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Sample records for pseudotuberculosis serogroup va

  1. YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS, SEROGROUP O:1A, INFECTION IN TWO AMAZON PARROTS (AMAZONA AESTIVA AND AMAZONA ORATRIX) WITH HEPATIC HEMOSIDEROSIS.

    PubMed

    Galosi, Livio; Farneti, Silvana; Rossi, Giacomo; Cork, Susan Catherine; Ferraro, Stefano; Magi, Gian Enrico; Petrini, Stefano; Valiani, Andrea; Cuteri, Vincenzo; Attili, Anna-Rita

    2015-09-01

    Necropsies were conducted on a female blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) and a female yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix) that died after depression, ruffled feathers, diarrhea, and biliverdin in the urine. Gross and microscopic examinations revealed multifocal necrosis in the liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, intestines, and heart caused by acute bacteremia. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, serogroup O:1a, was isolated by culturing from the visceral lesions in the liver, intestines, and spleen. Virulence gene analysis showed the presence of the inv gene and the complete pathogenicity island: IS100, psn, yptE, irp1, irp2 ybtP-ybtQ, ybtX-ybtS, and int asnT-Int. Histopathologic findings and chemical analysis also demonstrated hepatic hemosiderosis. As has been demonstrated in other species, hemosiderosis may predispose Amazona spp. to systemic infection with Y. pseudotuberculosis after enteric disease.

  2. A novel high-resolution melting analysis-based method for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis genotyping.

    PubMed

    Souza, Roberto A; Falcão, Juliana P

    2012-12-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is an enteric pathogen that is environmentally widespread and is known to cause human and animal infections. The development of a fast and inexpensive typing system is necessary to facilitate epidemiological studies of Y. pseudotuberculosis infections. In this study, we aimed to develop a method of Y. pseudotuberculosis genotyping based on determining differences in single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA). Using a set of nine primer pairs, ten SNPs were screened from sequences in the 16S rRNA, glnA, gyrB and recA sequences of 12 Y. pseudotuberculosis strains that were deposited in the GenBank database. The genetic diversity of a collection of 40 clinical Y. pseudotuberculosis strains was determined using the HRMA method and the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) technique was used for comparison. Different melting profiles were found in five out of a total of nine analyzed fragments. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from the nucleotides that were identified in the nine analyzed fragments, and the tree demonstrated that Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were separated into two groups. The first cluster was composed of strains from the 1/O:1a serogroup and the second of strains from the 2/O:3 serogroup. The separation into two clusters based on distinct bio-serogroups of Y. pseudotuberculosis was consistent with the results in the MLST database. The simple and highly reproducible HRMA assay developed by us may be used as a rapid and cost-effective method to genotype Y. pseudotuberculosis strains of O:1 and O:3 serogroups and it can complement sequence-based methods facilitating epidemiological studies of this Yersinia species.

  3. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Blocks Neutrophil Degranulation.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Nayyer; Fahlgren, Anna; Fällman, Maria

    2016-12-01

    Neutrophils are essential components of immunity and are rapidly recruited to infected or injured tissue. Upon their activation, neutrophils release granules to the cell's exterior, through a process called degranulation. These granules contain proteins with antimicrobial properties that help combat infection. The enteropathogenic bacterium Yersinia pseudotuberculosis successfully persists as an extracellular bacterium during infection by virtue of its translocation of virulence effectors (Yersinia outer proteins [Yops]) that act in the cytosol of host immune cells to subvert phagocytosis and proinflammatory responses. Here, we investigated the effect of Y. pseudotuberculosis on neutrophil degranulation upon cell contact. We found that virulent Y. pseudotuberculosis was able to prevent secondary granule release. The blocking effect was general, as the release of primary and tertiary granules was also reduced. Degranulation of secondary granules was also blocked in primed neutrophils, suggesting that this mechanism could be an important element of immune evasion. Further, wild-type bacteria conferred a transient block on neutrophils that prevented their degranulation upon contact with plasmid-cured, avirulent Y. pseudotuberculosis and Escherichia coli Detailed analyses showed that the block was strictly dependent on the cooperative actions of the two antiphagocytic effectors, YopE and YopH, suggesting that the neutrophil target structures constituting signaling molecules needed to initiate both phagocytosis and general degranulation. Thus, via these virulence effectors, Yersinia can impair several mechanisms of the neutrophil's antimicrobial arsenal, which underscores the power of its virulence effector machinery. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. An outbreak of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Tertti, R; Granfors, K; Lehtonen, O P; Mertsola, J; Mäkelä, A L; Välimäki, I; Hänninen, P; Toivanen, A

    1984-02-01

    Nineteen patients were involved in an outbreak of infection caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype 3. No epidemics attributable to this microorganism have been previously reported; the most extensive known cluster of cases involved four children in one family and their pet dog. The key finding in the outbreak described in the present study was the bacteriologic identification of serotype 3 in stool specimens from patients with clinically typical yersiniosis. Twelve cases were identified by isolation of Y pseudotuberculosis from stool specimens. An ELISA permitted serological diagnosis of the remaining seven cases. The antibody response was unusually slow in some patients. A noteworthy feature of the outbreak was the high incidence of postinfection complications, which developed in 10 of 19 patients. In spite of active screening of the respective families and environments of the patients, no transmitting factor was found, and the precise source of the infection remains unknown.

  5. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in Israeli dairy cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Yeruham, I.; Elad, D.; Friedman, S.; Perl, S.

    2003-01-01

    Two forms of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in Israeli dairy cattle herds during a survey period of 13 years (1989-2001) are described. The more common form, which was diagnosed in 45 herds, was characterized by ulcerative granulomatous lesions which occurred either sporadically--in 26 herds (with a morbidity rate of up to 5%)--or in an epidemic course in 19 herds. Most (80.6%) of the affected animals were cows; the rest were first-calving cows (16.2%) and heifers (3.2%). The morbidity occurred mostly during the summer months. The ulcerative granulomatous lesions appeared in three clinical forms: cutaneous, mastitic and visceral. Mixed forms were also observed. The morbidity rate was 6.4% and the culling rate reached 16.3% of the affected animals. Most of the strains of C. pseudotuberculosis which were isolated from the abscesses in the cutaneous form of the disease and from milk samples failed to reduce nitrate. A decrease in milk production (6%) and an increase in bulk-milk somatic cell count were noted. Necrotic and ulcerative dermatitis on the heel of the foot occurred in an epidemic course in heifers in only two herds during the winter months, with morbidity rates of 7.5 and 76.2%, respectively. C. pseudotuberculosis isolates from skin lesions and from the soil did reduce nitrate. Clinical, epizootiological and microbiological aspects of the infection are described. PMID:14596537

  6. Oral vaccination against plague using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Demeure, Christian E; Derbise, Anne; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is among the deadliest bacterial pathogens affecting humans, and is a potential biological weapon. Because antibiotic resistant strains of Yersinia pestis have been observed or could be engineered for evil use, vaccination against plague might become the only means to reduce mortality. Although plague is re-emerging in many countries, a vaccine with worldwide license is currently lacking. The vaccine strategy described here is based on an oral vaccination with an attenuated strain of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Indeed, this species is genetically almost identical to Y. pestis, but has a much lower pathogenicity and a higher genomic stability. Gradual modifications of the wild-type Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain IP32953 were performed to generate a safe and immunogenic vaccine. Genes coding for three essential virulence factors were deleted from this strain. To increase cross-species immunogenicity, an F1-encapsulated Y. pseudotuberculosis strain was then generated. For this, the Y. pestis caf operon, which encodes F1, was inserted first on a plasmid, and subsequently into the chromosome. The successive steps achieved to reach maximal vaccine potential are described, and how each step affected bacterial virulence and the development of a protective immune response is discussed. The final version of the vaccine, named VTnF1, provides a highly efficient and long-lasting protection against both bubonic and pneumonic plague after a single oral vaccine dose. Since a Y. pestis strain deprived of F1 exist or could be engineered, we also analyzed the protection conferred by the vaccine against such strain and found that it also confers full protection against the two forms of plague. Thus, the properties of VTnF1 makes it one of the most efficient candidate vaccine for mass vaccination in tropical endemic areas as well as for populations exposed to bioterrorism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolated from horses in California.

    PubMed

    Haas, Dionei J; Dorneles, Elaine M S; Spier, Sharon J; Carroll, Scott P; Edman, Judy; Azevedo, Vasco A; Heinemann, Marcos B; Lage, Andrey P

    2017-04-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar Equi is an important pathogen of horses. It is increasing in frequency in the United States, and is responsible for various clinical forms of infection, including external abscesses, internal abscesses of the abdominal or thoracic cavities, and ulcerative lymphangitis. The host/pathogen factors dictating the form or severity of infection are currently unknown. Our recent investigations have shown that genotyping C. pseudotuberculosis isolates using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR is useful for understanding the evolutionary genetics of the species as well for molecular epidemiology studies. The aims of the present study were to assess (i) the genetic diversity of C. pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from horses in California, United States and (ii) the epidemiologic relationships among isolates. One hundred and seven C. pseudotuberculosis biovar Equi isolates from ninety-five horses, and two C. pseudotuberculosis biovar Ovis strains, C. pseudotuberculosis ATCC 19410(T) type strain and C. pseudotuberculosis 1002 vaccine strain, were fingerprinted using the ERIC 1+2-PCR. C. pseudotuberculosis isolated from horses showed a high genetic diversity, clustering in twenty-seven genotypes with a diversity index of 0.91. Minimal spanning tree showed four major clonal complexes with a pattern of temporal clustering. Strains isolated from the same horse showed identical ERIC 1+2-PCR genotype, with the exception of two strains isolated from the same animal that showed distinct genotypes, suggesting a co-infection. We found no strong genetic signals related to clinical form (including internal versus external infections). However, temporal clustering of genotypes was observed.

  8. Evolution and virulence contributions of the autotransporter proteins YapJ and YapK of Yersinia pestis CO92 and their homologs in Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Jonathan D; Temple, Brenda R S; Miller, Virginia L

    2012-10-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, evolved from the gastrointestinal pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Both species have numerous type Va autotransporters, most of which appear to be highly conserved. In Y. pestis CO92, the autotransporter genes yapK and yapJ share a high level of sequence identity. By comparing yapK and yapJ to three homologous genes in Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 (YPTB0365, YPTB3285, and YPTB3286), we show that yapK is conserved in Y. pseudotuberculosis, while yapJ is unique to Y. pestis. All of these autotransporters exhibit >96% identity in the C terminus of the protein and identities ranging from 58 to 72% in their N termini. By extending this analysis to include homologous sequences from numerous Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis strains, we determined that these autotransporters cluster into a YapK (YPTB3285) class and a YapJ (YPTB3286) class. The YPTB3286-like gene of most Y. pestis strains appears to be inactivated, perhaps in favor of maintaining yapJ. Since autotransporters are important for virulence in many bacterial pathogens, including Y. pestis, any change in autotransporter content should be considered for its impact on virulence. Using established mouse models of Y. pestis infection, we demonstrated that despite the high level of sequence identity, yapK is distinct from yapJ in its contribution to disseminated Y. pestis infection. In addition, a mutant lacking both of these genes exhibits an additive attenuation, suggesting nonredundant roles for yapJ and yapK in systemic Y. pestis infection. However, the deletion of the homologous genes in Y. pseudotuberculosis does not seem to impact the virulence of this organism in orogastric or systemic infection models.

  9. YAPI, a New Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Pathogenicity Island

    PubMed Central

    Collyn, François; Billault, Alain; Mullet, Chantal; Simonet, Michel; Marceau, Michaël

    2004-01-01

    Pathogenicity islands (PAIs) are chromosomal clusters of pathogen-specific virulence genes often found at tRNA loci. In the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis 32777 chromosome, we characterized a 98-kb segment that has all of the characteristic features of a PAI, including insertion in a (phenylalanine) tRNA gene, the presence of a bacteriophage-like integrase-encoding gene, and direct repeats at the integration sites. The G+C content of the segment ranges from 31 to 60%, reflecting a genetic mosaic: this is consistent with the notion that the sequences were horizontally acquired. The PAI, termed YAPI (for Yersinia adhesion pathogenicity island), carries 95 open reading frames and includes (i) the previously described pil operon, encoding a type IV pilus that contributes to pathogenicity (F. Collyn et al., Infect. Immun. 70:6196-6205, 2002); (ii) a block of genes potentially involved in general metabolism; (iii) a gene cluster for a restriction-modification system; and (iv) a large number of mobile genetic elements. Furthermore, the PAI can excise itself from the chromosome at low frequency and in a precise manner, and deletion does not result in a significant decrease of bacterial virulence compared to inactivation of the fimbrial gene cluster alone. The prevalence and size of the PAI vary from one Y. pseudotuberculosis strain to another, and it can be found integrated into either of the two phe tRNA loci present on the species' chromosome. YAPI was not detected in the genome of the genetically closely related species Y. pestis, whereas a homologous PAI is harbored by the Y. enterocolitica chromosome. PMID:15271940

  10. Factor analysis of serogroups botanica and aurisina of Leptospira biflexa.

    PubMed

    Cinco, M

    1977-11-01

    Factor analysis is performed on serovars of Botanica and Aurisina serogroup of Leptospira biflexa. The results show the arrangement of main factors serovar and serogroup specific, as well as the antigens common with serovars of heterologous serogroups.

  11. Superantigen YPMa Exacerbates the Virulence of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Carnoy, Christophe; Mullet, Chantal; Müller-Alouf, Heide; Leteurtre, Emmanuelle; Simonet, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, a gram-negative bacterium responsible for enteric and systemic infection in humans, produces a superantigenic toxin designated YPMa (Y. pseudotuberculosis-derived mitogen). To assess the role of YPMa in the pathogenesis of Y. pseudotuberculosis, we constructed a superantigen-deficient mutant and compared its virulence in a mouse model of infection to the virulence of the wild-type strain. Determination of the survival rate after intravenous (i.v.) bacterial inoculation of OF1 mice clearly showed that inactivation of ypmA, encoding YPMa, reduced the virulence of Y. pseudotuberculosis. Mice infected i.v. with 104 and 105 wild-type bacteria died within 9 days, whereas mice infected with the ypmA mutant survived 12 and 3 days longer, respectively. This decreased virulence of the ypmA mutant strain was not due to an impaired colonization of the spleen, liver, or lungs. In contrast to i.v. challenge, bacterial inoculation by the intragastric (i.g.) route did not reveal any difference in virulence between wild-type Y. pseudotuberculosis and the ypmA mutant since the 50% lethal doses were identical for both strains. Moreover, inactivation of ypmA gene did not affect the bacterial growth of Y. pseudotuberculosis in Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), and spleen after oral infection. Histological studies of spleen, liver, lungs, heart, Peyer's patches, and MLNs after i.v. or i.g. challenge with the wild type or the ypmA mutant did not reveal any feature that can be specifically related to YPMa. Our data show that the superantigenic toxin YPMa contributes to the virulence of Y. pseudotuberculosis in systemic infection in mice. PMID:10768943

  12. A combined approach for comparative exoproteome analysis of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bacterial exported proteins represent key components of the host-pathogen interplay. Hence, we sought to implement a combined approach for characterizing the entire exoproteome of the pathogenic bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, the etiological agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in sheep and goats. Results An optimized protocol of three-phase partitioning (TPP) was used to obtain the C. pseudotuberculosis exoproteins, and a newly introduced method of data-independent MS acquisition (LC-MSE) was employed for protein identification and label-free quantification. Additionally, the recently developed tool SurfG+ was used for in silico prediction of sub-cellular localization of the identified proteins. In total, 93 different extracellular proteins of C. pseudotuberculosis were identified with high confidence by this strategy; 44 proteins were commonly identified in two different strains, isolated from distinct hosts, then composing a core C. pseudotuberculosis exoproteome. Analysis with the SurfG+ tool showed that more than 75% (70/93) of the identified proteins could be predicted as containing signals for active exportation. Moreover, evidence could be found for probable non-classical export of most of the remaining proteins. Conclusions Comparative analyses of the exoproteomes of two C. pseudotuberculosis strains, in addition to comparison with other experimentally determined corynebacterial exoproteomes, were helpful to gain novel insights into the contribution of the exported proteins in the virulence of this bacterium. The results presented here compose the most comprehensive coverage of the exoproteome of a corynebacterial species so far. PMID:21241507

  13. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Infection in Patagonian Huemul ( Hippocamelus bisulcus ).

    PubMed

    Morales, Nelly; Aldridge, Dennis; Bahamonde, Andrea; Cerda, Julio; Araya, Claudio; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Saldías, María Esther; Lecocq, Claudio; Fresno, Marcela; Abalos, Pedro; Retamal, Patricio

    2017-07-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is an intracellular bacteria and the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis in domestic and wildlife species. We report C. pseudotuberculosis infection in Patagonian huemul ( Hippocamelus bisulcus ) from the Cerro Castillo National Reserve, Region of Aysen, Chile. Subcutaneous abscesses in the abdominal and pectoral regions from two animals were sampled and bacteriologic isolation was performed. In both cases, we isolated a C. pseudotuberculosis strain belonging to the ovine genotype. In addition, one isolate was resistant to ciprofloxacin and streptomycin. We report that H. bisulcus is a susceptible species to this bacterium, which is transmitted by direct or indirect contact with domestic sheep ( Ovis aries ) and which represents a potential conservation threat to populations of H. bisulcus . Additional research and prevention efforts should be addressed.

  14. Population structure and evolution of pathogenicity of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, Shear Lane; Octavia, Sophie; Xia, Qiuyu; Duong, An; Tanaka, Mark M; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Lan, Ruiting

    2011-02-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is an enteric human pathogen but is widespread in the environment. Pathogenicity is determined by a number of virulence factors, including the virulence plasmid pYV, the high-pathogenicity island (HPI), and the Y. pseudotuberculosis-derived mitogen (YPM), a superantigen. The presence of the 3 virulence factors varies among Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates. We developed a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme to address the population structure of Y. pseudotuberculosis and the evolution of its pathogenicity. The seven housekeeping genes selected for MLST were mdh, recA, sucA, fumC, aroC, pgi, and gyrB. An MLST analysis of 83 isolates of Y. pseudotuberculosis, representing 19 different serotypes and six different genetic groups, identified 61 sequence types (STs) and 12 clonal complexes. Out of 26 allelic changes that occurred in the 12 clonal complexes, 13 were mutational events while 13 were recombinational events, indicating that recombination and mutation contributed equally to the diversification of the clonal complexes. The isolates were separated into 2 distinctive clusters, A and B. Cluster A is the major cluster, with 53 STs (including Y. pestis strains), and is distributed worldwide, while cluster B is restricted to the Far East. The YPM gene is widely distributed on the phylogenetic tree, with ypmA in cluster A and ypmB in cluster B. pYV is present in cluster A only but is sporadically absent in some cluster A isolates. In contrast, an HPI is present only in a limited number of lineages and must be gained by lateral transfer. Three STs carry all 3 virulence factors and can be regarded as high-pathogenicity clones. Isolates from the same ST may not carry all 3 virulence factors, indicating frequent gain or loss of these factors. The differences in pathogenicity among Y. pseudotuberculosis strains are likely due to the variable presence and instability of the virulence factors.

  15. Experimental transmission of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in horses by house flies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The route of infection of pigeon fever remains undetermined. The purpose of this study was to investigate house flies (Musca domestica L.) as vectors of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in horses. Eight ponies were used in a randomized, controlled, blinded experimental study. Ten wounds were creat...

  16. Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Detection in Foods

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, H.; Shimizu, S.; Inatsu, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis which can cause yersiniosis in humans and animals are thought to be significant food-borne pathogens and be important as hygiene indicator in food safety. The pathogenic Y. enterocolitica serotypes/biotypes are O:3/4 and 3 variant VP negative, O:5, 27/2, O:8/1b, and O:9/2, have been reported worldwide. Y. pseudotuberculosis is distributed less widely than Y. enterocolitica. Isolation methods usually involve selective and recovery enrichment of the food sample followed by plating onto selective media, confirmation of typical colonies and testing for virulence properties of isolated strains. Recently, DNA-based methods, such as PCR assays, have been developed to detect pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in foods more rapidly, and sensitivity than can be achieved by conventional culture methods. This paper reviews commercially available conventional and PCR-based procedures for the detection of pathogenic Yersinia in food. These methods are effective as the isolation and detection methods to target pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in foods. PMID:22567341

  17. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis liver abscess in a mature alpaca (Lama pacos)

    PubMed Central

    Sprake, Philippa; Gold, Jenifer R.

    2012-01-01

    A mature female alpaca was evaluated for weight loss and a 10-day history of anorexia, diarrhea, abdominal distension, and ventral edema. Ultrasonography revealed a hepatic mass, culture of which identified Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. This is the first reported case of an internal caseous lymphadenitis lesion resulting in clinical disease in a camelid. PMID:23024384

  18. Meningococcal serogroup Y emergence in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bröker, Michael; Jacobsson, Susanne; Kuusi, Markku; Pace, David; Simões, Maria J.; Skoczynska, Anna; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Toropainen, Maija; Tzanakaki, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is differentiated into 12 distinct serogroups, of which A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y are medically most important and represent an important health problem in different parts of the world. The epidemiology of N. meningitidis is unpredictable over time and across geographic regions. Recent epidemiological surveillance has indicated an increase of serogroup Y invasive meningococcal disease in some parts of Europe as shown in the epidemiological data for 2010 from various European countries previously published in this journal.1 Here, data is reported indicating that the emergence of serogroup Y continued in 2011 in various regions of Europe. The average age of persons affected by N. meningitidis serogroup Y seems to have decreased in some countries in comparison to the previous decade. PMID:23032167

  19. Meningococcal serogroup Y emergence in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bröker, Michael; Bukovski, Suzana; Culic, Davor; Jacobsson, Susanne; Koliou, Maria; Kuusi, Markku; Simões, Maria João; Skoczynska, Anna; Toropainen, Maija; Taha, Muhamed-Keir; Tzanakaki, Georgina

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is differentiated into 12 distinct serogroups, of which A, B, C, W, X, and Y are medically most important and represent an important health problem in different parts of the world. The epidemiology of N. meningitidis is unpredictable over time and across geographic regions. Recent epidemiological surveillance has indicated an increase of serogroup Y invasive meningococcal disease in some parts of Europe as shown in the epidemiological data for 2010 and 2011 from various European countries previously published in this journal.1,2 Here, data from 33 European countries is reported indicating that the emergence of serogroup Y continued in 2012 in various regions of Europe, especially in Scandinavia, while in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe the importance of serogroup Y remained low. PMID:24608912

  20. Rapid detection of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in clinical samples from sheep.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jyoti; Tripathi, Bhupendra Nath; Kumar, Rajiv; Sonawane, Ganesh Gangaram; Dixit, Shivendra Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, a Gram-positive bacterium is the causative agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), a chronic disease of sheep, goats and other warm blooded animals. In the present study, a total of 1,080 sheep reared under semi-intensive system on organized farms situated in the semi arid tropical region of Rajasthan, India, was clinically examined. Pus samples from superficial lymph nodes of 25 (2.31%) adult sheep showing clinical lesions similar to CLA were collected for laboratory analyses. On the basis of morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics 12 (48%) bacterial isolates from pus identified it as C. pseudotuberculosis. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting Putative oligopeptide/dipeptide ABC transporter, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) oxidoreductase coenzyme F420-dependent and proline iminopeptidase (PIP) genes of C. pseudotuberculosis was developed that showed 14 pus samples as positive. All C. pseudotuberculosis isolates were also found positive for these genes in the PCR. The specificity of the PCR products was confirmed by sequencing of the amplified products that showed 98-100% homology with published sequences available in the NCBI database. The present study shows the incidence of CLA as 2.31%, 1.1% and 1.29% based on clinical, bacterial culture and direct pus PCR assay, respectively. The PCR assay was rapid, specific and as significant as bacterial culture in detecting bacteria directly in the clinical pus samples. The PCR assay developed in the study can be applied for the diagnosis and control of CLA. Furthermore, the assay can also be applied to detect C. pseudotuberculosis in various clinical samples.

  1. Molecular characterization of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolates using ERIC-PCR.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Alessandro de Sá; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Andrade, Giovanna Ivo; Lage, Andrey Pereira; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Gouveia, Aurora Maria Guimarães; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan

    2011-12-15

    Caseous lymphadenitis is an infectious sheep and goats disease caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and characterized by abscesses in superficial and visceral lymph nodes. C. pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from these hosts have been shown to be very difficult to type by the existing methods. The aim of this study is evaluating the potential of the Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC-PCR) as a tool for molecular typing of C. pseudotuberculosis strains isolated in sheep. One hundred and twenty seven isolates of C. pseudotuberculosis were isolated from lesions suspected to have had caseous lymphadenitis collected from sheep at the slaughterhouse. Animals were from 24 flocks in 13 municipalities of the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Species identification of the isolates was performed by routine biochemical tests and mPCR. Fingerprint was performed by RAPD using ERIC-1R, ERIC-2 and ERIC-1R+ERIC-2 primers. Seventeen different genotypes were generated by ERIC 1-PCR, 21 genotypes by ERIC 2-PCR and 21 genotypes by ERIC 1+2-PCR. Hunter-Gaston Discrimination Index (HGDI) found for ERIC 1, ERIC 2, ERIC 1+2 PCR were 0.69, 0.87, and 0.84, respectively. For most herds evaluated observed at most three different genotypes among isolates from animals of these property, in all ERIC-PCR assays. However a few flocks observed between four and nine genotypes per flock. The W Kendall value found for correlation among the three techniques of ERIC-PCR was 0.91 (P<5.0 x 10(-6)). The results show that ERIC-PCR has good discriminatory power and advantages over other DNA-based typing methods, making it a useful tool to discriminate C. pseudotuberculosis isolates.

  2. [CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMATION, INHIBITION AND DESTRUCTION OF YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS BIOFILMS FORMING ON ABIOTIC SURFACES].

    PubMed

    Terentieval, N A; Timchenko, N F; Balabanova, L A; Rasskazov, V A

    2015-01-01

    Detection of conditions of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis biofilm formation, their quantitative testing. Y. pseudotuberculosis strains, nutrient media, standard 96-well polystyrene plates, crystal violet dye as well as bacteriologic, spectrophotometric, statistical methods were used. All the studied Y pseudotuberculosis strains formed a well expressed biofilm on abiotic surface during cultivation of bacteria in 200 µl of a plate well at a temperature of 20-22°C for 4-7 days. Bacteria CFU number in biofilm reduced by day 10 of incubation. DNAse I was found to inhibit biofilm formation, and also partially destroyed mature Y. pseudotuberculosis biofilm. The presence of DNA in extra-cellular matrix of biofilm was shown. An ability of Y. pseudotuberculosis to form biofilm on abiotic surface was established. The conditions of biofilm formation were determined. Inhibiting effect of DNAse I on Y. pseudotuberculosis was shown.

  3. [Experimental study on the effect of low molecular DNA from salmon milt in pseudotuberculosis infection].

    PubMed

    Pavlinich, S N; Logvinenko, A A; Epshteĭn, L M; Pokrovskiĭ, V K; Kalenik, T K; Timchenko, N F

    2004-01-01

    The effect of low molecular DNA from salmon milt (nDNA) in experimental pseudotuberculosis in mice was studied. When nDNA was admiministered orally, dissemination of the organs by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis lowered and the survival of the animals infected with 100-percent lethal dose of the bacteria increased. nDNA decreased contamination of the epithelial cells by the microbe in vitro and prevented the lethal effect of the Y. pseudotuberculosis toxins on the mice.

  4. Population structure of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis complex according to multilocus sequence typing

    PubMed Central

    Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Didelot, Xavier; Jolley, Keith A.; Morelli, Giovanna; Sangal, Vartul; Kristo, Paula; Imori, Priscilla F. M.; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Siitonen, Anja; Tseneva, Galina; Voskressenskaya, Ekaterina; Falcao, Juliana P.; Korkeala, Hannu; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Mazzoni, Camila; Carniel, Elisabeth; Skurnik, Mikael; Achtman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Summary Multilocus sequence analysis of 417 strains of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis revealed that it is a complex of four populations, three of which have been previously assigned species status [Y. pseudotuberculosis sensu stricto (s.s.), Yersinia pestis and Yersinia similis] and a fourth population, which we refer to as the Korean group, which may be in the process of speciation. We detected clear signs of recombination within Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s. as well as imports from Y. similis and the Korean group. The sources of genetic diversification within Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s. were approximately equally divided between recombination and mutation, whereas recombination has not yet been demonstrated in Y. pestis, which is also much more genetically monomorphic than is Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s. Most Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s. belong to a diffuse group of sequence types lacking clear population structure, although this species contains a melibiose-negative clade that is present globally in domesticated animals. Yersinia similis corresponds to the previously identified Y. pseudotuberculosis genetic type G4, which is probably not pathogenic because it lacks the virulence factors that are typical for Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s. In contrast, Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s., the Korean group and Y. pestis can all cause disease in humans. PMID:21951486

  5. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis septicemia in a beaver from Washington State.

    PubMed

    Gaydos, Joseph K; Zabek, Erin; Raverty, Stephen

    2009-10-01

    An emaciated, free-ranging, sub-adult, male beaver (Castor canadensis) was found dead and was necropsied. Microscopically, the beaver had acute necrotizing hepatitis and splenitis with florid lobulated colonies of extracellular coccobacilli. Intravascular septic emboli were identified in lung, small intestine, and kidney, and discrete ulcers with scattered superficial extracellular accumulation of coccobacilli were noted on tail margins and plantar surfaces of the hind feet. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was cultured on Columbia blood and MacConkey agar and identified by API 20E. Based on the pathology and acute mortality described in this case, as well as historical reports of Y. pseudotuberculosis related mortality in other beavers, this species could serve as a public health sentinel for localized occurrences of this bacterium.

  6. Exploration of Nitrate Reductase Metabolic Pathway in Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Vinícius; Diniz, Carlos; Dorneles, Elaine M. S.; Barh, Debmalya

    2017-01-01

    Based on the ability of nitrate reductase synthesis, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is classified into two biovars: Ovis and Equi. Due to the presence of nitrate reductase, the Equi biovar can survive in absence of oxygen. On the other hand, Ovis biovar that does not have nitrate reductase is able to adapt to various ecological niches and can grow on certain carbon sources. Apart from these two biovars, some other strains are also able to carry out the reduction of nitrate. The enzymes that are involved in electron transport chain are also identified by in silico methods. Findings about pathogen metabolism can contribute to the identification of relationship between nitrate reductase and the C. pseudotuberculosis pathogenicity, virulence factors, and discovery of drug targets. PMID:28316974

  7. Exploration of Nitrate Reductase Metabolic Pathway in Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Sintia; Sousa, Cassiana; Abreu, Vinícius; Diniz, Carlos; Dorneles, Elaine M S; Lage, Andrey P; Barh, Debmalya; Azevedo, Vasco

    2017-01-01

    Based on the ability of nitrate reductase synthesis, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is classified into two biovars: Ovis and Equi. Due to the presence of nitrate reductase, the Equi biovar can survive in absence of oxygen. On the other hand, Ovis biovar that does not have nitrate reductase is able to adapt to various ecological niches and can grow on certain carbon sources. Apart from these two biovars, some other strains are also able to carry out the reduction of nitrate. The enzymes that are involved in electron transport chain are also identified by in silico methods. Findings about pathogen metabolism can contribute to the identification of relationship between nitrate reductase and the C. pseudotuberculosis pathogenicity, virulence factors, and discovery of drug targets.

  8. Protection in alpacas against Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis using different bacterial components.

