis, A; Trong, S; Nolan, M; Goltsman, E; Thiel, J; Malfatti, S; Loper, J E; Lapidus, A; Detter, J C; Land, M; Richardson, P M; Kyrpides, N C; Ivanova, N; Lindow, S E

    2005-07-14

    The complete genomic sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar syringae B728a (Pss B728a), has been determined and is compared with that of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). The two pathovars of this economically important species of plant pathogenic bacteria differ in host range and other interactions with plants, with Pss having a more pronounced epiphytic stage of growth and higher abiotic stress tolerance and Pst DC3000 having a more pronounced apoplastic growth habitat. The Pss B728a genome (6.1 megabases) contains a circular chromosome and no plasmid, whereas the Pst DC3000 genome is 6.5 mbp in size, composed of a circular chromosome and two plasmids. While a high degree of similarity exists between the two sequenced Pseudomonads, 976 protein-encoding genes are unique to Pss B728a when compared to Pst DC3000, including large genomic islands likely to contribute to virulence and host specificity. Over 375 repetitive extragenic palindromic sequences (REPs) unique to Pss B728a when compared to Pst DC3000 are widely distributed throughout the chromosome except in 14 genomic islands, which generally had lower GC content than the genome as a whole. Content of the genomic islands vary, with one containing a prophage and another the plasmid pKLC102 of P. aeruginosa PAO1. Among the 976 genes of Pss B728a with no counterpart in Pst DC3000 are those encoding for syringopeptin (SP), syringomycin (SR), indole acetic acid biosynthesis, arginine degradation, and production of ice nuclei. The genomic comparison suggests that several unique genes for Pss B728a such as ectoine synthase, DNA repair, and antibiotic production may contribute to epiphytic fitness and stress tolerance of this organism.

  4. Comparison of the complete genome sequences of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a and pv. tomato DC3000

    SciTech Connect

    Feil, Helene; Feil, William; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Larimer, Frank W; DiBartolo, Genevieve; Copeland, A; Lykidis, A; Trong, Stephen; Nolan, Matt; Goltsman, Eugene; Thiel, James; Malfatti, Stephanie; Loper, Joyce E.; Detter, J C; Lapidus, Alla L.; Land, Miriam L; Richardson, P M; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ivanova, N; Lindow, Steven E.

    2005-01-01

    The complete genomic sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a (Pss B728a) has been determined and is compared with that of A syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). The two pathovars of this economically important species of plant pathogenic bacteria differ in host range and other interactions with plants, with Pss having a more pronounced epiphytic stage of growth and higher abiotic stress tolerance and Pst DC3000 having a more pronounced apoplastic growth habitat. The Pss B728a genome (6.1 Mb) contains a circular chromosome and no plasmid, whereas the Pst DC3000 genome is 6.5 mbp in size, composed of a circular chromosome and two plasmids. Although a high degree of similarity exists between the two sequenced Pseudomonads, 976 protein-encoding genes are unique to Pss B728a when compared with Pst DC3000, including large genomic islands likely to contribute to virulence and host specificity. Over 375 repetitive extragenic palindromic sequences unique to Pss B728a when compared with Pst DC3000 are widely distributed throughout the chromosome except in 14 genomic islands, which generally had lower GC content than the genome as a whole. Content of the genomic islands varies, with one containing a prophage and another the plasmid pKLC102 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Among the 976 genes of Pss B728a with no counterpart in Pst DC3000 are those encoding for syringopeptin, syringomycin, indole acetic acid biosynthesis, arginine degradation, and production of ice nuclei. The genomic comparison suggests that several unique genes for Pss B728a such as ectoine synthase, DNA repair, and antibiotic production may contribute to the epiphytic fitness and stress tolerance of this organism.

  5. Disruption of the carA gene in pseudomonas syringae results in reduced fitness and alters motility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Pseudomonas syringae infects diverse plant species and is widely used in the study of effector function and the molecular basis of disease. Although the relationship between bacterial metabolism, nutrient acquisition and virulence has attracted increasing attention in bacterial pathology...

  6. Genetic background of host-pathogen interaction between Cucumis sativus L. and Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans.

    PubMed

    Olczak-Woltman, H; Schollenberger, M; Niemirowicz-Szczytt, K

    2009-01-01

    The interplay of plant resistance mechanisms and bacterial pathogenicity is very complex. This applies also to the interaction that takes place between the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans (Smith et Bryan) and the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) as its host plant. Research on P. syringae pv. lachrymans has led to the discovery of specific factors produced during pathogenesis, i.e. toxins or enzymes. Similarly, studies on cucumber have identified the specific types of plant resistance expressed, namely Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) or Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR). This paper presents a summary of the current state of knowledge about this particular host-pathogen interaction, with reference to general information about interactions of P. syringae pathovars with host plants.

  7. Characterization of type IV pilus genes in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000.

    PubMed

    Roine, E; Raineri, D M; Romantschuk, M; Wilson, M; Nunn, D N

    1998-11-01

    Many strains of Pseudomonas syringae produce retractile pili that act as receptors for lytic bacteriophage phi 6. As these are also characteristics of type IV pili, it was postulated that P. syringae may possess genes for type IV pilus biogenesis. A cosmid clone bank of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 genomic DNA was used to complement a mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa defective in the PilD (XcpA) prepilin peptidase gene by selection for restoration of extracellular protein secretion, a function also known to require PilD. A cosmid able to complement this mutant was also able to complement mutations in the pilB and pilC genes, suggesting that, if the organization of these genes is similar to that of P. aeruginosa, the cosmid may contain the P. syringae pilA. This was confirmed by sequencing a region from this plasmid that was shown to hybridize at low stringency to the P. aeruginosa pilA gene. The deduced P. syringae PilA polypeptide possesses the characteristic properties of the type IV pilins. Heterologous expression of the P. syringae pilA in P. aeruginosa was also shown, conferring not only phi 6 phage sensitivity to P. aeruginosa pilA mutants but also sensitivity to PO4, a lytic bacteriophage specific for the pilus of P. aeruginosa. This suggests that additional components might be present in the mature pilus of P. aeruginosa that are the true receptors for this phage. Chromosomal mutations in P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 pilA and pilD genes were shown to abolish its sensitivity to bacteriophage phi 6. To determine the importance of P. syringae pilus in plant leaf interactions, these mutations were tested under laboratory and field conditions. Although little effect was seen on pathogenicity, culturable leaf-associated population sizes of the pilA mutant were significantly different from those of the wild-type parent. In addition, the expression of the DC3000 pilA gene appears to contribute to the UV tolerance of P. syringae and may play a role in survival on

  8. Environmental control in tea fields to reduce infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. theae.

    PubMed

    Tomihama, T; Nonaka, T; Nishi, Y; Arai, K

    2009-02-01

    Bacterial shoot blight (BSB) disease, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. theae, is a major bacterial disease of tea plants in Japan. BSB mainly occurs in the low-temperature season, and lesion formation by P. syringae pv. theae is enhanced by both low temperature and the presence of ice nucleation-active Xanthomonas campestris (INAX), which catalyzes ice formation at -2 to -4 degrees C and is frequently co-isolated with P. syringae pv. theae from tea plants. Low temperature is thus the most important environmental factor influencing the incidence of BSB; however, the effects of low temperature on infection of the host by P. syringae pv. theae and of environmental controls in fields on the occurrence of the disease are poorly understood. In this study, we show that ice formation on tea leaves by INAX enhanced P. syringae pv. theae invasion into leaf tissue. The natural incidence of BSB in the field was closely related to early autumn frost. Frost protection in late autumn, which prevented ice formation on tea plants, significantly decreased the incidence of BSB, and frost protection combined with bactericide application held the incidence under the economic threshold level. Our data indicate that environmental control in the field based on microbial interactions in the host offers a new strategy for plant disease control.

  9. The Facultative Symbiont Rickettsia Protects an Invasive Whitefly against Entomopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae Strains

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Martha S.; Baltrus, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Facultative endosymbionts can benefit insect hosts in a variety of ways, including context-dependent roles, such as providing defense against pathogens. The role of some symbionts in defense may be overlooked, however, when pathogen infection is transient, sporadic, or asymptomatic. The facultative endosymbiont Rickettsia increases the fitness of the sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in some populations through mechanisms that are not yet understood. In this study, we investigated the role of Rickettsia in mediating the interaction between the sweet potato whitefly and Pseudomonas syringae, a common environmental bacterium, some strains of which are pathogenic to aphids. Our results show that P. syringae multiplies within whiteflies, leading to host death, and that whiteflies infected with Rickettsia show a decreased rate of death due to P. syringae. Experiments using plants coated with P. syringae confirmed that whiteflies can acquire the bacteria at a low rate while feeding, leading to increased mortality, particularly when the whiteflies are not infected with Rickettsia. These results suggest that P. syringae may affect whitefly populations in nature and that Rickettsia can ameliorate this effect. This study highlights the possible importance of interactions among opportunistic environmental pathogens and endosymbionts of insects. PMID:25217020

  10. The Facultative Symbiont Rickettsia Protects an Invasive Whitefly against Entomopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae Strains.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Tory A; Hunter, Martha S; Baltrus, David A

    2014-12-01

    Facultative endosymbionts can benefit insect hosts in a variety of ways, including context-dependent roles, such as providing defense against pathogens. The role of some symbionts in defense may be overlooked, however, when pathogen infection is transient, sporadic, or asymptomatic. The facultative endosymbiont Rickettsia increases the fitness of the sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in some populations through mechanisms that are not yet understood. In this study, we investigated the role of Rickettsia in mediating the interaction between the sweet potato whitefly and Pseudomonas syringae, a common environmental bacterium, some strains of which are pathogenic to aphids. Our results show that P. syringae multiplies within whiteflies, leading to host death, and that whiteflies infected with Rickettsia show a decreased rate of death due to P. syringae. Experiments using plants coated with P. syringae confirmed that whiteflies can acquire the bacteria at a low rate while feeding, leading to increased mortality, particularly when the whiteflies are not infected with Rickettsia. These results suggest that P. syringae may affect whitefly populations in nature and that Rickettsia can ameliorate this effect. This study highlights the possible importance of interactions among opportunistic environmental pathogens and endosymbionts of insects.

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Bacteriophages Against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ji-Gang; Lim, Jeong-A; Song, Yu-Rim; Heu, Sunggi; Kim, Gyoung Hee; Koh, Young Jin; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2016-02-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Owing to the prohibition of agricultural antibiotic use in major kiwifruit-cultivating countries, alternative methods need to be developed to manage this disease. Bacteriophages are viruses that specifically infect target bacteria and have recently been reconsidered as potential biological control agents for bacterial pathogens owing to their specificity in terms of host range. In this study, we isolated bacteriophages against P. syringae pv. actinidiae from soils collected from kiwifruit orchards in Korea and selected seven bacteriophages for further characterization based on restriction enzyme digestion patterns of genomic DNA. Among the studied bacteriophages, two belong to the Myoviridae family and three belong to the Podoviridae family, based on morphology observed by transmission electron microscopy. The host range of the selected bacteriophages was confirmed using 18 strains of P. syringae pv. actinidiae, including the Psa2 and Psa3 groups, and some were also effective against other P. syringae pathovars. Lytic activity of the selected bacteriophages was sustained in vitro until 80 h, and their activity remained stable up to 50°C, at pH 11, and under UV-B light. These results indicate that the isolated bacteriophages are specific to P. syringae species and are resistant to various environmental factors, implying their potential use in control of bacterial canker disease in kiwifruits.

  12. Aerosolization of two strains (ice+ and ice-) of Pseudomonas syringae in a Collison nebulizer at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietsch, Renee; David, Ray; Marr, Linsey; Vinatzer, Boris; Schmale, David

    2015-04-01

    The aerosolization of microorganisms from aquatic environments is understudied. In this study, an ice nucleation active (ice+) strain and a non-ice nucleation active (ice-) strain of the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae were aerosolized from aqueous suspensions under artificial laboratory conditions using a Collison nebulizer. The aerosolization of P. syringae was not influenced by water temperatures between 5° and 30°C. In general, the culturability (viability) of P. syringae in aerosols increased with temperature between 5 and 30°C. The ice+ strain was aerosolized in greater numbers than the ice- strain at all temperatures studied, suggesting a possible connection between the ice nucleation phenotype and aerosol production. Together, our results suggest that P. syringae has the potential to be aerosolized from natural aquatic environments, such as streams, rivers, ponds, and lakes; known reservoirs of P. syringae. Future work is needed to elucidate the mechanisms of aerosolization of P. syringae from natural aquatic systems.

  13. Characterization of five ECF sigma factors in the genome of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Poulami Basu; Vaughn-Diaz, Vanessa L; Greenwald, Jessica W; Gross, Dennis C

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a, a bacterial pathogen of bean, utilizes large surface populations and extracellular signaling to initiate a fundamental change from an epiphytic to a pathogenic lifestyle. Extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma (σ) factors serve as important regulatory factors in responding to various environmental signals. Bioinformatic analysis of the B728a genome revealed 10 ECF sigma factors. This study analyzed deletion mutants of five previously uncharacterized ECF sigma factor genes in B728a, including three FecI-type ECF sigma factors (ECF5, ECF6, and ECF7) and two ECF sigma factors placed in groups ECF11 and ECF18. Transcriptional profiling by qRT-PCR analysis of ECF sigma factor mutants was used to measure expression of their associated anti-sigma and outer membrane receptor proteins, and expression of genes associated with production of extracellular polysaccharides, fimbriae, glycine betaine and syringomycin. Notably, the B728aΔecf7 mutant displayed reduced swarming and had decreased expression of CupC fimbrial genes. Growth and pathogenicity assays, using a susceptible bean host, revealed that none of the tested sigma factor genes are required for in planta growth and lesion formation.

  14. Spatial and temporal dynamics of primary and secondary metabolism in Phaseolus vulgaris challenged by Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bueno, María Luisa; Pineda, Mónica; Díaz-Casado, Elena; Barón, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    Many defense mechanisms contribute to the plant immune system against pathogens, involving the regulation of different processes of the primary and secondary metabolism. At the same time, pathogens have evolved mechanisms to hijack the plant defense in order to establish the infection and proliferate. Localization and timing of the host response are essential to understand defense mechanisms and resistance to pathogens (Rico et al. 2011). Imaging techniques, such as fluorescence imaging and thermography, are a very valuable tool providing spatial and temporal information about a series of plant processes. In this study, bean plants challenged with two pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae have been investigated. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448A and P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 elicit a compatible and incompatible interaction in bean, respectively. Both types of host-pathogen interaction triggered different changes in the activity of photosynthesis and the secondary metabolism. We conclude that the combined analysis of leaf temperature, chlorophyll fluorescence and green fluorescence emitted by phenolics allows to discriminate compatible from incompatible P. syringae-Phaseolus vulgaris interactions in very early times of the infection, prior to the development of symptoms. These can constitute disease signatures that would allow an early identification of emerging plagues in crops.

  15. Bioinformatics Analysis of the Complete Genome Sequence of the Mango Tree Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae UMAF0158 Reveals Traits Relevant to Virulence and Epiphytic Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Arrebola, Eva; Carrión, Víctor J.; Gutiérrez-Barranquero, José Antonio; Pérez-García, Alejandro; Ramos, Cayo; Cazorla, Francisco M.; de Vicente, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The genome sequence of more than 100 Pseudomonas syringae strains has been sequenced to date; however only few of them have been fully assembled, including P. syringae pv. syringae B728a. Different strains of pv. syringae cause different diseases and have different host specificities; so, UMAF0158 is a P. syringae pv. syringae strain related to B728a but instead of being a bean pathogen it causes apical necrosis of mango trees, and the two strains belong to different phylotypes of pv.syringae and clades of P. syringae. In this study we report the complete sequence and annotation of P. syringae pv. syringae UMAF0158 chromosome and plasmid pPSS158. A comparative analysis with the available sequenced genomes of other 25 P. syringae strains, both closed (the reference genomes DC3000, 1448A and B728a) and draft genomes was performed. The 5.8 Mb UMAF0158 chromosome has 59.3% GC content and comprises 5017 predicted protein-coding genes. Bioinformatics analysis revealed the presence of genes potentially implicated in the virulence and epiphytic fitness of this strain. We identified several genetic features, which are absent in B728a, that may explain the ability of UMAF0158 to colonize and infect mango trees: the mangotoxin biosynthetic operon mbo, a gene cluster for cellulose production, two different type III and two type VI secretion systems, and a particular T3SS effector repertoire. A mutant strain defective in the rhizobial-like T3SS Rhc showed no differences compared to wild-type during its interaction with host and non-host plants and worms. Here we report the first complete sequence of the chromosome of a pv. syringae strain pathogenic to a woody plant host. Our data also shed light on the genetic factors that possibly determine the pathogenic and epiphytic lifestyle of UMAF0158. This work provides the basis for further analysis on specific mechanisms that enable this strain to infect woody plants and for the functional analysis of host specificity in the P

  16. Identification and expression of the Pseudomonas syringae pv. aptata hrpZ(Psa) gene which encodes an harpin elicitor.

    PubMed

    Musa, A R; Minard, P; Mazzucchi, U

    2001-01-01

    A sequence homologous to an internal fragment 0.75 kb BstXI of the Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae hrpZ gene was identified in Pseudomonas syringae pv. aptata NCPPB 2664, the causal agent of bacterial blight in sugar beet, lettuce and other plants. and in E. coli DH10B (pCCP1069) containing the P. syringae pv. aptata hrp gene cluster. PCR with oligonucleotides, based on the hrpZ(Pss) gene and used as primers with the total genomic DNA of P. syringae pv. aptata, amplified a 1 kb fragment that hybridized with the probe in highly stringent conditions. The amplicon was cloned into the pGEM-T plasmid vector, amplified in E. coli DH5alpha and sequenced. The sequence showed 95%, 83% and 61% identity with those of hrpZ(Pss), hrpZ(Psg and hrpZ(Pst) genes encoding the harpins of the P. syringae pv. syringae, glycinea and tomato, respectively. The amplicon was cloned into the pMAL expression system. The expressed protein, fused with maltose-binding protein, was cleaved with a specific protease factor Xa, and purified using affinity chromatography. On the basis of the amino acid sequence and its ability to induce HR in tobacco leaves, it was identified as a P. syringae pv. aptata harpin.

  17. Comparative genomics of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strains B301D and HS191 and insights into intrapathovar traits associated with plant pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ravindran, Aravind; Jalan, Neha; Yuan, Joshua S; Wang, Nian; Gross, Dennis C

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae is a common plant-associated bacterium that causes diseases of both monocot and dicot plants worldwide. To help delineate traits critical to adaptation and survival in the plant environment, we generated complete genome sequences of P. syringae pv. syringae strains B301D and HS191, which represent dicot and monocot strains with distinct host specificities. Intrapathovar comparisons of the B301D (6.09 Mb) and HS191 (5.95 Mb plus a 52 kb pCG131 plasmid) genomes to the previously sequenced B728a genome demonstrated that the shared genes encompass about 83% of each genome, and include genes for siderophore biosynthesis, osmotolerance, and extracellular polysaccharide production. Between 7% and 12% of the genes are unique among the genomes, and most of the unique gene regions carry transposons, phage elements, or IS elements associated with horizontal gene transfer. Differences are observed in the type III effector composition for the three strains that likely influences host range. The HS191 genome had the largest number at 25 of effector genes, and seven effector genes are specific to this monocot strain. Toxin production is another major trait associated with virulence of P. syringae pv. syringae, and HS191 is distinguished by genes for production of syringopeptin SP25 and mangotoxin. PMID:25940918

  18. Comparative genomics reveals genes significantly associated with woody hosts in the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae

    PubMed Central

    Laue, Bridget E.; Sharp, Paul M.; Green, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Summary The diversification of lineages within Pseudomonas syringae has involved a number of adaptive shifts from herbaceous hosts onto various species of tree, resulting in the emergence of highly destructive diseases such as bacterial canker of kiwi and bleeding canker of horse chestnut. This diversification has involved a high level of gene gain and loss, and these processes are likely to play major roles in the adaptation of individual lineages onto their host plants. In order to better understand the evolution of P. syringae onto woody plants, we have generated de novo genome sequences for 26 strains from the P. syringae species complex that are pathogenic on a range of woody species, and have looked for statistically significant associations between gene presence and host type (i.e. woody or herbaceous) across a phylogeny of 64 strains. We have found evidence for a common set of genes associated with strains that are able to colonize woody plants, suggesting that divergent lineages have acquired similarities in genome composition that may form the genetic basis of their adaptation to woody hosts. We also describe in detail the gain, loss and rearrangement of specific loci that may be functionally important in facilitating this adaptive shift. Overall, our analyses allow for a greater understanding of how gene gain and loss may contribute to adaptation in P. syringae. PMID:27145446

  19. Transcriptional responses of Pseudomonas syringae to growth in epiphytic versus apoplastic leaf sites

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xilan; Lund, Steven P.; Scott, Russell A.; Greenwald, Jessica W.; Records, Angela H.; Nettleton, Dan; Lindow, Steven E.; Gross, Dennis C.; Beattie, Gwyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Some strains of the foliar pathogen Pseudomonas syringae are adapted for growth and survival on leaf surfaces and in the leaf interior. Global transcriptome profiling was used to evaluate if these two habitats offer distinct environments for bacteria and thus present distinct driving forces for adaptation. The transcript profiles of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a support a model in which leaf surface, or epiphytic, sites specifically favor flagellar motility, swarming motility based on 3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxy)alkanoic acid surfactant production, chemosensing, and chemotaxis, indicating active relocation primarily on the leaf surface. Epiphytic sites also promote high transcript levels for phenylalanine degradation, which may help counteract phenylpropanoid-based defenses before leaf entry. In contrast, intercellular, or apoplastic, sites favor the high-level expression of genes for GABA metabolism (degradation of these genes would attenuate GABA repression of virulence) and the synthesis of phytotoxins, two additional secondary metabolites, and syringolin A. These findings support roles for these compounds in virulence, including a role for syringolin A in suppressing defense responses beyond stomatal closure. A comparison of the transcriptomes from in planta cells and from cells exposed to osmotic stress, oxidative stress, and iron and nitrogen limitation indicated that water availability, in particular, was limited in both leaf habitats but was more severely limited in the apoplast than on the leaf surface under the conditions tested. These findings contribute to a coherent model of the adaptations of this widespread bacterial phytopathogen to distinct habitats within its host. PMID:23319638

  20. Dual Effect of the Cubic Ag3PO4 Crystal on Pseudomonas syringae Growth and Plant Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Yeo, Byul-Ee; Park, Heonyong; Huh, Young-Duk; Kwon, Chian; Yun, Hye Sup

    2016-01-01

    We previously found that the antibacterial activity of silver phosphate crystals on Escherichia coli depends on their structure. We here show that the cubic form of silver phosphate crystal (SPC) can also be applied to inhibit the growth of a plant-pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae bacterium. SPC pretreatment resulted in reduced in planta multiplication of P. syringae. Induced expression of a plant defense marker gene PR1 by SPC alone is suggestive of its additional plant immunity-stimulating activity. Since SPC can simultaneously inhibit P. syringae growth and induce plant defense responses, it might be used as a more effective plant disease-controlling agent. PMID:27147937

  1. The life history of Pseudomonas syringae: linking agriculture to earth system processes.

    PubMed

    Morris, Cindy E; Monteil, Caroline L; Berge, Odile

    2013-01-01

    The description of the ecology of Pseudomonas syringae is moving away from that of a ubiquitous epiphytic plant pathogen to one of a multifaceted bacterium sans frontières in fresh water and other ecosystems linked to the water cycle. Discovery of the aquatic facet of its ecology has led to a vision of its life history that integrates spatial and temporal scales spanning billions of years and traversing catchment basins, continents, and the planet and that confronts the implication of roles that are potentially conflicting for agriculture (as a plant pathogen and as an actor in processes leading to rain and snowfall). This new ecological perspective has also yielded insight into epidemiological phenomena linked to disease emergence. Overall, it sets the stage for the integration of more comprehensive contexts of ecology and evolutionary history into comparative genomic analyses to elucidate how P. syringae subverts the attack and defense responses of the cohabitants of the diverse environments it occupies.

  2. The release of alginate lyase from growing Pseudomonas syringae pathovar phaseolicola

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. M.; Day, D. F.; Koenig, D. W.; Pierson, D. L.

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pathovar phaseolicola, which produces alginate during stationary growth phase, displayed elevated extracellular alginate lyase activity during both mid-exponential and late-stationary growth phases of batch growth. Intracellular activity remained below 22% of the total activity during exponential growth, suggesting that alginate lyase has an extracellular function for this organism. Extracellular enzyme activity in continuous cultures, grown in either nutrient broth or glucose-simple salts medium, peaked at 60% of the washout rate, although nutrient broth-grown cultures displayed more than twice the activity per gram of cell mass. These results imply that growth rate, nutritional composition, or both initiate a release of alginate lyase from viable P. syringae pv. phaseolicola, which could modify its entrapping biofilm.

  3. Overlapping Yet Response-Specific Transcriptome Alterations Characterize the Nature of Tobacco–Pseudomonas syringae Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bozsó, Zoltán; Ott, Péter G.; Kámán-Tóth, Evelin; Bognár, Gábor F.; Pogány, Miklós; Szatmári, Ágnes

    2016-01-01

    In this study transcriptomic alterations of bacterially induced pattern triggered immunity (PTI) were compared with other types of tobacco–Pseudomonas interactions. In addition, using pharmacological agents we blocked some signal transduction pathways (Ca2+ influx, kinases, phospholipases, proteasomic protein degradation) to find out how they contribute to gene expression during PTI. PTI is the first defense response of plant cells to microbes, elicited by their widely conserved molecular patterns. Tobacco is an important model of Solanaceae to study resistance responses, including defense mechanisms against bacteria. In spite of these facts the transcription regulation of tobacco genes during different types of plant bacterial interactions is not well-described. In this paper we compared the tobacco transcriptomic alterations in microarray experiments induced by (i) PTI inducer Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae type III secretion mutant (hrcC) at earlier (6 h post inoculation) and later (48 hpi) stages of defense, (ii) wild type P. syringae (6 hpi) that causes effector triggered immunity (ETI) and cell death (HR), and (iii) disease-causing P. syringae pv. tabaci (6 hpi). Among the different treatments the highest overlap was between the PTI and ETI at 6 hpi, however, there were groups of genes with specifically altered activity for either type of defenses. Instead of quantitative effects of the virulent P. tabaci on PTI-related genes it influenced transcription qualitatively and blocked the expression changes of a special set of genes including ones involved in signal transduction and transcription regulation. P. tabaci specifically activated or repressed other groups of genes seemingly not related to either PTI or ETI. Kinase and phospholipase A inhibitors had highest impacts on the PTI response and effects of these signal inhibitors on transcription greatly overlapped. Remarkable interactions of phospholipase C-related pathways with the proteasomal system were

  4. Emigration of the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae from leaf litter contributes to its population dynamics in alpine snowpack.

    PubMed

    Monteil, Caroline L; Guilbaud, Caroline; Glaux, Catherine; Lafolie, François; Soubeyrand, Samuel; Morris, Cindy E

    2012-08-01

    The recently discovered ubiquity of the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae in headwaters and alpine ecosystems worldwide elicits new questions about the ecology of this bacterium and subsequent consequences for disease epidemiology. Because of the major contribution of snow to river run-off during crop growth, we evaluated the population dynamics of P.syringae in snowpack and the underlying leaf litter during two years in the Southern French Alps. High population densities of P.syringae were found on alpine grasses, and leaf litter was identified as the main source of populations of P.syringae in snowpack, contributing more than the populations arriving with the snowfall. The insulating properties of snow foster survival of P.syringae throughout the winter in the 10 cm layer of snow closest to the soil. Litter and snowpack harboured populations of P.syringae that were very diverse in terms of phenotypes and genotypes. Neither substrate nor sampling site had a marked effect on the structure of P.syringae populations, and snow and litter had genotypes in common with other non-agricultural habitats and with crops. These results contribute to the mounting evidence that a highly diverse P.syringae metapopulation is disseminated throughout drainage basins between cultivated and non-cultivated zones.

  5. AtMIN7 mediated disease resistance to Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis

    DOEpatents

    He, Sheng Yang; Nomura, Kinya

    2011-07-26

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for enhancing plant defenses against pathogens. More particularly, the invention relates to enhancing plant immunity against bacterial pathogens, wherein AtMIN7 mediated protection is enhanced and/or there is a decrease in activity of an AtMIN7 associated virulence protein such as a Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 HopM1. Reagents of the present invention provide a means of studying cellular trafficking while formulations of the present inventions provide increased pathogen resistance in plants.

  6. Bactericidal Compounds Controlling Growth of the Plant Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, Which Forms Biofilms Composed of a Novel Exopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Ghods, Shirin; Sims, Ian M.; Moradali, M. Fata

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is the major cause of bacterial canker and is a severe threat to kiwifruit production worldwide. Many aspects of the disease caused by P. syringae pv. actinidiae, such as the pathogenicity-relevant formation of a biofilm composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), are still unknown. Here, a highly virulent strain of P. syringae pv. actinidiae, NZ V-13, was studied with respect to biofilm formation and architecture using a flow cell system combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The biofilm formed by P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 was heterogeneous, consisting of a thin cellular base layer 5 μm thick and microcolonies with irregular structures. The major component of the EPSs produced by P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 bacteria was isolated and identified to be an exopolysaccharide. Extensive compositional and structural analysis showed that rhamnose, fucose, and glucose were the major constituents, present at a ratio of 5:1.5:2. Experimental evidence that P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 produces two polysaccharides, a branched α-d-rhamnan with side chains of terminal α-d-Fucf and an α-d-1,4-linked glucan, was obtained. The susceptibility of the cells in biofilms to kasugamycin and chlorine dioxide was assessed. About 64 and 73% of P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 cells in biofilms were killed when kasugamycin and chlorine dioxide were used at 5 and 10 ppm, respectively. Kasugamycin inhibited the attachment of P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 to solid surfaces at concentrations of 80 and 100 ppm. Kasugamycin was bacteriostatic against P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 growth in the planktonic mode, with the MIC being 40 to 60 ppm and a bactericidal effect being found at 100 ppm. Here we studied the formation, architecture, and composition of P. syringae pv. actinidiae biofilms as well as used the biofilm as a model to assess the efficacies of bactericidal compounds. PMID:25841017

  7. Draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar syringae strain FF5, causal agent of stem tip dieback disease on ornamental pear.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Kee Hoon; Jones, Jonathan D G; Studholme, David J

    2012-07-01

    Pseudomonas syringae FF5 causes stem tip dieback disease on ornamental pear (Pyrus calleryana). Its genome encodes a complete type III secretion system (T3SS) and HopAC1, HopM1, AvrE1, HopI1, HopAA1, HopJ1, HopAH2, HopAH1, HopAG1, and HopAZ1. Lacking detectable homologues of other T3SS effectors, it may encode novel, undiscovered effectors.

  8. The Coronatine Toxin of Pseudomonas syringae Is a Multifunctional Suppressor of Arabidopsis Defense[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Xueqing; Cheng, Jiye; Gangadharan, Anju; Mackey, David

    2012-01-01

    The phytotoxin coronatine (COR) promotes various aspects of Pseudomonas syringae virulence, including invasion through stomata, growth in the apoplast, and induction of disease symptoms. COR is a structural mimic of active jasmonic acid (JA) conjugates. Known activities of COR are mediated through its binding to the F-box–containing JA coreceptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1. By analyzing the interaction of P. syringae mutants with Arabidopsis thaliana mutants, we demonstrate that, in the apoplastic space of Arabidopsis, COR is a multifunctional defense suppressor. COR and the critical P. syringae type III effector HopM1 target distinct signaling steps to suppress callose deposition. In addition to its well-documented ability to suppress salicylic acid (SA) signaling, COR suppresses an SA-independent pathway contributing to callose deposition by reducing accumulation of an indole glucosinolate upstream of the activity of the PEN2 myrosinase. COR also suppresses callose deposition and promotes bacterial growth in coi1 mutant plants, indicating that COR may have multiple targets inside plant cells. PMID:23204405

  9. Nonagricultural reservoirs contribute to emergence and evolution of Pseudomonas syringae crop pathogens.

    PubMed

    Monteil, Caroline L; Cai, Rongman; Liu, Haijie; Llontop, Marco E Mechan; Leman, Scotland; Studholme, David J; Morris, Cindy E; Vinatzer, Boris A

    2013-08-01

    While the existence of environmental reservoirs of human pathogens is well established, less is known about the role of nonagricultural environments in emergence, evolution, and spread of crop pathogens. Here, we analyzed phylogeny, virulence genes, host range, and aggressiveness of Pseudomonas syringae strains closely related to the tomato pathogen P. syringae pv. tomato (Pto), including strains isolated from snowpack and streams. The population of Pto relatives in nonagricultural environments was estimated to be large and its diversity to be higher than that of the population of Pto and its relatives on crops. Ancestors of environmental strains, Pto, and other genetically monomorphic crop pathogens were inferred to have frequently recombined, suggesting an epidemic population structure for P. syringae. Some environmental strains have repertoires of type III-secreted effectors very similar to Pto, are almost as aggressive on tomato as Pto, but have a wider host range than typical Pto strains. We conclude that crop pathogens may have evolved through a small number of evolutionary events from a population of less aggressive ancestors with a wider host range present in nonagricultural environments.

  10. Population-genomic insights into emergence, crop adaptation and dissemination of Pseudomonas syringae pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Monteil, Caroline L.; Yahara, Koji; Studholme, David J.; Mageiros, Leonardos; Méric, Guillaume; Swingle, Bryan; Morris, Cindy E.

    2016-01-01

    Many bacterial pathogens are well characterized but, in some cases, little is known about the populations from which they emerged. This limits understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying disease. The crop pathogen Pseudomonas syringae sensu lato has been widely isolated from the environment, including wild plants and components of the water cycle, and causes disease in several economically important crops. Here, we compared genome sequences of 45 P. syringae crop pathogen outbreak strains with 69 closely related environmental isolates. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that crop pathogens emerged many times independently from environmental populations. Unexpectedly, differences in gene content between environmental populations and outbreak strains were minimal with most virulence genes present in both. However, a genome-wide association study identified a small number of genes, including the type III effector genes hopQ1 and hopD1, to be associated with crop pathogens, but not with environmental populations, suggesting that this small group of genes may play an important role in crop disease emergence. Intriguingly, genome-wide analysis of homologous recombination revealed that the locus Psyr 0346, predicted to encode a protein that confers antibiotic resistance, has been frequently exchanged among lineages and thus may contribute to pathogen fitness. Finally, we found that isolates from diseased crops and from components of the water cycle, collected during the same crop disease epidemic, form a single population. This provides the strongest evidence yet that precipitation and irrigation water are an overlooked inoculum source for disease epidemics caused by P. syringae. PMID:28348830

  11. The mangotoxin biosynthetic operon (mbo) is specifically distributed within Pseudomonas syringae genomospecies 1 and was acquired only once during evolution.

    PubMed

    Carrión, Víctor J; Gutiérrez-Barranquero, José A; Arrebola, Eva; Bardaji, Leire; Codina, Juan C; de Vicente, Antonio; Cazorla, Francisco M; Murillo, Jesús

    2013-02-01

    Mangotoxin production was first described in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strains. A phenotypic characterization of 94 P. syringae strains was carried out to determine the genetic evolution of the mangotoxin biosynthetic operon (mbo). We designed a PCR primer pair specific for the mbo operon to examine its distribution within the P. syringae complex. These primers amplified a 692-bp DNA fragment from 52 mangotoxin-producing strains and from 7 non-mangotoxin-producing strains that harbor the mbo operon, whereas 35 non-mangotoxin-producing strains did not yield any amplification. This, together with the analysis of draft genomes, allowed the identification of the mbo operon in five pathovars (pathovars aptata, avellanae, japonica, pisi, and syringae), all of which belong to genomospecies 1, suggesting a limited distribution of the mbo genes in the P. syringae complex. Phylogenetic analyses using partial sequences from housekeeping genes differentiated three groups within genomospecies 1. All of the strains containing the mbo operon clustered in groups I and II, whereas those lacking the operon clustered in group III; however, the relative branching order of these three groups is dependent on the genes used to construct the phylogeny. The mbo operon maintains synteny and is inserted in the same genomic location, with high sequence conservation around the insertion point, for all the strains in groups I and II. These data support the idea that the mbo operon was acquired horizontally and only once by the ancestor of groups I and II from genomospecies 1 within the P. syringae complex.

  12. Multiple loci of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae are involved in pathogenicity on bean: restoration of one lesion-deficient mutant requires two tRNA genes.

    PubMed Central

    Rich, J J; Willis, D K

    1997-01-01

    A mutational analysis of lesion-forming ability was undertaken in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a, causal agent of bacterial brown spot disease of bean. Following a screen of 6,401 Tn5-containing derivatives of B728a on bean pods, 26 strains that did not form disease lesions were identified. Nine of the mutant strains were defective in the ability to elicit the hypersensitive reaction (HR) and were shown to contain Tn5 insertions within the P. syringae pv. syringae hrp region. Ten HR+ mutants were defective in the production of the toxin syringomycin, and a region of the chromosome implicated in the biosynthesis of syringomycin was deleted in a subset of these mutants. The remaining seven lesion-defective mutants retained the ability to produce protease and syringomycin. Marker exchange mutagenesis confirmed that the Tn5 insertion was causal to the mutant phenotype in several lesion-defective, HR+ strains. KW239, a lesion- and syringomycin-deficient mutant, was characterized at the molecular level. Sequence analysis of the chromosomal region flanking the Tn5 within KW239 revealed strong similarities to a number of known Escherichia coli gene products and DNA sequences: the nusA operon, including the complete initiator tRNA(Met) gene, metY; a tRNA(Leu) gene; the tpiA gene product; and the MrsA protein. Removal of sequences containing the two potential tRNA genes prevented restoration of mutant KW239 in trans. The Tn5 insertions within the lesion-deficient strains examined, including KW239, were not closely linked to each other or to the lemA or gacA genes previously identified as involved in lesion formation by P. syringae pv. syringae. PMID:9079910

  13. Pseudomonas syringae infection triggers de novo synthesis of phytosphingosine from sphinganine in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Peer, Markus; Stegmann, Martin; Mueller, Martin J; Waller, Frank

    2010-09-24

    Sphingolipids are important membrane components and also regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis. We detected a fast increase of the free sphingobase t18:0 (phytosphinganine) in Arabidopsis leaves after inoculation with an avirulent strain of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato, characterized by host cell death reactions. The induction of phytosphinganine was more transient in virulent interactions lacking cell death reactions, suggesting a positive role of t18:0 in the plants' response to pathogens, e.g. the hypersensitive response. In the mutant sphingobase hydroxylase 1 (sbh1-1), Pseudomonas induced elevated free d18:0 levels. As total t18:0 contents (after hydrolysis of ceramides) were not reduced in sbh1-1, the pathogen-triggered t18:0 increase most likely results from de novo synthesis from d18:0 which would require SBH1.

  14. A draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain T1 reveals a repertoire of type III related genes significantly divergent from that of Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato strain DC3000

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparative genomics of pathogens with different host specificity can be used to identify genes related to host range determination. A draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pto) T1, non-pathogenic on Arabidopsis thaliana, was obtained for this purpose and compared to the genome o...

  15. Compartment-specific antioxidative defense in Arabidopsis against virulent and avirulent Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Großkinsky, Dominik K; Koffler, Barbara E; Roitsch, Thomas; Maier, Romana; Zechmann, Bernd

    2012-07-01

    The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during biotic stress is either part of a hypersensitive response of the plant or induced directly by the pathogen. Antioxidants such as ascorbate and glutathione counteract the accumulation of ROS and are part of the defense reaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the compartment-specific importance of ascorbate and glutathione during a virulent and avirulent Pseudomonas syringae infection in Arabidopsis thaliana. Peroxisomes were found to be the hotspot for glutathione accumulation reaching 452% and 258% of control levels 24 h postinoculation during the virulent and avirulent infection, respectively. An accumulation of ascorbate could also be observed in vacuoles during Pseudomonas syringae infection, whereas glutathione remained absent in this cell compartment. Neither glutathione nor ascorbate accumulated in the apoplast during pathogen infection demonstrating an only negligible role of these antioxidants in the apoplast during pathogen infection. Compartment-specific changes followed a recently proposed stress model with an increase of ascorbate and glutathione in most cell compartments at the early stages of infection and a strong drop at the later stage of infection when a strong accumulation of ROS and symptoms occurred in the leaves. This study highlights the importance of certain cell compartments and antioxidants in general for the protection of pathogen-induced ROS accumulation.

  16. A Boolean Model of the Pseudomonas syringae hrp Regulon Predicts a Tightly Regulated System

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Daniel; Studholme, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The Type III secretion system (TTSS) is a protein secretion machinery used by certain gram-negative bacterial pathogens of plants and animals to deliver effector molecules to the host and is at the core of the ability to cause disease. Extensive molecular and biochemical study has revealed the components and their interactions within this system but reductive approaches do not consider the dynamical properties of the system as a whole. In order to gain a better understanding of these dynamical behaviours and to create a basis for the refinement of the experimentally derived knowledge we created a Boolean model of the regulatory interactions within the hrp regulon of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato strain DC3000 Pseudomonas syringae. We compared simulations of the model with experimental data and found them to be largely in accordance, though the hrpV node shows some differences in state changes to that expected. Our simulations also revealed interesting dynamical properties not previously predicted. The model predicts that the hrp regulon is a biologically stable two-state system, with each of the stable states being strongly attractive, a feature indicative of selection for a tightly regulated and responsive system. The model predicts that the state of the GacS/GacA node confers control, a prediction that is consistent with experimental observations that the protein has a role as master regulator. Simulated gene “knock out” experiments with the model predict that HrpL is a central information processing point within the network. PMID:20169167

  17. Compartment-Specific Antioxidative Defense in Arabidopsis Against Virulent and Avirulent Pseudomonas syringae

    PubMed Central

    Großkinsky, Dominik K.; Koffler, Barbara E.; Roitsch, Thomas; Maier, Romana; Zechmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during biotic stress is either part of a hypersensitive response of the plant or induced directly by the pathogen. Antioxidants such as ascorbate and glutathione counteract the accumulation of ROS and are part of the defense reaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the compartment-specific importance of ascorbate and glutathione during a virulent and avirulent Pseudomonas syringae infection in Arabidopsis thaliana. Peroxisomes were found to be the hotspot for glutathione accumulation reaching 452% and 258% of control levels 24 h postinoculation during the virulent and avirulent infection, respectively. An accumulation of ascorbate could also be observed in vacuoles during Pseudomonas syringae infection, whereas glutathione remained absent in this cell compartment. Neither glutathione nor ascorbate accumulated in the apoplast during pathogen infection demonstrating an only negligible role of these antioxidants in the apoplast during pathogen infection. Compartment-specific changes followed a recently proposed stress model with an increase of ascorbate and glutathione in most cell compartments at the early stages of infection and a strong drop at the later stage of infection when a strong accumulation of ROS and symptoms occurred in the leaves. This study highlights the importance of certain cell compartments and antioxidants in general for the protection of pathogen-induced ROS accumulation. PMID:22571419

  18. Iron concentration limits growth rate and the expression of virulence factors in hrp-inducing minimal medium with Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although chemically-defined media have been developed and widely used to study the expression of virulence factors in the model plant pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, it has been difficult to link specific medium components to the induction response. Using a chemostat system, we found that iron is th...

  19. Virulence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 is modulated through the Catabolite Repression Control protein Crc

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas syringae (P.s.) infects diverse plant species and several P.s. pathovars have been used in the study of molecular events that occur during plant-microbe interactions. Although the relationship between bacterial metabolism, nutrient acquisition and virulence has attracted increasing atten...

  20. Regulons of the Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 iron starvation sigma factors PSPTO_0444, PSPTO_1209 and PSPTO_1286

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas syringae is a globally dispersed environmental bacteria that is well known for its ability to cause destructive plant diseases in agricultural and horticultural settings. The ability of bacteria to survive in diverse environments is correlated with a large number of transcription regulat...

  1. Construction and Use of a Nonradioactive DNA Hybridization Probe for Detection of Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato on Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Cuppels, D. A.; Moore, R. A.; Morris, V. L.

    1990-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, the causal agent for bacterial speck of tomato, produces the phytotoxin coronatine. A 5.3-kilobase XhoI fragment from the chromosomal region controlling toxin production was cloned into the plasmid pGB2, and the resulting recombinant plasmid, pTPR1, was tested for its ability to serve as a diagnostic probe for P. syringae pv. tomato. In a survey of 75 plant-associated bacteria, pTPR1 hybridized exclusively to those strains that produced coronatine. The detection limit for this probe, which was labeled with the Chemiprobe nonradioactive reporter system, was approximately 4 × 103 CFU of lesion bacteria. During the 1989 growing season, a total of 258 leaf and fruit lesions from nine tomato fields were screened for P. syringae pv. tomato by using pTPR1 and the culture method of detection. The best agreement between the two methods, 90%, occurred early in the season with samples taken from relatively young (5-week-old) plants. Young plants also had a higher percentage of P. syringae pv. tomato-positive lesions. P. syringae pv. tomato was the only coronatine producer recovered from the nine tomato fields. All 244 P. syringae pv. tomato strains isolated during this study reacted strongly with the probe. The P. syringae pv. tomato population of healthy field tomato leaves was determined by a pTPR1 colony hybridization procedure. Every probe-positive colony that was isolated and characterized was identified as P. syringae pv. tomato. The pTPR1 probe should expedite disease diagnosis and facilitate epidemiological studies of this pathogen. It also should aid in screening transplant seedlings for bacterial speck infestation. Images PMID:16348215

  2. A high-throughput chemical screen for resistance to Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Karl; Ckurshumova, Wenzislava; Peek, James; Desveaux, Darrell

    2008-05-01

    The study of plant pathogenesis and the development of effective treatments to protect plants from diseases could be greatly facilitated by a high-throughput pathosystem to evaluate small-molecule libraries for inhibitors of pathogen virulence. The interaction between the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas syringae and Arabidopsis thaliana is a model for plant pathogenesis. However, a robust high-throughput assay to score the outcome of this interaction is currently lacking. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis seedlings incubated with P. syringae in liquid culture display a macroscopically visible 'bleaching' symptom within 5 days of infection. Bleaching is associated with a loss of chlorophyll from cotyledonary tissues, and is correlated with bacterial virulence. Gene-for-gene resistance is absent in the liquid environment, possibly because of the suppression of the hypersensitive response under these conditions. Importantly, bleaching can be prevented by treating seedlings with known inducers of plant defence, such as salicylic acid (SA) or a basal defence-inducing peptide of bacterial flagellin (flg22) prior to inoculation. Based on these observations, we have devised a high-throughput liquid assay using standard 96-well plates to investigate the P. syringae-Arabidopsis interaction. An initial screen of small molecules active on Arabidopsis revealed a family of sulfanilamide compounds that afford protection against the bleaching symptom. The most active compound, sulfamethoxazole, also reduced in planta bacterial growth when applied to mature soil-grown plants. The whole-organism liquid assay provides a novel approach to probe chemical libraries in a high-throughput manner for compounds that reduce bacterial virulence in plants.

  3. The Pseudomonas syringae effector protein HopZ1a suppresses effector-triggered immunity.

    PubMed

    Macho, Alberto P; Guevara, Carlos M; Tornero, Pablo; Ruiz-Albert, Javier; Beuzón, Carmen R

    2010-09-01

    *The Pseudomonas syringae pv syringae type III effector HopZ1a is a member of the HopZ effector family of cysteine-proteases that triggers immunity in Arabidopsis. This immunity is dependent on HopZ1a cysteine-protease activity, and independent of known resistance genes. We have previously shown that HopZ1a-triggered immunity is partially additive to that triggered by AvrRpt2. These partially additive effects could be caused by at least two mechanisms: their signalling pathways share a common element(s), or one effector interferes with the response triggered by the other. *Here, we investigate the molecular basis for the partially additive effect displayed by AvrRpt2- and HopZ1a-triggered immunities, by analysing competitive indices, hypersensitive response and symptom induction, PR-1 accumulation, expression of PR genes, and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) induction. *Partially additive effects between these defence responses require HopZ1a cysteine-protease activity, and also take place between HopZ1a and AvrRps4 or AvrRpm1-triggered responses. We establish that HopZ1a-triggered immunity is independent of salicylic acid (SA), EDS1, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET)-dependent pathways, and show that HopZ1a suppresses the induction of PR-1 and PR-5 associated with P. syringae pv tomato (Pto)-triggered effector-triggered immunity (ETI)-like defences, AvrRpt2-triggered immunity, and Pto or Pto (avrRpt2) activation of SAR, and that suppression requires HopZ1a cysteine-protease activity. *Our results indicate that HopZ1a triggers an unusual resistance independent of known pathways and suppresses SA and EDS1-dependent resistance.

  4. Comprehensive analysis of draft genomes of two closely related Pseudomonas syringae phylogroup 2b strains infecting mono and dicotyledon host plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, the damage caused by bacterial pathogens to major crops has been increasing worldwide. Pseudomonas syringae is a widespread bacterial species that infects almost all major crops. Different P. syringae strains use a wide range of biochemical mechanisms, including phytotoxins and effe...

  5. Type III secretion chaperones of Pseudomonas syringae protect effectors from Lon-associated degradation.

    PubMed

    Losada, Liliana C; Hutcheson, Steven W

    2005-02-01

    The hrp type III secretion system (TTSS) of Pseudomonas syringae translocates effector proteins into the cytoplasm of host cells. Proteolysis of HrpR by Lon has been shown to negatively regulate the hrp TTSS. The inability to bypass Lon-associated effects on the regulatory system by ectopic expression of the known regulators suggested a second site of action for Lon in TTSS-dependent effector secretion. In this study we report that TTSS-dependent effectors are subject to the proteolytic degradation that appears to be rate-limiting to secretion. The half-lives of the effectors AvrPto, AvrRpt2, HopPsyA, HopPsyB1, HopPtoB2, HopPsyV1, HopPtoG and HopPtoM were substantially higher in bacteria lacking Lon. TTSS-dependent secretion of several effectors was enhanced from Lon mutants. A primary role for chaperones appears to be protection of effectors from Lon-associated degradation prior to secretion. When coexpressed with their cognate chaperone, HopPsyB1, HopPsyV1 and HopPtoM were at least 10 times more stable in strains expressing Lon. Distinct Lon-targeting and chaperone-binding domains were identified in HopPtoM. The results imply that Lon is involved at two distinct levels in the regulation of the P. syringae TTSS: regulation of assembly of the secreton and modulation of effector secretion.

  6. Differential Coexpression Analysis Reveals Extensive Rewiring of Arabidopsis Gene Coexpression in Response to Pseudomonas syringae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhenhong; Dong, Xiaobao; Li, Zhi-Gang; He, Fei; Zhang, Ziding

    2016-01-01

    Plant defense responses to pathogens involve massive transcriptional reprogramming. Recently, differential coexpression analysis has been developed to study the rewiring of gene networks through microarray data, which is becoming an important complement to traditional differential expression analysis. Using time-series microarray data of Arabidopsis thaliana infected with Pseudomonas syringae, we analyzed Arabidopsis defense responses to P. syringae through differential coexpression analysis. Overall, we found that differential coexpression was a common phenomenon of plant immunity. Genes that were frequently involved in differential coexpression tend to be related to plant immune responses. Importantly, many of those genes have similar average expression levels between normal plant growth and pathogen infection but have different coexpression partners. By integrating the Arabidopsis regulatory network into our analysis, we identified several transcription factors that may be regulators of differential coexpression during plant immune responses. We also observed extensive differential coexpression between genes within the same metabolic pathways. Several metabolic pathways, such as photosynthesis light reactions, exhibited significant changes in expression correlation between normal growth and pathogen infection. Taken together, differential coexpression analysis provides a new strategy for analyzing transcriptional data related to plant defense responses and new insights into the understanding of plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:27721457

  7. The form of nitrogen nutrition affects resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola in tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kapuganti J.; Mur, Luis A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Different forms of nitrogen (N) fertilizer affect disease development; however, this study investigated the effects of N forms on the hypersensitivity response (HR)—a pathogen-elicited cell death linked to resistance. HR-eliciting Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola was infiltrated into leaves of tobacco fed with either or . The speed of cell death was faster in -fed compared with -fed plants, which correlated, respectively, with increased and decreased resistance. Nitric oxide (NO) can be generated by nitrate reductase (NR) to influence the formation of the HR. NO generation was reduced in -fed plants where N assimilation bypassed the NR step. This was similar to that elicited by the disease-forming P. syringae pv. tabaci strain, further suggesting that resistance was compromised with feeding. PR1a is a biomarker for the defence signal salicylic acid (SA), and expression was reduced in -fed compared with fed plants at 24h after inoculation. This pattern correlated with actual SA measurements. Conversely, total amino acid, cytosolic and apoplastic glucose/fructose and sucrose were elevated in - treated plants. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was used to characterize metabolic events following different N treatments. Following nutrition, polyamine biosynthesis was predominant, whilst after nutrition, flux appeared to be shifted towards the production of 4-aminobutyric acid. The mechanisms whereby feeding enhances SA, NO, and polyamine-mediated HR-linked defence whilst these are compromised with , which also increases the availability of nutrients to pathogens, are discussed. PMID:23230025

  8. Pseudomonas syringae Differentiates into Phenotypically Distinct Subpopulations During Colonization of a Plant Host.

    PubMed

    Rufián, José S; Sánchez-Romero, María-Antonia; López-Márquez, Diego; Macho, Alberto P; Mansfield, John W; Arnold, Dawn L; Ruiz-Albert, Javier; Casadesús, Josep; Beuzón, Carmen R

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial microcolonies with heterogeneous sizes are formed during colonization of Phaseolus vulgaris by Pseudomonas syringae. Heterogeneous expression of structural and regulatory components of the P. syringae type III secretion system (T3SS), essential for colonization of the host apoplast and disease development, is likewise detected within the plant apoplast. T3SS expression is bistable in the homogeneous environment of nutrient-limited T3SS-inducing medium, suggesting that subpopulation formation is not a response to different environmental cues. T3SS bistability is reversible, indicating a non-genetic origin, and the T3SS(HIGH) and T3SS(LOW) subpopulations show differences in virulence. T3SS bistability requires the transcriptional activator HrpL, the double negative regulatory loop established by HrpV and HrpG, and may be enhanced through a positive feedback loop involving HrpA, the main component of the T3SS pilus. To our knowledge, this is the first example of phenotypic heterogeneity in the expression of virulence determinants during colonization of a non-mammalian host.

  9. The hygroscopic biosurfactant syringafactin produced by Pseudomonas syringae enhances fitness on leaf surfaces during fluctuating humidity.

    PubMed

    Burch, Adrien Y; Zeisler, Viktoria; Yokota, Kenji; Schreiber, Lukas; Lindow, Steven E

    2014-07-01

    Biosurfactant production by bacteria on leaf surfaces is poorly documented, and its role in this habitat has not been explored. Therefore, we investigated the production and fitness benefits of syringafactin by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a on leaves. Syringafactin largely adsorbed to the waxy leaf cuticle both when topically applied and when produced by cells on plants. Syringafactin increased the rate of diffusion of water across isolated cuticles and attracted water to hydrophobic surfaces exposed to high relative humidity due to its hygroscopic properties. While a wild-type and syringafactin mutant exhibited similar fitness on bean leaves incubated in static conditions, the fitness of the wild-type strain was higher under fluctuating humidity conditions typical of field conditions. When co-inoculated onto either the host plant bean or the non-host plant romaine lettuce, the proportion of viable wild-type cells recovered from plants relative to that of a mutant unable to produce syringafactin increased 10% over 10 days. The number of disease lesions incited by the wild-type strain on bean was also significantly higher than that of the syringafactin mutant. The production of hygroscopic biosurfactants on waxy leaf surfaces apparently benefits bacteria by both attracting moisture and facilitating access to nutrients.

  10. Biophysical characterization of soluble Pseudomonas syringae ice nucleation protein InaZ fragments.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu Jin; Song, HyoJin; Lee, Chang Woo; Ly, Nguyễn Hoàng; Joo, Sang-Woo; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Kim, Soon-Jong; Park, SangYoun

    2017-01-01

    Ice nucleation protein (INP) with its functional domain consisting of multiple 48-residue repeat units effectively induces super-cooled water into ice. Circular dichroism and infrared deconvolution analyses on a soluble 240-residue fragment of Pseudomonas syringae InaZ (InaZ240) containing five 48-residue repeat units indicated that it is mostly composed of β-sheet and random coil. Analytical ultracentrifugation suggested that InaZ240 behaves as a monomer of an elongated ellipsoid. However, InaZ240 showed only minimum ice binding compared to anti-freeze proteins. Other P. syringae InaZ proteins with more 48-residue repeat units were made, in which the largest soluble fragment obtainable was an InaZ with twelve 48-residue repeat units. Size-exclusion chromatography analyses further suggested that the overall shape of the expressed InaZ fragments is pH-dependent, which becomes compact as the numbers of 48-residue repeat unit increase.

  11. Protein phosphatase AP2C1 negatively regulates basal resistance and defense responses to Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Shubchynskyy, Volodymyr; Boniecka, Justyna; Schweighofer, Alois; Simulis, Justinas; Kvederaviciute, Kotryna; Stumpe, Michael; Mauch, Felix; Balazadeh, Salma; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Boutrot, Freddy; Zipfel, Cyril; Meskiene, Irute

    2017-01-06

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) mediate plant immune responses to pathogenic bacteria. However, less is known about the cell autonomous negative regulatory mechanism controlling basal plant immunity. We report the biological role of Arabidopsis thaliana MAPK phosphatase AP2C1 as a negative regulator of plant basal resistance and defense responses to Pseudomonas syringae AP2C2, a closely related MAPK phosphatase, also negatively controls plant resistance. Loss of AP2C1 leads to enhanced pathogen-induced MAPK activities, increased callose deposition in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns or to P. syringae pv. tomato (Pto) DC3000, and enhanced resistance to bacterial infection with Pto. We also reveal the impact of AP2C1 on the global transcriptional reprogramming of transcription factors during Pto infection. Importantly, ap2c1 plants show salicylic acid-independent transcriptional reprogramming of several defense genes and enhanced ethylene production in response to Pto This study pinpoints the specificity of MAPK regulation by the different MAPK phosphatases AP2C1 and MKP1, which control the same MAPK substrates, nevertheless leading to different downstream events. We suggest that precise and specific control of defined MAPKs by MAPK phosphatases during plant challenge with pathogenic bacteria can strongly influence plant resistance.

  12. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 uses constitutive and apoplast-induced nutrient assimilation pathways to catabolize nutrients that are abundant in the tomato apoplast.

    PubMed

    Rico, Arantza; Preston, Gail M

    2008-02-01

    The plant apoplast is the intercellular space that surrounds plant cells, in which metabolic and physiological processes relating to cell wall biosynthesis, nutrient transport, and stress responses occur. The apoplast is also the primary site of infection for hemibiotrophic pathogens such as P. syringae, which obtain nutrients directly from apoplastic fluid. We have used apoplastic fluid extracted from healthy tomato leaves as a growth medium for Pseudomonas spp. in order to investigate the role of apoplastic nutrients in plant colonization by Pseudomonas syringae. We have confirmed that apoplast extracts mimic some of the environmental and nutritional conditions that bacteria encounter during apoplast colonization by demonstrating that expression of the plant-induced type III protein secretion pathway is upregulated during bacterial growth in apoplast extracts. We used a modified phenoarray technique to show that apoplast-adapted P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 expresses nutrient utilization pathways that allow it to use sugars, organic acids, and amino acids that are highly abundant in the tomato apoplast. Comparative analyses of the nutrient utilization profiles of the genome-sequenced strains P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000, P. syringae pv. syringae B728a, P. syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448A, and the unsequenced strain P. syringae pv. tabaci 11528 with nine other genome-sequenced strains of Pseudomonas provide further evidence that P. syringae strains are adapted to use nutrients that are abundant in the leaf apoplast. Interestingly, P. syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448A lacks many of the nutrient utilization abilities that are present in three other P. syringae strains tested, which can be directly linked to differences in the P. syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448A genome.

  13. Characterization of the hrpZ gene from Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicolaM2

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Mejía, César; Rodríguez-Ríos, Dalia; Hernández-Guzmán, Gustavo; López-Ramírez, Varinia; Valenzuela-Soto, Humberto; Marsch, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola is a natural pathogen of members of the Brassicaceae plant family. Using a transposon-based mutagenesis strategy in Pseudomonas syringaepv. maculicola M2 (PsmM2), we conducted a genetic screen to identify mutants that were capable of growing in M9 medium supplemented with a crude extract from the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. A mutant containing a transposon insertion in the hrpZ gene (PsmMut8) was unable to infect adult plants from Arabidopsis thaliana or Brassica oleracea, suggesting a loss of pathogenicity. The promotorless cat reporter present in the gene trap was expressed if PsmMut8 was grown in minimal medium (M9) supplemented with the leaf extract but not if grown in normal rich medium (KB). We conducted phylogenetic analysis using hrpAZB genes, showing the classical 5-clade distribution, and nucleotide diversity analysis, showing the putative position for selective pressure in this operon. Our results indicate that the hrpAZB operon from Pseudomonas syringaepv. maculicola M2 is necessary for its pathogenicity and that its diversity would be under host-mediated diversifying selection. PMID:26413080

  14. Characterization of the hrpZ gene from Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola M2.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Mejía, César; Rodríguez-Ríos, Dalia; Hernández-Guzmán, Gustavo; López-Ramírez, Varinia; Valenzuela-Soto, Humberto; Marsch, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola is a natural pathogen of members of the Brassicaceae plant family. Using a transposon-based mutagenesis strategy in Pseudomonas syringaepv. maculicola M2 (PsmM2), we conducted a genetic screen to identify mutants that were capable of growing in M9 medium supplemented with a crude extract from the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. A mutant containing a transposon insertion in the hrpZ gene (PsmMut8) was unable to infect adult plants from Arabidopsis thaliana or Brassica oleracea, suggesting a loss of pathogenicity. The promotorless cat reporter present in the gene trap was expressed if PsmMut8 was grown in minimal medium (M9) supplemented with the leaf extract but not if grown in normal rich medium (KB). We conducted phylogenetic analysis using hrpAZB genes, showing the classical 5-clade distribution, and nucleotide diversity analysis, showing the putative position for selective pressure in this operon. Our results indicate that the hrpAZB operon from Pseudomonas syringaepv. maculicola M2 is necessary for its pathogenicity and that its diversity would be under host-mediated diversifying selection.

  15. Intercellular salicylic acid accumulation during compatible and incompatible Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas syringae interactions.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Daniel C; Carella, Philip; Cameron, Robin K

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in several disease resistance responses. During the Age-Related Resistance (ARR) response that occurs in mature Arabidopsis responding to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst), SA accumulates in the intercellular space where it may act as an antimicrobial agent. Recently we measured intracellular and intercellular SA levels in young, ARR-incompetent plants responding to virulent and avirulent strains of Pst to determine if intercellular SA accumulation is a component of additional defense responses to Pst. In young plants virulent Pst suppressed both intra- and intercellular SA accumulation in a coronatine-dependent manner. In contrast, high levels of intra- and intercellular SA accumulated in response to avirulent Pst. Our results support the idea that SA accumulation in the intercellular space is an important component of multiple defense responses. Future research will include understanding how mature plants counteract the effects of coronatine during the ARR response.

  16. Novel cyclic lipodepsipeptide from Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans strain 508 and syringopeptin antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Grgurina, Ingeborg; Bensaci, Mekki; Pocsfalvi, Gabriella; Mannina, Luisa; Cruciani, Oscar; Fiore, Alberto; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Sorensen, Kevin N; Takemoto, Jon Y

    2005-12-01

    The syringopeptins are a group of antimicrobial cyclic lipodepsipeptides produced by several plant-associated pseudomonads. A novel syringopeptin, SP508, was shown to be produced as two homologs (A and B) by Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans strain 508 from apple and to structurally resemble syringopeptin SP22. SP508 differed from SP22 and other syringopeptins by having three instead of four alpha,beta-unsaturated amino acids and a longer beta-hydroxy acyl chain. Both SP508 and SP22 displayed growth-inhibitory activities against Mycobacterium smegmatis, other gram-positive bacteria, and yeasts but not against gram-negative bacteria. Structure-activity analyses of the SP508 and SP22 homologs indicated chemical structural features that lead to enhanced antimycobacterial activity by these pseudomonad cyclic lipodepsipeptides.

  17. The phytotoxin coronatine is a multifunctional component of the virulence armament of Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xueqing; Jin, Lin; Shimada, Mikiko; Kim, Min Gab; Mackey, David

    2014-12-01

    Plant pathogens deploy an array of virulence factors to suppress host defense and promote pathogenicity. Numerous strains of Pseudomonas syringae produce the phytotoxin coronatine (COR). A major aspect of COR function is its ability to mimic a bioactive jasmonic acid (JA) conjugate and thus target the JA-receptor COR-insensitive 1 (COI1). Biological activities of COR include stimulation of JA-signaling and consequent suppression of SA-dependent defense through antagonistic crosstalk, antagonism of stomatal closure to allow bacterial entry into the interior of plant leaves, contribution to chlorotic symptoms in infected plants, and suppression of plant cell wall defense through perturbation of secondary metabolism. Here, we review the virulence function of COR, including updates on these established activities as well as more recent findings revealing COI1-independent activity of COR and shedding light on cooperative or redundant defense suppression between COR and type III effector proteins.