    PubMed

    Braga, Walter U

    2007-01-31

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a Gram positive bacterium that produces caseous lymphadenitis in sheep and goats, and a granulomatous lymphadenitis in llamas and alpacas. To evaluate the immune potential of different doses of cell wall and toxin components of C. pseudotuberculosis from alpaca origin, 12 adult alpacas were allotted at random to four groups, and SC inoculated in the left flank with vaccines composed of low and high doses of bacterial crude antigens, cell wall: 250 and 500 microg/ml and toxin: 133 and 265 microg/ml, respectively. The vaccines were supplemented with 20 microg/ml of muramyl dipeptide as adjuvant. Three alpacas were sham inoculated with adjuvant as a control. After 3 weeks, immunized and naive alpacas were challenged intradermally in the right flank with 1 x 10(6) colony forming units (CFU) of C. pseudotuberculosis. The alpacas were sacrificed at days 28, 58 and 112 after inoculation, and the degree of protection induced by vaccines was demonstrated by the absence of abscesses and/or bacteria. The alpacas vaccinated with high dose of toxin, did not show abscesses. In contrast, the alpacas vaccinated with a low dose of toxin showed abscesses at the inoculation site, regional, and renal lymph nodes. The cell wall vaccinated alpacas showed a lesser degree of protection than the other groups with superficial and internal abscesses. The control alpacas had persistent fever and abscesses at the inoculation site, regional, and internal lymph nodes. In addition, a robust and early humoral response was observed in all vaccinated alpacas after challenge, lasting at least 3 months. The results suggest that the toxin of C. pseudotuberculosis is a very important antigen, inducing a dose dependant protective immunity against this bacterium in alpacas.

  9. Molecular epidemiology of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1.

    PubMed Central

    van Ketel, R J; ter Schegget, J; Zanen, H C

    1984-01-01

    The DNA of patient and environmental isolates of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was analyzed by restriction endonuclease cleavage. The electrophoretic patterns of the DNA digests of isolates from a group of patients with Legionnaires disease acquired in a hospital were indistinguishable from one another and were identical to the DNA pattern of a strain isolated from the hot water supply of the hospital. On the other hand, they were easily differentiated from strains isolated from patients and hot water supplies in other hospitals in the same city. The homogeneity of populations of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 colonizing plumbing systems was also investigated by DNA restriction endonuclease analysis in three hospitals. We distinguished two subtypes in one hospital; the two other hospitals had homogeneous populations. Restriction endonuclease digest analysis of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 DNA enables subtyping and appears to be a useful method for examining the epidemiology of outbreaks of Legionnaires disease. Images PMID:6092423

  10. Comparative genomic analysis between Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Henrique; Ramos, Rommel; Guimarães, Luis Carlos; Pereira, Felipe Luiz; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; Selim, Salah Abdel Karim; Salaheldean, Mohammad; Silva, Artur

    2017-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a Gram-positive, pleomorphic, facultative intracellular pathogen that causes Oedematous Skin Disease (OSD) in buffalo. To better understand the pathogenic mechanisms of OSD, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of 11 strains of C. pseudotuberculosis isolated from different buffalo found to be infected in Egypt during an outbreak that occurred in 2008. Sixteen previously described pathogenicity islands (PiCp) were present in all of the new buffalo strains, but one of them, PiCp12, had an insertion that contained both a corynephage and a diphtheria toxin gene, both of which may play a role in the adaptation of C. pseudotuberculosis to this new host. Synteny analysis showed variations in the site of insertion of the corynephage during the same outbreak. A gene functional comparison showed the presence of a nitrate reductase operon that included genes involved in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis, which is necessary for a positive nitrate reductase phenotype and is a possible adaptation for intracellular survival. Genomes from the buffalo strains also had fusions in minor pilin genes in the spaA and spaD gene cluster (spaCX and spaYEF), which could suggest either an adaptation to this particular host, or mutation events in the immediate ancestor before this particular epidemic. A phylogenomic analysis confirmed a clear separation between the Ovis and Equi biovars, but also showed what appears to be a clustering by host species within the Equi strains. PMID:28445543

  11. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Pneumonia in a Veterinary Student Infected During Laboratory Work

    PubMed Central

    Heggelund, Lars; Gaustad, Peter; Håvelsrud, Othilde Elise; Blom, Jochen; Borgen, Lars; Sundset, Arve; Sørum, Henning; Frøland, Stig Sophus

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis pneumonia in a veterinary student, with molecular genetic evidence of acquisition during laboratory work, an observation relevant for laboratory personnel working with C pseudotuberculosis isolates. The patient was clinically cured with 14 months trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and rifampicin combination treatment. PMID:26380345

  12. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP32953 survives and replicates in trophozoites and persists in cysts of Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed

    Santos-Montañez, Jennifer; Benavides-Montaño, Javier A; Hinz, Angela K; Vadyvaloo, Viveka

    2015-07-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a foodborne enteric pathogen that causes a mild self-limiting diarrhea in humans. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is able to persist in soil and water and in association with fresh produce, but the mechanism by which it persists is unknown. It has been shown that Y. pseudotuberculosis co-occurs with protozoans in these environments; therefore, this study investigates if bacterivorous free-living amoeba (FLA) are able to support persistence of Y. pseudotuberculosis. Coculture studies of Y. pseudotuberculosis and the prototype FLA, Acanthamoeba castellanii revealed that bacteria had an enhanced capacity to survive in association with amoeba and in the absence of any cytotoxic effects. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is able to survive and replicate in trophozoites specifically localized within vacuoles, and persists within cysts over a period of at least a week. These data present the first evidence that Y. pseudotuberculosis is able to resist the bacterivorous nature of FLA and instead exhibits an enhanced ability to replicate and persist in coculture with amoeba. This study sheds light on the potential role of FLA in the ecology of Y. pseudotuberculosis which may have implications for food safety.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain E19, Isolated from a Horse in Chile.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Ana Lídia Q; Dias, Larissa M; Alves, Jorianne T C; Veras, Adonney A O; Guimarães, Luis C; Rocha, Flávia S; Gala-García, Alfonso; Retamal, Patricio; Ramos, Rommel T J; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur; Carneiro, Adriana R

    2015-11-25

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is related to several diseases infecting horses and small ruminants, causing economic losses to agribusiness. Here, we present the genome sequence of C. pseudotuberculosis strain E19. The genome includes one circular chromosome 2,367,956 bp (52.1% G+C content), with 2,112 genes predicted, 12 rRNAs, and 48 tRNAs.

  14. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP32953 survives and replicates in trophozoites and persists in cysts of Acanthamoeba castellanii

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Montañez, Jennifer; Benavides-Montaño, Javier A.; Hinz, Angela K.; Vadyvaloo, Viveka

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a foodborne enteric pathogen that causes a mild self-limiting diarrhea in humans. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is able to persist in soil and water and in association with fresh produce, but the mechanism by which it persists is unknown. It has been shown that Y. pseudotuberculosis co-occurs with protozoans in these environments; therefore, this study investigates if bacterivorous free-living amoeba (FLA) are able to support persistence of Y. pseudotuberculosis. Coculture studies of Y. pseudotuberculosis and the prototype FLA, Acanthamoeba castellanii revealed that bacteria had an enhanced capacity to survive in association with amoeba and in the absence of any cytotoxic effects. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is able to survive and replicate in trophozoites specifically localized within vacuoles, and persists within cysts over a period of at least a week. These data present the first evidence that Y. pseudotuberculosis is able to resist the bacterivorous nature of FLA and instead exhibits an enhanced ability to replicate and persist in coculture with amoeba. This study sheds light on the potential role of FLA in the ecology of Y. pseudotuberculosis which may have implications for food safety. PMID:26025069

  15. Lipoprotein NMB0928 from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B as a novel vaccine candidate.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Maité; Yero, Daniel; Niebla, Olivia; González, Sonia; Climent, Yanet; Pérez, Yusleydis; Cobas, Karem; Caballero, Evelín; García, Darien; Pajón, Rolando

    2007-12-05

    Polysaccharide-based vaccines for serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis have failed to induce protective immunity. As a result, efforts to develop vaccines for serogroup B meningococcal disease have mostly focused on outer membrane proteins (OMP). Vaccine candidates based on meningococcal OMP have emerged in the form of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) or, more recently, purified recombinant proteins, as alternative strategies for serogroup B vaccine development. In our group, the protein composition of the Cuban OMVs-based vaccine VA-MENGOC-BC was elucidated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The proteomic map of this product allowed the identification of new putative protective proteins not previously reported as components of an antimeningococcal vaccine. In the present study, we have determined the immunogenicity and protective capacity of NMB0928, one of those proteins present in the OMVs. The antigen was obtained as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli, purified and used to immunize mice. The antiserum produced against the protein was capable to recognize the natural protein in different meningococcal strains by whole-cell ELISA and Western blotting. After immunization, recombinant NMB0928 induced bactericidal antibodies, and when the protein was administered inserted into liposomes, the elicited antibodies were protective in the infant rat model. These results suggest that NMB0928 is a novel antigen worth to be included in a broadly protective meningococcal vaccine.

  16. Blastocystis hominis in animals: incidence of four serogroups.

    PubMed

    König, G; Müller, H E

    1997-10-01

    In toto, 520 faecal samples from mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and snails were investigated (see Table 1). 91 strains of Blastocystis hominis could be isolated by culture. However, only 48 of them were suitable for axenisation. 96 percent of samples belonged to four serogroups detected in humans but two strains, one from a pig and another from a duck, could not be classified, suggesting the existence of one or two further serogroups. While humans showed mainly serogroups I and II, pigs harboured serogroups III and IV. Four serogroups were isolated from monkeys. The question whether the genus Blastocystis consists of one or more species is discussed.

  17. Serogroup W-135 Meningococcal Disease during the Hajj, 2000

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rabeah, Abdullah M.; Hajjeh, Rana; Mustafa, Tajammal; Fatani, Adel; Al-Bassam, Tami; Badukhan, Amira; Turkistani, Abdulhafiz; Al-Hamdan, Nassen; Al-Jeffri, Mohamed; Al Mazrou, Yaqoub; Perkins, Bradley A.; Popovic, Tanja; Mayer, Leonard W.; Rosenstein, Nancy E.

    2003-01-01

    An outbreak of serogroup W-135 meningococcal disease occurred during the 2000 Hajj in Saudi Arabia. Disease was reported worldwide in Hajj pilgrims and their close contacts; however, most cases were identified in Saudi Arabia. Trends in Saudi meningococcal disease were evaluated and the epidemiology of Saudi cases from this outbreak described. Saudi national meningococcal disease incidence data for 1990 to 2000 were reviewed; cases from January 24 to June 5, 2000 were retrospectively reviewed. The 2000 Hajj outbreak consisted of distinct serogroup A and serogroup W-135 outbreaks. Of 253 identified cases in Saudi Arabia, 161 (64%) had serogroup identification; serogroups W-135 and A caused 93 (37%) and 60 (24%) cases with attack rates of 9 and 6 cases per 100,000 population, respectively. The 2000 Hajj outbreak was the first large serogroup W-135 meningococcal disease outbreak identified worldwide. Enhanced surveillance for serogroup W-135, especially in Africa, is essential to control this emerging epidemic disease. PMID:12781005

  18. Structure modeling of a metalloendopeptidase from Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Luis C; Silva, Natália F; Miyoshi, Anderson; Schneider, Maria P C; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco; Brasil, Davi S B; Lameira, Jerônimo; Alves, Cláudio N

    2012-05-01

    Metalloendopeptidases are zinc-dependent hydrolases enzymes with many different roles in biological systems, ranging from remodeling conjunctive tissue to removing signaling sequences from nascent proteins. Here, we describe the three-dimensional structure of the metalloendopeptidase from Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis generated by homology modeling and molecular dynamics. Analysis of key distances shows that His-132, Asp-136, His-211, Leu-212 and one molecule of water play an important role in the protein-Zn(2+) ion interaction. The model obtained may provide structural insights into this enzyme and can be useful for the design of new caseous lymphadenitis vaccines based on genetic attenuation from key point mutation.

  19. Yersiniosis due to infection by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis 4b in captive meerkats (Suricata suricatta) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shin-Ichi; Hayashidani, Hideki; Yonezawa, Aya; Suzuki, Isao; Une, Yumi

    2015-09-01

    Two meerkats (Suricata suricatta) housed in the same zoological garden in Japan died due to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype 4b infection. Gross and microscopic lesions included necrotizing enteritis and enlargement of the spleen and liver with multifocal necrosis. Inflammatory cells, primarily neutrophils, and nuclear debris were associated with clusters of Gram-negative bacilli. Additionally, there were aberrant organism forms that were larger than bacilli and appeared as basophilic globular bodies. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the bacilli and globular bodies were strongly positive for Y. pseudotuberculosis O4 antigen. The globular bodies were considered a shape-changed form of Y. pseudotuberculosis, and these morphologically abnormal bacteria could present a diagnostic challenge.

  20. Meningococcal serogroup B disease in Turkey: a guess or reality?

    PubMed

    Bakir, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Each country chooses the appropriate vaccine against IMD depending on the locally prevalent serogroups of N. meningitides. Frequency of each meningococcal serogroup varies considerably over time and by geographical location. Despite the majority of IMD cases (85%) are caused by serogroups B and C in Europe, true prevalence of serogroup B IMD cases in Turkey is unclear. In one of the recent studies, the sharp decrease of serogroup B IMD from 35% down to 2.5% in a few years despite the absence of vaccination is confusing. Millions of European Turkish people travels from Europe to Turkey every year who could most probably carry serogroup B. It is obvious that a nationwide active surveillance is crucial to assess the the true epidemiology and burden of IMD which has a major impact on the choice of vaccine type and age interval the vaccination to be implemented.

  1. Pathogenesis of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in Human Yersiniosis

    PubMed Central

    Galindo, Cristi L.; Rosenzweig, Jason A.; Kirtley, Michelle L.; Chopra, Ashok K.

    2011-01-01

    Yersiniosis is a food-borne illness that has become more prevalent in recent years due to human transmission via the fecal-oral route and prevalence in farm animals. Yersiniosis is primarily caused by Yersinia enterocolitica and less frequently by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Infection is usually characterized by a self-limiting acute infection beginning in the intestine and spreading to the mesenteric lymph nodes. However, more serious infections and chronic conditions can also occur, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are both heterogeneous organisms that vary considerably in their degrees of pathogenicity, although some generalizations can be ascribed to pathogenic variants. Adhesion molecules and a type III secretion system are critical for the establishment and progression of infection. Additionally, host innate and adaptive immune responses are both required for yersiniae clearance. Despite the ubiquity of enteric Yersinia species and their association as important causes of food poisoning world-wide, few national enteric pathogen surveillance programs include the yersiniae as notifiable pathogens. Moreover, no standard exists whereby identification and reporting systems can be effectively compared and global trends developed. This review discusses yersinial virulence factors, mechanisms of infection, and host responses in addition to the current state of surveillance, detection, and prevention of yersiniosis. PMID:22567322

  2. Long-Term Persistence of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Gengler, Samuel; Laudisoit, Anne; Batoko, Henri; Wattiau, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are small worms whose ecological behaviour consists to invade, kill insects and feed on their cadavers thanks to a species-specific symbiotic bacterium belonging to any of the genera Xenorhabdus or Photorhabdus hosted in the gastro-intestinal tract of EPNs. The symbiont provides a number of biological functions that are essential for its EPN host including the production of entomotoxins, of enzymes able to degrade the insect constitutive macromolecules and of antimicrobial compounds able to prevent the growth of competitors in the insect cadaver. The question addressed in this study was to investigate whether a mammalian pathogen taxonomically related to Xenorhabdus was able to substitute for or “hijack” the symbiotic relationship associating Xenorhabdus and Steinernema EPNs. To deal with this question, a laboratory experimental model was developed consisting in Galleria mellonella insect larvae, Steinernema EPNs with or without their natural Xenorhabdus symbiont and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis brought artificially either in the gut of EPNs or in the haemocoel of the insect larva prior to infection. The developed model demonstrated the capacity of EPNs to act as an efficient reservoir ensuring exponential multiplication, maintenance and dissemination of Y. pseudotuberculosis. PMID:25635766

  3. Experimental inoculation of house flies, Musca domestica L., with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis serovar equi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (Actinomycetales: Corynebacteriaceae) infection in horses causes three different disease syndromes: external abscesses, infection of internal organs and ulcerative lymphangitis. The route of infection in horses remains undetermined, but transmission by insect vecto...

  4. Experimental transmission of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar equi in horses by house flies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The route of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in horses remains undetermined, but transmission by insects is suspected. Scientists from CMAVE and Auburn University investigated house flies (Musca domestica L.) as possible vectors. Three ponies were directly inoculated with C. pseudotuber...

  5. Experimental inoculation of house flies Musca domestica with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis serovar equi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (Actinomycetales: Corynebacteriaceae) infection in horses causes external abscesses, infection of internal organs and ulcerative lymphangitis. The exact mechanism of infection remains unknown, but fly transmission is suspected. Scientists at Auburn University and U...

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Cp31, Isolated from an Egyptian Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Ribeiro Carneiro, Adriana; Cybelle Pinto, Anne; de Castro Soares, Siomar; Rodrigues Santos, Anderson; Silva Almeida, Sintia; Guimarães, Luis Carlos; Figueira Aburjaile, Flávia; Vieira Barbosa, Eudes Guilherme; Alves Dorella, Fernanda; Souza Rocha, Flávia; Souza Lopes, Thiago; Kawasaki, Regiane; Gomes Sá, Pablo; da Rocha Coimbra, Nilson Antônio; Teixeira Cerdeira, Louise; Silvanira Barbosa, Maria; Cruz Schneider, Maria Paula; Miyoshi, Anderson; Selim, Salah Abdel Karim; Moawad, Mohamed Salah; Azevedo, Vasco

    2012-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is of major veterinary importance because it affects many animal species, causing economically significant livestock diseases and losses. Therefore, the genomic sequencing of various lines of this organism, isolated from different hosts, will aid in the development of diagnostic methods and new prevention and treatment strategies and improve our knowledge of the biology of this microorganism. In this study, we present the genome of C. pseudotuberculosis Cp31, isolated from a buffalo in Egypt. PMID:23144408

  7. Whole-Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis 262 Biovar equi Isolated from Cow Milk

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Carlos Leonardo de A.; Dias, Larissa M.; Veras, Adonney A. O.; Alves, Jorianne T. C.; Cavalcante, Ana Lídia Q.; Dowson, Christopher G.; Azevedo, Vasco; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Silva, Artur

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis 262, isolated from a bovine host. C. pseudotuberculosis is an etiological agent of diseases with medical and veterinary relevance. The genome contains 2,325,749 bp, 52.8% G+C content, 2,022 coding sequences (CDS), 50 pseudogenes, 48 tRNAs, and 12 rRNAs. PMID:27013052

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain E19, Isolated from a Horse in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante, Ana Lídia Q.; Dias, Larissa M.; Alves, Jorianne T. C.; Veras, Adonney A. O.; Guimarães, Luis C.; Rocha, Flávia S.; Gala-García, Alfonso; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is related to several diseases infecting horses and small ruminants, causing economic losses to agribusiness. Here, we present the genome sequence of C. pseudotuberculosis strain E19. The genome includes one circular chromosome 2,367,956 bp (52.1% G+C content), with 2,112 genes predicted, 12 rRNAs, and 48 tRNAs. PMID:26607893

  9. Study of effectiveness of bioluminescent reporter phage assay on Y. pseudotuberculosis strains.

    PubMed

    Mitiashvili, M R

    2013-05-01

    The method describes the phage-mediated transduction of a bioluminescent phenotype to cultivated Y. pseudotuberculosis cells which are subsequently measured using a microplate luminometer. Reporter phage assay is rapid detection technique and its efficiency is not affected by presence of contaminating bacteria, no sample preparation is needed and it has the ability to test multiple samples simultaneously in a 96-well microtiter plate format. Experiments were performed to develop the rapid detection technique for Y. pseudotuberculosis strains and study the ability of a reporter Yersinia phage to confer a bioluminescent signal to Y. pseudotuberculosis strains under different environmental conditions (media, temperature, bacterial number) for detection. Further, to determine if the Yersinia phage can detect Y. pseudotuberculosis in presence of other bacterial species. The results revealed that the developed reporter phage assay is not effective against wide range of Y. pseudotuberculosis. Y. pseudotuberculosis could be rapidly detected within 30 minutes at 28°C. The reporter phage assay could detect luminescence within 45 minutes when the bacterial cells were at the minimal concentration 105 cells/mL. The optimal detectable concentrations were 106-107 cells/mL at 28 and 37°C. The reporter phage assay could detect Y. pseudotuberculosis within 30 minutes in presence of other enteric bacteria without selective enrichment. It should be noted that the Yersinia reporter phage is specific to Yersinia pestis strains and it can be used to detect Y. pseudotuberculosis when samples exclude the existence of Y. pestis strains. In the presented study this aspect was foreseen.

  10. First report of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis from caseous lymphadenitis lesions in Black Alentejano pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manuela; Barroco, Cynthia; Mottola, Carla; Santos, Raquel; Lemsaddek, Abdelhak; Tavares, Luis; Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa

    2014-09-21

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis, a common disease in small ruminant populations throughout the world and responsible for a significant economic impact for producers. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of C. pseudotuberculosis from caseous lymphadenitis lesions in Black Alentejano pig (Sus scrofa domesticus). In this study, phenotypic and genotypic identification methods allocated the swine isolates in C. pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis. The vast majority of the isolates were able to produce phospholipase D and were susceptible to most of the antimicrobial compounds tested. Macrorestriction patterns obtained by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) grouped the C. pseudotuberculosis in two clusters with a high similarity index, which reveals their clonal relatedness. Furthermore, swine isolates were compared with C. pseudotuberculosis from caprines and PFGE patterns also showed high similarity, suggesting the prevalence of dominant clones and a potential cross-dissemination between these two animal hosts. This work represents the first report of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis from caseous lymphadenitis lesions in Black Alentejano pig and alerts for the importance of the establishment of suitable control and sanitary management practices to control the infection and avoid further dissemination of this important pathogen to other animal hosts.

  11. [Oxygen deficiency increases invasive activity and resistance of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis to heat stress].

    PubMed

    Bakholdina, S I; Shubin, F N; Solov'eva, T F

    2009-01-01

    To study effects of oxygen availability and presence of glucose in growth medium on adhesive and invasive properties of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as well as its resistance to heat stress during sharp rise of temperature from 8 degrees C to 37 degrees C. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was grown on nutrient broth with or without glucose at 8 degrees C and two regimen of aeration--during intensive stirring (180 rpm) and without it. Adhesive and invasive activities were studied on the model of HeLa human cell line. Effects of temperature stress on the bacterial growth were assessed from growth curves plotted on the basis of quantity of colony-forming cells. Morphology of bacterial cells was studied by electron microscopy. It was shown that cultivation of Y. pseudotuberculosis at 8 degrees C and low aeration increases its adhesive and invasive activity as well resistance to heat stress. Adding of glucose to growth medium decreases invasiveness of Y. pseudotuberculosis irrespective to aeration regimen. Oxygen deficiency during low temperature of growth promotes increasing of pathogenic potential of Y. pseudotuberculosis. Obtained data are useful for solving practical problems associated with development of prevention measures for pseudotuberculosis as well with food processing and storage.

  12. Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup X in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Agnememel, Alain; Hong, Eva; Giorgini, Dario; Nuñez-Samudio, Viginia; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2016-04-01

    The epidemiology of meningococcal disease varies by geography and time. Whole-genome sequencing of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup X isolates from sub-Saharan Africa and Europe showed that serogroup X emergence in sub-Saharan Africa resulted from expansion of particular variants within clonal complex 181. Virulence of these isolates in experimental mouse models was high.

  13. Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection: a regulatory RNA perspective

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Chavarría, Luary C.; Vadyvaloo, Viveka

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, responsible for causing fulminant plague, has evolved clonally from the enteric pathogen, Y. pseudotuberculosis, which in contrast, causes a relatively benign enteric illness. An ~97% nucleotide identity over 75% of their shared protein coding genes is maintained between these two pathogens, leaving much conjecture regarding the molecular determinants responsible for producing these vastly different disease etiologies, host preferences and transmission routes. One idea is that coordinated production of distinct factors required for host adaptation and virulence in response to specific environmental cues could contribute to the distinct pathogenicity distinguishing these two species. Small non-coding RNAs that direct posttranscriptional regulation have recently been identified as key molecules that may provide such timeous expression of appropriate disease enabling factors. Here the burgeoning field of small non-coding regulatory RNAs in Yersinia pathogenesis is reviewed from the viewpoint of adaptive colonization, virulence and divergent evolution of these pathogens. PMID:26441890

  14. Serogroup Conversion of Vibrio cholerae in Aquatic Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Blokesch, Melanie; Schoolnik, Gary K

    2007-01-01

    The environmental reservoirs for Vibrio cholerae are natural aquatic habitats, where it colonizes the chitinous exoskeletons of copepod molts. Growth of V. cholerae on a chitin surface induces competence for natural transformation, a mechanism for intra-species gene exchange. The antigenically diverse O-serogroup determinants of V. cholerae are encoded by a genetically variable biosynthetic cluster of genes that is flanked on either side by chromosomal regions that are conserved between different serogroups. To determine whether this genomic motif and chitin-induced natural transformation might enable the exchange of serogroup-specific gene clusters between different O serogroups of V. cholerae, a strain of V. cholerae O1 El Tor was co-cultured with a strain of V. cholerae O139 Bengal within a biofilm on the same chitin surface immersed in seawater, and O1-to-O139 transformants were obtained. Serogroup conversion of the O1 recipient by the O139 donor was demonstrated by comparative genomic hybridization, biochemical and serological characterization of the O-antigenic determinant, and resistance of O1-to-O139 transformants to bacteriolysis by a virulent O1-specific phage. Serogroup conversion was shown to have occurred as a single-step exchange of large fragments of DNA. Crossovers were localized to regions of homology common to other V. cholerae serogroups that flank serogroup-specific encoding sequences. This result and the successful serogroup conversion of an O1 strain by O37 genomic DNA indicate that chitin-induced natural transformation might be a common mechanism for serogroup conversion in aquatic habitats and for the emergence of V. cholerae variants that are better adapted for survival in environmental niches or more pathogenic for humans. PMID:17559304

  15. Typing and clustering of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolates by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using insertion sequences.

    PubMed

    Voskresenskaya, E; Savin, C; Leclercq, A; Tseneva, G; Carniel, E

    2014-06-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is an enteropathogen that has an animal reservoir and causes human infections, mostly in temperate and cold countries. Most of the methods previously used to subdivide Y. pseudotuberculosis were performed on small numbers of isolates from a specific geographical area. One aim of this study was to evaluate the typing efficiency of restriction fragment length polymorphism of insertion sequence hybridization patterns (IS-RFLP) compared to other typing methods, such as serotyping, ribotyping, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), on the same set of 80 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis of global origin. We found that IS100 was not adequate for IS-RFLP but that both IS285 and IS1541 efficiently subtyped Y. pseudotuberculosis. The discriminatory index (DI) of IS1541-RFLP (0.980) was superior to those of IS285-RFLP (0.939), ribotyping (0.944), MLST (0.861), and serotyping (0.857). The combination of the two IS (2IS-RFLP) further increased the DI to 0.998. Thus, IS-RFLP is a powerful tool for the molecular typing of Y. pseudotuberculosis and has the advantage of exhibiting well-resolved banding patterns that allow for a reliable comparison of strains of worldwide origin. The other aim of this study was to assess the clustering power of IS-RFLP. We found that 2IS-RFLP had a remarkable capacity to group strains with similar genotypic and phenotypic markers, thus identifying robust populations within Y. pseudotuberculosis. Our study thus demonstrates that 2IS- and even IS1541-RFLP alone might be valuable tools for the molecular typing of global isolates of Y. pseudotuberculosis and for the analysis of the population structure of this species. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Typing and Clustering of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Isolates by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis Using Insertion Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Voskresenskaya, E.; Savin, C.; Leclercq, A.; Tseneva, G.

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is an enteropathogen that has an animal reservoir and causes human infections, mostly in temperate and cold countries. Most of the methods previously used to subdivide Y. pseudotuberculosis were performed on small numbers of isolates from a specific geographical area. One aim of this study was to evaluate the typing efficiency of restriction fragment length polymorphism of insertion sequence hybridization patterns (IS-RFLP) compared to other typing methods, such as serotyping, ribotyping, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), on the same set of 80 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis of global origin. We found that IS100 was not adequate for IS-RFLP but that both IS285 and IS1541 efficiently subtyped Y. pseudotuberculosis. The discriminatory index (DI) of IS1541-RFLP (0.980) was superior to those of IS285-RFLP (0.939), ribotyping (0.944), MLST (0.861), and serotyping (0.857). The combination of the two IS (2IS-RFLP) further increased the DI to 0.998. Thus, IS-RFLP is a powerful tool for the molecular typing of Y. pseudotuberculosis and has the advantage of exhibiting well-resolved banding patterns that allow for a reliable comparison of strains of worldwide origin. The other aim of this study was to assess the clustering power of IS-RFLP. We found that 2IS-RFLP had a remarkable capacity to group strains with similar genotypic and phenotypic markers, thus identifying robust populations within Y. pseudotuberculosis. Our study thus demonstrates that 2IS- and even IS1541-RFLP alone might be valuable tools for the molecular typing of global isolates of Y. pseudotuberculosis and for the analysis of the population structure of this species. PMID:24671793

  17. Quadruplex PCR assay for identification of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis differentiating biovar Ovis and Equi.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Sintia; Dorneles, Elaine M S; Diniz, Carlos; Abreu, Vinícius; Sousa, Cassiana; Alves, Jorianne; Carneiro, Adriana; Bagano, Priscilla; Spier, Sharon; Barh, Debmalya; Lage, Andrey P; Figueiredo, Henrique; Azevedo, Vasco

    2017-09-25

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is classified into two biovars, nitrate-negative biovar Ovis which is the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis in small ruminants and nitrate-positive biovar Equi, which causes abscesses and ulcerative lymphangitis in equines. The aim of this study was to develop a quadruplex PCR assay that would allow simultaneous detection and biovar-typing of C. pseudotuberculosis. In the present study, genomes of C. pseudotuberculosis strains were used to identify the genes involved in the nitrate reduction pathway to improve a species identification three-primer multiplex PCR assay. The nitrate reductase gene (narG) was included in the PCR assay along with the 16S, rpoB and pld genes to enhance the diagnosis of the multiplex PCR at biovar level. A novel quadruplex PCR assay for C. pseudotuberculosis species and biovar identification was developed. The results of the quadruplex PCR of 348 strains, 346 previously well-characterized clinical isolates of C. pseudotuberculosis from different hosts (goats, sheep, horse, cattle, buffalo, llamas and humans), the vaccine strain 1002 and the type strain ATCC 19410(T), were compared to the results of nitrate reductase identification by biochemical test. The McNemar's Chi-squared test used to compare the two methods used for C. pseudotuberculosis biovar identification showed no significant difference (P = 0.75) [95% CI for odds ratio (0.16-6.14)] between the quadruplex PCR and the nitrate biochemical test. Concordant results were observed for 97.13% (338 / 348) of the tested strains and the kappa value was 0.94 [95% CI (0.90-0.98)]. The ability of the quadruplex assay to discriminate between C. pseudotuberculosis biovar Ovis and Equi strains enhances its usefulness in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

  18. Characterization of chromosomal regions conserved in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and lost by Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Pouillot, Flavie; Fayolle, Corinne; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2008-10-01

    The transformation of the enteropathogenic bacterium Yersinia pseudotuberculosis into the plague bacillus, Yersinia pestis, has been accompanied by extensive genetic loss. This study focused on chromosomal regions conserved in Y. pseudotuberculosis and lost during its transformation into Y. pestis. An extensive PCR screening of 78 strains of the two species identified five regions (R1 to R5) and four open reading frames (ORFs; orf1 to orf4) that were conserved in Y. pseudotuberculosis and absent from Y. pestis. Their conservation in Y. pseudotuberculosis suggests a positive selective pressure and a role during the life cycle of this species. Attempts to delete two ORFs (orf3 and orf4) from the chromosome of strain IP32953 were unsuccessful, indicating that they are essential for its viability. The seven remaining loci were individually deleted from the IP32953 chromosome, and the ability of each mutant to grow in vitro and to kill mice upon intragastric infection was evaluated. Four loci (orf1, R2, R4, and R5) were not required for optimal growth or virulence of Y. pseudotuberculosis. In contrast, orf2, encoding a putative pseudouridylate synthase involved in RNA stability, was necessary for the optimal growth of IP32953 at 37 degrees C in a chemically defined medium (M63S). Deletion of R1, a region predicted to encode the methionine salvage pathway, altered the mutant pathogenicity, suggesting that the availability of free methionine is severely restricted in vivo. R3, a region composed mostly of genes of unknown functions, was necessary for both optimal growth of Y. pseudotuberculosis at 37 degrees C in M63S and for virulence. Therefore, despite their loss in Y. pestis, five of the nine Y. pseudotuberculosis-specific chromosomal loci studied play a role in the survival, growth, or virulence of this species.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain 1/06-A, Isolated from a Horse in North America

    PubMed Central

    Pethick, Florence E.; Lainson, Alex F.; Yaga, Raja; Flockhart, Allen; Smith, David G. E.; Donachie, Willie; Cerdeira, Louise T.; Silva, Artur; Bol, Erik; Lopes, Thiago S.; Barbosa, Maria S.; Pinto, Anne C.; dos Santos, Anderson R.; Soares, Siomar C.; Almeida, Sintia S.; Guimaraes, Luis C.; Aburjaile, Flavia F.; Abreu, Vinicius A. C.; Ribeiro, Dayana; Fiaux, Karina K.; Diniz, Carlos A. A.; Barbosa, Eudes G. V.; Pereira, Ulisses P.; Hassan, Syed S.; Ali, Amjad; Bakhtiar, Syeda M.; Dorella, Fernanda A.; Carneiro, Adriana R.; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Rocha, Flavia S.; Schneider, Maria P. C.; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco

    2012-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis causes disease in several animal species, although distinct biovars exist that appear to be restricted to specific hosts. In order to facilitate a better understanding of the differences between biovars, we report here the complete genome sequence of the equine pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain 1/06-A. PMID:22843601

  20. Genome Sequence of the Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Cp316 Strain, Isolated from the Abscess of a Californian Horse

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Pinto, Anne Cybelle; Soares, Siomar de Castro; Santos, Anderson Rodrigues; Almeida, Sintia Silva; Guimarães, Luis Carlos; Aburjaile, Flávia Figueira; Barbosa, Eudes Guilherme Vieira; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; Rocha, Flávia Souza; Cerdeira, Louise Teixeira; Barbosa, Maria Silvanira; Tauch, Andreas; Edman, Judy; Spier, Sharon; Miyoshi, Anderson; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Azevedo, Vasco

    2012-01-01

    The bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is of major veterinary importance because it affects livestock, particularly sheep, goats, and horses, in several countries, including Australia, Brazil, the United States, and Canada, resulting in significant economic losses. In the present study, we describe the complete genome of the Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Cp316 strain, biovar equi, isolated from the abscess of a North American horse. PMID:23144380

  1. [Survival capacity of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis in different soil types from Chubut, Argentine Patagonia].

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Laura; William, Aillin; Castro, Isabel; Valenzuela, Fernanda; Estevao Belchior, Silvia

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is transmitted among sheep in Argentine Patagonia causing pseudotuberculosis. The bacterium penetrates the skin or mucous membrane wounds, infecting the superficial lymph nodes and viscera. When surface abscesses are cut during shearing, they drain their purulent contents and contaminate tools and the soil. The objective of this work was to evaluate the survival capacity of C. pseudotuberculosis over time, in soils from the extra-Andean Patagonia region. Five types of superficial soils were collected from different areas in Chubut province (extra-Andean Patagonia), having distinctive physicochemical properties including organic matter content (very high to nonexistent), pH (neutral to strongly alkaline), electrical conductivity (saline to non-saline) and texture (sandy, clayey, silty loam). Different aliquots of each type of soil were inoculated with C. pseudotuberculosis PAT10 strain isolated from a Patagonian sheep, and were stored at room temperature. The number of surviving bacteria was determined at various times. Sixty percent (60%) of the inoculated C. pseudotuberculosis population survived for 80 to 210 days in soils with moderate to high organic matter content respectively. Silty soils favored bacterial survival, whereas the variables pH and salinity had no effect on survival. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Growth of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in human plasma: impacts on virulence and metabolic gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Marie-Laure; Chauvaux, Sylvie; Dessein, Rodrigue; Laurans, Caroline; Frangeul, Lionel; Lacroix, Céline; Schiavo, Angèle; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Foulon, Jeannine; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Médigue, Claudine; Carniel, Elisabeth; Simonet, Michel; Marceau, Michaël

    2008-01-01

    Background In man, infection by the Gram-negative enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is usually limited to the terminal ileum. However, in immunocompromised patients, the microorganism may disseminate from the digestive tract and thus cause a systemic infection with septicemia. Results To gain insight into the metabolic pathways and virulence factors expressed by the bacterium at the blood stage of pseudotuberculosis, we compared the overall gene transcription patterns (the transcriptome) of bacterial cells cultured in either human plasma or Luria-Bertani medium. The most marked plasma-triggered metabolic consequence in Y. pseudotuberculosis was the switch to high glucose consumption, which is reminiscent of the acetogenic pathway (known as "glucose overflow") in Escherichia coli. However, upregulation of the glyoxylate shunt enzymes suggests that (in contrast to E. coli) acetate may be further metabolized in Y. pseudotuberculosis. Our data also indicate that the bloodstream environment can regulate major virulence genes (positively or negatively); the yadA adhesin gene and most of the transcriptional units of the pYV-encoded type III secretion apparatus were found to be upregulated, whereas transcription of the pH6 antigen locus was strongly repressed. Conclusion Our results suggest that plasma growth of Y. pseudotuberculosis is responsible for major transcriptional regulatory events and prompts key metabolic reorientations within the bacterium, which may in turn have an impact on virulence. PMID:19055764

  3. A universal vaccine for serogroup B meningococcus

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Marzia M.; Adu-Bobie, Jeannette; Comanducci, Maurizio; Aricò, Beatrice; Savino, Silvana; Santini, Laura; Brunelli, Brunella; Bambini, Stefania; Biolchi, Alessia; Capecchi, Barbara; Cartocci, Elena; Ciucchi, Laura; Di Marcello, Federica; Ferlicca, Francesca; Galli, Barbara; Luzzi, Enrico; Masignani, Vega; Serruto, Davide; Veggi, Daniele; Contorni, Mario; Morandi, Maurizio; Bartalesi, Alessandro; Cinotti, Vanda; Mannucci, Donatella; Titta, Francesca; Ovidi, Elisa; Welsch, Jo Anne; Granoff, Dan; Rappuoli, Rino; Pizza, Mariagrazia

    2006-01-01

    Meningitis and sepsis caused by serogroup B meningococcus are two severe diseases that still cause significant mortality. To date there is no universal vaccine that prevents these diseases. In this work, five antigens discovered by reverse vaccinology were expressed in a form suitable for large-scale manufacturing and formulated with adjuvants suitable for human use. The vaccine adjuvanted by aluminum hydroxide induced bactericidal antibodies in mice against 78% of a panel of 85 meningococcal strains representative of the global population diversity. The strain coverage could be increased to 90% and above by the addition of CpG oligonucleotides or by using MF59 as adjuvant. The vaccine has the potential to conquer one of the most devastating diseases of childhood. PMID:16825336

  4. Serogroups of Escherichia coli from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ramteke, P W; Tewari, Suman

    2007-07-01

    Fifty seven isolates of thermotolerant E. coli were recovered from 188 drinking water sources, 45 (78.9%) were typable of which 15 (26.3%) were pathogenic serotypes. Pathogenic serogroup obtained were 04 (Uropathogenic E. coli, UPEC), 025 (Enterotoxigenic E. coli, ETEC), 086 (Enteropathogenic E. coli, EPEC), 0103 (Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, STEC), 0157 (Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, STEC), 08 (Enterotoxigenic E. coli, ETEC) and 0113 (Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, STEC). All the pathogenic serotypes showed resistance to bacitracin and multiple heavy metal ions. Resistance to streptomycin and cotrimazole was detected in two strains whereas resistance to cephaloridine, polymixin-B and ampicillin was detected in one strain each. Transfer of resistances to drugs and metallic ions was observed in 9 out of 12 strains studied. Resistances to bacitracin were transferred in all nine strains. Among heavy metals resistance to As(3+) followed by Cr(6+) were transferred more frequently.

  5. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A capsular polysaccharide acetyltransferase, methods and compositions

    DOEpatents

    Stephens, David S [Stone Mountain, GA; Gudlavalleti, Seshu K [Kensington, MD; Tzeng, Yih-Ling [Atlanta, GA; Datta, Anup K [San Diego, CA; Carlson, Russell W [Athens, GA

    2011-02-08

    Provided are methods for recombinant production of an O-acetyltransferase and methods for acetylating capsular polysaccharides, especially those of a Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis using the recombinant O-acetyltransferase, and immunogenic compositions comprising the acetylated capsular polysaccharide.

  6. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis efficiently escapes polymorphonuclear neutrophils during early infection.

    PubMed

    Westermark, Linda; Fahlgren, Anna; Fällman, Maria

    2014-03-01

    The human-pathogenic species of the Gram-negative genus Yersinia preferentially target and inactivate cells of the innate immune defense, suggesting that this is a critical step by which these bacteria avoid elimination and cause disease. In this study, bacterial interactions with dendritic cells, macrophages, and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in intestinal lymphoid tissues during early Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection were analyzed. Wild-type bacteria were shown to interact mainly with dendritic cells, but not with PMNs, on day 1 postinfection, while avirulent yopH and yopE mutants interacted with PMNs as well as with dendritic cells. To unravel the role of PMNs during the early phase of infection, we depleted mice of PMNs by using an anti-Ly6G antibody, after which we could see more-efficient initial colonization by the wild-type strain as well as by yopH, yopE, and yopK mutants on day 1 postinfection. Dissemination of yopH, yopE, and yopK mutants from the intestinal compartments to mesenteric lymph nodes was faster in PMN-depleted mice than in undepleted mice, emphasizing the importance of effective targeting of PMNs by these Yersinia outer proteins (Yops). In conclusion, escape from interaction with PMNs due to the action of YopH, YopE, and YopK is a key feature of pathogenic Yersinia species that allows colonization and effective dissemination.

  7. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 14 from a human source.

    PubMed Central

    Pastoris, M. C.; Berchicci, C.; Pallonari, G.

    1992-01-01

    A strain of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 14 was isolated during a retrospective study, after death from the sputum of a patient who had had acute leukaemia and pneumonia. This is the third strain of that serogroup to be isolated from a human source. This event emphasises the importance of performing culture as well as serological tests, so as to detect cases of legionellosis caused by strains which rarely cause fatal clinical illness. PMID:1517467

  8. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 12 isolated from human and environmental sources.

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, W L; Wilkinson, H W; Benson, R F; Brenner, D J

    1987-01-01

    A Legionella-like organism (strain 570-CO-H [= ATCC 43290]) isolated from the lung tissue of a patient with pneumonia was shown by growth, as well as physiological, serological, and genetic characteristics, to belong to a new Legionella pneumophila serogroup, serogroup 12. Two additional strains were detected with antiserum specific for strain 570-CO-H. These strains were isolated from environmental sources. PMID:3571461

  9. Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in wild boars in the Basque Country, northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Arrausi-Subiza, Maialen; Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Alvarez, Vega; Ibabe, Jose Carlos; Barral, Marta

    2016-01-20

    Yersiniosis is a zoonosis widely distributed in Europe and swine carry different serotypes of Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in wild boars in northern Spain. The blood of wild boars (n = 505) was sampled between 2001 and 2012. Seroprevalence was determined in 490 serum samples with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seventy-two of the animals were also examined for the presence of Y. enterocolitica or Y. pseudotuberculosis in the tonsils with real-time polymerase chain reaction. All the tonsils were analysed twice, directly and after cold enrichment in phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 1 % mannitol and 0.15 % bile salts. Antibodies directed against Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis were detected in 52.5 % of the animals. Yersinia enterocolitica was detected with real-time polymerase chain reaction in 33.3 % of the wild boars and Y. pseudotuberculosis in 25 %. Significant differences were observed according to the sampling year, and the highest prevalence was during winter and spring. The highest antibody levels and Y. enterocolitica prevalence were observed in mountainous areas at altitudes higher than 600 m, with very cold winters, and with the highest annual rainfall for each dominant climate. Areas with low and medium livestock populations were associated with the highest seroprevalence of Yersinia spp. in wild boars, whereas areas with high ovine populations had the highest prevalence of Y. enterocolitica. This study shows that Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are highly prevalent among wild boars in the Basque country, with Y. enterocolitica most prevalent. The risk of infection among wild boars is influenced by the season and the area in which they live.

  10. Evidence for Reductive Genome Evolution and Lateral Acquisition of Virulence Functions in Two Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Artur; Ali, Amjad; Pinto, Anne C.; Santos, Anderson R.; Rocha, Aryanne A. M. C.; Lopes, Débora O.; Dorella, Fernanda A.; Pacheco, Luis G. C.; Costa, Marcília P.; Turk, Meritxell Z.; Seyffert, Núbia; Moraes, Pablo M. R. O.; Soares, Siomar C.; Almeida, Sintia S.; Castro, Thiago L. P.; Abreu, Vinicius A. C.; Trost, Eva; Baumbach, Jan; Tauch, Andreas; Schneider, Maria Paula C.; McCulloch, John; Cerdeira, Louise T.; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Zerlotini, Adhemar; Dominitini, Anderson; Resende, Daniela M.; Coser, Elisângela M.; Oliveira, Luciana M.; Pedrosa, André L.; Vieira, Carlos U.; Guimarães, Cláudia T.; Bartholomeu, Daniela C.; Oliveira, Diana M.; Santos, Fabrício R.; Rabelo, Élida Mara; Lobo, Francisco P.; Franco, Glória R.; Costa, Ana Flávia; Castro, Ieso M.; Dias, Sílvia Regina Costa; Ferro, Jesus A.; Ortega, José Miguel; Paiva, Luciano V.; Goulart, Luiz R.; Almeida, Juliana Franco; Ferro, Maria Inês T.; Carneiro, Newton P.; Falcão, Paula R. K.; Grynberg, Priscila; Teixeira, Santuza M. R.; Brommonschenkel, Sérgio; Oliveira, Sérgio C.; Meyer, Roberto; Moore, Robert J.; Miyoshi, Anderson; Oliveira, Guilherme C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, a Gram-positive, facultative intracellular pathogen, is the etiologic agent of the disease known as caseous lymphadenitis (CL). CL mainly affects small ruminants, such as goats and sheep; it also causes infections in humans, though rarely. This species is distributed worldwide, but it has the most serious economic impact in Oceania, Africa and South America. Although C. pseudotuberculosis causes major health and productivity problems for livestock, little is known about the molecular basis of its pathogenicity. Methodology and Findings We characterized two C. pseudotuberculosis genomes (Cp1002, isolated from goats; and CpC231, isolated from sheep). Analysis of the predicted genomes showed high similarity in genomic architecture, gene content and genetic order. When C. pseudotuberculosis was compared with other Corynebacterium species, it became evident that this pathogenic species has lost numerous genes, resulting in one of the smallest genomes in the genus. Other differences that could be part of the adaptation to pathogenicity include a lower GC content, of about 52%, and a reduced gene repertoire. The C. pseudotuberculosis genome also includes seven putative pathogenicity islands, which contain several classical virulence factors, including genes for fimbrial subunits, adhesion factors, iron uptake and secreted toxins. Additionally, all of the virulence factors in the islands have characteristics that indicate horizontal transfer. Conclusions These particular genome characteristics of C. pseudotuberculosis, as well as its acquired virulence factors in pathogenicity islands, provide evidence of its lifestyle and of the pathogenicity pathways used by this pathogen in the infection process. All genomes cited in this study are available in the NCBI Genbank database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) under accession numbers CP001809 and CP001829. PMID:21533164

  11. The Yersinia pseudotuberculosis complex: characterization and delineation of a new species, Yersinia wautersii.

    PubMed

    Savin, Cyril; Martin, Liliane; Bouchier, Christiane; Filali, Sofia; Chenau, Jérôme; Zhou, Zhemin; Becher, François; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Thomson, Nicholas R; Scholz, Holger C; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2014-05-01

    The genus Yersinia contains three species pathogenic for humans, one of which is the enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. A recent analysis by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) of the 'Y. pseudotuberculosis complex' revealed that this complex comprises three distinct populations: the Y. pestis/Y. pseudotuberculosis group, the recently described species Yersinia similis, and a third not yet characterized population designated 'Korean Group', because most strains were isolated in Korea. The aim of this study was to perform an in depth phenotypic and genetic characterization of the three populations composing the Y. pseudotuberculosis complex (excluding Y. pestis, which belonged to the Y. pseudotuberculosis cluster in the MLST analysis). Using a set of strains representative of each group, we found that the three populations had close metabolic properties, but were nonetheless distinguishable based on D-raffinose and D-melibiose fermentation, and on pyrazinamidase activity. Moreover, high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry highlighted protein peaks characteristic of each population. Their 16S rRNA gene sequences shared high identity (≥99.5%), but specific nucleotide signatures for each group were identified. Multi-Locus Sequence Analysis also identified three genetically closely related but distinct populations. Finally, an Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) analysis performed after sequencing the genomes of a subset of strains of each group also showed that intragroup identity (average for each group ≥99%) was higher than intergroup diversity (94.6-97.4%). Therefore, all phenotypic and genotypic traits studied concurred with the initial MLST data indicating that the Y. pseudotuberculosis complex comprises a third and clearly distinct population of strains forming a novel Yersinia species that we propose to designate Yersinia wautersii sp. nov. The isolation of some strains from humans, the detection of virulence genes (on the pYV and pVM82 plasmids

  12. Type III secretion decreases bacterial and host survival following phagocytosis of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Murtha, James; Roberts, Margaret A; Siegel, Richard M; Bliska, James B

    2008-09-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis uses a plasmid (pYV)-encoded type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate a set of effectors called Yops into infected host cells. YopJ functions to induce apoptosis, and YopT, YopE, and YopH act to antagonize phagocytosis in macrophages. Because Yops do not completely block phagocytosis and Y. pseudotuberculosis can replicate in macrophages, it is important to determine if the T3SS modulates host responses to intracellular bacteria. Isogenic pYV-cured, pYV(+) wild-type, and yop mutant Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were allowed to infect bone marrow-derived murine macrophages at a low multiplicity of infection under conditions in which the survival of extracellular bacteria was prevented. Phagocytosis, the intracellular survival of the bacteria, and the apoptosis of the infected macrophages were analyzed. Forty percent of cell-associated wild-type bacteria were intracellular after a 20-min infection, allowing the study of the macrophage response to internalized pYV(+) Y. pseudotuberculosis. Interestingly, macrophages restricted survival of pYV(+) but not pYV-cured or DeltayopB Y. pseudotuberculosis within phagosomes: only a small fraction of the pYV(+) bacteria internalized replicated by 24 h. In addition, approximately 20% of macrophages infected with wild-type pYV(+) Y. pseudotuberculosis died of apoptosis after 20 h. Analysis of yop mutants expressing catalytically inactive effectors revealed that YopJ was important for apoptosis, while a role for YopE, YopH, and YopT in modulating macrophage responses to intracellular bacteria could not be identified. Apoptosis was reduced in Toll-like receptor 4-deficient macrophages, indicating that cell death required signaling through this receptor. Treatment of macrophages harboring intracellular pYV(+) Y. pseudotuberculosis with chloramphenicol reduced apoptosis, indicating that the de novo bacterial protein synthesis was necessary for cell death. Our finding that the presence of a

  13. Studies on the ultrastructure of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis after treatment with some detergents and solvents.

    PubMed

    Cherepova, N; Baykousheva, S; Veljanov, D

    1977-06-01

    The ultrastructural changes in 3 strains Yersinia pseudotuberculosis with different virulence after treatment with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and petroleum ether were studied. The ultrafine sections after treatment with SLS show heavy destructive changes, concerning the cell wall, the cytoplasmic membrane and the inner structure of the cell. It was established that the same cells Y. pseudotuberculosis after cultivation on a medium with glycerol show a tendency to recover their ultrastructure. The cells treated with petroleum ether did not exhibit any notable ultrastructural changes.

  14. Comparative Genomic Hybridization Analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Identifies Genetic Traits to Elucidate Their Different Ecologies

    PubMed Central

    Jaakkola, Kaisa; Somervuo, Panu; Korkeala, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are both etiological agents for intestinal infection known as yersiniosis, but their epidemiology and ecology bear many differences. Swine are the only known reservoir for Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains, which are the most common cause of human disease, while Y. pseudotuberculosis has been isolated from a variety of sources, including vegetables and wild animals. Infections caused by Y. enterocolitica mainly originate from swine, but fresh produce has been the source for widespread Y. pseudotuberculosis outbreaks within recent decades. A comparative genomic hybridization analysis with a DNA microarray based on three Yersinia enterocolitica and four Yersinia pseudotuberculosis genomes was conducted to shed light on the genomic differences between enteropathogenic Yersinia. The hybridization results identified Y. pseudotuberculosis strains to carry operons linked with the uptake and utilization of substances not found in living animal tissues but present in soil, plants, and rotting flesh. Y. pseudotuberculosis also harbors a selection of type VI secretion systems targeting other bacteria and eukaryotic cells. These genetic traits are not found in Y. enterocolitica, and it appears that while Y. pseudotuberculosis has many tools beneficial for survival in varied environments, the Y. enterocolitica genome is more streamlined and adapted to their preferred animal reservoir. PMID:26605338

  15. Comparative Genomic Hybridization Analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Identifies Genetic Traits to Elucidate Their Different Ecologies.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Kaisa; Somervuo, Panu; Korkeala, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are both etiological agents for intestinal infection known as yersiniosis, but their epidemiology and ecology bear many differences. Swine are the only known reservoir for Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains, which are the most common cause of human disease, while Y. pseudotuberculosis has been isolated from a variety of sources, including vegetables and wild animals. Infections caused by Y. enterocolitica mainly originate from swine, but fresh produce has been the source for widespread Y. pseudotuberculosis outbreaks within recent decades. A comparative genomic hybridization analysis with a DNA microarray based on three Yersinia enterocolitica and four Yersinia pseudotuberculosis genomes was conducted to shed light on the genomic differences between enteropathogenic Yersinia. The hybridization results identified Y. pseudotuberculosis strains to carry operons linked with the uptake and utilization of substances not found in living animal tissues but present in soil, plants, and rotting flesh. Y. pseudotuberculosis also harbors a selection of type VI secretion systems targeting other bacteria and eukaryotic cells. These genetic traits are not found in Y. enterocolitica, and it appears that while Y. pseudotuberculosis has many tools beneficial for survival in varied environments, the Y. enterocolitica genome is more streamlined and adapted to their preferred animal reservoir.

  16. Characteristics of anti-Legionella antibodies in patients infected with Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1, 6, and 10.

    PubMed Central

    van Zwet, T L; Meenhorst, P L; Leijh, P C; Daha, M R; van Furth, R

    1988-01-01

    Nosocomial infections with Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 and 10 in the Leiden University Hospital and infections with L. pneumophila serogroup 6 in neighboring hospitals gave us an opportunity to study the development of opsonizing antibodies against L. pneumophila serogroups 1, 6, and 10 in the serum of 13 patients. Seven of these patients were infected with L. pneumophila serogroup 1, two were infected with serogroup 6, and four were infected with serogroup 10. The opsonic cross-reactivity of antibodies against these serogroups of L. pneumophila and complement involvement in opsonization were also investigated. Convalescent-phase sera from patients infected with L. pneumophila serogroup 1 or 6 were able to promote ingestion of these serogroups by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, whereas ingestion of L. pneumophila serogroup 10 was enhanced only in the presence of convalescent-phase sera from patients infected with this serogroup. Opsonization of L. pneumophila serogroups 1, 6, and 10 was complement dependent. PMID:3235666

  17. Greening America's Capitals - Richmond, VA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report from the Greening America's Capitals project in Richmond, VA, to help the city develop design options to protect pedestrians, bicyclists, transit users, and drivers; improve stormwater management; and spur revitalization.

  18. VA Health Care Facilities Locator

    MedlinePlus

    ... VA » Locations » Find Locations Locations Find Locations The javascript used here is for validation purpose only. Your browser doesn't seem to support javascript or has it disabled. This site is a ...

  19. Protection of sheep against caseous lymphadenitis by use of a single oral dose of live recombinant Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, A L; Tachedjian, M; Corner, L A; Radford, A J

    1994-01-01

    An inactive form of the Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis phospholipase D (PLD) gene was constructed and expressed in a PLD-negative strain (designated Toxminus) of C. pseudotuberculosis. Antibody responses specific to Toxminus and both Toxminus and PLD proteins were detected in sheep following oral administration of Toxminus or Toxminus expressing the PLD toxoid, respectively. However, only those sheep vaccinated with Toxminus expressing PLD toxoid were protected against wild-type challenge. These results confirm the importance of PLD as a protective antigen and demonstrate both the potential for developing an oral caseous lymphadenitis vaccine and C. pseudotuberculosis Toxminus as a live vaccine vector. Images PMID:7960105

  20. Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain PA02 Isolated from an Ovine Host in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Muge, Gabriel R. S.; Veras, Adonney A. O.; de Sá, Pablo H. C. G.; Cavalcante, Ana Lídia Queiroz; Alves, Jorianne Thyeska Castro; Morais, Ezequiel; Silva, André G. M.; Azevedo, Vasco; Folador, Adriana Ribeiro Carneiro; Silva, Artur

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain PA02 isolated from an ovine host. The genome contains 2,328,435 bp, a 52.2% G+C content, 2,035 coding sequences, 12 rRNA operons, 45 tRNAs, and 14 predicted pseudogenes. PMID:27516524

  1. Real-time multiplex PCR assay for detection of Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Matero, Pirjo; Pasanen, Tanja; Laukkanen, Riikka; Tissari, Päivi; Tarkka, Eveliina; Vaara, Martti; Skurnik, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    A multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for the detection of Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The assay includes four primer pairs, two of which are specific for Y. pestis, one for Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis and one for bacteriophage lambda; the latter was used as an internal amplification control. The Y. pestis-specific target genes in the assay were ypo2088, a gene coding for a putative methyltransferase, and the pla gene coding for the plasminogen activator. In addition, the wzz gene was used as a target to specifically identify both Y. pestis and the closely related Y. pseudotuberculosis group. The primer and probe sets described for the different genes can be used either in single or in multiplex PCR assays because the individual probes were designed with different fluorochromes. The assays were found to be both sensitive and specific; the lower limit of the detection was 10-100 fg of extracted Y. pestis or Y. pseudotuberculosis total DNA. The sensitivity of the tetraplex assay was determined to be 1 cfu for the ypo2088 and pla probe labelled with FAM and JOE fluorescent dyes, respectively.

  2. Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain XH02 Isolated from a Boer Goat in Xuanhan, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hexian; Zhang, Mengsi; Wang, Zhiying; Zhou, Rongqiong; Hu, Shijun; Li, Xiaoxia; Song, Xinyue; Zhu, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    We report here the genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain XH02, isolated from a Boer goat in China. The genome consists of 2,357,671 bp, with a 52.18% G+C content, 2,263 coding sequences, 21 rRNAs, 49 tRNAs, and 44 predicted pseudogenes. PMID:27881549

  3. Evaluation of Ribotyping as a Tool for Molecular Typing of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Strains of Worldwide Origin

    PubMed Central

    Voskressenskaya, Ekaterina; Leclercq, Alexandre; Tseneva, Galina; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a gram-negative bacterium that infects a wide range of animals, including humans, and is transmitted by the fecal-oral route. This species is found globally and is responsible for human outbreaks, mainly in cold countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of ribotyping for the molecular typing of worldwide isolates. For this purpose, 80 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis belonging to the six classical serotypes and nine subserotypes and isolated from various countries and different hosts were analyzed. Combination of the EcoRI and EcoRV ribopatterns allowed the delineation of 27 ribotypes. In most instances, ribotypes were associated with specific subserotypes and allowed their subdivision. No association between the ribotype and the geographical origin of the strains was observed, arguing for a global spread of this organism. Similarly, no marked association between the ribotype and the type of host was noted, confirming the circulation of this pathogen in the environment, different animal species, and human hosts. Y. pseudotuberculosis exhibited ribopatterns very close to those of Y. pestis, although not completely identical. Altogether, the present study demonstrates that ribotyping may be a useful tool for molecular typing of global isolates of Y. pseudotuberculosis but that it has some limitations due to the small number of hybridizing bands that generate the diversity of the profiles. PMID:16333119

  4. Haemophilia-associated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype O:1 septicaemia: the role of iron.

    PubMed

    Mischnik, Alexander; Dahme, Tillman; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Zimmermann, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Septicaemia and septic arthritis due to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are rare diseases with high mortality rates. Reactive arthritis caused by Yersinia infection is a well-known complication but septic arthritis is found at a much lower frequency. It has already been established that there is a relationship between yersiniosis and iron but there are currently no data about yersiniosis and haematological disorders such as haemophilia. We report a case of septic arthritis due to Y. pseudotuberculosis as an early manifestation of Yersinia septicaemia in a patient with severe haemophilia A. The patient had no history of immunosuppression and presented with a repeat case of haemarthrosis with a fever of unknown origin. Furthermore, he suffered from acute-on-chronic renal failure and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Arthrocentesis and blood culture tested positive for Y. pseudotuberculosis. Iron deposits at localized sites in the synovium in patients with haemophilia have been described, and as Yersinia infections are common in patients with secondary iron overload, we felt that a review of the literature was in order. Severe Yersinia infection is often associated with iron overload, a condition that might occur as a side effect in the treatment of haemophilia. Iron overload, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of haemophilic arthropathy, may have increased the virulence of Y. pseudotuberculosis in the present case.

  5. Far East Scarlet-Like Fever Caused by a Few Related Genotypes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Russia.

    PubMed

    Timchenko, Nelly F; Adgamov, Ruslan R; Popov, Alexander F; Psareva, Ekaterina K; Sobyanin, Konstantin A; Gintsburg, Alexander L; Ermolaeva, Svetlana A

    2016-03-01

    We used multivirulence locus sequence typing to analyze 68 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolates from patients in Russia during 1973-2014, including 41 isolates from patients with Far East scarlet-like fever. Four genotypes were found responsible, with 1 being especially prevalent. Evolutionary analysis suggests that epidemiologic advantages could cause this genotype's dominance.

  6. Insights into the evolution of Yersinia pestis through whole-genome comparison with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Chain, Patrick S. G.; Carniel, E.; Larimer, Frank W; Lamerdin, Jane; Vergez, Lisa; Land, Miriam L; Motin, V. L.; Brubaker, R. R.; Fowler, J.; Hinnebusch, J.; Marceau, M.; Medigue, Claudine; Chenal-Francisque, V.; Souza, B.; Dacheux, D.; Elliott, J. M.; Derbise, A.; Hauser, Loren John; Garcia, Emilio

    2004-09-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is a highly uniform clone that diverged recently from the enteric pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Despite their close genetic relationship, they differ radically in their pathogenicity and transmission. Here, we report the complete genomic sequence of Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 and its use for detailed genome comparisons with available Y. pestis sequences. Analyses of identified differences across a panel of Yersinia isolates from around the world reveal 32 Y. pestis chromosomal genes that, together with the two Y. pestis-specific plasmids, to our knowledge, represent the only new genetic material in Y. pestis acquired since the the divergence from Y. pseudotuberculosis. In contrast, 149 other pseudogenes (doubling the previous estimate) and 317 genes absent from Y. pestis were detected, indicating that as many as 13% of Y. pseudotuberculosis genes no longer function in Y. pestis. Extensive insertion sequence-mediated genome rearrangements and reductive evolution through massive gene loss, resulting in elimination and modification of preexisting gene expression pathways, appear to be more important than acquisition of genes in the evolution of Y. pestis. These results provide a sobering example of how a highly virulent epidemic clone can suddenly emerge from a less virulent, closely related progenitor.