  18. Phosphatidylcholine synthesis is essential for HrpZ harpin secretion in plant pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae and non-pathogenic Pseudomonas sp. 593.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Min; Long, Deliang; He, Huoguang; Li, Yang; Li, Yadong; Wang, Xingguo

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae van Hall is important phytopathogenic bacterium of stone fruit trees, and able to elicit hypersensitive response (HR) in nonhost plants. The HrpZ, secreted via type III secretion system (T3SS) to the extracellular space of the plant, is a T3SS-dependent protein and a sole T3SS effector able to induce the host defense response outside host cells. We deleted the phosphatidylcholine synthase gene (pcs) of P. syringae pv. syringae van Hall CFCC 1336, and found that the 1336 pcs(-) mutant was unable to synthesize phosphatidylcholine and elicit a typical HR in soybean. Further studies showed that the 1336 pcs(-) mutant was unable to secrete HrpZ harpin but could express HrpZ protein in cytoplasm as effectively as the wild type. To confirm if phosphatidylcholine affects HrpZ harpin secretion, we introduced the hrpZ gene into the soil-dwelling bacterium Pseudomonas sp. 593 and the 593 pcs(-) mutant, which were unable to express HrpZ harpin and elicit HR in tobacco or soybean. Western blotting and HR assay showed that the 593H not only secreted HrpZ harpin but also caused a strong HR in tobacco and soybean. In contrast, the 593 pcs(-)H only expressed HrpZ protein in its cytoplasm at the wild type level, but did not secrete HrpZ harpin or elicit HR reaction. Our results demonstrate that phosphatidylcholine is essential for the secretion of HrpZ harpin in P. syringae pv. syringae van Hall and other Pseudomonas strains.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas syringae Pathovar Syringae Strain FF5, Causal Agent of Stem Tip Dieback Disease on Ornamental Pear

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Kee Hoon; Jones, Jonathan D. G.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae FF5 causes stem tip dieback disease on ornamental pear (Pyrus calleryana). Its genome encodes a complete type III secretion system (T3SS) and HopAC1, HopM1, AvrE1, HopI1, HopAA1, HopJ1, HopAH2, HopAH1, HopAG1, and HopAZ1. Lacking detectable homologues of other T3SS effectors, it may encode novel, undiscovered effectors. PMID:22740663

  20. The Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae 61 hrpH product, an envelope protein required for elicitation of the hypersensitive response in plants.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, H C; He, S Y; Bauer, D W; Collmer, A

    1992-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae 61 contains a 25-kb cluster of hrp genes that are required for elicitation of the hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco. TnphoA mutagenesis of cosmid pHIR11, which contains the hrp cluster, revealed two genes encoding exported or inner-membrane-spanning proteins (H.-C. Huang, S. W. Hutcheson, and A. Collmer, Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 4:469-476, 1991). The gene in complementation group X, designated hrpH, was subcloned on a 3.1-kb SalI fragment into pCPP30, a broad-host-range, mobilizable vector. The subclone restored the ability of hrpH mutant P. syringae pv. syringae 61-2089 to elicit the HR in tobacco. DNA sequence analysis of the 3.1-kb SalI fragment revealed a single open reading frame encoding an 81,956-Da preprotein with a typical amino-terminal signal peptide and no likely inner-membrane-spanning hydrophobic regions. hrpH was expressed in the presence of [35S]methionine by using the T7 RNA polymerase-promoter system and vector pT7-3 in Escherichia coli and was shown to encode a protein with an apparent molecular weight of 83,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The HrpH protein in E. coli was located in the membrane fraction and was absent from the periplasm and cytoplasm. The HrpH protein possessed similarity with several outer membrane proteins that are known to be involved in protein or phage secretion, including the Klebsiella oxytoca PulD protein, the Yersinia enterocolitica YscC protein, and the pIV protein of filamentous coliphages. All of these proteins possess a possible secretion motif, GG(X)12VP(L/F)LXXIPXIGXL(F/L), near the carboxyl terminus, and they lack a carboxyl-terminal phenylalanine, in contrast to other outer membrane proteins with no known secretion function. These results suggest that the P. syringae pv. syringae HrpH protein is involved in the secretion of a proteinaceous HR elicitor. Images PMID:1400238

  1. The widespread plant-colonizing bacterial species Pseudomonas syringae detects and exploits an extracellular pool of choline in hosts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiliang; Li, Shanshan; McKeever, Dana R; Beattie, Gwyn A

    2013-09-01

    The quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) choline is a major component of membrane lipids in eukaryotes and, if available to microbial colonists of plants, could provide benefits for growth and protection from stress. Free choline is found in homogenized plant tissues, but its subcellular location and availability to plant microbes are not known. Whole-cell bacterial bioreporters of the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae were constructed that couple a QAC-responsive transcriptional fusion with well-characterized bacterial QAC transporters. These bioreporters demonstrated the presence of abundant free choline compounds released from germinating seeds and seedlings of the bean Phaseolus vulgaris, and a smaller but consistently detectable amount of QACs, probably choline, from leaves. The localization of P. syringae bioreporter cells to the surface and intercellular sites of plant tissues demonstrated the extracellular location of these QAC pools. Moreover, P. syringae mutants that were deficient in the uptake of choline compounds exhibited reduced fitness on leaves, highlighting the importance of extracellular choline to P. syringae on leaves. Our data support a model in which this choline pool is derived from the phospholipid phosphatidylcholine through plant-encoded phospholipases that release choline into the intercellular spaces of plant tissues, such as for membrane lipid recycling. The consequent extracellular release of choline compounds enables their interception and exploitation by plant-associated microbes, and thus provides a selective advantage for microbes such as P. syringae that are adapted to maximally exploit choline.

  2. Tomato photorespiratory glycolate oxidase-derived H2 O2 production contributes to basal defense against Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Li, Xin; Zhang, Guanqun; Zhang, Huan; Shi, Junying; Pan, Caizhe; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2017-02-06

    Despite being essential for C3 plants, photorespiration is believed to cause a significant crop yield loss even under future climates. However, how photorespiration affects plant basal defense still remains largely unknown. Here, we studied the involvement of photorespiration in tomato-Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 interaction focusing on three photorespiratory genes. Inoculation with P. syringae increased photorespiration rate (Pr) and expression of GLYCOLATE OXIDASE (GOX2), SERINE GLYOXYLATE AMINOTRANSFERASE (SGT) and SERINE HYDROXYL METHYLTRANSFERASE (SHMT1), however, inhibition of photorespiration by isonicotinic acid hydrazide decreased tomato basal defense against P. syringae. Furthermore, silencing of GOX2, SGT or SHMT1 genes in tomato decreased Pr but increased susceptibility to P. syringae, whereas transient overexpression of GOX2, SGT or SHMT1 in tobacco increased basal defense. Further study revealed that salicylic acid (SA) signaling is involved in GOX2-, SGT- and SHMT1-mediated defense. Moreover, H2 O2 pretreatment remarkably alleviated the GOX2 silencing-induced depression in basal defense and SA signaling, whereas had no effect on that of SGT- and SHMT1-silenced plants. Taken together, these results suggest that H2 O2 is critical for GOX2- but not SGT- or SHMT1-modulated SA signaling and subsequent basal defense against P. syringae. This work deepens the understanding of photorespiration-involved defense responses to bacterial attack in plants.

  3. The conserved hypothetical protein PSPTO_3957 is essential for virulence in the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Katherine; Filiatrault, Melanie J

    2017-01-10

    The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae accounts for substantial crop losses and is considered an important agricultural issue. To better manage disease in the field, it is important to have an understanding of the underlying genetic mechanisms that mediate virulence. There are a substantial number of genes in sequenced bacterial genomes, including P. syringae, that encode for conserved hypothetical proteins; some of these have been functionally characterized in other Pseudomonads and have been demonstrated to play important roles in disease. PSPTO_3957 encodes a conserved hypothetical protein of unknown function. To evaluate the role of PSPTO_3957 in P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000, a PSPTO_3957 deletion mutant was constructed. Here we show that PSPTO_3957 does not influence growth on rich media, motility, or biofilm formation but is necessary for nitrate assimilation and full virulence in P. syringae Our results have revealed an important role for PSPTO_3957 in the biology of P. syringae Given the conservation of this protein among many bacteria, this protein might serve as an attractive target for disease management of this and other bacterial plant pathogens.

  4. Light regulates motility, attachment and virulence in the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000.

    PubMed

    Río-Álvarez, Isabel; Rodríguez-Herva, José Juan; Martínez, Pedro Manuel; González-Melendi, Pablo; García-Casado, Gloria; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; López-Solanilla, Emilia

    2014-07-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pto) is the causal agent of the bacterial speck of tomato, which leads to significant economic losses in this crop. Pto inhabits the tomato phyllosphere, where the pathogen is highly exposed to light, among other environmental factors. Light represents a stressful condition and acts as a source of information associated with different plant defence levels. Here, we analysed the presence of both blue and red light photoreceptors in a group of Pseudomonas. In addition, we studied the effect of white, blue and red light on Pto features related to epiphytic fitness. While white and blue light inhibit motility, bacterial attachment to plant leaves is promoted. Moreover, these phenotypes are altered in a blue-light receptor mutant. These light-controlled changes during the epiphytic stage cause a reduction in virulence, highlighting the relevance of motility during the entry process to the plant apoplast. This study demonstrated the key role of light perception in the Pto phenotype switching and its effect on virulence.

  5. Purification and Characterization of the Epoxidase Catalyzing the Formation of Fosfomycin from Pseudomonas syringae

    PubMed Central

    Munos, Jeffrey W.; Moon, Sung-Ju; Mansoorabadi, Steven O.; Chang, Weichen; Hong, Lin; Yan, Feng; Liu, Aimin; Liu, Hung-wen

    2009-01-01

    The final step in the biosynthesis of fosfomycin in Streptomyces wedmorensis is catalyzed by (S)-2-hydroxypropylphosphonic acid (HPP) epoxidase (Sw-HppE). A homologous enzyme from Pseudomonas syringae has recently been isolated whose encoding gene (orf3) shares relatively low sequence homology to the corresponding Sw-HppE gene. This purified P. syringae protein was determined to catalyze the epoxidation of (S)-HPP to fosfomycin and the oxidation of (R)-HPP to 2-oxopropylphosphonic acid under the same conditions as Sw-HppE. Therefore, this protein is indeed a true HPP epoxidase and is termed Ps-HppE. Like Sw-HppE, Ps-HppE was determined to be post-translationally modified by the hydroxylation of a putative active site tyrosine (Tyr95). Analysis of the Fe(II)-center by EPR spectroscopy using NO as a spin probe and molecular oxygen surrogate reveals that Ps-HppE’s metal center is similar, but not identical, to that of Sw-HppE. The identity of the rate determining step for the (S)-HPP and (R)-HPP reactions was determined by measuring primary deuterium kinetic effects, and the outcome of these results were correlated with density functional theory calculations. Interestingly, the reaction using the non-physiological substrate (R)-HPP was 1.9 times faster than that with (S)-HPP for both Ps-HppE and Sw-HppE. This is likely due to the difference in bond dissociation energy of the abstracted hydrogen atom for each respective reaction. Thus, despite low amino acid sequence identity, Ps-HppE is a close mimic of Sw-HppE, representing a second example of a non-heme iron-dependent enzyme capable of catalyzing dehydrogenation of a secondary alcohol to form a new C-O bond. PMID:18656958

  6. Ice nucleators, bacterial cells and Pseudomonas syringae in precipitation at Jungfraujoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stopelli, Emiliano; Conen, Franz; Guilbaud, Caroline; Zopfi, Jakob; Alewell, Christine; Morris, Cindy E.

    2017-03-01

    Ice nucleation is a means by which the deposition of an airborne microorganism can be accelerated under favourable meteorological conditions. Analysis of 56 snow samples collected at the high-altitude observatory Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.) revealed an order-of-magnitude-larger dynamic range of ice-nucleating particles active at -8 °C (INPs-8) compared to the total number of bacterial cells (of which on average 60 % was alive). This indicates a shorter atmospheric residence time for INPs-8. Furthermore, concentrations of INPs-8 decreased much faster, with an increasing fraction of water precipitated from the air mass prior to sampling, than the number of total bacterial cells. Nevertheless, at high wind speeds (> 50 km h-1) the ratio of INPs-8 to total bacterial cells largely remained in a range between 10-2 and 10-3, independent of prior precipitation, likely because of recent injections of particles in regions upwind. Based on our field observations, we conclude that ice nucleators travel shorter legs of distance with the atmospheric water cycle than the majority of bacterial cells. A prominent ice-nucleating bacterium, Pseudomonas syringae, has been previously supposed to benefit from this behaviour as a means to spread via the atmosphere and to colonise new host plants. Therefore, we targeted this bacterium with a selective cultivation approach. P. syringae was successfully isolated for the first time at such an altitude in 3 of 13 samples analysed. Colony-forming units of this species constituted a minor fraction (10-4) of the numbers of INPs-8 in these samples. Overall, our findings expand the geographic range of habitats where this bacterium has been found and corroborate theories on its robustness in the atmosphere and its propensity to spread to colonise new habitats.

  7. Survival, growth, and localization of epiphytic fitness mutants of pseudomonas syringae on leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, G.A.; Lindow, S.E. )

    1994-10-01

    Among 82 epiphytic fitness mutants of a Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain that were characterized in a previous study, 4 mutants were particularly intolerant of the stresses associated with dry leaf surfaces. These four mutants each exhibited distinctive behaviors when inoculated into and into plant leaves. For example, while non showed measurable growth on dry potato leaf surfaces, they grew to different population sizes in the intercellular space of bean leaves and on dry bean leaf surfaces, and one mutant appeared incapable of growth in both environments although it grew well on moist bean leaves. The presence of the parental strain did not influence the survival of the mutants immediately following exposure of leaves to dry, high-light incubation conditions, suggesting that the reduced survival of the mutants did not result from an inability to produce extracellular factors in planta. On moist bean leaves that were colonized by either a mutant or the wild type, the proportion of the total epiphytic population that was located in sizes protected from a surface sterilant was smaller for the mutants than for the wild type, indicating that the mutants were reduced in their ability to locate, multiply in, and/or survive in such protected sites. This reduced ability was only one of possible several factors contributing to the reduced epiphytic fitness of each mutant. Their reduced fitness was not specific to the host plant bean, since they also exhibited reduced fitness on the nonhost plant potato; the functions altered in these strains are thus of interest for their contribution to the general fitness of bacterial epiphytes. 52 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Interference of quorum sensing in Pseudomonas syringae by bacterial epiphytes that limit iron availability.

    PubMed

    Dulla, Glenn F J; Krasileva, Ksenia V; Lindow, Steven E

    2010-06-01

    Leaf surfaces harbour bacterial epiphytes that are capable of influencing the quorum sensing (QS) system, density determination through detection of diffusible signal molecules, of the plant-pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (Pss) which controls expression of extracellular polysaccharide production, motility and other factors contributing to virulence to plants. Approximately 11% of the bacterial epiphytes recovered from a variety of plants produced a diffusible factor capable of inhibiting the QS system of Pss as indicated by suppression of ahlI. Blockage of QS by these interfering strains correlated strongly with their ability to limit iron availability to Pss. A direct relationship between the ability of isogenic Escherichia coli strains to sequester iron via their production of different siderophores and their ability to suppress QS in Pss was also observed. Quorum sensing induction was inversely related to iron availability in culture media supplemented with iron chelators or with FeCl(3). Co-inoculation of interfering strains with Pss onto leaves increased the number of resultant disease lesions over twofold compared with that on plants inoculated with Pss alone. Transposon-generated mutants of interfering strains in which QS inhibition was blocked did not increase disease when co-inoculated with Pss. Increased disease incidence was also not observed when a non-motile mutant of Pss was co-inoculated onto plants with QS interfering bacteria suggesting that these strains enhanced the motility of Pss in an iron-dependent manner, leading to an apparent increase in virulence of this pathogen. Considerable cross-talk mediated by iron scavenging apparently occurs on plants, thereby altering the behaviour of bacteria such as Pss that exhibit important QS-dependent traits in this habitat.

  9. Two flagellar stators and their roles in motility and virulence in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Eiko; Tatsuta, Takafumi; Suzuki, Tomoko; Taguchi, Fumiko; Naito, Kana; Inagaki, Yoshishige; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Shiraishi, Tomonori; Ichinose, Yuki

    2011-02-01

    The motor proteins around the flagellar basal body consist of two cytoplasmic membrane proteins, MotA and MotB, and function as a complex that acts as the stator to generate the torque that drives rotation. Genome analysis of several Pseudomonas syringae pathovars revealed that there are two sets of genes encoding motor proteins: motAB and motCD. Deduced amino acid sequences for MotA/B and MotC/D showed homologies to the H(+)-driven stator from Escherichia coli and Na(+)-driven stator from Vibrio alginolyticus, respectively. However, the swimming motility of P. syringae pv. tabaci (Pta) 6605 was inhibited by the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone but not by the sodium stator-specific inhibitor phenamil. To identify a gene encoding the stator protein required for motility, ∆motAB, ∆motCD, and ∆motABCD mutants were generated. The ∆motCD mutant had remarkably reduced and the ∆motABCD mutant completely abolished swimming motilities, whereas the ∆motAB mutant retained some degree of these abilities. The ∆motCD and ∆motABCD mutants did not produce N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), quorum-sensing molecules in this pathogen, and remarkably reduced the ability to cause disease in host tobacco leaves, as we previously observed in the ∆fliC mutant strain. These results strongly indicate that both stator pairs in Pta 6605 are proton-dependent and that MotCD is important for not only flagellar motility but also for production of AHLs and the ability to cause disease in host plants.

  10. Transcriptional Analysis of the Global Regulatory Networks Active in Pseudomonas syringae during Leaf Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xilan; Lund, Steven P.; Greenwald, Jessica W.; Records, Angela H.; Scott, Russell A.; Nettleton, Dan; Lindow, Steven E.; Gross, Dennis C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a grows and survives on leaf surfaces and in the leaf apoplast of its host, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). To understand the contribution of distinct regulators to B728a fitness and pathogenicity, we performed a transcriptome analysis of strain B728a and nine regulatory mutants recovered from the surfaces and interior of leaves and exposed to environmental stresses in culture. The quorum-sensing regulators AhlR and AefR influenced few genes in planta or in vitro. In contrast, GacS and a downstream regulator, SalA, formed a large regulatory network that included a branch that regulated diverse traits and was independent of plant-specific environmental signals and a plant signal-dependent branch that positively regulated secondary metabolite genes and negatively regulated the type III secretion system. SalA functioned as a central regulator of iron status based on its reciprocal regulation of pyoverdine and achromobactin genes and also sulfur uptake, suggesting a role in the iron-sulfur balance. RetS functioned almost exclusively to repress secondary metabolite genes when the cells were not on leaves. Among the sigma factors examined, AlgU influenced many more genes than RpoS, and most AlgU-regulated genes depended on RpoN. RpoN differentially impacted many AlgU- and GacS-activated genes in cells recovered from apoplastic versus epiphytic sites, suggesting differences in environmental signals or bacterial stress status in these two habitats. Collectively, our findings illustrate a central role for GacS, SalA, RpoN, and AlgU in global regulation in B728a in planta and a high level of plasticity in these regulators’ responses to distinct environmental signals. PMID:25182327

  11. Apoplastic Peroxidases are Required for Salicylic Acid-Mediated Defense Against Pseudomonas syringae

    PubMed Central

    Mammarella, Nicole D.; Cheng, Zhenyu; Fu, Zheng Qing; Daudi, Arsalan; Bolwell, G. Paul; Dong, Xinnian; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidases or apoplastic peroxidases play an important role in the plant defense response. Diminished expression of at least two Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidase encoding genes, PRX33 (At3g49110) and PRX34 (At3g49120), as a consequence of anti-sense expression of a heterologous French bean peroxidase gene (asFBP1.1), were previously shown to result in reduced levels of ROS following pathogen attack, enhanced susceptibility to a variety of bacterial and fungal pathogens, and reduced levels of callose production and defense-related gene expression in response to the microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecules flg22 and elf26. These data demonstrated that the peroxidase-dependent oxidative burst plays an important role in the elicitation of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Further work reported in this paper, however, shows that asFBP1.1 antisense plants are not impaired in all PTI-associated responses. For example, some but not all flg22-elicited genes are induced to lower levels by flg22 in asFPB1.1, and callose deposition in asFPB1.1 is similar to wild-type following infiltration with a Pseudomonas syringae hrcC mutant or with non-host P. syringae pathovars. Moreover, asFPB1.1 plants did not exhibit any apparent defect in their ability to mount a hypersensitive response (HR). On the other hand, salicylic acid (SA)-mediated activation of PR1 was dramatically impaired in asFPB1.1 plants. In addition, P. syringae-elicited expression of many genes known to be SA-dependent was significantly reduced in asFBP1.1 plants. Consistent with this latter result, in asFBP1.1 plants the key regulator of SA-mediated responses, NPR1, showed both dramatically decreased total protein abundance and a failure to monomerize, which is required for its translocation into the nucleus. PMID:25096754

  12. Apoplastic peroxidases are required for salicylic acid-mediated defense against Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Mammarella, Nicole D; Cheng, Zhenyu; Fu, Zheng Qing; Daudi, Arsalan; Bolwell, G Paul; Dong, Xinnian; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2015-04-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidases or apoplastic peroxidases play an important role in the plant defense response. Diminished expression of at least two Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidase encoding genes, PRX33 (At3g49110) and PRX34 (At3g49120), as a consequence of anti-sense expression of a heterologous French bean peroxidase gene (asFBP1.1), were previously shown to result in reduced levels of ROS following pathogen attack, enhanced susceptibility to a variety of bacterial and fungal pathogens, and reduced levels of callose production and defense-related gene expression in response to the microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecules flg22 and elf26. These data demonstrated that the peroxidase-dependent oxidative burst plays an important role in the elicitation of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Further work reported in this paper, however, shows that asFBP1.1 antisense plants are not impaired in all PTI-associated responses. For example, some but not all flg22-elicited genes are induced to lower levels by flg22 in asFPB1.1, and callose deposition in asFPB1.1 is similar to wild-type following infiltration with a Pseudomonas syringae hrcC mutant or with non-host P. syringae pathovars. Moreover, asFPB1.1 plants did not exhibit any apparent defect in their ability to mount a hypersensitive response (HR). On the other hand, salicylic acid (SA)-mediated activation of PR1 was dramatically impaired in asFPB1.1 plants. In addition, P. syringae-elicited expression of many genes known to be SA-dependent was significantly reduced in asFBP1.1 plants. Consistent with this latter result, in asFBP1.1 plants the key regulator of SA-mediated responses, NPR1, showed both dramatically decreased total protein abundance and a failure to monomerize, which is required for its translocation into the nucleus.

  13. Repetitive extragenic palindromic sequences in the Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 genome: extragenic signals for genome reannotation.

    PubMed

    Tobes, Raquel; Pareja, Eduardo

    2005-04-01

    Repetitive extragenic palindromic (REPs) sequences were first described in enterobacteriacea and later in Pseudomonas putida. We have detected a new variant (51 base pairs) of REP sequences that appears to be disseminated in more than 300 copies in the Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 genome. The finding of REP sequences in P. syringae confirms the broad presence of this type of repetitive sequence in bacteria. We analyzed the distribution of REP sequences and the structure of the clusters, and we show that palindromy is conserved. REP sequences appear to be allocated to the extragenic space, with a special preference for the intergenic spaces limited by convergent genes, while their presence is scarce between divergent genes. Using REP sequences as markers of extragenicity we re-annotated a set of genes of the P. syringae DC3000 genome demonstrating that REP sequences can be used for refinement of annotation of a genome. The similarity detected between virulence genes from evolutionarily distant pathogenic bacteria suggests the acquisition of clusters of virulence genes by horizontal gene transfer. We did not detect the presence of P. syringae REP elements in the principal pathogenicity gene clusters. This absence suggests that genome fragments lacking REP sequences could point to regions recently acquired from other organisms, and REP sequences might be new tracers for gaining insight into key aspects of bacterial genome evolution, especially when studying pathogenicity acquisition. In addition, as the P. syringae REP sequence is species-specific with respect to the sequenced genomes, it is an exceptional candidate for use as a fingerprint in precise genotyping and epidemiological studies.

  14. Cytokinin production by Pseudomonas fluorescens G20-18 determines biocontrol activity against Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Großkinsky, Dominik K; Tafner, Richard; Moreno, María V; Stenglein, Sebastian A; García de Salamone, Inés E; Nelson, Louise M; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas

    2016-03-17

    Plant beneficial microbes mediate biocontrol of diseases by interfering with pathogens or via strengthening the host. Although phytohormones, including cytokinins, are known to regulate plant development and physiology as well as plant immunity, their production by microorganisms has not been considered as a biocontrol mechanism. Here we identify the ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens G20-18 to efficiently control P. syringae infection in Arabidopsis, allowing maintenance of tissue integrity and ultimately biomass yield. Microbial cytokinin production was identified as a key determinant for this biocontrol effect on the hemibiotrophic bacterial pathogen. While cytokinin-deficient loss-of-function mutants of G20-18 exhibit impaired biocontrol, functional complementation with cytokinin biosynthetic genes restores cytokinin-mediated biocontrol, which is correlated with differential cytokinin levels in planta. Arabidopsis mutant analyses revealed the necessity of functional plant cytokinin perception and salicylic acid-dependent defence signalling for this biocontrol mechanism. These results demonstrate microbial cytokinin production as a novel microbe-based, hormone-mediated concept of biocontrol. This mechanism provides a basis to potentially develop novel, integrated plant protection strategies combining promotion of growth, a favourable physiological status and activation of fine-tuned direct defence and abiotic stress resilience.

  15. Cytokinin production by Pseudomonas fluorescens G20-18 determines biocontrol activity against Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Großkinsky, Dominik K.; Tafner, Richard; Moreno, María V.; Stenglein, Sebastian A.; García de Salamone, Inés E.; Nelson, Louise M.; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Plant beneficial microbes mediate biocontrol of diseases by interfering with pathogens or via strengthening the host. Although phytohormones, including cytokinins, are known to regulate plant development and physiology as well as plant immunity, their production by microorganisms has not been considered as a biocontrol mechanism. Here we identify the ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens G20-18 to efficiently control P. syringae infection in Arabidopsis, allowing maintenance of tissue integrity and ultimately biomass yield. Microbial cytokinin production was identified as a key determinant for this biocontrol effect on the hemibiotrophic bacterial pathogen. While cytokinin-deficient loss-of-function mutants of G20-18 exhibit impaired biocontrol, functional complementation with cytokinin biosynthetic genes restores cytokinin-mediated biocontrol, which is correlated with differential cytokinin levels in planta. Arabidopsis mutant analyses revealed the necessity of functional plant cytokinin perception and salicylic acid-dependent defence signalling for this biocontrol mechanism. These results demonstrate microbial cytokinin production as a novel microbe-based, hormone-mediated concept of biocontrol. This mechanism provides a basis to potentially develop novel, integrated plant protection strategies combining promotion of growth, a favourable physiological status and activation of fine-tuned direct defence and abiotic stress resilience. PMID:26984671

  16. Features of air masses associated with the deposition of Pseudomonas syringae and Botrytis cinerea by rain and snowfall

    PubMed Central

    Monteil, Caroline L; Bardin, Marc; Morris, Cindy E

    2014-01-01

    Clarifying the role of precipitation in microbial dissemination is essential for elucidating the processes involved in disease emergence and spread. The ecology of Pseudomonas syringae and its presence throughout the water cycle makes it an excellent model to address this issue. In this study, 90 samples of freshly fallen rain and snow collected from 2005–2011 in France were analyzed for microbiological composition. The conditions favorable for dissemination of P. syringae by this precipitation were investigated by (i) estimating the physical properties and backward trajectories of the air masses associated with each precipitation event and by (ii) characterizing precipitation chemistry, and genetic and phenotypic structures of populations. A parallel study with the fungus Botrytis cinerea was also performed for comparison. Results showed that (i) the relationship of P. syringae to precipitation as a dissemination vector is not the same for snowfall and rainfall, whereas it is the same for B. cinerea and (ii) the occurrence of P. syringae in precipitation can be linked to electrical conductivity and pH of water, the trajectory of the air mass associated with the precipitation and certain physical conditions of the air mass (i.e. temperature, solar radiation exposure, distance traveled), whereas these predictions are different for B. cinerea. These results are pertinent to understanding microbial survival, emission sources and atmospheric processes and how they influence microbial dissemination. PMID:24722630

  17. N-acylhomoserine lactone-regulation of genes mediating motility and pathogenicity in Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tabaci 11528.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feifei; Ma, Anzhou; Luo, Jinxue; Zhuang, Xuliang; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2017-01-29

    Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tabaci 11528 (P. syringae 11528) is a phytopathogen that causes wild-fire disease in soybean and tobacco plants. It utilizes a cell density-dependent regulation system known as quorum sensing (QS). In its QS system, the psyI is responsible for the biosynthesis of N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). By comparing the transcripts from P. syringae 11528 wild-type strain with those of the ΔpsyI mutant using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology, 1118 AHL-regulated genes were identified in the transition from exponential to stationary growth phase. Numerous AHL-regulated genes involved in pathogenicity were negatively controlled, including genes linked to flagella, chemotaxis, pilus, extracellular polysaccharides, secretion systems, and two-component system. Moreover, gene ontology and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the most pronounced regulation was associated with bacterial motility. Finally, phenotypic assays showed that QS-regulated traits were involved in epiphytic growth of pathogens and disease development in plants. These findings imply that the AHL-mediated QS system in P. syringae 11528 plays significant roles in distinct stages of interactions between plants and pathogens, including early plant colonization and late plant infection.

  18. FleQ Coordinates Flagellum-Dependent and -Independent Motilities in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000

    PubMed Central

    Nogales, Joaquina; Vargas, Paola; Farias, Gabriela A.; Olmedilla, Adela; Sanjuán, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Motility plays an essential role in bacterial fitness and colonization in the plant environment, since it favors nutrient acquisition and avoidance of toxic substances, successful competition with other microorganisms, the ability to locate the preferred hosts, access to optimal sites within them, and dispersal in the environment during the course of transmission. In this work, we have observed that the mutation of the flagellar master regulatory gene, fleQ, alters bacterial surface motility and biosurfactant production, uncovering a new type of motility for Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 on semisolid surfaces. We present evidence that P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 moves over semisolid surfaces by using at least two different types of motility, namely, swarming, which depends on the presence of flagella and syringafactin, a biosurfactant produced by this strain, and a flagellum-independent surface spreading or sliding, which also requires syringafactin. We also show that FleQ activates flagellum synthesis and negatively regulates syringafactin production in P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Finally, it was surprising to observe that mutants lacking flagella or syringafactin were as virulent as the wild type, and only the simultaneous loss of both flagella and syringafactin impairs the ability of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 to colonize tomato host plants and cause disease. PMID:26296726

  19. Exogenous N-acyl-homoserine lactones enhance the expression of flagella of Pseudomonas syringae and activate defence responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feifei; Ma, Anzhou; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Fray, Rupert G

    2016-10-18

    In order to cope with pathogens, plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to sense pathogenic attacks and to induce defence responses. The N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum sensing in bacteria regulates diverse physiological processes, including those involved in pathogenicity. In this work, we study the interactions between AHL-producing transgenic tobacco plants and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 11528 (P. syringae 11528). Both a reduced incidence of disease and decrease in the growth of P. syringae 11528 were observed in AHL-producing plants compared with wild-type plants. The present data indicate that plant-produced AHLs enhance disease resistance against this pathogen. Subsequent RNA-sequencing analysis showed that the exogenous addition of AHLs up-regulated the expression of P. syringae 11528 genes for flagella production. Expression levels of plant defence genes in AHL-producing and wild-type plants were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. These data showed that plant-produced AHLs activated a wide spectrum of defence responses in plants following inoculation, including the oxidative burst, hypersensitive response, cell wall strengthening, and the production of certain metabolites. These results demonstrate that exogenous AHLs alter the gene expression patterns of pathogens, and plant-produced AHLs either directly or indirectly enhance plant local immunity during the early stage of plant infection.

  20. Features of air masses associated with the deposition of Pseudomonas syringae and Botrytis cinerea by rain and snowfall.

    PubMed

    Monteil, Caroline L; Bardin, Marc; Morris, Cindy E

    2014-11-01

    Clarifying the role of precipitation in microbial dissemination is essential for elucidating the processes involved in disease emergence and spread. The ecology of Pseudomonas syringae and its presence throughout the water cycle makes it an excellent model to address this issue. In this study, 90 samples of freshly fallen rain and snow collected from 2005-2011 in France were analyzed for microbiological composition. The conditions favorable for dissemination of P. syringae by this precipitation were investigated by (i) estimating the physical properties and backward trajectories of the air masses associated with each precipitation event and by (ii) characterizing precipitation chemistry, and genetic and phenotypic structures of populations. A parallel study with the fungus Botrytis cinerea was also performed for comparison. Results showed that (i) the relationship of P. syringae to precipitation as a dissemination vector is not the same for snowfall and rainfall, whereas it is the same for B. cinerea and (ii) the occurrence of P. syringae in precipitation can be linked to electrical conductivity and pH of water, the trajectory of the air mass associated with the precipitation and certain physical conditions of the air mass (i.e. temperature, solar radiation exposure, distance traveled), whereas these predictions are different for B. cinerea. These results are pertinent to understanding microbial survival, emission sources and atmospheric processes and how they influence microbial dissemination.

  1. Genome, Proteome and Structure of a T7-Like Bacteriophage of the Kiwifruit Canker Phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.

    PubMed

    Frampton, Rebekah A; Acedo, Elena Lopez; Young, Vivienne L; Chen, Danni; Tong, Brian; Taylor, Corinda; Easingwood, Richard A; Pitman, Andrew R; Kleffmann, Torsten; Bostina, Mihnea; Fineran, Peter C

    2015-06-24

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is an economically significant pathogen responsible for severe bacterial canker of kiwifruit (Actinidia sp.). Bacteriophages infecting this phytopathogen have potential as biocontrol agents as part of an integrated approach to the management of bacterial canker, and for use as molecular tools to study this bacterium. A variety of bacteriophages were previously isolated that infect P. syringae pv. actinidiae, and their basic properties were characterized to provide a framework for formulation of these phages as biocontrol agents. Here, we have examined in more detail φPsa17, a phage with the capacity to infect a broad range of P. syringae pv. actinidiae strains and the only member of the Podoviridae in this collection. Particle morphology was visualized using cryo-electron microscopy, the genome was sequenced, and its structural proteins were analysed using shotgun proteomics. These studies demonstrated that φPsa17 has a 40,525 bp genome, is a member of the T7likevirus genus and is closely related to the pseudomonad phages φPSA2 and gh-1. Eleven structural proteins (one scaffolding) were detected by proteomics and φPsa17 has a capsid of approximately 60 nm in diameter. No genes indicative of a lysogenic lifecycle were identified, suggesting the phage is obligately lytic. These features indicate that φPsa17 may be suitable for formulation as a biocontrol agent of P. syringae pv. actinidiae.

  2. Disruption of the ammonium transporter AMT1.1 alters basal defenses generating resistance against Pseudomonas syringae and Plectosphaerella cucumerina

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, Victoria; Gamir, Jordi; Camañes, Gemma; Cerezo, Miguel; Sánchez-Bel, Paloma; Flors, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Disruption of the high-affinity nitrate transporter NRT2.1 activates the priming defense against Pseudomonas syringae, resulting in enhanced resistance. In this study, it is demonstrated that the high-affinity ammonium transporter AMT1.1 is a negative regulator of Arabidopsis defense responses. The T-DNA knockout mutant amt1.1 displays enhanced resistance against Plectosphaerella cucumerina and reduced susceptibility to P. syringae. The impairment of AMT1.1 induces significant metabolic changes in the absence of challenge, suggesting that amt1.1 retains constitutive defense responses. Interestingly, amt1.1 combats pathogens differently depending on the lifestyle of the pathogen. In addition, N starvation enhances the susceptibility of wild type plants and the mutant amt1.1 to P. syringae whereas it has no effect on P. cucumerina resistance. The metabolic changes of amt1.1 against P. syringae are subtler and are restricted to the phenylpropanoid pathway, which correlates with its reduced susceptibility. By contrast, the amt1.1 mutant responds by activating higher levels of camalexin and callose against P. cucumerina. In addition, amt1.1 shows altered levels of aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates and other Trp-related compounds following infection by the necrotroph. These observations indicate that AMT1.1 may play additional roles that affect N uptake and plant immune responses. PMID:24910636

  3. RNA-seq Analysis Reveals That an ECF σ Factor, AcsS, Regulates Achromobactin Biosynthesis in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a

    PubMed Central

    Greenwald, Jessica W.; Greenwald, Charles J.; Philmus, Benjamin J.; Begley, Tadhg P.; Gross, Dennis C.

    2012-01-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain B728a and many other microorganisms; therefore, B728a has evolved methods of iron acquirement including the use of iron-chelating siderophores. In this study an extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor, AcsS, encoded within the achromobactin gene cluster is shown to be a major regulator of genes involved in the biosynthesis and secretion of this siderophore. However, production of achromobactin was not completely abrogated in the deletion mutant, implying that other regulators may be involved such as PvdS, the sigma factor that regulates pyoverdine biosynthesis. RNA-seq analysis identified 287 genes that are differentially expressed between the AcsS deletion mutant and the wild type strain. These genes are involved in iron response, secretion, extracellular polysaccharide production, and cell motility. Thus, the transcriptome analysis supports a role for AcsS in the regulation of achromobactin production and the potential activity of both AcsS and achromobactin in the plant-associated lifestyle of strain B728a. PMID:22529937

  4. Plant flavonoids target Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 flagella and type III secretion system.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Paola; Farias, Gabriela A; Nogales, Joaquina; Prada, Harold; Carvajal, Vivian; Barón, Matilde; Rivilla, Rafael; Martín, Marta; Olmedilla, Adela; Gallegos, María-Trinidad

    2013-12-01

    Flavonoids are among the most abundant plant secondary metabolites involved in plant protection against pathogens, but micro-organisms have developed resistance mechanisms to those compounds. We previously demonstrated that the MexAB-OprM efflux pump mediates resistance of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pto) DC3000 to flavonoids, facilitating its survival and the colonization of the host. Here, we have shown that tomato plants respond to Pto infection producing flavonoids and other phenolic compounds. The effects of flavonoids on key traits of this model plant-pathogen bacterium have also been investigated observing that they reduce Pto swimming and swarming because of the loss of flagella, and also inhibited the expression and assembly of a functional type III secretion system. Those effects were more severe in a mutant lacking the MexAB-OprM pump. Our results suggest that flavonoids inhibit the function of the GacS/GacA two-component system, causing a depletion of rsmY RNA, therefore affecting the synthesis of two important virulence factors in Pto DC3000, flagella and the type III secretion system. These data provide new insights into the flavonoid role in the molecular dialog between host and pathogen.

  5. Maladaptation in wild populations of the generalist plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae

    PubMed Central

    Kniskern, Joel M.; Barrett, Luke G.; Bergelson, Joy

    2010-01-01

    Multi-host pathogens occur widely on both natural and agriculturally managed hosts. Despite the importance of such generalists, evolutionary studies of host-pathogen interactions have largely focused on tightly coupled interactions between species pairs. We characterized resistance in a collection of Arabidopsis thaliana hosts, including 24 accessions collected from the Midwest USA and 24 from around the world, and patterns of virulence in a collection of Pseudomonas syringae strains, including 24 strains collected from wild Midwest populations of A. thaliana (residents) and 18 from an array of cultivated species (non-residents). All of the non-resident strains and half of the resident strains elicited a resistance response on one or more A. thaliana accessions. The resident strains that failed to elicit any resistance response possessed an alternative type III secretion system (T3SS) that is unable to deliver effectors into plant host cells; as a result, these seemingly non-pathogenic strains are incapable of engaging in gene for gene interactions with A. thaliana. The remaining resident strains triggered greater resistance compared to non-resident strains, consistent with maladaptation of the resident bacterial population. We weigh the plausibility of two explanations: general maladaptation of pathogen strains and a more novel hypothesis whereby community level epidemiological dynamics result in adaptive dynamics favoring ephemeral hosts like A. thaliana. PMID:21044058

  6. Identification, Cloning, and Characterization of l-Phenylserine Dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas syringae NK-15

    PubMed Central

    Ueshima, Sakuko; Muramatsu, Hisashi; Nakajima, Takanori; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Kato, Shin-ichiro; Misono, Haruo; Nagata, Shinji

    2010-01-01

    The gene encoding d-phenylserine dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas syringae NK-15 was identified, and a 9,246-bp nucleotide sequence containing the gene was sequenced. Six ORFs were confirmed in the sequenced region, four of which were predicted to form an operon. A homology search of each ORF predicted that orf3 encoded l-phenylserine dehydrogenase. Hence, orf3 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells and recombinant ORF3 was purified to homogeneity and characterized. The purified ORF3 enzyme showed l-phenylserine dehydrogenase activity. The enzymological properties and primary structure of l-phenylserine dehydrogenase (ORF3) were quite different from those of d-phenylserine dehydrogenase previously reported. l-Phenylserine dehydrogenase catalyzed the NAD+-dependent oxidation of the β-hydroxyl group of l-β-phenylserine. l-Phenylserine and l-threo-(2-thienyl)serine were good substrates for l-phenylserine dehydrogenase. The genes encoding l-phenylserine dehydrogenase and d-phenylserine dehydrogenase, which is induced by phenylserine, are located in a single operon. The reaction products of both enzymatic reactions were 2-aminoacetophenone and CO2. PMID:21048868

  7. The metabolic transition during disease following infection of Arabidopsis thaliana by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jane L; Forcat, Silvia; Beckmann, Manfred; Bennett, Mark; Miller, Sonia J; Baker, John M; Hawkins, Nathaniel D; Vermeer, Cornelia P; Lu, Chuan; Lin, Wanchang; Truman, William M; Beale, Michael H; Draper, John; Mansfield, John W; Grant, Murray

    2010-08-01

    The outcome of bacterial infection in plants is determined by the ability of the pathogen to successfully occupy the apoplastic space and deliver a constellation of effectors that collectively suppress basal and effector-triggered immune responses. In this study, we examined the metabolic changes associated with establishment of disease using analytical techniques that interrogated a range of chemistries. We demonstrated clear differences in the metabolome of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves infected with virulent Pseudomonas syringae within 8 h of infection. In addition to confirmation of changes in phenolic and indolic compounds, we identified rapid alterations in the abundance of amino acids and other nitrogenous compounds, specific classes of glucosinolates, disaccharides, and molecules that influence the prevalence of reactive oxygen species. Our data illustrate that, superimposed on defence suppression, pathogens reconfigure host metabolism to provide the sustenance required to support exponentially growing populations of apoplastically localized bacteria. We performed a detailed baseline study reporting the metabolic dynamics associated with bacterial infection. Moreover, we have integrated these data with the results of transcriptome profiling to distinguish metabolomic pathways that are transcriptionally activated from those that are post-transcriptionally regulated.

  8. Defence Responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to Infection by Pseudomonas syringae Are Regulated by the Circadian Clock

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Vaibhav; Meier, Stuart; Petersen, Lindsay N.; Ingle, Robert A.; Roden, Laura C.

    2011-01-01

    The circadian clock allows plants to anticipate predictable daily changes in abiotic stimuli, such as light; however, whether the clock similarly allows plants to anticipate interactions with other organisms is unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) has circadian clock-mediated variation in resistance to the virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000), with plants being least susceptible to infection in the subjective morning. We suggest that the increased resistance to Pst DC3000 observed in the morning in Col-0 plants results from clock-mediated modulation of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity. Analysis of publicly available microarray data revealed that a large number of Arabidopsis defence-related genes showed both diurnal- and circadian-regulation, including genes involved in the perception of the PAMP flagellin which exhibit a peak in expression in the morning. Accordingly, we observed that PAMP-triggered callose deposition was significantly higher in wild-type plants inoculated with Pst DC3000 hrpA in the subjective morning than in the evening, while no such temporal difference was evident in arrhythmic plants. Our results suggest that PAMP-triggered immune responses are modulated by the circadian clock and that temporal regulation allows plants to anticipate and respond more effectively to pathogen challenges in the daytime. PMID:22066021

  9. Controlled ice nucleation using freeze-dried Pseudomonas syringae encapsulated in alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Weng, Lindong; Tessier, Shannon N; Swei, Anisa; Stott, Shannon L; Toner, Mehmet

    2017-03-14

    The control of ice nucleation is of fundamental significance in many process technologies related to food and pharmaceutical science and cryobiology. Mechanical perturbation, electromagnetic fields and ice-nucleating agents (INAs) have been known to induce ice nucleation in a controlled manner. But these ice-nucleating methods may suffer from cumbersome manual operations, safety concerns of external fields, and biocompatibility and recovery issues of INA particles, especially when used in living systems. Given the automatic ice-seeding nature of INAs, a promising solution to overcome some of the above limitations is to engineer a biocomposite that accommodates the INA particles but minimizes their interactions with biologics, as well as enabling the recovery of used particles. In this study, freeze-dried Pseudomonas syringae, a model ice-nucleating agent, was encapsulated into microliter-sized alginate beads. We evaluated the performance of the bacterial hydrogel beads to initiate ice nucleation in water and aqueous glycerol solution by investigating factors including the size and number of the beads and the local concentration of INA particles. In the aqueous sample of a fixed volume, the total mass of the INA particles (m) was found to be the governing parameter that is solely responsible for determining the ice nucleation performance of the bacterial hydrogel beads. The freezing temperature has a strong positive linear correlation with log10m. The findings in this study provide an effective, predictable approach to control ice nucleation, which can improve the outcome and standardization of many ice-assisted process technologies.

  10. Modeling Pseudomonas syringae ice-nucleation protein as a beta-helical protein.

    PubMed Central

    Graether, S P; Jia, Z

    2001-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) inhibit the growth of ice, whereas ice-nucleation proteins (INPs) promote its formation. Although the structures of several AFPs are known, the structure of INP has been modeled thus far because of the difficulty in determining membrane protein structures. Here, we present a novel model of an INP structure from Pseudomonas syringae based on comparison with two newly determined insect AFP structures. The results suggest that both this class of AFPs and INPs may have a similar beta-helical fold and that they could interact with water through the repetitive TXT motif. By theoretical arguments, we show that the distinguishing feature between an ice inhibitor and an ice nucleator lies in the size of the ice-interacting surface. For INPs, the larger surface area acts as a template that is larger than the critical ice embryo surface area required for growth. In contrast, AFPs are small enough so that they bind to ice and inhibit further growth without acting as a nucleator. PMID:11222281

  11. Subcellular Localization of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Effector Proteins in Plants.

    PubMed

    Aung, Kyaw; Xin, Xiufang; Mecey, Christy; He, Sheng Yang

    2017-01-01

    Animal and plant pathogenic bacteria use type III secretion systems to translocate proteinaceous effectors to subvert innate immunity of their host organisms. Type III secretion/effector systems are a crucial pathogenicity factor in many bacterial pathogens of plants and animals. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 injects a total of 36 protein effectors that target a variety of host proteins. Studies of a subset of Pst DC3000 effectors demonstrated that bacterial effectors, once inside the host cell, are localized to different subcellular compartments, including plasma membrane, cytoplasm, mitochondria, chloroplast, and Trans-Golgi network, to carry out their virulence functions. Identifying the subcellular localization of bacterial effector proteins in host cells could provide substantial clues to understanding the molecular and cellular basis of the virulence activities of effector proteins. In this chapter, we present methods for transient or stable expression of bacterial effector proteins in tobacco and/or Arabidopsis thaliana for live cell imaging as well as confirming the subcellular localization in plants using fluorescent organelle markers or chemical treatment.

  12. Resistance Inducers Modulate Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato Strain DC3000 Response in Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Scalschi, Loredana; Camañes, Gemma; Llorens, Eugenio; Fernández-Crespo, Emma; López, María M.; García-Agustín, Pilar; Vicedo, Begonya

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of hexanoic acid (Hx) as an inducer of resistance in tomato plants against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 was previously demonstrated, and the plant response was characterized. Because little is known about the reaction of the pathogen to this effect, the goal of the present work was to determine whether the changes in the plant defence system affect the pathogen behaviour. This work provides the first demonstration of the response of the pathogen to the changes observed in plants after Hx application in terms of not only the population size but also the transcriptional levels of genes involved in quorum sensing establishment and pathogenesis. Therefore, it is possible that Hx treatment attenuates the virulence and survival of bacteria by preventing or diminishing the appearance of symptoms and controlling the growth of the bacteria in the mesophyll. It is interesting to note that the gene transcriptional changes in the bacteria from the treated plants occur at the same time as the changes in the plants. Hx is able to alter bacteria pathogenesis and survival only when it is applied as a resistance inducer because the changes that it promotes in plants affect the bacteria. PMID:25244125

  13. Multilayered Regulation of Ethylene Induction Plays a Positive Role in Arabidopsis Resistance against Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Guan, Rongxia; Su, Jianbin; Meng, Xiangzong; Li, Sen; Liu, Yidong; Xu, Juan; Zhang, Shuqun

    2015-09-01

    Ethylene, a key phytohormone involved in plant-pathogen interaction, plays a positive role in plant resistance against fungal pathogens. However, its function in plant bacterial resistance remains unclear. Here, we report a detailed analysis of ethylene induction in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in response to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst). Ethylene biosynthesis is highly induced in both pathogen/microbe-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), and the induction is potentiated by salicylic acid (SA) pretreatment. In addition, Pst actively suppresses PAMP-triggered ethylene induction in a type III secretion system-dependent manner. SA potentiation of ethylene induction is dependent mostly on MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE6 (MPK6) and MPK3 and their downstream ACS2 and ACS6, two type I isoforms of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthases (ACSs). ACS7, a type III ACS whose expression is enhanced by SA pretreatment, is also involved. Pst expressing the avrRpt2 effector gene (Pst-avrRpt2), which is capable of triggering ETI, induces a higher level of ethylene production, and the elevated portion is dependent on SALICYLIC ACID INDUCTION DEFICIENT2 and NONEXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENE1, two key players in SA biosynthesis and signaling. High-order ACS mutants with reduced ethylene induction are more susceptible to both Pst and Pst-avrRpt2, demonstrating a positive role of ethylene in plant bacterial resistance mediated by both PAMP-triggered immunity and ETI.

  14. Screen of Non-annotated Small Secreted Proteins of Pseudomonas syringae Reveals a Virulence Factor That Inhibits Tomato Immune Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Shindo, Takayuki; Kaschani, Farnusch; Kovács, Judit; Tian, Fang; Kourelis, Jiorgos; Hong, Tram Ngoc; Colby, Tom; Shabab, Mohammed; Chawla, Rohini; Kumari, Selva; Ilyas, Muhammad; Hörger, Anja C.; Alfano, James R.; van der Hoorn, Renier A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (PtoDC3000) is an extracellular model plant pathogen, yet its potential to produce secreted effectors that manipulate the apoplast has been under investigated. Here we identified 131 candidate small, secreted, non-annotated proteins from the PtoDC3000 genome, most of which are common to Pseudomonas species and potentially expressed during apoplastic colonization. We produced 43 of these proteins through a custom-made gateway-compatible expression system for extracellular bacterial proteins, and screened them for their ability to inhibit the secreted immune protease C14 of tomato using competitive activity-based protein profiling. This screen revealed C14-inhibiting protein-1 (Cip1), which contains motifs of the chagasin-like protease inhibitors. Cip1 mutants are less virulent on tomato, demonstrating the importance of this effector in apoplastic immunity. Cip1 also inhibits immune protease Pip1, which is known to suppress PtoDC3000 infection, but has a lower affinity for its close homolog Rcr3, explaining why this protein is not recognized in tomato plants carrying the Cf-2 resistance gene, which uses Rcr3 as a co-receptor to detect pathogen-derived protease inhibitors. Thus, this approach uncovered a protease inhibitor of P. syringae, indicating that also P. syringae secretes effectors that selectively target apoplastic host proteases of tomato, similar to tomato pathogenic fungi, oomycetes and nematodes. PMID:27603016

  15. Gac two-component system in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci is required for virulence but not for hypersensitive reaction.

    PubMed

    Marutani, Mizuri; Taguchi, Fumiko; Ogawa, Yujiro; Hossain, Md Mijan; Inagaki, Yoshishige; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Shiraishi, Tomonori; Ichinose, Yuki

    2008-04-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605 causes wildfire disease on host tobacco plants. To investigate the regulatory mechanism of the expression of virulence, Gac two-component system-defective mutants, DeltagacA and DeltagacS, and a double mutant, DeltagacADeltagacS, were generated. These mutants produced smaller amounts of N-acyl homoserine lactones required for quorum sensing, had lost swarming motility, and had reduced expression of virulence-related hrp genes and the algT gene required for exopolysaccharide production. The ability of the mutants to cause disease symptoms in their host tobacco plant was remarkably reduced, while they retained the ability to induce hypersensitive reaction (HR) in the nonhost plants. These results indicated that the Gac two-component system of P. syringae pv. tabaci 6605 is indispensable for virulence on the host plant, but not for HR induction in the nonhost plants.

  16. Bacterial canker of plum trees, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pathovars, as a serious threat for plum production in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Wenneker, M; Janse, J D; De Bruine, J A

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands, bacterial canker in plum trees (Prunus domestica) is a serious and recent problem in plum production. It is caused by Pseudomonas syringae pathovars syringae and morsprunorum. The trunks of the affected plum trees are girdled by bacterial cankers resulting in sudden death of infected trees in 3-4 years after planting. Disease incidences can be very high, and sometimes complete orchards have to be removed. Recently, plum cultivation in the Netherlands has changed from a relatively extensive into an intensive cultivation. However, due to the risks of losses of trees due to bacterial canker, growers are reluctant to plant new plum orchards. In general nurseries and fruit growers are not familiar with bacterial diseases and lack knowledge in order to prevent infections. Therefore, control strategies to manage plum decline have to be developed.

  17. [The immunochemical characteristics of the lipopolysaccharides of Pseudomonas syringae (pathovars atrofaciens and phaseolicola) and P. holci (serogroup VI)].

    PubMed

    Iakovleva, L M; Zdorovenko, G M; Gubanova, N Ia; Gvozdiak, R I

    1991-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of the representatives of strains of serogroup VI Pseudomonas syringae (P. syringae pv. atrofaciens 2399, pv. phaseolicola 120a, 7842 and P. holci 8299) possessing virulence and confinement to the host-plant are characterized by high serological activity in direct and cross reactions of the binary diffusion in agar, immunoelectrophoresis, passive hemagglutination and inhibition of passive hemagglutination. A supernatant and a sediment obtained after ultracentrifugation of LPS preparations possessed O-antigenic activity. O-specific polysaccharide (PS) is serologically less active than the LPS preparations. Problems of the intergroup and intragroup serological affinity in connection with the structure of O-specific PS. It is proved that the basic chain of O-specific polysaccharide (D-rhamnane) plays definite (but not a single) part in displaying antigenic properties of the whole LPS macromolecule.

  18. Type IV pilin is glycosylated in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605 and is required for surface motility and virulence.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Linh Chi; Taguchi, Fumiko; Tran, Quang Minh; Naito, Kana; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Ono, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Chiku, Kazuhiro; Ishii, Tadashi; Inagaki, Yoshishige; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Shiraishi, Tomonori; Ichinose, Yuki

    2012-09-01

    Type IV pilin (PilA) is a major constituent of pilus and is required for bacterial biofilm formation, surface motility and virulence. It is known that mature PilA is produced by cleavage of the short leader sequence of the pilin precursor, followed by methylation of N-terminal phenylalanine. The molecular mass of the PilA mature protein from the tobacco bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605 (Pta 6605) has been predicted to be 12 329 Da from its deduced amino acid sequence. Previously, we have detected PilA as an approximately 13-kDa protein by immunoblot analysis with anti-PilA-specific antibody. In addition, we found the putative oligosaccharide-transferase gene tfpO downstream of pilA. These findings suggest that PilA in Pta 6605 is glycosylated. The defective mutant of tfpO (ΔtfpO) shows reductions in pilin molecular mass, surface motility and virulence towards host tobacco plants. Thus, pilin glycan plays important roles in bacterial motility and virulence. The genetic region around pilA was compared among P. syringae pathovars. The tfpO gene exists in some strains of pathovars tabaci, syringae, lachrymans, mori, actinidiae, maculicola and P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi. However, some strains of pathovars tabaci, syringae, glycinea, tomato, aesculi and oryzae do not possess tfpO, and the existence of tfpO is independent of the classification of pathovars/strains in P. syringae. Interestingly, the PilA amino acid sequences in tfpO-possessing strains show higher homology with each other than with tfpO-nonpossessing strains. These results suggest that tfpO and pilA might co-evolve in certain specific bacterial strains.

  19. Biocontrol of Bacillus subtilis against infection of Arabidopsis roots by Pseudomonas syringae is facilitated by biofilm formation and surfactin production.

    PubMed

    Bais, Harsh Pal; Fall, Ray; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2004-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the exact mechanisms used by Bacillus subtilis in its behavior as a biocontrol agent on plants. Here, we report the development of a sensitive plant infection model demonstrating that the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 is capable of infecting Arabidopsis roots both in vitro and in soil. Using this infection model, we demonstrated the biocontrol ability of a wild-type B. subtilis strain 6051 against P. syringae. Arabidopsis root surfaces treated with B. subtilis were analyzed with confocal scanning laser microscopy to reveal a three-dimensional B. subtilis biofilm. It is known that formation of biofilms by B. subtilis is a complex process that includes secretion of surfactin, a lipopeptide antimicrobial agent. To determine the role of surfactin in biocontrol by B. subtilis, we tested a mutant strain, M1, with a deletion in a surfactin synthase gene and, thus, deficient in surfactin production. B. subtilis M1 was ineffective as a biocontrol agent against P. syringae infectivity in Arabidopsis and also failed to form robust biofilms on either roots or inert surfaces. The antibacterial activity of surfactin against P. syringae was determined in both broth and agar cultures and also by live-dead staining methods. Although the minimum inhibitory concentrations determined were relatively high (25 microg mL(-1)), the levels of the lipopeptide in roots colonized by B. subtilis are likely to be sufficient to kill P. syringae. Our results collectively indicate that upon root colonization, B. subtilis 6051 forms a stable, extensive biofilm and secretes surfactin, which act together to protect plants against attack by pathogenic bacteria.

  20. Sequence Diversity of rulA among Natural Isolates of Pseudomonas syringae and Effect on Function of rulAB-Mediated UV Radiation Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Sundin, George W.; Jacobs, Janette L.; Murillo, Jesús

    2000-01-01

    The rulAB locus confers tolerance to UV radiation and is borne on plasmids of the pPT23A family in Pseudomonas syringae. We sequenced 14 rulA alleles from P. syringae strains representing seven pathovars and found sequence differences of 1 to 12% within pathovar syringae, and up to 15% differences between pathovars. Since the sequence variation within rulA was similar to that of P. syringae chromosomal alleles, we hypothesized that rulAB has evolved over a long time period in P. syringae. A phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of rulA resulted in seven clusters. Strains from the same plant host grouped together in three cases; however, strains from different pathovars grouped together in two cases. In particular, the rulA alleles from P. syringae pv. lachrymans and P. syringae pv. pisi were grouped but were clearly distinct from the other sequenced alleles, suggesting the possibility of a recent interpathovar transfer. We constructed chimeric rulAB expression clones and found that the observed sequence differences resulted in significant differences in UV (wavelength) radiation sensitivity. Our results suggest that specific amino acid changes in RulA could alter UV radiation tolerance and the competitiveness of the P. syringae host in the phyllosphere. PMID:11097885

  1. Calcium Efflux as a Component of Hypersensitive Response of Nicotiana benthamiana to Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a model plant Nicotiana benthamiana we have demonstrated that initial calcium uptake in response to HR (hypersensitive response)-causing pathogen, P. syringae pv syringae 61 is followed by the net calcium efflux initiated at about 12 hrs after the bacterial challenge and sustained for at least...

  2. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana containing increased levels of ATP and sucrose is more susceptible to Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Renshan; Qi, Hua; Sun, Yuzhe; Xiao, Shi; Lim, Boon Leong

    2017-01-01

    Disease resistance exerts a fitness cost on plants, presumably due to the extra consumption of energy and carbon. In this study, we examined whether transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana with increased levels of ATP and sucrose is more resistant or susceptible to pathogen infection. Lines of A. thaliana over-expressing purple acid phosphatase 2 (AtPAP2) (OE lines) contain increased levels of ATP and sucrose, with improved growth rate and seed production. Compared to wild type (WT) and pap2 lines, the OE lines were more susceptible to several Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) strains carrying AvrRpm1, AvrRpt2 AvrRps4, AvrPtoB, HrcC and WT strain DC3000. The increased susceptibility of the OE lines to Pst strains cannot solely be attributed to the suppressed expression of R-genes but must also be attributed to the suppression of downstream signaling components, such as MOS2, EDS1 and EDS5. Before infection, the levels of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) precursor OPDA were similar in the leaves of OE, pap2 and WT plants, whereas the levels of JA and its derivative JA-Ile were significantly lower in the leaves of OE lines and higher in the pap2 line. The expression of JA marker defense gene PDF1.2 was up-regulated in the OE lines compared to the WT prior to Pst DC3000 infection, but its expression was lower in the OE lines after infection. In summary, high fitness Arabidopsis thaliana exhibited altered JA metabolism and broad suppression of R-genes and downstream genes as well as a higher susceptibility to Pst infections.

  3. NH4+ protects tomato plants against Pseudomonas syringae by activation of systemic acquired acclimation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Crespo, Emma; Scalschi, Loredana; Llorens, Eugenio; García-Agustín, Pilar; Camañes, Gemma

    2015-11-01

    NH4 (+) nutrition provokes mild toxicity by enhancing H2O2 accumulation, which acts as a signal activating systemic acquired acclimation (SAA). Until now, induced resistance mechanisms in response to an abiotic stimulus and related to SAA were only reported for exposure to a subsequent abiotic stress. Herein, the first evidence is provided that this acclimation to an abiotic stimulus induces resistance to later pathogen infection, since NH4 (+) nutrition (N-NH4 (+))-induced resistance (NH4 (+)-IR) against Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst) in tomato plants was demonstrated. N-NH4 (+) plants displayed basal H2O2, abscisic acid (ABA), and putrescine (Put) accumulation. H2O2 accumulation acted as a signal to induce ABA-dependent signalling pathways required to prevent NH4 (+) toxicity. This acclimatory event provoked an increase in resistance against later pathogen infection. N-NH4 (+) plants displayed basal stomatal closure produced by H2O2 derived from enhanced CuAO and rboh1 activity that may reduce the entry of bacteria into the mesophyll, diminishing the disease symptoms as well as strongly inducing the oxidative burst upon Pst infection, favouring NH4 (+)-IR. Experiments with inhibitors of Put accumulation and the ABA-deficient mutant flacca demonstrated that Put and ABA downstream signalling pathways are required to complete NH4 (+)-IR. The metabolic profile revealed that infected N-NH4 (+) plants showed greater ferulic acid accumulation compared with control plants. Although classical salicylic acid (SA)-dependent responses against biotrophic pathogens were not found, the important role of Put in the resistance of tomato against Pst was demonstrated. Moreover, this work revealed the cross-talk between abiotic stress acclimation (NH4 (+) nutrition) and resistance to subsequent Pst infection.