  7. Insights into the genome evolution of Yersinia pestis through whole genome comparison with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, B; Stoutland, P; Derbise, A; Georgescu, A; Elliott, J; Land, M; Marceau, M; Motin, V; Hinnebusch, J; Simonet, M; Medigue, C; Dacheux, D; Chenal-Francisque, V; Regala, W; Brubaker, R R; Carniel, E; Chain, P; Verguez, L; Fowler, J; Garcia, E; Lamerdin, J; Hauser, L; Larimer, F

    2004-01-24

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is a highly uniform clone that diverged recently from the enteric pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Despite their close genetic relationship, they differ radically in their pathogenicity and transmission. Here we report the complete genomic sequence of Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 and its use for detailed genome comparisons to available Y. pestis sequences. Analyses of identified differences across a panel of Yersinia isolates from around the world reveals 32 Y. pestis chromosomal genes that, together with the two Y. pestis-specific plasmids, represent the only new genetic material in Y. pestis acquired since the divergence from Y. pseudotuberculosis. In contrast, 149 new pseudogenes (doubling the previous estimate) and 317 genes absent from Y. pestis were detected, indicating that as many as 13% of Y. pseudotuberculosis genes no longer function in Y. pestis. Extensive IS-mediated genome rearrangements and reductive evolution through massive gene loss, resulting in elimination and modification of pre-existing gene expression pathways appear to be more important than acquisition of new genes in the evolution of Y. pestis. These results provide a sobering example of how a highly virulent epidemic clone can suddenly emerge from a less virulent, closely related progenitor.

  8. Oral vaccination against bubonic plague using a live avirulent Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain.

    PubMed

    Blisnick, Thierry; Ave, Patrick; Huerre, Michel; Carniel, Elisabeth; Demeure, Christian E

    2008-08-01

    We evaluated the possibility of using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a live vaccine against plague because it shares high genetic identity with Y. pestis while being much less virulent, genetically much more stable, and deliverable orally. A total of 41 Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were screened by PCR for the absence of the high pathogenicity island, the superantigens YPM, and the type IV pilus and the presence of the pYV virulence plasmid. One strain (IP32680) fulfilled these criteria. This strain was avirulent in mice upon intragastric or subcutaneous inoculation and persisted for 2 months in the mouse intestine without clinical signs of disease. IP32680 reached the mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and liver without causing major histological lesions and was cleared after 13 days. The antibodies produced in vaccinated animals recognized both Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis antigens efficiently. After a subcutaneous challenge with Y. pestis CO92, bacteria were found in low amounts in the organs and rarely in the blood of vaccinated animals. One oral IP32680 inoculation protected 75% of the mice, and two inoculations induced much higher antibody titers and protected 88% of the mice. Our results thus validate the concept that an attenuated Y. pseudotuberculosis strain can be an efficient, inexpensive, safe, and easy-to-produce live vaccine for oral immunization against bubonic plague.

  9. Far East Scarlet-Like Fever Caused by a Few Related Genotypes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Timchenko, Nelly F.; Adgamov, Ruslan R.; Popov, Alexander F.; Psareva, Ekaterina K.; Sobyanin, Konstantin A.; Gintsburg, Alexander L.

    2016-01-01

    We used multivirulence locus sequence typing to analyze 68 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolated in Russia during 1973–2014, including 41 isolates from patients with Far East scarlet-like fever. Four genotypes were found responsible, with 1 being especially prevalent. Evolutionary analysis suggests that epidemiologic advantages could cause this genotype’s dominance. PMID:26889961

  10. Is Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection (pigeon fever) in horses an emerging disease in western Canada?

    PubMed

    Corbeil, Louise E; Morrissey, Jennifer F; Léguillette, Renaud

    2016-10-01

    This report describes 5 horses in the southern Alberta region with typical and atypical external abscessation due to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (pigeon fever). "Pigeon fever" has recently been diagnosed in new geographic regions in North America and should be kept as a differential diagnosis by practitioners when an external or internal abscess is identified in a horse.

  11. Is Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection (pigeon fever) in horses an emerging disease in western Canada?

    PubMed Central

    Corbeil, Louise E.; Morrissey, Jennifer K.; Léguillette, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    This report describes 5 horses in the southern Alberta region with typical and atypical external abscessation due to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (pigeon fever). “Pigeon fever” has recently been diagnosed in new geographic regions in North America and should be kept as a differential diagnosis by practitioners when an external or internal abscess is identified in a horse. PMID:27708444

  12. Serology and clinical relevance of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae).

    PubMed

    Jung, Byeong Yeal; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Ha-Young; Byun, Jae-Won; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Daekeun; Kwak, Dongmi

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the seroprevalence and clinical relevance of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, which is the causative agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae). A total of 466 native Korean goats from 40 herds (11 to 12 samples per herd) were randomly selected throughout the nation and evaluated by direct palpation, bacterial isolation, ELISA, and PCR. In serological examinations, 267 (57.3 %) of the goats tested were positive against C. pseudotuberculosis. When seroprevalence was analyzed according to age, region, and season, statistically significant differences were observed in relation to all three parameters (P < 0.05). For clinical examination, the superficial lymph nodes of all goats were palpated to diagnose CLA. Pus samples taken from superficial abscesses were used for bacterial isolation. Among the 466 goats tested, 34 (7.3 %) were presumptively diagnosed with CLA, and C. pseudotuberculosis was isolated from 24 goats (70.6 % of goats with CLA lesions) whose infections were confirmed by PCR. Considering the high seroprevalence and bacterial isolation rate from most of the superficial CLA lesions, it is suspected that many internal CLA lesions exist in this goat population. These results suggest that C. pseudotuberculosis infection is widespread in native Korean goats, and appropriate control programs need to be established.

  13. IscR Is Essential for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Type III Secretion and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Halie K.; Kwuan, Laura; Schwiesow, Leah; Bernick, David L.; Mettert, Erin; Ramirez, Hector A.; Ragle, James M.; Chan, Patricia P.; Kiley, Patricia J.; Lowe, Todd M.; Auerbuch, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SS) are essential for virulence in dozens of pathogens, but are not required for growth outside the host. Therefore, the T3SS of many bacterial species are under tight regulatory control. To increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind T3SS regulation, we performed a transposon screen to identify genes important for T3SS function in the food-borne pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. We identified two unique transposon insertions in YPTB2860, a gene that displays 79% identity with the E. coli iron-sulfur cluster regulator, IscR. A Y. pseudotuberculosis iscR in-frame deletion mutant (ΔiscR) was deficient in secretion of Ysc T3SS effector proteins and in targeting macrophages through the T3SS. To determine the mechanism behind IscR control of the Ysc T3SS, we carried out transcriptome and bioinformatic analysis to identify Y. pseudotuberculosis genes regulated by IscR. We discovered a putative IscR binding motif upstream of the Y. pseudotuberculosis yscW-lcrF operon. As LcrF controls transcription of a number of critical T3SS genes in Yersinia, we hypothesized that Yersinia IscR may control the Ysc T3SS through LcrF. Indeed, purified IscR bound to the identified yscW-lcrF promoter motif and mRNA levels of lcrF and 24 other T3SS genes were reduced in Y. pseudotuberculosis in the absence of IscR. Importantly, mice orally infected with the Y. pseudotuberculosis ΔiscR mutant displayed decreased bacterial burden in Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleens, and livers, indicating an essential role for IscR in Y. pseudotuberculosis virulence. This study presents the first characterization of Yersinia IscR and provides evidence that IscR is critical for virulence and type III secretion through direct regulation of the T3SS master regulator, LcrF. PMID:24945271

  14. The Superantigen Gene ypm Is Located in an Unstable Chromosomal Locus of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Carnoy, Christophe; Floquet, Stephanie; Marceau, Michael; Sebbane, Florent; Haentjens-Herwegh, Stephanie; Devalckenaere, Annie; Simonet, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis produces YPM (Y. pseudotuberculosis-derived mitogen), a superantigenic toxin that exacerbates the virulence of the bacterium in vivo. To date, three alleles of the superantigen gene (ypmA, ypmB, and ypmC) have been described. These genes are not found in all Y. pseudotuberculosis strains and have a low GC content, suggesting their location on mobile genetic elements. To elucidate this question, the genetic environment of the superantigen-encoding genes was characterized and 11 open reading frames (ORFs) were defined. Sequence analysis revealed that the ypm genes were not associated with plasmids, phages, transposons, or pathogenicity islands and that the superantigen genes were always located in the chromosome between ORF3 and ORF4. Nonsuperantigenic strains exhibited the same genetic organization of the locus but lacked the ypm gene between ORF3 and ORF4. A new insertion sequence, designated IS1398, which displays features of the Tn3 family, was characterized downstream of the ypmA and ypmC genes. A 13.3-kb region containing the ypm genes was not found in the genome of Y. pestis (CO92 and KIM 5 strains). We experimentally induced deletion of the ypm gene from a superantigen-expressing Y. pseudotuberculosis: using the association of aph(3′)-IIIa and sacB genes, we demonstrated that when these reporter genes were present in the ypm locus, deletion of these genes was about 250 times more frequent than when they were located in another region of the Y. pseudotuberculosis chromosome. These results indicate that unlike other superantigenic toxin genes, the Yersinia ypm genes are not associated with mobile genetic elements but are inserted in an unstable locus of the genome. PMID:12142419

  15. Yersiniosis caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in captive toucans (Ramphastidae) and a Japanese squirrel (Sciurus lis) in zoological gardens in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Hayashidani, Hideki; Sotohira, Yukari; Une, Yumi

    2016-02-01

    Two captive Keel-billed toucans and a Chestnut-mandibled toucan in another zoological garden died suddenly without any pre-existing symptoms, and three months later, a Japanese squirrel died of diarrhea. All these animals showed necrotic enteritis and multifocal necrosis in the liver and spleen with Gram negative bacilli. The bacilli showed strong positive immunolabeling for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O4 in the Keel-billed toucans, Y. pseudotuberculosis O2 in the Chestnut-mandibled toucan and Y. pseudotuberculosis O1 in the Japanese squirrel, while Y. pseudotuberculosis 4b, 2b and 1b were respectively isolated from the lesions. To our knowledge, this might be the first reported case of fatal yersiniosis in a Japanese squirrel in the world as well as in toucans in Japan.

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain PA01, Isolated from Sheep in Pará, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Jorianne T. C.; Veras, Adonney A. O.; Cavalcante, Ana Lídia Q.; de Sá, Pablo H. C. G.; Dias, Larissa M.; Guimarães, Luis C.; Morais, Ezequiel; Silva, André G. M.; Azevedo, Vasco; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Silva, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiological agent of caseous lymphadenitis disease. In this work, we present the first complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain PA01, isolated in northern Brazil from an infected sheep. The genome length is 2,337,920 bp, and 2,003 coding sequences (CDS), 12 rRNAs, and 49 tRNAs were predicted. PMID:26823595

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain PA05 Isolated from an Ovine Host in Pará State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Alyne Cristina Sodré; de Moura, Vitória Almeida Gonçalves; Pinheiro, Kenny da Costa; Paixão, Carla Thais Moreira; da Costa, Wana Lailan Oliveira; Folador, Adriana Ribeiro Carneiro; Guaraldi, Ana Luiza de Mattos; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Silva, Artur

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the draft genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis PA05, isolated from an ovine host in Pará State, Brazil. C. pseudotuberculosis is an etiological agent of diseases with veterinary and medical importance. The genome contains 2,435,137 bp, a G+C content of 52.2%, 2,295 coding sequences, five pseudogenes, 53 tRNAs, and six rRNAs. PMID:28360158

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain PA06 Isolated from a Subauricular Abscess in an Ovine Host

    PubMed Central

    de Moura, Vitória Almeida Gonçalves; Lima, Alyne Cristina Sodré; Paixão, Carla Thais Moreira; Lobato, Amália Raiana Fonseca; Alves, Jorianne Thyeska Castro; Guaraldi, Ana Luiza de Mattos; Folador, Adriana Ribeiro Carneiro; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Silva, Artur

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the draft genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis PA06, isolated from a subauricular abscess in an ovine host. C. pseudotuberculosis is a worldwide pathogen of small and large ruminants. The genome comprises 2,320,074 bp, with a G+C content of 52.2%, 2,195 coding sequences, 48 tRNAs, and three rRNAs. PMID:28360159

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain PA06 Isolated from a Subauricular Abscess in an Ovine Host.

    PubMed

    Marques, Joana Montezano; de Moura, Vitória Almeida Gonçalves; Lima, Alyne Cristina Sodré; Paixão, Carla Thais Moreira; Lobato, Amália Raiana Fonseca; Alves, Jorianne Thyeska Castro; Guaraldi, Ana Luiza de Mattos; Folador, Adriana Ribeiro Carneiro; Ramos, Rommel T J; Silva, Artur

    2017-03-30

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis PA06, isolated from a subauricular abscess in an ovine host. C. pseudotuberculosis is a worldwide pathogen of small and large ruminants. The genome comprises 2,320,074 bp, with a G+C content of 52.2%, 2,195 coding sequences, 48 tRNAs, and three rRNAs. Copyright © 2017 Marques et al.

  20. Type III secretion system-dependent translocation of ectopically expressed Yop effectors into macrophages by intracellular Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Romanov, Galina; Bliska, James B

    2011-11-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen. Virulence in Y. pseudotuberculosis requires the plasmid-encoded Ysc type III secretion system (T3SS), which functions to translocate a set of effectors called Yops into infected host cells. The effectors function to antagonize phagocytosis (e.g., YopH) or to induce apoptosis (YopJ) in macrophages infected with Y. pseudotuberculosis. Additionally, when antiphagocytosis is incomplete and Y. pseudotuberculosis is internalized by macrophages, the bacterium can survive in phagosomes. Previous studies have shown that delivery of effectors into host cells occurs efficiently when Yersinia is extracellular. However, it is not clear whether the T3SS can be utilized by intracellular Y. pseudotuberculosis to translocate Yops. This possibility was investigated here using Y. pseudotuberculosis strains that express YopJ or YopH under the control of an inducible promoter. Bone marrow-derived murine macrophages were infected with these strains under conditions that prevented the survival of extracellular bacteria. Effector translocation was detected by measuring apoptosis or the activities of Yop-β-lactamase fusion proteins. Results showed that macrophages underwent apoptosis when YopJ expression was induced prior to phagocytosis, confirming that delivery of this effector prior to or during uptake is sufficient to cause cell death. However, macrophages also underwent apoptosis when YopJ was ectopically expressed after phagocytosis; furthermore, expression of the translocator YopB from intracellular bacteria also resulted in increased cell death. Analysis by microscopy showed that translocation of ectopically expressed YopH- or YopJ-β-lactamase fusions could be correlated with the presence of viable Y. pseudotuberculosis in macrophages. Collectively, our results suggest that the Ysc T3SS of Y. pseudotuberculosis can function within macrophage phagosomes to translocate Yops into the host cytosol.

  1. Comparison of 16S rDNA analysis and rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting for molecular identification of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wonyong; Song, Mi-Ok; Song, Wonkeun; Kim, Ki-Jung; Chung, Sang-In; Choi, Chul-Soon; Park, Yong-Ha

    2003-01-01

    16S rDNA sequence analysis and repetitive element sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) genomic fingerprinting were evaluated on 11 type strains of the genus Yersinia and 17 recognized serotype strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis to investigate their genetic relatedness and to establish the value of techniques for the identification of Y. pseudotuberculosis. A phylogenetic tree constructed from 16S rDNA sequences showed that the type strains of Yersinia species formed distinct clusters with the exception of Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis. Moreover, Y. pestis NCTC 5923T was found to be closely related to Y. pseudotuberculosis serotypes 1b, 3, and 7. Dendrograms generated from REP-PCR, and ERIC-PCR data revealed that members of the genus Yersinia differed from each other with the degree of similarity 62% and 58%, respectively. However, the BOX-PCR results showed that Y. pestis 5923T clustered with the Y. pseudotuberculosis group with a degree of similarity 74%. According to these findings, 16S rDNA sequence analysis was unable to reliably discriminate Y. pseudotuberculosis from Y. pestis. However, REP-PCR and especially ERIC-PCR provided an effective means of differentiating between members of the taxa.

  2. Comparative analysis of African swine fever virus genotypes and serogroups.

    PubMed

    Malogolovkin, Alexander; Burmakina, Galina; Titov, Ilya; Sereda, Alexey; Gogin, Andrey; Baryshnikova, Elena; Kolbasov, Denis

    2015-02-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes highly lethal hemorrhagic disease among pigs, and ASFV's extreme antigenic diversity hinders vaccine development. We show that p72 ASFV phylogenetic analysis does not accurately define ASFV hemadsorption inhibition assay serogroups. Thus, conventional ASFV genotyping cannot discriminate between viruses of different virulence or predict efficacy of a specific ASFV vaccine.

  3. Fatal coinfection with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 8 and Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Guillouzouic, Aurélie; Bemer, Pascale; Gay-Andrieu, Françoise; Bretonnière, Cédric; Lepelletier, Didier; Mahé, Pierre-Joachim; Villers, Daniel; Jarraud, Sophie; Reynaud, Alain; Corvec, Stéphane

    2008-02-01

    Legionella pneumophila is an important cause of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. We report on a patient who simultaneously developed L. pneumophila serogroup 8 pneumonia and Aspergillus fumigatus lung abscesses. Despite appropriate treatments, Aspergillus disease progressed with metastasis. Coinfections caused by L. pneumophila and A. fumigatus remain exceptional. In apparently immunocompetent patients, corticosteroid therapy is a key risk factor for aspergillosis.

  4. Continuing effectiveness of serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, Chad, 2013.

    PubMed

    Gamougam, Kadidja; Daugla, Doumagoum M; Toralta, Jacques; Ngadoua, Cyriaque; Fermon, Florence; Page, Anne-Laure; Djingarey, Mamoudou H; Caugant, Dominique A; Manigart, Olivier; Trotter, Caroline L; Stuart, James M; Greenwood, Brian M

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, vaccination with a serogroup A meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine was implemented in 3 of 23 regions in Chad. Cases of meningitis declined dramatically in vaccinated areas, but an epidemic continued in the rest of Chad. In 2012, the remaining Chad population was vaccinated, and the epidemic was halted.

  5. Comparative Analysis of African Swine Fever Virus Genotypes and Serogroups

    PubMed Central

    Burmakina, Galina; Titov, Ilya; Sereda, Alexey; Gogin, Andrey; Baryshnikova, Elena; Kolbasov, Denis

    2015-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes highly lethal hemorrhagic disease among pigs, and ASFV’s extreme antigenic diversity hinders vaccine development. We show that p72 ASFV phylogenetic analysis does not accurately define ASFV hemadsorption inhibition assay serogroups. Thus, conventional ASFV genotyping cannot discriminate between viruses of different virulence or predict efficacy of a specific ASFV vaccine. PMID:25625574

  6. Protozoa and human macrophages infection by Legionella pneumophila environmental strains belonging to different serogroups.

    PubMed

    Messi, Patrizia; Patrizia, Messi; Bargellini, Annalisa; Annalisa, Bargellini; Anacarso, Immacolata; Immacolata, Anacarso; Marchesi, Isabella; Isabella, Marchesi; de Niederhäusern, Simona; Bondi, Moreno; Moreno, Bondi

    2013-02-01

    Three Legionella pneumophila strains isolated from municipal hot tap water during a multicentric Italian survey and belonging to serogroups 1, 6, 9 and the reference strain Philadelphia-1 were studied to determine the intracellular replication capability and the cytopathogenicity in human monocyte cell line U937 and in an Acanthamoeba polyphaga strain. Our results show that both serogroups 1 and Philadelphia-1 were able to multiply into macrophages inducing cytopathogenicity, while serogroup 6 and ever more serogroup 9 were less efficient in leading to death of the infected macrophages. Both serogroups 1 and 6 displayed a quite good capability of intracellular replication in A. polyphaga, although serogroup 1 was less cytopathogenic than serogroup 6. Serogroup 9, like Philadelphia-1 strain, showed a reduced efficiency of infection and replication and a low cytopathogenicity towards the protozoan. Our study suggests that bacterial pathogenesis is linked to the difference in the virulence expression of L. pneumophila serogroups in both hosts, as demonstrated by the fact that only L. pneumophila serogroup 1 shows the contextual expression of the two virulence traits. Serogroup 6 proves to be a good candidate as pathogen since it shows a good capacity for intracellular replication in protozoan.

  7. Serogroup distribution of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis in urban ethnic groups in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Verweij, S P; Quint, K D; Bax, C J; Van Leeuwen, A P; Mutsaers, J A E M; Jansen, C L; Oostvogel, P M; Ouburg, S; Morré, S A; Peters, R P H

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis varies between ethnic groups in The Netherlands. It is, however, unknown whether this is associated with specific serogroups. The objective of this study was to determine whether serogroup distribution is associated with ethnic origin in the region of The Hague, The Netherlands. Serogroups of 370 microbiologically confirmed C. trachomatis-positive samples were analysed. The samples were obtained from 247 women and 123 men between January and October 2008, of self-reported Dutch Caucasian, Dutch Antillean, Surinamese, N. African/Turkish or other descent. We observed a difference in serogroup distribution comparing Dutch Caucasian women to Dutch Antillean women (χ2 for distribution P = 0·035). Serogroup C was more common in Dutch Antillean women, whereas serogroup B was less common (P = 0·03). This difference was not observed for Dutch Antillean men. The observed difference in distribution of C. trachomatis serogroups between ethnic groups is relevant for further transmission studies.

  8. Green fluorescent protein labeling of food pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Gensberger, Eva Theres; Kostić, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    Labeling of bacteria with marker genes, such as green fluorescent protein, is a useful and practicable tool for tracking and enumerating bacterial cells in a complex environment e.g. discrimination from the indigenous background population. In this study, novel TurboGFP prokaryotic expression vector was utilized for labeling of Yersinia species. Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A, biovar 2, biovar 4 and Y. pseudotuberculosis were successfully transformed with the vector and expressed bright green fluorescence that was even detectable visually by eye. No adverse effects were observed in growth behavior of the labeled strains compared to wild type (parental) strains and vector maintenance for longer time periods could be achieved for Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A, Y. enterocolitica biovar 2 and Y. pseudotuberculosis.

  9. Expression, purification and characterization of cold shock protein A of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Lindae, Antje; Eberle, Raphael J; Caruso, Icaro P; Coronado, Monika A; de Moraes, Fabio R; Azevedo, Vasco; Arni, Raghuvir K

    2015-08-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the causative agent of different diseases that cause dramatically reduced yields of wool and milk, and results in weight loss, carcass condemnation and also death mainly in sheep, equids, cattle and goats and therefore globally results in considerable economical loss. Cold shock proteins are conserved in many bacteria and eukaryotic cells and they help to restore normal cell functions after cold shock in which some appear to have specific functions at normal growth temperature as well. Cold shock protein A from C. pseudotuberculosis was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The thermal unfolding/refolding process characterized by circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry and NMR spectroscopy techniques indicated that the refolding process was almost completely reversible.

  10. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis disrupts intestinal barrier integrity through hematopoietic TLR-2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Camille; Meinzer, Ulrich; Montcuquet, Nicolas; Thachil, Elodie; Château, Danielle; Thiébaut, Raphaële; Roy, Maryline; Alnabhani, Ziad; Berrebi, Dominique; Dussaillant, Monique; Pedruzzi, Eric; Thenet, Sophie; Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Barreau, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal barrier function requires intricate cooperation between intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells. Enteropathogens are able to invade the intestinal lymphoid tissue known as Peyer’s patches (PPs) and disrupt the integrity of the intestinal barrier. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this process are poorly understood. In mice infected with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, we found that PP barrier dysfunction is dependent on the Yersinia virulence plasmid and the expression of TLR-2 by hematopoietic cells, but not by intestinal epithelial cells. Upon TLR-2 stimulation, Y. pseudotuberculosis–infected monocytes activated caspase-1 and produced IL-1β. In turn, IL-1β increased NF-κB and myosin light chain kinase activation in intestinal epithelial cells, thus disrupting the intestinal barrier by opening the tight junctions. Therefore, Y. pseudotuberculosis subverts intestinal barrier function by altering the interplay between immune and epithelial cells during infection. PMID:22565313

  11. Genome assortment, not serogroup, defines Vibrio cholerae pandemic strains

    SciTech Connect

    Brettin, Thomas S; Bruce, David C; Challacombe, Jean F; Detter, John C; Han, Cliff S; Munik, A C; Chertkov, Olga; Meincke, Linda; Saunders, Elizabeth; Choi, Seon Y; Haley, Bradd J; Taviani, Elisa; Jeon, Yoon - Seong; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Jae - Hak; Walters, Ronald A; Hug, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a bacterium autochthonous to the aquatic environment, and a serious public health threat. V. cholerae serogroup O1 is responsible for the previous two cholera pandemics, in which classical and El Tor biotypes were dominant in the 6th and the current 7th pandemics, respectively. Cholera researchers continually face newly emerging and re-emerging pathogenic clones carrying combinations of new serogroups as well as of phenotypic and genotypic properties. These genotype and phenotype changes have hampered control of the disease. Here we compare the complete genome sequences of 23 strains of V. cholerae isolated from a variety of sources and geographical locations over the past 98 years in an effort to elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms governing genetic diversity and genesis of new pathogenic clones. The genome-based phylogeny revealed 12 distinct V. cholerae phyletic lineages, of which one, designated the V. cholerae core genome (CG), comprises both O1 classical and EI Tor biotypes. All 7th pandemic clones share nearly identical gene content, i.e., the same genome backbone. The transition from 6th to 7th pandemic strains is defined here as a 'shift' between pathogenic clones belonging to the same O1 serogroup, but from significantly different phyletic lineages within the CG clade. In contrast, transition among clones during the present 7th pandemic period can be characterized as a 'drift' between clones, differentiated mainly by varying composition of laterally transferred genomic islands, resulting in emergence of variants, exemplified by V.cholerae serogroup O139 and V.cholerae O1 El Tor hybrid clones that produce cholera toxin of classical biotype. Based on the comprehensive comparative genomics presented in this study it is concluded that V. cholerae undergoes extensive genetic recombination via lateral gene transfer, and, therefore, genome assortment, not serogroup, should be used to define pathogenic V

  12. An Encapsulated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Is a Highly Efficient Vaccine against Pneumonic Plague

    PubMed Central

    Derbise, Anne; Cerdà Marín, Alba; Ave, Patrick; Blisnick, Thierry; Huerre, Michel; Carniel, Elisabeth; Demeure, Christian E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Plague is still a public health problem in the world and is re-emerging, but no efficient vaccine is available. We previously reported that oral inoculation of a live attenuated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the recent ancestor of Yersinia pestis, provided protection against bubonic plague. However, the strain poorly protected against pneumonic plague, the most deadly and contagious form of the disease, and was not genetically defined. Methodology and Principal Findings The sequenced Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 has been irreversibly attenuated by deletion of genes encoding three essential virulence factors. An encapsulated Y. pseudotuberculosis was generated by cloning the Y. pestis F1-encoding caf operon and expressing it in the attenuated strain. The new V674pF1 strain produced the F1 capsule in vitro and in vivo. Oral inoculation of V674pF1 allowed the colonization of the gut without lesions to Peyer's patches and the spleen. Vaccination induced both humoral and cellular components of immunity, at the systemic (IgG and Th1 cells) and the mucosal levels (IgA and Th17 cells). A single oral dose conferred 100% protection against a lethal pneumonic plague challenge (33×LD50 of the fully virulent Y. pestis CO92 strain) and 94% against a high challenge dose (3,300×LD50). Both F1 and other Yersinia antigens were recognized and V674pF1 efficiently protected against a F1-negative Y. pestis. Conclusions and Significance The encapsulated Y. pseudotuberculosis V674pF1 is an efficient live oral vaccine against pneumonic plague, and could be developed for mass vaccination in tropical endemic areas to control pneumonic plague transmission and mortality. PMID:22348169

  13. An encapsulated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a highly efficient vaccine against pneumonic plague.

    PubMed

    Derbise, Anne; Cerdà Marín, Alba; Ave, Patrick; Blisnick, Thierry; Huerre, Michel; Carniel, Elisabeth; Demeure, Christian E

    2012-01-01

    Plague is still a public health problem in the world and is re-emerging, but no efficient vaccine is available. We previously reported that oral inoculation of a live attenuated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the recent ancestor of Yersinia pestis, provided protection against bubonic plague. However, the strain poorly protected against pneumonic plague, the most deadly and contagious form of the disease, and was not genetically defined. The sequenced Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 has been irreversibly attenuated by deletion of genes encoding three essential virulence factors. An encapsulated Y. pseudotuberculosis was generated by cloning the Y. pestis F1-encoding caf operon and expressing it in the attenuated strain. The new V674pF1 strain produced the F1 capsule in vitro and in vivo. Oral inoculation of V674pF1 allowed the colonization of the gut without lesions to Peyer's patches and the spleen. Vaccination induced both humoral and cellular components of immunity, at the systemic (IgG and Th1 cells) and the mucosal levels (IgA and Th17 cells). A single oral dose conferred 100% protection against a lethal pneumonic plague challenge (33×LD(50) of the fully virulent Y. pestis CO92 strain) and 94% against a high challenge dose (3,300×LD(50)). Both F1 and other Yersinia antigens were recognized and V674pF1 efficiently protected against a F1-negative Y. pestis. The encapsulated Y. pseudotuberculosis V674pF1 is an efficient live oral vaccine against pneumonic plague, and could be developed for mass vaccination in tropical endemic areas to control pneumonic plague transmission and mortality.

  14. Assessing the Genotypic Differences between Strains of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar equi through Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Veras, Adonney A. O.; Pinheiro, Kenny C.; Benevides, Leandro J.; Edman, Judy M.; Spier, Sharon J.; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur

    2017-01-01

    Seven genomes of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar equi were sequenced on the Ion Torrent PGM platform, generating high-quality scaffolds over 2.35 Mbp. This bacterium is the causative agent of disease known as “pigeon fever” which commonly affects horses worldwide. The pangenome of biovar equi was calculated and two phylogenomic approaches were used to identify clustering patterns within Corynebacterium genus. Furthermore, other comparative analyses were performed including the prediction of genomic islands and prophages, and SNP-based phylogeny. In the phylogenomic tree, C. pseudotuberculosis was divided into two distinct clades, one formed by nitrate non-reducing species (biovar ovis) and another formed by nitrate-reducing species (biovar equi). In the latter group, the strains isolated from California were more related to each other, while the strains CIP 52.97 and 1/06-A formed the outermost clade of the biovar equi. A total of 1,355 core genes were identified, corresponding to 42.5% of the pangenome. This pangenome has one of the smallest core genomes described in the literature, suggesting a high genetic variability of biovar equi of C. pseudotuberculosis. The analysis of the similarity between the resistance islands identified a higher proximity between the strains that caused more severe infectious conditions (infection in the internal organs). Pathogenicity islands were largely conserved between strains. Several genes that modulate the pathogenicity of C. pseudotuberculosis were described including peptidases, recombination enzymes, micoside synthesis enzymes, bacteriocins with antimicrobial activity and several others. Finally, no genotypic differences were observed between the strains that caused the three different types of infection (external abscess formation, infection with abscess formation in the internal organs, and ulcerative lymphangitis). Instead, it was noted that there is a higher phenetic correlation between strains isolated at

  15. Expression of the Plague Plasminogen Activator in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kutyrev, V.; Mehigh, R. J.; Motin, V. L.; Pokrovskaya, M. S.; Smirnov, G. B.; Brubaker, R. R.

    1999-01-01

    Enteropathogenic yersiniae (Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica) typically cause chronic disease as opposed to the closely related Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic plague. It is established that this difference reflects, in part, carriage by Y. pestis of a unique 9.6-kb pesticin or Pst plasmid (pPCP) encoding plasminogen activator (Pla) rather than distinctions between shared ∼70-kb low-calcium-response, or Lcr, plasmids (pCD in Y. pestis and pYV in enteropathogenic yersiniae) encoding cytotoxic Yops and anti-inflammatory V antigen. Pla is known to exist as a combination of 32.6-kDa (α-Pla) and slightly smaller (β-Pla) outer membrane proteins, of which at least one promotes bacterial dissemination in vivo and degradation of Yops in vitro. We show here that only α-Pla accumulates in Escherichia coli LE392/pPCP1 cultivated in enriched medium and that either autolysis or extraction of this isolate with 1.0 M NaCl results in release of soluble α and β forms possessing biological activity. This process also converted cell-bound α-Pla to β-Pla and smaller forms in Y. pestis KIM/pPCP1 and Y. pseudotuberculosis PB1/+/pPCP1 but did not promote solubilization. Pla-mediated posttranslational hydrolysis of pulse-labeled Yops in Y. pseudotuberculosis PB1/+/pPCP1 occurred more slowly than that in Y. pestis but was otherwise similar except for accumulation of stable degradation products of YadA, a pYV-mediated fibrillar adhesin not encoded in frame by pCD. Carriage of pPCP by Y. pseudotuberculosis did not significantly influence virulence in mice. PMID:10024583

  16. The impact of abiotic factors (temperature and glucose) on physicochemical properties of lipids from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bakholdina, S I; Sanina, N M; Krasikova, I N; Popova, O B; Solov'eva, T F

    2004-12-01

    The impact of the availability of glucose in nutrition medium and growth temperature on the composition and thermotropic behavior of lipids from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Enterobacteriaceae) was studied. Y. pseudotuberculosis was grown in nutrition broth (NB) with/without glucose at 8 and 37 degrees C, corresponding to the temperatures of saprophytic and parasitic phases of this bacterium life. The decrease of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and unsaturated fatty acids and the parallel increase of lysophosphatidylethanolamine and diphosphatidylglycerol and saturated and cyclopropane acids were the most significant changes with temperature in bacterial phospholipid (PL) classes and fatty acids, respectively. Glucose did not effect the direction of temperature-induced changes in the contents of PLs, fatty acids, however it enhanced (for PLs) or diminished (for fatty acids) intensity of these changes. The thermally induced transitions of lipids were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was revealed that the addition of glucose to NB induced a sharp shift of DSC thermograms to lower temperatures in the "warm" variants of bacteria. The peak maximum temperature (Tmax) of thermal transitions dropped from 50 to 26 degrees C that is the optimal growth temperature of Y. pseudotuberculosis. Tmax of total lipids of the cells grown at 8 degrees C without glucose in NB was equal to growth temperature that corresponded to the classical mechanism of homeoviscous adaptation of bacteria. An addition of glucose to NB at this growth temperature caused the subsequent reduction of Tmax to -8 degrees C, while the temperature ranges of thermograms were not substantially changed. So, not only the temperature growth of bacteria, but also the presence of glucose in NB can modify the physical state of lipids from Y. pseudotuberculosis. In this case, both factors affect additively. It is suggested that glucose influences some membrane-associated proteins and

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of the Attenuated Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain T1

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Sintia; Loureiro, Dan; Mariano, Diego C. B.; Sousa, Thiago J.; Pereira, Felipe L.; Dorella, Fernanda A.; Carvalho, Alex F.; Moura-Costa, Lilia F.; Leal, Carlos A. G.; Figueiredo, Henrique C.; Meyer, Roberto; Azevedo, Vasco

    2016-01-01

    We present here the genome sequence of the attenuated Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain T1. The sequencing was performed with an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine platform. The genome is a circular chromosome of 2,337,201 bp, with a G+C content of 52.85% and a total of 2,125 coding sequences (CDSs), 12 rRNAs, 49 tRNAs, and 24 pseudogenes. PMID:27609922

  18. Inactivation of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis 197 and Francisella tularensis LVS in beverages by high pressure processing.

    PubMed

    Schlesser, Joseph E; Parisi, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services announced a new research program to develop technologies and strategies to prevent and minimize potential food safety and security threats. The threat of terrorist attacks against the nation's food supplies has created the need to study microorganisms not typically associated with foodborne illness. High-pressure processing has been proposed as a treatment to reduce Yersinia pestis and Francisella tularensis LVS levels in beverages. The objectives of this work were to determine the pressure resistance of Y. pseudotuberculosis 197 (surrogate for Y. pestis) and F. tularensis LVS (vaccine strain). For each bacterium, samples of ultrahigh-temperature pasteurized skim milk and pasteurized reduced-acid orange juice (pH ca. 4.2) were inoculated at a minimum level of 5 log CFU/ml. Ten-milliliter samples of the inoculated product were vacuum sealed in polyester pouches and subjected to pressures of 300 and 500 MPa for holding times ranging from 30 s to 6 min. One set of trials was performed at an initial temperature of 10 degrees C and another at 25 degrees C. Processed samples were immediately plated and enumerated. A pressure treatment of 300 MPa at 25 degrees C for less than 6 min was not sufficient to achieve a 5-log reduction of Y. pseudotuberculosis 197 or F. tularensis LVS in milk. However, a pressure treatment of 500 MPa was effective at hold times as low as 30 s. Overall, F. tularensis LVS demonstrated less pressure resistance than Y. pseudotuberculosis 197. Based on these findings, a high-pressure process designed to inactivate 5 log CFU of Y. pseudotuberculosis 197 per ml and F. tularensis LVS in orange juice or milk should be set at or above 500 MPa with a hold time of 2 min or greater.

  19. Assessing the Genotypic Differences between Strains of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar equi through Comparative Genomics.

    PubMed

    Baraúna, Rafael A; Ramos, Rommel T J; Veras, Adonney A O; Pinheiro, Kenny C; Benevides, Leandro J; Viana, Marcus V C; Guimarães, Luís C; Edman, Judy M; Spier, Sharon J; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur

    2017-01-01

    Seven genomes of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar equi were sequenced on the Ion Torrent PGM platform, generating high-quality scaffolds over 2.35 Mbp. This bacterium is the causative agent of disease known as "pigeon fever" which commonly affects horses worldwide. The pangenome of biovar equi was calculated and two phylogenomic approaches were used to identify clustering patterns within Corynebacterium genus. Furthermore, other comparative analyses were performed including the prediction of genomic islands and prophages, and SNP-based phylogeny. In the phylogenomic tree, C. pseudotuberculosis was divided into two distinct clades, one formed by nitrate non-reducing species (biovar ovis) and another formed by nitrate-reducing species (biovar equi). In the latter group, the strains isolated from California were more related to each other, while the strains CIP 52.97 and 1/06-A formed the outermost clade of the biovar equi. A total of 1,355 core genes were identified, corresponding to 42.5% of the pangenome. This pangenome has one of the smallest core genomes described in the literature, suggesting a high genetic variability of biovar equi of C. pseudotuberculosis. The analysis of the similarity between the resistance islands identified a higher proximity between the strains that caused more severe infectious conditions (infection in the internal organs). Pathogenicity islands were largely conserved between strains. Several genes that modulate the pathogenicity of C. pseudotuberculosis were described including peptidases, recombination enzymes, micoside synthesis enzymes, bacteriocins with antimicrobial activity and several others. Finally, no genotypic differences were observed between the strains that caused the three different types of infection (external abscess formation, infection with abscess formation in the internal organs, and ulcerative lymphangitis). Instead, it was noted that there is a higher phenetic correlation between strains isolated at

  20. Genome-Wide Evaluation of the Interplay between Caenorhabditis elegans and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis during In Vivo Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Joshua, George W. P.; Atkinson, Steve; Goldstone, Robert J.; Patrick, Hannah L.; Stabler, Richard A.; Purves, Joanne; Cámara, Miguel; Williams, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The formation of an incapacitating biofilm on Caenorhabditis elegans by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis represents a tractable model for investigating the genetic basis for host-pathogen interplay during the biofilm-mediated infection of a living surface. Previously we established a role for quorum sensing (QS) and the master motility regulator, FlhDC, in biofilm formation by Y. pseudotuberculosis on C. elegans. To obtain further genome-wide insights, we used transcriptomic analysis to obtain comparative information on C. elegans in the presence and absence of biofilm and on wild-type Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pseudotuberculosis QS mutants. Infection of C. elegans with the wild-type Y. pseudotuberculosis resulted in the differential regulation of numerous genes, including a distinct subset of nematode C-lectin (clec) and fatty acid desaturase (fat) genes. Evaluation of the corresponding C. elegans clec-49 and fat-3 deletion mutants showed delayed biofilm formation and abolished biofilm formation, respectively. Transcriptomic analysis of Y. pseudotuberculosis revealed that genes located in both of the histidine utilization (hut) operons were upregulated in both QS and flhDC mutants. In addition, mutation of the regulatory gene hutC resulted in the loss of biofilm, increased expression of flhDC, and enhanced swimming motility. These data are consistent with the existence of a regulatory cascade in which the Hut pathway links QS and flhDC. This work also indicates that biofilm formation by Y. pseudotuberculosis on C. elegans is an interactive process during which the initial attachment/recognition of Yersinia to/by C. elegans is followed by bacterial growth and biofilm formation. PMID:25312958

  1. Evaluation of ERIC-PCR as Genotyping Method for Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Dorneles, Elaine M. S.; Santana, Jordana A.; Ribeiro, Dayana; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; Guimarães, Alessandro S.; Moawad, Mohamed S.; Selim, Salah A.; Garaldi, Ana Luiza M.; Miyoshi, Anderson; Ribeiro, Márcio G.; Gouveia, Aurora M. G.; Azevedo, Vasco; Heinemann, Marcos B.; Lage, Andrey P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC-PCR) as a tool for molecular typing of C. pseudotuberculosis isolates from eight different hosts in twelve countries. Ninety-nine C. pseudotuberculosis field strains, one type strain (ATCC 19410T) and one vaccine strain (1002) were fingerprinted using the ERIC-1R and ERIC-2 primers, and the ERIC-1R+ERIC-2 primer pair. Twenty-nine different genotypes were generated by ERIC 1-PCR, 28 by ERIC 2-PCR and 35 by ERIC 1+2-PCR. The discriminatory index calculated for ERIC 1, ERIC 2, and ERIC 1+2-PCR was 0.89, 0.86, and 0.92, respectively. Epidemiological concordance was established for all ERIC-PCR assays. ERIC 1+2-PCR was defined as the best method based on suitability of the amplification patterns and discriminatory index. Minimal spanning tree for ERIC 1+2-PCR revealed three major clonal complexes and clustering around nitrate-positive (biovar Equi) and nitrate-negative (biovar Ovis) strains. Therefore, ERIC 1+2-PCR proved to be the best technique evaluated in this study for genotyping C. pseudotuberculosis strains, due to its usefulness for molecular epidemiology investigations. PMID:24901343

  2. Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague, is a recently emerged clone of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Achtman, M; Zurth, K; Morelli, G; Torrea, G; Guiyoule, A; Carniel, E

    1999-11-23

    Plague, one of the most devastating diseases of human history, is caused by Yersinia pestis. In this study, we analyzed the population genetic structure of Y. pestis and the two other pathogenic Yersinia species, Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica. Fragments of five housekeeping genes and a gene involved in the synthesis of lipopolysaccharide were sequenced from 36 strains representing the global diversity of Y. pestis and from 12-13 strains from each of the other species. No sequence diversity was found in any Y. pestis gene, and these alleles were identical or nearly identical to alleles from Y. pseudotuberculosis. Thus, Y. pestis is a clone that evolved from Y. pseudotuberculosis 1,500-20,000 years ago, shortly before the first known pandemics of human plague. Three biovars (Antiqua, Medievalis, and Orientalis) have been distinguished by microbiologists within the Y. pestis clone. These biovars form distinct branches of a phylogenetic tree based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the locations of the IS100 insertion element. These data are consistent with previous inferences that Antiqua caused a plague pandemic in the sixth century, Medievalis caused the Black Death and subsequent epidemics during the second pandemic wave, and Orientalis caused the current plague pandemic.

  3. Colonization of Cecum Is Important for Development of Persistent Infection by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Avican, Kemal; Westermark, Linda; Nordfelth, Roland; Fällman, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Yersiniosis is a human disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pseudotuberculosis or Yersinia enterocolitica. The infection is usually resolved but can lead to postinfectious sequelae, including reactive arthritis and erythema nodosum. The commonly used Yersinia mouse infection model mimics acute infection in humans to some extent but leads to systemic infection and eventual death. Here, we analyzed sublethal infection doses of Y. pseudotuberculosis in mice in real time using bioluminescent imaging and found that infections using these lower doses result in extended periods of asymptomatic infections in a fraction of mice. In a search for the site for bacterial persistence, we found that the cecum was the primary colonization site and was the site where the organism resided during a 115-day infection period. Persistent infection was accompanied by sustained fecal shedding of cultivable bacteria. Cecal patches were identified as the primary site for cecal colonization during persistence. Y. pseudotuberculosis bacteria were present in inflammatory lesions, in localized foci, or as single cells and also in neutrophil exudates in the cecal lumen. The chronically colonized cecum may serve as a reservoir for dissemination of infection to extraintestinal sites, and a chronic inflammatory state may trigger the onset of postinfectious sequelae. This novel mouse model for bacterial persistence in cecum has potential as an investigative tool to unveil a deeper understanding of bacterial adaptation and host immune defense mechanisms during persistent infection. PMID:24891107

  4. Evaluation of three methods for DNA fingerprinting of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from goats in Poland.

    PubMed

    Stefańska, Ilona; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Binek, Marian

    2008-01-01

    Phenotypic approaches based on metabolic and biological characteristics of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis have been limited due to insufficient discrimination between closely related isolates. In this paper we present performance and convenience of three molecular typing methods: BOX-PCR, random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplification of DNA fragments surrounding rare restriction site (ADSRRS-fingerprinting) in genome analysis of these bacteria. Among examined 61 strains there were distinguished four, eight and 10 different genotypes by BOX-PCR, RAPD and ADSRRS-fingerprinting, respectively. The value of discrimination index was the lowest for BOX-PCR (D = 0.265), much bigger for RAPD (D = 0.539) and the highest for ADSRRS-fingerprinting (D = 0.604). The good discriminatory ability and reproducibility of RAPD and ADSRRS-fingerprinting indicates that those techniques may be particularly applied for epidemiological studies of C. pseudotuberculosis isolates. We found that ADSRRS-fingerprinting is a rapid method offering good discrimination power, excellent reproducibility and may be applied for epidemiological studies of intraspecific genetic relatedness of C. pseudotuberculosis strains.

  5. virF-Positive Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica Found in Migratory Birds in Sweden†

    PubMed Central

    Niskanen, Taina; Waldenström, Jonas; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Olsen, Björn; Korkeala, Hannu

    2003-01-01

    During spring and autumn migrations, 468 fecal samples from 57 different species of migratory birds were collected in Sweden. In total, Yersinia spp. were isolated from 12.8% of collected samples. The most commonly found species was Yersinia enterocolitica, which was isolated from 5.6% of all collected samples, followed by Y. intermedia (3.8%), Y. frederiksenii (3.0%), Y. kristensenii (0.9%), Y. pseudotuberculosis (0.6%), and Y. rohdei (0.4%). The pathogenic, virF-positive Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were recovered from three thrushes. These strains belonged to the same bioserotype, 1/O:2, but had two different profiles as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with NotI and SpeI enzymes. In addition, 10 Y. enterocolitica strains, all from barnacle geese, belonged to bioserotype 3/O:3, which is associated with human disease. Two of the strains were pathogenic, carrying the virF gene on their plasmids. All pathogenic Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica strains were recovered during the spring, and as the birds were caught during active migration they likely became infected at an earlier stage of the migration, thus potentially transporting these bacterial pathogens over long geographical distances. PMID:12902256

  6. Reproductive Pathological Changes Associated with Experimental Subchronic Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Infection in Nonpregnant Boer Does

    PubMed Central

    Othman, A. M.; Abba, Y.; Jesse, F. F. A.; Ilyasu, Y. M.; Saharee, A. A.; Haron, A. W.; Zamri-Saad, M.; Lila, M. A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis causes caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), which is a contagious and chronic disease in sheep and goats. In order to assess the histopathological changes observed in the reproductive organs of nonpregnant does infected with the bacteria, 20 apparently healthy adult Boer does were divided into four inoculation groups, intradermal, intranasal, oral, and control, consisting of five goats each. Excluding the control group, which was unexposed, other does were inoculated with 107 CFU/1 mL of live C. pseudotuberculosis through the various routes stated above. Thirty days after infection, the ovaries, uterus, and iliac lymph nodes were collected for bacterial recovery and molecular detection, as well as histopathological examination. The mean changes in necrosis, congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and oedema varied in severity among the ovaries, uterus, and iliac lymph nodes following different inoculation routes. Overall, the intranasal route of inoculation showed more severe (p < 0.05) lesions in all the organs examined. The findings of this study have shown that C. pseudotuberculosis could predispose to infertility resulting from pathological lesions in the uterus and ovaries of does. PMID:27006831

  7. Reproductive Pathological Changes Associated with Experimental Subchronic Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Infection in Nonpregnant Boer Does.

    PubMed

    Othman, A M; Abba, Y; Jesse, F F A; Ilyasu, Y M; Saharee, A A; Haron, A W; Zamri-Saad, M; Lila, M A M

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis causes caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), which is a contagious and chronic disease in sheep and goats. In order to assess the histopathological changes observed in the reproductive organs of nonpregnant does infected with the bacteria, 20 apparently healthy adult Boer does were divided into four inoculation groups, intradermal, intranasal, oral, and control, consisting of five goats each. Excluding the control group, which was unexposed, other does were inoculated with 10(7) CFU/1 mL of live C. pseudotuberculosis through the various routes stated above. Thirty days after infection, the ovaries, uterus, and iliac lymph nodes were collected for bacterial recovery and molecular detection, as well as histopathological examination. The mean changes in necrosis, congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and oedema varied in severity among the ovaries, uterus, and iliac lymph nodes following different inoculation routes. Overall, the intranasal route of inoculation showed more severe (p < 0.05) lesions in all the organs examined. The findings of this study have shown that C. pseudotuberculosis could predispose to infertility resulting from pathological lesions in the uterus and ovaries of does.

  8. Recombinant Phospholipase A1 of the Outer Membrane of Psychrotrophic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis: Expression, Purification, and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Bakholdina, S I; Tischenko, N M; Sidorin, E V; Isaeva, M P; Likhatskaya, G N; Dmitrenok, P S; Kim, N Yu; Chernikov, O V; Solov'eva, T F

    2016-01-01

    The pldA gene encoding membrane-bound phospholipase A1 of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli cells. Recombinant phospholipase A1 (rPldA) was isolated from inclusion bodies dissolved in 8 M urea by two-stage chromatography (ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography) as an inactive monomer. The molecular mass of the rPldA determined by MALDI-TOF MS was 31.7 ± 0.4 kDa. The highly purified rPldA was refolded by 10-fold dilution with buffer containing 10 mM Triton X-100 and subsequent incubation at room temperature for 16 h. The refolded rPldA hydrolyzed 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine in the presence of calcium ions. The enzyme exhibited maximal activity at 37°C and nearly 40% of maximal activity at 15°C. The phospholipase A1 was active over a wide range of pH from 4 to 11, exhibiting maximal activity at pH 10. Spatial structure models of the monomer and the dimer of Y. pseudotuberculosis phospholipase A1 were constructed, and functionally important amino acid residues of the enzyme were determined. Structural differences between phospholipases A1 from Y. pseudotuberculosis and E. coli, which can affect the functional activity of the enzyme, were revealed.

  9. Identification and characterization of small-molecule inhibitors of Yop translocation in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Dana E; Davis, Alison J; Castillo, Cynthia; Mecsas, Joan

    2010-08-01

    Type three secretion systems (TTSSs) are virulence factors found in many pathogenic Gram-negative species, including the family of pathogenic Yersinia spp. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis requires the translocation of a group of effector molecules, called Yops, to subvert the innate immune response and establish infection. Polarized transfer of Yops from bacteria to immune cells depends on several factors, including the presence of a functional TTSS, the successful attachment of Yersinia to the target cell, and translocon insertion into the target cell membrane. Here we employed a high-throughput screen to identify small molecules that block translocation of Yops into mammalian cells. We identified 6 compounds that inhibited translocation of effectors without affecting synthesis of TTSS components and secreted effectors, assembly of the TTSS, or secretion of effectors. One compound, C20, reduced adherence of Y. pseudotuberculosis to target cells. Additionally, the compounds caused leakage of Yops into the supernatant during infection and thus reduced polarized translocation. Furthermore, several molecules, namely, C20, C22, C24, C34, and C38, also inhibited ExoS-mediated cell rounding, suggesting that the compounds target factors that are conserved between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Y. pseudotuberculosis. In summary, we have identified 6 compounds that specifically inhibit translocation of Yops into mammalian cells but not Yop synthesis or secretion.

  10. Reactive arthritis after an outbreak of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype O:3 infection

    PubMed Central

    Hannu, T; Mattila, L; Nuorti, J; Ruutu, P; Mikkola, J; Siitonen, A; Leirisalo-Repo, M

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the occurrence and clinical characteristics of reactive arthritis (ReA) after an outbreak of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype O:3 infection. Methods: From 15 October to 6 November 1998, a widespread outbreak of Y pseudotuberculosis serotype O:3 occurred in Finland. A questionnaire on musculoskeletal symptoms was mailed to 38 patients with infection confirmed by culture. All patients who reported joint symptoms were interviewed by phone and their medical records of outpatient visits or hospital admission because of recent joint symptoms were reviewed. Results: Thirty three of 38 (87%) patients returned the questionnaire. Reactive musculoskeletal symptoms were reported by 5/33 (15%): four patients (12%) fulfilled the criteria for ReA and one additional patient had reactive enthesopathy. The patients with ReA were adults (age range 40–47 years), whereas the patient with reactive enthesopathy was a 14 year old boy. In all patients with ReA, the arthritis was polyarticular. In addition to peripheral arthritis, other musculoskeletal symptoms included sacroiliitis (one patient), pain in Achilles tendon (one patient), and heel pain (two patients). HLA-B27 was positive in all the three patients tested. In three of four patients with ReA, the duration of acute arthritis was over six months. Conclusion: Y pseudotuberculosis serotype O:3 infection is frequently associated with ReA and the clinical picture is severe. PMID:12922960

  11. The Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis toxin complex is active against cultured mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Hares, Michelle C; Hinchliffe, Stewart J; Strong, Philippa C R; Eleftherianos, Ioannis; Dowling, Andrea J; ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Waterfield, Nick

    2008-11-01

    The toxin complex (Tc) genes were first identified in the insect pathogen Photorhabdus luminescens and encode approximately 1 MDa protein complexes which are toxic to insect pests. Subsequent genome sequencing projects have revealed the presence of tc orthologues in a range of bacterial pathogens known to be associated with insects. Interestingly, members of the mammalian-pathogenic yersiniae have also been shown to encode Tc orthologues. Studies in Yersinia enterocolitica have shown that divergent tc loci either encode insect-active toxins or play a role in colonization of the gut in gastroenteritis models of rats. So far little is known about the activity of the Tc proteins in the other mammalian-pathogenic yersiniae. Here we present work to suggest that Tc proteins in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis are not insecticidal toxins but have evolved for mammalian pathogenicity. We show that Tc is secreted by Y. pseudotuberculosis strain IP32953 during growth in media at 28 degrees C and 37 degrees C. We also demonstrate that oral toxicity of strain IP32953 to Manduca sexta larvae is not due to Tc expression and that lysates of Escherichia coli BL21 expressing the Yersinia Tc proteins are not toxic to Sf9 insect cells but are toxic to cultured mammalian cell lines. Cell lysates of E. coli BL21 expressing the Y. pseudotuberculosis Tc proteins caused actin ruffles, vacuoles and multi-nucleation in cultured human gut cells (Caco-2); similar morphology was observed after application of a lysate of E. coli BL21 expressing the Y. pestis Tc proteins to mouse fibroblast NIH3T3 cells, but not Caco-2 cells. Finally, transient expression of the individual Tc proteins in Caco-2 and NIH3T3 cell lines reproduced the actin and nuclear rearrangement observed with the topical applications. Together these results add weight to the growing hypothesis that the Tc proteins in Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis have been adapted for mammalian pathogenicity. We further

  12. Sequence Type 4821 Clonal Complex Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis in China, 1978–2013

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bingqing; Xu, Zheng; Du, Pengcheng; Xu, Li; Sun, Xiaofang; Gao, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis strains belonging to sequence type 4821 clonal complex (CC4821), a hyperinvasive lineage first identified for serogroup C in 2003, have been increasingly isolated in China. We characterized the outer membrane protein genes of 48 serogroup B and 214 serogroup C strains belonging to CC4821 and analyzed the genomic sequences of 22 strains. Four serogroup B strains had porin A (i.e., PorA), PorB, and ferric enterobactin transport (i.e., FetA) genotypes identical to those for serogroup C. Phylogenetic analysis of the genomic sequences showed that the 22 CC4821 strains from patients and healthy carriers were unevenly clustered into 2 closely related groups; each group contained serogroup B and C strains. Serogroup B strains appeared variable at the capsule locus, and several recombination events had occurred at uncertain breakpoints. These findings suggest that CC4821 serogroup C N. meningitidis is the probable origin of highly pathogenic CC4821 serogroup B strains. PMID:25989189

  13. Complete Genome Sequences of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strains 3/99-5 and 42/02-A, Isolated from Sheep in Scotland and Australia, Respectively

    PubMed Central

    Pethick, Florence E.; Lainson, Alex F.; Yaga, Raja; Flockhart, Allen; Smith, David G. E.; Donachie, Willie; Cerdeira, Louise T.; Silva, Artur; Bol, Erik; Lopes, Thiago S.; Barbosa, Maria S.; Pinto, Anne C.; dos Santos, Anderson R.; Soares, Siomar C.; Almeida, Sintia S.; Guimaraes, Luis C.; Aburjaile, Flavia F.; Abreu, Vinicius A. C.; Ribeiro, Dayana; Fiaux, Karina K.; Diniz, Carlos A. A.; Barbosa, Eudes G. V.; Pereira, Ulisses P.; Hassan, Syed S.; Ali, Amjad; Bakhtiar, Syeda M.; Dorella, Fernanda A.; Carneiro, Adriana R.; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Rocha, Flavia S.; Schneider, Maria P. C.; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco

    2012-01-01

    Here, we report the whole-genome sequences of two ovine-pathogenic Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolates: strain 3/99-5, which represents the first C. pseudotuberculosis genome originating from the United Kingdom, and 42/02-A, the second from Australia. These genome sequences will contribute to the objective of determining the global pan-genome of this bacterium. PMID:22887652

  14. The importance of the small RNA chaperone Hfq for growth of epidemic Yersinia pestis, but not Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, with implications for plague biology.

    PubMed

    Bai, Guangchun; Golubov, Andrey; Smith, Eric A; McDonough, Kathleen A

    2010-08-01

    Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, has only recently evolved from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. hfq deletion caused severe growth restriction at 37 degrees C in Y. pestis but not in Y. pseudotuberculosis. Strains from all epidemic plague biovars were similarly affected, implicating Hfq, and likely small RNAs (sRNAs), in the unique biology of the plague bacillus.

  15. YopE specific CD8+ T cells provide protection against systemic and mucosal Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Molly A.; Orihuela, Carlos J.

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies indicated that CD8+ T cells responding to a surrogate single antigen expressed by Y. pseudotuberculosis, ovalbumin, were insufficient to protect against yersiniosis. Herein we tested the hypothesis that CD8+ T cells reactive to the natural Yersinia antigen YopE would be more effective at providing mucosal protection. We first confirmed that immunization with the attenuated ksgA- strain of Y. pseudotuberculosis generated YopE-specific CD8+ T cells. These T cells were protective against challenge with virulent Listeria monocytogenes expressing secreted YopE. Mice immunized with an attenuated L. monocytogenes YopE+ strain generated large numbers of functional YopE-specific CD8+ T cells, and initially controlled a systemic challenge with virulent Y. pseudotuberculosis, yet eventually succumbed to yersiniosis. Mice vaccinated with a YopE peptide and cholera toxin vaccine generated robust T cell responses, providing protection to 60% of the mice challenged mucosally but failed to show complete protection against systemic infection with virulent Y. pseudotuberculosis. These studies demonstrate that vaccination with recombinant YopE vaccines can generate YopE-specific CD8+ T cells, that can provide significant mucosal protection but these cells are insufficient to provide sterilizing immunity against systemic Y. pseudotuberculosis infection. Our studies have implications for Yersinia vaccine development studies. PMID:28207901

  16. Differential impact of lipopolysaccharide defects caused by loss of RfaH in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jared M; Sullivan, Shea; Wu, Erin; Wilson, Eric; Erickson, David L

    2017-09-07

    RfaH enhances transcription of a select group of operons controlling bacterial surface features such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Previous studies have suggested that rfaH may be required for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis resistance to antimicrobial chemokines and survival during mouse infections. In order to further investigate the role of RfaH in LPS synthesis, resistance to host defense peptides, and virulence of Yersinia, we constructed ΔrfaH mutants of Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 and Y. pestis KIM6+. Loss of rfaH affected LPS synthesis in both species, resulting in a shorter core oligosaccharide. Susceptibility to polymyxin and the antimicrobial chemokine CCL28 was increased by loss of rfaH in Y. pseudotuberculosis but not in Y. pestis. Transcription of genes in the ddhD-wzz O-antigen gene cluster, but not core oligosaccharide genes, was reduced in ΔrfaH mutants. In addition, mutants with disruptions in specific ddhD-wzz O-antigen cluster genes produced LPS that was indistinguishable from the ΔrfaH mutant. This suggests that both Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis produce an oligosaccharide core with a single O-antigen unit attached in an RfaH-dependent fashion. Despite enhanced sensitivity to host defense peptides, the Y. pseudotuberculosis ΔrfaH strain was not attenuated in mice, suggesting that rfaH is not required for acute infection.

  17. YopE specific CD8+ T cells provide protection against systemic and mucosal Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    González-Juarbe, Norberto; Shen, Haiqian; Bergman, Molly A; Orihuela, Carlos J; Dube, Peter H

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies indicated that CD8+ T cells responding to a surrogate single antigen expressed by Y. pseudotuberculosis, ovalbumin, were insufficient to protect against yersiniosis. Herein we tested the hypothesis that CD8+ T cells reactive to the natural Yersinia antigen YopE would be more effective at providing mucosal protection. We first confirmed that immunization with the attenuated ksgA- strain of Y. pseudotuberculosis generated YopE-specific CD8+ T cells. These T cells were protective against challenge with virulent Listeria monocytogenes expressing secreted YopE. Mice immunized with an attenuated L. monocytogenes YopE+ strain generated large numbers of functional YopE-specific CD8+ T cells, and initially controlled a systemic challenge with virulent Y. pseudotuberculosis, yet eventually succumbed to yersiniosis. Mice vaccinated with a YopE peptide and cholera toxin vaccine generated robust T cell responses, providing protection to 60% of the mice challenged mucosally but failed to show complete protection against systemic infection with virulent Y. pseudotuberculosis. These studies demonstrate that vaccination with recombinant YopE vaccines can generate YopE-specific CD8+ T cells, that can provide significant mucosal protection but these cells are insufficient to provide sterilizing immunity against systemic Y. pseudotuberculosis infection. Our studies have implications for Yersinia vaccine development studies.