  4. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana containing increased levels of ATP and sucrose is more susceptible to Pseudomonas syringae

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Renshan; Qi, Hua; Sun, Yuzhe; Xiao, Shi

    2017-01-01

    Disease resistance exerts a fitness cost on plants, presumably due to the extra consumption of energy and carbon. In this study, we examined whether transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana with increased levels of ATP and sucrose is more resistant or susceptible to pathogen infection. Lines of A. thaliana over-expressing purple acid phosphatase 2 (AtPAP2) (OE lines) contain increased levels of ATP and sucrose, with improved growth rate and seed production. Compared to wild type (WT) and pap2 lines, the OE lines were more susceptible to several Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) strains carrying AvrRpm1, AvrRpt2 AvrRps4, AvrPtoB, HrcC and WT strain DC3000. The increased susceptibility of the OE lines to Pst strains cannot solely be attributed to the suppressed expression of R-genes but must also be attributed to the suppression of downstream signaling components, such as MOS2, EDS1 and EDS5. Before infection, the levels of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) precursor OPDA were similar in the leaves of OE, pap2 and WT plants, whereas the levels of JA and its derivative JA-Ile were significantly lower in the leaves of OE lines and higher in the pap2 line. The expression of JA marker defense gene PDF1.2 was up-regulated in the OE lines compared to the WT prior to Pst DC3000 infection, but its expression was lower in the OE lines after infection. In summary, high fitness Arabidopsis thaliana exhibited altered JA metabolism and broad suppression of R-genes and downstream genes as well as a higher susceptibility to Pst infections. PMID:28152090

  5. NH4 + protects tomato plants against Pseudomonas syringae by activation of systemic acquired acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Crespo, Emma; Scalschi, Loredana; Llorens, Eugenio; García-Agustín, Pilar; Camañes, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    NH4 + nutrition provokes mild toxicity by enhancing H2O2 accumulation, which acts as a signal activating systemic acquired acclimation (SAA). Until now, induced resistance mechanisms in response to an abiotic stimulus and related to SAA were only reported for exposure to a subsequent abiotic stress. Herein, the first evidence is provided that this acclimation to an abiotic stimulus induces resistance to later pathogen infection, since NH4 + nutrition (N-NH4 +)-induced resistance (NH4 +-IR) against Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst) in tomato plants was demonstrated. N-NH4 + plants displayed basal H2O2, abscisic acid (ABA), and putrescine (Put) accumulation. H2O2 accumulation acted as a signal to induce ABA-dependent signalling pathways required to prevent NH4 + toxicity. This acclimatory event provoked an increase in resistance against later pathogen infection. N-NH4 + plants displayed basal stomatal closure produced by H2O2 derived from enhanced CuAO and rboh1 activity that may reduce the entry of bacteria into the mesophyll, diminishing the disease symptoms as well as strongly inducing the oxidative burst upon Pst infection, favouring NH4 +-IR. Experiments with inhibitors of Put accumulation and the ABA-deficient mutant flacca demonstrated that Put and ABA downstream signalling pathways are required to complete NH4 +-IR. The metabolic profile revealed that infected N-NH4 + plants showed greater ferulic acid accumulation compared with control plants. Although classical salicylic acid (SA)-dependent responses against biotrophic pathogens were not found, the important role of Put in the resistance of tomato against Pst was demonstrated. Moreover, this work revealed the cross-talk between abiotic stress acclimation (NH4 + nutrition) and resistance to subsequent Pst infection. PMID:26246613

  6. Genome-Wide Analysis of Chromatin Accessibility in Arabidopsis Infected with Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Bordiya, Yogendra; Kang, Hong-Gu

    2017-01-01

    Changes in chromatin accessibility are an important aspect of the molecular changes that occur in eukaryotic cells responding to stress, and they appear to play a critical role in stress-induced transcriptional activation/reprogramming and epigenetic changes. In plants, pathogen infection has been shown to induce rapid and drastic transcriptional reprogramming; growing evidence suggests that chromatin remodeling plays an essential role in this phenomenon. The recent development of genomic tools to assess chromatin accessibility presents a significant opportunity to investigate the relationship between chromatin dynamicity and gene expression. In this protocol, we have adopted a popular chromatin accessibility assay, DNase-seq, to measure chromatin accessibility in Arabidopsis infected with the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). DNase-seq provides information on chromatin accessibility through the sequencing of DNA fragments generated by DNase I digestion of open chromatin, followed by mapping these sequences on a reference genome. Of the two popular DNase-seq approaches, we based our method on the Stamatoyannopoulos protocol, which involves two DNase cleavages rather than a single cleavage, followed by size fractionation. Please note that this two-cleavage approach is widely accepted and has been used extensively by ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) project, a public research consortium investigating cis- and trans-elements in the transcriptional regulation in animal cells. To enhance the quality of the chromatin accessibility assay, we modified this protocol by including two centrifugation steps for nuclear enrichment and size fractionation and an extra washing step for removal of chloroplasts and Pst. The outcomes obtained by this approach are also discussed.

  7. Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, during experimental evolution on a native versus alternative host plant.

    PubMed

    Meaden, Sean; Koskella, Britt

    2017-02-16

    The specialization and distribution of pathogens among species has substantial impact on disease spread, especially when reservoir hosts can maintain high pathogen densities or select for increased pathogen virulence. Theory predicts that optimal within-host growth rate will vary among host genotypes/species, and therefore that pathogens infecting multiple hosts should experience different selection pressures depending on the host environment in which they are found. This should be true for pathogens with broad host ranges, but also those experiencing opportunistic infections on novel hosts or that spill over among host populations. There is very little empirical data, however, regarding how adaptation to one host might directly influence infectivity and growth on another. We took an experimental evolution approach to examine short-term adaptation of the plant pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato, to its native tomato host compared with an alternative host, Arabidopsis, in either the presence or absence of bacteriophages. After 4 serial passages (20 days of selection in planta) we measured bacterial growth of selected lines in leaves of either the focal or alternative host. We found that passage through Arabidopsis led to greater within-host bacterial densities in both hosts than did passage through tomato. Whole genome re-sequencing of evolved isolates identified numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms based on our novel draft assembly for strain PT23. However, there was no clear pattern of clustering among plant selection lines at the genetic level despite the phenotypic differences observed. Together, the results emphasize that previous host associations can influence the within-host growth rate of pathogens. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Purple Acid Phosphatase5 is required for maintaining basal resistance against Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plants have evolved an array of constitutive and inducible defense strategies to restrict pathogen ingress. However, some pathogens still manage to invade plants and impair growth and productivity. Previous studies have revealed several key regulators of defense responses, and efforts have been made to use this information to develop disease resistant crop plants. These efforts are often hampered by the complexity of defense signaling pathways. To further elucidate the complexity of defense responses, we screened a population of T-DNA mutants in Colombia-0 background that displayed altered defense responses to virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). Results In this study, we demonstrated that the Arabidopsis Purple Acid Phosphatse5 (PAP5) gene, induced under prolonged phosphate (Pi) starvation, is required for maintaining basal resistance to certain pathogens. The expression of PAP5 was distinctly induced only under prolonged Pi starvation and during the early stage of Pst DC3000 infection (6 h.p.i). T-DNA tagged mutant pap5 displayed enhanced susceptibility to the virulent bacterial pathogen Pst DC3000. The pap5 mutation greatly reduced the expression of pathogen inducible gene PR1 compared to wild-type plants. Similarly, other defense related genes including ICS1 and PDF1.2 were impaired in pap5 plants. Moreover, application of BTH (an analog of SA) restored PR1 expression in pap5 plants. Conclusion Taken together, our results demonstrate the requirement of PAP5 for maintaining basal resistance against Pst DC3000. Furthermore, our results provide evidence that PAP5 acts upstream of SA accumulation to regulate the expression of other defense responsive genes. We also provide the first experimental evidence indicating the role PAP5 in plant defense responses. PMID:23890153

  9. Extensive Field Survey, Laboratory and Greenhouse Studies Reveal Complex Nature of Pseudomonas syringae-Associated Hazelnut Decline in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Bartoli, Claudia; Varvaro, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas avellanae (Pav) has been reported as the causal agent of bacterial decline and bacterial canker of hazelnut in Italy and Greece, respectively. Both hazelnut diseases were reported to be similar in terms of symptoms, severity and persistence. In this study, we found that both symptomatic and asymptomatic trees in the field were colonized by Pav. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) analysis showed that Pav strains isolated during this study in Italy belong to the P. syringae phylogroup 1 and they are closely related to Pav strains previously isolated in Greece from hazelnut bacterial canker. On the other hand, strains isolated in earlier studies from hazelnut decline in Italy belong to both phylogroup 1 and 2 of P. syringae. Both phylogroup 1 strains of P. syringae from Greece and Italy are different than strains isolated in this study in terms of their capacity to excrete fluorescent pigments on different media. Despite the same plant genotype and cropping practices adopted, the incidence of hazelnut decline ranged from nearly 0 to 91% across our study sites. No disease developed on plants inoculated with Pav through wounding while leaf scar inoculations produced only mild disease symptoms. Based on our results and the previously reported correlation between pedo-climatic conditions and hazelnut decline, we conclude that hazelnut decline in central Italy could be incited by a combination of predisposing (adverse pedo-climatic conditions) and contributing factors (Pav). Because this is a true decline different from "bacterial canker" described in Greece, we refer to it as hazelnut decline (HD).

  10. Diverse evolutionary mechanisms shape the type III effector virulence factor repertoire in the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed Central

    Rohmer, Laurence; Guttman, David S; Dangl, Jeffery L

    2004-01-01

    Many gram-negative pathogenic bacteria directly translocate effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells via type III delivery systems. Type III effector proteins are determinants of virulence on susceptible plant hosts; they are also the proteins that trigger specific disease resistance in resistant plant hosts. Evolution of type III effectors is dominated by competing forces: the likely requirement for conservation of virulence function, the avoidance of host defenses, and possible adaptation to new hosts. To understand the evolutionary history of type III effectors in Pseudomonas syringae, we searched for homologs to 44 known or candidate P. syringae type III effectors and two effector chaperones. We examined 24 gene families for distribution among bacterial species, amino acid sequence diversity, and features indicative of horizontal transfer. We assessed the role of diversifying and purifying selection in the evolution of these gene families. While some P. syringae type III effectors were acquired recently, others have evolved predominantly by descent. The majority of codons in most of these genes were subjected to purifying selection, suggesting selective pressure to maintain presumed virulence function. However, members of 7 families had domains subject to diversifying selection. PMID:15280247

  11. Isolation and characterisation of EfeM, a periplasmic component of the putative EfeUOBM iron transporter of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae

    SciTech Connect

    Rajasekaran, Mohan B; Mitchell, Sue A; Gibson, Trevor M; Hussain, Rohanah; Siligardi, Giuliano; Andrews, Simon C; Watson, Kimberly A

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} Bioinformatic analysis reveals EfeM is a metallopeptidase with conserved HXXE motif. {yields} Mass spectrometry confirms EfeM consists of 251 residues, molecular weight 27,772Da. {yields} SRCD spectroscopy shows an {alpha}-helical secondary structure. {yields} Single crystals of EfeM are orthorhombic and diffract to 1.6A resolution. {yields} Space group is P22{sub 1}2{sub 1} with cell dimensions a = 46.74, b = 95.17 and c = 152.61 A. -- Abstract: The EfeM protein is a component of the putative EfeUOBM iron-transporter of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar syringae and is thought to act as a periplasmic, ferrous-iron binding protein. It contains a signal peptide of 34 amino acid residues and a C-terminal 'Peptidase{sub M}75' domain of 251 residues. The C-terminal domain contains a highly conserved 'HXXE' motif thought to act as part of a divalent cation-binding site. In this work, the gene (efeM or 'Psyr{sub 3}370') encoding EfeM was cloned and over-expressed in Escherichia coli, and the mature protein was purified from the periplasm. Mass spectrometry confirmed the identity of the protein (M{sub W} 27,772 Da). Circular dichroism spectroscopy of EfeM indicated a mainly {alpha}-helical structure, consistent with bioinformatic predictions. Purified EfeM was crystallised by hanging-drop vapor diffusion to give needle-shaped crystals that diffracted to a resolution of 1.6 A. This is the first molecular study of a peptidase M75 domain with a presumed iron transport role.

  12. Effects of Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae infection on the antioxidant profile of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum C3/CAM intermediate plant.

    PubMed

    Libik-Konieczny, Marta; Surówka, Ewa; Kuźniak, Elżbieta; Nosek, Michał; Miszalski, Zbigniew

    2011-07-01

    Mesembryathemum crystallinum plants performing C(3) or CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism) appear to be highly resistant to Botrytis cinerea as well as to Pseudomonas syringae. Fungal hyphae growth was restricted to 48h post-inoculation (hpi) in both metabolic types and morphology of hyphae differed between those growing in C(3) and CAM plants. Growth of bacteria was inhibited significantly 24 hpi in both C(3) and CAM plants. B. cinerea and P. syringae infection led to an increase in the concentration of H(2)O(2) in C(3) plants 3 hpi, while a decrease in H(2)O(2) content was observed in CAM performing plants. The concentration of H(2)O(2) returned to the control level 24 and 48 hpi. Changes in H(2)O(2) content corresponded with the activity of guaiacol peroxidase (POD), mostly 3 hpi. We noted that its activity decreased significantly in C(3) plants and increased in CAM plants in response to inoculation with both pathogens. On the contrary, changes in the activity of CAT did not correlate with H(2)O(2) level. It increased significantly after interaction of C(3) plants with B. cinerea or P. syringae, but in CAM performing plants, the activity of this enzyme was unchanged. Inoculation with B. cinerea or P. syringae led to an increase in the total SOD activity in C(3) plants while CAM plants did not exhibit changes in the total SOD activity after interaction with both pathogens. In conclusion, the pathogen-induced changes in H(2)O(2) content and in SOD, POD and CAT activities in M. crystallinum leaves, were related to the photosynthetic metabolism type of the stressed plants rather than to the lifestyle of the invading pathogen.

  13. Allelic variants of the Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopZ1 are differentially recognized by plant resistance systems.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huanbin; Morgan, Robyn L; Guttman, David S; Ma, Wenbo

    2009-02-01

    The bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae depends on the type III secretion system and type III-secreted effectors to cause disease in plants. HopZ is a diverse family of type III effectors widely distributed in P. syringae isolates. Among the HopZ homologs, HopZ1 is ancient to P. syringae and has been shown to be under strong positive selection driven by plant resistance-imposed selective pressure. Here, we characterized the virulence and avirulence functions of the three HopZ1 alleles in soybean and Nicotiana benthamiana. In soybean, HopZ1 alleles have distinct functions: HopZ1a triggers defense response, HopZ1b promotes bacterial growth, and HopZ1c has no observable effect. In N. benthamiana, HopZ1a and HopZ1b both induce plant defense responses. However, they appear to trigger different resistance pathways, evidenced by two major differences between HopZ1a- and HopZ1b-triggered hypersensitive response (HR): i) the putative N-acylation sites had no effect on HopZ1a-triggered cell death, whereas it greatly enhanced HopZ1b-triggered cell death; and ii) the HopZ1b-triggered HR, but not the HopZ1a-triggered HR, was suppressed by another HopZ homolog, HopZ3. We previously demonstrated that HopZ1a most resembled the ancestral allelic form of HopZ1; therefore, this new evidence suggested that differentiated resistance systems have evolved in plant hosts to adapt to HopZ1 diversification in P. syringae.

  14. Analysis of the syrB and syrC genes of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae indicates that syringomycin is synthesized by a thiotemplate mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J H; Quigley, N B; Gross, D C

    1995-01-01

    The syrB and syrC genes are required for synthesis of syringomycin, a lipodepsipeptide phytotoxin produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, and are induced by plant-derived signal molecules. A 4,842-bp chromosomal region containing the syrB and syrC genes of strain B301D was sequenced and characterized. The open reading frame (ORF) of syrB was 2,847 bp in length and was predicted to encode an approximately 105-kDa protein, SyrB, with 949 amino acids. Searches of databases revealed that SyrB shares homology with members of a superfamily of adenylate-forming enzymes involved in peptide antibiotic and siderophore synthesis in a diverse spectrum of microorganisms. SyrB exhibited the highest degree of overall similarity (56.4%) and identity (33.8%) with the first amino acid-activating domain of pyoverdin synthetase, PvdD, of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The N-terminal portion of SyrB contained a domain of approximately 600 amino acids that resembles the amino acid-activating domains of thiotemplate-employing peptide synthetases. The SyrB domain contained six signature core sequences with the same order and spacing as observed in all known amino acid-activating domains involved in nonribosomal peptide synthesis. Core sequence 6 of SyrB, for example, was similar to the binding site for 4'-phosphopantetheine, a cofactor required for thioester formation. The syrC ORF (1,299 bp) was located 175 bp downstream of the syrB ORF. Analysis of the transcriptional and translational relationship between the syrB and syrC genes demonstrated that they are expressed independently. The syrC ORF was predicted to encode an approximately 48-kDa protein product of 433 amino acids which is 42 to 48% similar to a number of thioesterases, including fatty acid thioesterases, haloperoxidases, and acyltransferases, that contain a characteristic GXS (C) XG motif. In addition, a zinc-binding motif was found near the C terminus of SyrC. The data suggest that SyrB and SyrC function as peptide

  15. Genetic analysis of the individual contribution to virulence of the type III effector inventory of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola.

    PubMed

    Macho, Alberto P; Zumaquero, Adela; Gonzalez-Plaza, Juan J; Ortiz-Martín, Inmaculada; Rufián, José S; Beuzón, Carmen R

    2012-01-01

    Several reports have recently contributed to determine the effector inventory of the sequenced strain Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph) 1448a. However, the contribution to virulence of most of these effectors remains to be established. Genetic analysis of the contribution to virulence of individual P. syringae effectors has been traditionally hindered by the lack of phenotypes of the corresponding knockout mutants, largely attributed to a high degree of functional redundancy within their effector inventories. In support of this notion, effectors from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pto) DC3000 have been classified into redundant effector groups (REGs), analysing virulence of polymutants in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. However, using competitive index (CI) as a virulence assay, we were able to establish the individual contribution of AvrPto1(Pto) (DC3000) to Pto DC3000 virulence in tomato, its natural host, even though typically, contribution to virulence of AvrPto1 is only shown in strains also lacking AvrPtoB (also called HopAB2), a member of its REG. This report raised the possibility that even effectors targeting the same defence signalling pathway may have an individual contribution to virulence, and pointed out to CI assays as the means to establish such a contribution for individual effectors. In this work, we have analysed the individual contribution to virulence of the majority of previously uncharacterised Pph 1448a effectors, by monitoring the development of disease symptoms and determining the CI of single knockout mutants at different stages of growth within bean, its natural host. Despite their potential functional redundancy, we have found individual contributions to virulence for six out of the fifteen effectors analysed. In addition, we have analysed the functional relationships between effectors displaying individual contribution to virulence, highlighting the diversity that these relationships may present, and the interest of

  16. Genetic Analysis of the Individual Contribution to Virulence of the Type III Effector Inventory of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Plaza, Juan J.; Ortiz-Martín, Inmaculada; Rufián, José S.; Beuzón, Carmen R.

    2012-01-01

    Several reports have recently contributed to determine the effector inventory of the sequenced strain Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph) 1448a. However, the contribution to virulence of most of these effectors remains to be established. Genetic analysis of the contribution to virulence of individual P. syringae effectors has been traditionally hindered by the lack of phenotypes of the corresponding knockout mutants, largely attributed to a high degree of functional redundancy within their effector inventories. In support of this notion, effectors from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pto) DC3000 have been classified into redundant effector groups (REGs), analysing virulence of polymutants in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. However, using competitive index (CI) as a virulence assay, we were able to establish the individual contribution of AvrPto1PtoDC3000 to Pto DC3000 virulence in tomato, its natural host, even though typically, contribution to virulence of AvrPto1 is only shown in strains also lacking AvrPtoB (also called HopAB2), a member of its REG. This report raised the possibility that even effectors targeting the same defence signalling pathway may have an individual contribution to virulence, and pointed out to CI assays as the means to establish such a contribution for individual effectors. In this work, we have analysed the individual contribution to virulence of the majority of previously uncharacterised Pph 1448a effectors, by monitoring the development of disease symptoms and determining the CI of single knockout mutants at different stages of growth within bean, its natural host. Despite their potential functional redundancy, we have found individual contributions to virulence for six out of the fifteen effectors analysed. In addition, we have analysed the functional relationships between effectors displaying individual contribution to virulence, highlighting the diversity that these relationships may present, and the interest of

  17. Induced systemic resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato by 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Weller, David M; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; van Pelt, Johan A; Pieterse, Corné M J; van Loon, Leendert C; Bakker, Peter A H M

    2012-04-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strains that produce the polyketide antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) are among the most effective rhizobacteria that suppress root and crown rots, wilts, and damping-off diseases of a variety of crops, and they play a key role in the natural suppressiveness of some soils to certain soilborne pathogens. Root colonization by 2,4-DAPG-producing P. fluorescens strains Pf-5 (genotype A), Q2-87 (genotype B), Q8r1-96 (genotype D), and HT5-1 (genotype N) produced induced systemic resistance (ISR) in Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0 against bacterial speck caused by P. syringae pv. tomato. The ISR-eliciting activity of the four bacterial genotypes was similar, and all genotypes were equivalent in activity to the well-characterized strain P. fluorescens WCS417r. The 2,4-DAPG biosynthetic locus consists of the genes phlHGF and phlACBDE. phlD or phlBC mutants of Q2-87 (2,4-DAPG minus) were significantly reduced in ISR activity, and genetic complementation of the mutants restored ISR activity back to wild-type levels. A phlF regulatory mutant (overproducer of 2,4-DAPG) had ISR activity equivalent to the wild-type Q2-87. Introduction of DAPG into soil at concentrations of 10 to 250 μM 4 days before challenge inoculation induced resistance equivalent to or better than the bacteria. Strain Q2-87 induced resistance on transgenic NahG plants but not on npr1-1, jar1, and etr1 Arabidopsis mutants. These results indicate that the antibiotic 2,4-DAPG is a major determinant of ISR in 2,4-DAPG-producing P. fluorescens, that the genotype of the strain does not affect its ISR activity, and that the activity induced by these bacteria operates through the ethylene- and jasmonic acid-dependent signal transduction pathway.

  18. Transposon insertion libraries for the characterization of mutants from the kiwifruit pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.

    PubMed

    Mesarich, Carl H; Rees-George, Jonathan; Gardner, Paul P; Ghomi, Fatemeh Ashari; Gerth, Monica L; Andersen, Mark T; Rikkerink, Erik H A; Fineran, Peter C; Templeton, Matthew D

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), the causal agent of kiwifruit canker, is one of the most devastating plant diseases of recent times. We have generated two mini-Tn5-based random insertion libraries of Psa ICMP 18884. The first, a 'phenotype of interest' (POI) library, consists of 10,368 independent mutants gridded into 96-well plates. By replica plating onto selective media, the POI library was successfully screened for auxotrophic and motility mutants. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis mutants with 'Fuzzy-Spreader'-like morphologies were also identified through a visual screen. The second, a 'mutant of interest' (MOI) library, comprises around 96,000 independent mutants, also stored in 96-well plates, with approximately 200 individuals per well. The MOI library was sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform using Transposon-Directed Insertion site Sequencing (TraDIS) to map insertion sites onto the Psa genome. A grid-based PCR method was developed to recover individual mutants, and using this strategy, the MOI library was successfully screened for a putative LPS mutant not identified in the visual screen. The Psa chromosome and plasmid had 24,031 and 1,236 independent insertion events respectively, giving insertion frequencies of 3.65 and 16.6 per kb respectively. These data suggest that the MOI library is near saturation, with the theoretical probability of finding an insert in any one chromosomal gene estimated to be 97.5%. However, only 47% of chromosomal genes had insertions. This surprisingly low rate cannot be solely explained by the lack of insertions in essential genes, which would be expected to be around 5%. Strikingly, many accessory genes, including most of those encoding type III effectors, lacked insertions. In contrast, 94% of genes on the Psa plasmid had insertions, including for example, the type III effector HopAU1. These results suggest that some chromosomal sites are rendered inaccessible to transposon insertion, either by DNA

  19. Transposon insertion libraries for the characterization of mutants from the kiwifruit pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae

    PubMed Central

    Mesarich, Carl H.; Rees-George, Jonathan; Gardner, Paul P.; Ghomi, Fatemeh Ashari; Gerth, Monica L.; Andersen, Mark T.; Rikkerink, Erik H. A.; Fineran, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), the causal agent of kiwifruit canker, is one of the most devastating plant diseases of recent times. We have generated two mini-Tn5-based random insertion libraries of Psa ICMP 18884. The first, a ‘phenotype of interest’ (POI) library, consists of 10,368 independent mutants gridded into 96-well plates. By replica plating onto selective media, the POI library was successfully screened for auxotrophic and motility mutants. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis mutants with ‘Fuzzy-Spreader’-like morphologies were also identified through a visual screen. The second, a ‘mutant of interest’ (MOI) library, comprises around 96,000 independent mutants, also stored in 96-well plates, with approximately 200 individuals per well. The MOI library was sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform using Transposon-Directed Insertion site Sequencing (TraDIS) to map insertion sites onto the Psa genome. A grid-based PCR method was developed to recover individual mutants, and using this strategy, the MOI library was successfully screened for a putative LPS mutant not identified in the visual screen. The Psa chromosome and plasmid had 24,031 and 1,236 independent insertion events respectively, giving insertion frequencies of 3.65 and 16.6 per kb respectively. These data suggest that the MOI library is near saturation, with the theoretical probability of finding an insert in any one chromosomal gene estimated to be 97.5%. However, only 47% of chromosomal genes had insertions. This surprisingly low rate cannot be solely explained by the lack of insertions in essential genes, which would be expected to be around 5%. Strikingly, many accessory genes, including most of those encoding type III effectors, lacked insertions. In contrast, 94% of genes on the Psa plasmid had insertions, including for example, the type III effector HopAU1. These results suggest that some chromosomal sites are rendered inaccessible to transposon insertion, either

  20. Global analysis of the HrpL regulon in the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 reveals new regulon members with diverse functions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is required for virulence in the gram-negative plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. The alternative sigma factor HrpL directly regulates expression of T3SS genes via a consensus promoter sequence, often designated as the “hrp promoter.” Although...

  1. Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000 Type III secretion effector polymutants reveal an interplay between hopAD1 and AvrPtoB

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The model pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 suppresses the two-tiered innate immune system of plants by injecting a complex repertoire of effector proteins into host cells via the type III secretion system. The model effector AvrPtoB has multiple domains and plant protein interactors i...

  2. An ECF sigma factor mediated cell surface signaling system in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 regulates gene expression in response to heterologous siderophores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diversity of regulatory systems encoded by bacteria provides an indication of the variety of stresses and interactions that these organisms encounter in nature. We have been investigating how the plant pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, responds to iron limitation and have focuse...

  3. Characterization of Novel Bacteriophages for Biocontrol of Bacterial Blight in Leek Caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. porri

    PubMed Central

    Rombouts, Sofie; Volckaert, Anneleen; Venneman, Sofie; Declercq, Bart; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Allonsius, Camille N.; Van Malderghem, Cinzia; Jang, Ho B.; Briers, Yves; Noben, Jean P.; Klumpp, Jochen; Van Vaerenbergh, Johan; Maes, Martine; Lavigne, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. porri, the causative agent of bacterial blight in leek (Allium porrum), is increasingly frequent causing problems in leek cultivation. Because of the current lack of control measures, novel bacteriophages were isolated to control this pathogen using phage therapy. Five novel phages were isolated from infected fields in Flanders (vB_PsyM_KIL1, vB_PsyM_KIL2, vB_PsyM_KIL3, vB_PsyM_KIL4, and vB_PsyM_KIL5), and were complemented with one selected host range mutant phage (vB_PsyM_KIL3b). Genome analysis of the phages revealed genome sizes between 90 and 94 kb and an average GC-content of 44.8%. Phylogenomic networking classified them into a novel clade, named the “KIL-like viruses,” related to the Felixounalikevirus genus, together with phage phiPsa374 from P. syringae pv. actinidiae. In vitro characterization demonstrated the stability and lytic potential of these phages. Host range analysis confirmed heterogeneity within P. syringae pv. porri, leading to the development of a phage cocktail with a range that covers the entire set of 41 strains tested. Specific bio-assays demonstrated the in planta efficacy of phages vB_PsyM_KIL1, vB_PsyM_KIL2, vB_PsyM_KIL3, and vB_PsyM_KIL3b. In addition, two parallel field trial experiments on three locations using a phage cocktail of the six phages showed variable results. In one trial, symptom development was attenuated. These data suggest some potential for phage therapy in controlling bacterial blight of leek, pending optimization of formulation and application methods. PMID:27014204

  4. Characterization of Novel Bacteriophages for Biocontrol of Bacterial Blight in Leek Caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. porri.

    PubMed

    Rombouts, Sofie; Volckaert, Anneleen; Venneman, Sofie; Declercq, Bart; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Allonsius, Camille N; Van Malderghem, Cinzia; Jang, Ho B; Briers, Yves; Noben, Jean P; Klumpp, Jochen; Van Vaerenbergh, Johan; Maes, Martine; Lavigne, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. porri, the causative agent of bacterial blight in leek (Allium porrum), is increasingly frequent causing problems in leek cultivation. Because of the current lack of control measures, novel bacteriophages were isolated to control this pathogen using phage therapy. Five novel phages were isolated from infected fields in Flanders (vB_PsyM_KIL1, vB_PsyM_KIL2, vB_PsyM_KIL3, vB_PsyM_KIL4, and vB_PsyM_KIL5), and were complemented with one selected host range mutant phage (vB_PsyM_KIL3b). Genome analysis of the phages revealed genome sizes between 90 and 94 kb and an average GC-content of 44.8%. Phylogenomic networking classified them into a novel clade, named the "KIL-like viruses," related to the Felixounalikevirus genus, together with phage phiPsa374 from P. syringae pv. actinidiae. In vitro characterization demonstrated the stability and lytic potential of these phages. Host range analysis confirmed heterogeneity within P. syringae pv. porri, leading to the development of a phage cocktail with a range that covers the entire set of 41 strains tested. Specific bio-assays demonstrated the in planta efficacy of phages vB_PsyM_KIL1, vB_PsyM_KIL2, vB_PsyM_KIL3, and vB_PsyM_KIL3b. In addition, two parallel field trial experiments on three locations using a phage cocktail of the six phages showed variable results. In one trial, symptom development was attenuated. These data suggest some potential for phage therapy in controlling bacterial blight of leek, pending optimization of formulation and application methods.

  5. Dynamics of Membrane Potential Variation and Gene Expression Induced by Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae, and Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Bricchi, Irene; Bertea, Cinzia M.; Occhipinti, Andrea; Paponov, Ivan A.; Maffei, Massimo E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Biotic stress induced by various herbivores and pathogens invokes plant responses involving different defense mechanisms. However, we do not know whether different biotic stresses share a common response or which signaling pathways are involved in responses to different biotic stresses. We investigated the common and specific responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to three biotic stress agents: Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae, and the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Methodology/Principal Findings We used electrophysiology to determine the plasma membrane potential (Vm) and we performed a gene microarray transcriptome analysis on Arabidopsis upon either herbivory or bacterial infection. Vm depolarization was induced by insect attack; however, the response was much more rapid to S. littoralis (30 min −2 h) than to M. persicae (4–6 h). M. persicae differentially regulated almost 10-fold more genes than by S. littoralis with an opposite regulation. M. persicae modulated genes involved in flavonoid, fatty acid, hormone, drug transport and chitin metabolism. S. littoralis regulated responses to heat, transcription and ion transport. The latest Vm depolarization (16 h) was found for P. syringae. The pathogen regulated responses to salicylate, jasmonate and to microorganisms. Despite this late response, the number of genes differentially regulated by P. syringae was closer to those regulated by S. littoralis than by M. persicae. Conclusions/Significance Arabidopsis plasma membranes respond with a Vm depolarization at times depending on the nature of biotic attack which allow setting a time point for comparative genome-wide analysis. A clear relationship between Vm depolarization and gene expression was found. At Vm depolarization timing, M. persicae regulates a wider array of Arabidopsis genes with a clear and distinct regulation than S. littoralis. An almost completely opposite regulation was observed between the aphid and the pathogen, with the former

  6. Extensive Field Survey, Laboratory and Greenhouse Studies Reveal Complex Nature of Pseudomonas syringae-Associated Hazelnut Decline in Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Bartoli, Claudia; Varvaro, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas avellanae (Pav) has been reported as the causal agent of bacterial decline and bacterial canker of hazelnut in Italy and Greece, respectively. Both hazelnut diseases were reported to be similar in terms of symptoms, severity and persistence. In this study, we found that both symptomatic and asymptomatic trees in the field were colonized by Pav. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) analysis showed that Pav strains isolated during this study in Italy belong to the P. syringae phylogroup 1 and they are closely related to Pav strains previously isolated in Greece from hazelnut bacterial canker. On the other hand, strains isolated in earlier studies from hazelnut decline in Italy belong to both phylogroup 1 and 2 of P. syringae. Both phylogroup 1 strains of P. syringae from Greece and Italy are different than strains isolated in this study in terms of their capacity to excrete fluorescent pigments on different media. Despite the same plant genotype and cropping practices adopted, the incidence of hazelnut decline ranged from nearly 0 to 91% across our study sites. No disease developed on plants inoculated with Pav through wounding while leaf scar inoculations produced only mild disease symptoms. Based on our results and the previously reported correlation between pedo-climatic conditions and hazelnut decline, we conclude that hazelnut decline in central Italy could be incited by a combination of predisposing (adverse pedo-climatic conditions) and contributing factors (Pav). Because this is a true decline different from “bacterial canker” described in Greece, we refer to it as hazelnut decline (HD). PMID:26840951

  7. Comparative Genome Analysis Provides Insights into the Evolution and Adaptation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum

    PubMed Central

    Green, Sarah; Studholme, David J.; Laue, Bridget E.; Dorati, Federico; Lovell, Helen; Arnold, Dawn; Cottrell, Joan E.; Bridgett, Stephen; Blaxter, Mark; Huitema, Edgar; Thwaites, Richard; Sharp, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    A recently emerging bleeding canker disease, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pathovar aesculi (Pae), is threatening European horse chestnut in northwest Europe. Very little is known about the origin and biology of this new disease. We used the nucleotide sequences of seven commonly used marker genes to investigate the phylogeny of three strains isolated recently from bleeding stem cankers on European horse chestnut in Britain (E-Pae). On the basis of these sequences alone, the E-Pae strains were identical to the Pae type-strain (I-Pae), isolated from leaf spots on Indian horse chestnut in India in 1969. The phylogenetic analyses also showed that Pae belongs to a distinct clade of P. syringae pathovars adapted to woody hosts. We generated genome-wide Illumina sequence data from the three E-Pae strains and one strain of I-Pae. Comparative genomic analyses revealed pathovar-specific genomic regions in Pae potentially implicated in virulence on a tree host, including genes for the catabolism of plant-derived aromatic compounds and enterobactin synthesis. Several gene clusters displayed intra-pathovar variation, including those encoding type IV secretion, a novel fatty acid biosynthesis pathway and a sucrose uptake pathway. Rates of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the four Pae genomes indicate that the three E-Pae strains diverged from each other much more recently than they diverged from I-Pae. The very low genetic diversity among the three geographically distinct E-Pae strains suggests that they originate from a single, recent introduction into Britain, thus highlighting the serious environmental risks posed by the spread of an exotic plant pathogenic bacterium to a new geographic location. The genomic regions in Pae that are absent from other P. syringae pathovars that infect herbaceous hosts may represent candidate genetic adaptations to infection of the woody parts of the tree. PMID:20419105

  8. Comparative genome analysis provides insights into the evolution and adaptation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum.

    PubMed

    Green, Sarah; Studholme, David J; Laue, Bridget E; Dorati, Federico; Lovell, Helen; Arnold, Dawn; Cottrell, Joan E; Bridgett, Stephen; Blaxter, Mark; Huitema, Edgar; Thwaites, Richard; Sharp, Paul M; Jackson, Robert W; Kamoun, Sophien

    2010-04-19

    A recently emerging bleeding canker disease, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pathovar aesculi (Pae), is threatening European horse chestnut in northwest Europe. Very little is known about the origin and biology of this new disease. We used the nucleotide sequences of seven commonly used marker genes to investigate the phylogeny of three strains isolated recently from bleeding stem cankers on European horse chestnut in Britain (E-Pae). On the basis of these sequences alone, the E-Pae strains were identical to the Pae type-strain (I-Pae), isolated from leaf spots on Indian horse chestnut in India in 1969. The phylogenetic analyses also showed that Pae belongs to a distinct clade of P. syringae pathovars adapted to woody hosts. We generated genome-wide Illumina sequence data from the three E-Pae strains and one strain of I-Pae. Comparative genomic analyses revealed pathovar-specific genomic regions in Pae potentially implicated in virulence on a tree host, including genes for the catabolism of plant-derived aromatic compounds and enterobactin synthesis. Several gene clusters displayed intra-pathovar variation, including those encoding type IV secretion, a novel fatty acid biosynthesis pathway and a sucrose uptake pathway. Rates of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the four Pae genomes indicate that the three E-Pae strains diverged from each other much more recently than they diverged from I-Pae. The very low genetic diversity among the three geographically distinct E-Pae strains suggests that they originate from a single, recent introduction into Britain, thus highlighting the serious environmental risks posed by the spread of an exotic plant pathogenic bacterium to a new geographic location. The genomic regions in Pae that are absent from other P. syringae pathovars that infect herbaceous hosts may represent candidate genetic adaptations to infection of the woody parts of the tree.

  9. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000: a model pathogen for probing disease susceptibility and hormone signaling in plants.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xiu-Fang; He, Sheng Yang

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, various strains of the gram-negative bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae have been used as models for understanding plant-bacterial interactions. In 1991, a P. syringae pathovar tomato (Pst) strain, DC3000, was reported to infect not only its natural host tomato but also Arabidopsis in the laboratory, a finding that spurred intensive efforts in the subsequent two decades to characterize the molecular mechanisms by which this strain causes disease in plants. Genomic analysis shows that Pst DC3000 carries a large repertoire of potential virulence factors, including proteinaceous effectors that are secreted through the type III secretion system and a polyketide phytotoxin called coronatine, which structurally mimics the plant hormone jasmonate (JA). Study of Pst DC3000 pathogenesis has not only provided several conceptual advances in understanding how a bacterial pathogen employs type III effectors to suppress plant immune responses and promote disease susceptibility but has also facilitated the discovery of the immune function of stomata and key components of JA signaling in plants. The concepts derived from the study of Pst DC3000 pathogenesis may prove useful in understanding pathogenesis mechanisms of other plant pathogens.

  10. The causal agent of halo blight in bean, Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, attaches to stomata via its pili.

    PubMed

    Romantschuk, M; Bamford, D H

    1986-04-01

    The phytopathogenic pseudomonad Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola causes halo blight of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Initiation of infection depends on the ability of the cells to adhere to the target cell surface. P. syringae pv. phaseolicola expresses pili, which are the receptors of the lipid-containing dsRNA bacteriophage phi 6. phi 6-resistant bacterial strains can be divided into different piliation types. It was possible to show that the adhesion of the bacteria onto plant cell surface was dependent on the pili. Non-piliated bacterial stains showed a much lower adherence to the leaf surface than strains expressing phi 6 specific pili. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the piliated bacteria attached to the leaf surface at the site of stomata. Non-piliated bacteria were evenly distributed on the leaf surface. All bacterial strains used in this study were capable of causing halo blight if injected into the plant. If the bacteria were sprayed on the plants, followed by spraying of sterile buffer, only piliated bacteria caused symptoms.

  11. The bacteriophage-derived transcriptional regulator, LscR, activates the expression of levansucrase genes in Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Khaled; Hartman, Katharina; Pletzer, Daniel; Zhurina, Daria; Ullrich, Matthias S

    2016-12-01

    Synthesis of the exopolysaccharide levan occurs in the bacterial blight pathogen of soybean, Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea PG4180, when this bacterium encounters moderate to high concentrations of sucrose inside its host plant. The process is mediated by the temperature-dependent expression and secretion of two levansucrases, LscB and LscC. Previous studies showed the importance of a prophage-associated promoter element in driving the expression of levansucrase genes. Herein, heterologous screening for transcriptional activators revealed that the prophage-borne transcriptional regulator, LscR, from P. syringae mediates expression of levansucrase. A lscR-deficient mutant was generated and exhibited a levan-negative phenotype when grown on a sucrose-rich medium. This phenotype was confirmed by zymographic analysis and Western blots which demonstrated absence of levansucrase in the supernatant and total cell lysates. Transcriptional analysis showed a down-regulation of expression levels of levansucrase and glycosyl hydrolase genes in the lscR-deficient mutant. Ultimately, a direct binding of LscR to the promoter region of levansucrase was demonstrated using electrophoretic mobility shift assays allowing to conclude that a bacteriophage-derived regulator dictates expression of bacterial genes involved in in planta fitness.

  12. Selective Photoreceptor Gene Knock-out Reveals a Regulatory Role for the Growth Behavior of Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rashmi; Pathak, Gopal; Drepper, Thomas; Gärtner, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae (Ps) is a well-established model organism for bacterial infection of plants. The genome sequences of two pathovars, pv. syringae and pv. tomato, revealed one gene encoding a blue and two genes encoding red/far red light-sensing photoreceptors. Continuing former molecular characterization of the photoreceptor proteins, we here report selective photoreceptor gene disruption for pv. tomato aiming at identification of potentially regulatory functions of these photoreceptors. Transformation of Ps cells with linear DNA constructs yielded interposon mutations of the corresponding genes. Cell growth studies of the generated photoreceptor knock-out mutants revealed their role in light-dependent regulation of cell growth and motility. Disruption of the blue-light (BL) receptor gene caused a growth deregulation, in line with an observed increased virulence of this mutant (Moriconi et al., Plant J., 2013, 76, 322). Bacterial phytochrome-1 (BphP1) deletion mutant caused unaltered cell growth, but a stronger swarming capacity. Inactivation of its ortholog, BphP2, however, caused reduced growth and remarkably altered dendritic swarming behavior. Combined knock-out of both bacteriophytochromes reproduced the swarming pattern observed for the BphP2 mutant alone. A triple knock-out mutant showed a growth rate between that of the BL (deregulation) and the phytochrome-2 mutant (growth reduction).

  13. The Hexapeptide Repeated Segment LIAGY is a Hot Spot of Aggregation of the Pseudomonas syringae Ice Nucleation Protein.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Ice nucleation proteins (INPs) form oligomeric structures by self-assembly and aggregation. We looked for the presence of potential aggregating sequences inside the INP from Pseudomonas syringae by a computational approach with the AGGRESCAN, FOMDAMYLOID and TANGO softwares. A total of 38 hot spots of aggregation were predicted in the INP sequence: 7 localized in the Nterminal domain, 2 in the C-terminal region, 28 in the highly repetitive central (HRC) region and 1 shared between the HRC and the Carboxyl-terminus regions of the protein. All the hot spots of aggregation identified in the HRC domain overlapped a 8-residue low fidelity repeat including a LIAGYrelated sequence. We confirmed the predictions by an experimental approach using synthetic peptides corresponding to different parts of the INP central sequence, absorbance spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy in the presence of Congo red (CR) or Thioflavin T (ThT), respectively. Peptide 620-SFIIAGYG-627 predicted to aggregate by the three softwares induced an increase in fluorescence of ThT. Peptide 729-GFKSILTAGY-738 predicted to aggregate by AGGRESCAN and FOLDAMYLOID induced a shift in the maximum of absorbance of CR. Peptide 1124-SVLTAGA-1130 predicted to aggregate only by TANGO did not interfere with CR absorbance or ThT fluorescence. In conclusion, the use of three aggregation prediction algorithms and two biochemical assays showed that the hexapeptide repeated segment LIAGY, previously shown to form a hairpin loop may be involved in the aggregation of the P. syringae INP.

  14. Identification of Pseudomonas syringae pathogens of Arabidopsis and a bacterial locus determining avirulence on both Arabidopsis and soybean.

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, M C; Innes, R W; Bent, A F; Staskawicz, B J

    1991-01-01

    To develop a model system for molecular genetic analysis of plant-pathogen interactions, we studied the interaction between Arabidopsis thaliana and the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst). Pst strains were found to be virulent or avirulent on specific Arabidopsis ecotypes, and single ecotypes were resistant to some Pst strains and susceptible to others. In many plant-pathogen interactions, disease resistance is controlled by the simultaneous presence of single plant resistance genes and single pathogen avirulence genes. Therefore, we tested whether avirulence genes in Pst controlled induction of resistance in Arabidopsis. Cosmids that determine avirulence were isolated from Pst genomic libraries, and the Pst avirulence locus avrRpt2 was defined. This allowed us to construct pathogens that differed only by the presence or absence of a single putative avirulence gene. We found that Arabidopsis ecotype Col-0 was susceptible to Pst strain DC3000 but resistant to the same strain carrying avrRpt2, suggesting that a single locus in Col-0 determines resistance. As a first step toward genetically mapping the postulated resistance locus, an ecotype susceptible to infection by DC3000 carrying avrRpt2 was identified. The avrRpt2 locus from Pst was also moved into virulent strains of the soybean pathogen P. syringae pv glycinea to test whether this locus could determine avirulence on soybean. The resulting strains induced a resistant response in a cultivar-specific manner, suggesting that similar resistance mechanisms may function in Arabidopsis and soybean. PMID:1824334

  15. Transgenic tomato plants overexpressing tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase exhibit elevated hydroxycinnamic acid amide levels and enhanced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Campos, Laura; Lisón, Purificación; López-Gresa, María Pilar; Rodrigo, Ismael; Zacarés, Laura; Conejero, Vicente; Bellés, José María

    2014-10-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAA) are secondary metabolites involved in plant development and defense that have been widely reported throughout the plant kingdom. These phenolics show antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (THT) is the key enzyme in HCAA synthesis and is induced in response to pathogen infection, wounding, or elicitor treatments, preceding HCAA accumulation. We have engineered transgenic tomato plants overexpressing tomato THT. These plants displayed an enhanced THT gene expression in leaves as compared with wild type (WT) plants. Consequently, leaves of THT-overexpressing plants showed a higher constitutive accumulation of the amide coumaroyltyramine (CT). Similar results were found in flowers and fruits. Moreover, feruloyltyramine (FT) also accumulated in these tissues, being present at higher levels in transgenic plants. Accumulation of CT, FT and octopamine, and noradrenaline HCAA in response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato infection was higher in transgenic plants than in the WT plants. Transgenic plants showed an enhanced resistance to the bacterial infection. In addition, this HCAA accumulation was accompanied by an increase in salicylic acid levels and pathogenesis-related gene induction. Taken together, these results suggest that HCAA may play an important role in the defense of tomato plants against P. syringae infection.

  16. Evolution of copper resistance in the kiwifruit pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae through acquisition of integrative conjugative elements and plasmids.

    PubMed

    Colombi, Elena; Straub, Christina; Künzel, Sven; Templeton, Matthew D; McCann, Honour C; Rainey, Paul B

    2017-02-01

    Horizontal gene transfer can precipitate rapid evolutionary change. In 2010 the global pandemic of kiwifruit canker disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) reached New Zealand. At the time of introduction, the single clone responsible for the outbreak was sensitive to copper, however, analysis of a sample of isolates taken in 2015 and 2016 showed that a quarter were copper resistant. Genome sequences of seven strains showed that copper resistance - comprising czc/cusABC and copABCD systems - along with resistance to arsenic and cadmium, was acquired via uptake of integrative conjugative elements (ICEs), but also plasmids. Comparative analysis showed ICEs to have a mosaic structure, with one being a tripartite arrangement of two different ICEs and a plasmid that were isolated in 1921 (USA), 1968 (NZ) and 1988 (Japan), from P. syringae pathogens of millet, wheat and kiwifruit respectively. Two of the Psa ICEs were nearly identical to two ICEs isolated from kiwifruit leaf colonists prior to the introduction of Psa into NZ. Additionally, we show ICE transfer in vitro and in planta, analyze fitness consequences of ICE carriage, capture the de novo formation of novel recombinant ICEs, and explore ICE host-range.

  17. Arabidopsis CYP86A2 represses Pseudomonas syringae type III genes and is required for cuticle development

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Fangming; Mark Goodwin, S; Xiao, Yanmei; Sun, Zhaoyu; Baker, Douglas; Tang, Xiaoyan; Jenks, Matthew A; Zhou, Jian-Min

    2004-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae relies on type III secretion system to deliver effector proteins into the host cell for parasitism. Type III genes are induced in planta, but host factors affecting the induction are poorly understood. Here we report on the identification of an Arabidopsis mutant, att1 (for aberrant induction of type three genes), that greatly enhances the expression of bacterial type III genes avrPto and hrpL. att1 plants display enhanced disease severity to a virulent strain of P. syringae, suggesting a role of ATT1 in disease resistance. ATT1 encodes CYP86A2, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase catalyzing fatty acid oxidation. The cutin content is reduced to 30% in att1, indicating that CYP86A2 plays a major role in the biosynthesis of extracellular lipids. att1 has a loose cuticle membrane ultrastructure and shows increased permeability to water vapor, demonstrating the importance of the cuticle membrane in controlling water loss. The enhanced avrPto-luc expression is specific to att1, but not another cuticle mutant, wax2. The results suggest that certain cutin-related fatty acids synthesized by CYP86A2 may repress bacterial type III gene expression in the intercellular spaces. PMID:15241470

  18. Pseudomonas syringae self-protection from tabtoxinine-β-lactam by ligase TblF and acetylase Ttr.

    PubMed

    Wencewicz, Timothy A; Walsh, Christopher T

    2012-10-02

    Plant pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae produce the hydroxy-β-lactam antimetabolite tabtoxinine-β-lactam (TβL) as a time-dependent inactivating glutamine analogue of plant glutamine synthetases. The producing pseudomonads use multiple modes of self-protection, two of which are characterized in this study. The first is the dipeptide ligase TblF which converts tabtoxinine-β-lactam to the TβL-Thr dipeptide known as tabtoxin. The dipeptide is not recognized by glutamine synthetase. This represents a Trojan Horse strategy: the dipeptide is secreted, taken up by dipeptide permeases in neighboring cells, and TβL is released by peptidase action. The second self-protection mode is elaboration by the acetyltransferase Ttr, which acetylates the α-amino group of the proximal inactivator TβL, but not the tabtoxin dipeptide.

  19. Competitive Index: Mixed Infection-Based Virulence Assays for Genetic Analysis in Pseudomonas syringae-Plant Interactions.

    PubMed

    Macho, Alberto P; Rufián, José S; Ruiz-Albert, Javier; Beuzón, Carmen R

    2016-01-01

    When studying bacterial plant pathogens, the genetic analysis of the contribution of virulence factors to the infection process has traditionally been hindered by their high degree of functional redundancy. In recent years, it has become clear that the use of competitive index in mixed infections provides an accurate and sensitive manner of establishing virulence phenotypes for mutants for which other assays have failed. Such increases in sensitivity and accuracy are due to the direct comparison between the respective growths of the co-inoculated strains within the same infection, each strain replicating as they would in individual infections. Interferences between the co-inoculated strains must be therefore avoided using the appropriate experimental settings. In this chapter, we will present the optimal experimental conditions to achieve maximum sensitivity on virulence assays using the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, as well as some additional considerations to ensure the correct interpretations of the results.

  20. Pseudomonas syringae Type III Effector HopBB1 Promotes Host Transcriptional Repressor Degradation to Regulate Phytohormone Responses and Virulence.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Biswas, Surojit; Finkel, Omri M; He, Yijian; Salas-Gonzalez, Isai; English, Marie E; Epple, Petra; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Dangl, Jeffery L

    2017-02-08

    Independently evolved pathogen effectors from three branches of life (ascomycete, eubacteria, and oomycete) converge onto the Arabidopsis TCP14 transcription factor to manipulate host defense. However, the mechanistic basis for defense control via TCP14 regulation is unknown. We demonstrate that TCP14 regulates the plant immune system by transcriptionally repressing a subset of the jasmonic acid (JA) hormone signaling outputs. A previously unstudied Pseudomonas syringae (Psy) type III effector, HopBB1, interacts with TCP14 and targets it to the SCF(COI1) degradation complex by connecting it to the JA signaling repressor JAZ3. Consequently, HopBB1 de-represses the TCP14-regulated subset of JA response genes and promotes pathogen virulence. Thus, HopBB1 fine-tunes host phytohormone crosstalk by precisely manipulating part of the JA regulon to avoid pleiotropic host responses while promoting pathogen proliferation.

  1. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the cold-inducible hutU gene from the antarctic psychrotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Janiyani, Kamala L; Ray, M K

    2002-01-01

    A promoter-fusion study with a Tn 5-based promoter probe vector had earlier found that the hutU gene which encodes the enzyme urocanase for the histidine utilization pathway is upregulated at a lower temperature (4 degrees C) in the Antarctic psychrotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. To examine the characteristics of the urocanase gene and its promoter elements from the psychrotroph, the complete hutU and its upstream region from P. syringae were cloned, sequenced, and analyzed in the present study. Northern blot and primer extension analyses suggested that the hutU gene is inducible upon a downshift of temperature (22 to 4 degrees C) and that there is more than one transcription initiation site. One of the initiation sites was specific to the cells grown at 4 degrees C, which was different from the common initiation sites observed at both 4 and 22 degrees C. Although no typical promoter consensus sequences were observed in the flanking region of the transcription initiation sites, there was a characteristic CAAAA sequence at the -10 position of the promoters. Additionally, the location of the transcription and translation initiation sites suggested that the hutU mRNA contains a long 5'-untranslated region, a characteristic feature of many cold-inducible genes of mesophilic bacteria. A comparison of deduced amino acid sequences of urocanase from various bacteria, including the mesophilic and psychrotrophic Pseudomonas spp., suggests that there is a high degree of similarity between the enzymes. The enzyme sequence contains a signature motif (GXGX(2)GX(10)G) of the Rossmann fold for dinucleotide (NAD(+)) binding and two conserved cysteine residues in and around the active site. The psychrotrophic enzyme, however, has an extended N-terminal end.

  2. Light regulation of swarming motility in Pseudomonas syringae integrates signaling pathways mediated by a bacteriophytochrome and a LOV protein.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; McGrane, Regina S; Beattie, Gwyn A

    2013-06-11

    The biological and regulatory roles of photosensory proteins are poorly understood for nonphotosynthetic bacteria. The foliar bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae has three photosensory protein-encoding genes that are predicted to encode the blue-light-sensing LOV (light, oxygen, or voltage) histidine kinase (LOV-HK) and two red/far-red-light-sensing bacteriophytochromes, BphP1 and BphP2. We provide evidence that LOV-HK and BphP1 form an integrated network that regulates swarming motility in response to multiple light wavelengths. The swarming motility of P. syringae B728a deletion mutants indicated that LOV-HK positively regulates swarming motility in response to blue light and BphP1 negatively regulates swarming motility in response to red and far-red light. BphP2 does not detectably regulate swarming motility. The histidine kinase activity of each LOV-HK and BphP1 is required for this regulation based on the loss of complementation upon mutation of residues key to their kinase activity. Surprisingly, mutants lacking both lov and bphP1 were similar in motility to a bphP1 single mutant in blue light, indicating that the loss of bphP1 is epistatic to the loss of lov and also that BphP1 unexpectedly responds to blue light. Moreover, whereas expression of bphP1 did not alter motility under blue light in a bphP1 mutant, it reduced motility in a mutant lacking lov and bphP1, demonstrating that LOV-HK positively regulates motility by suppressing negative regulation by BphP1. These results are the first to show cross talk between the LOV protein and phytochrome signaling pathways in bacteria, and the similarity of this regulatory network to that of photoreceptors in plants suggests a possible common ancestry. IMPORTANCE Photosensory proteins enable organisms to perceive and respond to light. The biological and ecological roles of these proteins in nonphotosynthetic bacteria are largely unknown. This study discovered that a blue-light-sensing LOV (light, oxygen, or

  3. Identification of an ISR-related metabolite produced by Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 against the wildfire pathogen pseudomonas syringae pv.tabaci in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Park, Myung Ryeol; Kim, Young Cheol; Park, Ju Yeon; Han, Song Hee; Kim, Kil Yong; Lee, Sun Woo; Kim, In Seon

    2008-10-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 exhibits induced systemic resistance (ISR) against P. syringae pv. tabaci in tobacco. To identify one of the ISR metabolites, O6 cultures were extracted with organic solvents, and the organic extracts were subjected to column chromatography followed by spectroscopy analyses. The ISR bioassay-guided fractionation was carried out for isolation of the metabolite. Highresolution mass spectrometric analysis of the metabolite found C(9)H(9)O(3)N with an exact mass of 179.0582. LC/MS analysis in positive mode showed an (M+H)(+) peak at m/zeta 180. Nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H, (13)C) analyses identified all protons and carbons of the metabolite. Based on the spectroscopy data, the metabolite was identified 4-(aminocarbonyl) phenylacetate (4-ACPA). 4-ACPA applied at 68.0 mM exhibited ISR activity at a level similar 1.0 mM salicylic acid. This is the first report to identify an ISR metabolite produced by P. chlororaphis O6 against the wildfire pathogen P. syringae pv. tabaci in tobacco.

  4. Origin of the Outbreak in France of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Biovar 3, the Causal Agent of Bacterial Canker of Kiwifruit, Revealed by a Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cunty, A.; Cesbron, S.; Poliakoff, F.; Jacques, M.-A.

    2015-01-01

    The first outbreaks of bacterial canker of kiwifruit caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 were detected in France in 2010. P. syringae pv. actinidiae causes leaf spots, dieback, and canker that sometimes lead to the death of the vine. P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum, which is pathogenic on kiwi as well, causes only leaf spots. In order to conduct an epidemiological study to track the spread of the epidemics of these two pathogens in France, we developed a multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA). MLVA was conducted on 340 strains of P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 isolated in Chile, China, France, Italy, and New Zealand and on 39 strains of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum isolated in Australia, France, and New Zealand. Eleven polymorphic VNTR loci were identified in the genomes of P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 ICMP 18744 and of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum ICMP 18807. MLVA enabled the structuring of P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 and P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum strains in 55 and 16 haplotypes, respectively. MLVA and discriminant analysis of principal components revealed that strains isolated in Chile, China, and New Zealand are genetically distinct from P. syringae pv. actinidiae strains isolated in France and in Italy, which appear to be closely related at the genetic level. In contrast, no structuring was observed for P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum. We developed an MLVA scheme to explore the diversity within P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 and to trace the dispersal routes of epidemic P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 in Europe. We suggest using this MLVA scheme to trace the dispersal routes of P. syringae pv. actinidiae at a global level. PMID:26209667

  5. Origin of the Outbreak in France of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Biovar 3, the Causal Agent of Bacterial Canker of Kiwifruit, Revealed by a Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cunty, A; Cesbron, S; Poliakoff, F; Jacques, M-A; Manceau, C

    2015-10-01

    The first outbreaks of bacterial canker of kiwifruit caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 were detected in France in 2010. P. syringae pv. actinidiae causes leaf spots, dieback, and canker that sometimes lead to the death of the vine. P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum, which is pathogenic on kiwi as well, causes only leaf spots. In order to conduct an epidemiological study to track the spread of the epidemics of these two pathogens in France, we developed a multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA). MLVA was conducted on 340 strains of P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 isolated in Chile, China, France, Italy, and New Zealand and on 39 strains of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum isolated in Australia, France, and New Zealand. Eleven polymorphic VNTR loci were identified in the genomes of P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 ICMP 18744 and of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum ICMP 18807. MLVA enabled the structuring of P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 and P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum strains in 55 and 16 haplotypes, respectively. MLVA and discriminant analysis of principal components revealed that strains isolated in Chile, China, and New Zealand are genetically distinct from P. syringae pv. actinidiae strains isolated in France and in Italy, which appear to be closely related at the genetic level. In contrast, no structuring was observed for P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum. We developed an MLVA scheme to explore the diversity within P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 and to trace the dispersal routes of epidemic P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 in Europe. We suggest using this MLVA scheme to trace the dispersal routes of P. syringae pv. actinidiae at a global level.

  6. Protection of tomato seedlings against infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato by using the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense.

    PubMed

    Bashan, Yoav; De-Bashan, Luz E

    2002-06-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, the causal agent of bacterial speck of tomato, and the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense were inoculated onto tomato plants, either alone, as a mixed culture, or consecutively. The population dynamics in the rhizosphere and foliage, the development of bacterial speck disease, and their effects on plant growth were monitored. When inoculated onto separate plants, the A. brasilense population in the rhizosphere of tomato plants was 2 orders of magnitude greater than the population of P. syringae pv. tomato (10(7) versus 10(5) CFU/g [dry weight] of root). Under mist chamber conditions, the leaf population of P. syringae pv. tomato was 1 order of magnitude greater than that of A. brasilense (10(7) versus 10(6) CFU/g [dry weight] of leaf). Inoculation of seeds with a mixed culture of the two bacterial strains resulted in a reduction of the pathogen population in the rhizosphere, an increase in the A. brasilense population, the prevention of bacterial speck disease development, and improved plant growth. Inoculation of leaves with the mixed bacterial culture under mist conditions significantly reduced the P. syringae pv. tomato population and significantly decreased disease severity. Challenge with P. syringae pv. tomato after A. brasilense was established in the leaves further reduced both the population of P. syringae pv. tomato and disease severity and significantly enhanced plant development. Both bacteria maintained a large population in the rhizosphere for 45 days when each was inoculated separately onto tomato seeds (10(5) to 10(6) CFU/g [dry weight] of root). However, P. syringae pv. tomato did not survive in the rhizosphere in the presence of A. brasilense. Foliar inoculation of A. brasilense after P. syringae pv. tomato was established on the leaves did not alleviate bacterial speck disease, and A. brasilense did not survive well in the phyllosphere under these conditions, even in a mist chamber. Several

  7. Type III secretion and effectors shape the survival and growth pattern of Pseudomonas syringae on leaf surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiyoung; Teitzel, Gail M; Munkvold, Kathy; del Pozo, Olga; Martin, Gregory B; Michelmore, Richard W; Greenberg, Jean T

    2012-04-01

    The bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv syringae B728a (PsyB728a) uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject effector proteins into plant cells, a process that modulates the susceptibility of different plants to infection. Analysis of GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN-expressing PsyB728a after spray inoculation without additives under moderate relative humidity conditions permitted (1) a detailed analysis of this strain's survival and growth pattern on host (Nicotiana benthamiana) and nonhost (tomato [Solanum lycopersicum]) leaf surfaces, (2) an assessment of the role of plant defenses in affecting PsyB728a leaf surface (epiphytic) growth, and (3) the contribution of the T3SS and specific effectors to PsyB728a epiphytic survival and growth. On host leaf surfaces, PsyB728a cells initially persist without growing, and show an increased population only after 48 h, unless plants are pretreated with the defense-inducing chemical benzothiazole. During the persistence period, some PsyB728a cells induce a T3SS reporter, whereas a T3SS-deficient mutant shows reduced survival. By 72 h, rare invasion by PsyB728a to the mesophyll region of host leaves occurs, but endophytic and epiphytic bacterial growths are not correlated. The effectors HopZ3 and HopAA1 delay the onset of epiphytic growth of PsyB728a on N. benthamiana, whereas they promote epiphytic survival/growth on tomato. These effectors localize to distinct sites in plant cells and likely have different mechanisms of action. HopZ3 may enzymatically modify host targets, as it requires residues important for the catalytic activity of other proteins in its family of proteases. Thus, the T3SS, HopAA1, HopZ3, and plant defenses strongly influence epiphytic survival and/or growth of PsyB728a.

  8. NTRC and chloroplast-generated reactive oxygen species regulate Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato disease development in tomato and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ishiga, Yasuhiro; Ishiga, Takako; Wangdi, Tamding; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Uppalapati, Srinivasa Rao

    2012-03-01

    Coronatine (COR)-producing pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae, including pvs. tomato, maculicola, and glycinea, cause important diseases on tomato, crucifers, and soybean, respectively, and produce symptoms with necrotic lesions surrounded by chlorosis. The chlorosis is mainly attributed to COR. However, the significance of COR-induced chlorosis in localized lesion development and the molecular basis of disease-associated cell death is largely unknown. To identify host (chloroplast) genes that play a role in COR-mediated chlorosis, we used a forward genetics approach using Nicotiana benthamiana and virus-induced gene silencing and identified a gene which encodes 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Prxs) that, when silenced, produced a spreading hypersensitive or necrosis-like phenotype instead of chlorosis after COR application in a COI1-dependent manner. Loss-of-function analysis of Prx and NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC), the central players of a chloroplast redox detoxification system, resulted in spreading accelerated P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 disease-associated cell death with enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in a COR-dependent manner in tomato and Arabidopsis. Consistent with these results, virulent strain DC3000 suppressed the expression of Prx and NTRC in Arabidopsis and tomato during pathogenesis. However, interestingly, authentic COR suppressed the expression of Prx and NTRC in tomato but not in Arabidopsis, suggesting that COR in conjunction with other effectors may modulate ROS and cell death in different host species. Taken together, these results indicated that NTRC or Prx function as a negative regulator of pathogen-induced cell death in the healthy tissues that surround the lesions, and COR-induced chloroplast-localized ROS play a role in enhancing the disease-associated cell death.

  9. Negative Autogenous Control of the Master Type III Secretion System Regulator HrpL in Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Waite, Christopher; Schumacher, Jörg; Jovanovic, Milija; Bennett, Mark; Buck, Martin

    2017-01-24

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a principal virulence determinant of the model bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae T3SS effector proteins inhibit plant defense signaling pathways in susceptible hosts and elicit evolved immunity in resistant plants. The extracytoplasmic function sigma factor HrpL coordinates the expression of most T3SS genes. Transcription of hrpL is dependent on sigma-54 and the codependent enhancer binding proteins HrpR and HrpS for hrpL promoter activation. hrpL is oriented adjacently to and divergently from the HrpL-dependent gene hrpJ, sharing an intergenic upstream regulatory region. We show that association of the RNA polymerase (RNAP)-HrpL complex with the hrpJ promoter element imposes negative autogenous control on hrpL transcription in P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000. The hrpL promoter was upregulated in a ΔhrpL mutant and was repressed by plasmid-borne hrpL In a minimal Escherichia coli background, the activity of HrpL was sufficient to achieve repression of reconstituted hrpL transcription. This repression was relieved if both the HrpL DNA-binding function and the hrp-box sequence of the hrpJ promoter were compromised, implying dependence upon the hrpJ promoter. DNA-bound RNAP-HrpL entirely occluded the HrpRS and partially occluded the integration host factor (IHF) recognition elements of the hrpL promoter in vitro, implicating inhibition of DNA binding by these factors as a cause of negative autogenous control. A modest increase in the HrpL concentration caused hypersecretion of the HrpA1 pilus protein but intracellular accumulation of later T3SS substrates. We argue that negative feedback on HrpL activity fine-tunes expression of the T3SS regulon to minimize the elicitation of plant defenses.