  18. Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W135 ST-2881

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Pierre; Djibo, Saacou; Hamidou, Amina Amadou; Tenebray, Bernard; Borrow, Raymond; Chanteau, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    Serogroup W135 ST-2881 meningococci caused a cluster of meningitis cases in Niger in 2003. Of 80 healthy persons in the patients' villages, 28 (35%) carried meningococci; 20 of 21 W135 carrier strains were ST-2881. Ten months later, 5 former carriers were still carriers of W135 ST-2881 strains. The serum bactericidal antibody activity changed according to carrier status. PMID:17073093

  19. Ultrasound enhanced detection of individual meningococcal serogroups by latex immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Sobanski, M A; Vince, R; Biagini, G A; Cousins, C; Guiver, M; Gray, S J; Kaczmarski, E B; Coakley, W T

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To examine A, C, Y, and W135 Neisseria meningitidis serogroup characterisation by ultrasonic standing wave enhanced latex agglutination tests (USELATs) of clinical samples. In addition, to determine USELAT enhancement of detection sensitivity for the individual antigens compared with conventional card latex agglutination tests (LATs). Methods: Wellcogen (Abbott Murex), Slidex meningite kit 5 (bioMerieux), and Pastorex (Sanofi) kits and beads coated in house with antibodies to Y and to W135 alone were tested. Positive control antigens consisted of A and C polysaccharide preparations and the Pastorex Y/W135 kit sample. The limiting concentrations of antigen detection were determined by USELAT and by LAT. Thirty five clinical samples (plasma), previously characterised by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture, were tested by USELAT and, when sample volume allowed, by LAT. Results: USELAT enhancement of control antigen detection ranged from 16 to 128 fold for the different latex systems. Enhancements for the different control antigens were comparable between kits. USELAT tests of clinical (A/C/Y/W135) samples (n = 15) with the Wellcogen (A/C/Y/W135) and Slidex meningite (A/C/Y/W135) kits showed comparable specificities. A set (n = 22) of Y and W135 samples gave 18, 19, and 17 positive results for Wellcogen (A/C/Y/W135), Pastorex (A/C/Y/W135), and in house beads (Y/W135), respectively. Positive USELAT PCR and culture results were concordant. A typical sensitivity for the commercial kits was 80% (Wellcogen). Conclusions: USELAT identified serogroups for 80% of samples, whereas LATs identified only 40%. The USELAT detection of the A, C, Y, and W135 antigen serogroups showed comparable enhancement for the kits tested. The commercial availability of latex beads coated with antibody to the Y and W135 serogroups would expedite their identification. PMID:11825922

  20. Virulence factors of Escherichia coli strains belonging to serogroups O127 and O142.

    PubMed Central

    Ghilardi, A. C. R.; Gomes, T. A. T.; Elias, W. P.; Trabulsi, L. R.

    2003-01-01

    A total of 102 Escherichia coli strains belonging to serogroups O127 and O142 were examined for genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. The most frequent serotypes found were O127:H21, O127:H40 and O142:H34. The virulence properties were evaluated by adhesion to HeLa cells and hybridization with gene probes for diarrhoeagenic E. coli. Most strains in the two serogroups were categorized as enteropathogenic E. coli, but enteroaggregative E. coli was also detected in both serogroups. All strains that carried the eae sequence presented the LEE region inserted in selC. Five ribotypes were detected in serogroup O127 and four in serogroup O142 and a correlation between serotypes and ribotypes was observed mainly in serogroup O142. PMID:14596521

  1. Is the microagglutination test (MAT) good for predicting the infecting serogroup for leptospirosis in Brazil?

    PubMed

    Blanco, Roberta Morozetti; dos Santos, Luis Fernando; Galloway, Renee Lynn; Romero, Eliete Caló

    2016-02-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection caused by pathogenic members of the genus Leptospira spp. Knowledge of the prevalent serovars and their maintenance hosts is essential to understand the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of serology by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) to predict the serogroups compared with results of identification of leptospires in São Paulo, Brazil. MAT correctly assigned the serogroup of the infecting isolate in 49/52 cases (94.23%). The serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae was the predominant serogroup (88.46%). This study showed the usefulness of the MAT to correctly identify the infecting serogroup with a good overall agreement between the serologically-identified infecting serogroup and by identification of the isolate and can be used in epidemiological surveys in São Paulo. However, it should be complemented by the identification of Leptospira isolates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Distribution of Leptospira serogroups in cattle herds and dogs in France.

    PubMed

    Ayral, Florence C; Bicout, Dominique J; Pereira, Helena; Artois, Marc; Kodjo, Angeli

    2014-10-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to identify and describe the distribution pattern of Leptospira serogroups in domestic animals in France. The population consisted of cattle herds and dogs with clinically suspected leptospirosis that were tested at the "Laboratoire des Leptospires" between 2008 and 2011. The laboratory database was queried for records of cattle and dogs in which seroreactivity in Leptospira microagglutination tests was consistent with a recent or current infection, excluding vaccine serogroups in dogs. A total of 394 cattle herds and 232 dogs were diagnosed with clinical leptospirosis, and the results suggested infection by the Leptospira serogroup Australis in 43% and 63%, respectively; by the Leptospira serogroup Grippotyphosa in 17% and 9%, respectively; and by the Leptospira serogroup Sejroe in 33% and 6%, respectively. This inventory of infecting Leptospira serogroups revealed that current vaccines in France are not fully capable of preventing the clinical form of the disease. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. Isolation of Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1 from potting mixes.

    PubMed

    Steele, T W; Lanser, J; Sangster, N

    1990-01-01

    Following a statewide outbreak of legionellosis due to Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1 in South Australia in 1988 and 1989, studies were performed to find a source of the organism. A number of water and soil samples with and without acid decontamination were examined for L. longbeachae by using a selective medium containing vancomycin, aztreonam, and pimafucin. There were no isolations of L. longbeachae from water samples. Organisms resembling L. longbeachae were isolated from a number of samples of potting mixes and from soil surrounding plants in pots collected from the homes of four patients. The organisms were found to persist for 7 months in two potting mixes stored at room temperature. Legionellae were isolated with difficulty from potting mixes which were allowed to dry out. Identification of isolates as L. longbeachae serogroup 1 was confirmed by quantitative DNA hybridization and serological tests. Restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism studies showed minor differences between patient and environmental isolates but differentiated these readily from L. longbeachae serogroup 2 and other antigenically related legionellae. The isolation of L. longbeachae from some potting mixes and the prolonged survival of the organisms in this medium suggest that soil rather than water is the natural habitat of this species and may be the source of human infections.

  4. [Meningococcal disease: always present. Serogroup changes in the Southern Cone].

    PubMed

    López, Eduardo Luis; Debbag, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Meningococcal disease (MD) caused by Neisseria meningitidis is a condition with high mortality rates in childhood. Serogroup W135 N. meningitidis (MenW135) is usually associated with 1 to 8% of MD cases worldwide, and with a low carriage rate. During March 2000, an increase in the number of cases of MenW135 in Saudi Arabia was reported that coincided with the Hajj pilgrimage (Hajj-2000 strain). Mayer et al studied MenW135 strains from outbreaks related with this pilgrimage and found that all had been caused by the same hypervirulent clone (ST-11/complex ET-37). The circulation of this strain could also be documented in Latin America. In the last years, changes in serogroup prevalence have been observed in the region, the increase of MenW135 in the Southern Cone being the most significant. N. meningitidis infections of several serogroups including MenW135 may be prevented with chemoprophylaxis with antibiotics and quadrivalent vaccines. Better knowledge of the global epidemiology through the new molecular techniques, jointly with the availability of vaccines are the most relevant tools to control hyperendemic or epidemic periods of MD.

  5. A Meningococcal NOMV-FHbp Vaccine for Africa Elicits Broader Serum Bactericidal Antibody Responses Against Serogroup B and non-B Strains than a Licensed Serogroup B Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Pajon, Rolando; Lujan, Eduardo; Granoff, Dan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Meningococcal epidemics in Sub-Sahara caused by serogroup A strains are controlled by a group A polysaccharide conjugate vaccine. Strains with serogroups C, W and X continue to cause epidemics. Protein antigens in licensed serogroup B vaccines are shared among serogroup B and non-B strains. Purpose Compare serum bactericidal antibody responses elicited by an investigational native outer membrane vesicle vaccine with over-expressed Factor H binding protein (NOMV-FHbp) and a licensed serogroup B vaccine (MenB-4C) against African serogroup A, B, C, W and X strains. Methods Human Factor H (FH) transgenic mice were immunized with NOMV-FHbp prepared from a mutant African meningococcal strain containing genetically attenuated endotoxin and a mutant sub-family B FHbp antigen with low FH binding, or with MenB-4C, which contains a recombinant sub-family B FHbp antigen that binds human FH, and three other antigens, NHba, NadA and PorA P1.4, capable of eliciting bactericidal antibody. Results The NOMV-FHbp elicited serum bactericidal activity against 12 of 13 serogroup A, B, W or X strains from Africa, and four isogenic serogroup B mutants with subfamily B FHbp sequence variants. There was no activity against a serogroup B mutant with sub-family A FHbp, or two serogroup C isolates from a recent outbreak in Northern Nigeria, which were mismatched for both PorA and sub-family of the FHbp vaccine antigen. For MenB-4C, NHba was expressed by all 16 African isolates tested, FHbp sub-family B in 13, and NadA in five. However, MenB-4C elicited titers ≥1:10 against only one isolate, and against only two of four serogroup B mutant strains with sub-family B FHbp sequence variants. Conclusions NOMV-FHbp has greater potential to confer serogroup-independent protection in Africa than the licensed MenB-4C vaccine. However, the NOMV-FHbp vaccine will require inclusion of sub-family A FHbp for coverage against recent serogroup C strains causing outbreaks in Northern Nigeria. PMID

  6. 78 FR 76061 - Authorization for Non-VA Medical Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AO46 Authorization for Non-VA Medical Services AGENCY: Department of... VA's regulations regarding payment by VA for medical services under VA's statutory authority for non-VA medical care. In the Federal Register on November 28, 2012, VA proposed to remove an outdated...

  7. Lower Chesapeake Bay, VA, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-16-174 (22 June 1973) --- Norfolk and the lower Chesapeake Bay, VA (37.5N, 75.5W) at the interface of the Atlantic Ocean can be seen to be a mixture of complex currents. Outgoing tides from the bay generate considerable turbulence as they encounter coastal currents and can be observed by the sediment plumes stirred up as a result of current dynamics. Smooth flowing water has less sediment and appears darker. Turbulent water has lots of sediment and appears lighter in color. Photo credit: NASA

  8. Identification of hitherto unrecognized arboviruses from Ecuador: members of serogroups B, C, Bunyamwera, Patois, and Minatitlan.

    PubMed

    Calisher, C H; Gutierrez, E; Francy, D B; Alava, A; Muth, D J; Lazuick, J S

    1983-07-01

    Three hundred seventy-nine virus isolates were obtained from mosquitoes collected and sentinel hamsters exposed in coastal Ecuador from 1974 to 1978. These included four alphaviruses [Venezuelan equine encephalitis 1B (1), Venezuelan equine encephalitis 1D (35), western equine encephalitis (1) and eastern equine encephalitis (4)]; two flaviviruses [St. Louis encephalitis (3) and Naranjal (6)]; 11 bunyaviruses [Maguari (243), Playas (3), Vinces (33), Turlock (2), Abras (5), Babahoyo (3), Acara (2), Guajara (3), San Juan (6), Pueblo Viejo (3), 18 unspecified Gamboa serogroup viruses, Palestina (7)]; and one vesiculovirus (vesicular stomatitis New Jersey). All but Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus were new to Ecuador, and Naranjal (serogroup B), Playas (Bunyamwera serogroup), Vinces (serogroup C), Abras and Babahoyo (Patois serogroup), San Juan and Pueblo Viejo (Gamboa serogroup) and Palestina (Minatitlan serogroup) are newly recognized viruses. These isolates have enabled us to 1) expand our knowledge of the geographic distribution of recognized viruses, 2) expand our knowledge of the members of certain serogroups and 3) establish two new serogroups (Gamboa and Minatitlan).

  9. VA-academic partnerships: challenges and rewards for new VA mental health investigators.

    PubMed

    Ayers, Catherine; Arch, Joanna

    2013-12-01

    This study presents the perspectives of academic-VA partners who have recently completed a randomized clinical trial within a VA outpatient clinic. The authors reflect on the challenges and rewards of implementing academic-VA community clinical research partnerships with the aim of assisting new VA investigators and VA collaborators. Staff resistance, time demands, processing delays, and unforeseen barriers represent challenges. However, they are balanced by numerous rewards, including establishment of a research clinic, innovative staff training, and advancement of effectiveness knowledge in community settings. Implications and recommendations for successful VA-academic partnerships are described to help future projects minimize challenges and maximize rewards.

  10. Proteome scale comparative modeling for conserved drug and vaccine targets identification in Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Syed Shah; Tiwari, Sandeep; Guimarães, Luís Carlos; Jamal, Syed Babar; Folador, Edson; Sharma, Neha Barve; de Castro Soares, Siomar; Almeida, Síntia; Ali, Amjad; Islam, Arshad; Póvoa, Fabiana Dias; de Abreu, Vinicius Augusto Carvalho; Jain, Neha; Bhattacharya, Antaripa; Juneja, Lucky; Miyoshi, Anderson; Silva, Artur; Barh, Debmalya; Turjanski, Adrian Gustavo; Azevedo, Vasco; Ferreira, Rafaela Salgado

    2014-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (Cp) is a pathogenic bacterium that causes caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), ulcerative lymphangitis, mastitis, and edematous to a broad spectrum of hosts, including ruminants, thereby threatening economic and dairy industries worldwide. Currently there is no effective drug or vaccine available against Cp. To identify new targets, we adopted a novel integrative strategy, which began with the prediction of the modelome (tridimensional protein structures for the proteome of an organism, generated through comparative modeling) for 15 previously sequenced C. pseudotuberculosis strains. This pan-modelomics approach identified a set of 331 conserved proteins having 95-100% intra-species sequence similarity. Next, we combined subtractive proteomics and modelomics to reveal a set of 10 Cp proteins, which may be essential for the bacteria. Of these, 4 proteins (tcsR, mtrA, nrdI, and ispH) were essential and non-host homologs (considering man, horse, cow and sheep as hosts) and satisfied all criteria of being putative targets. Additionally, we subjected these 4 proteins to virtual screening of a drug-like compound library. In all cases, molecules predicted to form favorable interactions and which showed high complementarity to the target were found among the top ranking compounds. The remaining 6 essential proteins (adk, gapA, glyA, fumC, gnd, and aspA) have homologs in the host proteomes. Their active site cavities were compared to the respective cavities in host proteins. We propose that some of these proteins can be selectively targeted using structure-based drug design approaches (SBDD). Our results facilitate the selection of C. pseudotuberculosis putative proteins for developing broad-spectrum novel drugs and vaccines. A few of the targets identified here have been validated in other microorganisms, suggesting that our modelome strategy is effective and can also be applicable to other pathogens.

  11. Bayesian Geostatistical Analysis and Ecoclimatic Determinants of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Infection among Horses

    PubMed Central

    Boysen, Courtney; Davis, Elizabeth G.; Beard, Laurie A.; Lubbers, Brian V.; Raghavan, Ram K.

    2015-01-01

    Kansas witnessed an unprecedented outbreak in Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection among horses, a disease commonly referred to as pigeon fever during fall 2012. Bayesian geostatistical models were developed to identify key environmental and climatic risk factors associated with C. pseudotuberculosis infection in horses. Positive infection status among horses (cases) was determined by positive test results for characteristic abscess formation, positive bacterial culture on purulent material obtained from a lanced abscess (n = 82), or positive serologic evidence of exposure to organism (≥1:512)(n = 11). Horses negative for these tests (n = 172)(controls) were considered free of infection. Information pertaining to horse demographics and stabled location were obtained through review of medical records and/or contact with horse owners via telephone. Covariate information for environmental and climatic determinants were obtained from USDA (soil attributes), USGS (land use/land cover), and NASA MODIS and NASA Prediction of Worldwide Renewable Resources (climate). Candidate covariates were screened using univariate regression models followed by Bayesian geostatistical models with and without covariates. The best performing model indicated a protective effect for higher soil moisture content (OR = 0.53, 95% CrI = 0.25, 0.71), and detrimental effects for higher land surface temperature (≥35°C) (OR = 2.81, 95% CrI = 2.21, 3.85) and habitat fragmentation (OR = 1.31, 95% CrI = 1.27, 2.22) for C. pseudotuberculosis infection status in horses, while age, gender and breed had no effect. Preventative and ecoclimatic significance of these findings are discussed. PMID:26473728

  12. Bayesian Geostatistical Analysis and Ecoclimatic Determinants of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Infection among Horses.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Courtney; Davis, Elizabeth G; Beard, Laurie A; Lubbers, Brian V; Raghavan, Ram K

    2015-01-01

    Kansas witnessed an unprecedented outbreak in Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection among horses, a disease commonly referred to as pigeon fever during fall 2012. Bayesian geostatistical models were developed to identify key environmental and climatic risk factors associated with C. pseudotuberculosis infection in horses. Positive infection status among horses (cases) was determined by positive test results for characteristic abscess formation, positive bacterial culture on purulent material obtained from a lanced abscess (n = 82), or positive serologic evidence of exposure to organism (≥ 1:512)(n = 11). Horses negative for these tests (n = 172)(controls) were considered free of infection. Information pertaining to horse demographics and stabled location were obtained through review of medical records and/or contact with horse owners via telephone. Covariate information for environmental and climatic determinants were obtained from USDA (soil attributes), USGS (land use/land cover), and NASA MODIS and NASA Prediction of Worldwide Renewable Resources (climate). Candidate covariates were screened using univariate regression models followed by Bayesian geostatistical models with and without covariates. The best performing model indicated a protective effect for higher soil moisture content (OR = 0.53, 95% CrI = 0.25, 0.71), and detrimental effects for higher land surface temperature (≥ 35°C) (OR = 2.81, 95% CrI = 2.21, 3.85) and habitat fragmentation (OR = 1.31, 95% CrI = 1.27, 2.22) for C. pseudotuberculosis infection status in horses, while age, gender and breed had no effect. Preventative and ecoclimatic significance of these findings are discussed.

  13. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis enterocolitis mimicking enteropathic γδ T-cell lymphoma with abnormal clonality.

    PubMed

    Imataki, Osamu; Uemura, Makiko; Matsumoto, Kensuke; Ishibashi, Naoko

    2014-01-27

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis generally infects the gastrointestinal tract and causes enteropathy symptoms suggesting infection. Y. pseudotuberculosis infections are often complicated with intraceliac lymphoadenopathy mimicking malignant lymphoma. This is a first case of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis enteropathy mimicking enteropathic γδ T-cell lymphoma. This case highlighted the γδ T-cell reaction to Yersinia enterocolitis sometimes mimicking malignant lymphoma clinically. A 72-year-old female was referred to our institute due to abdominal pain with skin rush, fever and diarrhea. Computed tomography (CT) scanning revealed mucosal swelling of the cecum with enlargement of regional lymph nodes. Laboratory data showed elevated CRP (7.74 mg/dL), an increased level of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R 3095 IU/mL), and CD3+ γδ T-cell circulation in peripheral blood and bone marrow (10.9% and 3.9%, respectively). Increased proportions of γδ T-cells supported the diagnosis of malignant lymphoma. Colonoscopy demonstrated hemorrhagic mucosal erosion with partial ulceration, and the subsequent pathological findings at the inflammation site suggested malignant lymphoma histopathology in the colon. These objective findings were entirely consistent with enteropathic γδ T-cell lymphoma. Thereafter, however, the microbiological results of the patient's stool at admission showed Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and she was diagnosed as having Yersinia enterocolitis. All abnormal findings including subjective symptoms were in remission or mitigated within 2 weeks after her onset. Even the γδ T-cell circulation disappeared (0.04% in peripheral blood), and we speculate that those cells were a reaction to the Yersinia infection. In this case, a differential diagnosis included infectious enterocolitis from other immunogenic or malignant diseases. Although a measurement of sIL-2R is critical in differentiating malignant lymphoma in patients suffering with lymph adenopathy, that

  14. Salmonella Serogroup C: Current Status of Vaccines and Why They Are Needed

    PubMed Central

    Fuche, Fabien J.; Sow, Ousmane; Simon, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS; i.e., Salmonella enterica organisms that do not cause typhoid or paratyphoid) are responsible for 94 million infections and 155,000 deaths worldwide annually, 86% of which are estimated to be foodborne. Although more than 50 serogroups and 2,600 serovars have been described, not all Salmonella serovars cause disease in humans and animals. Efforts are being made to develop NTS vaccines, with most approaches eliciting protection against serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis (serogroups B [O:4] and D [O:9], respectively), as they are widely considered the most prevalent. Here, we show that serogroup C (O:6,7, O:6,8, or O:8 epitopes) is the most common serogroup in the United States, and the prevalence of serovars from this serogroup has been increasing in Europe and the United States over the last decade. They are also the most commonly isolated serovars from healthy cattle and poultry, indicating the underlying importance of surveillance in animals. Four out of the 10 most lethal serovars in the United States are serogroup C, and reports from African countries suggest that strains within this serogroup are highly antibiotic resistant. Serogroup C consists of highly diverse organisms among which 37 serovars account for the majority of human cases, compared to 17 and 11 serovars for serogroups B and D, respectively. Despite these concerning data, no human vaccines targeting serogroup C NTS are available, and animal vaccines are in limited use. Here, we describe the underestimated burden represented by serogroup C NTS, as well as a discussion of vaccines that target these pathogens. PMID:27413069

  15. Characterisation of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolated from animals with yersiniosis during 1996-2013 indicates the presence of pathogenic and Far Eastern strains in Italy.

    PubMed

    Magistrali, C F; Cucco, L; Pezzotti, G; Farneti, S; Cambiotti, V; Catania, S; Prati, P; Fabbi, M; Lollai, S; Mangili, P; Sebastiani, C; Bano, L; Dionisi, A M; Luzzi, I

    2015-10-22

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a pathogen that infects both animals and humans worldwide. The epidemiology of infection caused by Y. pseudotuberculosis is poorly understood; however, its outbreaks have been traced back to a probable source in wildlife. This study aimed to characterise Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates collected from animals with yersiniosis. This study included 90 isolates of Y. pseudotuberculosis collected from different animals with yersiniosis between 1996 and 2013 in Italy. The isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and were biotyped. Genes associated with virulence plasmid pYV and those encoding O-antigen, high pathogenicity island (HPI), and superantigenic toxin (YPM) were determined by performing PCR. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed using NotI and SpeI enzymes, and 3 dendrograms were generated. No antibiotic resistance was found. The presence of pYV was shown in 57 out of 90 isolates. Virulence profiles of majority of the isolates indicated that they belonged to O:1a and O:1b serotypes, biotype 1, and genetic type 2. Isolates belonging to O:2a serotype were detected in sheep and cattle and were found to be associated (for the first time) with septicemia in hares. Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates belonging to O:5a and O:12-O13 serotypes were also detected in hares. To our knowledge, this is the first study to detect Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates belonging to the O:12-O13 serotype from a clinical case in Europe. Results of PFGE indicated that it was a reliable method for investigating the genetic relatedness of Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates. Thus, characterisation of Y. pseudotuberculosis infection in animals should be considered a possible tool for the surveillance of pseudotuberculosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. KaVA ESTEMA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyadomari, Miyako; Imai, Hiroshi; Cho, Se-Hyung; Asaki, Yoshiharu; Choi, Yoon-Kyong; Kim, Jaeheon; Yun, Youngjoo; Matsumoto, Naoko; Min, Cheul-Hong; Oyama, Tomoaki; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Yoon, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Jin; Dodson, Richard; Rioja, Maria; Burns, Ross; Orosz, Gabor; Nakagawa, Akiharu; Chibueze O, James; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Sobolev, Andrey

    2016-07-01

    The ESTEMA (Expanded Study on Stellar Masers) project is one of three Large Programs of the KaVA (the combined array of the Korean VLBI Network and Japanese VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry), and conducted in 2015-2016. It aims to publish a database of the largest sample of VLBI images of circumstellar water (H2O) and silicon-monoxide (SiO) maser sources towards circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of 80 evolved stars in late AGB to early post-AGB phase. Here we present the specifications of the ESTEMA observations and the planned scientific goals in order to share the basic information of the ESTEMA with astronomical community and encourage future collaborations with the ESTEMA and future follow-up observations for the targeted stars.

  17. The relationship between Neisseria meningitidis of serogroups Z1 and 29E.

    PubMed

    Fallon, R J

    1976-05-01

    Meningococci of serogroups Z1 and 29E were examined serologically and shown to be identical. These meningococci should be designated either as group Z1, which has priority, or preferably by a new designation forming a logical sequence with the currently accepted serogroups.

  18. Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease Vaccine Recommendations at a University, New Jersey, USA, 2016.

    PubMed

    Soeters, Heidi M; Dinitz-Sklar, Jill; Kulkarni, Prathit A; MacNeil, Jessica R; McNamara, Lucy A; Zaremski, Elizabeth; Chang, How-Yi; Lujan, Eduardo; Granoff, Dan; Lasky, Melodee; Montana, Barbara

    2017-05-01

    In response to a university-based serogroup B meningococcal disease outbreak, the serogroup B meningococcal vaccine Trumenba was recommended for students, a rare instance in which a specific vaccine brand was recommended. This outbreak highlights the challenges of using molecular and immunologic data to inform real-time response.

  19. Increase in Meningococcal Serogroup W Disease, Victoria, Australia, 2013–2015

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Kerrie; Sohail, Asma; Franklin, Lucinda J.; Bond, Katherine A.; Brahmi, Aicha; Romanes, Finn; Ong, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    In Victoria, Australia, invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W increased from 4% of all cases in 2013 to 30% in 2015. This increase resulted largely from strains similar to those in the serogroup W sequence type 11 clonal complex, previously described in the United Kingdom and South America. PMID:27648521

  20. Meningococci of Serogroup X Clonal Complex 181 in Refugee Camps, Italy.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Paola; Neri, Arianna; Vacca, Paola; Picicco, Damiano; Daprai, Laura; Mainardi, Giulia; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Anselmo, Anna; Ciammaruconi, Andrea; Fortunato, Antonella; Palozzi, Anna Maria; Fillo, Silvia; Faccini, Marino; Senatore, Sabrina; Lista, Florigio; Fazio, Cecilia

    2017-05-01

    Four cases of infection with serogroup X meningococci (MenX) (1 in 2015 and 3 in 2016) occurred in migrants living in refugee camps or reception centers in Italy. All MenX isolates were identified as clonal complex 181. Our report suggests that serogroup X represents an emerging health threat for persons arriving from African countries.

  1. Meningococci of Serogroup X Clonal Complex 181 in Refugee Camps, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Arianna; Vacca, Paola; Picicco, Damiano; Daprai, Laura; Mainardi, Giulia; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Anselmo, Anna; Ciammaruconi, Andrea; Fortunato, Antonella; Palozzi, Anna Maria; Fillo, Silvia; Faccini, Marino; Senatore, Sabrina; Lista, Florigio; Fazio, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Four cases of infection with serogroup X meningococci (MenX) (1 in 2015 and 3 in 2016) occurred in migrants living in refugee camps or reception centers in Italy. All MenX isolates were identified as clonal complex 181. Our report suggests that serogroup X represents an emerging health threat for persons arriving from African countries. PMID:28418304

  2. Mixed infections of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria in South African antelopes presenting with tuberculosis-like lesions.

    PubMed

    Müller, Borna; de Klerk-Lorist, Lin-Mari; Henton, Marijke M; Lane, Emily; Parsons, Sven; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C; Kotze, Antoinette; van Helden, Paul D; Tanner, Manfred

    2011-01-27

    Routine meat inspection of antelope carcasses from a South African game reserve revealed a high prevalence of tuberculosis-like lesions. This study aimed to identify the causative agent of this disease and to describe its pathological features. In total, 139 antelopes were randomly harvested from the game reserve and subjected to meat inspection. Of these animals, 46 (33%) showed gross visible, tuberculosis-like lesions. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of encapsulated necrogranulomas in organs and/or lymph nodes of 22 of 27 animals tested. Tissue samples from lesions were processed for both non-selective bacterial culture and mycobacterial culture following decontamination. In non-selective cultures of lesions from 25 of 31 animals tested, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was detected. Isolation of C. pseudotuberculosis was closely associated with the presence of necrogranulomas. In mycobacterial cultures of lesions from 9 of 41 animals tested, different species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTMs) were detected. In 5 instances, depending on the culture procedure that was applied, either C. pseudotuberculosis or NTMs were isolated from the same tissue sample. Our results suggest that the disease has been caused by infections with C. pseudotuberculosis. In sub-Saharan Africa, the role of pathogens other than Mycobacterium bovis may be underestimated in causing tuberculosis-like lesions. In cases where potentially pathogenic NTMs are isolated from mycobacterial cultures of tuberculosis-like lesions, the non-use of additional non-selective culture techniques could lead to misinterpretations of the diagnostic test results.

  3. In vitro susceptibility of equine-obtained isolates of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis to gallium maltolate and 20 other antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Norman, T E; Batista, M; Lawhon, S D; Zhang, S; Kuskie, K R; Swinford, A K; Bernstein, L R; Cohen, N D

    2014-07-01

    This study's objective was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of gallium maltolate (GaM) and 20 other antimicrobial agents against clinical equine isolates of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. The growth of cultured isolates was not inhibited by any concentration of GaM. MIC data revealed susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobials.

  4. In Vitro Susceptibility of Equine-Obtained Isolates of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis to Gallium Maltolate and 20 Other Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Batista, M.; Lawhon, S. D.; Zhang, S.; Kuskie, K. R.; Swinford, A. K.; Bernstein, L. R.; Cohen, N. D.

    2014-01-01

    This study's objective was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of gallium maltolate (GaM) and 20 other antimicrobial agents against clinical equine isolates of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. The growth of cultured isolates was not inhibited by any concentration of GaM. MIC data revealed susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobials. PMID:24829243

  5. Tips and tricks for the assembly of a Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis genome using a semiconductor sequencer

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Soares, Siomar de Castro; dos Santos, Anderson Rodrigues; Almeida, Sintia; Guimarães, Luis; Figueira, Flávia; Barbosa, Eudes; Tauch, Andreas; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur

    2013-01-01

    New sequencing platforms have enabled rapid decoding of complete prokaryotic genomes at relatively low cost. The Ion Torrent platform is an example of these technologies, characterized by lower coverage, generating challenges for the genome assembly. One particular problem is the lack of genomes that enable reference-based assembly, such as the one used in the present study, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar equi, which causes high economic losses in the US equine industry. The quality treatment strategy incorporated into the assembly pipeline enabled a 16-fold greater use of the sequencing data obtained compared with traditional quality filter approaches. Data preprocessing prior to the de novo assembly enabled the use of known methodologies in the next-generation sequencing data assembly. Moreover, manual curation was proved to be essential for ensuring a quality assembly, which was validated by comparative genomics with other species of the genus Corynebacterium. The present study presents a modus operandi that enables a greater and better use of data obtained from semiconductor sequencing for obtaining the complete genome from a prokaryotic microorganism, C. pseudotuberculosis, which is not a traditional biological model such as Escherichia coli. PMID:23199210

  6. Atypical Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype O:3 isolated from hunted wild boars in Italy.

    PubMed

    Magistrali, C F; Cucco, L; Manuali, E; Sebastiani, C; Farneti, S; Ercoli, L; Pezzotti, G

    2014-06-25

    Atypical Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype O:3 was isolated from rectal contents of two wild boars hunted in Italy within a regional wildlife management program. No outbreak of yersiniosis was reported in this area in the same period and no lesions were found by the veterinarian at post-mortem inspection. Nevertheless, after histological examination, granulomatous lesions were detected in submandibular lymph nodes of one of the two wild boars. Microbiological and bio molecular characterization of the isolates revealed a melibiose-negative, biotype 2, wbyK+O:3 genotype, carrying inv, yop (yopH and yopB), virF, and R-HPI. Strains showing the same profile, matching to the criteria of genetic group 5, have been recently reported in fatal cases of yersiniosis in cynomolgus macaques and in farmed deer and atypical O:3 serotype has been suggested as a pathogenic subtype of O:3. This is the third report of an atypical O:3 Y. pseudotuberculosis strain, the first outside the American continent and the first one not associated to fatal yersiniosis. Wild boars could be a possible reservoir of this emerging pathogen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Occurrence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in small wild rodents.

    PubMed

    Backhans, A; Fellström, C; Lambertz, S Thisted

    2011-08-01

    Rodents are a potential source of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. In order to study this, 190 rodents were captured and sampled on seven pig farms (n=110), five chicken farms (n=55) and six other locations (n=25) in Sweden. Pigs from three of the pig farms were also sampled (n=60). Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was detected by TaqMan PCR in about 5% of rodent samples and 18% of pig samples. Only rodents caught on pig farms tested positive for the pathogen. Y. enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3 strains isolated from the rodent and pig samples were compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and revealed a high degree of similarity, which was confirmed by random amplified polymorphic DNA. Y. pseudotuberculosis was only detected in one rodent sample. Thus, rodents may be vectors for the transmission of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica to pigs, acting as carriers rather than a reservoir, and should therefore remain an important issue in hygiene control measures on farms.

  8. Survival of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis within macrophages and induction of phagocytes death.

    PubMed

    Stefańska, I; Gieryńska, M; Rzewuska, M; Binek, M

    2010-01-01

    Since C. pseudotuberculosis is a facultative intracellular pathogen the aim of this study was focused on evaluating mechanisms that allowed these bacteria to survive in macrophages and determining their influence on induction of cell death. The influence of Corynebacteria on the programmed cell death of macrophages was determined on the basis of induction the autophagy and apoptosis in the cultures of murine macrophage cell lines J774 infected with bacteria. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strains could survive within macrophages more than 48 hours. During that time bacteria were released as a result of the process that lead to death of phagocytes. This property varied among studied strains. There was no increase of microtubule-associated protein I light chain 3 (MAP I LC3) activity in macrophages infected with examined strains comparing with uninfected cultures and cultures treated with autophagy inducer (rapamycin) that served as negative and positive controls, respectively. The study with confocal microscopy did not show the increasing of caspase-3 activity in the infected macrophages and their nucleus did not reveal the fragmentation.

  9. Epidemics of serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis of subgroup III in Africa, 1989-94.

    PubMed Central

    Guibourdenche, M.; Høiby, E. A.; Riou, J. Y.; Varaine, F.; Joguet, C.; Caugant, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 125 strains of Neisseria meningitidis recovered in the course of outbreaks from patients with systemic disease in 11 African countries between 1989 and 1994 were analysed by serogrouping, serotyping and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Of the 125 patient strains 115 (92%) belonged to the clone-complex of serogroup A meningococci, designated subgroup III. Among the remaining strains, 4 were also serogroup A, but belonged to the clonal groups I and IV-1 (2 strains each), whilst 6 strains (4 serogroup C and 2 serogroup W135) represented clones of the ET-37 complex. Our results indicated that the second pandemic caused by clones of subgroup III is still spreading in Africa. Towards the West it has reached Niger, Mali, Guinea and The Gambia, and towards the South, the Central African Republic, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania and Zambia. PMID:8620901

  10. 78 FR 32126 - VA Dental Insurance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN99 VA Dental Insurance Program AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs... rules and procedures for the VA Dental Insurance Program (VADIP), a pilot program that offers premium-based dental insurance to enrolled veterans and certain survivors and dependents of veterans. Under...

  11. 48 CFR 801.690 - VA's COCP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false VA's COCP. 801.690 Section 801.690 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF... Responsibilities 801.690 VA's COCP. ...

  12. 48 CFR 801.690 - VA's COCP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false VA's COCP. 801.690 Section 801.690 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF... Responsibilities 801.690 VA's COCP. ...

  13. Meningococcal serogroup Y disease in Europe: Continuation of high importance in some European regions in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Bröker, Michael; Emonet, Stéphane; Fazio, Cecilia; Jacobsson, Susanne; Koliou, Maria; Kuusi, Markku; Pace, David; Paragi, Metka; Pysik, Alexander; Simões, Maria João; Skoczynska, Anna; Stefanelli, Paola; Toropainen, Maija; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Tzanakaki, Georgina

    2015-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis or meningococcus is divided into 12 distinct serogroups of which A, B, C, W, X, and Y are medically most important and cause health problems in different parts of the world. The epidemiology of N. meningitidis is unpredictable over time and across geographic regions. Globally, serogoup A has been prevalent in the African “meningitis belt” whereas serogroup B and C have predominated in Europe. In a paper published earlier in this journal1, an increase in serogroup Y invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in some European countries was reported based on the epidemiological data for 2010, 2011 and 2012. Here, we report additional data from 30 European countries indicating that high or increased serogroup Y disease levels have continued in 2013 in certain regions of Europe. In the Western and Central Europe, there were no major changes in the proportion of serogroup Y IMD cases in 2013 compared to 2012. In the Scandinavian countries, proportion of serogroup Y disease remained high, ranging from 26% to 51% in 2013. This was in contrast to Baltic, Eastern and most Southern European countries, where the proportion of serogroup Y IMD was low similarly to previous years. For the last 2 decades, the mean age of patients affected by serogroup Y was 41 y for 7 countries from which data was available and 50% of cases were in patients aged 45 to 88 y. The age distribution of serogroup Y was bimodal and did not change significantly despite the increase of the total number and the proportion of serogroup Y IMD in some European regions. PMID:26036710

  14. Subcellular proteomic analysis of host-pathogen interactions using human monocytes exposed to Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, C G; Gonzales, A D; Choi, M W; Chromy, B A; Fitch, J P; McCutchen-Maloney, S L

    2004-05-20

    Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague, is of concern to human health both from an infectious disease and a civilian biodefense perspective. While Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis share more than 90% DNA homology, they have significantly different clinical manifestations. Plague is often fatal if untreated, yet Y. pseudotuberculosis causes severe intestinal distress and is rarely fatal. A better understanding of host response to these closely related pathogens may help explain the different mechanisms of virulence and pathogenesis that result in such different clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to characterize host protein expression changes in human monocyte-like U937 cells after exposure to Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis. In order to gain global proteomic coverage of host response, proteins from cytoplasmic, nuclear and membrane fractions of host cells were studied by 2-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and relative protein expression differences were quantitated. Differentially expressed proteins, with at least 1.5 fold expression changes and p values of 0.01 or less, were identified by MALDI-MS or LC/MS/MS. With these criteria, differential expression was detected in 16 human proteins after Y. pestis exposure and 13 human proteins after Y. pseudotuberculosis exposure, of which only two of the differentially expressed proteins identified were shared between the two exposures. Proteins identified in this study are reported to be involved in a wide spectrum of cellular functions and host defense mechanisms including apoptosis, cytoskeletal rearrangement, protein synthesis and degradation, DNA replication and transcription, metabolism, protein folding, and cell signaling. Notably, the differential expression patterns observed can distinguish the two pathogen exposures from each other and from unexposed host cells. The functions of the differentially expressed proteins identified provide insight on the different

  15. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis virulence determinants invasin, YopE, and YopT modulate RhoG activity and localization.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Sina; Isberg, Ralph R

    2009-11-01

    The Yersinia pseudotuberculosis surface protein invasin binds to multiple beta1 integrins with high affinity, leading to misregulation of Rac1 activity. Upon host cell binding, alteration of Rho GTPase activity results from the action of several Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) that are translocated into the cytoplasm. We report here that three virulence determinants encoded by Y. pseudotuberculosis manipulate the Rho GTPase RhoG. Y. pseudotuberculosis binding to cells caused robust recruitment of RhoG to the site of attachment, which required high-affinity invasin-beta1 integrin association. Furthermore, inactivation of RhoG significantly reduced the efficiency of invasin-mediated bacterial internalization. To investigate the activation state of RhoG, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based activation biosensor was developed and used to show distinct spatial activation of RhoG at the site of bacterial attachment. The biosensor was also used to show efficient RhoG inactivation by Y. pseudotuberculosis YopE, a potent Rho GTPase activating protein. Additionally, RhoG mislocalization by the prenylcysteine endoprotease YopT was demonstrated by two independent assays. Functional bacterial uptake experiments demonstrated that RhoG activation can bypass a deficit in Rac1 activity. Interestingly, increasing the size of the particle gave results more consistent with a linear pathway, in which RhoG acts as an upstream activator of Rac1, indicating that increased surface area introduces constraints on the signaling pathways required for efficient internalization. Taken together, these data demonstrate the misregulation of RhoG by multiple Y. pseudotuberculosis virulence determinants. Since RhoG is imperative for proper neutrophil function, this misregulation may represent a unique mechanism by which Yersinia species dampen the immune response.

  16. Demonstration of immunologic memory using serogroup C meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Snape, Matthew D; Maclennan, Jenny M; Lockhart, Stephen; English, Mike; Yu, Ly-Mee; Moxon, Richard E; Pollard, Andrew J

    2009-02-01

    Studies of glycoconjugate vaccines have traditionally used an immune challenge with a plain polysaccharide vaccine to demonstrate immunologic memory. Plain polysaccharide vaccines are poorly immunogenic in children and can induce subsequent immunologic hyporesponsiveness. We therefore assessed the use of glycoconjugate vaccines as an alternative method of demonstrating immunologic memory. Children immunized with hepatitis B vaccine or serogroup C meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine (MenCC) at age 2, 3, 4 months received a plain polysaccharide meningococcal serogroup A/C vaccine (MenACP) or MenCC at age 12 months. A post hoc analysis of serum bactericidal activity responses to MenCC assessed whether this differed in MenCC primed and MenCC naive infants. MenCC primed children displayed higher geometric mean serum bactericidal titers than MenCC naive children following MenACP (1518 compared with 30; P = 0.003). A similar difference was seen after a dose of MenCC to toddlers (MenCC primed: 8663, MenCC naive: 710; P < 0.001). The latter comparison became a borderline significance after adjusting for higher pretoddler immunization serum bactericidal geometric mean titers in the MenCC primed group (P = 0.068). Administration of glycoconjugate vaccines provides an important alternative method of demonstrating immunologic memory, avoiding the use of plain polysaccharide vaccines that are potentially deleterious in children. This has implications for the design of all future clinical trials of glycoconjugate vaccines.

  17. Distribution of Leptospira serogroups in dogs from Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Luge, Enno; Draeger, Angelika; Nöckler, Karsten; Kohn, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis in which dogs can act as a reservoir for human infection. The annual vaccination of dogs can prevent leptospirosis caused by serovars included in the vaccine. To date, all available vaccines in Germany include only the serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola, the most commonly found serovars prior to the introduction of the leptospirosis vaccines. Yet, the involvement of additional serovars in the clinical presentation of leptospirosis in dogs has been described. The objective of this sero-epidemiological study was to examine the different Leptospira serovars currently circulating in a population of dogs suspicious for leptospirosis from Berlin. In 329 dogs presenting at the Small Animal Clinic in Berlin, the predominant serogroup was Australis (24%), followed by Grippotyphosa (20%) and Pomona (9%). A total of 18% of the dogs were diagnosed with clinical leptospirosis; here the most prevalent serogroups were also Australis (28%), Grippotyphosa (18%), and Pomona (14%). The serovar prevalence data presented here confirm that a change of pattern of infecting Leptospira serovars in dogs has taken place in Berlin. This data corresponds to further sero-epidemiological studies from other regions in Germany. To ensure human and canine health, available vaccines should be adapted to include the most important circulating serovars.

  18. Whole genome sequence-based serogrouping of Listeria monocytogenes isolates.

    PubMed

    Hyden, Patrick; Pietzka, Ariane; Lennkh, Anna; Murer, Andrea; Springer, Burkhard; Blaschitz, Marion; Indra, Alexander; Huhulescu, Steliana; Allerberger, Franz; Ruppitsch, Werner; Sensen, Christoph W

    2016-10-10

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is currently becoming the method of choice for characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates in national reference laboratories (NRLs). WGS is superior with regards to accuracy, resolution and analysis speed in comparison to several other methods including serotyping, PCR, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and multivirulence-locus sequence typing (MVLST), which have been used thus far for the characterization of bacterial isolates (and are still important tools in reference laboratories today) to control and prevent listeriosis, one of the major sources of foodborne diseases for humans. Backward compatibility of WGS to former methods can be maintained by extraction of the respective information from WGS data. Serotyping was the first subtyping method for L. monocytogenes capable of differentiating 12 serovars and national reference laboratories still perform serotyping and PCR-based serogrouping as a first level classification method for Listeria monocytogenes surveillance. Whole genome sequence based core genome MLST analysis of a L. monocytogenes collection comprising 172 isolates spanning all 12 serotypes was performed for serogroup determination. These isolates clustered according to their serotypes and it was possible to group them either into the IIa, IIc, IVb or IIb clusters, respectively, which were generated by minimum spanning tree (MST) and neighbor joining (NJ) tree data analysis, demonstrating the power of the new approach. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of VA health care costs.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Paul G

    2003-09-01

    In the absence of billing data, alternative methods are used to estimate the cost of hospital stays, outpatient visits, and treatment innovations in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). The choice of method represents a trade-off between accuracy and research cost. The direct measurement method gathers information on staff activities, supplies, equipment, space, and workload. Since it is expensive, direct measurement should be reserved for finding short-run costs, evaluating provider efficiency, or determining the cost of treatments that are innovative or unique to VA. The pseudo-bill method combines utilization data with a non-VA reimbursement schedule. The cost regression method estimates the cost of VA hospital stays by applying the relationship between cost and characteristics of non-VA hospitalizations. The Health Economics Resource Center uses pseudo-bill and cost regression methods to create an encounter-level database of VA costs. Researchers are also beginning to use the VA activity-based cost allocation system.

  20. Combined administration of serogroup B meningococcal vaccine and conjugated serogroup C meningococcal vaccine is safe and immunogenic in college students.

    PubMed

    Holmes, J D; Martin, D; Ramsay, C; Ypma, E; Oster, P

    2008-06-01

    This study evaluated the first use of a combination of the lyophilized components of the conjugated group C vaccine Menjugate reconstituted with the liquid group B outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine MeNZB. At 6-week intervals, healthy residential students received three doses of MeNZB alone or concomitantly with one dose of Menjugate (MeNZB+MenC). Short-lasting injection-site reactions of mild or moderate intensity were frequent in both groups. There were no vaccine-related serious adverse events. After three doses, the percentage of subjects with serum bactericidal assay (SBA) titres > or = 1:8 against the serogroup B strain NZ98/254 was 82% for MeNZB+MenC and 78% for MeNZB. All subjects in the MeNZB+MenC group achieved SBA titres > or = 1:8 against serogroup strain C11 and 67% in the MeNZB group. All SBA and ELISA responses of the combined vaccine were at least as good as for MeNZB alone. After vaccination, the pharyngeal carriage rate of any meningococcus in the vaccinated group had declined from 40% to 21%.

  1. Whole-Genome Characterization of Epidemic Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C and Resurgence of Serogroup W, Niger, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Kretz, Cecilia B.; Retchless, Adam C.; Sidikou, Fati; Issaka, Bassira; Ousmane, Sani; Schwartz, Stephanie; Tate, Ashley H.; Pana, Assimawè; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Nzeyimana, Innocent; Nse, Ricardo Obama; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine; Hong, Eva; Brynildsrud, Ola Brønstad; Novak, Ryan T.; Meyer, Sarah A.; Oukem-Boyer, Odile Ouwe Missi; Ronveaux, Olivier; Caugant, Dominique A.; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, Niger reported the largest epidemic of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (NmC) meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa. The NmC epidemic coincided with serogroup W (NmW) cases during the epidemic season, resulting in a total of 9,367 meningococcal cases through June 2015. To clarify the phylogenetic association, genetic evolution, and antibiotic determinants of the meningococcal strains in Niger, we sequenced the genomes of 102 isolates from this epidemic, comprising 81 NmC and 21 NmW isolates. The genomes of 82 isolates were completed, and all 102 were included in the analysis. All NmC isolates had sequence type 10217, which caused the outbreaks in Nigeria during 2013–2014 and for which a clonal complex has not yet been defined. The NmC isolates from Niger were substantially different from other NmC isolates collected globally. All NmW isolates belonged to clonal complex 11 and were closely related to the isolates causing recent outbreaks in Africa. PMID:27649262

  2. Epidemiologic investigation by macrorestriction analysis and by using monoclonal antibodies of nosocomial pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 10.

    PubMed

    Lück, P C; Helbig, J H; Günter, U; Assmann, M; Blau, R; Koch, H; Klepp, M

    1994-11-01

    A 67-year-old woman was hospitalized with an acute pneumonia of the left lower lobe. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 10 was cultured from two sputum specimens taken on days 18 and 20 and was also detected by direct immunofluorescence assay by using a commercially available species-specific monoclonal antibody as well as serogroup 10-specific monoclonal antibodies. Antigenuria was detected in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays by using serogroup 10-specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. In the indirect immunofluorescence test rising antibody titers against serogroups 1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 14, and 15 were found in serum, with the highest titers found against serogroups 8, 9, and 10. L. pneumophila serogroups 10 and 6 and a strain that reacted with serogroup 4 and 14 antisera were cultured from both central and peripheral hot water systems of the hospital. Macrorestriction analyses of the genomic DNAs by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that the isolate from the patient was identical to the serogroup 10 strains from the hospital hot water system. In contrast, the genomic DNAs of 16 unrelated L. pneumophila serogroup 10 strains showed 12 different restriction patterns. Monoclonal antibody subtyping revealed only minor differences in L. pneumophila serogroup 10 strains isolated from different sources. In conclusion, macrorestriction analysis is a valuable tool for studying the molecular epidemiology of L. pneumophila serogroup 10.

  3. Epidemiologic investigation by macrorestriction analysis and by using monoclonal antibodies of nosocomial pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 10.

    PubMed Central

    Lück, P C; Helbig, J H; Günter, U; Assmann, M; Blau, R; Koch, H; Klepp, M

    1994-01-01

    A 67-year-old woman was hospitalized with an acute pneumonia of the left lower lobe. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 10 was cultured from two sputum specimens taken on days 18 and 20 and was also detected by direct immunofluorescence assay by using a commercially available species-specific monoclonal antibody as well as serogroup 10-specific monoclonal antibodies. Antigenuria was detected in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays by using serogroup 10-specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. In the indirect immunofluorescence test rising antibody titers against serogroups 1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 14, and 15 were found in serum, with the highest titers found against serogroups 8, 9, and 10. L. pneumophila serogroups 10 and 6 and a strain that reacted with serogroup 4 and 14 antisera were cultured from both central and peripheral hot water systems of the hospital. Macrorestriction analyses of the genomic DNAs by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that the isolate from the patient was identical to the serogroup 10 strains from the hospital hot water system. In contrast, the genomic DNAs of 16 unrelated L. pneumophila serogroup 10 strains showed 12 different restriction patterns. Monoclonal antibody subtyping revealed only minor differences in L. pneumophila serogroup 10 strains isolated from different sources. In conclusion, macrorestriction analysis is a valuable tool for studying the molecular epidemiology of L. pneumophila serogroup 10. Images PMID:7852558

  4. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis supports Th17 differentiation and limits de novo regulatory T cell induction by directly interfering with T cell receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Pasztoi, Maria; Bonifacius, Agnes; Pezoldt, Joern; Kulkarni, Devesha; Niemz, Jana; Yang, Juhao; Teich, René; Hajek, Janina; Pisano, Fabio; Rohde, Manfred; Dersch, Petra; Huehn, Jochen

    2017-04-04

    Adaptive immunity critically contributes to control acute infection with enteropathogenic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis; however, the role of CD4(+) T cell subsets in establishing infection and allowing pathogen persistence remains elusive. Here, we assessed the modulatory capacity of Y. pseudotuberculosis on CD4(+) T cell differentiation. Using in vivo assays, we report that infection with Y. pseudotuberculosis resulted in enhanced priming of IL-17-producing T cells (Th17 cells), whereas induction of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) was severely disrupted in gut-draining mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs), in line with altered frequencies of tolerogenic and proinflammatory dendritic cell (DC) subsets within mLNs. Additionally, by using a DC-free in vitro system, we could demonstrate that Y. pseudotuberculosis can directly modulate T cell receptor (TCR) downstream signaling within naïve CD4(+) T cells and Tregs via injection of effector molecules through the type III secretion system, thereby affecting their functional properties. Importantly, modulation of naïve CD4(+) T cells by Y. pseudotuberculosis resulted in an enhanced Th17 differentiation and decreased induction of Foxp3(+) Tregs in vitro. These findings shed light to the adjustment of the Th17-Treg axis in response to acute Y. pseudotuberculosis infection and highlight the direct modulation of CD4(+) T cell subsets by altering their TCR downstream signaling.

  5. Standardization of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup B Colorimetric Serum Bactericida Assay

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Tamara; Lastre, Miriam; Cedré, Barbara; Campo, Judith del; Bracho, Gustavo; Zayas, Caridad; Taboada, Carlos; Díaz, Miriam; Sierra, Gustavo; Pérez, Oliver

    2002-01-01

    The correlate of protection for serogroup B meningococci is not currently known, but for serogroup C it is believed to be the serum bactericidal assay (SBA). The current SBAs are labor intensive and the variations in protocols among different laboratories make interpretation of results difficult. A colorimetric SBA (cSBA), based on the ability of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B to consume glucose, leading to acid production, was standardized by using group B strain Cu385-83 as the target. The cSBA results were compared to those obtained for a traditional colony-counting microassay (mSBA). Glucose and bromocresol purple pH indicator were added to the medium in order to estimate growth of cSBA target cell survivors through color change. Different variants of the assay parameters were optimized: growth of target cells (Mueller Hinton agar plates), target cell number (100 CFU/per well), and human complement source used at a final concentration of 25%. After the optimization, three other group B strains (H44/76, 490/91, and 511/91) were used as targets for the cSBA. The selection of the assay parameters and the standardization of cSBA were done with 13 sera from vaccinated volunteers. The titers were determined as the higher serum dilution that totally inhibited the bacterial growth marked by the color invariability of the pH indicator. This was detected visually as well as spectrophotometrically and was closely related to a significant difference in the growth of target cell survivors determined using Student’s t test. Intralaboratory reproducibility was ±1 dilution. The correlation between bactericidal median titers and specific immunoglobulin G serum concentration by enzyme immunoassay was high (r = 0.910, P < 0.01). The bactericidal titers generated by the cSBA and the mSBA were nearly identical, and there was a high correlation between the two assays (r = 0.974, P < 0.01). The standardized cSBA allows easy, fast, and efficient evaluation of samples. PMID

  6. [Prevalence of type III secretion system genes in cholera vibrios from different serogroups].

    PubMed

    Eroshenko, G A; Kutyrev, V V; Fadeeva, A V; Shavina, N Iu; Stepanov, A V

    2008-01-01

    Prevalence of vcs genes coding the type III secretion system (T3SS) in cholera vibrios of different serogroups isolated in Russia and neighboring countries was studied for the first time. Virulent strains of O1 and O139 serogroups as well as toxigenic Vibrio cholerae strains of other serogroups contained no T3SS genes. Unlike mentioned strains, 29.2% of atoxigenic non O1/non O139 cholera vibrios isolated from patients in Russia and neighboring countries contained the T3SS genes cluster, which might contribute to the pathogenic properties of these strains.

  7. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay typing of California serogroup viruses isolated in Canada.

    PubMed

    Artsob, H; Spence, L P; Th'ng, C

    1984-08-01

    A procedure was developed to type California serogroup viruses by an antibody-capture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seven California serogroup members from North America were distinguished, including snowshoe hare, La Crosse, California encephalitis, San Angelo, Jamestown Canyon, Keystone, and trivittatus. Extensive cross-reactions were observed between Jamestown Canyon and the closely related South River strain. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method was successfully applied to the typing of 77 California serogroup viruses isolated in Canada, including 61 snowshoe hare, 13 Jamestown Canyon, and 3 trivittatus topotypes.

  8. Evaluation of Semiautomated Multiplex PCR Assay for Determination of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes and Serogroups

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Elliot R.; Griffiths, David B.; Martin, Siobhán A.; George, Robert C.; Hall, Lucinda M. C.

    2003-01-01

    A semiautomated method for the determination of five serotypes and three serogroups in Streptococcus pneumoniae was developed. Primers specific for serotypes 1, 3, 14, 19F, and 23F and serogroups 6, 19, and 23 were combined in three multiplex PCRs. Products were separated by capillary electrophoresis with a 7-min run time, and a serotype or serogroup was assigned on the basis of fragment size. The method was used to test 93 clinical isolates, and all isolates of the serotypes concerned were correctly detected. The strategy would allow the detection of multiple serotypes in a single sample. Detection of additional serotypes could be included as capsule locus sequences become available. PMID:12574253

  9. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 3 from pericardial fluid in a case of pericarditis.

    PubMed

    Lück, P C; Helbig, J H; Wunderlich, E; Foelske, H; Selbitschka, M; Wenzel, D; Pätzold, L; Witzleb, W

    1989-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman was hospitalized for fulminant pericarditis. During diagnostic work-up, an as yet unknown bronchial carcinoma was detected. In the pericardial exudate Legionella pneumophila serogroup 3 was demonstrated by direct fluorescent antibody technique and by culture. In a lung biopsy L. pneumophila serogroup 3 was found, too. Using an antigen-ELISA for L. pneumophila serogroup 1, antigenuria was demonstrated. In cases of pericarditis negative for common bacterial pathogens, all diagnostic tests for legionellae, e.g. culture, antigen detection in pericardial, pleural effusion and urine and antibody detection should be included in the diagnostic programme.

  10. Role of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis outer proteins (Yops) in murine humoral immune response.

    PubMed

    Maia, J M L; Monnazzi, L G S; Medeiros, B M M

    2009-01-01

    The infection of mice with the wild-type (WT) strain of Y. pseudotuberculosis did not induce polyclonal activation of B lymphocytes. Suppression in the production of certain isotypes of Ig was observed, provoked mainly by YopH, YopJ and YpkA. The WT strain induced a progressive increase in the serum-specific IgG, which peaked after 4 weeks after infection, IgM being produced only after 1 week. Autoantibodies against phosphorylcholine, myelin, thyroglobulin and cardiolipin could be detected in the serum of mice infected with the WT strain. The infection of mice provoked suppression in the production of immunoglobulins by splenic B cells and that YopH, YopJ and YpkA must be involved here.

  11. The role of houseflies (Musca domestica) in harbouring Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in dairy herds in Israel.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Y; Chizov-Ginzburg, A; Saran, A; Winkler, M

    1999-12-01

    A study was conducted to assess the role of houseflies, Musca domestica L. in harbouring Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in dairy farms in Israel. The bacterium was isolated in June 1993 from 40 wild houseflies which had fed on a lesion on a cow, and from 28 laboratory flies fed on contaminated milk from a cow infected with mastitis. The bacterium was recovered from the body surface of 10 flies (of a total of 160) 10 min after being dipped entirely in a bacterial broth. The bacterium was recovered from the body surface of 10 flies (of a total of 40) 5 min after being fed on contaminated milk. When 110 flies were fed on contaminated sugar cubes, the bacterium was recovered externally from 70 flies 5 min later, and from an additional 20 flies 10 min after feeding. Of 110 flies, 80 excreted bacteria in saliva from 5 min to 3 h after feeding on contaminated milk. Bacteria were isolated from the intestine of 40 of 60 flies between 1 h and 4 h after feeding on contaminated milk. Bacteria were found in the faeces of 30 of 60 flies, between 1 h and 4 h after feeding on contaminated milk. In the light of these findings, and given the fact that this species of fly has a predilection to feed on milk residues of cow teats, the authors concluded that the housefly plays an important role in harbouring and disseminating C. pseudotuberculosis in dairy herds in Israel. In contrast, stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans L.) are not important in the habouring and dissemination of the bacteria, since bacteria were not recovered 5, 10, 15, 30 min, 2 h or 24 h after membrane feeding on a mixture of bacterial broth and blood.

  12. The core stimulon of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain 1002 identified using ab initio methodologies.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Anne Cybelle; Ramos, Rommel T J; Silva, Wanderson Marques; Rocha, Flávia Souza; Barbosa, Silvanira; Miyoshi, Anderson; Schneider, Maria P C; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco

    2012-07-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a bacterium which causes diseases such as caseous lymphadenitis in small ruminants, resulting in large-scale economic losses for agribusiness worldwide. Consequently, this bacterium including its transcriptional profile analysis has been the focus of various studies. Identification of the transcripts that appear under conditions that simulate the environment encountered by this bacterial species in the host is of great importance in discovering new targets for the production of more efficient vaccines. We sequenced the cDNA of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain 1002, using the SOLiD V3 system, under the following conditions: osmotic stress (2 M), acidity (pH), heat shock (50 °C) and control condition (N). To identify the transcripts shared among the stimulons and integrate this information with the results from BLAST and BLAST2GO, we developed the software CoreStImulon (CSI) which allows the user to individually distinguish the genes in terms of their participation in biological processes, their function and cellular location. In the biosynthetic processes, eleven genes represented in the core stimulon and twenty genes in the control were observed. This validates the hypothesis that the organisms strategy for surviving in a hostile environment is through growth reduction. The oxidation reduction process, response to stress process, and cell adhesion are controlled by genes that contribute to bacterial cell maintenance under stress conditions; these could be involved in their pathogenicity. The methodology for identification of transcripts obtained by ab initio assembly and shared among the stimulons permitted candidates selection for vaccine studies. CSI is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/corestimulon/.

  13. Extracytoplasmic-stress-responsive pathways modulate type III secretion in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Katrin E; Liu, Junfa; Edqvist, Petra J; Francis, Matthew S

    2007-08-01

    Three signal transduction pathways, the two-component systems CpxRA and BaeSR and the alternative sigma factor sigma(E), respond to extracytoplasmic stress that facilitates bacterial adaptation to changing environments. At least the CpxRA and sigma(E) pathways control the production of protein-folding and degradation factors that counter the effects of protein misfolding in the periplasm. This function also influences the biogenesis of multicomponent extracellular appendages that span the bacterial envelope, such as various forms of pili. Herein, we investigated whether any of these regulatory pathways in the enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis affect the functionality of the Ysc-Yop type III secretion system. This is a multicomponent molecular syringe spanning the bacterial envelope used to inject effector proteins directly into eukaryotic cells. Disruption of individual components revealed that the Cpx and sigma(E) pathways are important for Y. pseudotuberculosis type III secretion of Yops (Yersinia outer proteins). In particular, a loss of CpxA, a sensor kinase, reduced levels of structural Ysc (Yersinia secretion) components in bacterial membranes, suggesting that these mutant bacteria are less able to assemble a functional secretion apparatus. Moreover, these bacteria were no longer capable of localizing Yops into the eukaryotic cell interior. In addition, a cpxA lcrQ double mutant engineered to overproduce and secrete Yops was still impaired in intoxicating cells. Thus, the Cpx pathway might mediate multiple influences on bacterium-target cell contact that modulate Yersinia type III secretion-dependent host cell cytotoxicity.