  10. Functional Characterization of the Gene Cluster from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 Involved in Synthesis of Phaseolotoxin▿

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Selene; López-López, Karina; Nieto, Yudith; Garcidueñas-Piña, Rogelio; Hernández-Guzmán, Gustavo; Hernández-Flores, José Luis; Murillo, Jesús; Alvarez-Morales, Ariel

    2007-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola is the causal agent of halo blight disease of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), which is characterized by water-soaked lesions surrounded by a chlorotic halo resulting from the action of a non-host-specific toxin known as phaseolotoxin. This phytotoxin inhibits the enzyme ornithine carbamoyltransferase involved in arginine biosynthesis. Different evidence suggested that genes involved in phaseolotoxin production were clustered. Two genes had been previously identified in our laboratory within this cluster: argK, which is involved in the immunity of the bacterium to its own toxin, and amtA, which is involved in the synthesis of homoarginine. We sequenced the region around argK and amtA in P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 to determine the limits of the putative phaseolotoxin gene cluster and to determine the transcriptional pattern of the genes comprising it. We report that the phaseolotoxin cluster (Pht cluster) is composed of 23 genes and is flanked by insertion sequences and transposases. The mutation of 14 of the genes within the cluster lead to a Tox− phenotype for 11 of them, while three mutants exhibited low levels of toxin production. The analysis of fusions of selected DNA fragments to uidA, Northern probing, and reverse transcription-PCR indicate the presence of five transcriptional units, two monocistronic and three polycistronic; one is internal to a larger operon. The site for transcription initiation has been determined for each promoter, and the putative promoter regions were identified. Preliminary results also indicate that the gene product of phtL is involved in the regulation of the synthesis of phaseolotoxin. PMID:17237165

  11. Functional and Computational Analysis of Amino Acid Patterns Predictive of Type III Secretion System Substrates in Pseudomonas syringae

    PubMed Central

    Schechter, Lisa M.; Valenta, Joy C.; Schneider, David J.; Collmer, Alan; Sakk, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial type III secretion systems (T3SSs) deliver proteins called effectors into eukaryotic cells. Although N-terminal amino acid sequences are required for translocation, the mechanism of substrate recognition by the T3SS is unknown. Almost all actively deployed T3SS substrates in the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato strain DC3000 possess characteristic patterns, including (i) greater than 10% serine within the first 50 amino acids, (ii) an aliphatic residue or proline at position 3 or 4, and (iii) a lack of acidic amino acids within the first 12 residues. Here, the functional significance of the P. syringae T3SS substrate compositional patterns was tested. A mutant AvrPto effector protein lacking all three patterns was secreted into culture and translocated into plant cells, suggesting that the compositional characteristics are not absolutely required for T3SS targeting and that other recognition mechanisms exist. To further analyze the unique properties of T3SS targeting signals, we developed a computational algorithm called TEREE (Type III Effector Relative Entropy Evaluation) that distinguishes DC3000 T3SS substrates from other proteins with a high sensitivity and specificity. Although TEREE did not efficiently identify T3SS substrates in Salmonella enterica, it was effective in another P. syringae strain and Ralstonia solanacearum. Thus, the TEREE algorithm may be a useful tool for identifying new effector genes in plant pathogens. The nature of T3SS targeting signals was additionally investigated by analyzing the N-terminus of FtsX, a putative membrane protein that was classified as a T3SS substrate by TEREE. Although the first 50 amino acids of FtsX were unable to target a reporter protein to the T3SS, an AvrPto protein substituted with the first 12 amino acids of FtsX was translocated into plant cells. These results show that the T3SS targeting signals are highly mutable and that secretion may be directed by multiple features of

  12. Iron-regulated metabolites produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374r are not required for eliciting induced systemic resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Djavaheri, Mohammad; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Versluis, C; Meyer, J-M; Loon, L C; Bakker, Peter A H M

    2012-09-01

    The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374r produces several iron-regulated metabolites, including the fluorescent siderophore pseudobactin (Psb374), salicylic acid (SA), and pseudomonine (Psm), a siderophore that contains a SA moiety. After purification of Psb374 from culture supernatant of WCS374r, its structure was determined following isoelectrofocusing and tandem mass spectrometry, and found to be identical to the fluorescent siderophore produced by P. fluorescens ATCC 13525. To study the role of SA and Psm production in colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana roots and in induced systemic resistance (ISR) against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) by strain WCS374r, mutants disrupted in the production of these metabolites were obtained by homologous recombination. These mutants were further subjected to transposon Tn5 mutagenesis to generate mutants also deficient in Psb374 production. The mutants behaved similar to the wild type in both their Arabidopsis rhizosphere-colonizing capacity and their ability to elicit ISR against Pst. We conclude that Psb374, SA, and Psm production by P. fluorescens WCS374r are not required for eliciting ISR in Arabidopsis.

  13. Silencing and heterologous expression of ppo-2 indicate a specific function of a single polyphenol oxidase isoform in resistance of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato.

    PubMed

    Richter, Carolin; Dirks, Mareike E; Gronover, Christian Schulze; Prüfer, Dirk; Moerschbacher, Bruno M

    2012-02-01

    Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) possesses an unusually high degree of disease resistance. As this plant exhibits high polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and PPO have been implicated in resistance against pests and pathogens, we analyzed the potential involvement of five PPO isoenzymes in the resistance of dandelion against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Only one PPO (ppo-2) was induced during infection, and ppo-2 promoter and β-glucuronidase marker gene fusions revealed strong induction of the gene surrounding lesions induced by B. cinerea. Specific RNAi silencing reduced ppo-2 expression only, and concomitantly increased plant susceptibility to P. syringae pv. tomato. At 4 days postinoculation, P. syringae pv. tomato populations were strongly increased in the ppo-2 RNAi lines compared with wild-type plants. When the dandelion ppo-2 gene was expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, a plant having no PPO gene, active protein was formed and protein extracts of the transgenic plants exhibited substrate-dependent antimicrobial activity against P. syringae pv. tomato. These results clearly indicate a strong contribution of a specific, single PPO isoform to disease resistance. Therefore, we propose that specific PPO isoenzymes be included in a new family of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins.

  14. Elicitation of induced resistance against Pectobacterium carotovorum and Pseudomonas syringae by specific individual compounds derived from native Korean plant species.

    PubMed

    Song, Geun Cheol; Ryu, Shi Yong; Kim, Young Sup; Lee, Ji Young; Choi, Jung Sup; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2013-10-16

    Plants have developed general and specific defense mechanisms for protection against various enemies. Among the general defenses, induced resistance has distinct characteristics, such as broad-spectrum resistance and long-lasting effectiveness. This study evaluated over 500 specific chemical compounds derived from native Korean plant species to determine whether they triggered induced resistance against Pectobacterium carotovorum supsp. carotovorum (Pcc) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) in Arabidopsis thaliana. To select target compound(s) with direct and indirect (volatile) effects, a new Petri-dish-based in vitro disease assay system with four compartments was developed. The screening assay showed that capsaicin, fisetin hydrate, jaceosidin, and farnesiferol A reduced the disease severity significantly in tobacco. Of these four compounds, capsaicin and jaceosidin induced resistance against Pcc and Pst, which depended on both salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling, using Arabidopsis transgenic and mutant lines, including npr1 and NahG for SA signaling and jar1 for JA signaling. The upregulation of the PR2 and PDF1.2 genes after Pst challenge with capsaicin pre-treatment indicated that SA and JA signaling were primed. These results demonstrate that capsaicin and jaceosidin can be effective triggers of strong induced resistance against both necrotrophic and biotrophic plant pathogens.

  15. Decreased abundance of type III secretion system-inducing signals in Arabidopsis mkp1 enhances resistance against Pseudomonas syringae

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jeffrey C.; Wan, Ying; Kim, Young-Mo; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Metz, Thomas O.; Peck, Scott C.

    2014-01-01

    Genes encoding the virulence-promoting type III secretion system (T3SS) in phytopathogenic bacteria are induced at the start of infection, indicating that recognition of signals from the host plant initiates this response. However, the precise nature of these signals and whether their concentrations can be altered to affect the biological outcome of host–pathogen interactions remain speculative. Here we use a metabolomic comparison of resistant and susceptible genotypes to identify plant-derived metabolites that induce T3SS genes in Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 and report that mapk phosphatase 1 (mkp1), an Arabidopsis mutant that is more resistant to bacterial infection, produces decreased levels of these bioactive compounds. Consistent with these observations, T3SS effector expression and delivery by DC3000 was impaired when infecting the mkp1 mutant. The addition of bioactive metabolites fully restored T3SS effector delivery and suppressed the enhanced resistance in the mkp1 mutant. Pretreatment of plants with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) to induce PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) also restricts T3SS effector delivery and enhances resistance by unknown mechanisms, and the addition of the bioactive metabolites similarly suppressed both aspects of PTI. Together, these results demonstrate that DC3000 perceives multiple signals derived from plants to initiate its T3SS and that the level of these host-derived signals impacts bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:24753604

  16. Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopAF1 suppresses plant immunity by targeting methionine recycling to block ethylene induction

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Erica J.; Mukhtar, M. Shahid; Finkel, Omri M.; Wan, Li; Kieber, Joseph J.; Dangl, Jeffery L.

    2016-01-01

    HopAF1 is a type III effector protein of unknown function encoded in the genomes of several strains of Pseudomonas syringae and other plant pathogens. Structural modeling predicted that HopAF1 is closely related to deamidase proteins. Deamidation is the irreversible substitution of an amide group with a carboxylate group. Several bacterial virulence factors are deamidases that manipulate the activity of specific host protein substrates. We identified Arabidopsis methylthioadenosine nucleosidase proteins MTN1 and MTN2 as putative targets of HopAF1 deamidation. MTNs are enzymes in the Yang cycle, which is essential for the high levels of ethylene biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. We hypothesized that HopAF1 inhibits the host defense response by manipulating MTN activity and consequently ethylene levels. We determined that bacterially delivered HopAF1 inhibits ethylene biosynthesis induced by pathogen-associated molecular patterns and that Arabidopsis mtn1 mtn2 mutant plants phenocopy the effect of HopAF1. Furthermore, we identified two conserved asparagines in MTN1 and MTN2 from Arabidopsis that confer loss of function phenotypes when deamidated via site-specific mutation. These residues are potential targets of HopAF1 deamidation. HopAF1-mediated manipulation of Yang cycle MTN proteins is likely an evolutionarily conserved mechanism whereby HopAF1 orthologs from multiple plant pathogens contribute to disease in a large variety of plant hosts. PMID:27274076

  17. The hrp pathogenicity island of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 is induced by plant phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Seung; Ryu, Hye Ryun; Cha, Ji Young; Baik, Hyung Suk

    2015-10-01

    Plants produce a wide array of antimicrobial compounds, such as phenolic compounds, to combat microbial pathogens. The hrp PAI is one of the major virulence factors in the plant pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae. A major role of hrp PAI is to disable the plant defense system during bacterial invasion. We examined the influence of phenolic compounds on hrp PAI gene expression at low and high concentrations. There was approximately 2.5 times more hrpA and hrpZ mRNA in PtoDC3000 that was grown in minimal media (MM) supplemented with 10 -M of ortho-coumaric acid than in PtoDC3000 grown in MM alone. On the other hand, a significantly lower amount of hrpA mRNA was observed in bacteria grown in MM supplemented with a high concentration of phenolic compounds. To determine the regulation pathway for hrp PAI gene expression, we performed qRTPCR using gacS, gacA, and hrpS deletion mutants.

  18. The Identification of Genes Important in Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola Plant Colonisation Using In Vitro Screening of Transposon Libraries.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Bharani; Neale, Helen C; Hancock, John T; Jackson, Robert W; Arnold, Dawn L

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph) colonises the surface of common bean plants before moving into the interior of plant tissue, via wounds and stomata. In the intercellular spaces the pathogen proliferates in the apoplastic fluid and forms microcolonies (biofilms) around plant cells. If the pathogen can suppress the plant's natural resistance response, it will cause halo blight disease. The process of resistance suppression is fairly well understood, but the mechanisms used by the pathogen in colonisation are less clear. We hypothesised that we could apply in vitro genetic screens to look for changes in motility, colony formation, and adhesion, which are proxies for infection, microcolony formation and cell adhesion. We made transposon (Tn) mutant libraries of Pph strains 1448A and 1302A and found 106/1920 mutants exhibited alterations in colony morphology, motility and biofilm formation. Identification of the insertion point of the Tn identified within the genome highlighted, as expected, a number of altered motility mutants bearing mutations in genes encoding various parts of the flagellum. Genes involved in nutrient biosynthesis, membrane associated proteins, and a number of conserved hypothetical protein (CHP) genes were also identified. A mutation of one CHP gene caused a positive increase in in planta bacterial growth. This rapid and inexpensive screening method allows the discovery of genes important for in vitro traits that can be correlated to roles in the plant interaction.

  19. Structural basis for ligand recognition by a Cache chemosensory domain that mediates carboxylate sensing in Pseudomonas syringae

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, Jodi L.; McKellar, James L. O.; Finn, Thomas J.; Newman, Janet; Peat, Thomas S.; Gerth, Monica L.

    2016-01-01

    Chemoreceptors enable bacteria to detect chemical signals in the environment and navigate towards niches that are favourable for survival. The sensor domains of chemoreceptors function as the input modules for chemotaxis systems, and provide sensory specificity by binding specific ligands. Cache-like domains are the most common extracellular sensor module in prokaryotes, however only a handful have been functionally or structurally characterised. Here, we have characterised a chemoreceptor Cache-like sensor domain (PscD-SD) from the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa). High-throughput fluorescence thermal shift assays, combined with isothermal thermal titration calorimetry, revealed that PscD-SD binds specifically to C2 (glycolate and acetate) and C3 (propionate and pyruvate) carboxylates. We solved the structure of PscD-SD in complex with propionate using X-ray crystallography. The structure reveals the key residues that comprise the ligand binding pocket and dictate the specificity of this sensor domain for C2 and C3 carboxylates. We also demonstrate that all four carboxylate ligands are chemoattractants for Psa, but only two of these (acetate and pyruvate) are utilisable carbon sources. This result suggests that in addition to guiding the bacteria towards nutrients, another possible role for carboxylate sensing is in locating potential sites of entry into the host plant. PMID:27734909

  20. Decreased abundance of type III secretion system-inducing signals in Arabidopsis mkp1 enhances resistance against Pseudomonas syringae

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Jeffrey C.; Wan, Ying; Kim, Young-Mo; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Metz, Thomas O.; Peck, Scott C.

    2014-04-21

    Many phytopathogenic bacteria use a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject defense-suppressing effector proteins into host cells. Genes encoding the T3SS are induced at the start of infection, yet host signals that initiate T3SS gene expression are poorly understood. Here we identify several plant-derived metabolites that induce the T3SS in the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. In addition, we report that mkp1 (mapk phosphatase 1), an Arabidopsis mutant that is more resistant to bacterial infection, produces decreased levels of these T3SS-inducing metabolites. Consistent with the observed decrease in these metabolites, T3SS effector delivery by DC3000 was impaired in mkp1. Addition of the bioactive metabolites to the mkp1-DC3000 interaction fully restored T3SS effector delivery and suppressed enhanced resistance in mkp1. Together, these results demonstrate that DC3000 perceives multiple signals derived from plants to initiate their virulence program, and reveal a new layer of molecular communication between plants and these pathogenic bacteria.

  1. Confocal microscopy reveals in planta dynamic interactions between pathogenic, avirulent and non-pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae strains.

    PubMed

    Rufián, José S; Macho, Alberto P; Corry, David S; Mansfield, John; Ruiz-Albert, Javier; Arnold, Dawn; Beuzón, Carmen R

    2017-01-24

    Recent advances in genomics and single-cell analysis have demonstrated the extraordinary complexity that microbial populations may reach within their hosts. Communities range from complex multispecies groups, to homogeneous populations differentiating into lineages through genetic or non-genetic mechanisms. Diversity within bacterial populations is recognised as a key driver of the evolution of animal pathogens. In plants, however, little is known about how interactions between different pathogenic and non-pathogenic variants within the host impacts on defence responses or how presence within a mixture may affect the development or the fate of each variant. Using confocal fluorescence microscopy, we have analysed the colonization of the plant apoplast by individual virulence variants of Pseudomonas syringae within mixed populations. We found that non-pathogenic variants can proliferate and even spread beyond the inoculated area to neighbouring tissues when in close proximity to pathogenic bacteria. The high bacterial concentrations reached at natural entry points promote such interactions during the infection process. We also found that a diversity of interactions take place at a cellular level between virulent and avirulent variants, ranging from dominant negative effects on proliferation of virulent to in trans suppression of defences triggered by avirulent bacteria. Our results illustrate the spatial dynamics and complexity of the interactions found within mixed infections, and their potential impact on pathogen evolution. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. The Identification of Genes Important in Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola Plant Colonisation Using In Vitro Screening of Transposon Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, John T.; Jackson, Robert W.; Arnold, Dawn L.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph) colonises the surface of common bean plants before moving into the interior of plant tissue, via wounds and stomata. In the intercellular spaces the pathogen proliferates in the apoplastic fluid and forms microcolonies (biofilms) around plant cells. If the pathogen can suppress the plant’s natural resistance response, it will cause halo blight disease. The process of resistance suppression is fairly well understood, but the mechanisms used by the pathogen in colonisation are less clear. We hypothesised that we could apply in vitro genetic screens to look for changes in motility, colony formation, and adhesion, which are proxies for infection, microcolony formation and cell adhesion. We made transposon (Tn) mutant libraries of Pph strains 1448A and 1302A and found 106/1920 mutants exhibited alterations in colony morphology, motility and biofilm formation. Identification of the insertion point of the Tn identified within the genome highlighted, as expected, a number of altered motility mutants bearing mutations in genes encoding various parts of the flagellum. Genes involved in nutrient biosynthesis, membrane associated proteins, and a number of conserved hypothetical protein (CHP) genes were also identified. A mutation of one CHP gene caused a positive increase in in planta bacterial growth. This rapid and inexpensive screening method allows the discovery of genes important for in vitro traits that can be correlated to roles in the plant interaction. PMID:26325299

  3. Physical and functional characterization of the gene cluster encoding the polyketide phytotoxin coronatine in Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea.

    PubMed

    Young, S A; Park, S K; Rodgers, C; Mitchell, R E; Bender, C L

    1992-03-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea PG4180 produces the polyketide phytotoxin coronatine. The coronatine synthesis genes in PG4180 were previously shown to reside on a 90-kb plasmid designated p4180A. In the present study, clones containing a 34-kb region of p4180A were saturated with Tn5, and 71 unique mutations were recombined into p4180A by marker exchange. The effect of each mutation on coronatine synthesis was determined by analyzing the organic acids produced by the mutants by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The organic acids of selected mutants were derivatized to their methyl esters and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Mutations in a 20.5-kb region of p4180A completely blocked the synthesis of coronafacic acid and coronatine. Mutations within a 4.4-kb region of p4180A prevented the formation of coronatine but allowed for production of coronafacic acid, coronafacoylvaline, coronafacoylisoleucine, and coronafacoylalloisoleucine. The phenotypes of selected mutants were further confirmed in feeding experiments in which coronafacic acid or coronamic acid was added to the culture media. The results of this study allow us to speculate on the likely sequence of steps in the later stages of coronatine biosynthesis.

  4. Proteomic changes in Actinidia chinensis shoot during systemic infection with a pandemic Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae strain.

    PubMed

    Petriccione, Milena; Di Cecco, Ilaria; Arena, Simona; Scaloni, Andrea; Scortichini, Marco

    2013-01-14

    A pandemic, very aggressive population of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is currently causing severe economic losses to kiwifruit crops worldwide. Upon leaf attack, this Gram-negative bacterium systemically reaches the plant shoot in a week period. In this study, combined 2-DE and nanoLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS procedures were used to describe major proteomic changes in Actinidia chinensis shoot following bacterial inoculation in host leaf. A total of 117 differentially represented protein spots were identified in infected and control shoots. Protein species associated with plant defence, including type-members of the plant basal defence, pathogenesis, oxidative stress and heat shock, or with transport and signalling events, were the most represented category of induced components. Proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism and photosynthesis were also augmented upon infection. In parallel, a bacterial outer membrane polypeptide component was identified in shoot tissues, whose homologues were already linked to bacterial virulence in other eukaryotes. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed expression data for all selected plant gene products. All these data suggest a general reprogramming of shoot metabolism following pathogen systemic infection, highlighting organ-specific differences within the context of a general similarity with respect to other pathosystems. In addition to present preliminary information on the molecular mechanisms regulating this specific plant-microbe interaction, our results will foster future proteomic studies aimed at characterizing the very early events of host colonization, thus promoting the development of novel bioassays for pathogen detection in kiwifruit material.

  5. Genomics-Based Exploration of Virulence Determinants and Host-Specific Adaptations of Pseudomonas syringae Strains Isolated from Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Dudnik, Alexey; Dudler, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The Pseudomonas syringae species complex has recently been named the number one plant pathogen, due to its economic and environmental impacts, as well as for its role in scientific research. The bacterium has been repeatedly reported to cause outbreaks on bean, cucumber, stone fruit, kiwi and olive tree, as well as on other crop and non-crop plants. It also serves as a model organism for research on the Type III secretion system (T3SS) and plant-pathogen interactions. While most of the current work on this pathogen is either carried out on one of three model strains found on dicot plants with completely sequenced genomes or on isolates obtained from recent outbreaks, not much is known about strains isolated from grasses (Poaceae). Here, we use comparative genomics in order to identify putative virulence-associated genes and other Poaceae-specific adaptations in several newly available genome sequences of strains isolated from grass species. All strains possess only a small number of known Type III effectors, therefore pointing to the importance of non-Type III secreted virulence factors. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:25437611

  6. Identification of loci of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae involved in lipolytic activity and their role in colonization of kiwifruit leaves.

    PubMed

    Kumar Patel, Hitendra; Ferrante, Patrizia; Xianfa, Meng; Javvadi, Sree Gowrinadh; Subramoni, Sujatha; Scortichini, Marco; Venturi, Vittorio

    2017-01-23

    Bacterial canker disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), an emerging pathogen of kiwifruit plants, has recently brought about major economic losses worldwide. Genetic studies on virulence functions of Psa have not yet been reported and there is little experimental data regarding bacterial genes involved in pathogenesis. In this study, we performed a genetic screen in order to identify transposon mutants altered in the lipolytic activity as it is known that mechanisms of regulation, production and secretion of enzymes often play crucial roles in virulence of plant pathogens. We aimed to identify the set of secretion and global regulatory loci that control lipolytic activity and also play important roles in in planta fitness. Our screen for altered lipolytic activity phenotype identified a total of 58 Tn5 transposon mutants. Mapping all these Tn5 mutants revealed that the transposons were inserted in genes that play roles in cell division, chemotaxis, metabolism, movement, recombination, regulation, signal transduction, and transport as well as a few unknown functions. Several of these identified Psa Tn5 mutants, notably the functions affected in phosphomannomutase AlgC, lipid A biosynthesis acyltransferase, glutamate--cysteine ligase and the type IV pilus protein PilI, were also found affected in in planta survival and/or growth in kiwifruit plants. The results of the genetic screen and identification of novel loci involved in in planta fitness of Psa are presented and discussed.

  7. Tissue-specific changes of glutamine synthetase activity in oats after rhizosphere infestation by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, T.J.; Temple, S.; Sengupta-Gopalan, C.

    1996-05-15

    Oats (Avena sativa L. lodi) tolerant of rhizosphere infestation by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci when challenged by the pathogen experience tissue-specific alterations of ammonia assimilatory capabilities. Altered ammonia assimilatory potentials between root and leaf tissue result from selective inactivation of glutamine synthetase (GS) by the toxin Tabtoxinine-B-lactam (TBL). Root GS is sensitive and leaf GSs are resistant to TBL inactivation. With prolonged challenge by the pathogen root GS activity decreases but leaf GS specific activity increase. Higher leaf GS activity is due to decreased rates of degradation rather than increased GS synthesis. Higher leaf GS activity and elevated levels of GS polypeptide appear to result from a limited interaction between GS and TBL leading to the accumulation of a less active but more stable GS holoenzyme. Tolerant challenged oats besides surviving rhizosphere infestation, experience enhanced growth. A strong correlation exists between leaf GS activity and whole plant fresh weight, suggesting that tissue-specific changes in ammonia assimilatory capability provides the plant a more efficient mechanism for uptake and utilization of nitrogen.

  8. A Blue Light Inducible Two-Component Signal Transduction System in the Plant Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato☆

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Z.; Buttani, V.; Losi, A.; Gärtner, W.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The open reading frame PSPTO2896 from the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato encodes a protein of 534 amino acids showing all salient features of a blue light-driven two-component system. The N-terminal LOV (light, oxygen, voltage) domain, potentially binding a flavin chromophore, is followed by a histidine kinase (HK) motif and a response regulator (RR). The full-length protein (PST-LOV) and, separately, the RR and the LOV+HK part (PST-LOVΔRR) were heterologously expressed and functionally characterized. The two LOV proteins showed typical LOV-like spectra and photochemical reactions, with the blue light-driven, reversible formation of a covalent flavin-cysteine bond. The fluorescence changes in the lit state of full-length PST-LOV, but not in PST-LOVΔRR, indicating a direct interaction between the LOV core and the RR module. Experiments performed with radioactive ATP uncover the light-driven kinase activity. For both PST-LOV and PST-LOVΔRR, much more radioactivity is incorporated when the protein is in the lit state. Furthermore, addition of the RR domain to the fully phosphorylated PST-LOVΔRR leads to a very fast transfer of radioactivity, indicating a highly efficient HK activity and a tight interaction between PST-LOVΔRR and RR, possibly facilitated by the LOV core itself. PMID:17905842

  9. Variation in extragenic repetitive DNA sequences in Pseudomonas syringae and potential use of modified REP primers in the identification of closely related isolates

    PubMed Central

    Çepni, Elif; Gürel, Filiz

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Pseudomonas syringe pathovars isolated from olive, tomato and bean were identified by species-specific PCR and their genetic diversity was assessed by repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP)-PCR. Reverse universal primers for REP-PCR were designed by using the bases of A, T, G or C at the positions of 1, 4 and 11 to identify additional polymorphism in the banding patterns. Binding of the primers to different annealing sites in the genome revealed additional fingerprint patterns in eight isolates of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi and two isolates of P. syringae pv. tomato. The use of four different bases in the primer sequences did not affect the PCR reproducibility and was very efficient in revealing intra-pathovar diversity, particularly in P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi. At the pathovar level, the primer BOX1AR yielded shared fragments, in addition to five bands that discriminated among the pathovars P. syringae pv. phaseolicola, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi and P. syringae pv. tomato. REP-PCR with a modified primer containing C produced identical bands among the isolates in a pathovar but separated three pathovars more distinctly than four other primers. Although REP- and BOX-PCRs have been successfully used in the molecular identification of Pseudomonas isolates from Turkish flora, a PCR based on inter-enterobacterial repetitive intergenic concensus (ERIC) sequences failed to produce clear banding patterns in this study. PMID:23055805

  10. Pyoverdine and beyond: PvdS dependent gene regulation in Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor PvdS regulates the expression of genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa encoding virulence factors and the biosynthesis and transport of pyoverdine, a siderophore involved in iron acquisition. The production of pyoverdine is a distinctive trait of the fluor...

  11. Negative Autogenous Control of the Master Type III Secretion System Regulator HrpL in Pseudomonas syringae

    PubMed Central

    Waite, Christopher; Schumacher, Jörg; Jovanovic, Milija; Bennett, Mark

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT   The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a principal virulence determinant of the model bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. T3SS effector proteins inhibit plant defense signaling pathways in susceptible hosts and elicit evolved immunity in resistant plants. The extracytoplasmic function sigma factor HrpL coordinates the expression of most T3SS genes. Transcription of hrpL is dependent on sigma-54 and the codependent enhancer binding proteins HrpR and HrpS for hrpL promoter activation. hrpL is oriented adjacently to and divergently from the HrpL-dependent gene hrpJ, sharing an intergenic upstream regulatory region. We show that association of the RNA polymerase (RNAP)-HrpL complex with the hrpJ promoter element imposes negative autogenous control on hrpL transcription in P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000. The hrpL promoter was upregulated in a ΔhrpL mutant and was repressed by plasmid-borne hrpL. In a minimal Escherichia coli background, the activity of HrpL was sufficient to achieve repression of reconstituted hrpL transcription. This repression was relieved if both the HrpL DNA-binding function and the hrp-box sequence of the hrpJ promoter were compromised, implying dependence upon the hrpJ promoter. DNA-bound RNAP-HrpL entirely occluded the HrpRS and partially occluded the integration host factor (IHF) recognition elements of the hrpL promoter in vitro, implicating inhibition of DNA binding by these factors as a cause of negative autogenous control. A modest increase in the HrpL concentration caused hypersecretion of the HrpA1 pilus protein but intracellular accumulation of later T3SS substrates. We argue that negative feedback on HrpL activity fine-tunes expression of the T3SS regulon to minimize the elicitation of plant defenses. PMID:28119474

  12. Biological activities of pseudomycin A, a lipodepsinonapeptide from Pseudomonas syringae MSU 16H.

    PubMed

    Di Giorgio, D; Camoni, L; Marchiafava, C; Ballio, A

    1997-08-01

    Similarly to other Pseudomonas lipodepsinonapeptides, pseudomycin A inhibits proton extrusion from maize roots, promotes closure of stomata in Vicia faba, necrosis of tobacco leaves, haemolysis of human erythrocytes, affects H(+)-ATPase activity and proton translocation in plasma membrane vesicles, and stimulates succinate respiration in pea mitochondria. In general, the biological activities of pseudomycin A are lower than those of syringomycin-E, the prototype member of this family of bacterial metabolities. This difference might depend on the diverse number and distribution of charged residues in the peptide moiety of these compounds.

  13. Impaired Chloroplast Biogenesis in Immutans, an Arabidopsis Variegation Mutant, Modifies Developmental Programming, Cell Wall Composition and Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae

    PubMed Central

    Pogorelko, Gennady V.; Kambakam, Sekhar; Nolan, Trevor; Foudree, Andrew; Zabotina, Olga A.; Rodermel, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    The immutans (im) variegation mutation of Arabidopsis has green- and white- sectored leaves due to action of a nuclear recessive gene. IM codes for PTOX, a plastoquinol oxidase in plastid membranes. Previous studies have revealed that the green and white sectors develop into sources (green tissues) and sinks (white tissues) early in leaf development. In this report we focus on white sectors, and show that their transformation into effective sinks involves a sharp reduction in plastid number and size. Despite these reductions, cells in the white sectors have near-normal amounts of plastid RNA and protein, and surprisingly, a marked amplification of chloroplast DNA. The maintenance of protein synthesis capacity in the white sectors might poise plastids for their development into other plastid types. The green and white im sectors have different cell wall compositions: whereas cell walls in the green sectors resemble those in wild type, cell walls in the white sectors have reduced lignin and cellulose microfibrils, as well as alterations in galactomannans and the decoration of xyloglucan. These changes promote susceptibility to the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Enhanced susceptibility can also be explained by repressed expression of some, but not all, defense genes. We suggest that differences in morphology, physiology and biochemistry between the green and white sectors is caused by a reprogramming of leaf development that is coordinated, in part, by mechanisms of retrograde (plastid-to-nucleus) signaling, perhaps mediated by ROS. We conclude that variegation mutants offer a novel system to study leaf developmental programming, cell wall metabolism and host-pathogen interactions. PMID:27050746

  14. Protection of Arabidopsis thaliana against leaf-pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae by Sphingomonas strains in a controlled model system.

    PubMed

    Innerebner, Gerd; Knief, Claudia; Vorholt, Julia A

    2011-05-01

    Diverse bacterial taxa live in association with plants without causing deleterious effects. Previous analyses of phyllosphere communities revealed the predominance of few bacterial genera on healthy dicotyl plants, provoking the question of whether these commensals play a particular role in plant protection. Here, we tested two of them, Methylobacterium and Sphingomonas, with respect to their ability to diminish disease symptom formation and the proliferation of the foliar plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 on Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants were grown under gnotobiotic conditions in the absence or presence of the potential antagonists and then challenged with the pathogen. No effect of Methylobacterium strains on disease development was observed. However, members of the genus Sphingomonas showed a striking plant-protective effect by suppressing disease symptoms and diminishing pathogen growth. A survey of different Sphingomonas strains revealed that most plant isolates protected A. thaliana plants from developing severe disease symptoms. This was not true for Sphingomonas strains isolated from air, dust, or water, even when they reached cell densities in the phyllosphere comparable to those of the plant isolates. This suggests that plant protection is common among plant-colonizing Sphingomonas spp. but is not a general trait conserved within the genus Sphingomonas. The carbon source profiling of representative isolates revealed differences between protecting and nonprotecting strains, suggesting that substrate competition plays a role in plant protection by Sphingomonas. However, other mechanisms cannot be excluded at this time. In conclusion, the ability to protect plants as shown here in a model system may be an unexplored, common trait of indigenous Sphingomonas spp. and may be of relevance under natural conditions.

  15. Genomic and Gene-Expression Comparisons among Phage-Resistant Type-IV Pilus Mutants of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar phaseolicola

    PubMed Central

    Sistrom, Mark; Park, Derek; O’Brien, Heath E.; Wang, Zheng; Guttman, David S.; Townsend, Jeffrey P.; Turner, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph) is a significant bacterial pathogen of agricultural crops, and phage Φ6 and other members of the dsRNA virus family Cystoviridae undergo lytic (virulent) infection of Pph, using the type IV pilus as the initial site of cellular attachment. Despite the popularity of Pph/phage Φ6 as a model system in evolutionary biology, Pph resistance to phage Φ6 remains poorly characterized. To investigate differences between phage Φ6 resistant Pph strains, we examined genomic and gene expression variation among three bacterial genotypes that differ in the number of type IV pili expressed per cell: ordinary (wild-type), non-piliated, and super-piliated. Genome sequencing of non-piliated and super-piliated Pph identified few mutations that separate these genotypes from wild type Pph–and none present in genes known to be directly involved in type IV pilus expression. Expression analysis revealed that 81.1% of gene ontology (GO) terms up-regulated in the non-piliated strain were down-regulated in the super-piliated strain. This differential expression is particularly prevalent in genes associated with respiration—specifically genes in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle, aerobic respiration, and acetyl-CoA metabolism. The expression patterns of the TCA pathway appear to be generally up and down-regulated, in non-piliated and super-piliated Pph respectively. As pilus retraction is mediated by an ATP motor, loss of retraction ability might lead to a lower energy draw on the bacterial cell, leading to a different energy balance than wild type. The lower metabolic rate of the super-piliated strain is potentially a result of its loss of ability to retract. PMID:26670219

  16. The Plant Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Is Genetically Monomorphic and under Strong Selection to Evade Tomato Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shuangchun; Liu, Haijie; Clarke, Christopher R.; Campanile, Francesco; Almeida, Nalvo F.; Studholme, David J.; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Schneider, David; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Setubal, Joao C.; Morales-Lizcano, Nadia P.; Bernal, Adriana; Coaker, Gitta; Baker, Christy; Bender, Carol L.; Leman, Scotland; Vinatzer, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, genome sequencing of many isolates of genetically monomorphic bacterial human pathogens has given new insights into pathogen microevolution and phylogeography. Here, we report a genome-based micro-evolutionary study of a bacterial plant pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Only 267 mutations were identified between five sequenced isolates in 3,543,009 nt of analyzed genome sequence, which suggests a recent evolutionary origin of this pathogen. Further analysis with genome-derived markers of 89 world-wide isolates showed that several genotypes exist in North America and in Europe indicating frequent pathogen movement between these world regions. Genome-derived markers and molecular analyses of key pathogen loci important for virulence and motility both suggest ongoing adaptation to the tomato host. A mutational hotspot was found in the type III-secreted effector gene hopM1. These mutations abolish the cell death triggering activity of the full-length protein indicating strong selection for loss of function of this effector, which was previously considered a virulence factor. Two non-synonymous mutations in the flagellin-encoding gene fliC allowed identifying a new microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP) in a region distinct from the known MAMP flg22. Interestingly, the ancestral allele of this MAMP induces a stronger tomato immune response than the derived alleles. The ancestral allele has largely disappeared from today's Pto populations suggesting that flagellin-triggered immunity limits pathogen fitness even in highly virulent pathogens. An additional non-synonymous mutation was identified in flg22 in South American isolates. Therefore, MAMPs are more variable than expected differing even between otherwise almost identical isolates of the same pathogen strain. PMID:21901088

  17. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA) isolates from recent bacterial canker of kiwifruit outbreaks belong to the same genetic lineage.

    PubMed

    Mazzaglia, Angelo; Studholme, David J; Taratufolo, Maria C; Cai, Rongman; Almeida, Nalvo F; Goodman, Tokia; Guttman, David S; Vinatzer, Boris A; Balestra, Giorgio M

    2012-01-01

    Intercontinental spread of emerging plant diseases is one of the most serious threats to world agriculture. One emerging disease is bacterial canker of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa and A. chinensis) caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA). The disease first occurred in China and Japan in the 1980s and in Korea and Italy in the 1990s. A more severe form of the disease broke out in Italy in 2008 and in additional countries in 2010 and 2011 threatening the viability of the global kiwi fruit industry. To start investigating the source and routes of international transmission of PSA, genomes of strains from China (the country of origin of the genus Actinidia), Japan, Korea, Italy and Portugal have been sequenced. Strains from China, Italy, and Portugal have been found to belong to the same clonal lineage with only 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3,453,192 bp and one genomic island distinguishing the Chinese strains from the European strains. Not more than two SNPs distinguish each of the Italian and Portuguese strains from each other. The Japanese and Korean strains belong to a separate genetic lineage as previously reported. Analysis of additional European isolates and of New Zealand isolates exploiting genome-derived markers showed that these strains belong to the same lineage as the Italian and Chinese strains. Interestingly, the analyzed New Zealand strains are identical to European strains at the tested SNP loci but test positive for the genomic island present in the sequenced Chinese strains and negative for the genomic island present in the European strains. Results are interpreted in regard to the possible direction of movement of the pathogen between countries and suggest a possible Chinese origin of the European and New Zealand outbreaks.

  18. The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato is genetically monomorphic and under strong selection to evade tomato immunity.

    PubMed

    Cai, Rongman; Lewis, James; Yan, Shuangchun; Liu, Haijie; Clarke, Christopher R; Campanile, Francesco; Almeida, Nalvo F; Studholme, David J; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Schneider, David; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Setubal, Joao C; Morales-Lizcano, Nadia P; Bernal, Adriana; Coaker, Gitta; Baker, Christy; Bender, Carol L; Leman, Scotland; Vinatzer, Boris A

    2011-08-01

    Recently, genome sequencing of many isolates of genetically monomorphic bacterial human pathogens has given new insights into pathogen microevolution and phylogeography. Here, we report a genome-based micro-evolutionary study of a bacterial plant pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Only 267 mutations were identified between five sequenced isolates in 3,543,009 nt of analyzed genome sequence, which suggests a recent evolutionary origin of this pathogen. Further analysis with genome-derived markers of 89 world-wide isolates showed that several genotypes exist in North America and in Europe indicating frequent pathogen movement between these world regions. Genome-derived markers and molecular analyses of key pathogen loci important for virulence and motility both suggest ongoing adaptation to the tomato host. A mutational hotspot was found in the type III-secreted effector gene hopM1. These mutations abolish the cell death triggering activity of the full-length protein indicating strong selection for loss of function of this effector, which was previously considered a virulence factor. Two non-synonymous mutations in the flagellin-encoding gene fliC allowed identifying a new microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP) in a region distinct from the known MAMP flg22. Interestingly, the ancestral allele of this MAMP induces a stronger tomato immune response than the derived alleles. The ancestral allele has largely disappeared from today's Pto populations suggesting that flagellin-triggered immunity limits pathogen fitness even in highly virulent pathogens. An additional non-synonymous mutation was identified in flg22 in South American isolates. Therefore, MAMPs are more variable than expected differing even between otherwise almost identical isolates of the same pathogen strain.

  19. Allelic variation in two distinct Pseudomonas syringae flagellin epitopes modulates the strength of plant immune responses but not bacterial motility

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Christopher R.; Chinchilla, Delphine; Hind, Sarah R.; Taguchi, Fumiko; Miki, Ryuji; Ichinose, Yuki; Martin, Gregory B.; Leman, Scotland; Felix, Georg; Vinatzer, Boris A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The bacterial flagellin (FliC) epitopes flg22 and flgII-28 are microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). While flg22 is recognized by many plant species via the pattern recognition receptor FLS2, neither the flgII-28 receptor nor the extent of flgII-28 recognition by different plant families is known.Here we tested the significance of flgII-28 as a MAMP and the importance of allelic diversity in flg22 and flgII-28 in plant–pathogen interactions using purified peptides and a Pseudomonas syringae ΔfliC mutant complemented with different fliC alleles.Plant genotype and allelic diversity in flg22 and flgII-28 were found to significantly affect the plant immune response but not bacterial motility. Recognition of flgII-28 is restricted to a number of Solanaceous species. While the flgII-28 peptide does not trigger any immune response in Arabidopsis, mutations in both flg22 and flgII-28 have FLS2-dependent effects on virulence. However, expression of a tomato allele of FLS2 does not confer to Nicotiana benthamiana the ability to detect flgII-28 and tomato plants silenced for FLS2 are not altered in flgII-28 recognition.Therefore, MAMP diversification is an effective pathogen virulence strategy and flgII-28 appears to be perceived by a yet unidentified receptor in the Solanaceae although it has an FLS2-dependent virulence effect in Arabidopsis. PMID:23865782

  20. Impaired Chloroplast Biogenesis in Immutans, an Arabidopsis Variegation Mutant, Modifies Developmental Programming, Cell Wall Composition and Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae

    DOE PAGES

    Pogorelko, Gennady V.; Kambakam, Sekhar; Nolan, Trevor; ...

    2016-04-06

    The immutans (im) variegation mutation of Arabidopsis has green- and white- sectored leaves due to action of a nuclear recessive gene. IM codes for PTOX, a plastoquinol oxidase in plastid membranes. Previous studies have revealed that the green and white sectors develop into sources (green tissues) and sinks (white tissues) early in leaf development. In this report we focus on white sectors, and show that their transformation into effective sinks involves a sharp reduction in plastid number and size. Despite these reductions, cells in the white sectors have near-normal amounts of plastid RNA and protein, and surprisingly, a marked amplificationmore » of chloroplast DNA. The maintenance of protein synthesis capacity in the white sectors might poise plastids for their development into other plastid types. The green and white im sectors have different cell wall compositions: whereas cell walls in the green sectors resemble those in wild type, cell walls in the white sectors have reduced lignin and cellulose microfibrils, as well as alterations in galactomannans and the decoration of xyloglucan. These changes promote susceptibility to the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Enhanced susceptibility can also be explained by repressed expression of some, but not all, defense genes. We suggest that differences in morphology, physiology and biochemistry between the green and white sectors is caused by a reprogramming of leaf development that is coordinated, in part, by mechanisms of retrograde (plastid-tonucleus) signaling, perhaps mediated by ROS. Lastly, we conclude that variegation mutants offer a novel system to study leaf developmental programming, cell wall metabolism and hostpathogen interactions.« less

  1. Impaired Chloroplast Biogenesis in Immutans, an Arabidopsis Variegation Mutant, Modifies Developmental Programming, Cell Wall Composition and Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae

    SciTech Connect

    Pogorelko, Gennady V.; Kambakam, Sekhar; Nolan, Trevor; Foudree, Andrew; Zabotina, Olga A.; Rodermel, Steven R.

    2016-04-06

    The immutans (im) variegation mutation of Arabidopsis has green- and white- sectored leaves due to action of a nuclear recessive gene. IM codes for PTOX, a plastoquinol oxidase in plastid membranes. Previous studies have revealed that the green and white sectors develop into sources (green tissues) and sinks (white tissues) early in leaf development. In this report we focus on white sectors, and show that their transformation into effective sinks involves a sharp reduction in plastid number and size. Despite these reductions, cells in the white sectors have near-normal amounts of plastid RNA and protein, and surprisingly, a marked amplification of chloroplast DNA. The maintenance of protein synthesis capacity in the white sectors might poise plastids for their development into other plastid types. The green and white im sectors have different cell wall compositions: whereas cell walls in the green sectors resemble those in wild type, cell walls in the white sectors have reduced lignin and cellulose microfibrils, as well as alterations in galactomannans and the decoration of xyloglucan. These changes promote susceptibility to the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Enhanced susceptibility can also be explained by repressed expression of some, but not all, defense genes. We suggest that differences in morphology, physiology and biochemistry between the green and white sectors is caused by a reprogramming of leaf development that is coordinated, in part, by mechanisms of retrograde (plastid-tonucleus) signaling, perhaps mediated by ROS. Lastly, we conclude that variegation mutants offer a novel system to study leaf developmental programming, cell wall metabolism and hostpathogen interactions.

  2. An in vitro study of the anti-biofilm properties of proanthocyanidin and chitosan in Pseudomonas syringae pv. papulans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kai

    Biofilm-forming bacteria are a form of planktonic microorganisms that can become resistant against conventional antibiotics. Because they are difficult to eradicate, biofilm-forming bacteria are extremely problematic for the medical industry areas. Thus, materials that can distort biofilm structure would be helpful for eliminating chronic infection and decreasing bacterial resistance. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the anti-biofilm effect of two bio-derived substances, proanthocyanidin and chitosan. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that are reported to have antibiotic and antioxidant functions. Chitosan (poly [beta-(1, 4)-amino-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucose]) is a deacetylated derivative of chitin, which is abundant in the exoskeleton of crustaceans and insects. It is reported to be a suitable substitute for conventional fungicides and can enhance the proanthocyanidin content in plants when used as an agrochemical. Chitosan-tripolyphosphate (TPP) nanoparticles, which have good neutral water solubility and are nanoscale in size, can be used as carriers for gene and drug therapy and are thus favorable to be tested as a treatment method against bacterial biofilms. In this study, the anti-biofilm and antibacterial properties of proanthocyanidin, chitosan-TPP nanoparticles and proanthocyanidins-loaded chitosan-TPP nanoparticles were tested using the model plant bacterium, Pseudomonas syringae pv. papulans (Psp), a pathogen isolated from infected apples. At a lower concentration (1 mg/mL and 2.5 mg/mL), both chitosan nanoparticles and proanthocyanidins can postpone the formation of biofilms and eventually disrupted part of the biofilm. While higher concentration (above 5 mg/mL) of chitosan nanoparticles or proanthocyanidins can eliminate most of the biofilm in this study. PAC-loaded chitosan nanoparticles also can also distort biofilms. Both proanthocyanidins and chitosan-TPP nanoparticle showed a mild antibacterial property. PAC

  3. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae draft genomes comparison reveal strain-specific features involved in adaptation and virulence to Actinidia species.

    PubMed

    Marcelletti, Simone; Ferrante, Patrizia; Petriccione, Milena; Firrao, Giuseppe; Scortichini, Marco

    2011-01-01

    A recent re-emerging bacterial canker disease incited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is causing severe economic losses to Actinidia chinensis and A. deliciosa cultivations in southern Europe, New Zealand, Chile and South Korea. Little is known about the genetic features of this pathovar. We generated genome-wide Illumina sequence data from two Psa strains causing outbreaks of bacterial canker on the A. deliciosa cv. Hayward in Japan (J-Psa, type-strain of the pathovar) and in Italy (I-Psa) in 1984 and 1992, respectively as well as from a Psa strain (I2-Psa) isolated at the beginning of the recent epidemic on A. chinensis cv. Hort16A in Italy. All strains were isolated from typical leaf spot symptoms. The phylogenetic relationships revealed that Psa is more closely related to P. s. pv. theae than to P. avellanae within genomospecies 8. Comparative genomic analyses revealed both relevant intrapathovar variations and putative pathovar-specific genomic regions in Psa. The genomic sequences of J-Psa and I-Psa were very similar. Conversely, the I2-Psa genome encodes four additional effector protein genes, lacks a 50 kb plasmid and the phaseolotoxin gene cluster, argK-tox but has acquired a 160 kb plasmid and putative prophage sequences. Several lines of evidence from the analysis of the genome sequences support the hypothesis that this strain did not evolve from the Psa population that caused the epidemics in 1984-1992 in Japan and Italy but rather is the product of a recent independent evolution of the pathovar actinidiae for infecting Actinidia spp. All Psa strains share the genetic potential for copper resistance, antibiotic detoxification, high affinity iron acquisition and detoxification of nitric oxide of plant origin. Similar to other sequenced phytopathogenic pseudomonads associated with woody plant species, the Psa strains isolated from leaves also display a set of genes involved in the catabolism of plant-derived aromatic compounds.

  4. Localization of hydrogen peroxide accumulation during the hypersensitive reaction of lettuce cells to Pseudomonas syringae pv phaseolicola.

    PubMed

    Bestwick, C S; Brown, I R; Bennett, M H; Mansfield, J W

    1997-02-01

    The active oxygen species hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was detected cytochemically by its reaction with cerium chloride to produce electron-dense deposits of cerium perhydroxides. In uninoculated lettuce leaves, H2O2 was typically present within the secondary thickened walls of xylem vessels. Inoculation with wild-type cells of Pseudomonas syringae pv phaseolicola caused a rapid hypersensitive reaction (HR) during which highly localized accumulation of H2O2 was found in plant cell walls adjacent to attached bacteria. Quantitative analysis indicated a prolonged burst of H2O2 occurring between 5 to 8 hr after inoculation in cells undergoing the HR during this example of non-host resistance. Cell wall alterations and papilla deposition, which occurred in response to both the wild-type strain and a nonpathogenic hrpD mutant, were not associated with intense staining for H2O2, unless the responding cell was undergoing the HR. Catalase treatment to decompose H2O2 almost entirely eliminated staining, but 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (catalase inhibitor) did not affect the pattern of distribution of H2O2 detected. H2O2 production was reduced more by the inhibition of plant peroxidases (with potassium cyanide and sodium azide) than by inhibition of neutrophil-like NADPH oxidase (with diphenylene iodonium chloride). Results suggest that CeCl3 reacts with excess H2O2 that is not rapidly metabolized during cross-linking reactions occurring in cell walls; such an excess of H2O2 in the early stages of the plant-bacterium interaction was only produced during the HR. The highly localized accumulation of H2O2 is consistent with its direct role as an antimicrobial agent and as the cause of localized membrane damage at sites of bacterial attachment.

  5. Light Suppresses Bacterial Population through the Accumulation of Hydrogen Peroxide in Tobacco Leaves Infected with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Dan-Dan; Liu, Mei-Jun; Sun, Xing-Bin; Zhao, Min; Chow, Wah S.; Sun, Guang-Yu; Zhang, Zi-Shan; Hu, Yan-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci (Pst) is a hemibiotrophic bacterial pathogen responsible for tobacco wildfire disease. Although considerable research has been conducted on the tobacco plant’s tolerance to Pst, the role of light in the responses of the photosystems to Pst infection is poorly understood. This study aimed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the reduced photosystem damage in tobacco leaves due to Pst infection under light conditions. Compared to dark conditions, Pst infection under light conditions resulted in less chlorophyll degradation and a smaller decline in photosynthetic function. Although the maximal quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) and the activity of the photosystem I (PSI) complex decreased as Pst infection progressed, damage to PSI and PSII after infection was reduced under light conditions compared to dark conditions. Pst was 17-fold more abundant in tobacco leaves under dark compared to light conditions at 3 days post inoculation (dpi). Additionally, H2O2 accumulated to a high level in tobacco leaves after Pst infection under light conditions; although to a lesser extent, H2O2 accumulation was also significant under dark conditions. Pretreatment with H2O2 alleviated chlorotic lesions and decreased Pst abundance in tobacco leaves at 3 dpi under dark conditions. MV pretreatment had the same effects under light conditions, whereas 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea pretreatment aggravated chlorotic lesions and increased the Pst population. These results indicate that chlorotic symptoms and the size of the bacterial population are each negatively correlated with H2O2 accumulation. In other words, light appears to suppress the Pst population in tobacco leaves through the accumulation of H2O2 during infection. PMID:27148334

  6. Outbreak and Spread of Bacterial Canker of Kiwifruit Caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Biovar 3 in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gyoung Hee; Kim, Kwang-Hyung; Son, Kyeong In; Choi, Eu Ddeum; Lee, Young Sun; Jung, Jae Sung; Koh, Young Jin

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), is a causal agent of kiwifruit bacterial canker worldwide. Psa biovar 3 (Psa3) was first detected in 2011 at an orchard in Dodeok-myeon, Goheunggun, Jeonnam Province in Korea. In this study, we present the results of an epidemiological study regarding Psa3 occurrence on kiwifruit orchards in Korea for the period of 2013 to 2015. Since the first detection of Psa3 in 2011, there was no further case reported by 2013. However, Psa3 was rapidly spreading to 33 orchards in 2014; except for three orchards in Sacheonsi, Gyeongnam Province, most cases were reported in Jeju Island. Entering 2015, bacterial canker by Psa3 became a pandemic in Korea, spreading to 72 orchards in Jeju Island, Jeonnam, and Gyeongnam Provinces. Our epidemiological study indicated that the first Psa3 incidence in 2011 might result from an introduction of Psa3 through imported seedlings from China in 2006. Apart from this, it was estimated that most Psa3 outbreaks from 2014 to 2015 were caused by pollens imported from New Zealand and China for artificial pollination. Most kiwifruit cultivars growing in Korea were infected with Psa3; yellow-fleshed cultivars (Yellow-king, Hort16A, Enza-gold, Zecy-gold, and Haegeum), red-fleshed cultivars (Hongyang and Enza-Red), green-fleshed cultivars (Hayward and Daeheung), and even a kiwiberry (Skinny-green). However, susceptibility to canker differed among cultivars; yellow- and red-fleshed cultivars showed much more severe symptoms compared to the green-fleshed cultivars of kiwifruit and a kiwiberry. PMID:27904461

  7. Comparative genomics of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato reveals novel chemotaxis pathways associated with motility and plant pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Christopher R; Hayes, Byron W; Runde, Brendan J; Markel, Eric; Swingle, Bryan M; Vinatzer, Boris A

    2016-01-01

    The majority of bacterial foliar plant pathogens must invade the apoplast of host plants through points of ingress, such as stomata or wounds, to replicate to high population density and cause disease. How pathogens navigate plant surfaces to locate invasion sites remains poorly understood. Many bacteria use chemical-directed regulation of flagellar rotation, a process known as chemotaxis, to move towards favorable environmental conditions. Chemotactic sensing of the plant surface is a potential mechanism through which foliar plant pathogens home in on wounds or stomata, but chemotactic systems in foliar plant pathogens are not well characterized. Comparative genomics of the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pto) implicated annotated chemotaxis genes in the recent adaptations of one Pto lineage. We therefore characterized the chemosensory system of Pto. The Pto genome contains two primary chemotaxis gene clusters, che1 and che2. The che2 cluster is flanked by flagellar biosynthesis genes and similar to the canonical chemotaxis gene clusters of other bacteria based on sequence and synteny. Disruption of the primary phosphorelay kinase gene of the che2 cluster, cheA2, eliminated all swimming and surface motility at 21 °C but not 28 °C for Pto. The che1 cluster is located next to Type IV pili biosynthesis genes but disruption of cheA1 has no observable effect on twitching motility for Pto. Disruption of cheA2 also alters in planta fitness of the pathogen with strains lacking functional cheA2 being less fit in host plants but more fit in a non-host interaction.

  8. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA) Isolates from Recent Bacterial Canker of Kiwifruit Outbreaks Belong to the Same Genetic Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Taratufolo, Maria C.; Cai, Rongman; Almeida, Nalvo F.; Goodman, Tokia; Guttman, David S.; Vinatzer, Boris A.; Balestra, Giorgio M.

    2012-01-01

    Intercontinental spread of emerging plant diseases is one of the most serious threats to world agriculture. One emerging disease is bacterial canker of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa and A. chinensis) caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA). The disease first occurred in China and Japan in the 1980s and in Korea and Italy in the 1990s. A more severe form of the disease broke out in Italy in 2008 and in additional countries in 2010 and 2011 threatening the viability of the global kiwi fruit industry. To start investigating the source and routes of international transmission of PSA, genomes of strains from China (the country of origin of the genus Actinidia), Japan, Korea, Italy and Portugal have been sequenced. Strains from China, Italy, and Portugal have been found to belong to the same clonal lineage with only 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3,453,192 bp and one genomic island distinguishing the Chinese strains from the European strains. Not more than two SNPs distinguish each of the Italian and Portuguese strains from each other. The Japanese and Korean strains belong to a separate genetic lineage as previously reported. Analysis of additional European isolates and of New Zealand isolates exploiting genome-derived markers showed that these strains belong to the same lineage as the Italian and Chinese strains. Interestingly, the analyzed New Zealand strains are identical to European strains at the tested SNP loci but test positive for the genomic island present in the sequenced Chinese strains and negative for the genomic island present in the European strains. Results are interpreted in regard to the possible direction of movement of the pathogen between countries and suggest a possible Chinese origin of the European and New Zealand outbreaks. PMID:22590555

  9. Impaired Chloroplast Biogenesis in Immutans, an Arabidopsis Variegation Mutant, Modifies Developmental Programming, Cell Wall Composition and Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Pogorelko, Gennady V; Kambakam, Sekhar; Nolan, Trevor; Foudree, Andrew; Zabotina, Olga A; Rodermel, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    The immutans (im) variegation mutation of Arabidopsis has green- and white- sectored leaves due to action of a nuclear recessive gene. IM codes for PTOX, a plastoquinol oxidase in plastid membranes. Previous studies have revealed that the green and white sectors develop into sources (green tissues) and sinks (white tissues) early in leaf development. In this report we focus on white sectors, and show that their transformation into effective sinks involves a sharp reduction in plastid number and size. Despite these reductions, cells in the white sectors have near-normal amounts of plastid RNA and protein, and surprisingly, a marked amplification of chloroplast DNA. The maintenance of protein synthesis capacity in the white sectors might poise plastids for their development into other plastid types. The green and white im sectors have different cell wall compositions: whereas cell walls in the green sectors resemble those in wild type, cell walls in the white sectors have reduced lignin and cellulose microfibrils, as well as alterations in galactomannans and the decoration of xyloglucan. These changes promote susceptibility to the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Enhanced susceptibility can also be explained by repressed expression of some, but not all, defense genes. We suggest that differences in morphology, physiology and biochemistry between the green and white sectors is caused by a reprogramming of leaf development that is coordinated, in part, by mechanisms of retrograde (plastid-to-nucleus) signaling, perhaps mediated by ROS. We conclude that variegation mutants offer a novel system to study leaf developmental programming, cell wall metabolism and host-pathogen interactions.

  10. Comparative genomics of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato reveals novel chemotaxis pathways associated with motility and plant pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Byron W.; Runde, Brendan J.; Markel, Eric; Swingle, Bryan M.; Vinatzer, Boris A.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of bacterial foliar plant pathogens must invade the apoplast of host plants through points of ingress, such as stomata or wounds, to replicate to high population density and cause disease. How pathogens navigate plant surfaces to locate invasion sites remains poorly understood. Many bacteria use chemical-directed regulation of flagellar rotation, a process known as chemotaxis, to move towards favorable environmental conditions. Chemotactic sensing of the plant surface is a potential mechanism through which foliar plant pathogens home in on wounds or stomata, but chemotactic systems in foliar plant pathogens are not well characterized. Comparative genomics of the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pto) implicated annotated chemotaxis genes in the recent adaptations of one Pto lineage. We therefore characterized the chemosensory system of Pto. The Pto genome contains two primary chemotaxis gene clusters, che1 and che2. The che2 cluster is flanked by flagellar biosynthesis genes and similar to the canonical chemotaxis gene clusters of other bacteria based on sequence and synteny. Disruption of the primary phosphorelay kinase gene of the che2 cluster, cheA2, eliminated all swimming and surface motility at 21 °C but not 28 °C for Pto. The che1 cluster is located next to Type IV pili biosynthesis genes but disruption of cheA1 has no observable effect on twitching motility for Pto. Disruption of cheA2 also alters in planta fitness of the pathogen with strains lacking functional cheA2 being less fit in host plants but more fit in a non-host interaction. PMID:27812402

  11. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Draft Genomes Comparison Reveal Strain-Specific Features Involved in Adaptation and Virulence to Actinidia Species

    PubMed Central

    Marcelletti, Simone; Ferrante, Patrizia; Petriccione, Milena; Firrao, Giuseppe; Scortichini, Marco

    2011-01-01

    A recent re-emerging bacterial canker disease incited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is causing severe economic losses to Actinidia chinensis and A. deliciosa cultivations in southern Europe, New Zealand, Chile and South Korea. Little is known about the genetic features of this pathovar. We generated genome-wide Illumina sequence data from two Psa strains causing outbreaks of bacterial canker on the A. deliciosa cv. Hayward in Japan (J-Psa, type-strain of the pathovar) and in Italy (I-Psa) in 1984 and 1992, respectively as well as from a Psa strain (I2-Psa) isolated at the beginning of the recent epidemic on A. chinensis cv. Hort16A in Italy. All strains were isolated from typical leaf spot symptoms. The phylogenetic relationships revealed that Psa is more closely related to P. s. pv. theae than to P. avellanae within genomospecies 8. Comparative genomic analyses revealed both relevant intrapathovar variations and putative pathovar-specific genomic regions in Psa. The genomic sequences of J-Psa and I-Psa were very similar. Conversely, the I2-Psa genome encodes four additional effector protein genes, lacks a 50 kb plasmid and the phaseolotoxin gene cluster, argK-tox but has acquired a 160 kb plasmid and putative prophage sequences. Several lines of evidence from the analysis of the genome sequences support the hypothesis that this strain did not evolve from the Psa population that caused the epidemics in 1984–1992 in Japan and Italy but rather is the product of a recent independent evolution of the pathovar actinidiae for infecting Actinidia spp. All Psa strains share the genetic potential for copper resistance, antibiotic detoxification, high affinity iron acquisition and detoxification of nitric oxide of plant origin. Similar to other sequenced phytopathogenic pseudomonads associated with woody plant species, the Psa strains isolated from leaves also display a set of genes involved in the catabolism of plant-derived aromatic compounds. PMID

  12. Transcriptional profile of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 in response to tissue extracts from a susceptible Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola is a Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacterium that causes "halo blight" disease of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). This disease affects both foliage and pods, and is a major problem in temperate areas of the world. Although several bacterial genes have been determined as participants in pathogenesis, the overall process still remains poorly understood, mainly because the identity and function of many of the genes are largely unknown. In this work, a genomic library of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 was constructed and PCR amplification of individual fragments was carried out in order to print a DNA microarray. This microarray was used to identify genes that are differentially expressed when bean leaf extracts, pod extracts or apoplastic fluid were added to the growth medium. Results Transcription profiles show that 224 genes were differentially expressed, the majority under the effect of bean leaf extract and apoplastic fluid. Some of the induced genes were previously known to be involved in the first stages of the bacterial-plant interaction and virulence. These include genes encoding type III secretion system proteins and genes involved in cell-wall degradation, phaseolotoxin synthesis and aerobic metabolism. On the other hand, most repressed genes were found to be involved in the uptake and metabolism of iron. Conclusion This study furthers the understanding of the mechanisms involved, responses and the metabolic adaptation that occurs during the interaction of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola with a susceptible host plant. PMID:20003402

  13. Identification of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae strains causing bacterial canker of kiwifruit in the Anhui Province of China, and determination of their streptomycin sensitivities.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Yi, X-K; Chen, Y; Zhang, A-F; Zhang, J-Y; Gao, Z-H; Qi, Y-J; Xu, Y-L

    2015-07-27

    Bacterial canker, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, is one of the most severe diseases of kiwifruit. It has become an international pandemic and threatens the sustainable development of kiwifruit production in all main kiwi-growing regions worldwide. Streptomycin has been the major bactericide for the control of kiwifruit canker, especially in Anhui Province, one of the main kiwifruit production regions in China. However, until now, no studies on the baseline sensitivity to streptomycin of field isolates of P. syringae pv. actinidiae from China have been available. During 2012-2013, a total of 102 single-colony P. syringae pv. actinidiae strains were isolated: 36, 12, 13, 26, and 15 strains from Yuexi, Jinzhai, Huoshan, Qianshan, and Taihu counties, respectively. All strains were confirmed by production of a 280-bp fragment using the specific primers PsaF1/R2 upon polymerase chain reaction amplification, followed by an assay for confirmation of pathogenicity to fulfill Koch's postulates. In this study, the streptomycin sensitivity of the 102 isolated strains was determined. The half-maximal effective concentration values for inhibition of growth by streptomycin were 0.03-0.42 μg/mL (average 0.12 ± 0.06 μg/mL). The baseline sensitivity curve was unimodal, representing range-of-variation factors of 14.0. No resistant subpopulation was identified among the strains used in the study. Thus, these sensitivity data could be used as a baseline for monitoring the shift in sensitivity of P. syringae pv. actinidiae populations to streptomycin in Anhui Province. Continuous resistance monitoring should be carried out, as streptomycin is an at-risk bactericide agent.

  14. RecD Plays an Essential Function During Growth at Low Temperature in the Antarctic Bacterium Pseudomonas syringae Lz4W

    PubMed Central

    Regha, K.; Satapathy, Ajit K.; Ray, Malay K.

    2005-01-01

    The Antarctic psychrotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae Lz4W has been used as a model system to identify genes that are required for growth at low temperature. Transposon mutagenesis was carried out to isolate mutant(s) of the bacterium that are defective for growth at 4° but normal at 22°. In one such cold-sensitive mutant (CS1), the transposon-disrupted gene was identified to be a homolog of the recD gene of several bacteria. Trans-complementation and freshly targeted gene disruption studies reconfirmed that the inactivation of the recD gene leads to a cold-sensitive phenotype. We cloned, sequenced, and analyzed ∼11.2 kbp of DNA from recD and its flanking region from the bacterium. recD was the last gene of a putative recCBD operon. The RecD ORF was 694 amino acids long and 40% identical (52% similar) to the Escherichia coli protein, and it could complement the E. coli recD mutation. The recD gene of E. coli, however, could not complement the cold-sensitive phenotype of the CS1 mutant. Interestingly, the CS1 strain showed greater sensitivity toward the DNA-damaging agents, mitomycin C and UV. The inactivation of recD in P. syringae also led to cell death and accumulation of DNA fragments of ∼25–30 kbp in size at low temperature (4°). We propose that during growth at a very low temperature the Antarctic P. syringae is subjected to DNA damage, which requires direct participation of a unique RecD function. Additional results suggest that a truncated recD encoding the N-terminal segment of (1–576) amino acids is sufficient to support growth of P. syringae at low temperature. PMID:15956672

  15. Analysis of the role of the type III effector inventory of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448a in interaction with the plant.

    PubMed

    Zumaquero, Adela; Macho, Alberto P; Rufián, José S; Beuzón, Carmen R

    2010-09-01

    In Pseudomonas syringae, the type III secretion system (T3SS) is essential for disease in compatible hosts and for eliciting the hypersensitive response in incompatible hosts. P. syringae pathovars secrete a variable number of type III effectors that form their secretomes. The secretome of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448a (Pph1448a) currently includes 22 experimentally validated effectors, one HrpL-regulated candidate for which translocation results have been inconsistent, two translocated candidates for which in planta expression has not been established, one bioinformatically identified candidate, and six candidates that have been experimentally discarded. We analyzed the translocation and/or expression of these and other candidates to complete the Pph1448a effector inventory, bringing this inventory to 27 bona fide effectors, including a new one that does not belong to any of the previously described effector families. We developed a simple process for rapidly making single and double knockout mutants and apply it to the generation of an effector mutant collection that includes single knockouts for the majority of the Pph1448a effector inventory. We also generated two double mutant strains containing effectors with potentially redundant functions and analyzed the virulence of the single and double mutant strains as well as strains expressing each of the effectors from a plasmid. We demonstrate that AvrB4-1 and AvrB4-2, as well as HopW1-1 and HopW1-2, are fully redundant and contribute to virulence in bean plants, thus validating this approach for dissecting the contribution of the Pph1448a type III effector inventory to virulence. We also analyzed the effect that the expression of these four effectors from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (PtoDC3000) has during its interaction with Arabidopsis thaliana, establishing that AvrB4-1, but not the others, determines a restriction of bacterial growth that takes place mostly independently of the

  16. Analysis of the Role of the Type III Effector Inventory of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448a in Interaction with the Plant ▿

    PubMed Central

    Zumaquero, Adela; Macho, Alberto P.; Rufián, José S.; Beuzón, Carmen R.

    2010-01-01

    In Pseudomonas syringae, the type III secretion system (T3SS) is essential for disease in compatible hosts and for eliciting the hypersensitive response in incompatible hosts. P. syringae pathovars secrete a variable number of type III effectors that form their secretomes. The secretome of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448a (Pph1448a) currently includes 22 experimentally validated effectors, one HrpL-regulated candidate for which translocation results have been inconsistent, two translocated candidates for which in planta expression has not been established, one bioinformatically identified candidate, and six candidates that have been experimentally discarded. We analyzed the translocation and/or expression of these and other candidates to complete the Pph1448a effector inventory, bringing this inventory to 27 bona fide effectors, including a new one that does not belong to any of the previously described effector families. We developed a simple process for rapidly making single and double knockout mutants and apply it to the generation of an effector mutant collection that includes single knockouts for the majority of the Pph1448a effector inventory. We also generated two double mutant strains containing effectors with potentially redundant functions and analyzed the virulence of the single and double mutant strains as well as strains expressing each of the effectors from a plasmid. We demonstrate that AvrB4-1 and AvrB4-2, as well as HopW1-1 and HopW1-2, are fully redundant and contribute to virulence in bean plants, thus validating this approach for dissecting the contribution of the Pph1448a type III effector inventory to virulence. We also analyzed the effect that the expression of these four effectors from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (PtoDC3000) has during its interaction with Arabidopsis thaliana, establishing that AvrB4-1, but not the others, determines a restriction of bacterial growth that takes place mostly independently of the

  17. A draft genome sequence and functional screen reveals the repertoire of type III secreted proteins of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tabaci 11528

    PubMed Central

    Studholme, David J; Ibanez, Selena Gimenez; MacLean, Daniel; Dangl, Jeffery L; Chang, Jeff H; Rathjen, John P

    2009-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas syringae is a widespread bacterial pathogen that causes disease on a broad range of economically important plant species. Pathogenicity of P. syringae strains is dependent on the type III secretion system, which secretes a suite of up to about thirty virulence 'effector' proteins into the host cytoplasm where they subvert the eukaryotic cell physiology and disrupt host defences. P. syringae pathovar tabaci naturally causes disease on wild tobacco, the model member of the Solanaceae, a family that includes many crop species as well as on soybean. Results We used the 'next-generation' Illumina sequencing platform and the Velvet short-read assembly program to generate a 145X deep 6,077,921 nucleotide draft genome sequence for P. syringae pathovar tabaci strain 11528. From our draft assembly, we predicted 5,300 potential genes encoding proteins of at least 100 amino acids long, of which 303 (5.72%) had no significant sequence similarity to those encoded by the three previously fully sequenced P. syringae genomes. Of the core set of Hrp Outer Proteins that are conserved in three previously fully sequenced P. syringae strains, most were also conserved in strain 11528, including AvrE1, HopAH2, HopAJ2, HopAK1, HopAN1, HopI, HopJ1, HopX1, HrpK1 and HrpW1. However, the hrpZ1 gene is partially deleted and hopAF1 is completely absent in 11528. The draft genome of strain 11528 also encodes close homologues of HopO1, HopT1, HopAH1, HopR1, HopV1, HopAG1, HopAS1, HopAE1, HopAR1, HopF1, and HopW1 and a degenerate HopM1'. Using a functional screen, we confirmed that hopO1, hopT1, hopAH1, hopM1', hopAE1, hopAR1, and hopAI1' are part of the virulence-associated HrpL regulon, though the hopAI1' and hopM1' sequences were degenerate with premature stop codons. We also discovered two additional HrpL-regulated effector candidates and an HrpL-regulated distant homologue of avrPto1. Conclusion The draft genome sequence facilitates the continued development of P

  18. A genetic screen reveals Arabidopsis stomatal and/or apoplastic defenses against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Weiqing; Brutus, Alexandre; Kremer, James M; Withers, John C; Gao, Xiaoli; Jones, A Daniel; He, Sheng Yang

    2011-10-01

    Bacterial infection of plants often begins with colonization of the plant surface, followed by entry into the plant through wounds and natural openings (such as stomata), multiplication in the intercellular space (apoplast) of the infected tissues, and dissemination of bacteria to other plants. Historically, most studies assess bacterial infection based on final outcomes of disease and/or pathogen growth using whole infected tissues; few studies have genetically distinguished the contribution of different host cell types in response to an infection. The phytotoxin coronatine (COR) is produced by several pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae. COR-deficient mutants of P. s. tomato (Pst) DC3000 are severely compromised in virulence, especially when inoculated onto the plant surface. We report here a genetic screen to identify Arabidopsis mutants that could rescue the virulence of COR-deficient mutant bacteria. Among the susceptible to coronatine-deficient Pst DC3000 (scord) mutants were two that were defective in stomatal closure response, two that were defective in apoplast defense, and four that were defective in both stomatal and apoplast defense. Isolation of these three classes of mutants suggests that stomatal and apoplastic defenses are integrated in plants, but are genetically separable, and that COR is important for Pst DC3000 to overcome both stomatal guard cell- and apoplastic mesophyll cell-based defenses. Of the six mutants defective in bacterium-triggered stomatal closure, three are defective in salicylic acid (SA)-induced stomatal closure, but exhibit normal stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid (ABA), and scord7 is compromised in both SA- and ABA-induced stomatal closure. We have cloned SCORD3, which is required for salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis, and SCORD5, which encodes an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein, AtGCN20/AtABCF3, predicted to be involved in stress-associated protein translation control. Identification of SCORD5 begins to implicate

  19. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 CmaL (PSPTO4723), a DUF1330 family member, is needed to produce L-allo-isoleucine, a precursor for the phytotoxin coronatine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato DC3000 produces the phytotoxin coronatine, a major determinant of the leaf chlorosis associated with DC3000 pathogenesis. The DC3000 PSPTO4723 (cmaL) gene is located in a genomic region encoding type III effectors, however it promotes chlorosis in the model plant...

  20. All Three Subunits of RecBCD Enzyme Are Essential for DNA Repair and Low-Temperature Growth in the Antarctic Pseudomonas syringae Lz4W

    PubMed Central

    Pavankumar, Theetha L.; Sinha, Anurag K.; Ray, Malay K.

    2010-01-01

    Background The recD mutants of the Antarctic Pseudomonas syringae Lz4W are sensitive to DNA-damaging agents and fail to grow at 4°C. Generally, RecD associates with two other proteins (RecB and RecC) to produce RecBCD enzyme, which is involved in homologous recombination and DNA repair in many bacteria, including Escherichia coli. However, RecD is not essential for DNA repair, nor does its deletion cause any growth defects in E. coli. Hence, the assessment of the P. syringae RecBCD pathway was imperative. Methodology/Principal Findings Mutational analysis and genetic complementation studies were used to establish that the individual null-mutations of all three genes, recC, recB, and recD, or the deletion of whole recCBD operon of P. syringae, lead to growth inhibition at low temperature, and sensitivity to UV and mitomycin C. Viability of the mutant cells dropped drastically at 4°C, and the mutants accumulated linear chromosomal DNA and shorter DNA fragments in higher amounts compared to 22°C. Additional genetic data using the mutant RecBCD enzymes that were inactivated either in the ATPase active site of RecB (RecBK29Q) or RecD (RecDK229Q), or in the nuclease center of RecB (RecBD1118A and RecBΔnuc) suggested that, while the nuclease activity of RecB is not so critical in vivo, the ATP-dependent functions of both RecB and RecD are essential. Surprisingly, E. coli recBCD or recBC alone on plasmid could complement the defects of the ΔrecCBD strain of P. syringae. Conclusions/Significance All three subunits of the RecBCDPs enzyme are essential for DNA repair and growth of P. syringae at low temperatures (4°C). The RecD requirement is only a function of the RecBCD complex in the bacterium. The RecBCD pathway protects the Antarctic bacterium from cold-induced DNA damages, and is critically dependent on the helicase activities of both RecB and RecD subunits, but not on the nuclease of RecBCDPs enzyme. PMID:20195537

  1. Characterization of salA, syrF, and syrG Genes and Attendant Regulatory Networks Involved in Plant Pathogenesis by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Vanessa L.; Gross, Dennis C.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a, causal agent of brown spot on bean, is an economically important plant pathogen that utilizes extracellular signaling to initiate a lifestyle change from an epiphyte to a pathogen. LuxR regulatory proteins play an important role in the transcriptional regulation of a variety of biological processes involving two-component signaling, quorum sensing, and secondary metabolism. Analysis of the B728a genome identified 24 LuxR-like proteins, three of which are encoded by salA, syrF, and syrG located adjacent to the syringomycin gene cluster. The LuxR-like proteins encoded by these three genes exhibit a domain architecture that places them in a subfamily of LuxR-like proteins associated with regulation of secondary metabolism in B728a. Deletion mutants of salA, syrF, and syrG failed to produce syringomycin and displayed reduction of virulence on bean. The transcriptional start sites of salA, syrG, and syrF were located 63, 235, and 498 bp upstream of the start codons, respectively, using primer extension analysis. The predicted -10/-35 promoter regions of syrF and syrG were confirmed using site-directed mutagenesis and GFP reporters that showed conserved promoter sequences around the -35 promoter region. Overexpression analysis and GFP reporters identified SyrG as an upstream transcriptional activator of syrF, where both SyrG and SyrF activate promoters of syringomycin biosynthesis genes. This study shows that syrG and syrF encode important transcriptional regulators of syringomycin biosynthesis genes. PMID:26954255

  2. Functional analysis of PSPTO_1203 a FecI-like ECF Sigma Factor of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have been investigating how P. syringae responds to limited iron availability, a common stress in aerobic environments. We are mainly focused on the role of the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors, which are one of the mechanisms used by bacteria to adjust gene regulation in response to...

  3. A two-strain mixture of rhizobacteria elicits induction of systemic resistance against Pseudomonas syringae and Cucumber mosaic virus coupled to promotion of plant growth on Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Choong-Min; Murphy, John F; Reddy, M S; Kloepper, Joseph W

    2007-02-01

    We evaluated a commercial biopreparation of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains Bacillus subtilis GB03 and B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a formulated with the carrier chitosan (BioYield) for its capacity to elicit growth promotion and induced systemic resistance against infection by Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 in Arabidopsis thaliana. The biopreparation promoted plant growth of Arabidopsis hormonal mutants, which included auxin, gibberellic acid, ethylene, jasmonate, salicylic acid, and brassinosteroid insensitive lines as well as each wild-type. The biopreparation protected plants against CMV based on disease severity in wild-type plants. However, virus titre was not lower in control plants and those treated with biopreparation, suggesting that the biopreparation induced tolerance rather than resistance against CMV. Interestingly, the biopreparation induced resistance against CMV in NahG plants, as evidenced by both reduced disease severity and virus titer. The biopreparation also elicited induced resistance against P. syringae pv. tomato in the wild-type but not in NahG transgenic plants, which degrade endogenous salicylic acid, indicating the involvement of salicylic acid signaling. Our results indicate that some PGPR strains can elicit plant growth promotion by mechanisms that are different from known hormonal signaling pathways. In addition, the mechanism for elicitation of induced resistance by PGPR may be pathogen-dependent. Collectively, the two-Bacilli strain mixture can be utilized as a biological inoculant for both protection of plant against bacterial and viral pathogens and enhancement of plant growth.

  4. Yeast increases resistance in Arabidopsis against Pseudomonas syringae and Botrytis cinerea by salicylic acid-dependent as well as -independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Raacke, Ines C; von Rad, Uta; Mueller, Martin J; Berger, Susanne

    2006-10-01

    Cell-wall and glucopeptide components of yeast have been reported to exhibit elicitor activity. The mode of action of defense activation by yeast is not known so far. In this study, we used the model plant Arabidopsis to investigate the activation of defense responses by yeast, the effect on resistance against different pathogens, and the mode of action. Treatment of Arabidopsis plants with an autoclaved yeast suspension induced the expression of systemic acquired resistance-related genes and accumulation of the phytoalexin camalexin. Symptom development and bacterial growth after infection with a virulent strain of the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae was reduced in yeast-pretreated plants. No protection was detectable in mutants affected in the salicylate pathway, while mutants in the jasmonate or camalexin pathway were protected by yeast, indicating that the salicylate pathway is necessary for the yeast-induced resistance against P. syringae. Yeast also reduced symptom development after challenge with Botrytis cinerea. This protection was detectable in all mutants tested, indicating that it is independent of the salicylate, jasmonate, and camalexin pathway.

  5. Defects in D-rhamnosyl residue biosynthetic genes affect lipopolysaccharide structure, motility, and cell-surface hydrophobicity in Pseudomonas syringae pathovar glycinea race 4.

    PubMed

    Chiku, Kazuhiro; Tsunemi, Kazuhiko; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Ishii, Tadashi; Taguchi, Fumiko; Iwaki, Masako; Ichinose, Yuki; Ono, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    D-rhamnose (D-Rha) residue is a major component of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in strains of the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar glycinea. To investigate the effects of a deficiency in GDP-D-rhamnose biosynthetic genes on LPS structure and pathogenicity, we generated three mutants defective in D-Rha biosynthetic genes, encoding proteins GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (GMD), GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose reductase (RMD), and a putative α-D-rhamnosyltransferase (WbpZ) in P. syringae pv. glycinea race 4. The Δgmd, Δrmd, and ΔwbpZ mutants had a reduced O-antigen polysaccharide consisting of D-Rha residues as compared with the wild type (WT). The swarming motility of the Δgmd, Δrmd, and ΔwbpZ mutant strains decreased and hydrophobicity and adhesion ability increased as compared with WT. Although the mutants had truncated O-antigen polysaccharides, and altered surface properties, they showed virulence to soybean, as WT did.

  6. Hexanoic acid is a resistance inducer that protects tomato plants against Pseudomonas syringae by priming the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid pathways.

    PubMed

    Scalschi, Loredana; Vicedo, Begonya; Camañes, Gemma; Fernandez-Crespo, Emma; Lapeña, Leonor; González-Bosch, Carmen; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2013-05-01

    Hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) is effective against several pathogens in tomato plants. Our study of the mechanisms implicated in Hx-IR against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 suggests that hexanoic acid (Hx) treatment counteracts the negative effect of coronatine (COR) and jasmonyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) on the salicylic acid (SA) pathway. In Hx-treated plants, an increase in the expression of jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) and the SA marker genes PR1 and PR5 indicates a boost in this signalling pathway at the expense of a decrease in JA-Ile. Moreover, Hx treatment potentiates 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid accumulation, which suggests that this molecule might play a role per se in Hx-IR. These results support a positive relationship between the SA and JA pathways in Hx-primed plants. Furthermore, one of the mechanisms of virulence mediated by COR is stomatal re-opening on infection with P. syringae. In this work, we observed that Hx seems to inhibit stomatal opening in planta in the presence of COR, which suggests that, on infection in tomato, this treatment suppresses effector action to prevent bacterial entry into the mesophyll.

  7. Thermo-responsive expression and differential secretion of the extracellular enzyme levansucrase in the plant pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongqiao; Schenk, Alexander; Srivastava, Abhishek; Zhurina, Daria; Ullrich, Matthias S

    2006-12-01

    In the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, production of the exopolysaccharide levan is mediated by extracellular levansucrase (Lsc), which is encoded by two functional genes, lscB and lscC. Comparison of extracellular protein profiles of P. syringae pv. glycinea PG4180 grown at 18 and 28 degrees C and Western blots revealed that Lsc was predominantly found in the supernatant at 18 degrees C, a temperature fostering virulence of this pathogen. Northern blot analysis indicated that transcription of lscB and lscC was temperature-dependent. Quantification of Lsc in supernatants and cellular protein samples of mutants defective in either lscB or lscC confirmed that LscB secretion at low temperature was due to a combination of thermo-regulated transcription and secretion. In contrast, LscC accumulated in the periplasmic space. LscB and LscC differ in only five amino acid residues, one of which is a cysteine residue. Temperature shift experiments suggested that de novo synthesized protein(s) at 18 degrees C might be responsible for differential LscB secretion and that the presumed secretory machinery was stable when cells were shifted to 28 degrees C. Our results imply that Lsc export and secretion may occur by yet-to-be identified novel mechanism(s).

  8. Transcriptional Dynamics Driving MAMP-Triggered Immunity and Pathogen Effector-Mediated Immunosuppression in Arabidopsis Leaves Following Infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Laura A.; Polanski, Krzysztof; de Torres-Zabala, Marta; Bowden, Laura; Jenkins, Dafyd J.; Hill, Claire; Baxter, Laura; Truman, William; Prusinska, Justyna; Hickman, Richard; Wild, David L.; Ott, Sascha; Buchanan-Wollaston, Vicky; Beynon, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional reprogramming is integral to effective plant defense. Pathogen effectors act transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally to suppress defense responses. A major challenge to understanding disease and defense responses is discriminating between transcriptional reprogramming associated with microbial-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered immunity (MTI) and that orchestrated by effectors. A high-resolution time course of genome-wide expression changes following challenge with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 and the nonpathogenic mutant strain DC3000hrpA- allowed us to establish causal links between the activities of pathogen effectors and suppression of MTI and infer with high confidence a range of processes specifically targeted by effectors. Analysis of this information-rich data set with a range of computational tools provided insights into the earliest transcriptional events triggered by effector delivery, regulatory mechanisms recruited, and biological processes targeted. We show that the majority of genes contributing to disease or defense are induced within 6 h postinfection, significantly before pathogen multiplication. Suppression of chloroplast-associated genes is a rapid MAMP-triggered defense response, and suppression of genes involved in chromatin assembly and induction of ubiquitin-related genes coincide with pathogen-induced abscisic acid accumulation. Specific combinations of promoter motifs are engaged in fine-tuning the MTI response and active transcriptional suppression at specific promoter configurations by P. syringae. PMID:26566919

  9. Transcriptional Dynamics Driving MAMP-Triggered Immunity and Pathogen Effector-Mediated Immunosuppression in Arabidopsis Leaves Following Infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Laura A; Polanski, Krzysztof; de Torres-Zabala, Marta; Jayaraman, Siddharth; Bowden, Laura; Moore, Jonathan; Penfold, Christopher A; Jenkins, Dafyd J; Hill, Claire; Baxter, Laura; Kulasekaran, Satish; Truman, William; Littlejohn, George; Prusinska, Justyna; Mead, Andrew; Steinbrenner, Jens; Hickman, Richard; Rand, David; Wild, David L; Ott, Sascha; Buchanan-Wollaston, Vicky; Smirnoff, Nick; Beynon, Jim; Denby, Katherine; Grant, Murray

    2015-11-01

    Transcriptional reprogramming is integral to effective plant defense. Pathogen effectors act transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally to suppress defense responses. A major challenge to understanding disease and defense responses is discriminating between transcriptional reprogramming associated with microbial-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered immunity (MTI) and that orchestrated by effectors. A high-resolution time course of genome-wide expression changes following challenge with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 and the nonpathogenic mutant strain DC3000hrpA- allowed us to establish causal links between the activities of pathogen effectors and suppression of MTI and infer with high confidence a range of processes specifically targeted by effectors. Analysis of this information-rich data set with a range of computational tools provided insights into the earliest transcriptional events triggered by effector delivery, regulatory mechanisms recruited, and biological processes targeted. We show that the majority of genes contributing to disease or defense are induced within 6 h postinfection, significantly before pathogen multiplication. Suppression of chloroplast-associated genes is a rapid MAMP-triggered defense response, and suppression of genes involved in chromatin assembly and induction of ubiquitin-related genes coincide with pathogen-induced abscisic acid accumulation. Specific combinations of promoter motifs are engaged in fine-tuning the MTI response and active transcriptional suppression at specific promoter configurations by P. syringae.

  10. Functional analysis of endo-1,4-β-glucanases in response to Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae reveals their involvement in plant-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Finiti, I; Leyva, M O; López-Cruz, J; Calderan Rodrigues, B; Vicedo, B; Angulo, C; Bennett, A B; Grant, M; García-Agustín, P; González-Bosch, C

    2013-09-01

    Plant cell wall modification is a critical component in stress responses. Endo-1,4-β-glucanases (EGs) take part in cell wall editing processes, e.g. elongation, ripening and abscission. Here we studied the infection response of Solanum lycopersicum and Arabidopsis thaliana with impaired EGs. Transgenic TomCel1 and TomCel2 tomato antisense plants challenged with Pseudomonas syringae showed higher susceptibility, callose priming and increased jasmonic acid pathway marker gene expression. These two EGs could be resistance factors and may act as negative regulators of callose deposition, probably by interfering with the defence-signalling network. A study of a set of Arabidopsis EG T-DNA insertion mutants challenged with P. syringae and Botrytis cinerea revealed that the lack of other EGs interferes with infection phenotype, callose deposition, expression of signalling pathway marker genes and hormonal balance. We conclude that a lack of EGs could alter plant response to pathogens by modifying the properties of the cell wall and/or interfering with signalling pathways, contributing to generate the appropriate signalling outcomes. Analysis of microarray data demonstrates that EGs are differentially expressed upon many different plant-pathogen challenges, hormone treatments and many abiotic stresses. We found some Arabidopsis EG mutants with increased tolerance to osmotic and salt stress. Our results show that impairing EGs can alter plant-pathogen interactions and may contribute to appropriate signalling outcomes in many different biotic and abiotic plant stress responses.

  11. The Pseudomonas viridiflava phylogroups in the P. syringae species complex are characterized by genetic variability and phenotypic plasticity of pathogenicity-related traits.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Claudia; Berge, Odile; Monteil, Caroline L; Guilbaud, Caroline; Balestra, Giorgio M; Varvaro, Leonardo; Jones, Corbin; Dangl, Jeffery L; Baltrus, David A; Sands, David C; Morris, Cindy E

    2014-07-01

    As a species complex, Pseudomonas syringae exists in both agriculture and natural aquatic habitats. P.viridiflava, a member of this complex, has been reported to be phenotypically largely homogenous. We characterized strains from different habitats, selected based on their genetic similarity to previously described P.viridiflava strains. We revealed two distinct phylogroups and two different kinds of variability in phenotypic traits and genomic content. The strains exhibited phase variation in phenotypes including pathogenicity and soft rot on potato. We showed that the presence of two configurations of the Type III Secretion System [single (S-PAI) and tripartite (T-PAI) pathogenicity islands] are not correlated with pathogenicity or with the capacity to induce soft rot in contrast to previous reports. The presence/absence of the avrE effector gene was the only trait we found to be correlated with pathogenicity of P.viridiflava. Other Type III secretion effector genes were not correlated with pathogenicity. A genomic region resembling an exchangeable effector locus (EEL) was found in S-PAI strains, and a probable recombination between the two PAIs is described. The ensemble of the variability observed in these phylogroups of P.syringae likely contributes to their adaptability to alternating opportunities for pathogenicity or saprophytic survival.

  12. RPS2, an Arabidopsis disease resistance locus specifying recognition of Pseudomonas syringae strains expressing the avirulence gene avrRpt2.

    PubMed Central

    Kunkel, B N; Bent, A F; Dahlbeck, D; Innes, R W; Staskawicz, B J

    1993-01-01

    A molecular genetic approach was used to identify and characterize plant genes that control bacterial disease resistance in Arabidopsis. A screen for mutants with altered resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) expressing the avirulence gene avrRpt2 resulted in the isolation of four susceptible rps (resistance to P. syringae) mutants. The rps mutants lost resistance specifically to bacterial strains expressing avrRpt2 as they retained resistance to Pst strains expressing the avirulence genes avrB or avrRpm1. Genetic analysis indicated that in each of the four rps mutants, susceptibility was due to a single mutation mapping to the same locus on chromosome 4. Identification of a resistance locus with specificity for a single bacterial avirulence gene suggests that this locus, designated RPS2, controls specific recognition of bacteria expressing the avirulence gene avrRpt2. Ecotype Wü-0, a naturally occurring line that is susceptible to Pst strains expressing avrRpt2, appears to lack a functional allele at RPS2, demonstrating that there is natural variation at the RPS2 locus among wild populations of Arabidopsis. PMID:8400869

  13. Early changes in apoplast composition associated with defence and disease in interactions between Phaseolus vulgaris and the halo blight pathogen Pseudomonas syringae Pv. phaseolicola

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, Brendan M.; Neale, Helen C.; Geilfus, Christoph‐Martin; Jackson, Robert W.; Arnold, Dawn L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The apoplast is the arena in which endophytic pathogens such as Pseudomonas syringae grow and interact with plant cells. Using metabolomic and ion analysis techniques, this study shows how the composition of Phaseolus vulgaris leaf apoplastic fluid changes during the first six hours of compatible and incompatible interactions with two strains of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph) that differ in the presence of the genomic island PPHGI‐1. Leaf inoculation with the avirulent island‐carrying strain Pph 1302A elicited effector‐triggered immunity (ETI) and resulted in specific changes in apoplast composition, including increases in conductivity, pH, citrate, γ‐aminobutyrate (GABA) and K+, that are linked to the onset of plant defence responses. Other apoplastic changes, including increases in Ca2+, Fe2/3+ Mg2+, sucrose, β‐cyanoalanine and several amino acids, occurred to a relatively similar extent in interactions with both Pph 1302A and the virulent, island‐less strain Pph RJ3. Metabolic footprinting experiments established that Pph preferentially metabolizes malate, glucose and glutamate, but excludes certain other abundant apoplastic metabolites, including citrate and GABA, until preferred metabolites are depleted. These results demonstrate that Pph is well‐adapted to the leaf apoplast metabolic environment and that loss of PPHGI‐1 enables Pph to avoid changes in apoplast composition linked to plant defences. PMID:27239727

  14. Induction of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 MexAB-OprM multidrug efflux pump by flavonoids is mediated by the repressor PmeR.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Paola; Felipe, Antonia; Michán, Carmen; Gallegos, María-Trinidad

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we have analyzed the expression of the Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 mexAB-oprM efflux pump operon and of the regulatory gene pmeR, and we have investigated the role of the PmeR protein on transcription from both promoters. We demonstrate that mexAB-oprM and pmeR are expressed in vivo at a relatively high and moderate basal level, respectively, which, in both cases, increases in the presence of different flavonoids and other compounds, such as butyl and methylparaben. We show that PmeR is the local repressor of the mexAB-oprM promoter and is able to regulate its own expression. The mechanism for this regulation includes binding to a pseudopalindromic operator site which overlaps both mexAB-oprM and pmeR promoters. We have also proven that flavonoids are able to interact with PmeR and induce a conformational change that interferes with the DNA binding ability of PmeR, thereby modulating mexAB-oprM and pmeR expression. Finally, we demonstrate by in vivo experiments that the PmeR/MexAB-OprM system contributes to the colonization of tomato plants. These results provide new insight into a transcriptional regulator and a transport system that play essential roles in the ability of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 to resist the action of flavonoids produced by the host.

  15. GacS-dependent production of 2R, 3R-butanediol by Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 is a major determinant for eliciting systemic resistance against Erwinia carotovora but not against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Han, Song Hee; Lee, Seung Je; Moon, Jae Hak; Park, Keun Hyung; Yang, Kwang Yeol; Cho, Balk Ho; Kim, Kil Yong; Kim, Yong Whan; Lee, Myung Chul; Anderson, Anne J; Kim, Young Cheol

    2006-08-01

    Root colonization by a plant-beneficial rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6, induces disease resistance in tobacco against leaf pathogens Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora SCC1, causing soft-rot, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, causing wildfire. In order to identify the bacterial determinants involved in induced systemic resistance against plant diseases, extracellular components produced by the bacterium were fractionated and purified. Factors in the culture filtrate inducing systemic resistance were retained in the aqueous fraction rather than being partitioned into ethyl acetate. Fractionation on high-performance liquid chromatography followed by nuclear magnetic resonance mass spectrometry analysis identified the active compound as 2R, 3R-butanediol. 2R, 3R butanediol induced systemic resistance in tobacco to E. carotovora subsp. carotovora SCC1, but not to P. syringae pv. tabaci. Treatment of tobacco with the volatile 2R, 3R-butanediol enhanced aerial growth, a phenomenon also seen in plants colonized by P. chlororaphis O6. The isomeric form of the butanediol was important because 2S, 3S-butandiol did not affect the plant. The global sensor kinase, GacS, of P. chlororaphis O6 was a key regulator for induced systemic resistance against E. carotovora through regulation of 2R, 3R-butanediol production. This is the first report of the production of these assumed fermentation products by a pseudomonad and the role of the sensor kinase GacS in production of 2R, 3R-butanediol.

  16. Levansucrases from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and P. chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca: substrate specificity, polymerizing properties and usage of different acceptors for fructosylation.

    PubMed

    Visnapuu, Triinu; Mardo, Karin; Mosoarca, Cristina; Zamfir, Alina D; Vigants, Armands; Alamäe, Tiina

    2011-09-20

    Levansucrases of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Lsc3) and Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca (also Pseudomonas aurantiaca) (LscA) have 73% identity of protein sequences, similar substrate specificity and kinetic properties. Both enzymes produce levan and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) of varied length from sucrose, raffinose and sugar beet molasses. A novel high-throughput chip-based nanoelectrospray mass spectrometric method was applied to screen alternative fructosyl acceptors for levansucrases. Lsc3 and LscA could both transfructosylate D-xylose, D-fucose, L- and D-arabinose, D-ribose, D-sorbitol, xylitol, xylobiose, D-mannitol, D-galacturonic acid and methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside and heterooligofructans with degree of polymerization up to 5 were detected. The ability of D-sorbitol, xylobiose, D-galacturonic acid, D-mannitol, xylitol and methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside to serve as fructosyl acceptors for levansucrases is shown for the first time. Expectedly, site-directed mutagenesis of His321 in Lsc3 to Arg, Lys, Leu and Ser resulted in proteins with decreased catalytic activity, affinity for sucrose and polymerizing ability. Random mutagenesis yielded a Lsc3 mutant Thr302Pro with reduced synthesis of levan and long-chain FOS. Thr302 is located in conserved DQTERP region of levansucrases adjacent to predicted acid-base catalyst Glu303. Thr302 and His321 are predicted to belong to +1 subsite of the substrate binding region of Lsc3.

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Cinnamaldehyde and Estragole Extracted from Plant Essential Oils against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yu-Rim; Choi, Min-Seon; Choi, Geun-Won; Park, Il-Kwon; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Antibacterial activity of plant essential oils (PEOs) originating from 49 plant species were tested against Psa by a vapor diffusion and a liquid culture assays. The five PEOs from Pimenta racemosa, P. dioica, Melaleuca linariifolia, M. cajuputii, and Cinnamomum cassia efficiently inhibited Psa growth by either assays. Among their major components, estragole, eugenol, and methyl eugenol showed significant antibacterial activity by only the liquid culture assay, while cinnamaldehyde exhibited antibacterial activity by both assays. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of estragole and cinnamaldehyde by the liquid culture assay were 1,250 and 2,500 ppm, respectively. The MIC of cinnamaldehyde by the vapor diffusion assay was 5,000 ppm. Based on the formation of clear zones or the decrease of optical density caused by these compounds, they might kill the bacterial cells and this feature might be useful for managing the bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. PMID:27493612

  18. Overexpression of SAMDC1 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana increases expression of defense-related genes as well as resistance to Pseudomonas syringae and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis

    PubMed Central

    Marco, Francisco; Busó, Enrique; Carrasco, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    It has been previously described that elevation of endogenous spermine levels in Arabidopsis could be achieved by transgenic overexpression of S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) or Spermine synthase (SPMS). In both cases, spermine accumulation had an impact on the plant transcriptome, with up-regulation of a set of genes enriched in functional categories involved in defense-related processes against both biotic and abiotic stresses. In this work, the response of SAMDC1-overexpressing plants against bacterial and oomycete pathogens has been tested. The expression of several pathogen defense-related genes was induced in these plants as well as in wild type plants exposed to an exogenous supply of spermine. SAMDC1-overexpressing plants showed an increased tolerance to infection by Pseudomonas syringae and by Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Both results add more evidence to the hypothesis that spermine plays a key role in plant resistance to biotic stress. PMID:24734036

  19. Crystal structure of the PSPTO-PSP protein from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato str. DC3000 in complex with D-glucose.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-mei; Gao, Yu; Li, Mei; Chang, Wen-rui

    2010-06-18

    The perchloric acid-soluble protein (PSP) is an endoribonuclease and on the basis of sequence similarity has been assigned to the YjgF/YER057c/UK114 family. These family members are ubiquitous and highly conserved in evolution, and participate in regulating basic cellular metabolism. Here we present the 2.1A crystal structure of the PSP protein from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato str. DC3000 (PSPTO-PSP), in complex with D-glucose. The quaternary structure of PSPTO-PSP is a homologous trimer. Glucose is located in the cavity between each two monomers. Comparison of the hydrogen bonds between ligands and YjgF/YER057c/UK114 family homologues confirms that the conserved Arg(103) of PSPTO-PSP is a key amino acid in this cavity for ligand binding. It indicated that the involvement of PSPTO-PSP in essential cellular mechanism was regulated by glucose occupying this active site.

  20. Development of SCAR markers for rapid and specific detection of Pseudomonas syringae pv. morsprunorum races 1 and 2, using conventional and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Kałużna, Monika; Albuquerque, Pedro; Tavares, Fernando; Sobiczewski, Piotr; Puławska, Joanna

    2016-04-01

    Specific primers were developed to detect the causal agent of stone fruit bacterial canker using conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. PCR melting profile (PCR MP) used for analysis of diversity of Pseudomonas syringae strains, allowed to pinpoint the amplified fragments specific for P. syringae pv. morsprunorum race 1 (Psm1) and race 2 (Psm2), which were sequenced. Using obtained data, specific sequence characterised amplified region (SCAR) primers were designed. Conventional and real-time PCRs, using genomic DNA isolated from different bacterial strains belonging to the Pseudomonas genus, confirmed the specificity of selected primers. Additionally, the specificity of the selected DNA regions for Psm1 and Psm2 was confirmed by dot blot hybridisation. Conventional and real-time PCR assays enabled accurate detection of Psm1 and Psm2 in pure cultures and in plant material. For conventional PCR, the detection limits were the order of magnitude ~10(0) cfu/reaction for Psm1 and 10(1) cfu/reaction for Psm2 in pure cultures, while in plant material were 10(0)-10(1) cfu/reaction using primers for Psm1 and 3 × 10(2) cfu/reaction using primers for Psm2. Real-time PCR assays with SYBR Green I showed a higher limit of detection (LOD) - 10(0) cfu/reaction in both pure culture and in plant material for each primer pairs designed, which corresponds to 30-100 and 10-50 fg of DNA of Psm1 and Psm2, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first PCR-based method for detection of the causal agents of bacterial canker of stone fruit trees.

  1. Forward genetic in planta screen for identification of plant-protective traits of Sphingomonas sp. strain Fr1 against Pseudomonas syringae DC3000.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Christine; Innerebner, Gerd; Zingg, Judith; Guder, Jan; Vorholt, Julia A

    2012-08-01

    Sphingomonas sp. strain Fr1 has recently been shown to protect Arabidopsis thaliana against the bacterial leaf pathogen Pseudomonas syringae DC3000. Here, we describe a forward genetic in planta screen to identify genes in Sphingomonas sp. Fr1 necessary for this effect. About 5,000 Sphingomonas sp. Fr1 mini-Tn5 mutants were assayed for a defect in plant protection against a luxCDABE-tagged P. syringae DC3000 derivative in a space-saving 24-well plate system. The bioluminescence of the pathogen was used as the indicator of pathogen proliferation and allowed for the identification of Sphingomonas sp. Fr1 mutants that had lost the ability to restrict pathogen growth before disease symptoms were visible. Potential candidates were validated using the same miniaturized experimental system. Of these mutants, 10 were confirmed as plant protection defective yet colonization competent. The mutants were subsequently evaluated in a previously described standard microbox system, and plants showed enhanced disease phenotypes after pathogen infection relative to those inoculated with the parental strain as a control. However, the disease severities were lower than those observed for control plants that were grown axenically prior to pathogen challenge, which suggests that several traits may contribute to plant protection. Transposon insertion sites of validated mutants with defects in plant protection were determined and mapped to 7 distinct genomic regions. In conclusion, the established screening protocol allowed us to identify mutations that affect plant protection, and it opens the possibility to uncover traits important for in planta microbe-microbe interactions.

  2. The HopZ family of Pseudomonas syringae type III effectors require myristoylation for virulence and avirulence functions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jennifer D; Abada, Wasan; Ma, Wenbo; Guttman, David S; Desveaux, Darrell

    2008-04-01

    Pseudomonas syringae utilizes the type III secretion system to translocate effector proteins into plant cells, where they can contribute to the pathogen's ability to infect and cause disease. Recognition of these effectors by resistance proteins induces defense responses that typically include a programmed cell death reaction called the hypersensitive response. The YopJ/HopZ family of type III effector proteins is a common family of effector proteins found in animal- and plant-pathogenic bacteria. The HopZ family in P. syringae includes HopZ1a(PsyA2), HopZ1b(PgyUnB647), HopZ1c(PmaE54326), HopZ2(Ppi895A) and HopZ3(PsyB728a). HopZ1a is predicted to be most similar to the ancestral hopZ allele and causes a hypersensitive response in multiple plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana. Therefore, it has been proposed that host defense responses have driven the diversification of this effector family. In this study, we further characterized the hypersensitive response induced by HopZ1a and demonstrated that it is not dependent on known resistance genes. Further, we identified a novel virulence function for HopZ2 that requires the catalytic cysteine demonstrated to be required for protease activity. Sequence analysis of the HopZ family revealed the presence of a predicted myristoylation sequence in all members except HopZ3. We demonstrated that the myristoylation site is required for membrane localization of this effector family and contributes to the virulence and avirulence activities of HopZ2 and HopZ1a, respectively. This paper provides insight into the selective pressures driving virulence protein evolution by describing a detailed functional characterization of the diverse HopZ family of type III effectors with the model plant Arabidopsis.

  3. The HopZ Family of Pseudomonas syringae Type III Effectors Require Myristoylation for Virulence and Avirulence Functions in Arabidopsis thaliana▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jennifer D.; Abada, Wasan; Ma, Wenbo; Guttman, David S.; Desveaux, Darrell

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae utilizes the type III secretion system to translocate effector proteins into plant cells, where they can contribute to the pathogen's ability to infect and cause disease. Recognition of these effectors by resistance proteins induces defense responses that typically include a programmed cell death reaction called the hypersensitive response. The YopJ/HopZ family of type III effector proteins is a common family of effector proteins found in animal- and plant-pathogenic bacteria. The HopZ family in P. syringae includes HopZ1aPsyA2, HopZ1bPgyUnB647, HopZ1cPmaE54326, HopZ2Ppi895A and HopZ3PsyB728a. HopZ1a is predicted to be most similar to the ancestral hopZ allele and causes a hypersensitive response in multiple plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana. Therefore, it has been proposed that host defense responses have driven the diversification of this effector family. In this study, we further characterized the hypersensitive response induced by HopZ1a and demonstrated that it is not dependent on known resistance genes. Further, we identified a novel virulence function for HopZ2 that requires the catalytic cysteine demonstrated to be required for protease activity. Sequence analysis of the HopZ family revealed the presence of a predicted myristoylation sequence in all members except HopZ3. We demonstrated that the myristoylation site is required for membrane localization of this effector family and contributes to the virulence and avirulence activities of HopZ2 and HopZ1a, respectively. This paper provides insight into the selective pressures driving virulence protein evolution by describing a detailed functional characterization of the diverse HopZ family of type III effectors with the model plant Arabidopsis. PMID:18263728

  4. Cytokinins Mediate Resistance against Pseudomonas syringae in Tobacco through Increased Antimicrobial Phytoalexin Synthesis Independent of Salicylic Acid Signaling1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Großkinsky, Dominik K.; Naseem, Muhammad; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Plickert, Nicole; Engelke, Thomas; Griebel, Thomas; Zeier, Jürgen; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Pfeifhofer, Hartwig; van der Graaff, Eric; Simon, Uwe; Roitsch, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Cytokinins are phytohormones that are involved in various regulatory processes throughout plant development, but they are also produced by pathogens and known to modulate plant immunity. A novel transgenic approach enabling autoregulated cytokinin synthesis in response to pathogen infection showed that cytokinins mediate enhanced resistance against the virulent hemibiotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci. This was confirmed by two additional independent transgenic approaches to increase endogenous cytokinin production and by exogenous supply of adenine- and phenylurea-derived cytokinins. The cytokinin-mediated resistance strongly correlated with an increased level of bactericidal activities and up-regulated synthesis of the two major antimicrobial phytoalexins in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), scopoletin and capsidiol. The key role of these phytoalexins in the underlying mechanism was functionally proven by the finding that scopoletin and capsidiol substitute in planta for the cytokinin signal: phytoalexin pretreatment increased resistance against P. syringae. In contrast to a cytokinin defense mechanism in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) based on salicylic acid-dependent transcriptional control, the cytokinin-mediated resistance in tobacco is essentially independent from salicylic acid and differs in pathogen specificity. It is also independent of jasmonate levels, reactive oxygen species, and high sugar resistance. The novel function of cytokinins in the primary defense response of solanaceous plant species is rather mediated through a high phytoalexin-pathogen ratio in the early phase of infection, which efficiently restricts pathogen growth. The implications of this mechanism for the coevolution of host plants and cytokinin-producing pathogens and the practical application in agriculture are discussed. PMID:21813654

  5. GABA (γ-Aminobutyric Acid) Uptake Via the GABA Permease GabP Represses Virulence Gene Expression in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000.

    PubMed

    McCraw, S L; Park, D H; Jones, R; Bentley, M A; Rico, A; Ratcliffe, R G; Kruger, N J; Collmer, A; Preston, G M

    2016-12-01

    The nonprotein amino acid γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most abundant amino acid in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaf apoplast and is synthesized by Arabidopsis thaliana in response to infection by the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (hereafter called DC3000). High levels of exogenous GABA have previously been shown to repress the expression of the type III secretion system (T3SS) in DC3000, resulting in reduced elicitation of the hypersensitive response (HR) in the nonhost plant tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). This study demonstrates that the GABA permease GabP provides the primary mechanism for GABA uptake by DC3000 and that the gabP deletion mutant ΔgabP is insensitive to GABA-mediated repression of T3SS expression. ΔgabP displayed an enhanced ability to elicit the HR in young tobacco leaves and in tobacco plants engineered to produce increased levels of GABA, which supports the hypothesis that GABA uptake via GabP acts to regulate T3SS expression in planta. The observation that P. syringae can be rendered insensitive to GABA through loss of gabP but that gabP is retained by this bacterium suggests that GabP is important for DC3000 in a natural setting, either for nutrition or as a mechanism for regulating gene expression. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license .

  6. A Deletion in NRT2.1 Attenuates Pseudomonas syringae-Induced Hormonal Perturbation, Resulting in Primed Plant Defenses1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Camañes, Gemma; Pastor, Victoria; Cerezo, Miguel; García-Andrade, Javier; Vicedo, Begonya; García-Agustín, Pilar; Flors, Victor

    2012-01-01

    For an efficient defense response against pathogens, plants must coordinate rapid genetic reprogramming to produce an incompatible interaction. Nitrate Trasnporter2 (NRT2) gene family members are sentinels of nitrate availability. In this study, we present an additional role for NRT2.1 linked to plant resistance against pathogens. This gene antagonizes the priming of plant defenses against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst). The nrt2 mutant (which is deficient in two genes, NRT2.1 and NRT2.2) displays reduced susceptibility to this bacterium. We demonstrate that modifying environmental conditions that stimulate the derepression of the NRT2.1 gene influences resistance to Pst independently of the total level of endogenous nitrogen. Additionally, hormonal homeostasis seemed to be affected in nrt2, which displays priming of salicylic acid signaling and concomitant irregular functioning of the jasmonic acid and abscisic acid pathways upon infection. Effector-triggered susceptibility and hormonal perturbation by the bacterium seem to be altered in nrt2, probably due to reduced sensitivity to the bacterial phytotoxin coronatine. The main genetic and metabolic targets of coronatine in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) remain largely unstimulated in nrt2 mutants. In addition, a P. syringae strain defective in coronatine synthesis showed the same virulence toward nrt2 as the coronatine-producing strain. Taken together, the reduced susceptibility of nrt2 mutants seems to be a combination of priming of salicylic acid-dependent defenses and reduced sensitivity to the bacterial effector coronatine. These results suggest additional functions for NRT2.1 that may influence plant disease resistance by down-regulating biotic stress defense mechanisms and favoring abiotic stress responses. PMID:22158760

  7. Glycine Betaine Catabolism Contributes to Pseudomonas syringae Tolerance to Hyperosmotic Stress by Relieving Betaine-Mediated Suppression of Compatible Solute Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shanshan; Yu, Xilan

    2013-01-01

    Many bacteria can accumulate glycine betaine for osmoprotection and catabolize it as a growth substrate, but how they regulate these opposing roles is poorly understood. In Pseudomonas syringae B728a, expression of the betaine catabolism genes was reduced by an osmotic upshift to an intermediate stress level, consistent with betaine accumulation, but was increased by an upshift to a high stress level, as confirmed by an accompanying increase in degradation of radiolabeled betaine. Deletion of the gbcAB betaine catabolism genes reduced osmotolerance at a high osmolarity, and this reduction was due to the relief of betaine-mediated suppression of compatible solute synthesis. This conclusion was supported by the findings that, at high osmolarity, the ΔgbcAB mutant accumulated high betaine levels and low endogenous solutes and exhibited reduced expression of the solute synthesis genes. Moreover, the ΔgbcAB mutant and a mutant deficient in the synthesis of the compatible solutes NAGGN and trehalose exhibited similar reductions in osmotolerance and also in fitness on bean leaves. Activation of betaine catabolism at high osmotic stress resulted, in part, from induction of gbdR, which encodes the transcriptional activator GbdR. Betaine catabolism was subject to partial repression by succinate under hyperosmotic stress conditions, in contrast to strong repression in the absence of stress, suggesting that betaine functions both in nutrition and as an intracellular signal modulating solute synthesis under hyperosmotic stress conditions. Collectively, these results begin to provide a detailed mechanistic understanding of how P. syringae transitions from reliance on exogenously derived betaine to the use of endogenous solutes during adaptation to hyperosmotic conditions. PMID:23524610

  8. Forward Genetic In Planta Screen for Identification of Plant-Protective Traits of Sphingomonas sp. Strain Fr1 against Pseudomonas syringae DC3000

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Christine; Innerebner, Gerd; Zingg, Judith; Guder, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Sphingomonas sp. strain Fr1 has recently been shown to protect Arabidopsis thaliana against the bacterial leaf pathogen Pseudomonas syringae DC3000. Here, we describe a forward genetic in planta screen to identify genes in Sphingomonas sp. Fr1 necessary for this effect. About 5,000 Sphingomonas sp. Fr1 mini-Tn5 mutants were assayed for a defect in plant protection against a luxCDABE-tagged P. syringae DC3000 derivative in a space-saving 24-well plate system. The bioluminescence of the pathogen was used as the indicator of pathogen proliferation and allowed for the identification of Sphingomonas sp. Fr1 mutants that had lost the ability to restrict pathogen growth before disease symptoms were visible. Potential candidates were validated using the same miniaturized experimental system. Of these mutants, 10 were confirmed as plant protection defective yet colonization competent. The mutants were subsequently evaluated in a previously described standard microbox system, and plants showed enhanced disease phenotypes after pathogen infection relative to those inoculated with the parental strain as a control. However, the disease severities were lower than those observed for control plants that were grown axenically prior to pathogen challenge, which suggests that several traits may contribute to plant protection. Transposon insertion sites of validated mutants with defects in plant protection were determined and mapped to 7 distinct genomic regions. In conclusion, the established screening protocol allowed us to identify mutations that affect plant protection, and it opens the possibility to uncover traits important for in planta microbe-microbe interactions. PMID:22660707

  9. Molecular Characterization of an Ice Nucleation Protein Variant (InaQ) from Pseudomonas syringae and the Analysis of Its Transmembrane Transport Activity in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qianqian; Yan, Qi; Chen, Jinsi; He, Yan; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hongxing; Yu, Ziniu; Li, Lin

    2012-01-01

    The ice nucleation protein (INP) of Pseudomonas syringae has gained scientific interest not only because of its pathogenicity of foliar necroses but also for its wide range of potential applications, such as in snow making, frozen food preparation, and surface-display system development. However, studies on the transport activity of INP remain lacking. In the present study, a newly identified INP-gene variant, inaQ, from a P. syringae MB03 strain was cloned. Its structural domains, signal sequences, and the hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity of each domain, were then characterized. The deduced amino acid sequence of InaQ shares similar protein domains with three P. syringae INPs, namely, InaK, InaZ, and InaV, which were identified as an N-terminal domain, a central repeating domain, and a C-terminal domain. The expression of the full-length InaQ and of various truncated variants was induced in Escherichia coli to analyze their transmembrane transport and surface-binding activities, while using the green fluorescence protein (GFP) as the fusion partner. With two transmembrane segments and a weak secretion signal, the N-terminal domain (InaQ-N) alone was found to be responsible for the transport process as well as for the binding to the outer membrane, whereas the C-terminal region was nonfunctional in protein transport. Increased membrane transport and surface-binding capacities were induced by a low isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside concentration (0.1 mmol/l) but not by culture temperatures (15 ºC to 37 ºC). Furthermore, by constructing the GFP-fused proteins with a single InaQ-N, as well as two and three tandemly aligned InaQ-N molecules, the transport and membrane-binding activities of these proteins were compared using Western blot analysis, immmunofluorescence microscopy, and assays of the GFP specific fluorescence intensity of subcellular fractions and flow cytometry, which showed that the increase of InaQ-N repeats resulted in a coordinated increase of the

  10. Molecular characterization of an ice nucleation protein variant (inaQ) from Pseudomonas syringae and the analysis of its transmembrane transport activity in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Li, Qianqian; Yan, Qi; Chen, Jinsi; He, Yan; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hongxing; Yu, Ziniu; Li, Lin

    2012-01-01

    The ice nucleation protein (INP) of Pseudomonas syringae has gained scientific interest not only because of its pathogenicity of foliar necroses but also for its wide range of potential applications, such as in snow making, frozen food preparation, and surface-display system development. However, studies on the transport activity of INP remain lacking. In the present study, a newly identified INP-gene variant, inaQ, from a P. syringae MB03 strain was cloned. Its structural domains, signal sequences, and the hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity of each domain, were then characterized. The deduced amino acid sequence of InaQ shares similar protein domains with three P. syringae INPs, namely, InaK, InaZ, and InaV, which were identified as an N-terminal domain, a central repeating domain, and a C-terminal domain. The expression of the full-length InaQ and of various truncated variants was induced in Escherichia coli to analyze their transmembrane transport and surface-binding activities, while using the green fluorescence protein (GFP) as the fusion partner. With two transmembrane segments and a weak secretion signal, the N-terminal domain (InaQ-N) alone was found to be responsible for the transport process as well as for the binding to the outer membrane, whereas the C-terminal region was nonfunctional in protein transport. Increased membrane transport and surface-binding capacities were induced by a low isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside concentration (0.1 mmol/l) but not by culture temperatures (15 ºC to 37 ºC). Furthermore, by constructing the GFP-fused proteins with a single InaQ-N, as well as two and three tandemly aligned InaQ-N molecules, the transport and membrane-binding activities of these proteins were compared using Western blot analysis, immmunofluorescence microscopy, and assays of the GFP specific fluorescence intensity of subcellular fractions and flow cytometry, which showed that the increase of InaQ-N repeats resulted in a coordinated increase of the

  11. The presence of INA proteins on the surface of single cells of Pseudomonas syringae R10.79 isolated from rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Ling, Meilee; Holm, Stine; Finster, Kai; Boesen, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    One of the important open questions in atmospheric ice nucleation is the impact of bioaerosols on the ice content of mix phase clouds (DeMott and Prenni 2010). Biogenic ice nuclei have a unique capacity of facilitating ice formation at temperatures between -1 and -10 °C. The model biogenic ice nuclei are produced by a few species of plant-surface bacteria, such as Pseudomonas syringae, that are commonly transported through the atmosphere. These bacterial species have highly specialized proteins, the so-called ice nucleation active (INA) proteins, which are exposed at the outer membrane surface of the cell where they promote ice particle formation. The mechanisms behind the onset of INA protein synthesis in single bacterial cells are not well understood. We performed a laboratory study in order to (i) investigate the presence of INA proteins on single bacterial cells and (ii) understand the conditions that induce INA protein production. We previously isolated an INA-positive strain of Pseudomonas syringae from rain samples collected in Denmark. Bacterial cells initiated ice nucleation activity at temperatures ≤-2°C and the cell fragments at temperatures ≤-8°C (Šantl-Temkiv et al 2015). We determined the amino-acid sequence of the INA protein and used the sequence to produce custom-made antibodies (GenScript, Germany). These antibodies were used to specifically stain and visualize the INA protein on the surfaces of single cells, which can then be quantified by a technique called flow cytometry. The synthesis of INA proteins by individual cells was followed during a batch growth experiment. An unusually high proportion of cells that were adapting to the new conditions prior to growth produced INA proteins (~4.4% of all cells). A smaller fraction of actively growing cells was carrying INA proteins (~1.2 % of all cells). The cells that stopped growing due to unfavorable conditions had the lowest fraction of cells carrying INA proteins (~0.5 % of all cells). To

  12. Comparative analysis of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae and pv. phaseolicola based on phaseolotoxin-resistant ornithine carbamoyltransferase gene (argK) and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer sequences.

    PubMed

    Sawada, H; Takeuchi, T; Matsuda, I

    1997-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, which causes halo blight on various legumes, and pv. actinidiae, responsible for canker or leaf spot on actinidia plants, are known as phaseolotoxin producers, and the former possesses phaseolotoxin-resistant ornithine carbamoyltransferase (ROCT) which confers resistance to the toxin. We confirmed that the latter is also resistant to phaseolotoxin and possesses ROCT, and we compared the two pathovars by using sequence data of the ROCT gene and the intergenic spacer region located between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes (16S-23S spacer region) as an index. It was found that the identical ROCT gene (argK) is contained not only in bean isolates of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola in Mexico and the United States but also in bean isolates in Japan and Canada, and that it is also distributed in the kudzu (Pueraria lobata) isolates of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola. Moreover, the kiwifruit and tara vine isolates of P. syringae pv. actinidiae were also found to possess the identical argK. On the contrary, the 16S-23S spacer regions showed a significant level of sequence variation between P. syringae pv. actinidiae and pv. phaseolicola, suggesting that these two pathovars evolved differently from each other in the phylogenetic development. The fact that even synonymous substitution has not occurred in argK among these strains despite their extreme differences in phylogenetic evolution and geographical distribution suggests that it was only recently in evolutionary time that argK was transferred from its origin to P. syringae pv. actinidiae and/or pv. phaseolicola.

  13. Comparative analysis of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae and pv. phaseolicola based on phaseolotoxin-resistant ornithine carbamoyltransferase gene (argK) and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, H; Takeuchi, T; Matsuda, I

    1997-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, which causes halo blight on various legumes, and pv. actinidiae, responsible for canker or leaf spot on actinidia plants, are known as phaseolotoxin producers, and the former possesses phaseolotoxin-resistant ornithine carbamoyltransferase (ROCT) which confers resistance to the toxin. We confirmed that the latter is also resistant to phaseolotoxin and possesses ROCT, and we compared the two pathovars by using sequence data of the ROCT gene and the intergenic spacer region located between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes (16S-23S spacer region) as an index. It was found that the identical ROCT gene (argK) is contained not only in bean isolates of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola in Mexico and the United States but also in bean isolates in Japan and Canada, and that it is also distributed in the kudzu (Pueraria lobata) isolates of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola. Moreover, the kiwifruit and tara vine isolates of P. syringae pv. actinidiae were also found to possess the identical argK. On the contrary, the 16S-23S spacer regions showed a significant level of sequence variation between P. syringae pv. actinidiae and pv. phaseolicola, suggesting that these two pathovars evolved differently from each other in the phylogenetic development. The fact that even synonymous substitution has not occurred in argK among these strains despite their extreme differences in phylogenetic evolution and geographical distribution suggests that it was only recently in evolutionary time that argK was transferred from its origin to P. syringae pv. actinidiae and/or pv. phaseolicola. PMID:8979356

  14. Genetic analysis of genes involved in synthesis of modified 4-amino-4,6-dideoxyglucose in flagellin of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Linh Chi; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Andi, Salamah; Taguchi, Fumiko; Iwaki, Masako; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Ishii, Tadashi; Konishi, Tomoyuki; Tsunemi, Kazuhiko; Ichinose, Yuki

    2009-12-01

    Glycosylation of flagellin contributes to swimming and swarming motilities, adhesion ability, and consequently virulence in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605. Glycans attached to six serine residues are located in the central region of the flagellin polypeptide. The glycan structure at position Ser 201 was recently revealed to consist of two L-rhamnoses and one modified 4-amino-4,6-dideoxyglucose (viosamine). To clarify the mechanisms for glycosylation of modified viosamine, genes encoding dTDP-viosamine aminotransferase (vioA), dTDP-viosamine acetyltransferase (vioB), and viosamine-derivative transferase (vioT) were isolated and defective mutants were generated. MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of a lysyl endopeptidase-digested peptide including all six glycosylation sites from each flagellin indicated that the molecular masses of the three flagellin mutants were reduced with highly heterogeneous patterns at regular intervals of 146 Da in the mass range from m/z 13,819 to 15,732. The data indicated that the glycopeptides obtained from mutants had glycans consisting only of deoxyhexose instead of the flagellin glycans including the viosamine derivatives determined previously. The motility and virulence on host tobacco leaves were strongly impaired in the Delta vioA mutant and were weakly reduced in the Delta vioB and Delta vioT mutant strains. These results suggest that the genes vioA, vioB, and vioT are essential for glycosylation of flagellin, and accordingly are required for bacterial virulence.

  15. Role of type IV pili in virulence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605: correlation of motility, multidrug resistance, and HR-inducing activity on a nonhost plant.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Fumiko; Ichinose, Yuki

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the role of type IV pili in the virulence of phytopathogenic bacteria, four mutant strains for pilus biogenesis-related genes were generated in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605. PilA encodes the pilin protein as a major subunit of type IV pili, and the pilO product is reported to be required for pilus assembly. The fimU and fimT genes are predicted to produce minor pilins. Western blot analysis revealed that pilA, pilO, and fimU mutants but not the fimT mutant failed to construct type IV pili. Although the swimming motility of all mutant strains was not impaired in liquid medium, they showed remarkably reduced motilities on semisolid agar medium, suggesting that type IV pili are required for surface motilities. Virulence toward host tobacco plants and hypersensitive response-inducing ability in nonhost Arabidopsis leaves of pilA, pilO, and fimU mutant strains were reduced. These results might be a consequence of reduced expression of type III secretion system-related genes in the mutant strains. Further, all mutant strains showed enhanced expression of resistance-nodulation-division family members mexA, mexB, and oprM, and higher tolerance to antimicrobial compounds. These results indicate that type IV pili are an important virulence factor of this pathogen.

  16. Expression profiling soybean response to Pseudomonas syringae reveals new defense-related genes and rapid HR-specific downregulation of photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jijun; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra; Aldea, Mihai; Li, Min; Zhu, Jin; Gonzalez, Delkin O; Vodkin, Lila O; DeLucia, Evan; Clough, Steven J

    2005-11-01

    Transcript profiling during susceptible (S) and hypersensitive response-associated resistance (R) interactions was determined in soybean (Glycine max). Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea carrying or lacking the avirulence gene avrB, was infiltrated into cultivar Williams 82. Leaf RNA was sampled at 2, 8, and 24 h postinoculation (hpi). Significant changes in transcript abundance were observed for 3,897 genes during the experiment at P < or = 0.000005. Many of the genes showed a similar direction of increase or decrease in abundance in both the S and R responses, but the R response generally showed a significantly greater degree of differential expression. More than 25% of these responsive genes had not been previously reported as being associated with pathogen interactions, as 704 had no functional annotation and 378 had no homolog in National Center for Biotechnology Information databases. The highest number of transcriptional changes was noted at 8 hpi, including the downregulation of 94 chloroplast-associated genes specific to the R response. Photosynthetic measurements were consistent with an R-specific reduction in photosystem II operating efficiency (phiPSII) that was apparent at 8 hpi for the R response with little effect in the S or control treatments. Imaging analyses suggest that the decreased phiPSII was a result of physical damage to PSII reaction centers.

  17. Studies on the Infection, Colonization, and Movement of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in Kiwifruit Tissues Using a GFPuv-Labeled Strain.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoning; Huang, Qiling; Zhao, Zhibo; Han, Qingmei; Ke, Xiwang; Qin, Huqiang; Huang, Lili

    2016-01-01

    Kiwifruit bacterial canker, an economically important disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), has caused severe losses in all major areas of kiwifruit cultivation. Using a GFPuv-labeled strain of Psa, we monitored the invasion, colonization, and movement of the pathogen in kiwifruit twigs, leaves and veins. The pathogen can invade twigs through both wounds and natural openings; the highest number of Psa is obtained in cut tissues. We determined that, following spray inoculation, Psa-GFPuv could infect leaves and cause lesions in the presence and absence of wounds. Light and transmission electron microscopic observations showed that bacterial cells colonize both phloem and xylem vessels. Bacterial infection resulted in marked alterations of host tissues including the disintegration of organelles and degeneration of protoplasts and cell walls. Furthermore, low temperature was conducive to colonization and movement of Psa-GFPuv in kiwifruit tissues. Indeed, the pathogen migrated faster at 4°C than at 16°C or 25°C in twigs. However, the optimum temperature for colonization and movement of Psa in leaf veins was 16°C. Our results, revealing a better understanding of the Psa infection process, might contribute to develop more efficacious disease management strategies.

  18. Reference gene selection for normalization of RT-qPCR gene expression data from Actinidia deliciosa leaves infected with Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae

    PubMed Central

    Petriccione, Milena; Mastrobuoni, Francesco; Zampella, Luigi; Scortichini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Normalization of data, by choosing the appropriate reference genes (RGs), is fundamental for obtaining reliable results in reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). In this study, we assessed Actinidia deliciosa leaves inoculated with two doses of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae during a period of 13 days for the expression profile of nine candidate RGs. Their expression stability was calculated using four algorithms: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and the deltaCt method. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) were the most stable genes, while β-tubulin and 7s-globulin were the less stable. Expression analysis of three target genes, chosen for RGs validation, encoding the reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) indicated that a combination of stable RGs, such as GAPDH and PP2A, can lead to an accurate quantification of the expression levels of such target genes. The APX level varied during the experiment time course and according to the inoculum doses, whereas both SOD and CAT resulted down-regulated during the first four days, and up-regulated afterwards, irrespective of inoculum dose. These results can be useful for better elucidating the molecular interaction in the A. deliciosa/P. s. pv. actinidiae pathosystem and for RGs selection in bacteria-plant pathosystems. PMID:26581656

  19. Gaseous 3-pentanol primes plant immunity against a bacterial speck pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato via salicylic acid and jasmonic acid-dependent signaling pathways in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Geun C.; Choi, Hye K.; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    3-Pentanol is an active organic compound produced by plants and is a component of emitted insect sex pheromones. A previous study reported that drench application of 3-pentanol elicited plant immunity against microbial pathogens and an insect pest in crop plants. Here, we evaluated whether 3-pentanol and the derivatives 1-pentanol and 2-pentanol induced plant systemic resistance using the in vitro I-plate system. Exposure of Arabidopsis seedlings to 10 μM and 100 nM 3-pentanol evaporate elicited an immune response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. We performed quantitative real-time PCR to investigate the 3-pentanol-mediated Arabidopsis immune responses by determining Pathogenesis-Related (PR) gene expression levels associated with defense signaling through salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene signaling pathways. The results show that exposure to 3-pentanol and subsequent pathogen challenge upregulated PDF1.2 and PR1 expression. Selected Arabidopsis mutants confirmed that the 3-pentanol-mediated immune response involved SA and JA signaling pathways and the NPR1 gene. Taken together, this study indicates that gaseous 3-pentanol triggers induced resistance in Arabidopsis by priming SA and JA signaling pathways. To our knowledge, this is the first report that a volatile compound of an insect sex pheromone triggers plant systemic resistance against a bacterial pathogen. PMID:26500665

  20. Interplay among Pseudomonas syringae HrpR, HrpS and HrpV proteins for regulation of the type III secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Jovanovic, Milija; Lawton, Edward; Schumacher, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, a plant pathogenic gram-negative bacterium, employs the type III secretion system (T3SS) to cause disease in tomato and Arabidopsis and to induce the hypersensitive response in nonhost plants. The expression of T3SS is regulated by the HrpL extracytoplasmic sigma factor. Expression of HrpL is controlled by transcriptional activators HrpR and HrpS and negative regulator HrpV. In this study, we analysed the organization of HrpRS and HrpV regulatory proteins and interplay between them. We identified one key residue I26 in HrpS required for repression by HrpV. Substitution of I26 in HrpS abolishes its interaction with HrpV and impairs interactions between HrpS and HrpR and the self-association of HrpS. We show that HrpS self-associates and can associate simultaneously with HrpR and HrpV. We now propose that HrpS has a central role in the assembly of the regulatory HrpRSV complex. Deletion analysis of HrpR and HrpS proteins showed that C-terminal parts of HrpR and HrpS confer determinants indispensable for their self-assembly. PMID:24863420

  1. Studies on the Infection, Colonization, and Movement of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in Kiwifruit Tissues Using a GFPuv-Labeled Strain

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaoning; Huang, Qiling; Zhao, Zhibo; Han, Qingmei; Ke, Xiwang; Qin, Huqiang; Huang, Lili

    2016-01-01

    Kiwifruit bacterial canker, an economically important disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), has caused severe losses in all major areas of kiwifruit cultivation. Using a GFPuv-labeled strain of Psa, we monitored the invasion, colonization, and movement of the pathogen in kiwifruit twigs, leaves and veins. The pathogen can invade twigs through both wounds and natural openings; the highest number of Psa is obtained in cut tissues. We determined that, following spray inoculation, Psa-GFPuv could infect leaves and cause lesions in the presence and absence of wounds. Light and transmission electron microscopic observations showed that bacterial cells colonize both phloem and xylem vessels. Bacterial infection resulted in marked alterations of host tissues including the disintegration of organelles and degeneration of protoplasts and cell walls. Furthermore, low temperature was conducive to colonization and movement of Psa-GFPuv in kiwifruit tissues. Indeed, the pathogen migrated faster at 4°C than at 16°C or 25°C in twigs. However, the optimum temperature for colonization and movement of Psa in leaf veins was 16°C. Our results, revealing a better understanding of the Psa infection process, might contribute to develop more efficacious disease management strategies. PMID:26999596

  2. Gaseous 3-pentanol primes plant immunity against a bacterial speck pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato via salicylic acid and jasmonic acid-dependent signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Song, Geun C; Choi, Hye K; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    3-Pentanol is an active organic compound produced by plants and is a component of emitted insect sex pheromones. A previous study reported that drench application of 3-pentanol elicited plant immunity against microbial pathogens and an insect pest in crop plants. Here, we evaluated whether 3-pentanol and the derivatives 1-pentanol and 2-pentanol induced plant systemic resistance using the in vitro I-plate system. Exposure of Arabidopsis seedlings to 10 μM and 100 nM 3-pentanol evaporate elicited an immune response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. We performed quantitative real-time PCR to investigate the 3-pentanol-mediated Arabidopsis immune responses by determining Pathogenesis-Related (PR) gene expression levels associated with defense signaling through salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene signaling pathways. The results show that exposure to 3-pentanol and subsequent pathogen challenge upregulated PDF1.2 and PR1 expression. Selected Arabidopsis mutants confirmed that the 3-pentanol-mediated immune response involved SA and JA signaling pathways and the NPR1 gene. Taken together, this study indicates that gaseous 3-pentanol triggers induced resistance in Arabidopsis by priming SA and JA signaling pathways. To our knowledge, this is the first report that a volatile compound of an insect sex pheromone triggers plant systemic resistance against a bacterial pathogen.

  3. Functional analysis of NtMPK2 uncovers its positive role in response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingtan; Wang, Genhong; Gao, Junping; Nie, Mengyun; Liu, Wenshan; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades are highly conserved signaling modules downstream of receptors/sensors and play pivotal roles in signaling plant defense against pathogen attack. Extensive studies on Arabidopsis MPK4 have implicated that the MAP kinase is involved in multilayered plant defense pathways. In this study, we identified tobacco NtMPK2 as an ortholog of AtMPK4. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing NtMPK2 markedly enhances resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) virulent and avirulent strains. Transcriptome analysis of NtMPK2-dependent genes shows that possibly the basal resistance system is activated by NtMPK2 overexpression. In addition to NtMPK2-mediated resistance, multiple pathways are involved in response to the avirulent bacteria based on analysis of Pst-responding genes, including SA and ET pathways. Notably, it is possible that biosynthesis of antibacterial compounds is responsible for inhibition of Pst DC3000 avirulent strain when programmed cell death processes in the host. Our results uncover that NtMPK2 positively regulate tobacco defense response to Pst DC3000 and improve our understanding of plant molecular defense mechanism.

  4. Paraburkholderia phytofirmans PsJN protects Arabidopsis thaliana against a virulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae through the activation of induced resistance.

    PubMed

    Timmermann, Tania; Armijo, Grace; Donoso, Raúl A; Seguel, Aldo; Holuigue, Loreto; Gonzalez, Bernardo

    2017-01-24

    Paraburkholderia phytofirmans PsJN is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) that stimulates plant growth and improves tolerance to abiotic stresses. This study analyzed whether strain PsJN can reduce plant disease severity and proliferation of the virulent strain Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) DC3000 in Arabidopsis plants, through the activation of induced resistance. Arabidopsis plants previously exposed to strain PsJN showed a reduction in disease severity and pathogen proliferation in leaves compared to non-inoculated, infected plants. The plant defense-related genes WRKY54, PR1, ERF1, and PDF1.2 demonstrated increased and more rapid expression in strain PsJN-treated plants compared to non-inoculated, infected plants. Transcriptional analyses and functional analysis using signaling mutant plants, suggested that resistance to infection by Pst DC3000 in plants treated with strain PsJN involves salicylic acid, jasmonate, and ethylene-signaling pathways to activate defense genes. Additionally, activation occurs through a specific PGPR-host recognition, being necessary a metabolically active state of the bacterium to trigger the resistance in Arabidopsis, with a strain PsJN-associated molecular pattern only partially involved in the resistance response. This study provides the first report on the mechanism used by the PGPR P. phytofirmans PsJN to protect A. thaliana against a widespread virulent pathogenic bacterium.

  5. The Pseudomonas syringae Type III Effector HopG1 Induces Actin Remodeling to Promote Symptom Development and Susceptibility during Infection1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Shimono, Masaki; Porter, Katie; Kvitko, Brian H.; Henty-Ridilla, Jessica; Creason, Allison; Chang, Jeff H.; Staiger, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The plant cytoskeleton underpins the function of a multitude of cellular mechanisms, including those associated with developmental- and stress-associated signaling processes. In recent years, the actin cytoskeleton has been demonstrated to play a key role in plant immune signaling, including a recent demonstration that pathogens target actin filaments to block plant defense and immunity. Herein, we quantified spatial changes in host actin filament organization after infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000), demonstrating that the type-III effector HopG1 is required for pathogen-induced changes to actin filament architecture and host disease symptom development during infection. Using a suite of pathogen effector deletion constructs, coupled with high-resolution microscopy, we found that deletion of hopG1 from Pst DC3000 resulted in a reduction in actin bundling and a concomitant increase in the density of filament arrays in Arabidopsis, both of which correlate with host disease symptom development. As a mechanism underpinning this activity, we further show that the HopG1 effector interacts with an Arabidopsis mitochondrial-localized kinesin motor protein. Kinesin mutant plants show reduced disease symptoms after pathogen infection, which can be complemented by actin-modifying agents. In total, our results support a model in which HopG1 induces changes in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton as part of its virulence function in promoting disease symptom development. PMID:27217495

  6. The Arabidopsis Elongator complex is required for nonhost resistance against the bacterial pathogens Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121.

    PubMed

    An, Chuanfu; Wang, Chenggang; Mou, Zhonglin

    2017-01-30

    Although in recent years nonhost resistance has attracted considerable attention for its broad spectrum and durability, the genetic and mechanistic components of nonhost resistance have not been fully understood. We used molecular and histochemical approaches including quantitative PCR, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine and aniline blue staining. The evolutionarily conserved histone acetyltransferase complex Elongator was identified as a major component of nonhost resistance against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) and Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Psp) NPS3121. Mutations in Elongator genes inhibit Xcc-, Psp NPS3121- and/or flg22-induced defense responses including defense gene expression, callose deposition, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and salicylic acid (SA) accumulation. Mutations in Elongator also attenuate the ROS-SA amplification loop. We show that suppressed ROS and SA accumulation in Elongator mutants is correlated with reduced expression of the Arabidopsis respiratory burst oxidase homologue AtrbohD and the SA biosynthesis gene ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE1 (ICS1). Furthermore, we found that the Elongator subunit ELP2 is associated with the chromatin of AtrbohD and ICS1 and is required for maintaining basal histone H3 acetylation levels in these key defense genes. As both AtrbohD and ICS1 contribute to nonhost resistance against Xcc, our results reveal an epigenetic mechanism by which Elongator regulates nonhost resistance in Arabidopsis.

  7. Plant innate immunity induced by flagellin suppresses the hypersensitive response in non-host plants elicited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. averrhoi.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chia-Fong; Hsu, Shih-Tien; Deng, Wen-Ling; Wen, Yu-Der; Huang, Hsiou-Chen

    2012-01-01

    A new pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. averrhoi (Pav), which causes bacterial spot disease on carambola was identified in Taiwan in 1997. Many strains of this pathovar have been isolated from different locations and several varieties of hosts. Some of these strains, such as HL1, are nonmotile and elicit a strong hypersensitive response (HR) in nonhost tobacco leaves, while other strains, such as PA5, are motile and elicit a weak HR. Based on the image from a transmission electron microscope, the results showed that HL1 is flagellum-deficient and PA5 has normal flagella. Here we cloned and analyzed the fliC gene and glycosylation island from Pav HL1 and PA5. The amino acid sequences of FliC from HL1 and PA5 are identical to P. s. pvs. tabaci (Pta), glycinea and phaseolicola and share very high similarity with other pathovars of P. syringae. In contrast to the flagellin mutant PtaΔfliC, PA5ΔfliC grows as well as wild type in the host plant, but it elicits stronger HR than wild type does in non-host plants. Furthermore, the purified Pav flagellin, but not the divergent flagellin from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, is able to impair the HR induced by PA5ΔfliC. PA5Δfgt1 possessing nonglycosylated flagella behaved as its wild type in both bacterial growth in host and HR elicitation. Flagellin was infiltrated into tobacco leaves either simultaneously with flagellum-deficient HL1 or prior to the inoculation of wild type HL1, and both treatments impaired the HR induced by HL1. Moreover, the HR elicited by PA5 and PA5ΔfliC was enhanced by the addition of cycloheximide, suggesting that the flagellin is one of the PAMPs (pathogen-associated molecular patterns) contributed to induce the PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Taken together, the results shown in this study reveal that flagellin in Pav is capable of suppressing HR via PTI induction during an incompatible interaction.

  8. Genomic Analysis of the Kiwifruit Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Provides Insight into the Origins of an Emergent Plant Disease

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Honour C.; Rikkerink, Erik H. A.; Bertels, Frederic; Fiers, Mark; Lu, Ashley; Rees-George, Jonathan; Andersen, Mark T.; Gleave, Andrew P.; Haubold, Bernhard; Wohlers, Mark W.; Guttman, David S.; Wang, Pauline W.; Straub, Christina; Vanneste, Joel; Rainey, Paul B.; Templeton, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    The origins of crop diseases are linked to domestication of plants. Most crops were domesticated centuries – even millennia – ago, thus limiting opportunity to understand the concomitant emergence of disease. Kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) is an exception: domestication began in the 1930s with outbreaks of canker disease caused by P. syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) first recorded in the 1980s. Based on SNP analyses of two circularized and 34 draft genomes, we show that Psa is comprised of distinct clades exhibiting negligible within-clade diversity, consistent with disease arising by independent samplings from a source population. Three clades correspond to their geographical source of isolation; a fourth, encompassing the Psa-V lineage responsible for the 2008 outbreak, is now globally distributed. Psa has an overall clonal population structure, however, genomes carry a marked signature of within-pathovar recombination. SNP analysis of Psa-V reveals hundreds of polymorphisms; however, most reside within PPHGI-1-like conjugative elements whose evolution is unlinked to the core genome. Removal of SNPs due to recombination yields an uninformative (star-like) phylogeny consistent with diversification of Psa-V from a single clone within the last ten years. Growth assays provide evidence of cultivar specificity, with rapid systemic movement of Psa-V in Actinidia chinensis. Genomic comparisons show a dynamic genome with evidence of positive selection on type III effectors and other candidate virulence genes. Each clade has highly varied complements of accessory genes encoding effectors and toxins with evidence of gain and loss via multiple genetic routes. Genes with orthologs in vascular pathogens were found exclusively within Psa-V. Our analyses capture a pathogen in the early stages of emergence from a predicted source population associated with wild Actinidia species. In addition to candidate genes as targets for resistance breeding programs, our findings highlight the

  9. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) in Arabidopsis thaliana against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato by 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strains that produce the polyketide antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) are among the most effective rhizobacteria that suppress root and crown rots, wilts and damping-off diseases of a variety of crops, and they play a key role in the natural suppressiveness of ...

  10. Concomitant induction of systemic resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans in cucumber by Trichoderma asperellum (T-203) and accumulation of phytoalexins.

    PubMed

    Yedidia, Iris; Shoresh, Michal; Kerem, Zohar; Benhamou, Nicole; Kapulnik, Yoram; Chet, Ilan

    2003-12-01

    Most studies on the reduction of disease incidence in soil treated with Trichoderma asperellum have focused on microbial interactions rather than on plant responses. This study presents conclusive evidence for the induction of a systemic response against angular leaf spot of cucumber (Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans) following application of T. asperellum to the root system. To ascertain that T. asperellum was the only microorganism present in the root milieu, plants were grown in an aseptic hydroponic growth system. Disease symptoms were reduced by as much as 80%, corresponding to a reduction of 2 orders of magnitude in bacterial cell densities in leaves of plants pretreated with T. asperellum. As revealed by electron microscopy, bacterial cell proliferation in these plants was halted. The protection afforded by the biocontrol agent was associated with the accumulation of mRNA of two defense genes: the phenylpropanoid pathway gene encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and the lipoxygenase pathway gene encoding hydroxyperoxide lyase (HPL). This was further supported by the accumulation of secondary metabolites of a phenolic nature that showed an increase of up to sixfold in inhibition capacity of bacterial growth in vitro. The bulk of the antimicrobial activity was found in the acid-hydrolyzed extract containing the phenolics in their aglycone form. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of phenolic compounds showed a marked change in their profile in the challenged, preelicited plants relative to that in challenged controls. The results suggest that similar to beneficial rhizobacteria, T. asperellum may activate separate metabolic pathways in cucumber that are involved in plant signaling and biosynthesis, eventually leading to the systemic accumulation of phytoalexins.

  11. Arabidopsis AtERF014 acts as a dual regulator that differentially modulates immunity against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huijuan; Hong, Yongbo; Huang, Lei; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2016-01-01

    ERF transcription factors play critical roles in plant immune responses. Here, we report the function of AtERF014, a nucleus-localized transcriptional activator, in Arabidopsis immunity. Expression of AtERF014 was induced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) and Botrytis cinerea (Bc). AtERF014-overexpressing (OE) plants displayed increased Pst resistance but decreased Bc resistance, whereas AtERF014-RNAi plants exhibited decreased Pst resistance but increased Bc resistance. After Pst infection, expression of salicylic acid (SA)-responsive genes AtPR1 and AtPR5 in AtERF014-OE plants and of a jasmonic acid/ethylene-responsive gene AtPDF1.2 in AtERF014-RNAi plants was intensified but expression of AtPDF1.2 in AtERF014-OE plants and of AtPR1 and AtPR5 in AtERF014-RNAi plants was weakened. After Bc infection, expression of AtPR1 and AtPR5 in AtERF014-OE plants was attenuated but expression of AtPR1, AtPR5 and AtPDF1.2 in AtERF014-RNAi plants was strengthened. Pathogen- and flg22-induced ROS burst, expression of PTI genes and SA-induced defense were partially suppressed in AtERF014-RNAi plants, whereas pathogen-induced ROS and flg22-induced immune response were strengthened in AtER014-OE plants. Altered expression of AtERR014 affected expression of pectin biosynthetic genes and pectin content in AtERF014-RNAi plants was decreased. These data demonstrate that AtERF014 acts as a dual regulator that differentially modulates immunity against Pst and Bc in Arabidopsis. PMID:27445230

  12. The Arabidopsis ZED1 pseudokinase is required for ZAR1-mediated immunity induced by the Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopZ1a

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jennifer D.; Lee, Amy Huei-Yi; Hassan, Jana A.; Wan, Janet; Hurley, Brenden; Jhingree, Jacquelyn R.; Wang, Pauline W.; Lo, Timothy; Youn, Ji-Young; Guttman, David S.; Desveaux, Darrell

    2013-01-01

    Plant and animal pathogenic bacteria can suppress host immunity by injecting type III secreted effector (T3SE) proteins into host cells. However, T3SEs can also elicit host immunity if the host has evolved a means to recognize the presence or activity of specific T3SEs. The diverse YopJ/HopZ/AvrRxv T3SE superfamily, which is found in both animal and plant pathogens, provides examples of T3SEs playing this dual role. The T3SE HopZ1a is an acetyltransferase carried by the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae that elicits effector-triggered immunity (ETI) when recognized in Arabidopsis thaliana by the nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) protein ZAR1. However, recognition of HopZ1a does not require any known ETI-related genes. Using a forward genetics approach, we identify a unique ETI-associated gene that is essential for ZAR1-mediated immunity. The hopZ-ETI-deficient1 (zed1) mutant is specifically impaired in the recognition of HopZ1a, but not the recognition of other unrelated T3SEs or in pattern recognition receptor (PRR)-triggered immunity. ZED1 directly interacts with both HopZ1a and ZAR1 and is acetylated on threonines 125 and 177 by HopZ1a. ZED1 is a nonfunctional kinase that forms part of small genomic cluster of kinases in Arabidopsis. We hypothesize that ZED1 acts as a decoy to lure HopZ1a to the ZAR1–resistance complex, resulting in ETI activation. PMID:24170858

  13. Development of a Multiple Loci Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA) to Unravel the Intra-Pathovar Structure of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Populations Worldwide.

    PubMed

    Ciarroni, Serena; Gallipoli, Lorenzo; Taratufolo, Maria C; Butler, Margi I; Poulter, Russell T M; Pourcel, Christine; Vergnaud, Gilles; Balestra, Giorgio M; Mazzaglia, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial canker of kiwifruit by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is an emblematic example of a catastrophic disease of fruit crops. In 2008 a new, extremely virulent form of the pathogen emerged and rapidly devastated many Actinidia spp. orchards all over the world. In order to understand differences in populations within this pathovar and to elucidate their diffusion and movements on world scale, it is necessary to be able to quickly and on a routine basis compare new isolates with previous records. In this report a worldwide collection of 142 strains was analyzed by MLVA, chosen as investigative technique for its efficacy, reproducibility, simplicity and low cost. A panel of 13 Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) loci was identified and used to describe the pathogen population. The MLVA clustering is highly congruent with the population structure as previously established by other molecular approaches including whole genome sequencing and correlates with geographic origin, time of isolation and virulence. For convenience, we divided the VNTR loci in two panels. Panel 1 assay, using six loci, recognizes 23 different haplotypes, clustered into ten complexes with highest congruence with previous classifications. Panel 2, with seven VNTR loci, provides discriminatory power. Using the total set of 13 VNTR loci, 58 haplotypes can be distinguished. The recent hypervirulent type shows very limited diversity and includes, beside the strains from Europe, New Zealand and Chile, a few strains from Shaanxi, China. A broad genetic variability is observed in China, but different types are also retrievable in Japan and Korea. The low virulent strains cluster together and are very different from the other MLVA genotypes. Data were used to generate a public database in MLVAbank. MLVA represents a very promising first-line assay for large-scale routine genotyping, prior to whole genome sequencing of only the most relevant samples.

  14. Co-silencing of tomato S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase genes confers increased immunity against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and enhanced tolerance to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohui; Huang, Lei; Hong, Yongbo; Zhang, Yafen; Liu, Shixia; Li, Dayong; Zhang, Huijuan; Song, Fengming

    2015-01-01

    S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH), catalyzing the reversible hydrolysis of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) to adenosine and homocysteine, is a key enzyme that maintain the cellular methylation potential in all organisms. We report here the biological functions of tomato SlSAHHs in stress response. The tomato genome contains three SlSAHH genes that encode SlSAHH proteins with high level of sequence identity. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that SlSAHHs responded with distinct expression induction patterns to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 and Botrytis cinerea as well as to defense signaling hormones such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and a precursor of ethylene. Virus-induced gene silencing-based knockdown of individual SlSAHH gene did not affect the growth performance and the response to Pst DC3000. However, co-silencing of three SlSAHH genes using a conserved sequence led to significant inhibition of vegetable growth. The SlSAHH-co-silenced plants displayed increased resistance to Pst DC3000 but did not alter the resistance to B. cinerea. Co-silencing of SlSAHHs resulted in constitutively activated defense responses including elevated SA level, upregulated expression of defense-related and PAMP-triggered immunity marker genes and increased callose deposition and H2O2 accumulation. Furthermore, the SlSAHH-co-silenced plants also exhibited enhanced drought stress tolerance although they had relatively small roots. These data demonstrate that, in addition to the functions in growth and development, SAHHs also play important roles in regulating biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants.

  15. Mqo, a tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme, is required for virulence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 on Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Mellgren, Eve M; Kloek, Andrew P; Kunkel, Barbara N

    2009-05-01

    Plant pathogenic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000, the causative agent of tomato bacterial speck disease, grow to high levels in the apoplastic space between plant cells. Colonization of plant tissue requires expression of virulence factors that modify the apoplast to make it more suitable for pathogen growth or facilitate adaptation of the bacteria to the apoplastic environment. To identify new virulence factors involved in these processes, DC3000 Tn5 transposon insertion mutants with reduced virulence on Arabidopsis thaliana were identified. In one of these mutants, the Tn5 insertion disrupted the malate:quinone oxidoreductase gene (mqo), which encodes an enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. mqo mutants do not grow to wild-type levels in plant tissue at early time points during infection. Further, plants infected with mqo mutants develop significantly reduced disease symptoms, even when the growth of the mqo mutant reaches wild-type levels at late stages of infection. Mutants lacking mqo function grow more slowly in culture than wild-type bacteria when dicarboxylates are the only available carbon source. To explore whether dicarboxylates are important for growth of DC3000 in the apoplast, we disrupted the dctA1 dicarboxylate transporter gene. DC3000 mutants lacking dctA1 do not grow to wild-type levels in planta, indicating that transport and utilization of dicarboxylates are important for virulence of DC3000. Thus, mqo may be required by DC3000 to meet nutritional requirements in the apoplast and may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the important, but poorly understood process of adaptation to the host environment.

  16. Use of dominant-negative HrpA mutants to dissect Hrp pilus assembly and type III secretion in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Hoon; Kolade, Olatomirin O; Nomura, Kinya; Arvidson, Dennis N; He, Sheng Yang

    2005-06-03

    The Hrp pilus plays an essential role in the long-distance type III translocation of effector proteins from bacteria into plant cells. HrpA is the structural subunit of the Hrp pilus in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. Little is known about the molecular features in the HrpA protein for pilus assembly or for transporting effector proteins. From previous collections of nonfunctional HrpA derivatives that carry random pentapeptide insertions or single amino acid mutations, we identified several dominant-negative mutants that blocked the ability of wild-type Pst DC3000 to elicit host responses. The dominant-negative phenotype was correlated with the disappearance of the Hrp pilus in culture and inhibition of wild-type HrpA protein self-assembly in vitro. Dominant-negative HrpA mutants can be grouped into two functional classes: one class exerted a strong dominant-negative effect on the secretion of effector proteins AvrPto and HopPtoM in culture, and the other did not. The two classes of mutant HrpA proteins carry pentapeptide insertions in discrete regions, which are interrupted by insertions without a dominant-negative effect. These results enable prediction of possible subunit-subunit interaction sites in the assembly of the Hrp pilus and suggest the usefulness of dominant-negative mutants in dissection of the role of the wild-type HrpA protein in various stages of type III translocation: protein exit across the bacterial cell wall, the assembly and/or stabilization of the Hrp pilus in the extracellular space, and Hrp pilus-mediated long-distance transport beyond the bacterial cell wall.

  17. Histological Examination of Horse Chestnut Infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and Non-Destructive Heat Treatment to Stop Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    de Keijzer, Jeroen; van den Broek, Lambertus A. M.; Ketelaar, Tijs; van Lammeren, André A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39°C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens. PMID:22808044

  18. Biochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of the Non-Heme Fe(II)- and 2-Oxoglutarate-Dependent Ethylene-Forming Enzyme from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola PK2.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Salette; Hausinger, Robert P

    2016-11-01

    The ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola PK2 is a member of the mononuclear non-heme Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenase superfamily. This enzyme is reported to simultaneously catalyze the conversion of 2OG into ethylene and three CO2 molecules and the Cδ hydroxylation of l-arginine (l-Arg) while oxidatively decarboxylating 2OG to form succinate and carbon dioxide. A new plasmid construct for expression in recombinant Escherichia coli cells allowed for the purification of large amounts of EFE with activity greater than that previously recorded. A variety of assays were used to quantify and confirm the identity of the proposed products, including the first experimental demonstration of l-Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate and guanidine derived from 5-hydroxyarginine. Selected l-Arg derivatives could induce ethylene formation without undergoing hydroxylation, demonstrating that ethylene production and l-Arg hydroxylation activities are not linked. Similarly, EFE utilizes the alternative α-keto acid 2-oxoadipate as a cosubstrate (forming glutaric acid) during the hydroxylation of l-Arg, with this reaction unlinked from ethylene formation. Kinetic constants were determined for both ethylene formation and l-Arg hydroxylation reactions. Anaerobic UV-visible difference spectra were used to monitor the binding of Fe(II) and substrates to the enzyme. On the basis of our results and what is generally known about EFE and Fe(II)- and 2OG-dependent oxygenases, an updated model for the reaction mechanism is presented.

  19. Arabidopsis AtERF014 acts as a dual regulator that differentially modulates immunity against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijuan; Hong, Yongbo; Huang, Lei; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2016-07-22

    ERF transcription factors play critical roles in plant immune responses. Here, we report the function of AtERF014, a nucleus-localized transcriptional activator, in Arabidopsis immunity. Expression of AtERF014 was induced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) and Botrytis cinerea (Bc). AtERF014-overexpressing (OE) plants displayed increased Pst resistance but decreased Bc resistance, whereas AtERF014-RNAi plants exhibited decreased Pst resistance but increased Bc resistance. After Pst infection, expression of salicylic acid (SA)-responsive genes AtPR1 and AtPR5 in AtERF014-OE plants and of a jasmonic acid/ethylene-responsive gene AtPDF1.2 in AtERF014-RNAi plants was intensified but expression of AtPDF1.2 in AtERF014-OE plants and of AtPR1 and AtPR5 in AtERF014-RNAi plants was weakened. After Bc infection, expression of AtPR1 and AtPR5 in AtERF014-OE plants was attenuated but expression of AtPR1, AtPR5 and AtPDF1.2 in AtERF014-RNAi plants was strengthened. Pathogen- and flg22-induced ROS burst, expression of PTI genes and SA-induced defense were partially suppressed in AtERF014-RNAi plants, whereas pathogen-induced ROS and flg22-induced immune response were strengthened in AtER014-OE plants. Altered expression of AtERR014 affected expression of pectin biosynthetic genes and pectin content in AtERF014-RNAi plants was decreased. These data demonstrate that AtERF014 acts as a dual regulator that differentially modulates immunity against Pst and Bc in Arabidopsis.

  20. The Pseudomonas syringae effector HopQ1 promotes bacterial virulence and interacts with tomato 14-3-3 proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Yadeta, Koste A; Elmore, James Mitch; Coaker, Gitta

    2013-04-01

    A key virulence strategy of bacterial pathogens is the delivery of multiple pathogen effector proteins into host cells during infection. The Hrp outer protein Q (HopQ1) effector from Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pto) strain DC3000 is conserved across multiple bacterial plant pathogens. Here, we investigated the virulence function and host targets of HopQ1 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Transgenic tomato lines expressing dexamethasone-inducible HopQ1 exhibited enhanced disease susceptibility to virulent Pto DC3000, the Pto ΔhrcC mutant, and decreased expression of a pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered marker gene after bacterial inoculation. HopQ1-interacting proteins were coimmunoprecipitated and identified by mass spectrometry. HopQ1 can associate with multiple tomato 14-3-3 proteins, including TFT1 and TFT5. HopQ1 is phosphorylated in tomato, and four phosphorylated peptides were identified by mass spectrometry. HopQ1 possesses a conserved mode I 14-3-3 binding motif whose serine-51 residue is phosphorylated in tomato and regulates its association with TFT1 and TFT5. Confocal microscopy and fractionation reveal that HopQ1 exhibits nucleocytoplasmic localization, while HopQ1 dephosphorylation mimics exhibit more pronounced nuclear localization. HopQ1 delivered from Pto DC3000 was found to promote bacterial virulence in the tomato genotype Rio Grande 76R. However, the HopQ1(S51A) mutant delivered from Pto DC3000 was unable to promote pathogen virulence. Taken together, our data demonstrate that HopQ1 enhances bacterial virulence and associates with tomato 14-3-3 proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner that influences HopQ1's subcellular localization and virulence-promoting activities in planta.

  1. Expression of Pseudomonas syringae type III effectors in yeast under stress conditions reveals that HopX1 attenuates activation of the high osmolarity glycerol MAP kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Dor; Bosis, Eran; Dar, Daniel; Nachman, Iftach; Sessa, Guido

    2012-11-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) is the causal agent of speck disease in tomato. Pst pathogenicity depends on a type III secretion system that delivers effector proteins into host cells, where they promote disease by manipulating processes to the advantage of the pathogen. Previous studies identified seven Pst effectors that inhibit growth when expressed in yeast under normal growth conditions, suggesting that they interfere with cellular processes conserved in yeast and plants. We hypothesized that effectors also target conserved cellular processes that are required for yeast growth only under stress conditions. We therefore examined phenotypes induced by expression of Pst effectors in yeast grown in the presence of various stressors. Out of 29 effectors tested, five (HopX1, HopG1, HopT1-1, HopH1 and AvrPtoB) displayed growth inhibition phenotypes only in combination with stress conditions. Viability assays revealed that the HopX1 effector caused loss of cell viability under prolonged osmotic stress. Using transcription reporters, we found that HopX1 attenuated the activation of the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which is responsible for yeast survival under osmotic stress, while other MAPK pathways were mildly affected by HopX1. Interestingly, HopX1-mediated phenotypes in yeast were dependent on the putative transglutaminase catalytic triad of the effector. This study enlarges the pool of phenotypes available for the functional analysis of Pst type III effectors in yeast, and exemplifies how analysis of phenotypes detected in yeast under stress conditions can lead to the identification of eukaryotic cellular processes affected by bacterial effectors.

  2. Development of a Multiple Loci Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA) to Unravel the Intra-Pathovar Structure of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Populations Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Ciarroni, Serena; Gallipoli, Lorenzo; Taratufolo, Maria C.; Butler, Margi I.; Poulter, Russell T. M.; Pourcel, Christine; Vergnaud, Gilles; Balestra, Giorgio M.; Mazzaglia, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial canker of kiwifruit by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is an emblematic example of a catastrophic disease of fruit crops. In 2008 a new, extremely virulent form of the pathogen emerged and rapidly devastated many Actinidia spp. orchards all over the world. In order to understand differences in populations within this pathovar and to elucidate their diffusion and movements on world scale, it is necessary to be able to quickly and on a routine basis compare new isolates with previous records. In this report a worldwide collection of 142 strains was analyzed by MLVA, chosen as investigative technique for its efficacy, reproducibility, simplicity and low cost. A panel of 13 Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) loci was identified and used to describe the pathogen population. The MLVA clustering is highly congruent with the population structure as previously established by other molecular approaches including whole genome sequencing and correlates with geographic origin, time of isolation and virulence. For convenience, we divided the VNTR loci in two panels. Panel 1 assay, using six loci, recognizes 23 different haplotypes, clustered into ten complexes with highest congruence with previous classifications. Panel 2, with seven VNTR loci, provides discriminatory power. Using the total set of 13 VNTR loci, 58 haplotypes can be distinguished. The recent hypervirulent type shows very limited diversity and includes, beside the strains from Europe, New Zealand and Chile, a few strains from Shaanxi, China. A broad genetic variability is observed in China, but different types are also retrievable in Japan and Korea. The low virulent strains cluster together and are very different from the other MLVA genotypes. Data were used to generate a public database in MLVAbank. MLVA represents a very promising first-line assay for large-scale routine genotyping, prior to whole genome sequencing of only the most relevant samples. PMID:26262683

  3. IDL6-HAE/HSL2 impacts pectin degradation and resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 in Arabidopsis leaves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Hou, Shuguo; Wu, Qiqi; Lin, Minyan; Acharya, Biswa R; Wu, Daoji; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Plant cell walls undergo dynamic structural and chemical changes during plant development and growth. Floral organ abscission and lateral root emergence are both accompanied by cell-wall remodeling, which involves the INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (IDA)-derived peptide and its receptors, HAESA (HAE) and HAESA-LIKE2 (HSL2). Plant cell walls also act as barriers against pathogenic invaders. Thus, the cell-wall remodeling during plant development could have an influence on plant resistance to phytopathogens. Here, we identified IDA-like 6 (IDL6), a gene that is prominently expressed in Arabidopsis leaves. IDL6 expression in Arabidopsis leaves is significantly upregulated when the plant is suffering from attacks of the bacterial Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. IDL6 overexpression and knockdown lines respectively decrease and increase the Arabidopsis resistance to Pst DC3000, indicating that the gene promotes the Arabidopsis susceptibility to Pst DC3000. Moreover, IDL6 promotes the expression of a polygalacturonase (PG) gene, ADPG2, and increases PG activity in Arabidopsis leaves, which in turn reduces leaf pectin content and leaf robustness. ADPG2 overexpression restrains Arabidopsis resistance to Pst DC3000, whereas ADPG2 loss-of-function mutants increase the resistance to the bacterium. Pst DC3000 infection elevates the ADPG2 expression partially through HAE and HSL2. Taken together, our results suggest that IDL6-HAE/HSL2 facilitates the ingress of Pst DC3000 by promoting pectin degradation in Arabidopsis leaves, and Pst DC3000 might enhance its infection by manipulating the IDL6-HAE/HSL2-ADPG2 signaling pathway.

  4. Natural Variation for Responsiveness to flg22, flgII-28, and csp22 and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in Heirloom Tomatoes

    PubMed Central

    Veluchamy, Selvakumar; Hind, Sarah R.; Dunham, Diane M.; Martin, Gregory B.; Panthee, Dilip R.

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is susceptible to many diseases including bacterial speck caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Bacterial speck disease is a serious problem worldwide in tomato production areas where moist conditions and cool temperatures occur. To enhance breeding of speck resistant fresh-market tomato cultivars we identified a race 0 field isolate, NC-C3, of P. s. pv. tomato in North Carolina and used it to screen a collection of heirloom tomato lines for speck resistance in the field. We observed statistically significant variation among the heirloom tomatoes for their response to P. s. pv. tomato NC-C3 with two lines showing resistance approaching a cultivar that expresses the Pto resistance gene, although none of the heirloom lines have Pto. Using an assay that measures microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), we investigated whether the heirloom lines showed differential responsiveness to three bacterial-derived peptide MAMPs: flg22 and flgII-28 (from flagellin) and csp22 (from cold shock protein). Significant differences were observed for MAMP responsiveness among the lines, although these differences did not correlate strongly with resistance or susceptibility to bacterial speck disease. The identification of natural variation for MAMP responsiveness opens up the possibility of using a genetic approach to identify the underlying loci and to facilitate breeding of cultivars with enhanced disease resistance. Towards this goal, we discovered that responsiveness to csp22 segregates as a single locus in an F2 population of tomato. PMID:25180693

  5. Histological examination of horse chestnut infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and non-destructive heat treatment to stop disease progression.

    PubMed

    de Keijzer, Jeroen; van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Ketelaar, Tijs; van Lammeren, André A M

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39 °C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens.

  6. Persistence and translocation of a benzothiadiazole derivative in tomato plants in relation to systemic acquired resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato.

    PubMed

    Scarponi, L; Buonaurio, R; Martinetti, L

    2001-03-01

    A reproducible and accurate procedure, based on HPLC analysis, has been developed to determine simultaneously acibenzolar-S-methyl (CGA 245 704) and its acid derivative (CGA 210 007) in tomato leaves. The limit of detection and quantification of the method are 0.015 and 0.15 mg litre-1 for CGA 245 704 and 0.030 and 0.30 mg litre-1 for CGA 210 007. In tomato plants treated with 250 microM CGA 245 704, it was found that the inducer rapidly translocates from treated leaves (cotyledons, 1st and 2nd) to untreated leaves (3rd to 5th), with the maximum translocation (40% of the total quantity found) occurring 8 h after the treatment. CGA 245 704 residues decreased as time elapsed in both treated and untreated tomato leaves, reaching negligible values 72 h after treatment. The acid derivative, CGA 210 007, was formed in tomato plants as early as 2 h after CGA 245 704 treatment, albeit only in the treated leaves. CGA 210 007 residues decreased in treated tomato leaves with a trend similar to that observed for CGA 245 704. Treatment of tomato plants with CGA 245 704 or CGA 210 007 at 250 microM systemically protected the plants against Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato attacks, the causal agent of bacterial speak disease. Evidence of this were reductions in the degree of infection, the bacterial lesion diameter and the bacterial growth in planta. Since neither CGA 245 704 nor CGA 210 007 inhibited bacterial growth in vitro and the protection against bacterial speak of tomato was observed when the two compounds were completely degraded, the protection must be due to the activation of the plant's defence mechanisms.

  7. Altered Epiphytic Colonization of Mannityl Opine-Producing Transgenic Tobacco Plants by a Mannityl Opine-Catabolizing Strain of Pseudomonas syringae

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, M.; Savka, M. A.; Hwang, I.; Farrand, S. K.; Lindow, S. E.

    1995-01-01

    The plasmid pYDH208, which confers the ability to catabolize the mannityl opines mannopine and agropine, was mobilized into the nonpathogenic Pseudomonas syringae strain Cit7. The growth of the mannityl opine-catabolizing strain Cit7(pYDH208) was compared with that of the near-isogenic non-opine-catabolizing strain Cit7xylE on leaves of wild-type tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi) and transgenic mannityl opine-producing tobacco plants (N. tabacum cv. Xanthi, line 2-26). The population size of Cit7(pYDH208) was significantly greater on the lower leaves of transgenic plants than on middle or upper leaves of those plants. The population size of Cit7(pYDH208) on lower leaves of transgenic plants was also significantly greater than the population size of Cit7xylE on similar leaves of wild-type plants. High-voltage paper electrophoresis demonstrated higher levels of mannityl opines in washings from lower- and mid-level leaves than in washings from upper-level leaves. The ability of Cit7(pYDH208) to catabolize mannityl opines in the carbon-limited phyllosphere increased the carrying capacity of the lower leaves of transgenic plants for Cit7(pYDH208). In coinoculations, the increase in the ratio of population sizes of Cit7(pYDH208) to Cit7xylE on transgenic plants was apparently due to a subtle difference in the growth rates of the two strains and to the difference in final population sizes. An ability to utilize additional carbon sources on the transgenic plants also enabled Cit7(pYDH208) to achieve a higher degree of coexistence with Cit7xylE on transgenic plants than on wild-type plants. This supports the hypothesis that the level of coexistence between epiphytic bacterial populations can be altered through nutritional resource partitioning. PMID:16535040

  8. Overexpression of Nictaba-Like Lectin Genes from Glycine max Confers Tolerance toward Pseudomonas syringae Infection, Aphid Infestation and Salt Stress in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    PubMed Central

    Van Holle, Sofie; Smagghe, Guy; Van Damme, Els J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Plants have evolved a sophisticated immune system that allows them to recognize invading pathogens by specialized receptors. Carbohydrate-binding proteins or lectins are part of this immune system and especially the lectins that reside in the nucleocytoplasmic compartment are known to be implicated in biotic and abiotic stress responses. The class of Nictaba-like lectins (NLL) groups all proteins with homology to the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) lectin, known as a stress-inducible lectin. Here we focus on two Nictaba homologs from soybean (Glycine max), referred to as GmNLL1 and GmNLL2. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of fusion constructs with the green fluorescent protein either transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves or stably transformed in tobacco BY-2 suspension cells revealed a nucleocytoplasmic localization for the GmNLLs under study. RT-qPCR analysis of the transcript levels for the Nictaba-like lectins in soybean demonstrated that the genes are expressed in several tissues throughout the development of the plant. Furthermore, it was shown that salt treatment, Phytophthora sojae infection and Aphis glycines infestation trigger the expression of particular NLL genes. Stress experiments with Arabidopsis lines overexpressing the NLLs from soybean yielded an enhanced tolerance of the plant toward bacterial infection (Pseudomonas syringae), insect infestation (Myzus persicae) and salinity. Our data showed a better performance of the transgenic lines compared to wild type plants, indicating that the NLLs from soybean are implicated in the stress response. These data can help to further elucidate the physiological importance of the Nictaba-like lectins from soybean, which can ultimately lead to the design of crop plants with a better tolerance to changing environmental conditions. PMID:27826309

  9. A Prominent Role of the Flagellin Receptor FLAGELLIN-SENSING2 in Mediating Stomatal Response to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Weiqing; He, Sheng Yang

    2010-01-01

    The FLAGELLIN-SENSING2 (FLS2) receptor kinase recognizes bacterial flagellin and initiates a battery of downstream defense responses to reduce bacterial invasion through stomata in the epidermis and bacterial multiplication in the apoplast of infected plants. Recent studies have shown that during Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) DC3000 infection of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), FLS2-mediated immunity is actively suppressed by effector proteins (such as AvrPto and AvrPtoB) secreted through the bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS). We provide evidence here that T3SS effector-based suppression does not appear to be sufficient to overcome FLS2-based immunity during Pst DC3000 infection, but that the phytotoxin coronatine (COR) produced by Pst DC3000 also plays a critical role. COR-deficient mutants of Pst DC3000 are severely reduced in virulence when inoculated onto the leaf surface of wild-type Columbia-0 plants, but this defect was rescued almost fully in fls2 mutant plants. Although bacteria are thought to carry multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns, stomata of fls2 plants are completely unresponsive to COR-deficient mutant Pst DC3000 bacteria. The responses of fls2 plants were similar to those of the Arabidopsis G-protein alpha subunit1-3 mutant, which is defective in abscisic acid-regulated stomatal closure, but were distinct from those of the Arabidopsis non-expressor of PR genes1 mutant, which is defective in salicylic acid-dependent stomatal closure and apoplast defense. Epistasis analyses show that salicylic acid signaling acts upstream of abscisic acid signaling in bacterium-triggered stomatal closure. Taken together, these results suggest a particularly important role of FLS2-mediated resistance to COR-deficient mutant Pst DC3000 bacteria, and nonredundant roles of COR and T3SS effector proteins in the suppression of FLS2-mediated resistance in the Arabidopsis-Pst DC3000 interaction. PMID:20457804

  10. The Arabidopsis thaliana lectin receptor kinase LecRK-I.9 is required for full resistance to Pseudomonas syringae and affects jasmonate signalling.

    PubMed

    Balagué, Claudine; Gouget, Anne; Bouchez, Olivier; Souriac, Camille; Haget, Nathalie; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Govers, Francine; Roby, Dominique; Canut, Hervé

    2016-07-11

    On microbial attack, plants can detect invaders and activate plant innate immunity. For the detection of pathogen molecules or cell wall damage, plants employ receptors that trigger the activation of defence responses. Cell surface proteins that belong to large families of lectin receptor kinases are candidates to function as immune receptors. Here, the function of LecRK-I.9 (At5g60300), a legume-type lectin receptor kinase involved in cell wall-plasma membrane contacts and in extracellular ATP (eATP) perception, was studied through biochemical, gene expression and reverse genetics approaches. In Arabidopsis thaliana, LecRK-I.9 expression is rapidly, highly and locally induced on inoculation with avirulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). Two allelic lecrk-I.9 knock-out mutants showed decreased resistance to Pst. Conversely, over-expression of LecRK-I.9 led to increased resistance to Pst. The analysis of defence gene expression suggests an alteration of both the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathways. In particular, LecRK-I.9 expression during plant-pathogen interaction was dependent on COI1 (CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1) and JAR1 (JASMONATE RESISTANT 1) components, and JA-responsive transcription factors (TFs) showed altered levels of expression in plants over-expressing LecRK-I.9. A similar misregulation of these TFs was obtained by JA treatment. This study identified LecRK-I.9 as necessary for full resistance to Pst and demonstrated its involvement in the control of defence against pathogens through a regulation of JA signalling components. The role of LecRK-I.9 is discussed with regard to the potential molecular mechanisms linking JA signalling to cell wall damage and/or eATP perception.

  11. Natural variation for responsiveness to flg22, flgII-28, and csp22 and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in heirloom tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Veluchamy, Selvakumar; Hind, Sarah R; Dunham, Diane M; Martin, Gregory B; Panthee, Dilip R

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is susceptible to many diseases including bacterial speck caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Bacterial speck disease is a serious problem worldwide in tomato production areas where moist conditions and cool temperatures occur. To enhance breeding of speck resistant fresh-market tomato cultivars we identified a race 0 field isolate, NC-C3, of P. s. pv. tomato in North Carolina and used it to screen a collection of heirloom tomato lines for speck resistance in the field. We observed statistically significant variation among the heirloom tomatoes for their response to P. s. pv. tomato NC-C3 with two lines showing resistance approaching a cultivar that expresses the Pto resistance gene, although none of the heirloom lines have Pto. Using an assay that measures microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), we investigated whether the heirloom lines showed differential responsiveness to three bacterial-derived peptide MAMPs: flg22 and flgII-28 (from flagellin) and csp22 (from cold shock protein). Significant differences were observed for MAMP responsiveness among the lines, although these differences did not correlate strongly with resistance or susceptibility to bacterial speck disease. The identification of natural variation for MAMP responsiveness opens up the possibility of using a genetic approach to identify the underlying loci and to facilitate breeding of cultivars with enhanced disease resistance. Towards this goal, we discovered that responsiveness to csp22 segregates as a single locus in an F2 population of tomato.

  12. Identification of a locus in arabidopsis controlling both the expression of rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR) and basal resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato.

    PubMed

    Ton, J; Pieterse, C M; Van Loon, L C

    1999-10-01

    Selected nonpathogenic rhizobacteria with biological disease control activity are able to elicit an induced systemic resistance (ISR) response that is phenotypically similar to pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Ten ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana were screened for their potential to express rhizobacteria-mediated ISR and pathogen-induced SAR against the leaf pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst). All ecotypes expressed SAR. However, of the 10 ecotypes tested, ecotypes RLD and Wassilewskija (Ws) did not develop ISR after treatment of the roots with nonpathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417r bacteria. This nonresponsive phenotype was associated with relatively high susceptibility to Pst infection. The F1 progeny of crosses between the non-responsive ecotypes RLD and Ws on the one hand, and the responsive ecotypes Columbia (Col) and Landsberg erecta (Ler) on the other hand, were fully capable of expressing ISR and exhibited a relatively high level of basal resistance, similar to that of their WCS417r-responsive parent. This indicates that the potential to express ISR and the relatively high level of basal resistance against Pst are both inherited as dominant traits. Analysis of the F2 and F3 progeny of a Col x RLD cross revealed that inducibility of ISR and relatively high basal resistance against Pst cosegregate in a 3:1 fashion, suggesting that both resistance mechanisms are monogenically determined and genetically linked. Neither the responsiveness to WCS417r nor the relatively high level of basal resistance against Pst were complemented in the F1 progeny of crosses between RLD and Ws, indicating that RLD and Ws are both affected in the same locus, necessary for the expression of ISR and basal resistance against Pst. The corresponding locus, designated ISR1, was mapped between markers B4 and GL1 on chromosome 3. The observed association between ISR and basal resistance against Pst suggests that rhizobacteria-mediated ISR

  13. A Proposal for a Genome Similarity-Based Taxonomy for Plant-Pathogenic Bacteria that Is Sufficiently Precise to Reflect Phylogeny, Host Range, and Outbreak Affiliation Applied to Pseudomonas syringae sensu lato as a Proof of Concept.

    PubMed

    Vinatzer, Boris A; Weisberg, Alexandra J; Monteil, Caroline L; Elmarakeby, Haitham A; Sheppard, Samuel K; Heath, Lenwood S

    2017-01-01

    Taxonomy of plant pathogenic bacteria is challenging because pathogens of different crops often belong to the same named species but current taxonomy does not provide names for bacteria below the subspecies level. The introduction of the host range-based pathovar system in the 1980s provided a temporary solution to this problem but has many limitations. The affordability of genome sequencing now provides the opportunity for developing a new genome-based taxonomic framework. We already proposed to name individual bacterial isolates based on pairwise genome similarity. Here, we expand on this idea and propose to use genome similarity-based codes, which we now call life identification numbers (LINs), to describe and name bacterial taxa. Using 93 genomes of Pseudomonas syringae sensu lato, LINs were compared with a P. syringae genome tree whereby the assigned LINs were found to be informative of a majority of phylogenetic relationships. LINs also reflected host range and outbreak association for strains of P. syringae pathovar actinidiae, a pathovar for which many genome sequences are available. We conclude that LINs could provide the basis for a new taxonomic framework to address the shortcomings of the current pathovar system and to complement the current taxonomic system of bacteria in general.

  14. The hrpZ gene of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola enhances resistance to rhizomania disease in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana and sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Pavli, Ourania I; Kelaidi, Georgia I; Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Skaracis, George N

    2011-03-04

    To explore possible sources of transgenic resistance to the rhizomania-causing Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), Nicotiana benthamiana plants were constructed to express the harpin of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (HrpZ(Psph)). The HrpZ protein was expressed as an N-terminal fusion to the PR1 signal peptide (SP/HrpZ) to direct harpin accumulation to the plant apoplast. Transgene integration was verified by mPCR in all primary transformants (T0), while immunoblot analysis confirmed that the protein HrpZ(Psph) was produced and the signal peptide was properly processed. Neither T0 plants nor selfed progeny (T1) showed macroscopically visible necrosis or any other macroscopic phenotypes. However, plants expressing the SP/HrpZ(Psph) showed increased vigor and grew faster in comparison with non-transgenic control plants. Transgenic resistance was assessed after challenge inoculation with BNYVV on T1 progeny by scoring of disease symptoms and by DAS-ELISA at 20 and 30 dpi. Transgenic and control lines showed significant differences in terms of the number of plants that became infected, the timing of infection and the disease symptoms displayed. Plants expressing the SP/HrpZ(Psph) developed localized leaf necrosis in the infection area and had enhanced resistance upon challenge with BNYVV. In order to evaluate the SP/HrpZ-based resistance in the sugar beet host, A. rhizogenes-mediated root transformation was exploited as a transgene expression platform. Upon BNYVV inoculation, transgenic sugar beet hairy roots showed high level of BNYVV resistance. In contrast, the aerial non-transgenic parts of the same seedlings had virus titers that were comparable to those of the seedlings that were untransformed or transformed with wild type R1000 cells. These findings indicate that the transgenically expressed SP/HrpZ protein results in enhanced rhizomania resistance both in a model plant and sugar beet, the natural host of BNYVV. Possible molecular mechanisms

  15. Recognition of the Protein Kinase AVRPPHB SUSCEPTIBLE1 by the Disease Resistance Protein RESISTANCE TO PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE5 Is Dependent on S-Acylation and an Exposed Loop in AVRPPHB SUSCEPTIBLE11[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Dong; Dubiella, Ullrich; Kim, Sang Hee; Sloss, D. Isaiah; Dowen, Robert H.; Dixon, Jack E.; Innes, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    The recognition of pathogen effector proteins by plants is typically mediated by intracellular receptors belonging to the nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) family. NLR proteins often detect pathogen effector proteins indirectly by detecting modification of their targets. How NLR proteins detect such modifications is poorly understood. To address these questions, we have been investigating the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) NLR protein RESISTANCE TO PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE5 (RPS5), which detects the Pseudomonas syringae effector protein Avirulence protein Pseudomonas phaseolicolaB (AvrPphB). AvrPphB is a cysteine protease that specifically targets a subfamily of receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases, including the Arabidopsis protein kinase AVRPPHB Susceptible1 (PBS1). RPS5 is activated by the cleavage of PBS1 at the apex of its activation loop. Here, we show that RPS5 activation requires that PBS1 be localized to the plasma membrane and that plasma membrane localization of PBS1 is mediated by amino-terminal S-acylation. We also describe the development of a high-throughput screen for mutations in PBS1 that block RPS5 activation, which uncovered four new pbs1 alleles, two of which blocked cleavage by AvrPphB. Lastly, we show that RPS5 distinguishes among closely related kinases by the amino acid sequence (SEMPH) within an exposed loop in the C-terminal one-third of PBS1. The SEMPH loop is located on the opposite side of PBS1 from the AvrPphB cleavage site, suggesting that RPS5 associates with the SEMPH loop while leaving the AvrPphB cleavage site exposed. These findings provide support for a model of NLR activation in which NLR proteins form a preactivation complex with effector targets and then sense a conformational change in the target induced by effector modification. PMID:24225654

  16. Expression of a metacaspase gene of Nicotiana benthamiana after inoculation with Colletotrichum destructivum or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, and the effect of silencing the gene on the host response.

    PubMed

    Hao, L; Goodwin, P H; Hsiang, T

    2007-10-01

    Metacaspases are cysteine proteinases that have homology to caspases, which play a central role in signaling and executing programmed cell death in animals. A type II metacaspase cDNA, NbMCA1, was amplified from Nicotiana benthamiana infected with Colletotrichum destructivum. It showed a peak in expression at 72 h post-inoculation corresponding with the switch to necrotrophy by C. destructivum. Inoculation of N. benthamiana with an incompatible bacterium, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, which should induce a non-host hypersensitive response (HR), did not result in an increase in NbMCA1 expression at the time of necrosis development at 20-24 h postinoculation. Virus-induced silencing of NbMCA1 resulted in three to four times more lesions due to C. destructivum compared with leaves inoculated with the PVX vector without the cloned metacaspase gene or inoculated with water only. However, virus-induced silencing of NbMCA1 did not affect the HR necrosis or population levels of P. syringae pv. tomato. Although this metacaspase gene does not appear to be involved in the programmed cell death of non-host HR resistance to P. syringae, it does affect the susceptibility of N. benthamiana to C. destructivum indicating a function in a basal defense response. Possible roles of NbMCA1could be in degrading virulence factors of the pathogen, processing pro-proteins involved in stress responses, eliminating damaged proteins created during stress, and/or degrading proteins to remobilize amino acids to fuel de novo synthesis of proteins involved in stress adaptations.

  17. The bacterial alarmone (p)ppGpp is required for virulence and controls cell size and survival of Pseudomonas syringae on plants

    PubMed Central

    Chatnaparat, Tiyakhon; Li, Zhong; Korban, Schuyler S.; Zhao, Youfu

    2016-01-01

    Summary The stringent response, mediated by second messenger (p)ppGpp, results in swift and massive transcriptional reprogramming under nutrient limited conditions. In this study, the role of (p)ppGpp on virulence of P. syringae pv. syringae B728a (PssB728a) was investigated. The virulence of the relA/spoT (ppGpp0) double mutant was completely impaired on bean, and bacterial growth was significantly reduced, suggesting that (p)ppGpp is required for full virulence of P. syringae. Expression of T3SS and other virulence genes was reduced in ppGpp0 mutants. In addition, ppGpp deficiency resulted in loss of swarming motility, reduction of pyoverdine production, increased sensitivity to oxidative stress and antibiotic tolerance, as well as reduced ability to utilize γ-amino butyric acid. Increased levels of ppGpp resulted in reduced cell size of PssB728a when grown in a minimal medium and on plant surfaces, while most ppGpp0 mutant cells were not viable on plant surfaces 24 h after spray inoculation, suggesting that ppGpp-mediated stringent response temporarily limits cell growth, and might control cell survival on plants by limiting their growth. These results demonstrated that ppGpp-mediated stringent response plays a central role in P. syringae virulence and survival, and indicated that ppGpp serves as a global signal for regulating various virulence traits in PssB728a. PMID:25626964

  18. Analysis of the small RNA P16/RgsA in the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato strain DC3000

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteria contain small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that are responsible for altering transcription, translation, or mRNA stability. ncRNAs are important because they regulate virulence factors and susceptibility to various stresses. Here, the regulation of a recently described ncRNA of P. syringae DC30...

  19. Sensitive and specific detection of phaseolotoxigenic and nontoxigenic strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola by TaqMan real-time PCR using site-specific recombinase gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min Seok; Jeon, Yong Ho; Kang, Man Jung; Ahn, Hong Il; Baek, Hyung-Jin; Na, Young Wang; Choi, Yu Mi; Kim, Tae San; Park, Dong Suk

    2010-09-20

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, the causative agent of halo blight, is the most important bacterial pathogen of bean. Both nontoxigenic (Tox(-)) and toxigenic (Tox+) strains of this pathogen cause halo blight in beans. However, nontoxigenic strains cannot be detected by currently available molecular and serological tools. In this study, a TaqMan probe and primer set were designed based on the phage integrase family site-specific recombinase of P. s. pv. phaseolicola 1448A because it is known that most site-specific recombinases are structurally and functionally diverse. The specificity of the probe and primers was evaluated using purified DNA from 29 isolates of 3 different pathovars of P. syringae. The probe and primer set were able to detect Tox(-) and Tox+ isolates of P. s. pv. Phaseolicola, but no other phytopathogenic bacteria. The assay was also able to detect at least 5 genome equivalents of cloned amplified target DNA, using purified DNA, or 7 colony forming unit (CFU) per reaction when using calibrated cell suspensions. Thus, the TaqMan real-time PCR-based method can be used for the rapid detection of both types of P. s. pv. Phaseolicola, and will potentially simplify and facilitate the diagnosis and monitoring of this pathogen, and guide plant disease management.

  20. Origin, structure, and regulation of argK, encoding the phaseolotoxin-resistant ornithine carbamoyltransferase in Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, and functional expression of argK in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed Central

    Hatziloukas, E; Panopoulos, N J

    1992-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola produces the tripeptide N delta(N'-sulfo-diaminophosphinyl)-ornithylalanyl-homoarginin e (phaseolotoxin), which functions as a chlorosis-inducing toxin in the bean halo blight disease by inhibiting ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OCT). The bacterium possesses duplicate OCT genes, one of which, argK, encodes a toxin-resistant enzyme (ROCT) and imparts resistance to phaseolotoxin. We sequenced the argK gene from strain NPS3121, defined its promoter region, analyzed its regulation, and characterized its transcripts. The gene probably originated from another organism, since it is very distantly related to the argF gene encoding the housekeeping toxin-sensitive OCT and has low G+C content compared with the bacterial genome as a whole and with other protein-coding genes from P. syringae pv. phaseolicola. Optimized alignments of 13 OCT sequences allowed us to define key residues that may be responsible for toxin resistance and to identify a distinct prokaryotic amino acid signature, in ROCT, which argues for a prokaryotic origin of argK. An in-frame fusion of the argK coding region with the chloroplast transit peptide segment of the pea rbcS gene was introduced in Nicotiana tabacum by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The presence of an ROCT activity in transgenic plants was demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo assays. Some plants were toxin resistant, suggesting that pathogen-derived resistance to the toxin should be feasible in the pathogen's host. Images PMID:1522066

  1. Structural studies of the Hrp secretion system: expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal domain of the HrcQB protein from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola.

    PubMed

    Fadouloglou, V E; Tampakaki, A P; Panopoulos, N J; Kokkinidis, M

    2001-11-01

    The C-terminal domain of the HrcQ(B) protein from the Hrp secretion system of the plant pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola has been crystallized from MPD using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 51.6, b = 27.3, c = 97.2 A and beta = 99.8 degrees. A complete native data set extending to 3.0 A resolution was collected from a single cryoprotected crystal. The crystal solvent content and calculation of self-rotation functions showing non-crystallographic twofold symmetry axes are consistent with the presence of an oligomeric assembly in the asymmetric unit.

  2. Pseudomonas 2007 Meeting Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas is an important genus of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the third most common nosocomial pathogen in our society, associated with chronic and eventually fatal lung disease in cystic fibrosis patients, while Pseudomonas syringae species are prominent plant pathogens. The fluorescen...

  3. Comparative analysis of defence responses induced by the endophytic plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN and the non-host bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi in grapevine cell suspensions.

    PubMed

    Bordiec, Sophie; Paquis, Sandra; Lacroix, Hélène; Dhondt, Sandrine; Ait Barka, Essaïd; Kauffmann, Serge; Jeandet, Philippe; Mazeyrat-Gourbeyre, Florence; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dorey, Stéphan

    2011-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial microorganisms that colonize the rhizosphere of many plant species and confer beneficial effects, such as an increase in plant growth. PGPR are also well known as inducers of systemic resistance to pathogens in plants. However, the molecular mechanisms involved locally after direct perception of these bacteria by plant cells still remain largely unknown. Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN is an endophytic PGPR that colonizes grapevine and protects the plant against the grey mould disease caused by Botrytis cinerea. This report focuses on local defence events induced by B. phytofirmans PsJN after perception by the grapevine cells. It is demonstrated that, after addition to cell suspension cultures, the bacteria were tightly attaching to plant cells in a way similar to the grapevine non-host bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi. B. phytofirmans PsJN perception led to a transient and monophasic extracellular alkalinization but no accumulation of reactive oxygen species or cell death were detected. By contrast, challenge with P. syringae pv. pisi induced a sustained and biphasic extracellular alkalinization, a two phases oxidative burst, and a HR-like response. Perception of the PGPR also led to the production of salicylic acid (SA) and the expression of a battery of defence genes that was, however, weaker in intensity compared with defence gene expression triggered by the non-host bacteria. Some defence genes up-regulated after B. phytofirmans PsJN challenge are specifically induced by exogenous treatment with SA or jasmonic acid, suggesting that both signalling pathways are activated by the PGPR in grapevine.

  4. Phosphorylation of HopQ1, a Type III Effector from Pseudomonas syringae, Creates a Binding Site for Host 14-3-3 Proteins1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Giska, Fabian; Lichocka, Małgorzata; Piechocki, Marcin; Dadlez, Michał; Schmelzer, Elmon; Hennig, Jacek; Krzymowska, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    HopQ1 (for Hrp outer protein Q), a type III effector secreted by Pseudomonas syringae pv phaseolicola, is widely conserved among diverse genera of plant bacteria. It promotes the development of halo blight in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). However, when this same effector is injected into Nicotiana benthamiana cells, it is recognized by the immune system and prevents infection. Although the ability to synthesize HopQ1 determines host specificity, the role it plays inside plant cells remains unexplored. Following transient expression in planta, HopQ1 was shown to copurify with host 14-3-3 proteins. The physical interaction between HopQ1 and 14-3-3a was confirmed in planta using the fluorescence resonance energy transfer-fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy technique. Moreover, mass spectrometric analyses detected specific phosphorylation of the canonical 14-3-3 binding site (RSXpSXP, where pS denotes phosphoserine) located in the amino-terminal region of HopQ1. Amino acid substitution within this motif abrogated the association and led to altered subcellular localization of HopQ1. In addition, the mutated HopQ1 protein showed reduced stability in planta. These data suggest that the association between host 14-3-3 proteins and HopQ1 is important for modulating the properties of this bacterial effector. PMID:23396834

  5. Characterization of the Promoter Motif Regulated by PSPTO_1209 a FecI-like ECF Sigma Factor of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomanads are renowned for their capacity to adapt to diverse environments, a fact that is reflected in the fraction of their genomes dedicated to encoding transcription regulators. Members of the Pseudomonas genus include species that are adapted to pathogenic and symbiotic lifestyles in associ...

  6. ATP-Dependent Binding Cassette Transporter G Family Member 16 Increases Plant Tolerance to Abscisic Acid and Assists in Basal Resistance against Pseudomonas syringae DC30001[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hao; Peng, Yanhui; Meckes, Nicole; Allen, Sara; Stewart, C. Neal; Traw, M. Brian

    2014-01-01

    Plants have been shown previously to perceive bacteria on the leaf surface and respond by closing their stomata. The virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (PstDC3000) responds by secreting a virulence factor, coronatine, which blocks the functioning of guard cells and forces stomata to reopen. After it is inside the leaf, PstDC3000 has been shown to up-regulate abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and thereby suppress salicylic acid-dependent resistance. Some wild plants exhibit resistance to PstDC3000, but the mechanisms by which they achieve this resistance remain unknown. Here, we used genome-wide association mapping to identify an ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter gene (ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter G family member16) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that contributes to wild plant resistance to PstDC3000. Through microarray analysis and β-glucuronidase reporter lines, we showed that the gene is up-regulated by ABA, bacterial infection, and coronatine. We also used a green fluorescent protein fusion protein and found that transporter is more likely to localize on plasma membranes than in cell walls. Transferred DNA insertion lines exhibited consistent defective tolerance of exogenous ABA and reduced resistance to infection by PstDC3000. Our conclusion is that ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter G family member16 is involved in ABA tolerance and contributes to plant resistance against PstDC3000. This is one of the first examples, to our knowledge, of ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter involvement in plant resistance to infection by a bacterial pathogen. It also suggests a possible mechanism by which plants reduce the deleterious effects of ABA hijacking during pathogen attack. Collectively, these results improve our understanding of basal resistance in Arabidopsis and offer unique ABA-related targets for improving the innate resistance of plants to bacterial infection. PMID:25146567

  7. Imposed glutathione-mediated redox switch modulates the tobacco wound-induced protein kinase and salicylic acid-induced protein kinase activation state and impacts on defence against Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Matern, Sanja; Peskan-Berghoefer, Tatjana; Gromes, Roland; Kiesel, Rebecca Vazquez; Rausch, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The role of the redox-active tripeptide glutathione in plant defence against pathogens has been studied extensively; however, the impact of changes in cellular glutathione redox potential on signalling processes during defence reactions has remained elusive. This study explored the impact of elevated glutathione content on the cytosolic redox potential and on early defence signalling at the level of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), as well as on subsequent defence reactions, including changes in salicylic acid (SA) content, pathogenesis-related gene expression, callose depositions, and the hypersensitive response. Wild-type (WT) Nicotiana tabacum L. and transgenic high-glutathione lines (HGL) were transformed with the cytosol-targeted sensor GRX1-roGFP2 to monitor the cytosolic redox state. Surprisingly, HGLs displayed an oxidative shift in their cytosolic redox potential and an activation of the tobacco MAPKs wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK) and SA-induced protein kinase (SIPK). This activation occurred in the absence of any change in free SA content, but was accompanied by constitutively increased expression of several defence genes. Similarly, rapid activation of MAPKs could be induced in WT tobacco by exposure to either reduced or oxidized glutathione. When HGL plants were challenged with adapted or non-adapted Pseudomonas syringae pathovars, the cytosolic redox shift was further amplified and the defence response was markedly increased, showing a priming effect for SA and callose; however, the initial and transient hyperactivation of MAPK signalling was attenuated in HGLs. The results suggest that, in tobacco, MAPK and SA signalling may operate independently, both possibly being modulated by the glutathione redox potential. Possible mechanisms for redox-mediated MAPK activation are discussed.

  8. Pseudomonas cannabina pv.cannabina pv. nov., and Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis(Cintas Koike and Bull 2000)comb. nov., are members of the emended species Pseudomonas cannabina(ex Šutic & Dowson 1959)Gardan et al., 1999

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypic data suggested that the crucifer pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. alisalensis belongs to P. syringae sensu lato and this was confirmed by sequence similarity in the 16S rDNA gene demonstrated in this research. Labeled DNA from P. syringae pv. alisalensis was used as a probe in DNA/DNA hy...

  9. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing-Based Functional Analyses Revealed the Involvement of Several Putative Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase/Phosphatase Genes in Disease Resistance against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijuan; Hong, Yongbo; Huang, Lei; Liu, Shixia; Tian, Limei; Dai, Yi; Cao, Zhongye; Huang, Lihong; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2016-01-01

    Trehalose and its metabolism have been demonstrated to play important roles in control of plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, direct genetic evidence supporting the functions of trehalose and its metabolism in defense response against pathogens is lacking. In the present study, genome-wide characterization of putative trehalose-related genes identified 11 SlTPSs for trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, 8 SlTPPs for trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase and one SlTRE1 for trehalase in tomato genome. Nine SlTPSs, 4 SlTPPs, and SlTRE1 were selected for functional analyses to explore their involvement in tomato disease resistance. Some selected SlTPSs, SlTPPs, and SlTRE1 responded with distinct expression induction patterns to Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 as well as to defense signaling hormones (e.g., salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and a precursor of ethylene). Virus-induced gene silencing-mediated silencing of SlTPS3, SlTPS4, or SlTPS7 led to deregulation of ROS accumulation and attenuated the expression of defense-related genes upon pathogen infection and thus deteriorated the resistance against B. cinerea or Pst DC3000. By contrast, silencing of SlTPS5 or SlTPP2 led to an increased expression of the defense-related genes upon pathogen infection and conferred an increased resistance against Pst DC3000. Silencing of SlTPS3, SlTPS4, SlTPS5, SlTPS7, or SlTPP2 affected trehalose level in tomato plants with or without infection of B. cinerea or Pst DC3000. These results demonstrate that SlTPS3, SlTPS4, SlTPS5, SlTPS7, and SlTPP2 play roles in resistance against B. cinerea and Pst DC3000, implying the importance of trehalose and tis metabolism in regulation of defense response against pathogens in tomato.

  10. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing-Based Functional Analyses Revealed the Involvement of Several Putative Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase/Phosphatase Genes in Disease Resistance against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huijuan; Hong, Yongbo; Huang, Lei; Liu, Shixia; Tian, Limei; Dai, Yi; Cao, Zhongye; Huang, Lihong; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2016-01-01

    Trehalose and its metabolism have been demonstrated to play important roles in control of plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, direct genetic evidence supporting the functions of trehalose and its metabolism in defense response against pathogens is lacking. In the present study, genome-wide characterization of putative trehalose-related genes identified 11 SlTPSs for trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, 8 SlTPPs for trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase and one SlTRE1 for trehalase in tomato genome. Nine SlTPSs, 4 SlTPPs, and SlTRE1 were selected for functional analyses to explore their involvement in tomato disease resistance. Some selected SlTPSs, SlTPPs, and SlTRE1 responded with distinct expression induction patterns to Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 as well as to defense signaling hormones (e.g., salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and a precursor of ethylene). Virus-induced gene silencing-mediated silencing of SlTPS3, SlTPS4, or SlTPS7 led to deregulation of ROS accumulation and attenuated the expression of defense-related genes upon pathogen infection and thus deteriorated the resistance against B. cinerea or Pst DC3000. By contrast, silencing of SlTPS5 or SlTPP2 led to an increased expression of the defense-related genes upon pathogen infection and conferred an increased resistance against Pst DC3000. Silencing of SlTPS3, SlTPS4, SlTPS5, SlTPS7, or SlTPP2 affected trehalose level in tomato plants with or without infection of B. cinerea or Pst DC3000. These results demonstrate that SlTPS3, SlTPS4, SlTPS5, SlTPS7, and SlTPP2 play roles in resistance against B. cinerea and Pst DC3000, implying the importance of trehalose and tis metabolism in regulation of defense response against pathogens in tomato. PMID:27540389

  11. Probing Pseudomonas syringae host interactions using metatranscriptomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcriptome analyses during the interaction of plants and pathogens can be used to provide insights into molecular mechanisms of plant resistance as well as the mechanisms used by bacteria to adapt to hosts and cause disease. We performed a dual in planta RNA-Seq experiment to profile RNA expressi...

  12. Previous reports of bacterial diseases on crucifers attributed to Pseuomonas syringae pv. maculicola were caused by P. cannabina pv. alisalensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis (Pca) causes bacterial blight on crucifers, which can reduce crucifer yields and result in economic losses in the US. Prior to the late 1990s Pca was not distinguished from the pepper spot pathogen of crucifers, Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm), althoug...

  13. Pseudomonas blight discovered on raspberry in Watsonville

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the winter (February) of 2013, a field of raspberries in Watsonville was discovered to be infected with Pseudomonas syringae, the causal agent of Pseudomonas blight disease. This was the first documentation of this disease on raspberry in our region. The infection of raspberry plants is manifeste...

  14. Pseudomonas blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae on raspberry in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plantings of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus var. strigosus) exhibited symptoms of a previously undocumented disease. Lesions were observable from both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. As disease progressed, lesions enlarged and coalesced, resulting in significant dark brown to black blighting of the ...

  15. Pseudomonas syringae Effector Avirulence Protein E Localizes to the Host Plasma Membrane and Down-Regulates the Expression of the NONRACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE1/HARPIN-INDUCED1-LIKE13 Gene Required for Antibacterial Immunity in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Xiu-Fang; Nomura, Kinya; Ding, Xinhua; Chen, Xujun; Wang, Kun; Aung, Kyaw; Uribe, Francisco; Rosa, Bruce; Yao, Jian; Chen, Jin; He, Sheng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Many bacterial pathogens of plants and animals deliver effector proteins into host cells to promote infection. Elucidation of how pathogen effector proteins function not only is critical for understanding bacterial pathogenesis but also provides a useful tool in discovering the functions of host genes. In this study, we characterized the Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 effector protein Avirulence Protein E (AvrE), the founding member of a widely distributed, yet functionally enigmatic, bacterial effector family. We show that AvrE is localized in the plasma membrane (PM) and PM-associated vesicle-like structures in the plant cell. AvrE contains two physically interacting domains, and the amino-terminal portion contains a PM-localization signal. Genome-wide microarray analysis indicates that AvrE, as well as the functionally redundant effector Hypersensitive response and pathogenicity-dependent Outer Protein M1, down-regulates the expression of the NONRACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE1/HARPIN-INDUCED1-LIKE13 (NHL13) gene in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Mutational analysis shows that NHL13 is required for plant immunity, as the nhl13 mutant plant displayed enhanced disease susceptibility. Our results defined the action site of one of the most important bacterial virulence proteins in plants and the antibacterial immunity function of the NHL13 gene. PMID:26206852

  16. Comparative analysis of metabolic networks provides insight into the evolution of plant pathogenic and nonpathogenic lifestyles in Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Mithani, Aziz; Hein, Jotun; Preston, Gail M

    2011-01-01

    Plant pathogenic pseudomonads such as Pseudomonas syringae colonize plant surfaces and tissues and have been reported to be nutritionally specialized relative to nonpathogenic pseudomonads. We performed comparative analyses of metabolic networks reconstructed from genome sequence data in order to investigate the hypothesis that P. syringae has evolved to be metabolically specialized for a plant pathogenic lifestyle. We used the metabolic network comparison tool Rahnuma and complementary bioinformatic analyses to compare the distribution of 1,299 metabolic reactions across nine genome-sequenced strains of Pseudomonas, including three strains of P. syringae. The two pathogenic Pseudomonas species analyzed, P. syringae and the opportunistic human pathogen P. aeruginosa, each displayed a high level of intraspecies metabolic similarity compared with nonpathogenic Pseudomonas. The three P. syringae strains lacked a significant number of reactions predicted to be present in all other Pseudomonas strains analyzed, which is consistent with the hypothesis that P. syringae is adapted for growth in a nutritionally constrained environment. Pathway predictions demonstrated that some of the differences detected in metabolic network comparisons could account for differences in amino acid assimilation ability reported in experimental analyses. Parsimony analysis and reaction neighborhood approaches were used to model the evolution of metabolic networks and amino acid assimilation pathways in pseudomonads. Both methods supported a model of Pseudomonas evolution in which the common ancestor of P. syringae had experienced a significant number of deletion events relative to other nonpathogenic pseudomonads. We discuss how the characteristic metabolic features of P. syringae could reflect adaptation to a pathogenic lifestyle.

  17. Enhanced symbiotic nitrogen fixation with P. syringae pv tabaci

    SciTech Connect

    Langston-Unkefer, P.J.; Knight, T.J. New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces ); Sengupta-Gopalan, C. )

    1989-04-01

    Infestation of legumes such as alfalfa and soybeans with the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci is accompanied by increased plant growth, nodulation, overall nitrogen fixation, and total assimilated nitrogen. These effects are observed only in plants infested with Tox{sup +} pathogen; the toxin is tabtoxinine-{beta}-lactam, an active site-directed irreversible inhibitor of glutamine synthetase. The key to the legumes survival of this treatment is the insensitivity of the nodule-specific form of glutamine synthetase to the toxin. As expected, significant changes are observed in ammonia assimilation in these plants. The biochemical and molecular biological consequences of this treatment are being investigated.

  18. Isolation and identification of Pseudomonas spp. from Schirmacher Oasis, Antarctica.

    PubMed Central

    Shivaji, S; Rao, N S; Saisree, L; Sheth, V; Reddy, G S; Bhargava, P M

    1989-01-01

    Ten cultures of Pseudomonas spp. were established from soil samples collected in and around a lake in Antarctica. Based on their morphology, biochemical and physiological characteristics, and moles percent G + C of their DNA, they were identified as P. fluorescens, P. putida, and P. syringae. This is the first report on the identification of Pseudomonas spp. from continental Antarctica. PMID:2930174

  19. Characterization of Pseudomonas pathovars isolated from rosaceous fruit trees in East Algeria.

    PubMed

    Harzallah, D; Sadallah, S; Larous, L

    2004-01-01

    A survey of bacterial diseases due to Pseudomonas on rosaceous fruit trees was conducted. In forty two orchards located in the Constantine region ( East Algeria). Pseudomonas isolates were identified on the bases of their cultural and biochemical characteristics . A total of fifty nine phytopathogenic bacteria were isolated from diseased pome and stone fruit trees. Thirty one strains comparable to Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae were isolated from cherry (Prunus avium L.), plum (P. domestica L.), apricot (P. armeniaca L.), almond (P. dulcis L.) and pear trees (Pirus communis L.); sixteen strains comparable to Pseudomonas syringae pv. morsprunorum were obtained from samples of cherry and plum. Twelve strains of Pseudomonas viridiflava were isolated from cherry, apricot and peach (Prunus persica L.).

  20. [Production of inhibiting plant growth and development hormones by pathogenic for legumes Pseudomonas genus bacteria].

    PubMed

    Dankevich, L A

    2013-01-01

    It has been studied the ability of pathogenic for legumes pathovars of Pseudomonas genus to produce ethylene and abscisic acid in vitro. A direct correlation between the level of ethylene production by agent of bacterial pea burn--Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi and level of its aggressiveness for plants has been found. It is shown that the amount of abscisic acid synthesized by pathogenic for legumes Pseudomonas genus bacteria correlates with their aggressiveness for plants.

  1. Pseudomonas asturiensis sp. nov., isolated from soybean and weeds.

    PubMed

    González, Ana J; Cleenwerck, Ilse; De Vos, Paul; Fernández-Sanz, Ana M

    2013-07-01

    Five strains of gram negative bacteria, isolated from soybean (LPPA 221(T), 222 and 223) and weeds (LPPA 816 and 1442), were analyzed by a polyphasic approach. The isolates showed variation in their phenotypic traits and were placed in the Pseudomonas fluorescens lineage, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny, as a single but well separated cluster. MLSA analysis based on gyrB and rpoD sequences clustered the strains in a single branch in the Pseudomonas syringae group, and revealed P. viridiflava as closest relative. DNA-DNA hybridizations showed medium levels of DNA-DNA relatedness with the type strain of P. viridiflava (50%) and lower levels (<32%) with other type strains of the P. syringae group, supporting classification within a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas. The strains can be distinguished from species of the P. syringae group by the fatty acid C17:0 cyclo that is present in a low amount (2.5%) and from P. viridiflava by their inability to assimilate d-tartrate and d-sorbitol, and by the formation of red colonies on TTC medium. For this new species, the name Pseudomonas asturiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LPPA 221(T) (=LMG 26898(T)=CECT 8095(T)).

  2. [Pseudomonas genus bacteria on weeds].

    PubMed

    Gvozdiak, R I; Iakovleva, L M; Pasichnik, L A; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown in the work that the weeds (couch-grass and ryegrass) may be affected by bacterial diseases in natural conditions, Pseudomonas genus bacteria being their agents. The isolated bacteria are highly-aggressive in respect of the host-plant and a wide range of cultivated plants: wheat, rye, oats, barley, apple-tree and pear-tree. In contrast to highly aggressive bacteria isolated from the affected weeds, bacteria-epi phytes isolated from formally healthy plants (common amaranth, orache, flat-leaved spurge, field sow thistle, matricary, common coltsfoot, narrow-leaved vetch) and identified as P. syringae pv. coronafaciens, were characterized by weak aggression. A wide range of ecological niches of bacteria evidently promote their revival and distribution everywhere in nature.

  3. Comparison of the complete genome sequences of Pseudomonassyringae pv. syringae B728a and pv. tomato DC3000.

    SciTech Connect

    Feil, Helene; Feil, William S.; Chain, Patrick; Larimer, Frank; DiBartolo, Genevieve; Copeland, Alex; Lykidis, Athanasios; Trong,Stephen; Nolan, Matt; Goltsman, Eugene; Thiel, James; Malfatti,Stephanie; Loper, Joyce E.; Lapidus, Alla; Detter, John C.; Land, Miriam; Richardson, Paul M.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Ivanova, Natalia; Lindow, StevenE.

    2005-04-01

    The complete genomic sequence of Pseudomonas syringaepathovar syringae B728a (Pss B728a), has been determined and is comparedwith that of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). Thesetwo pathovars of this economically important species of plant pathogenicbacteria differ in host range and apparent patterns of interaction withplants, with Pss having a more pronounced epiphytic stage of growth andhigher abiotic stress tolerance and Pst DC3000 having a more pronouncedapoplastic growth habitat. The Pss B728a genome (6.1 megabases) containsa circular chromosome and no plasmid, whereas the Pst DC3000 genome is6.5 mbp in size, composed of a circular chromosome and two plasmids.While a high degree of similarity exists between the two sequencedPseudomonads, 976 protein-encoding genes are unique to Pss B728a whencompared to Pst DC3000, including large genomic islands likely tocontribute to virulence and host specificity. Over 375 repetitiveextragenic palindromic sequences (REPs) unique to Pss B728a when comparedto Pst DC3000 are widely distributed throughout the chromosome except in14 genomic islands, which generally had lower GC content than the genomeas a whole. Content of the genomic islands vary, with one containing aprophage and another the plasmid pKLC102 of P. aeruginosa PAO1. Among the976 genes of Pss B728a with no counterpart in Pst DC3000 are thoseencoding for syringopeptin (SP), syringomycin (SR), indole acetic acidbiosynthesis, arginine degradation, and production of ice nuclei. Thegenomic comparison suggests that several unique genes for Pss B728a suchas ectoine synthase, DNA repair, and antibiotic production may contributeto epiphytic fitness and stress tolerance of this organism. Pseudomonassyringae, a member of the gamma subgroup of the Proteobacteria, is awidespread bacterial pathogen of many plant species. The species P.syringae is subdivided into approximately 50 pathovars based onpathogenicity and host range. P. syringae is capable of

  4. First report of the crucifer pathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis causing bacterial blight on radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis is a severe pathogen of crucifers across the U.S. We compared a strain isolated from diseased radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany to pathotypes and additional strains of P. cannabina pv. alisalensis and P. syringae pv. maculicola. We demonstrated that the patho...

  5. IS1491 from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIB 9867: characterization and distribution among Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Yeo, C C; Wong, D T; Poh, C L

    1998-01-01

    A new insertion sequence, IS1491, has been cloned and sequenced. The 2489-bp IS1491 was isolated from a Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIB 9867 (strain P25X) 4.8-kb PstI chromosomal fragment. IS1491 is flanked by an imperfect inverted repeat of 23 bp and carries two overlapping open reading frames, ORF1 and ORF2. Both ORF1 and ORF2 displayed homology to the IstA-like and IstB-like transposases encoded by the IS21 family of insertion sequences, which include two IS elements previously isolated from P. alcaligenes P25X, IS1474, and IS1475 (Yeo, C. C., and Poh, C. L. (1997). FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 149, 257-263). Transposition assays showed that IS1491 transposed at a frequency of approximately 1.4 x 10(-6). Transposition of IS1491 into the target pRK415 replicon was observed but when ORF2 was disrupted, a fusion between the donor and target replicons was detected. IS1491-like sequences were detected in total DNA of Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9869 (strain P35X), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas syringae, Pseudomonas mendocina, Comomonas acidovorans, and Comomonas testosteroni by hybridization with IS1491 DNA.

  6. New Pseudomonas spp. Are Pathogenic to Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Beiki, Farid; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Rahimian, Heshmat; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Five putative novel Pseudomonas species shown to be pathogenic to citrus have been characterized in a screening of 126 Pseudomonas strains isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems in northern Iran. The 126 strains were studied using a polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterizations and phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis. The pathogenicity of these strains against 3 cultivars of citrus is demonstrated in greenhouse and field studies. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. The majority of the strains were identified at the species level: P. lurida (5 strains), P. monteilii (2 strains), P. moraviensis (1 strain), P. orientalis (16 strains), P. simiae (7 strains), P. syringae (46 strains, distributed phylogenetically in at least 5 pathovars), and P. viridiflava (2 strains). This is the first report of pathogenicity on citrus of P. orientalis, P. simiae, P. lurida, P. moraviensis and P. monteilii strains. The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described. PMID:26919540

  7. New Pseudomonas spp. Are Pathogenic to Citrus.

    PubMed

    Beiki, Farid; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Rahimian, Heshmat; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Five putative novel Pseudomonas species shown to be pathogenic to citrus have been characterized in a screening of 126 Pseudomonas strains isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems in northern Iran. The 126 strains were studied using a polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterizations and phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis. The pathogenicity of these strains against 3 cultivars of citrus is demonstrated in greenhouse and field studies. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. The majority of the strains were identified at the species level: P. lurida (5 strains), P. monteilii (2 strains), P. moraviensis (1 strain), P. orientalis (16 strains), P. simiae (7 strains), P. syringae (46 strains, distributed phylogenetically in at least 5 pathovars), and P. viridiflava (2 strains). This is the first report of pathogenicity on citrus of P. orientalis, P. simiae, P. lurida, P. moraviensis and P. monteilii strains. The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described.

  8. Tomato response traits to pathogenic Pseudomonas species: Does nitrogen limitation matter?

    PubMed

    Royer, Mathilde; Larbat, Romain; Le Bot, Jacques; Adamowicz, Stéphane; Nicot, Philippe C; Robin, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Induced chemical defence is a cost-efficient protective strategy, whereby plants induce the biosynthesis of defence-related compounds only in the case of pest attack. Plant responses that are pathogen specific lower the cost of defence, compared to constitutive defence. As nitrogen availability (N) in the root zone is one of the levers mediating the concentration of defence-related compounds in plants, we investigated its influence on response traits of tomato to two pathogenic bacteria, growing plants hydroponically at low or high N supply. Using two sets of plants for each level of N supply, we inoculated one leaf of one set of plants with Pseudomonas syringae, and inoculated the stem of other set of plants with Pseudomonas corrugata. Tomato response traits (growth, metabolites) were investigated one and twelve days after inoculation. In infected areas, P. syringae decreased carbohydrate concentrations whereas they were increased by P. corrugata. P. syringae mediated a redistribution of carbon within the phenylpropanoid pathway, regardless of N supply: phenolamides, especially caffeoylputrescine, were stimulated, impairing defence-related compounds such as chlorogenic acid. Inoculation of P. syringae produced strong and sustainable systemic responses. By contrast, inoculation of P. corrugata induced local and transient responses. The effects of pathogens on plant growth and leaf gas exchanges appeared to be independant of N supply. This work shows that the same genus of plant pathogens with different infection strategies can mediate contrasted plant responses.

  9. Deciphering host resistance and pathogen virulence: the Arabidopsis/Pseudomonas interaction as a model.

    PubMed

    Quirino, Betania F; Bent, Andrew F

    2003-11-01

    SUMMARY The last decade has witnessed steady progress in deciphering the molecular basis of plant disease resistance and pathogen virulence. Although contributions have been made using many different plant and pathogen species, studies of the interactions between Arabidopsis thaliana and Pseudomonas syringae have yielded a particularly significant body of information. The present review focuses on recent findings regarding R gene products and the guard hypothesis, RAR1/SGT1 and other examples where protein processing activity is implicated in disease resistance or susceptibility, the use of microarray expression profiling to generate information and experimental leads, and important molecular- and genome-level discoveries regarding P. syringae effectors that mediate bacterial virulence. The development of the Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas model system is also reviewed briefly, and we close with a discussion of characteristics to consider when selecting other pathosystems as experimentally tractable models for future research.

  10. Description and history of Syringa oblata subsp. oblata 'Frank Meyer'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An accession of Syringa oblata subsp. oblata (PI 23031) collected in China by Frank Meyer in 1908was given the name ‘Frank Meyer’ by Father Fiala in 1988. To be established according to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, a new cultivar name must be accompanied by a descrip...

  11. Bacteria in the Leaf Ecosystem with Emphasis on Pseudomonas syringae—a Pathogen, Ice Nucleus, and Epiphyte

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Susan S.; Upper, Christen D.

    2000-01-01

    The extremely large number of leaves produced by terrestrial and aquatic plants provide habitats for colonization by a diversity of microorganisms. This review focuses on the bacterial component of leaf microbial communities, with emphasis on Pseudomonas syringae—a species that participates in leaf ecosystems as a pathogen, ice nucleus, and epiphyte. Among the diversity of bacteria that colonize leaves, none has received wider attention than P. syringae, as it gained notoriety for being the first recombinant organism (Ice− P. syringae) to be deliberately introduced into the environment. We focus on P. syringae to illustrate the attractiveness and somewhat unique opportunities provided by leaf ecosystems for addressing fundamental questions of microbial population dynamics and mechanisms of plant-bacterium interactions. Leaf ecosystems are dynamic and ephemeral. The physical environment surrounding phyllosphere microbes changes continuously with daily cycles in temperature, radiation, relative humidity, wind velocity, and leaf wetness. Slightly longer-term changes occur as weather systems pass. Seasonal climatic changes impose still a longer cycle. The physical and physiological characteristics of leaves change as they expand, mature, and senesce and as host phenology changes. Many of these factors influence the development of populations of P. syringae upon populations of leaves. P. syringae was first studied for its ability to cause disease on plants. However, disease causation is but one aspect of its life strategy. The bacterium can be found in association with healthy leaves, growing and surviving for many generations on the surfaces of leaves as an epiphyte. A number of genes and traits have been identified that contribute to the fitness of P. syringae in the phyllosphere. While still in their infancy, such research efforts demonstrate that the P. syringae-leaf ecosystem is a particularly attractive system with which to bridge the gap between what is known

  12. Biofilm formation and cellulose expression among diverse environmental Pseudomonas isolates.

    PubMed

    Ude, Susanne; Arnold, Dawn L; Moon, Christina D; Timms-Wilson, Tracey; Spiers, Andrew J

    2006-11-01

    The ability to form biofilms is seen as an increasingly important colonization strategy among both pathogenic and environmental bacteria. A survey of 185 plant-associated, phytopathogenic, soil and river Pseudomonas isolates resulted in 76% producing biofilms at the air-liquid (A-L) interface after selection in static microcosms. Considerable variation in biofilm phenotype was observed, including waxy aggregations, viscous and floccular masses, and physically cohesive biofilms with continuously varying strengths over 1500-fold. Calcofluor epifluorescent microscopy identified cellulose as the matrix component in biofilms produced by Pseudomonas asplenii, Pseudomonas corrugata, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas marginalis, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas savastanoi and Pseudomonas syringae isolates. Cellulose expression and biofilm formation could be induced by the constitutively active WspR19 mutant of the cyclic-di-GMP-associated, GGDEF domain-containing response regulator involved in the P. fluorescens SBW25 wrinkly spreader phenotype and cellular aggregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01. WspR19 could also induce P. putida KT2440, which otherwise did not produce a biofilm or express cellulose, as well as Escherichia coli K12 and Salmonella typhimurium LT2, both of which express cellulose yet lack WspR homologues. Statistical analysis of biofilm parameters suggest that biofilm development is a more complex process than that simply described by the production of attachment and matrix components and bacterial growth. This complexity was also seen in multivariate analysis as a species-ecological habitat effect, underscoring the fact that in vitro biofilms are abstractions of those surface and volume colonization processes used by bacteria in their natural environments.

  13. Pseudomonas chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Sampedro, Inmaculada; Parales, Rebecca E; Krell, Tino; Hill, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonads sense changes in the concentration of chemicals in their environment and exhibit a behavioral response mediated by flagella or pili coupled with a chemosensory system. The two known chemotaxis pathways, a flagella-mediated pathway and a putative pili-mediated system, are described in this review. Pseudomonas shows chemotaxis response toward a wide range of chemicals, and this review includes a summary of them organized by chemical structure. The assays used to measure positive and negative chemotaxis swimming and twitching Pseudomonas as well as improvements to those assays and new assays are also described. This review demonstrates that there is ample research and intellectual space for future investigators to elucidate the role of chemotaxis in important processes such as pathogenesis, bioremediation, and the bioprotection of plants and animals.

  14. Anaerobic growth and cyanide synthesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa depend on anr, a regulatory gene homologous with fnr of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, A; Reimmann, C; Galimand, M; Haas, D

    1991-06-01

    Anaerobic growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on nitrate or arginine requires the anr gene, which codes for a positive control element (ANR) capable of functionally complementing an fnr mutation in Escherichia coli. The anr gene was sequenced; it showed 51% identity with the fnr gene at the amino acid sequence level. Four cysteine residues known to be essential in the FNR protein are conserved in ANR. The anr gene product (deduced Mr 27,129) was visualized by the maxicell method and migrated like a 32 kDa protein in gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions. An anr mutant of P. aeruginosa constructed by gene replacement was defective in nitrate respiration, arginine deiminase activity, and hydrogen cyanide biosynthesis, underscoring the diverse metabolic functions of ANR during oxygen limitation. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas syringae, and Pseudomonas mendocina all had a functional analogue of ANR, indicating that similar anaerobic control mechanisms exist in these bacteria.

  15. Diversity of small RNAs expressed in Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Lozano, María; Marvig, Rasmus L; Molina-Santiago, Carlos; Tribelli, Paula M; Ramos, Juan-Luis; Molin, Søren

    2015-04-01

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has revealed several hundreds of previously undetected small RNAs (sRNAs) in all bacterial species investigated, including strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas syringae. Nonetheless, only little is known about the extent of conservation of expressed sRNAs across strains and species. In this study, we have used RNA-seq to identify sRNAs in P. putida DOT-T1E and Pseudomonas extremaustralis 14-3b. This is the first strain of P. extremaustralis and the second strain of P. putida to have their transcriptomes analysed for sRNAs, and we identify the presence of around 150 novel sRNAs in each strain. Furthermore, we provide a comparison based on sequence conservation of all the sRNAs detected by RNA-seq in the Pseudomonas species investigated so far. Our results show that the extent of sRNA conservation across different species is very limited. In addition, when comparing the sRNAs expressed in different strains of the same species, we observe that numerous sRNAs exhibit a strain-specific expression pattern. These results support the idea that the evolution of most bacterial sRNAs is rapid, which limits the extent of both interspecies and intraspecies conservation.

  16. Global Genomic Analysis of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi Plasmids▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Martínez, Isabel; Zhao, Youfu; Murillo, Jesús; Sundin, George W.; Ramos, Cayo

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi strains harbor native plasmids belonging to the pPT23A plasmid family (PFPs) which are detected in all pathovars of the related species Pseudomonas syringae examined and contribute to the ecological and pathogenic fitness of their host. However, there is a general lack of information about the gene content of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi plasmids and their role in the interaction of this pathogen with olive plants. We designed a DNA macroarray containing 135 plasmid-borne P. syringae genes to conduct a global genetic analysis of 32 plasmids obtained from 10 P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi strains. Hybridization results revealed that the number of PFPs per strain varied from one to four. Additionally, most strains contained at least one plasmid (designated non-PFP) that did not hybridize to the repA gene of pPT23A. Only three PFPs contained genes involved in the biosynthesis of the virulence factor indole-3-acetic acid (iaaM, iaaH, and iaaL). In contrast, ptz, a gene involved in the biosynthesis of cytokinins, was found in five PFPs and one non-PFP. Genes encoding a type IV secretion system (T4SS), type IVA, were found in both PFPs and non-PFPs; however, type IVB genes were found only on PFPs. Nine plasmids encoded both T4SSs, whereas seven other plasmids carried none of these genes. Most PFPs and non-PFPs hybridized to at least one putative type III secretion system effector gene and to a variety of additional genes encoding known P. syringae virulence factors and one or more insertion sequence transposase genes. These results indicate that non-PFPs may contribute to the virulence and fitness of the P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi host. The overall gene content of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi plasmids, with their repeated information, mosaic arrangement, and insertion sequences, suggests a possible role in adaptation to a changing environment. PMID:17993520

  17. Transcriptome analysis of Pseudomonas syringae identifies new genes, ncRNAs, and antisense activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To fully understand how bacteria respond to their environment, it is essential to assess genome-wide transcriptional activity. New high throughput sequencing technologies make it possible to query the transcriptome of an organism in an efficient unbiased manner. We applied a strand-specific method t...

  18. Evolution, genomics and epidemiology of Pseudomonas syringae: Challenges in Bacterial Molecular Plant Pathology.

    PubMed

    Baltrus, David A; McCann, Honour C; Guttman, David S

    2017-01-01

    A remarkable shift in our understanding of plant-pathogenic bacteria is underway. Until recently, nearly all research on phytopathogenic bacteria was focused on a small number of model strains, which provided a deep, but narrow, perspective on plant-microbe interactions. Advances in genome sequencing technologies have changed this by enabling the incorporation of much greater diversity into comparative and functional research. We are now moving beyond a typological understanding of a select collection of strains to a more generalized appreciation of the breadth and scope of plant-microbe interactions. The study of natural populations and evolution has particularly benefited from the expansion of genomic data. We are beginning to have a much deeper understanding of the natural genetic diversity, niche breadth, ecological constraints and defining characteristics of phytopathogenic species. Given this expanding genomic and ecological knowledge, we believe the time is ripe to evaluate what we know about the evolutionary dynamics of plant pathogens.

  19. Induced systemic resistance in Arabidopsis against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato by disease suppressive soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two-week-old Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col-0 seedlings were transferred into an autoclaved sand-soil mixture amended with 10% or 20% (weight/weight) soil that is suppressive to either take-all or Rhizoctonia root rot of wheat from fields in Washington State USA. These soils contain population siz...

  20. A Genomic Redefinition of Pseudomonas avellanae species

    PubMed Central

    Scortichini, Marco; Marcelletti, Simone; Ferrante, Patrizia; Firrao, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The circumscription of bacterial species is a complex task. So far, DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH), 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and multiocus sequence typing analysis (MLSA) are currently the preferred techniques for their genetic determination. However, the average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis of conserved and shared genes between two bacterial strains based on the pair-wise genome comparisons, with support of the tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA) value, has recently been proposed as a reliable substitute for DDH. The species demarcation boundary has been set to a value of 95-96% of the ANI identity, with further confirmation through the assessment of the corresponding TETRA value. In this study, we performed a genome-wide MLSA of 14 phytopathogenic pseudomonads genomes, and assessed the ANI and TETRA values of 27 genomes, representing seven out of the nine genomospecies of Pseudomonas spp. sensu Gardan et alii, and their phylogenetic relationships using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. The results demonstrate the existence of a well demarcated genomic cluster that includes strains classified as P. avellanae, P. syringae pv. theae, P. s. pv. actinidiae and one P. s. pv. morsprunorum strain all belonging to the single species P. avellanae. In addition, when compared with P. avellanae, five strains of P. s. pv. tomato, including the model strain DC3000, and one P. s. pv. lachrymans strain, appear as very closely related to P. avellanae, with ANI values of nearly 96% as confirmed by the TETRA analysis. Conversely, one representative strain, previously classified as P. avellanae and isolated in central Italy, is a genuine member of the P. syringae species complex and can be defined as P. s. pv. avellanae. Currently. The core and pan genomes of P. avellanae species consist of 3,995 and 5,410 putative protein-coding genes, respectively. PMID:24086635

  1. Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis sp. nov., isolated from soil at a coal gasification site.

    PubMed

    Andersen, S M; Johnsen, K; Sørensen, J; Nielsen, P; Jacobsen, C S

    2000-11-01

    Phenotypic and genotypic characterization indicated that a group of 29 closely related phenanthrene-degrading bacteria from a coal gasification site in Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark, belonged to the genus Pseudomonas. The strains were isolated at two sampling occasions 2 years apart. The isolates were phenotypically different from any known species of the genus Pseudomonas and were therefore subject to further identification. Colonies were smooth and pale yellowish and did not produce pigments fluorescent in UV light when grown on King's B agar. Cells were rod-shaped, approximately 0.5-0.8 x 1.5-3.0 microm, and grew at 4 and 30 degrees C, but not 37 degrees C. The bacteria were oxidase- and catalase-positive, accumulated poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate and denitrified, but did not utilize D-xylose. The mean G+C content was 59.6 mol%. Phenotypic data and 16S rDNA sequence data information for Pseudomonas amygdali and Pseudomonas corrugata, and 16S rDNA sequence data for Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Pseudomonas syringae showed close relationships to these strains. However, DNA-DNA hybridization data showed that the isolates belong to a new species, for which the name Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JAJ28T (DSM 13022T).

  2. Syringa oblata Lindl. Aqueous Extract Is a Potential Biofilm Inhibitor in S. suis

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jingwen; Yang, Yanbei; Wang, Shuai; Gao, Lingfei; Chen, Jianqing; Ren, Yongzhi; Ding, Wenya; Muhammad, Ishfaq; Li, Yanhua

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a zoonotic pathogen that causes severe disease symptoms in pigs and humans. Syringa oblata Lindl. distributed in the middle latitudes of Eurasia and North America were proved as the most development potential of Chinese Medicine. In this study, biofilm formation by S. suis decreased after growth with 1/2 MIC, 1/4 MIC, or 1/8 MIC of Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract and rutin. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the potential effect of Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract and rutin against biofilm formation by S. suis. Using iTRAQ technology, comparative proteomic analyses was performed at two conditions: 1/2 MIC of Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract treated and non-treated cells. The results revealed the existence of 28 proteins of varying amounts. We found that the majority of the proteins were related to cell growth and metabolism. We also found that Syringa oblata Lindl. Aqueous extract affected the synthesis enzymes. In summary, Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract might be used to inhibit the biofilm formation effectively by S. suis, and the active ingredients of the Syringa oblate Lindl. aqueous extract is rutin. The content of rutin is 9.9 ± 0.089 mg/g dry weight. PMID:28194111

  3. Broad-spectrum acquired resistance in barley induced by the Pseudomonas pathosystem shares transcriptional components with Arabidopsis systemic acquired resistance.

    PubMed

    Colebrook, E H; Creissen, G; McGrann, G R D; Dreos, R; Lamb, C; Boyd, L A

    2012-05-01

    Inducible resistance responses play a central role in the defense of plants against pathogen attack. Acquired resistance (AR) is induced alongside defense toward primary attack, providing broad-spectrum protection against subsequent pathogen challenge. The localization and molecular basis of AR in cereals is poorly understood, in contrast with the well-characterized systemic acquired resistance (SAR) response in Arabidopsis. Here, we use Pseudomonas syringae as a biological inducer of AR in barley, providing a clear frame of reference to the Arabidopsis-P. syringae pathosystem. Inoculation of barley leaf tissue with the nonadapted P. syringae pv. tomato avrRpm1 (PstavrRpm1) induced an active local defense response. Furthermore, inoculation of barley with PstavrRpm1 resulted in the induction of broad-spectrum AR at a distance from the local lesion, "adjacent" AR, effective against compatible isolates of P. syringae and Magnaporthe oryzae. Global transcriptional profiling of this adjacent AR revealed similarities with the transcriptional profile of SAR in Arabidopsis, as well as transcripts previously associated with chemically induced AR in cereals, suggesting that AR in barley and SAR in Arabidopsis may be mediated by analogous pathways.

  4. The observation of mitochondrial movement and ATG5 position in Arabidopsis during the process of infection with virulent and avirulent P. syringae strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liu; Ma, Chao; Chen, Wen li

    2012-03-01

    Infection of plants with pathogens leads to programmed cell death (PCD) associated with the pathogen-triggered hypersensitive response (HR) during plant innate immunity. In this study, the effects of infection by virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 and strains harboring avirulence factors AvrRps4 on the induction of HR-PCD were compared. We used Arabidopsis thaliana plants as materials, which expressed green fluorescent protein labeled mitochondria (mito-GFP) and green fluorescent protein tagged ATG5 (ATG5-GFP), these GFP are instantaneous expression. We found both Pst DC3000 and Pst-avrRps4 could induce mitochondria to assemble, the effect of Pst DC3000 was more obvious. ATG5 was located in chloroplasts after infection with Pst DC3000 or Pst-avrRps4. Under the condition of Pst-avrRps4, the expression of ATG5 was stronger than Pst DC3000 treatment.

  5. Phylogeny of the genus Pseudomonas: intrageneric structure reconstructed from the nucleotide sequences of gyrB and rpoD genes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, S; Kasai, H; Arnold, D L; Jackson, R W; Vivian, A; Harayama, S

    2000-10-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Pseudomonas: was conducted by using the combined gyrB and rpoD nucleotide sequences of 31 validly described species of Pseudomonas: (a total of 125 strains). Pseudomonas: strains diverged into two major clusters designated intrageneric cluster I (IGC I) and intrageneric cluster II (IGC II). IGC I was further split into two subclusters, the 'P: aeruginosa complex', which included P: aeruginosa, P: alcaligenes, P: citronellolis, P: mendocina, P: oleovorans and P: pseudoalcaligenes, and the 'P: stutzeri complex', which included P: balearica and P: stutzeri. IGC II was further split into three subclusters that were designated the 'P: putida complex', the 'P: syringae complex' and the 'P: fluorescens complex'. The 'P: putida complex' included P: putida and P: fulva. The 'P: syringae complex' was the cluster of phytopathogens including P: amygdali, P: caricapapayae, P: cichorii, P: ficuserectae, P: viridiflava and the pathovars of P. savastanoi and P. syringae. The 'P. fluorescens complex' was further divided into two subpopulations, the 'P. fluorescens lineage' and the 'P. chlororaphis lineage'. The 'P. fluorescens lineage' contained P. fluorescens biotypes A, B and C, P. azotoformans, P. marginalis pathovars, P. mucidolens, P. synxantha and P. tolaasii, while the 'P. chlororaphis lineage' included P. chlororaphis, P. agarici, P. asplenii, P. corrugata, P. fluorescens biotypes B and G and P. putida biovar B. The strains of P. fluorescens biotypes formed a polyphyletic group within the 'P. fluorescens complex'.

  6. Membrane-permeabilizing activities of cyclic lipodepsipeptides, syringopeptin 22A and syringomycin E from Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae in human red blood cells and in bilayer lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Agner, G; Kaulin, Y A; Gurnev, P A; Szabo, Z; Schagina, L V; Takemoto, J Y; Blasko, K

    2000-12-01

    The pore-forming activities of cyclic lipodepsipeptides (CLPs), syringopeptin 22A (SP22A) and syringomycin E (SRE) were compared on the human red blood cell (RBC) membrane and on bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs). SP22A above a concentration of 4 x 10(5) molecules/cell significantly increased the RBC membrane permeability for 86Rb. With electric current measurements on BLM, it was proved that like SRE, the SP22A formed two types of ion channels in the membrane, small and large, the latter having six times larger conductance and longer dwell time. Both CLPs formed clusters consisting of six small channels, and the channel-forming activity of SP22A is about one order of magnitude higher than that of SRE. A Hill coefficient of 2-3 estimated from the concentration dependence of these CLPs-induced lysis gave a proof of the pore oligomerization on RBCs. Transport kinetic data also confirmed that SP22A pores were oligomers of at least three monomers. While SRE pores were inactivated in time, no pore inactivation was observed with SP22A. The 86Rb efflux through SP22A-treated RBCs approached the tracer equilibrium distribution with a constant rate; a constant integral current was measured on the BLM for as long as 2.5 h as well. The partition coefficient (Kp = 2 x 10(4) l/mol) between the RBC membrane and the extracellular space was estimated for SRE to be at least six times higher than that for SP22A. This finding suggested that the higher ion permeability of the SP22A-treated cells compared to that of SRE was the result of the higher pore-forming activity of SP22A.

  7. Response of plant-colonizing pseudomonads to hydrogen peroxide. [Pseudomonas putida

    SciTech Connect

    Katsuwon, J.; Anderson, A.J. )

    1989-11-01

    Colonization of plant root surfaces by Pseudomonas putida may require mechanisms that protect this bacterium against superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide produced by the root. Catalase and superoxide dismutase may be important in this bacterial defense system. Stationary-phase cells of P. putida were not killed by hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) at concentrations up to 10 mM, and extracts from these cells possessed three isozymic bands (A, B, and C) of catalase activity in native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Logarithmic-phase cells exposed directly to hydrogen peroxide concentrations above 1 mM were killed. Extracts of logarithmic-phase cells displayed only band A catalase activity. Protection against 5 mM H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was apparent after previous exposure of the logarithmic-phase cells to nonlethal concentrations (30 to 300 {mu}M) of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Extracts of these protected cells possessed enhanced catalase activity of band A and small amounts of bands B and C. A single form of superoxide dismutase and isoforms of catalase were apparent in extracts from a foliar intercellular pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. The mobilities of these P. syringae enzymes were distinct from those of enzymes in P. putida extracts.

  8. Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a submission to the list of microorganisms with standing in nomenclature maintained by the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. We wish to have Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov. added to the list as a valid species belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. Three str...

  9. Pseudomonas screening assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margalit, Ruth (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method for the detection of Pseudomonas bacteria is described where an Azurin-specific antibody is employed for detecting the presence of Azurin in a test sample. The detection of the presence of Azurin in the sample is a conclusive indicator of the presence of the Pseudomonas bacteria since the Azurin protein is a specific marker for this bacterial strain.

  10. Comparative Genomic Analyses of Multiple Pseudomonas Strains Infecting Corylus avellana Trees Reveal the Occurrence of Two Genetic Clusters with Both Common and Distinctive Virulence and Fitness Traits.

    PubMed

    Marcelletti, Simone; Scortichini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The European hazelnut (Corylus avellana) is threatened in Europe by several pseudomonads which cause symptoms ranging from twig dieback to tree death. A comparison of the draft genomes of nine Pseudomonas strains isolated from symptomatic C. avellana trees was performed to identify common and distinctive genomic traits. The thorough assessment of genetic relationships among the strains revealed two clearly distinct clusters: P. avellanae and P. syringae. The latter including the pathovars avellanae, coryli and syringae. Between these two clusters, no recombination event was found. A genomic island of approximately 20 kb, containing the hrp/hrc type III secretion system gene cluster, was found to be present without any genomic difference in all nine pseudomonads. The type III secretion system effector repertoires were remarkably different in the two groups, with P. avellanae showing a higher number of effectors. Homologue genes of the antimetabolite mangotoxin and ice nucleation activity clusters were found solely in all P. syringae pathovar strains, whereas the siderophore yersiniabactin was only present in P. avellanae. All nine strains have genes coding for pectic enzymes and sucrose metabolism. By contrast, they do not have genes coding for indolacetic acid and anti-insect toxin. Collectively, this study reveals that genomically different Pseudomonas can converge on the same host plant by suppressing the host defence mechanisms with the use of different virulence weapons. The integration into their genomes of a horizontally acquired genomic island could play a fundamental role in their evolution, perhaps giving them the ability to exploit new ecological niches.

  11. Comparative Genomic Analyses of Multiple Pseudomonas Strains Infecting Corylus avellana Trees Reveal the Occurrence of Two Genetic Clusters with Both Common and Distinctive Virulence and Fitness Traits

    PubMed Central

    Marcelletti, Simone; Scortichini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The European hazelnut (Corylus avellana) is threatened in Europe by several pseudomonads which cause symptoms ranging from twig dieback to tree death. A comparison of the draft genomes of nine Pseudomonas strains isolated from symptomatic C. avellana trees was performed to identify common and distinctive genomic traits. The thorough assessment of genetic relationships among the strains revealed two clearly distinct clusters: P. avellanae and P. syringae. The latter including the pathovars avellanae, coryli and syringae. Between these two clusters, no recombination event was found. A genomic island of approximately 20 kb, containing the hrp/hrc type III secretion system gene cluster, was found to be present without any genomic difference in all nine pseudomonads. The type III secretion system effector repertoires were remarkably different in the two groups, with P. avellanae showing a higher number of effectors. Homologue genes of the antimetabolite mangotoxin and ice nucleation activity clusters were found solely in all P. syringae pathovar strains, whereas the siderophore yersiniabactin was only present in P. avellanae. All nine strains have genes coding for pectic enzymes and sucrose metabolism. By contrast, they do not have genes coding for indolacetic acid and anti-insect toxin. Collectively, this study reveals that genomically different Pseudomonas can converge on the same host plant by suppressing the host defence mechanisms with the use of different virulence weapons. The integration into their genomes of a horizontally acquired genomic island could play a fundamental role in their evolution, perhaps giving them the ability to exploit new ecological niches. PMID:26147218

  12. Monocyte Profiles in Critically Ill Patients With Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Sepsis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-02

    Pseudomonas Infections; Pseudomonas Septicemia; Pseudomonas; Pneumonia; Pseudomonal Bacteraemia; Pseudomonas Urinary Tract Infection; Pseudomonas Gastrointestinal Tract Infection; Sepsis; Sepsis, Severe; Critically Ill

  13. Indicator For Pseudomonas Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margalit, Ruth

    1990-01-01

    Characteristic protein extracted and detected. Natural protein marker found in Pseudomonas bacteria. Azurin, protein containing copper readily extracted, purified, and used to prepare antibodies. Possible to develop simple, fast, and accurate test for marker carried out in doctor's office.

  14. Pseudomonas orchitis in puberty.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Ambil S

    2004-10-01

    Acute epididymo-orchitis is a common cause of 'acute scrotum' in adolescence and young adults, and the common causative pathogens are Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This is a rare case of acute epididymo-orchitis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a pubertal boy with a history of 'ano-receptive' intercourse. On Medline search there are no reports of pseudomonas orchitis in this age group.

  15. Characterization of the ability to form biofilms by plant-associated Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Akihiro; Saneoka, Hirofumi

    2015-04-01

    Successful colonization is the initial step for plant-bacteria interactions; therefore, the development of strategies to improve adherence to plant surfaces is critically important for environmental bacteria. Biofilm formation is thought to be one such strategy for bacteria to establish stable colonization on inert and living surfaces. Although biofilms play potential roles in enabling persistent bacterial colonization, little attention has been paid to biofilms formed by plant-associated bacteria. In this study, we characterized the biofilm-forming ability of 6 species of bacteria from the family Pseudomonadaceae: Pseudomonas protegens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas mendocina, and Pseudomonas syringae. These strains exhibit different degrees of biofilm formation depending on incubation time and nutrient availability. Distinct preferences for growth media were observed, as biofilms were formed by P. protegens with rich nutrients and by P. fluorescens and P. putida with poor nutrients. Likewise, P. stutzeri did not form biofilms with rich nutrients but did form biofilms under nutrient-poor conditions. These observations indicate that particular components in media may influence biofilm formation. P. putida, one of the strains with high biofilm-forming ability, showed the highest ability for initial attachment, which may be mediated by the hydrophobicity of its cell surface. P. mendocina also has high ability for initial attachment, and this strain produces cell surface-attached extracellular polysaccharides that promote cell aggregation. Thus, each strain possesses different properties that facilitate biofilm formation. Shedding light on bacterial strategies for colonization via biofilm formation would enable a better understanding of plant-bacteria interactions.

  16. Draft genome sequence analysis of a Pseudomonas putida W15Oct28 strain with antagonistic activity to Gram-positive and Pseudomonas sp. pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lumeng; Hildebrand, Falk; Dingemans, Jozef; Ballet, Steven; Laus, George; Matthijs, Sandra; Berendsen, Roeland; Cornelis, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida is a member of the fluorescent pseudomonads known to produce the yellow-green fluorescent pyoverdine siderophore. P. putida W15Oct28, isolated from a stream in Brussels, was found to produce compound(s) with antimicrobial activity against the opportunistic pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, an unusual characteristic for P. putida. The active compound production only occurred in media with low iron content and without organic nitrogen sources. Transposon mutants which lost their antimicrobial activity had the majority of insertions in genes involved in the biosynthesis of pyoverdine, although purified pyoverdine was not responsible for the antagonism. Separation of compounds present in culture supernatants revealed the presence of two fractions containing highly hydrophobic molecules active against P. aeruginosa. Analysis of the draft genome confirmed the presence of putisolvin biosynthesis genes and the corresponding lipopeptides were found to contribute to the antimicrobial activity. One cluster of ten genes was detected, comprising a NAD-dependent epimerase, an acetylornithine aminotransferase, an acyl CoA dehydrogenase, a short chain dehydrogenase, a fatty acid desaturase and three genes for a RND efflux pump. P. putida W15Oct28 genome also contains 56 genes encoding TonB-dependent receptors, conferring a high capacity to utilize pyoverdines from other pseudomonads. One unique feature of W15Oct28 is also the presence of different secretion systems including a full set of genes for type IV secretion, and several genes for type VI secretion and their VgrG effectors.

  17. First report of bacterial blight of sugar beet caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aptata in Georgia, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarbeet [Beta vulgaris L.] is not currently a commercial crop in Georgia, but experimental plantings as a winter rotational crop are promising in terms of yield and industrial sugar production. A disease outbreak of suspected bacterial origin occurred in some plots of sugarbeet [experimental lin...

  18. Comparative genomics of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato reveals novel chemotaxis pathways associated with motility and plant pathogenicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of bacterial foliar plant pathogens must invade the apoplast of host plants through points of ingress, such as stomata or wounds, replicate to high population density and cause disease. How pathogens navigate plant surfaces to locate invasion sites remains poorly understood. Many bacter...

  19. Functional and computational analysis of amino acid patterns predictive of type III secretion system substrates in Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial type III secretion systems (T3SSs) deliver proteins called effectors into eukaryotic cells. Although N-terminal amino acid sequences are required for translocation, the mechanism of substrate recognition by the T3SS is unknown. Almost all actively deployed T3SS substrates in the plant path...

  20. First report of bacterial streak of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) in California caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. apii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new bacterial streak disease appeared on fennel leaves, stems and bulbs grown in Salinas California production fields. Initial symptoms consisted of small black lesions on stems that spread down the stem to the bulbs and up the stem to leaves as the disease progressed. The disease rendered the pl...

  1. Apple (Malus x domestica) transcriptome in response to the compatible pathogen Erwinia amylovora and the incompatible pathogen Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infiltration of Erwinia amylovora (Ea) into host leaves induces an oxidative burst similar to that observed during incompatible reactions associated with Hypersensitive Response (HR). However, the subsequent progressive development of necrosis in apple and other hosts is unlike an incompatible reac...

  2. First Report of Bacterial Leaf Blight on Broccoli and Cabbage Caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. alisalensis in South Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In May 2009, leaf spot and leaf blight symptoms were observed on broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) on several farms in Lexington County, the major brassica-growing region of South Carolina. Affected areas ranged from scattered disease foci within fiel...

  3. First Report of Bacterial Blight on Conventionally and Organically Grown Arugula in Nevada Caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. alisalensis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel bacterial leaf spot was detected in commercial organic and conventional plantings of the arugula (Eruca vesicaria spp. sativa) cv. My Way in 2007. Koch’s postulates were completed and etiology of the pathogen was determined. Physiological and molecular characterization showed that the pathog...

  4. Polymicrobial ventriculitis involving Pseudomonas fulva.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo, Paulina A; Vu, Catphuong Cathy L; Carlson, Renee Donahue; Kraft, Colleen S; Anderson, Evan J; Burd, Eileen M

    2014-06-01

    Infections due to Pseudomonas fulva remain a rare but emerging concern. A case of ventriculitis due to Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas fulva following placement of an external ventricular drain is described. Similar to other reports, the organism was initially misidentified as Pseudomonas putida. The infection was successfully treated with levofloxacin.

  5. Pseudomonas cichorii as the causal agent of midrib rot, an emerging disease of greenhouse-grown butterhead lettuce in Flanders.

    PubMed

    Cottyn, Bart; Heylen, Kim; Heyrman, Jeroen; Vanhouteghem, Katrien; Pauwelyn, Ellen; Bleyaert, Peter; Van Vaerenbergh, Johan; Höfte, Monica; De Vos, Paul; Maes, Martine

    2009-05-01

    Bacterial midrib rot of greenhouse-grown butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) is an emerging disease in Flanders (Belgium) and fluorescent pseudomonads are suspected to play an important role in the disease. Isolations from infected lettuces, collected from 14 commercial greenhouses in Flanders, yielded 149 isolates that were characterized polyphasically, which included morphological characteristics, pigmentation, pathogenicity tests by both injection and spraying of lettuce, LOPAT characteristics, FAME analysis, BOX-PCR fingerprinting, 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing, as well as DNA-DNA hybridization. Ninety-eight isolates (66%) exhibited a fluorescent pigmentation and were associated with the genus Pseudomonas. Fifty-five of them induced an HR+ (hypersensitive reaction in tobacco leaves) response. The other 43 fluorescent isolates were most probably saprophytic bacteria and about half of them were able to cause rot on potato tuber slices. BOX-PCR genomic fingerprinting was used to assess the genetic diversity of the Pseudomonas midrib rot isolates. The delineated BOX-PCR patterns matched quite well with Pseudomonas morphotypes defined on the basis of colony appearance and variation in fluorescent pigmentation. 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequence analyses allowed most of the fluorescent isolates to be allocated to Pseudomonas, and they belonged to either the Pseudomonas fluorescens group, Pseudomonas putida group, or the Pseudomonas cichorii/syringae group. In particular, the isolates allocated to this latter group constituted the vast majority of HR+ isolates and were identified as P. cichorii by DNA-DNA hybridization. They were demonstrated by spray-inoculation tests on greenhouse-grown lettuce to induce the midrib rot disease and could be re-isolated from lesions of inoculated plants. Four HR+ non-fluorescent isolates associated with one sample that showed an atypical midrib rot were identified as Dickeya sp.

  6. Characterization of the biocontrol activity of pseudomonas fluorescens strain X reveals novel genes regulated by glucose.

    PubMed

    Kremmydas, Gerasimos F; Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios G

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strain X, a bacterial isolate from the rhizosphere of bean seedlings, has the ability to suppress damping-off caused by the oomycete Pythium ultimum. To determine the genes controlling the biocontrol activity of strain X, transposon mutagenesis, sequencing and complementation was performed. Results indicate that, biocontrol ability of this isolate is attributed to gcd gene encoding glucose dehydrogenase, genes encoding its co-enzyme pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), and two genes (sup5 and sup6) which seem to be organized in a putative operon. This operon (named supX) consists of five genes, one of which encodes a non-ribosomal peptide synthase. A unique binding site for a GntR-type transcriptional factor is localized upstream of the supX putative operon. Synteny comparison of the genes in supX revealed that they are common in the genus Pseudomonas, but with a low degree of similarity. supX shows high similarity only to the mangotoxin operon of Ps. syringae pv. syringae UMAF0158. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that transcription of supX is strongly reduced in the gcd and PQQ-minus mutants of Ps. fluorescens strain X. On the contrary, transcription of supX in the wild type is enhanced by glucose and transcription levels that appear to be higher during the stationary phase. Gcd, which uses PQQ as a cofactor, catalyses the oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid, which controls the activity of the GntR family of transcriptional factors. The genes in the supX putative operon have not been implicated before in the biocontrol of plant pathogens by pseudomonads. They are involved in the biosynthesis of an antimicrobial compound by Ps. fluorescens strain X and their transcription is controlled by glucose, possibly through the activity of a GntR-type transcriptional factor binding upstream of this putative operon.

  7. Subinhibitory bismuth-thiols reduce virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chieh-Liang; Domenico, Philip; Hassett, Daniel J; Beveridge, Terry J; Hauser, Alan R; Kazzaz, Jeffrey A

    2002-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common pathogen in mechanically ventilated patients and produces a wide array of virulence factors. Bismuth-thiols (BTs) are active in vitro against all bacterial lung pathogens, including P. aeruginosa. The objective of these studies was to examine the biochemical and morphologic effects of sublethal BT concentrations on P. aeruginosa and to evaluate virulence in cell culture. Bismuth-dimercaprol, at a fraction of the minimal inhibitory concentration, reduced alginate expression by 67% in P. aeruginosa, whereas subinhibitory bismuth-ethanedithiol (BisEDT) reduced alginate by 92% in P. syringae. BisEDT effects on lipopolysaccharide content and type III secreted cytoxins were examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Subinhibitory BisEDT reduced cell-associated lipopolysaccharide, and inhibited processing of the secreted cytotoxic protein ExoU. BisEDT-induced outer membrane blebbing and aggregation of cytoplasmic material was noted in electron microscopy. Virulence of P. aeruginosa was assessed by adherence to epithelial cells and sensitivity to serum killing. BisEDT inhibited adherence of P. aeruginosa to 16HBE14o- cells by 28% and to a collagen matrix by 53%. BisEDT-treated bacteria were also 100-fold more sensitive to serum bactericidal activity. In summary, low BT concentrations affect P. aeruginosa in a variety of ways, the combination of which may help prevent or resolve respiratory tract infection.

  8. The lilac cultivar Syringa ‘Charisma’ is a new host for ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni’, the group 16SrIII, subgroup A, phytoplasma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lilac cultivar ‘Charisma’ (Syringa x prestoniae ‘Charisma’) was derived by the propagation of a witches’ broom cutting taken from the Preston Lilac ‘Royalty’ (Syringa x prestoniae ‘Royalty). Because lilac witches’ broom disease has previously been shown to be associated with infection by ‘Candi...

  9. Structural and Functional Analysis of the Type III Secretion System from Pseudomonas fluorescens Q8r1-96▿ §

    PubMed Central

    Mavrodi, Dmitri V.; Joe, Anna; Mavrodi, Olga V.; Hassan, Karl A.; Weller, David M.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Loper, Joyce E.; Alfano, James R.; Thomashow, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens Q8r1-96 represents a group of rhizosphere strains responsible for the suppressiveness of agricultural soils to take-all disease of wheat. It produces the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and aggressively colonizes the roots of cereal crops. In this study, we analyzed the genome of Q8r1-96 and identified a type III protein secretion system (T3SS) gene cluster that has overall organization similar to that of the T3SS gene cluster of the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. We also screened a collection of 30 closely related P. fluorescens strains and detected the T3SS genes in all but one of them. The Q8r1-96 genome contained ropAA and ropM type III effector genes, which are orthologs of the P. syringae effector genes hopAA1-1 and hopM1, as well as a novel type III effector gene designated ropB. These type III effector genes encoded proteins that were secreted in culture and injected into plant cells by both P. syringae and Q8r1-96 T3SSs. The Q8r1-96 T3SS was expressed in the rhizosphere, but mutants lacking a functional T3SS were not altered in their rhizosphere competence. The Q8r1-96 type III effectors RopAA, RopB, and RopM were capable of suppressing the hypersensitive response and production of reactive oxygen species, two plant immune responses. PMID:20971913

  10. Differential modulation of plant immune responses by diverse members of the Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi HopAF type III effector family.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Ojeda, M Pilar; López-Solanilla, Emilia; Ramos, Cayo

    2016-04-26

    The Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 type III secretion system (T3SS) effector repertoire includes 33 candidates, seven of which translocate into host cells and interfere with plant defences. The present study was performed to investigate the co-existence of both plasmid- and chromosomal-encoded members of the HopAF effector family, HopAF1-1 and HopAF1-2, respectively, in the genome of NCPPB 3335. Here, we show that the HopAF1 paralogues are widely distributed in the Pseudomonas syringae complex, where HopAF1-1 is most similar to the homologues encoded by other P. syringae pathovars infecting woody hosts that belong to phylogroups 1 and 3. We show that the expression of both HopAF1-1 and HopAF-2 is transcriptionally dependent on HrpL and demonstrate their delivery into Nicotiana tabacum leaves. Although the heterologous delivery of either HopAF1-1 or HopAF1-2 significantly suppressed the production of defence-associated reactive oxygen species levels, only HopAF1-2 reduced the levels of callose deposition. Moreover, the expression of HopAF1-2 by functionally effectorless P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000D28E completely inhibited the hypersensitive response in tobacco and significantly increased the competitiveness of the strain in Nicotiana benthamiana. Despite their functional differences, subcellular localization studies reveal that green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions to either HopAF1-1 or HopAF1-2 are targeted to the plasma membrane when they are expressed in plant cells, a process that is completely dependent on the integrity of their N-myristoylation motif. Our results further support the notion that highly similar T3SS effectors might differentially interact with diverse plant targets, even when they co-localize in the same cell compartment.

  11. Identification of novel virulence genes and metabolic pathways required for full fitness of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi in olive (Olea europaea) knots.

    PubMed

    Matas, Isabel M; Lambertsen, Lotte; Rodríguez-Moreno, Luis; Ramos, Cayo

    2012-12-01

    Comparative genomics and functional analysis of Pseudomonas syringae and related pathogens have mainly focused on diseases of herbaceous plants; however, there is a general lack of knowledge about the virulence and pathogenicity determinants required for infection of woody plants. Here, we applied signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) to Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi during colonization of olive (Olea europaea) knots, with the goal of identifying the range of genes linked to growth and symptom production in its plant host. A total of 58 different genes were identified, and most mutations resulted in hypovirulence in woody olive plants. Sequence analysis of STM mutations allowed us to identify metabolic pathways required for full fitness of P. savastanoi in olive and revealed novel mechanisms involved in the virulence of this pathogen, some of which are essential for full colonization of olive knots by the pathogen and for the lysis of host cells. This first application of STM to a P. syringae-like pathogen provides confirmation of functional capabilities long believed to play a role in the survival and virulence of this group of pathogens but not adequately tested before, and unravels novel factors not correlated previously with the virulence of other plant or animal bacterial pathogens.

  12. Overexpression of Arabidopsis ACBP3 enhances NPR1-dependent plant resistance to Pseudomonas syringe pv tomato DC3000.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shi; Chye, Mee-Len

    2011-08-01

    ACBP3 is one of six Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes, designated ACBP1 to ACBP6, that encode acyl-coenzyme A (CoA)-binding proteins (ACBPs). These ACBPs bind long-chain acyl-CoA esters and phospholipids and are involved in diverse cellular functions, including acyl-CoA homeostasis, development, and stress tolerance. Recombinant ACBP3 binds polyunsaturated acyl-CoA esters and phospholipids in vitro. Here, we show that ACBP3 plays a role in the plant defense response to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. ACBP3 mRNA was up-regulated upon pathogen infection and treatments using pathogen elicitors and defense-related phytohormones. Transgenic Arabidopsis ACBP3 overexpressors (ACBP3-OEs) showed constitutive expression of pathogenesis-related genes (PR1, PR2, and PR5), cell death, and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in leaves. Consequently, ACBP3-OEs displayed enhanced resistance to the bacterial pathogen P. syringae DC3000. In contrast, the acbp3 T-DNA insertional mutant was more susceptible and exhibited lower PR gene transcript levels upon infection. Using the ACBP3 OE-1 line in combination with nonexpressor of PR genes1 (npr1-5) or coronatine-insensitive1 (coi1-2), we concluded that the enhanced PR gene expression and P. syringae DC3000 resistance in the ACBP3-OEs are dependent on the NPR1-mediated, but not the COI1-mediated, signaling pathway. Given that ACBP3-OEs showed greater susceptibility to infection by the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea while the acbp3 mutant was less susceptible, we suggest that ACBP3 plays a role in the plant defense response against biotrophic pathogens that is distinct from necrotrophic pathogens. ACBP3 function in plant defense was supported further by bioinformatics data showing up-regulation of many biotic and abiotic stress-related genes in ACBP3 OE-1 in comparison with the wild type.

  13. pA506, a Conjugative Plasmid of the Plant Epiphyte Pseudomonas fluorescens A506

    PubMed Central

    Stockwell, Virginia O.; Davis, Edward W.; Carey, Alyssa; Shaffer, Brenda T.; Mavrodi, Dmitri V.; Hassan, Karl A.; Hockett, Kevin; Thomashow, Linda S.; Paulsen, Ian T.

    2013-01-01

    Conjugative plasmids are known to facilitate the acquisition and dispersal of genes contributing to the fitness of Pseudomonas spp. Here, we report the characterization of pA506, the 57-kb conjugative plasmid of Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, a plant epiphyte used in the United States for the biological control of fire blight disease of pear and apple. Twenty-nine of the 67 open reading frames (ORFs) of pA506 have putative functions in conjugation, including a type IV secretion system related to that of MOBP6 family plasmids and a gene cluster for type IV pili. We demonstrate that pA506 is self-transmissible via conjugation between A506 and strains of Pseudomonas spp. or the Enterobacteriaceae. The origin of vegetative replication (oriV) of pA506 is typical of those in pPT23A family plasmids, which are present in many pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae, but pA506 lacks repA, a defining locus for pPT23A plasmids, and has a novel partitioning region. We selected a plasmid-cured derivative of A506 and compared it to the wild type to identify plasmid-encoded phenotypes. pA506 conferred UV resistance, presumably due to the plasmid-borne rulAB genes, but did not influence epiphytic fitness of A506 on pear or apple blossoms in the field. pA506 does not appear to confer resistance to antibiotics or other toxic elements. Based on the conjugative nature of pA506 and the large number of its genes that are shared with plasmids from diverse groups of environmental bacteria, the plasmid is likely to serve as a vehicle for genetic exchange between A506 and its coinhabitants on plant surfaces. PMID:23811504

  14. [Phytochemical and pharmacological progress on peeled stem of Syringa pinnatifolia, a Mongolian folk medicine].

    PubMed

    Su, Guo-zhu; Chen, Jie; Cao, Yuan; Bai, Rui-feng; Chen, Su-yi-le; Tu, Peng-fei; Chai, Xing-yun

    2015-11-01

    The peeled stem of Syringa pinnatifolia is a Mongolia folk medicine, mainly distributed in Helan mountain, inner Mongolia and Ningxia provinces of China. It has been used for the treatment of cardiopalmus, angina pectoris, and cardiopulmonary diseases for a long history. Contemporary research revealed the presence of major lignans, sesquitepenes, and essential oils, and showed myocardial ischemia related diseases. This review summarizes the plant origins, taxonomic disputes, phytochemical and pharmacological research progress, hopefully to provide reference for full medicinal utilization, clarification of biological effective substance, and drug development.

  15. Characterization of the first double-stranded RNA bacteriophage infecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuhui; Lu, Shuguang; Shen, Wei; Zhao, Xia; Shen, Mengyu; Tan, Yinling; Li, Gang; Li, Ming; Wang, Jing; Hu, Fuquan; Le, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages (phages) are widely distributed in the biosphere and play a key role in modulating microbial ecology in the soil, ocean, and humans. Although the role of DNA bacteriophages is well described, the biology of RNA bacteriophages is poorly understood. More than 1900 phage genomes are currently deposited in NCBI, but only 6 dsRNA bacteriophages and 12 ssRNA bacteriophages genome sequences are reported. The 6 dsRNA bacteriophages were isolated from legume samples or lakes with Pseudomonas syringae as the host. Here, we report the first Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage phiYY with a three-segmented dsRNA genome. phiYY was isolated from hospital sewage in China with the clinical P. aeruginosa strain, PAO38, as a host. Moreover, the dsRNA phage phiYY has a broad host range, which infects 99 out of 233 clinical P. aeruginosa strains isolated from four provinces in China. This work presented a detailed characterization of the dsRNA bacteriophage infecting P. aeruginosa. PMID:27934909

  16. Independent Co-Option of a Tailed Bacteriophage into a Killing Complex in Pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Tanya; Baltrus, David A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Competition between microbes is widespread in nature, especially among those that are closely related. To combat competitors, bacteria have evolved numerous protein-based systems (bacteriocins) that kill strains closely related to the producer. In characterizing the bacteriocin complement and killing spectra for the model strain Pseudomonas syringae B728a, we discovered that its activity was not linked to any predicted bacteriocin but is derived from a prophage. Instead of encoding an active prophage, this region encodes a bacteriophage-derived bacteriocin, termed an R-type syringacin. This R-type syringacin is striking in its convergence with the well-studied R-type pyocin of P. aeruginosa in both genomic location and molecular function. Genomic alignment, amino acid percent sequence identity, and phylogenetic inference all support a scenario where the R-type syringacin has been co-opted independently of the R-type pyocin. Moreover, the presence of this region is conserved among several other Pseudomonas species and thus is likely important for intermicrobial interactions throughout this important genus. PMID:26265717

  17. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type III Secretory Toxin ExoU and Its Predicted Homologs

    PubMed Central

    Sawa, Teiji; Hamaoka, Saeko; Kinoshita, Mao; Kainuma, Atsushi; Naito, Yoshifumi; Akiyama, Koichi; Kato, Hideya

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoU, a type III secretory toxin and major virulence factor with patatin-like phospholipase activity, is responsible for acute lung injury and sepsis in immunocompromised patients. Through use of a recently updated bacterial genome database, protein sequences predicted to be homologous to Ps. aeruginosa ExoU were identified in 17 other Pseudomonas species (Ps. fluorescens, Ps. lundensis, Ps. weihenstephanensis, Ps. marginalis, Ps. rhodesiae, Ps. synxantha, Ps. libanensis, Ps. extremaustralis, Ps. veronii, Ps. simiae, Ps. trivialis, Ps. tolaasii, Ps. orientalis, Ps. taetrolens, Ps. syringae, Ps. viridiflava, and Ps. cannabina) and 8 Gram-negative bacteria from three other genera (Photorhabdus, Aeromonas, and Paludibacterium). In the alignment of the predicted primary amino acid sequences used for the phylogenetic analyses, both highly conserved and nonconserved parts of the toxin were discovered among the various species. Further comparative studies of the predicted ExoU homologs should provide us with more detailed information about the unique characteristics of the Ps. aeruginosa ExoU toxin. PMID:27792159

  18. The type III secretion system of biocontrol Pseudomonas fluorescens KD targets the phytopathogenic Chromista Pythium ultimum and promotes cucumber protection.

    PubMed

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Binder, Christian; Défago, Geneviève; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

    2005-09-01

    The type III secretion system (TTSS) is used by Proteobacteria for pathogenic or symbiotic interaction with plant and animal hosts. Recently, TTSS genes thought to originate from the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae were evidenced in Pseudomonas fluorescens KD, which protects cucumber from the oomycete Pythium ultimum (kingdom Chromista/Stramenopila). However, it is not known whether the TTSS contributes to plant protection by the bacterium and, if so, whether it targets the plant or the phytopathogen. Inactivation of TTSS gene hrcV following the insertion of an omega cassette strongly reduced the biocontrol activity of the pseudomonad against P. ultimum on cucumber when compared with the wild type, but had no effect on its root-colonization ability. Analysis of a plasmid-based transcriptional hrpJ'-inaZ reporter fusion revealed that expression in strain KD of the operon containing hrcV was strongly stimulated in vitro and in situ by the oomycete and not by the plant. In vitro, both strain KD and its hrcV mutant reduced the activity level of the pectinase polygalacturonase (a key pathogenicity factor) from P. ultimum, but the reduction was much stronger with the wild type. Together, these results show that the target range of bacterial TTSS is not restricted to plants and animals but also can include members of Chromista/Stramenopila, and suggest that virulence genes acquired horizontally from phytopathogenic bacteria were functionally recycled in biocontrol saprophytic Pseudomonas spp., resulting in enhanced plant protection by the latter.

  19. Properties of a novel extracellular cell-free ice nuclei from ice-nucleating Pseudomonas antarctica IN-74.

    PubMed

    Muryoi, Naomi; Kawahara, Hidehisa; Obata, Hitoshi

    2003-09-01

    Some ice-nucleating bacterial strains, including Pantoea ananatis (Erwinia uredovora), Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas syringae isolates, were examined for the ability to shed ice nuclei into the growth medium. A novel ice-nucleating bacterium, Pseudomonas antarctica IN-74, was isolated from Ross Island, Antarctica. Cell-free ice nuclei from P. antarctica IN-74 were different from the conventional cell-free ice nuclei and showed a unique characterization. Cell-free ice nuclei were purified by centrifugation, filtration (0.45 microm), ultrafiltration, and gel filtration. In an ice-nucleating medium in 1 liter of cell culture, maximum growth was obtained with the production of 1.9 mg of cell-free ice nuclei. Ice nucleation activity in these cell-free ice nuclei preparations was extremely sensitive to pH. It was demonstrated that the components of cell-free ice nuclei were protein (33%), saccharide (12%), and lipid (55%), indicating that cell-free ice nuclei were lipoglycoproteins. Also, carbohydrate and lipid stains showed that cell-free ice nuclei contained both carbohydrate and lipid moieties.

  20. Biology of Pseudomonas stutzeri

    PubMed Central

    Lalucat, Jorge; Bennasar, Antoni; Bosch, Rafael; García-Valdés, Elena; Palleroni, Norberto J.

    2006-01-01

    Pseudomonas stutzeri is a nonfluorescent denitrifying bacterium widely distributed in the environment, and it has also been isolated as an opportunistic pathogen from humans. Over the past 15 years, much progress has been made in elucidating the taxonomy of this diverse taxonomical group, demonstrating the clonality of its populations. The species has received much attention because of its particular metabolic properties: it has been proposed as a model organism for denitrification studies; many strains have natural transformation properties, making it relevant for study of the transfer of genes in the environment; several strains are able to fix dinitrogen; and others participate in the degradation of pollutants or interact with toxic metals. This review considers the history of the discovery, nomenclatural changes, and early studies, together with the relevant biological and ecological properties, of P. stutzeri. PMID:16760312

  1. The Proteasome Acts as a Hub for Plant Immunity and Is Targeted by Pseudomonas Type III Effectors1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Arsheed; Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is involved in several aspects of plant immunity and that a range of plant pathogens subvert the ubiquitin-proteasome system to enhance their virulence. Here, we show that proteasome activity is strongly induced during basal defense in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Mutant lines of the proteasome subunits RPT2a and RPN12a support increased bacterial growth of virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst) and Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola ES4326. Both proteasome subunits are required for pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity responses. Analysis of bacterial growth after a secondary infection of systemic leaves revealed that the establishment of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is impaired in proteasome mutants, suggesting that the proteasome also plays an important role in defense priming and SAR. In addition, we show that Pst inhibits proteasome activity in a type III secretion-dependent manner. A screen for type III effector proteins from Pst for their ability to interfere with proteasome activity revealed HopM1, HopAO1, HopA1, and HopG1 as putative proteasome inhibitors. Biochemical characterization of HopM1 by mass spectrometry indicates that HopM1 interacts with several E3 ubiquitin ligases and proteasome subunits. This supports the hypothesis that HopM1 associates with the proteasome, leading to its inhibition. Thus, the proteasome is an essential component of pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity and SAR, which is targeted by multiple bacterial effectors. PMID:27613851

  2. Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa cervical osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Meher, Sujeet Kumar; Jain, Harsh; Tripathy, Laxmi Narayan; Basu, Sunandan

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a rare cause of osteomyelitis of the cervical spine and is usually seen in the background of intravenous drug use and immunocompromised state. Very few cases of osteomyelitis of the cervical spine caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa have been reported in otherwise healthy patients. This is a case presentation of a young female, who in the absence of known risk factors for cervical osteomyelitis presented with progressively worsening neurological signs and symptoms. PMID:27891039

  3. Phosphorylcholine Phosphatase: A Peculiar Enzyme of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Domenech, Carlos Eduardo; Otero, Lisandro Horacio; Beassoni, Paola Rita; Lisa, Angela Teresita

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa synthesizes phosphorylcholine phosphatase (PchP) when grown on choline, betaine, dimethylglycine or carnitine. In the presence of Mg2+ or Zn2+, PchP catalyzes the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylphosphate (p-NPP) or phosphorylcholine (Pcho). The regulation of pchP gene expression is under the control of GbdR and NtrC; dimethylglycine is likely the metabolite directly involved in the induction of PchP. Therefore, the regulation of choline metabolism and consequently PchP synthesis may reflect an adaptive response of P. aeruginosa to environmental conditions. Bioinformatic and biochemistry studies shown that PchP contains two sites for alkylammonium compounds (AACs): one in the catalytic site near the metal ion-phosphoester pocket, and another in an inhibitory site responsible for the binding of the alkylammonium moiety. Both sites could be close to each other and interact through the residues 42E, 43E and 82YYY84. Zn2+ is better activator than Mg2+ at pH 5.0 and it is more effective at alleviating the inhibition produced by the entry of Pcho or different AACs in the inhibitory site. We postulate that Zn2+ induces at pH 5.0 a conformational change in the active center that is communicated to the inhibitory site, producing a compact or closed structure. However, at pH 7.4, this effect is not observed because to the hydrolysis of the [Zn2+L2−1L20(H2O)2] complex, which causes a change from octahedral to tetrahedral in the metal coordination geometry. This enzyme is also present in P. fluorescens, P. putida, P. syringae, and other organisms. We have recently crystallized PchP and solved its structure. PMID:21915373

  4. Extract of Syringa oblata: A new biocontrol agent against tobacco bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wanming; Kong, Fanyu; Lin, Yong; Zhang, Chengsheng

    2016-11-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum causes serious wilt disease in tobacco. To effectively control this disease, the antibacterial activity of 95% ethanol extracts from the flower buds of Syringa oblata was examined. Based on GC-MS analysis and an inhibition experiment against R. solanacearum, the main antibacterial component is eugenol. We further determined the effect of eugenol on the physiology, biochemistry, and cellular morphology of R. solanacearum. The results showed that eugenol can destroy wilt bacteria, leading to the disappearance of flagella, the leakage of contents, and the appearance of a cavity. SDS-PAGE showed that eugenol decreased protein content in R. solanacearum, reduced medium carbohydrate utilization, and inhibited CAT and SDH activity. The above results showed that eugenol had a significant inhibitory effect on R. solanacearum and this component has the potential to prevent tobacco bacterial wilt.

  5. Transcriptome Analysis of Syringa oblata Lindl. Inflorescence Identifies Genes Associated with Pigment Biosynthesis and Scent Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jian; Hu, Zenghui; Guan, Xuelian; Dou, Dequan; Bai, Guo; Wang, Yu; Guo, Yingtian; Li, Wei; Leng, Pingsheng

    2015-01-01

    Syringa oblata Lindl. is a woody ornamental plant with high economic value and characteristics that include early flowering, multiple flower colors, and strong fragrance. Despite a long history of cultivation, the genetics and molecular biology of S. oblata are poorly understood. Transcriptome and expression profiling data are needed to identify genes and to better understand the biological mechanisms of floral pigments and scents in this species. Nine cDNA libraries were obtained from three replicates of three developmental stages: inflorescence with enlarged flower buds not protruded, inflorescence with corolla lobes not displayed, and inflorescence with flowers fully opened and emitting strong fragrance. Using the Illumina RNA-Seq technique, 319,425,972 clean reads were obtained and were assembled into 104,691 final unigenes (average length of 853 bp), 41.75% of which were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Among the annotated unigenes, 36,967 were assigned to gene ontology categories and 19,956 were assigned to eukaryoticorthologous groups. Using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database, 12,388 unigenes were sorted into 286 pathways. Based on these transcriptomic data, we obtained a large number of candidate genes that were differentially expressed at different flower stages and that were related to floral pigment biosynthesis and fragrance metabolism. This comprehensive transcriptomic analysis provides fundamental information on the genes and pathways involved in flower secondary metabolism and development in S. oblata, providing a useful database for further research on S. oblata and other plants of genus Syringa. PMID:26587670

  6. Mobile genetic elements in the genome of the beneficial rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 is a plant-associated bacterium that inhabits the rhizosphere of a wide variety of plant species and and produces secondary metabolites suppressive of fungal and oomycete plant pathogens. The Pf-5 genome is rich in features consistent with its commensal lifestyle, and its sequence has revealed attributes associated with the strain's ability to compete and survive in the dynamic and microbiologically complex rhizosphere habitat. In this study, we analyzed mobile genetic elements of the Pf-5 genome in an effort to identify determinants that might contribute to Pf-5's ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions and/or colonize new ecological niches. Results Sequence analyses revealed that the genome of Pf-5 is devoid of transposons and IS elements and that mobile genetic elements (MGEs) are represented by prophages and genomic islands that collectively span over 260 kb. The prophages include an F-pyocin-like prophage 01, a chimeric prophage 03, a lambdoid prophage 06, and decaying prophages 02, 04 and 05 with reduced size and/or complexity. The genomic islands are represented by a 115-kb integrative conjugative element (ICE) PFGI-1, which shares plasmid replication, recombination, and conjugative transfer genes with those from ICEs found in other Pseudomonas spp., and PFGI-2, which resembles a portion of pathogenicity islands in the genomes of the plant pathogens Pseudomonas syringae and P. viridiflava. Almost all of the MGEs in the Pf-5 genome are associated with phage-like integrase genes and are integrated into tRNA genes. Conclusion Comparative analyses reveal that MGEs found in Pf-5 are subject to extensive recombination and have evolved in part via exchange of genetic material with other Pseudomonas spp. having commensal or pathogenic relationships with plants and animals. Although prophages and genomic islands from Pf-5 exhibit similarity to MGEs found in other Pseudomonas spp., they also carry a number of

  7. Influence of a Putative ECF Sigma Factor on Expression of the Major Outer Membrane Protein, OprF, in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman, Fiona S. L.; Schoofs, Geert; Hancock, Robert E. W.; De Mot, René

    1999-01-01

    The gene encoding OprF, a major outer membrane protein in Pseudomonas species (formerly known as type 1 pseudomonads), was thought to be constitutively transcribed from a single sigma 70 promoter immediately upstream of the gene. We now report the identification of a novel putative ECF (extracytoplasmic function) sigma factor gene, sigX, located immediately upstream of oprF in both Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Pseudomonas fluorescens OE 28.3 and show that disruption of this gene significantly reduces OprF expression. In P. aeruginosa, Northern analysis demonstrated that this reduction was a result of an effect on transcription of monocistronic oprF combined with a polar effect due to termination of a transcript containing sigX and oprF. Comparison of sigX-disrupted and wild-type cell transcripts by primer extension indicated that monocistronic transcription of oprF occurs from two overlapping promoters, one that is SigX-dependent and resembles ECF sigma factor promoters in its minus-35 region and another promoter that is independent of SigX and is analogous to the sigma 70-type promoter previously reported. Complementation of the P. aeruginosa sigX-disrupted mutant with plasmid-encoded OprF did not resolve the phenotypes associated with this mutant, which included a markedly reduced logarithmic-phase growth rate in rich medium (compared to that in minimal medium), further reduction of the growth rate in a low-osmolarity environment, secretion of an unidentified pigment, and increased sensitivity to the antibiotic imipenem. This indicates that SigX is involved in the regulation of other genes in P. aeruginosa. Disruption of the sigX gene in P. fluorescens also had an effect on the logarithmic-phase growth rate in rich medium. A conserved sigX gene was also identified in a Pseudomonas syringae isolate and six P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. Collectively, these data indicate that an ECF sigma factor plays a role in the regulation and expression of OprF and also

  8. Pseudomonas type III effector AvrPtoB induces plant disease susceptibility by inhibition of host programmed cell death

    PubMed Central

    Abramovitch, Robert B.; Kim, Young-Jin; Chen, Shaorong; Dickman, Martin B.; Martin, Gregory B.

    2003-01-01

    The AvrPtoB type III effector protein is conserved among diverse genera of plant pathogens suggesting it plays an important role in pathogenesis. Here we report that Pseudomonas AvrPtoB acts inside the plant cell to inhibit programmed cell death (PCD) initiated by the Pto and Cf9 disease resistance proteins and, remarkably, the pro-apoptotic mouse protein Bax. AvrPtoB also suppressed PCD in yeast, demonstrating that AvrPtoB functions as a cell death inhibitor across kingdoms. Using truncated AvrPtoB proteins, we identified distinct N- and C-terminal domains of AvrPtoB that are sufficient for host recognition and PCD inhibition, respectively. We also identified a novel resistance phenotype, Rsb, that is triggered by an AvrPtoB truncation disrupted in the anti-PCD domain. A Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 strain with a chromosomal mutation in the AvrPtoB C-terminus elicited Rsb-mediated immunity in previously susceptible tomato plants and disease was restored when full-length AvrPtoB was expressed in trans. Thus, our results indicate that a type III effector can induce plant susceptibility to bacterial infection by inhibiting host PCD. PMID:12505984

  9. Sequence determination and analysis of three plasmids of Pseudomonas sp. GLE121, a psychrophile isolated from surface ice of Ecology Glacier (Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Dziewit, Lukasz; Grzesiak, Jakub; Ciok, Anna; Nieckarz, Marta; Zdanowski, Marek K; Bartosik, Dariusz

    2013-09-01

    Pseudomonas sp. GLE121 (a psychrophilic Antarctic strain) carries three plasmids: pGLE121P1 (6899 bp), pGLE121P2 (8330 bp) and pGLE121P3 (39,583 bp). Plasmids pGLE121P1 and pGLE121P2 show significant sequence similarity to members of the IncP-9 and IncP-7 incompatibility groups, respectively, while the largest replicon, pGLE121P3, is highly related to plasmid pNCPPB880-40 of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato NCPPB880. All three plasmids have a narrow host range, limited to members of the genus Pseudomonas. Plasmid pGLE121P3 encodes a conjugal transfer system, while pGLE121P1 carries only a putative MOB module, conserved in many mobilizable plasmids. Plasmid pGLE121P3 contains an additional load of genetic information, including a pair of genes with homology to the rulAB operon, responsible for ultraviolet radiation (UVR) tolerance. Given the increasing UV exposure in Antarctic regions, the expression of these genes is likely to be an important adaptive response.

  10. Endophytic Colonization of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by a Novel Competent Bacterial Endophyte, Pseudomonas putida Strain P9, and Its Effect on Associated Bacterial Communities▿

    PubMed Central

    Andreote, Fernando Dini; de Araújo, Welington L.; de Azevedo, João L.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; van Overbeek, Leonard S.

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida strain P9 is a novel competent endophyte from potato. P9 causes cultivar-dependent suppression of Phytophthora infestans. Colonization of the rhizoplane and endosphere of potato plants by P9 and its rifampin-resistant derivative P9R was studied. The purposes of this work were to follow the fate of P9 inside growing potato plants and to establish its effect on associated microbial communities. The effects of P9 and P9R inoculation were studied in two separate experiments. The roots of transplants of three different cultivars of potato were dipped in suspensions of P9 or P9R cells, and the plants were planted in soil. The fate of both strains was followed by examining colony growth and by performing PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Colonies of both strains were recovered from rhizoplane and endosphere samples of all three cultivars at two growth stages. A conspicuous band, representing P9 and P9R, was found in all Pseudomonas PCR-DGGE fingerprints for treated plants. The numbers of P9R CFU and the P9R-specific band intensities for the different replicate samples were positively correlated, as determined by linear regression analysis. The effects of plant growth stage, genotype, and the presence of P9R on associated microbial communities were examined by multivariate and unweighted-pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster analyses of PCR-DGGE fingerprints. The presence of strain P9R had an effect on bacterial groups identified as Pseudomonas azotoformans, Pseudomonas veronii, and Pseudomonas syringae. In conclusion, strain P9 is an avid colonizer of potato plants, competing with microbial populations indigenous to the potato phytosphere. Bacterization with a biocontrol agent has an important and previously unexplored effect on plant-associated communities. PMID:19329656

  11. Transcriptional profile of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 at low temperature: Physiology of phytopathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low temperatures play key roles in the development of most plant diseases, mainly because of their influence on the expression of various virulence factors in phytopathogenic bacteria. Thus far, studies regarding this environmental parameter have focused on specific themes and little is known about phytopathogenic bacteria physiology under these conditions. To obtain a global view regarding phytopathogenic bacteria strategies in response to physiologically relevant temperature changes, we used DNA microarray technology to compare the gene expression profile of the model bacterial pathogen P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 grown at 18°C and 28°C. Results A total of 236 differentially regulated genes were identified, of which 133 were up-regulated and 103 were down-regulated at 18°C compared to 28°C. The majority of these genes are involved in pathogenicity and virulence processes. In general, the results of this study suggest that the expression profile obtained may be related to the fact that low temperatures induce oxidative stress in bacterial cells, which in turn influences the expression of iron metabolism genes. The expression also appears to be correlated with the profile expression obtained in genes related to motility, biofilm production, and the type III secretion system. Conclusions From the data obtained in this study, we can begin to understand the strategies used by this phytopathogen during low temperature growth, which can occur in host interactions and disease development. PMID:23587016

  12. Cyanide production by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Askeland, R A; Morrison, S M

    1983-01-01

    Of 200 water isolates screened, five strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were cyanogenic. Maximum cyanogenesis by two strains of P. fluorescens in a defined growth medium occurred at 25 to 30 degrees C over a pH range of 6.6 to 8.9. Cyanide production per cell was optimum at 300 mM phosphate. A linear relationship was observed between cyanogenesis and the log of iron concentration over a range of 3 to 300 microM. The maximum rate of cyanide production occurred during the transition from exponential to stationary growth phase. Radioactive tracer experiments with [1-14C]glycine and [2-14C]glycine demonstrated that the cyanide carbon originates from the number 2 carbon of glycine for both P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa. Cyanide production was not observed in raw industrial wastewater or in sterile wastewater inoculated with pure cultures of cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains. Cyanide was produced when wastewater was amended by the addition of components of the defined growth medium. PMID:6410989

  13. Cyanide production by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Askeland, R A; Morrison, S M

    1983-06-01

    Of 200 water isolates screened, five strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were cyanogenic. Maximum cyanogenesis by two strains of P. fluorescens in a defined growth medium occurred at 25 to 30 degrees C over a pH range of 6.6 to 8.9. Cyanide production per cell was optimum at 300 mM phosphate. A linear relationship was observed between cyanogenesis and the log of iron concentration over a range of 3 to 300 microM. The maximum rate of cyanide production occurred during the transition from exponential to stationary growth phase. Radioactive tracer experiments with [1-14C]glycine and [2-14C]glycine demonstrated that the cyanide carbon originates from the number 2 carbon of glycine for both P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa. Cyanide production was not observed in raw industrial wastewater or in sterile wastewater inoculated with pure cultures of cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains. Cyanide was produced when wastewater was amended by the addition of components of the defined growth medium.

  14. Expression analysis of the fpr (ferredoxin-NADP{sup +} reductase) gene in Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yunho; Pena-Llopis, Samuel; Kang, Yoon-Suk; Shin, Hyeon-Dong; Demple, Bruce; Madsen, Eugene L.; Jeon, Che Ok; Park, Woojun . E-mail: wpark@korea.ac.kr

    2006-01-27

    The ferredoxin-NADP{sup +} reductase (fpr) participates in cellular defense against oxidative damage. The fpr expression in Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is induced by oxidative and osmotic stresses. FinR, a LysR-type transcriptional factor near the fpr gene in the P. putida KT2440 genome, is required for induction of the fpr under both conditions. We have shown that the fpr and finR gene products can counteract the effects of oxidative and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, FinR-independent expression occurs either during a long period of incubation with paraquat or with high concentrations of oxidative stress agent. This result indicates that there may be additional regulators present in the P. putida KT2440 genome. In contrast to in vivo expression kinetics of fpr from the plant pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, the fpr gene from P. putida KT2440 exhibited unusually prolonged expression after oxidative stress. Transcriptional fusion and Northern blot analysis studies indicated that the FinR is negatively autoregulated. Expression of the fpr promoter was higher in minimal media than in rich media during exponential phase growth. Consistent with this result, the fpr and finR mutants had a long lag phase in minimal media in contrast to wild-type growth characteristics. Antioxidants such as ascorbate could increase the growth rate of all tested strains in minimal media. This result confirmed that P. putida KT2440 experienced more oxidative stress during exponential growth in minimal media than in rich media. Endogenous promoter activity of the fpr gene is much higher during exponential growth than during stationary growth. These findings demonstrate new relationships between fpr, finR, and the physiology of oxidative stress in P. putida KT2440.

  15. Plasmid Replicons from Pseudomonas Are Natural Chimeras of Functional, Exchangeable Modules

    PubMed Central

    Bardaji, Leire; Añorga, Maite; Ruiz-Masó, José A.; del Solar, Gloria; Murillo, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Plasmids are a main factor for the evolution of bacteria through horizontal gene exchange, including the dissemination of pathogenicity genes, resistance to antibiotics and degradation of pollutants. Their capacity to duplicate is dependent on their replication determinants (replicon), which also define their bacterial host range and the inability to coexist with related replicons. We characterize a second replicon from the virulence plasmid pPsv48C, from Pseudomonas syringae pv. savastanoi, which appears to be a natural chimera between the gene encoding a newly described replication protein and a putative replication control region present in the widespread family of PFP virulence plasmids. We present extensive evidence of this type of chimerism in structurally similar replicons from species of Pseudomonas, including environmental bacteria as well as plant, animal and human pathogens. We establish that these replicons consist of two functional modules corresponding to putative control (REx-C module) and replication (REx-R module) regions. These modules are functionally separable, do not show specificity for each other, and are dynamically exchanged among replicons of four distinct plasmid families. Only the REx-C module displays strong incompatibility, which is overcome by a few nucleotide changes clustered in a stem-and-loop structure of a putative antisense RNA. Additionally, a REx-C module from pPsv48C conferred replication ability to a non-replicative chromosomal DNA region containing features associated to replicons. Thus, the organization of plasmid replicons as independent and exchangeable functional modules is likely facilitating rapid replicon evolution, fostering their diversification and survival, besides allowing the potential co-option of appropriate genes into novel replicons and the artificial construction of new replicon specificities. PMID:28243228

  16. Plasmid Replicons from Pseudomonas Are Natural Chimeras of Functional, Exchangeable Modules.

    PubMed

    Bardaji, Leire; Añorga, Maite; Ruiz-Masó, José A; Del Solar, Gloria; Murillo, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Plasmids are a main factor for the evolution of bacteria through horizontal gene exchange, including the dissemination of pathogenicity genes, resistance to antibiotics and degradation of pollutants. Their capacity to duplicate is dependent on their replication determinants (replicon), which also define their bacterial host range and the inability to coexist with related replicons. We characterize a second replicon from the virulence plasmid pPsv48C, from Pseudomonas syringae pv. savastanoi, which appears to be a natural chimera between the gene encoding a newly described replication protein and a putative replication control region present in the widespread family of PFP virulence plasmids. We present extensive evidence of this type of chimerism in structurally similar replicons from species of Pseudomonas, including environmental bacteria as well as plant, animal and human pathogens. We establish that these replicons consist of two functional modules corresponding to putative control (REx-C module) and replication (REx-R module) regions. These modules are functionally separable, do not show specificity for each other, and are dynamically exchanged among replicons of four distinct plasmid families. Only the REx-C module displays strong incompatibility, which is overcome by a few nucleotide changes clustered in a stem-and-loop structure of a putative antisense RNA. Additionally, a REx-C module from pPsv48C conferred replication ability to a non-replicative chromosomal DNA region containing features associated to replicons. Thus, the organization of plasmid replicons as independent and exchangeable functional modules is likely facilitating rapid replicon evolution, fostering their diversification and survival, besides allowing the potential co-option of appropriate genes into novel replicons and the artificial construction of new replicon specificities.

  17. LACTIC DEHYDROGENASES OF PSEUDOMONAS NATRIEGENS.

    PubMed

    WALKER, H; EAGON, R G

    1964-07-01

    Walker, Hazel (University of Georgia, Athens), and R. G. Eagon. Lactic dehydrogenases of Pseudomonas natriegens. J. Bacteriol. 88:25-30. 1964.-Lactic dehydrogenases specific for d- and l-lactate were demonstrated in Pseudomonas natriegens. The l-lactic dehydrogenase showed considerable heat stability, and 40% of the activity remained in extracts after heating at 60 C for 10 min. An essential thiol group for enzyme activity was noted. The results of these experiments were consistent with the view that lactate was dehydrogenated initially by a flavin cofactor and that electrons were transported through a complete terminal oxidase system to oxygen. The intracellular site of these lactic dehydrogenases was shown to be the cell membrane. It was suggested that the main physiological role of these lactic dehydrogenases is that of lactate utilization.

  18. Phosphate taxis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kato, J; Ito, A; Nikata, T; Ohtake, H

    1992-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to be attracted to phosphate. The chemotactic response was induced by phosphate starvation. The specificity of chemoreceptors for phosphate was high so that no other tested phosphorus compounds elicited a chemotactic response as strong as that elicited by phosphate. Competition experiments showed that the chemoreceptors for phosphate appeared to be different from those for the common amino acids. Mutants constitutive for alkaline phosphatase showed the chemotactic response to phosphate regardless of whether the cells were starved for phosphate.

  19. Deletions in the repertoire of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 type III secretion effector genes reveal functional overlap among effectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many bacterial pathogens of plants and animals disarm and remodel host cells by injecting large repertoires of effectors via the type III secretion system (T3SS). The repertoires of individual strains appear to function as robust systems that can tolerate loss of individual effectors with little or ...

  20. Induction of a viable but not culturable (VBNC) state in some Pseudomonas syringae pathovars upon exposure to oxidation of an apoplastic phenolic, acetosyringone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acetosyringone is a phenolic metabolite often found in plant apoplasts. Its oxidation by hydrogen peroxide and peroxidase results in a prolonged increase in the redox potential of the reaction mixture, similar to redox increases observed in suspension cells upon treatment with incompatible bacteri...

  1. Interactions among rsmX ncRNAs and Rsm RNA-binding proteins in the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae DC3000

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In response to changing environmental stimuli, many bacterial species utilize the Csr/Rsm system of posttranscriptional gene expression regulation to control metabolism, motility, biofilm formation, and quorum sensing. Most Csr/Rsm RNA binding proteins are thought to bind near the 5’ end of mRNA tra...

  2. Extracytoplasmic Function (ECF) Sigma Factor Gene Regulation in Pseudomonas syringae: Integrated Molecular and Computational Characterization of PvdS-Regulated Promoters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor PvdS regulates the expression of genes required for the biosynthesis and transport of pyoverdine, a siderophore that functions in iron acquisition. The production of pyoverdine is a distinctive trait of the fluorescent pseudomonads and the regulation ...

  3. Dissecting the regulon of the two-component system CvsSR: Identifying new virulence genes in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recognition of environmental changes and regulation of genes that allow for adaption to those changes is essential for survival of bacteria. Two-component systems (TCSs) allow bacteria to sense and adapt to their environment. We previously identified the TCS CvsSR in the bacterial plant pathogen Pse...

  4. PSPTO_3380 and PSPTO_3381: A two-component system that influences the virulence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major factor in pathogenesis is the ability of the pathogen to respond and react to the host environment during the infection cycle. For bacteria, external stimuli are mainly sensed by two-component systems (TCS) composed of histidine kinases with external recognition domains and cytoplasmic respo...

  5. Transcription factors WRKY70 and WRKY11 served as regulators in rhizobacterium Bacillus cereus AR156-induced systemic resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chun-Hao; Huang, Zi-Yang; Xie, Ping; Gu, Chun; Li, Ke; Wang, Da-Chen; Yu, Yi-Yang; Fan, Zhi-Hang; Wang, Chun-Juan; Wang, Yun-Peng; Guo, Ya-Hui; Guo, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The activation of both the SA and JA/ETsignalling pathways may lead to more efficient general and broad resistance to Pst DC3000 by non-pathogenic rhizobacteria. However, the mechanisms that govern this simultaneous activation are unclear. Using Arabidopsis as a model system, two transcription factors, WRKY11 and WRKY70, were identified as important regulators involved in Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR) triggered by Bacillus cereus AR156. The results revealed that AR156 treatment significantly stimulated the transcription of WRKY70, but suppressed that of WRKY11 in Arabidopsis leaves. Furthermore, they were shown to be required for AR156 enhancing the activation of cellular defence responses and the transcription level of the plant defence response gene. Overexpression of the two transcription factors in Arabidopsis also showed that they were essential for AR156 to elicit ISR. AR156-triggered ISR was completely abolished in the double mutant of the two transcription factors, but still partially retained in the single mutants, indicating that the regulation of the two transcription factors depend on two different pathways. The target genes of the two transcription factors and epistasis analysis suggested that WRKY11 regulated AR156-triggered ISR through activating the JA signalling pathway, and WRKY70 regulated the ISR through activating the SA signalling pathway. In addition, both WRKY11 and WRKY70 modulated AR156-triggered ISR in a NPR1-dependent manner. In conclusion, WRKY11 and WRKY70 played an important role in regulating the signalling transduction pathways involved in AR156-triggered ISR. This study is the first to illustrate the mechanism by which a single rhizobacterium elicits ISR by simultaneously activating both the SA and JA/ET signalling pathways.

  6. Genomics of Secondary Metabolism in Pseudomonas spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas is a heterogeneous genus of bacteria known for its ubiquity in natural habitats and its prolific production of secondary metabolites. The structurally diverse chemical structures produced by Pseudomonas spp. result from biosynthetic processes with unusual features that have revealed no...

  7. Spraying Leaves of Pear Nursery Trees with Urea and Copper Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid Alters Tree Nitrogen Concentration without Influencing Tree Susceptibility to Phytophthora syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the effects of nitrogen (N) availability and spraying trees with urea, copper chelate (CuEDTA), and phosphonate-containing fungicides on tree N status and susceptibility to infection by Phytophthora syringae. Increasing soil N availability increased susceptibility and increased N and...

  8. Regulation of Pseudomonas quinolone signal synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wade, Dana S; Calfee, M Worth; Rocha, Edson R; Ling, Elizabeth A; Engstrom, Elana; Coleman, James P; Pesci, Everett C

    2005-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients and is a major source of nosocomial infections. This bacterium controls many virulence factors by using two quorum-sensing systems, las and rhl. The las system is composed of the LasR regulator protein and its cell-to-cell signal, N-(3-oxododecanoyl) homoserine lactone, and the rhl system is composed of RhlR and the signal N-butyryl homoserine lactone. A third intercellular signal, the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS; 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone), also regulates numerous virulence factors. PQS synthesis requires the expression of multiple operons, one of which is pqsABCDE. Previous experiments showed that the transcription of this operon, and therefore PQS production, is negatively regulated by the rhl quorum-sensing system and positively regulated by the las quorum-sensing system and PqsR (also known as MvfR), a LysR-type transcriptional regulator protein. With the use of DNA mobility shift assays and beta-galactosidase reporter fusions, we have studied the regulation of pqsR and its relationship to pqsA, lasR, and rhlR. We show that PqsR binds the promoter of pqsA and that this binding increases dramatically in the presence of PQS, implying that PQS acts as a coinducer for PqsR. We have also mapped the transcriptional start site for pqsR and found that the transcription of pqsR is positively regulated by lasR and negatively regulated by rhlR. These results suggest that a regulatory chain occurs where pqsR is under the control of LasR and RhlR and where PqsR in turn controls pqsABCDE, which is required for the production of PQS.

  9. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi contains two iaaL paralogs, one of which exhibits a variable number of a trinucleotide (TAC) tandem repeat.

    PubMed

    Matas, Isabel M; Pérez-Martínez, Isabel; Quesada, José M; Rodríguez-Herva, José J; Penyalver, Ramón; Ramos, Cayo

    2009-02-01

    In this study, Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi isolates were demonstrated to contain two iaaL paralogs, which are both chromosomally located in most strains. Comparative analysis of iaaL nucleotide sequences amplified from these two paralogs revealed that one paralog, iaaL(Psn), is 100% identical to iaaL from P. savastanoi pv. nerii, while the other paralog, iaaL(Psv), exhibited 93% identity to iaaL from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (iaaL(Pto)). A 3-nucleotide motif (TAC) comprised of 3 to 15 repeats, which remained stable after propagation of the strains in olive plants, was found in iaaL(Psv). Based on the observed nucleotide sequence variations, a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was developed that allowed differentiation among iaaL(Psn), iaaL(Psv), and iaaL(Pto)(.) In addition, reverse transcriptase PCR on total RNA from P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi strains demonstrated that both iaaL(Psv) and iaaL(Psn) containing 14 or fewer TAC repeats are transcribed. Capillary electrophoresis analysis of PCR-amplified DNA fragments containing the TAC repeats from iaaL(Psv) allowed the differentiation of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi isolates.

  10. [Pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Vallés, Jordi; Mariscal, Dolors

    2005-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the leading causes of Gram-negative nosocomial pneumonia. It is the most common cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia and carries the highest mortality among hospital-acquired infections. P. aeruginosa produces a large number of toxins and surface components that make it especially virulent compared with other microorganisms. These include pili, flagella, membrane bound lipopolysaccharide, and secreted products such as exotoxins A, S and U, elastase, alkaline protease, cytotoxins and phospholipases. The most common mechanism of infection in mechanically ventilated patients is through aspiration of upper respiratory tract secretions previously colonized in the process of routine nursing care or via contaminated hands of hospital personnel. Intravenous therapy with an antipseudomonal regimen should be started immediately when P. aeruginosa pneumonia is suspected or confirmed. Empiric therapy with drugs active against P. aeruginosa should be started, especially in patients who have received previous antibiotics or present late-onset pneumonia.

  11. Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Shinabarger, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing (3-/sup 14/C) glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that (3-/sup 14/C)sarcosine is an intermediate in glyphosate degradation. Examination of crude extracts prepared from PG2982 cells revealed the presence of an enzyme that oxidizes sarcosine to glycine and formaldehyde. These results indicate that the first step in glyphosate degradation by PG2982 is cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of sarcosine and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is utilized as a source of phosphorus, and the sarcosine is degraded to glycine and formaldehyde. Phosphonate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 was investigated. Each of the ten phosphonates tested were utilized as a sole source of phosphorus by PG2982. Representative compounds tested included alkylphosphonates, 1-amino-substituted alkylphosphonates, amino-terminal phosphonates, and an arylphosphonate. PG2982 cultures degraded phenylphosphonate to benzene and produced methane from methylphosphonate. The data indicate that PG2982 is capable of cleaving the carbon-phosphorus bond of several structurally different phosphonates.

  12. Antibiotic Conditioned Growth Medium of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benathen, Isaiah A.; Cazeau, Barbara; Joseph, Njeri

    2004-01-01

    A simple method to study the consequences of bacterial antibiosis after interspecific competition between microorganisms is presented. Common microorganisms are used as the test organisms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are used as the source of the inhibitor agents.

  13. Nucleotide sequences of the Pseudomonas savastanoi indoleacetic acid genes show homology with Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Tetsuji; Palm, Curtis J.; Brooks, Bob; Kosuge, Tsune

    1985-01-01

    We report the nucleotide sequences of iaaM and iaaH, the genetic determinants for, respectively, tryptophan 2-monooxygenase and indoleacetamide hydrolase, the enzymes that catalyze the conversion of L-tryptophan to indoleacetic acid in the tumor-forming bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. savastanoi. The sequence analysis indicates that the iaaM locus contains an open reading frame encoding 557 amino acids that would comprise a protein with a molecular weight of 61,783; the iaaH locus contains an open reading frame of 455 amino acids that would comprise a protein with a molecular weight of 48,515. Significant amino acid sequence homology was found between the predicted sequence of the tryptophan monooxygenase of P. savastanoi and the deduced product of the T-DNA tms-1 gene of the octopine-type plasmid pTiA6NC from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Strong homology was found in the 25 amino acid sequence in the putative FAD-binding region of tryptophan monooxygenase. Homology was also found in the amino acid sequences representing the central regions of the putative products of iaaH and tms-2 T-DNA. The results suggest a strong similarity in the pathways for indoleacetic acid synthesis encoded by genes in P. savastanoi and in A. tumefaciens T-DNA. Images PMID:16593610

  14. Comparative Genomics of Multiple Strains of Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis, a Potential Model Pathogen of Both Monocots and Dicots

    PubMed Central

    Sarris, Panagiotis F.; Trantas, Emmanouil A.; Baltrus, David A.; Bull, Carolee T.; Wechter, William Patrick; Yan, Shuangchun; Ververidis, Filippos; Almeida, Nalvo F.; Jones, Corbin D.; Dangl, Jeffery L.; Panopoulos, Nickolas J.; Vinatzer, Boris A.; Goumas, Dimitrios E.

    2013-01-01

    Comparative genomics of closely related pathogens that differ in host range can provide insights into mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions and host adaptation. Furthermore, sequencing of multiple strains with the same host range reveals information concerning pathogen diversity and the molecular basis of virulence. Here we present a comparative analysis of draft genome sequences for four strains of Pseudomonas cannabina pathovar alisalensis (Pcal), which is pathogenic on a range of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. These draft genome sequences provide a foundation for understanding host range evolution across the monocot-dicot divide. Like other phytopathogenic pseudomonads, Pcal strains harboured a hrp/hrc gene cluster that codes for a type III secretion system. Phylogenetic analysis based on the hrp/hrc cluster genes/proteins, suggests localized recombination and functional divergence within the hrp/hrc cluster. Despite significant conservation of overall genetic content across Pcal genomes, comparison of type III effector repertoires reinforced previous molecular data suggesting the existence of two distinct lineages within this pathovar. Furthermore, all Pcal strains analyzed harbored two distinct genomic islands predicted to code for type VI secretion systems (T6SSs). While one of these systems was orthologous to known P. syringae T6SSs, the other more closely resembled a T6SS found within P. aeruginosa. In summary, our study provides a foundation to unravel Pcal adaptation to both monocot and dicot hosts and provides genetic insights into the mechanisms underlying pathogenicity. PMID:23555661

  15. Pseudomonas fluorescens induces strain-dependent and strain-independent host plant responses in defense networks, primary metabolism and photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, Dale A; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Karve, Abhijit A; Lu, Tse-Yuan S; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Tuskan, Gerald A; Chen, Jay; Martin, Madhavi Z; Jawdy, Sara; Weston, David; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Schadt, Christopher Warren

    2012-01-01

    Colonization of plants by nonpathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens strains can confer enhanced defense capacity against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Few studies, however, have linked defense pathway regulation to primary metabolism and physiology. In this study, physiological data, metabolites, and transcript profiles are integrated to elucidate how molecular networks initiated at the root-microbe interface influence shoot metabolism and whole-plant performance. Experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana were performed using the newly identified P. fluorescens GM30 or P. fluorescens Pf-5 strains. Co-expression networks indicated that Pf-5 and GM30 induced a subnetwork specific to roots enriched for genes participating in RNA regulation, protein degradation, and hormonal metabolism. In contrast, only GM30 induced a subnetwork enriched for calcium signaling, sugar and nutrient signaling, and auxin metabolism, suggesting strain dependence in network architecture. In addition, one subnetwork present in shoots was enriched for genes in secondary metabolism, photosynthetic light reactions, and hormone metabolism. Metabolite analysis indicated that this network initiated changes in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Consistent with this, we observed strain-specific responses in tryptophan and phenylalanine abundance. Both strains reduced host plant carbon gain and fitness, yet provided a clear fitness benefit when plants were challenged with the pathogen P. syringae DC3000.

  16. Adaptive Remodeling of the Bacterial Proteome by Specific Ribosomal Modification Regulates Pseudomonas Infection and Niche Colonisation

    PubMed Central

    Little, Richard H.; Grenga, Lucia; Saalbach, Gerhard; Howat, Alexandra M.; Pfeilmeier, Sebastian; Trampari, Eleftheria; Malone, Jacob G.

    2016-01-01

    Post-transcriptional control of protein abundance is a highly important, underexplored regulatory process by which organisms respond to their environments. Here we describe an important and previously unidentified regulatory pathway involving the ribosomal modification protein RimK, its regulator proteins RimA and RimB, and the widespread bacterial second messenger cyclic-di-GMP (cdG). Disruption of rimK affects motility and surface attachment in pathogenic and commensal Pseudomonas species, with rimK deletion significantly compromising rhizosphere colonisation by the commensal soil bacterium P. fluorescens, and plant infection by the pathogens P. syringae and P. aeruginosa. RimK functions as an ATP-dependent glutamyl ligase, adding glutamate residues to the C-terminus of ribosomal protein RpsF and inducing specific effects on both ribosome protein complement and function. Deletion of rimK in P. fluorescens leads to markedly reduced levels of multiple ribosomal proteins, and also of the key translational regulator Hfq. In turn, reduced Hfq levels induce specific downstream proteomic changes, with significant increases in multiple ABC transporters, stress response proteins and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases seen for both ΔrimK and Δhfq mutants. The activity of RimK is itself controlled by interactions with RimA, RimB and cdG. We propose that control of RimK activity represents a novel regulatory mechanism that dynamically influences interactions between bacteria and their hosts; translating environmental pressures into dynamic ribosomal changes, and consequently to an adaptive remodeling of the bacterial proteome. PMID:26845436

  17. Adaptive Remodeling of the Bacterial Proteome by Specific Ribosomal Modification Regulates Pseudomonas Infection and Niche Colonisation.

    PubMed

    Little, Richard H; Grenga, Lucia; Saalbach, Gerhard; Howat, Alexandra M; Pfeilmeier, Sebastian; Trampari, Eleftheria; Malone, Jacob G

    2016-02-01

    Post-transcriptional control of protein abundance is a highly important, underexplored regulatory process by which organisms respond to their environments. Here we describe an important and previously unidentified regulatory pathway involving the ribosomal modification protein RimK, its regulator proteins RimA and RimB, and the widespread bacterial second messenger cyclic-di-GMP (cdG). Disruption of rimK affects motility and surface attachment in pathogenic and commensal Pseudomonas species, with rimK deletion significantly compromising rhizosphere colonisation by the commensal soil bacterium P. fluorescens, and plant infection by the pathogens P. syringae and P. aeruginosa. RimK functions as an ATP-dependent glutamyl ligase, adding glutamate residues to the C-terminus of ribosomal protein RpsF and inducing specific effects on both ribosome protein complement and function. Deletion of rimK in P. fluorescens leads to markedly reduced levels of multiple ribosomal proteins, and also of the key translational regulator Hfq. In turn, reduced Hfq levels induce specific downstream proteomic changes, with significant increases in multiple ABC transporters, stress response proteins and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases seen for both ΔrimK and Δhfq mutants. The activity of RimK is itself controlled by interactions with RimA, RimB and cdG. We propose that control of RimK activity represents a novel regulatory mechanism that dynamically influences interactions between bacteria and their hosts; translating environmental pressures into dynamic ribosomal changes, and consequently to an adaptive remodeling of the bacterial proteome.

  18. Oxidation of polychlorinated biphenyls by Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707.

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, D T; Cruden, D L; Haddock, J D; Zylstra, G J; Brand, J M

    1993-01-01

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in the substrate specificity of the biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenases from both organisms. PMID:8331086

  19. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400 AND PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOALCALIGENES KF707

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in th...

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: breaking down barriers.

    PubMed

    Berube, Bryan J; Rangel, Stephanie M; Hauser, Alan R

    2016-02-01

    Many bacterial pathogens have evolved ingenious ways to escape from the lung during pneumonia to cause bacteremia. Unfortunately, the clinical consequences of this spread to the bloodstream are frequently dire. It is therefore important to understand the molecular mechanisms used by pathogens to breach the lung barrier. We have recently shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the leading causes of hospital-acquired pneumonia, utilizes the type III secretion system effector ExoS to intoxicate pulmonary epithelial cells. Injection of these cells leads to localized disruption of the pulmonary-vascular barrier and dissemination of P. aeruginosa to the bloodstream. We put these data in the context of previous studies to provide a holistic model of P. aeruginosa dissemination from the lung. Finally, we compare P. aeruginosa dissemination to that of other bacteria to highlight the complexity of bacterial pneumonia. Although respiratory pathogens use distinct and intricate strategies to escape from the lungs, a thorough understanding of these processes can lay the foundation for new therapeutic approaches for bacterial pneumonia.

  1. Carbenicillin resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Tebar, A; Rojo, F; Dámaso, D; Vázquez, D

    1982-01-01

    Four strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa obtained from clinical isolates which are carbenicillin resistant were studied to find the cause(s) of resistance to this beta-lactam antibiotic. The electrophoresis patterns of the four strains (PH20610, PH20815, PH4011, and PH4301) were found to be different from those of a wild-type strain, P. aeruginosa NCTC 10662, and appeared to lack penicillin-binding protein 2. Affinity of other penicillin-binding proteins from strains PH20610 and PH20815 for carbenicillin seemed to be normal or slightly diminished. Electrophoretic patterns of penicillin-binding proteins from strains PH4011 and PH4301 had more profound differences, since the affinities of their penicillin-binding proteins 1a, 1b, and 4 for carbenicillin were decreased by nearly two orders of magnitude relative to the preparations from the wild-type strain. Kinetic studies on binding of carbenicillin to penicillin-binding proteins both in isolated membrane preparations and in intact cells revealed that carbenicillin penetration into resistant cells was a much slower process than in susceptible cells, suggesting that the outer envelope structures serve as an efficient barrier against carbenicillin entry into our P. aeruginosa strains from clinical isolates. PMID:6821456

  2. Specific gonadotropin binding to Pseudomonas maltophilia.

    PubMed

    Richert, N D; Ryan, R J

    1977-03-01

    Binding of 125I-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin to Pseudomonas maltophilia is dependent on time, temperature, and pH and the binding to this procaryotic species is hormone-specific and saturable. The equilibrium dissociation constant is 2.3 X 10(-9) M. There are no cooperative interactions between binding sites (Hill coefficient, 1.05). The number of sites is estimaated as 240 fmol/100 mug of protein. NaCl and KCl, at concentrations from 1 to 10 mM, have no effect on binding. Divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+) and 1 mM EDTA inhibit hormone binding. Binding is destroyed by heat or by treatment with Pronase of alpha-chymotrypsin and is increased by phospholipase C. Binding of the labeled gonadotropin is not observed with other gram-negative organisms--e.g., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas testosteroni, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, or Enterobacter cloacae.

  3. Comparison of aspartate transcarbamoylase regulation in Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Pseudomonas mendocina.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Manuel F; West, Thomas P

    2003-01-01

    The regulation of aspartate transcarbamoylase activity in cell extracts of Pseudomonas alcaligenes ATCC 14909 and Pseudomonas mendocina ATCC 25411 was compared. Under saturating substrate concentrations, pyrophosphate, CTP, UDP and ADP were highly inhibitory of the P. alcaligenes transcarbamoylase activity while pyrophosphate, UDP, ADP, ATP and GTP were the most effective inhibitors of the P. mendocina transcarbamoylase. By examining transcarbamoylase inhibition by ribonucleotide triphosphates, it was possible to differentiate these species assigned to different DNA homology groups and such an analysis might prove useful in the reclassification of Pseudomonas species.

  4. A new selective medium for isolating Pseudomonas spp. from water.

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, C L; Sheikh, W

    1987-01-01

    A new medium, pseudomonas selective isolation agar, was developed to isolate Pseudomonas spp. from water. It consists of 350 micrograms of nitrofurantoin per ml and 2 micrograms of crystal violet per ml in a nutrient agar base. It is more selective for Pseudomonas spp. than are available commercial media. Its ingredients are inexpensive and readily available, and it is easy to prepare. PMID:3579287

  5. Pseudomonas hussainii sp. nov., isolated from droppings of a seashore bird, and emended descriptions of Pseudomonas pohangensis, Pseudomonas benzenivorans and Pseudomonas segetis.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Asif; Shahina, Mariyam; Lin, Shih-Yao; Liu, You-Cheng; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2014-07-01

    Two Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterial strains that are motile by a monopolar flagellum, designated CC-AMH-11(T) and CC-AMHZ-5, were isolated from droppings of a seashore bird off the coast of Hualien, Taiwan. The strains showed 99.7% mutual pairwise 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, while exhibiting <96.2% sequence similarity to strains of other species of the genus Pseudomonas (95.7-95.9% similarity with type species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa LMG 1242T), and formed a distinct co-phyletic lineage in the phylogenetic trees. The common major fatty acids (>5% of the total) were C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c (summed feature 8), C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c (summed feature 3), C16 : 0 and C12 : 0. Phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine, an unidentified lipid and an unidentified phospholipid were detected as common polar lipids. The DNA G+C contents of strains CC-AMH-11(T) and CC-AMHZ-5 were 61.1 and 61.6 mol%, respectively. The common major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 9 (Q-9), and the predominant polyamine was putrescine. The DNA-DNA hybridization obtained between the two strains was 79.0% (reciprocal value 89.4% using CC-AMHZ-5 DNA as the probe). The very high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and DNA-DNA relatedness and the poorly distinguishable phenotypic features witnessed between CC-AMH-11(T) and CC-AMHZ-5 suggested unambiguously that they are two distinct strains of a single genomic species. However, the strains also showed several genotypic and phenotypic characteristics that distinguished them from other closely related species of Pseudomonas. Thus, the strains are proposed to represent a novel species of Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas hussainii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CC-AMH-11(T) ( = JCM 19513(T) = BCRC 80696(T)); a second strain of the same species is CC-AMHZ-5 ( = JCM 19512 = BCRC 80697). In addition, emended descriptions

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Population Structure Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Bilocq, Florence; Pot, Bruno; Cornelis, Pierre; Zizi, Martin; Van Eldere, Johan; Deschaght, Pieter; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Jennes, Serge; Pitt, Tyrone; De Vos, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    At present there are strong indications that Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits an epidemic population structure; clinical isolates are indistinguishable from environmental isolates, and they do not exhibit a specific (disease) habitat selection. However, some important issues, such as the worldwide emergence of highly transmissible P. aeruginosa clones among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and the spread and persistence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains in hospital wards with high antibiotic pressure, remain contentious. To further investigate the population structure of P. aeruginosa, eight parameters were analyzed and combined for 328 unrelated isolates, collected over the last 125 years from 69 localities in 30 countries on five continents, from diverse clinical (human and animal) and environmental habitats. The analysed parameters were: i) O serotype, ii) Fluorescent Amplified-Fragment Length Polymorphism (FALFP) pattern, nucleotide sequences of outer membrane protein genes, iii) oprI, iv) oprL, v) oprD, vi) pyoverdine receptor gene profile (fpvA type and fpvB prevalence), and prevalence of vii) exoenzyme genes exoS and exoU and viii) group I pilin glycosyltransferase gene tfpO. These traits were combined and analysed using biological data analysis software and visualized in the form of a minimum spanning tree (MST). We revealed a network of relationships between all analyzed parameters and non-congruence between experiments. At the same time we observed several conserved clones, characterized by an almost identical data set. These observations confirm the nonclonal epidemic population structure of P. aeruginosa, a superficially clonal structure with frequent recombinations, in which occasionally highly successful epidemic clones arise. One of these clones is the renown and widespread MDR serotype O12 clone. On the other hand, we found no evidence for a widespread CF transmissible clone. All but one of the 43 analysed CF strains belonged to a ubiquitous P

  7. Effects of stomatal development on stomatal conductance and on stomatal limitation of photosynthesis in Syringa oblata and Euonymus japonicus Thunb.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bing-Jie; Chow, Wah Soon; Liu, Yu-Jun; Shi, Lei; Jiang, Chuang-Dao

    2014-12-01

    During leaf development, the increase in stomatal conductance cannot meet photosynthetic demand for CO2, thus leading to stomatal limitation of photosynthesis (Ls). Considering the crucial influences of stomatal development on stomatal conductance, we speculated whether stomatal development limits photosynthesis to some extent. To test this hypothesis, stomatal development, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis were carefully studied in both Syringa oblata (normal greening species) and Euonymus japonicus Thunb (delayed greening species). Our results show that the size of stomata increased gradually with leaf expansion, resulting in increased stomatal conductance up to the time of full leaf expansion. During this process, photosynthesis also increased steadily. Compared to that in S. oblata, the development of chloroplasts in E. japonicus Thunb was obviously delayed, leading to a delay in the improvement of photosynthetic capacity. Further analysis revealed that before full leaf expansion, stomatal limitation increased rapidly in both S. oblata and E. japonicus Thunb; after full leaf expansion, stomatal limitation continually increased in E. japonicus Thunb. Accordingly, we suggested that the enhancement of photosynthetic capacity is the main factor leading to stomatal limitation during leaf development but that stomatal development can alleviate stomatal limitation with the increase of photosynthesis by controlling gas exchange.

  8. [A sarcoma-static new species of Pseudomonas, Pseudomonas jinanensis sp. nov].

    PubMed

    Cai, M Y; Lu, D S; Wang, D S; He, Z Z; Wang, J H

    1989-06-01

    A strain of Gram negative bacteria was isolated from the surface soil of Wuying Hill at Jinan, Shandong province with Gause's medium in 1973. It is a strain of antagonistic bacteria for hysterocervicoma, hepatoma and melanoma of mice screened from 2100 strains of bacteria. It is also antagonistic to Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus. It is a Gram negative bacterium with lophotrichous polar flagella. Straight rods in shape or with a little slightly curved rods, 0.5-0.6 X 1-2 microns, randomly arranged, poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules are accumulated in cells after 2-5 days cultivation. Water green soluble pigment and green fluorescent pigment are produced. Respiratory metabolism, chemoorganotroph, many carbon-containing organic compounds can be used as carbon sources, such as glucose, trehalose, ethanol, cellulobiose, fucose, arginine and betaine, but propionic acid or tartaric acid is not utilized. Inorganic nitrogen containing compounds can be used ae the sole source of nitrogen. No growth factor is necessary for growth. Gelatin is hydrolyzed. Starch and cellulose are not hydrolyzed. Nitrate is not reduced. Arginine dihydrolase is produced. Levan is produced from sucrose. Growth occurs from 7 degrees C to 37 degrees C and from pH 5.65-8.40. No growth occurs at 40 degrees C and at pH value below 4.86. It can not grow autotrophically with hydrogen. Its G + C contents in DNA is 58.1 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments reveals a relatedness value of 58.6% between this strain and Ps. fluorescens. The above evidence shows that this strain differs from all species known in Pseudomonas, such as Pseudomonas fluorescens group. Pseudomonas caryophylli, Pseudomonas cepacia, Pseudomonas marginata, Pseudomonas acidovorans, Pseudomonas testosteroni and Pseudomonas delafieldii.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Chemotaxis of Pseudomonas