  14. [Characterization of the lipopolysaccharides of serogroup II Azospirillum].

    PubMed

    Sigida, E N; Fedonenko, Iu P; Zdorovenko, É L; Butygin, G L; Konnova, S A; Ignatov, V V

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides of six Azospirillum strains (A. brasilense SR50, SR80, SR88, SR109, SR111, SR115, and A. lipoferum SR 42) isolated from the rhizosphere of cereal plants of Saratov oblast, Russia and assigned to serogroup II by serological analysis were studied. In the lipid A fatty acid composition, the lipopolysaccharides under study were similar to those of other Azospirillum strains and were characterized by predominance of 3-hydroxytetradecanoic, 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic, and octadecenoic acids. Monosaccharide analysis of the O-specific polysaccharides (including determination of the absolute configurations, methylation analysis, and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy) revealed the presence of two types of repeating units in varying ratios. High degree of serological similarity between the strains under study was shown to result from the presence of repeating units with identical structure in their O antigens.

  15. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 in a birthing pool.

    PubMed

    Teare, L; Millership, S

    2012-09-01

    This report describes a risk assessment and subsequent actions following isolation of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 in the water supply to a birthing pool during a planned maintenance programme. A literature search for cases of neonatal legionellosis identified 24 reports of cases among babies aged <2 months, two of which were associated with water births. On this basis, the pool was closed until Legionella spp. were undetectable. Control proved difficult as hyperchlorination failed, and a filter fitted to the thermostatic mixer tap supplying the pool slowed filling so much that additional taps were required to achieve a satisfactory flow rate. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mortality in Captive Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in China Due to Infection with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Serotype O:1a.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Li, Meng; Amer, Said; Liu, Shelan; Luo, Jing; Wang, Shan; He, Hongxuan

    2016-09-01

    The most common serotypes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infecting non-human primates are serotypes O:1b, O:3, O:4, and O:7. The O:1a serotype has never been reported in non-human primates. The present study describes an outbreak of serotype O:1a with high fatality (6/18) in captive rhesus monkeys in China. Bacteria were isolated from different organs of the carcasses using standard microbiological procedures. The strain was identified using conventional and molecular techniques such as morphological and biochemical identification, serotype determination, PCR-sequence analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene, detection of virulence genes, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The pathogenicity was determined after experimental infection in mice. Taken together, the obtained data indicate that Y. pseudotuberculosis O:1a is a pathogen of concern and represents a potential threat to monkey conservation efforts.

  17. Presence of Salmonella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in wild boars.

    PubMed

    Sannö, A; Aspán, A; Hestvik, G; Jacobson, M

    2014-12-01

    The European wild boar populations are growing and spreading to new areas, which might constitute a threat to public health, since wild boar can harbour pathogens with the potential to cause serious illness in humans. Tonsils, ileocaecal lymph nodes and faecal samples were collected from 88 Swedish wild boars and analysed for the presence of the zoonotic pathogens Salmonella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC). A combination of cultivation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was used and overall, 20% of sampled individuals tested positive for Y. enterocolitica, 20% for Y. pseudotuberculosis and 10% for Salmonella spp. A total of 41% of sampled individuals tested positive for one or more of these three pathogens. No EHEC were detected. Samples PCR-positive for Salmonella spp. were cultivated further and six isolates were obtained, belonging to Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica and subspecies diarizone. The pathogens were most commonly detected in tonsil samples.

  18. A second controlled field trial of a serogroup A meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine in Alexandria

    PubMed Central

    Wahdan, M. H.; Sallam, S. A.; Hassan, M. N.; Abdel Gawad, A.; Rakha, A. S.; Sippel, J. E.; Hablas, R.; Sanborn, W. R.; Kassem, N. M.; Riad, S. M.; Cvjetanović, B.

    1977-01-01

    The encouraging results of an earlier controlled field trial of the serogroup A meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine in the prevention of clinical disease prompted this study, the aim of which was to evaluate further the effectiveness of another lot of this type of vaccine, the duration of immunity, and the effectiveness against meningococcal carriage. A controlled field trial was carried out in early 1973 on 176 646 schoolchildren 6-15 years of age, of whom half received the serogroup A polysaccharide vaccine and the other half tetanus toxoid as a control. The incidence of cerebrospinal meningitis caused by serogroup A meningococci was 89% lower in the immunized group than in the controls for one year only. With regard to its effect on carriage, the vaccine was found to reduce to less than half the rate of new acquisition of serogroup A meningococci during the period immediately following immunization. The duration of the carrier state was also shortened in the immunized group. PMID:413639

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Brazilian Leptospira noguchii Serogroup Panama Strain U73, Isolated from Cattle.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Loureiro, Ana P; Miraglia, Fabiana; Matajira, Carlos E C; Kremer, Frederico S; Eslabao, Marcos R; Dellagostin, Odir A; Lilenbaum, Walter; Moreno, Andrea M

    2015-10-15

    Leptospira noguchii is a current zoonotic pathogen in Brazil. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Brazilian L. noguchii serogroup Panama strain U73, isolated from asymptomatic cattle urine.

  20. A case of pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 12 and treated successfully with imipenem.

    PubMed

    Nishizuka, Midori; Suzuki, Hiroki; Ara, Tomoka; Watanabe, Mari; Morita, Mami; Sato, Chisa; Tsuchida, Fumihiro; Seto, Junji; Amemura-Maekawa, Junko; Kura, Fumiaki; Takeda, Hiroaki

    2014-06-01

    The patient was an 83-year-old man hospitalized for Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia, who developed recurrent pneumonia after improvement of the initial episode. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 12 was isolated from the sputum, accompanied by increased serum antibody titers to L. pneumophila serogroup 12. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed as having Legionella pneumonia caused by L. pneumophila serogroup 12. Case reports of pneumonia caused by L. pneumophila serogroup 12 are rare, and the case described herein is the first report of clinical isolation of this organism in Japan. When the genotype was determined by the protocol of The European Working Group for Legionella Infections (Sequence-Based Typing [SBT] for epidemiological typing of L. pneumophila, Version 3.1), the sequence type was ST68. Imipenem/cilastatin therapy was found to be effective for the treatment of Legionella pneumonia in this patient.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Brazilian Leptospira noguchii Serogroup Panama Strain U73, Isolated from Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Luisa Z.; Loureiro, Ana P.; Miraglia, Fabiana; Matajira, Carlos E. C.; Kremer, Frederico S.; Eslabao, Marcos R.; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Leptospira noguchii is a current zoonotic pathogen in Brazil. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Brazilian L. noguchii serogroup Panama strain U73, isolated from asymptomatic cattle urine. PMID:26472831

  2. Modeling future changes to the meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccine program in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Caroline L; Edmunds, W John; Ramsay, Mary E; Miller, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The UK meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccine program has successfully controlled serogroup C disease, due to high vaccine effectiveness and substantial herd immunity. However, children immunised at 2, 3 and 4 months of age receive only short-term direct protection and may be at risk of disease 15 months after vaccination. To investigate this we applied a mathematical model to predict the future epidemiology of serogroup C disease, with and without changes to the immunization schedule. Only a few cases of serogroup C disease were predicted to occur over the next few years because of persisting herd immunity, even without a change to the vaccine schedule. The inclusion of a booster dose is likely to improve the impact of the MCC program and reducing the number of doses in infancy will improve cost-effectiveness and create space in the schedule for the addition of other vaccines.

  3. Genome-Based Characterization of Emergent Invasive Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup Y Isolates in Sweden from 1995 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Törös, Bianca; Hedberg, Sara T.; Unemo, Magnus; Jacobsson, Susanne; Hill, Dorothea M. C.; Olcén, Per; Fredlund, Hans; Bratcher, Holly B.; Jolley, Keith A.; Maiden, Martin C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup Y has increased in Europe, especially in Scandinavia. In Sweden, serogroup Y is now the dominating serogroup, and in 2012, the serogroup Y disease incidence was 0.46/100,000 population. We previously showed that a strain type belonging to sequence type 23 was responsible for the increased prevalence of this serogroup in Sweden. The objective of this study was to investigate the serogroup Y emergence by whole-genome sequencing and compare the meningococcal population structure of Swedish invasive serogroup Y strains to those of other countries with different IMD incidence. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on invasive serogroup Y isolates from 1995 to 2012 in Sweden (n = 186). These isolates were compared to a collection of serogroup Y isolates from England, Wales, and Northern Ireland from 2010 to 2012 (n = 143), which had relatively low serogroup Y incidence, and two isolates obtained in 1999 in the United States, where serogroup Y remains one of the major causes of IMD. The meningococcal population structures were similar in the investigated regions; however, different strain types were prevalent in each geographic region. A number of genes known or hypothesized to have an impact on meningococcal virulence were shown to be associated with different strain types and subtypes. The reasons for the IMD increase are multifactorial and are influenced by increased virulence, host adaptive immunity, and transmission. Future genome-wide association studies are needed to reveal additional genes associated with serogroup Y meningococcal disease, and this work would benefit from a complete serogroup Y meningococcal reference genome. PMID:25926489

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain CIP 52.97, Isolated from a Horse in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Cerdeira, Louise Teixeira; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Pinto, Anne Cybelle; de Almeida, Sintia Silva; dos Santos, Anderson Rodrigues; Barbosa, Eudes Guilherme Vieira; Ali, Amjad; Aburjaile, Flávia Figueira; de Abreu, Vinicius Augusto Carvalho; Guimarães, Luis Carlos; Soares, Siomar de Castro; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; Rocha, Flávia Souza; Bol, Erick; Gomes de Sá, Pablo Henrique Caracciolo; Lopes, Thiago Souza; Barbosa, Maria Silvanira; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Jucá Ramos, Rommel Thiago; Coimbra, Nilson Antônio da Rocha; Lima, Alex Ranieri Jerônimo; Barh, Debmalya; Jain, Neha; Tiwari, Sandeep; Raja, Rathiram; Zambare, Vasudeo; Ghosh, Preetam; Trost, Eva; Tauch, Andreas; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report the whole-genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis bv. equi strain CIP 52.97 (Collection Institut Pasteur), isolated in 1952 from a case of ulcerative lymphangitis in a Kenyan horse, which has evidently caused significant losses to agribusiness. Therefore, obtaining this genome will allow the detection of important targets for postgenomic studies, with the aim of minimizing problems caused by this microorganism. PMID:22123771

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain PA07 Biovar ovis, Isolated from a Sheep Udder in Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Fabrício Almeida; Marques, Joana Montezano; de Moura, Vitória Almeida Gonçalves; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Andrade, Soraya Silva; Lima, Alyne Cristina Sodré; Folador, Adriana Ribeiro Carneiro; Silva, Artur

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this work, we present the draft genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain PA07 biovar ovis, isolated from a caseous secretion from a sheep udder in Pará, Brazil. The genome contains 2,320,235 bp, 52.2% G+C content, 2,191 coding sequences (CDSs), five pseudogenes, 48 tRNAs, and three rRNAs. PMID:28336591

  6. Complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain CIP 52.97, isolated from a horse in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Cerdeira, Louise Teixeira; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Pinto, Anne Cybelle; de Almeida, Sintia Silva; dos Santos, Anderson Rodrigues; Barbosa, Eudes Guilherme Vieira; Ali, Amjad; Aburjaile, Flávia Figueira; de Abreu, Vinicius Augusto Carvalho; Guimarães, Luis Carlos; Soares, Siomar de Castro; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; Rocha, Flávia Souza; Bol, Erick; Gomes de Sá, Pablo Henrique Caracciolo; Lopes, Thiago Souza; Barbosa, Maria Silvanira; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Jucá Ramos, Rommel Thiago; Coimbra, Nilson Antônio da Rocha; Lima, Alex Ranieri Jerônimo; Barh, Debmalya; Jain, Neha; Tiwari, Sandeep; Raja, Rathiram; Zambare, Vasudeo; Ghosh, Preetam; Trost, Eva; Tauch, Andreas; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur

    2011-12-01

    In this work, we report the whole-genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis bv. equi strain CIP 52.97 (Collection Institut Pasteur), isolated in 1952 from a case of ulcerative lymphangitis in a Kenyan horse, which has evidently caused significant losses to agribusiness. Therefore, obtaining this genome will allow the detection of important targets for postgenomic studies, with the aim of minimizing problems caused by this microorganism.

  7. Hereditary Hemochromatosis Predisposes Mice to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Infection Even in the Absence of the Type III Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Halie K.; Schwiesow, Leah; Au-Yeung, Winnie; Auerbuch, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The iron overload disorder hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) predisposes humans to serious disseminated infection with pathogenic Yersinia as well as several other pathogens. Recently, we showed that the iron-sulfur cluster coordinating transcription factor IscR is required for type III secretion in Y. pseudotuberculosis by direct control of the T3SS master regulator LcrF. In E. coli and Yersinia, IscR levels are predicted to be regulated by iron bioavailability, oxygen tension, and oxidative stress, such that iron depletion should lead to increased IscR levels. To investigate how host iron overload influences Y. pseudotuberculosis virulence and the requirement for the Ysc type III secretion system (T3SS), we utilized two distinct murine models of HH: hemojuvelin knockout mice that mimic severe, early-onset HH as well as mice with the HfeC282Y∕C282Y mutation carried by 10% of people of Northern European descent, associated with adult-onset HH. Hjv−∕− and HfeC282Y∕C282Y transgenic mice displayed enhanced colonization of deep tissues by Y. pseudotuberculosis following oral inoculation, recapitulating enhanced susceptibility of humans with HH to disseminated infection with enteropathogenic Yersinia. Importantly, HH mice orally infected with Y. pseudotuberculosis lacking the T3SS-encoding virulence plasmid, pYV, displayed increased deep tissue colonization relative to wildtype mice. Consistent with previous reports using monocytes from HH vs. healthy donors, macrophages isolated from HfeC282Y∕C282Y mice were defective in Yersinia uptake compared to wildtype macrophages, indicating that the anti-phagocytic property of the Yersinia T3SS plays a less important role in HH animals. These data suggest that Yersinia may rely on distinct virulence factors to cause disease in healthy vs. HH hosts. PMID:27446816

  8. Homology analysis of pathogenic Yersinia species Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and Yersinia pestis based on multilocus sequence typing.

    PubMed

    Duan, Ran; Liang, Junrong; Shi, Guoxiang; Cui, Zhigang; Hai, Rong; Wang, Peng; Xiao, Yuchun; Li, Kewei; Qiu, Haiyan; Gu, Wenpeng; Du, Xiaoli; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    We developed a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme and used it to study the population structure and evolutionary relationships of three pathogenic Yersinia species. MLST of these three Yersinia species showed a complex of two clusters, one composed of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis and the other composed of Yersinia enterocolitica. Within the first cluster, the predominant Y. pestis sequence type 90 (ST90) was linked to Y. pseudotuberculosis ST43 by one locus difference, and 81.25% of the ST43 strains were from serotype O:1b, supporting the hypothesis that Y. pestis descended from the O:1b serotype of Y. pseudotuberculosis. We also found that the worldwide-prevalent serotypes O:1a, O:1b, and O:3 were predominated by specific STs. The second cluster consisted of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, two of which may not have identical STs. The pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains formed a relatively conserved group; most strains clustered within ST186 and ST187. Serotypes O:3, O:8, and O:9 were separated into three distinct blocks. Nonpathogenic Y. enterocolitica STs were more heterogeneous, reflecting genetic diversity through evolution. By providing a better and effective MLST procedure for use with the Yersinia community, valuable information and insights into the genetic evolutionary differences of these pathogens were obtained.

  9. Redefining the differences in gene content between Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis using large-scale comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Califf, Katy J.; Keim, Paul S.; Wagner, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is best known for historical pandemics, but still actively causes disease in many parts of the world. Y. pestis is a recently derived clone of the pathogenic species Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, but is more associated with human infection. Numerous studies have documented genomic changes since the two species differentiated, although all of these studies used a relatively small sample set for defining these differences. In this study, we compared the complete genomic content between a diverse set of Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis genomes, and identified unique loci that could serve as diagnostic markers or for better understanding the evolution and pathogenesis of each group. Comparative genomics analyses also identified subtle variations in gene content between individual monophyletic clades within these species, based on a core genome single nucleotide polymorphism phylogeny that would have been undetected in a less comprehensive genome dataset. We also screened loci that were identified in other published studies as unique to either species and generally found a non-uniform distribution, suggesting that the assignment of these unique genes to either species should be re-evaluated in the context of current sequencing efforts. Overall, this study provides a high-resolution view into the genomic differences between Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis, demonstrating fine-scale differentiation and unique gene composition in both species. PMID:28348813

  10. Generation of a CRISPR database for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis complex and role of CRISPR-based immunity in conjugation.

    PubMed

    Koskela, Katja A; Mattinen, Laura; Kalin-Mänttäri, Laura; Vergnaud, Gilles; Gorgé, Olivier; Nikkari, Simo; Skurnik, Mikael

    2015-11-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat - CRISPR-associated genes (CRISPR-Cas) system is used by bacteria and archaea against invading conjugative plasmids or bacteriophages. Central to this immunity system are genomic CRISPR loci that contain fragments of invading DNA. These are maintained as spacers in the CRISPR loci between direct repeats and the spacer composition in any bacterium reflects its evolutionary history. We analysed the CRISPR locus sequences of 335 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis complex strains. Altogether 1902 different spacer sequences were identified and these were used to generate a database for the spacer sequences. Only ∼10% of the spacer sequences found matching sequences. In addition, surprisingly few spacers were shared by Yersinia pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis strains. Interestingly, 32 different protospacers were present in the conjugative plasmid pYptb32953. The corresponding spacers were identified from 35 different Y. pseudotuberculosis strains indicating that these strains had encountered pYptb32953 earlier. In conjugation experiments, pYptb32953-specific spacers generally prevented conjugation with spacer-positive and spacer-free strains. However, some strains with one to four spacers were invaded by pYptb32953 and some spacer-free strains were fully resistant. Also some spacer-positive strains were intermediate resistant to conjugation. This suggests that one or more other defence systems are determining conjugation efficiency independent of the CRISPR-Cas system. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Development of a DNA Microarray for Molecular Identification of All 46 Salmonella O Serogroups

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dan; Liu, Bin; Liu, Fenxia; Cao, Boyang; Chen, Min; Hao, Xiyan; Feng, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of food-borne disease in many countries. Serotype determination of Salmonella is important for disease assessment, infection control, and epidemiological surveillance. In this study, a microarray system that targets the O antigen-specific genes was developed for simultaneously detecting and identifying all 46 Salmonella O serogroups. Of these, 40 serogroups can be confidently identified, and the remaining 6, in three pairs (serogroups O67 and B, E1 and E4, and A and D1), need to be further distinguished from each other using PCR methods or conventional serotyping methods. The microarray was shown to be highly specific when evaluated against 293 Salmonella strains, 186 Shigella strains, representative Escherichia coli strains, and 10 strains of other bacterial species. The assay correctly identified 288 (98%) of the Salmonella strains. The detection sensitivity was determined to be 50 ng genomic DNA per sample. By testing simulated samples in a tomato background, 2 to 8 CFU per gram inoculated could be detected after enrichment. This newly developed microarray assay is the first molecular protocol that can be used for the comprehensive detection and identification of all 46 Salmonella O serogroups. Compared to the traditional serogrouping method, the microarray provides a reliable, high-throughput, and sensitive approach that can be used for rapid identification of multiple Salmonella O serogroups simultaneously. PMID:23524674

  12. Incidence of salmonellosis and identification of serogroups and serotypes in a pig commercial farm in Yucatan.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Buenfil, J C; Alvarez-Fleites, M; Segura-Correa, J C

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted in order to detect the presence of Salmonella spp in fattening pigs, to identify the serogroups present and to determine the sensibility to the antibiotics more used in the region. The farm was a breeding farm of a multiple-site system. Of the total farrowings of a week, 55 sows and one piglet from each sow were selected. All pigs were negative to Salmonella spp. at the star of the study. Piglets were monitored from day two of age (six times; every 23 days approximately) up to finishing (23 weeks of age). Samples of feces (1 g/animal) were collected directly from the pig's rectum. The first positive pig was found at the second sampling (25 days) and the highest number of positive cases in the fifth sampling (117 days). The cumulative incidence was 52.7%. Thirty-four out of the 40 Salmonellas isolated corresponded to the B serogroup and 6 to the C2 serogroup. The serotypes found in the B serogroup were: S. typhimurium (28/34) and S. agona (6/34). Regarding serogroup C2 these were: S. romanby and S ajiobo. Salmonella spp B serogroup included three of the serotypes more commonly isolated in humans: S. typhimurium, S. agona and S. heidelberg.

  13. First isolation of Leptospira noguchii serogroups Panama and Autumnalis from cattle.

    PubMed

    Martins, G; Loureiro, A P; Hamond, C; Pinna, M H; Bremont, S; Bourhy, P; Lilenbaum, W

    2015-05-01

    Prevention and control of leptospirosis are based on the knowledge of locally circulating strains. Thus, efforts to obtain local isolates are paramount to the epidemiological understanding of leptospirosis. We report and discuss here the first isolation of members of serogroups Autumnalis and Panama from cattle, both belonging to Leptospira noguchii species. Urine samples (n = 167) were collected directly by puncture of the bladder from randomly selected cows from a slaughterhouse in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for bacteriological culture. Isolates were characterized by serogrouping and sequencing (rrs and secY genes). Overall, 10/167 positive urine samples (6%) were obtained. Sequencing of amplicons targeting for both rrs and secY genes identified two of them (2013_U73 and 2013_U232) as L. noguchii. Serogrouping of those strains indicated that 2013_U73 belonged to the Panama serogroup (titre 1600), and 2013_U232 to the Autumnalis serogroup (titre 12800). Both Panama and Autumnalis are known agents of incidental leptospirosis in cattle. This group of leptospires could be particularly important in tropical countries. This is the first report of members of serogroups Autumnalis and Panama belonging to L. noguchii species from cattle. Although related to previously reported strains, these isolates have been shown to be genetically diverse from them.

  14. Do Older Rural and Urban Veterans Experience Different Rates of Unplanned Readmission to VA and Non-VA Hospitals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, William B.; Lee, Richard E.; Wallace, Amy E.; West, Alan N.; Bagian, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Unplanned readmission within 30 days of discharge is an indicator of hospital quality. Purpose: We wanted to determine whether older rural veterans who were enrolled in the VA had different rates of unplanned readmission to VA or non-VA hospitals than their urban counterparts. Methods: We used the combined VA/Medicare dataset to examine…

  15. Do Older Rural and Urban Veterans Experience Different Rates of Unplanned Readmission to VA and Non-VA Hospitals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, William B.; Lee, Richard E.; Wallace, Amy E.; West, Alan N.; Bagian, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Unplanned readmission within 30 days of discharge is an indicator of hospital quality. Purpose: We wanted to determine whether older rural veterans who were enrolled in the VA had different rates of unplanned readmission to VA or non-VA hospitals than their urban counterparts. Methods: We used the combined VA/Medicare dataset to examine…

  16. Rapid identification of herd effects with the introduction of serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine in Ontario, Canada, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Kinlin, Laura M; Jamieson, Frances; Brown, Elizabeth M; Brown, Shirley; Rawte, Prasad; Dolman, Sharon; Drews, Steven J; Fisman, David N

    2009-03-10

    In 2001, Canada's National Advisory Committee on Immunization endorsed a meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine, which appears to provide durable serogroup-specific immunity while reducing nasopharyngeal carriage. With reference to direct and indirect effects on case occurrence, we sought to evaluate recent trends in the incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Ontario. Analyses included all IMD cases reported between 2000 and 2006 to the Ontario Central Public Health Laboratory. Poisson models incorporating terms for age, sex and seasonal oscillation identified a significant downward trend in disease occurrence, which was strongest in serogroup C cases and not evident when serogroup C strains were excluded from the analysis. Among age groups not targeted by the vaccine program serogroup C, IMD displayed a pattern of decreasing incidence that was not present in non-serogroup C disease. These apparent dramatic effects of conjugate C vaccine (both direct and indirect) may be important in the implementation and evaluation of vaccine policy in other jurisdictions.

  17. Meningococcal serogroup B vaccines: Estimating breadth of coverage

    PubMed Central

    Donald, Robert G. K.; Hawkins, Julio Cesar; Hao, Li; Liberator, Paul; Jones, Thomas R.; Harris, Shannon L.; Perez, John L.; Eiden, Joseph J.; Jansen, Kathrin U.; Anderson, Annaliesa S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MenB) is an important cause of invasive meningococcal disease. The development of safe and effective vaccines with activity across the diversity of MenB strains has been challenging. While capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccines have been highly successful in the prevention of disease due to meningococcal serogroups A, C, W, and Y, this approach has not been possible for MenB owing to the poor immunogenicity of the MenB capsular polysaccharide. Vaccines based on outer membrane vesicles have been successful in the prevention of invasive MenB disease caused by the single epidemic strain from which they were derived, but they do not confer broad protection against diverse MenB strains. Thus, alternative approaches to vaccine development have been pursued to identify vaccine antigens that can provide broad protection against the epidemiologic and antigenic diversity of invasive MenB strains. Human factor H binding protein (fHBP) was found to be such an antigen, as it is expressed on nearly all invasive disease strains of MenB and can induce bactericidal responses against diverse MenB strains. A bivalent vaccine (Trumenba®, MenB-FHbp, bivalent rLP2086) composed of equal amounts of 2 fHBP variants from each of the 2 immunologically diverse subfamilies of fHBP (subfamilies A and B) was the first MenB vaccine licensed in the United States under an accelerated approval pathway for prevention of invasive MenB disease. Due to the relatively low incidence of meningococcal disease, demonstration of vaccine efficacy for the purposes of licensure of bivalent rLP2086 was based on vaccine-elicited bactericidal activity as a surrogate marker of efficacy, as measured in vitro by the serum bactericidal assay using human complement. Because bacterial surface proteins such as fHBP are antigenically variable, an important component for evaluation and licensure of bivalent rLP2086 included stringent criteria for assessment of breadth of

  18. Exploring the population-level impact of MenB vaccination via modeling: Potential for serogroup replacement

    PubMed Central

    Hogea, Cosmina; Van Effelterre, Thierry; Vyse, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Various meningococcal conjugate vaccines exist against serogroups A, C, W and Y. A new protein-based vaccine targeting serogroup B (MenB) is also now available. The potential of such vaccines to drive serogroup replacement is considered a possible public health concern when implementing nationwide routine immunization programmes. The aim of this work was to investigate if and how serogroup replacement may occur following widespread vaccination with a MenB vaccine that may protect against carriage. To that end, we built a dynamic transmission model with age and serogroup stratification, focusing on European settings where most invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) cases are caused by serogroups B and C. For illustration purposes, the model was employed in 2 such settings: UK (England and Wales) and Czech Republic. Preliminary model-based projections suggest that, under strong serogroup competition for colonization, vaccine-induced serogroup replacement may occur even with a relatively low vaccine efficacy against serogroup B carriage (e.g., 20%), with potential subsequent increase in serogroup C IMD. The magnitude and speed of the model-projected serogroup C IMD increase depend on the MenB vaccination strategy, vaccine efficacy against carriage and the extent of any potential cross-protection against other serogroups. These analyses are neither exhaustive nor definitive, and focused on simulating potential population-level trends in IMD post-vaccination, under certain assumptions. Due to present inherent limitations and uncertainties, this study has limited quantitative value and is best regarded as an explorative qualitative modeling approach, to complement and challenge the current status quo, and suggest areas where collecting additional data may be essential. PMID:26308796

  19. The Wzy O-antigen polymerase of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:2a has a dependence on the Wzz chain-length determinant for efficient polymerization.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Johanna J; Reeves, Peter R

    2013-12-01

    Lipopolysaccharide is a major immunogenic structure for the pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, which contains the O-specific polysaccharide (OPS) that is presented on the cell surface. The OPS contains many repeats of the oligosaccharide O-unit and exhibits a preferred modal chain length that has been shown to be crucial for cell protection in Yersinia. It is well established that the Wzz protein determines the preferred chain length of the OPS, and in its absence, the polymerization of O units by the Wzy polymerase is uncontrolled. However, for Y. pseudotuberculosis, a wzz mutation has never been described. In this study, we examine the effect of Wzz loss in Y. pseudotuberculosis serotype O:2a and compare the lipopolysaccharide chain-length profile to that of Escherichia coli serotype O111. In the absence of Wzz, the lipopolysaccharides of the two species showed significant differences in Wzy polymerization. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:2a exhibited only OPS with very short chain lengths, which is atypical of wzz-mutant phenotypes that have been observed for other species. We hypothesise that the Wzy polymerase of Y. pseudotuberculosis O:2a has a unique default activity in the absence of the Wzz, revealing the requirement of Wzz to drive O-unit polymerization to greater lengths.

  20. Detection, seroprevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in pig tonsils in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bonardi, S; Bruini, I; D'Incau, M; Van Damme, I; Carniel, E; Brémont, S; Cavallini, P; Tagliabue, S; Brindani, F

    2016-10-17

    Yersiniosis is the third most common reported zoonoses in Europe, with Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis responsible for 98.66% and 0.94% of the confirmed human cases in 2013. From June 2013 to October 2014, 201 pigs at slaughter belonging to 67 batches were tested for Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in tonsils. Diaphragm muscle samples were tested for antibodies against Yersinia by a commercially available ELISA test. Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 was detected in 55/201 pig tonsils (27.4%; 95% CI 23.1-37.1). The positive pigs came from 38/67 batches (56.7%) and were reared in 36/61 farms (59.0%). There was no statistical difference between farrow-to-finish and finishing farms. The mean count of Y. enterocolitica was 3.56±0.85log10CFU/g with a minimum of 2.0log10CFU/g and a maximum of 4.78log10CFU/g. Y. pseudotuberculosis was isolated from 4/201 pig tonsils (2.0%; 95% CI 0.0-4.5). Three isolates belonged to serotype O:3 and one to serotype O:1. The positive pigs belonged to 4/67 batches (6.0%) and came from finishing farms only. Y. pseudotuberculosis could be enumerated in one sample only (4.27log10CFU/g). The ELISA test demonstrated that 56.1% of the meat juice samples were positive for Yersinia antibodies. Serological positivity was found in 67.9% (36/53) of the Y. enterocolitica- and 75.0% (3/4) of the Y. pseudotuberculosis positive pigs. A significant association was found between serological results and the presence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsils (OR=1.97, p=0.044). All the Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, gentamicin, ceftazidime, ertapenem and meropenem, 94.5% to cefotaxime, 89.1% to kanamycin and 78.2% to tetracycline. The highest resistance rates were observed for ampicillin (100%), sulphonamides (98.2%) and streptomycin (78.2%). Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were sensitive to all the antimicrobials tested, i.e. amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, azithromycin, cephalothin, cefoxitin

  1. Parameter estimation and simulations of a mathematical model of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis transmission in sheep.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, K M; Green, L E; Malone, F E; Medley, G F

    2008-03-17

    Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is an infectious disease of sheep caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. It is prevalent in most sheep producing countries and was introduced into the UK sheep population in 1991. The pathogen invades the host through epithelium and forms an abscess in the local draining lymph node. Typically, disease presents as clinical, with overt (externally visible) swollen lymph nodes (the parotid, submandibular, prefemoral, prescapular, popliteal or mammary) or sub-clinical, with abscesses in the lungs and associated thoracic (bronchial and mediastinal) lymph nodes. We present a mathematical model in which disease is categorised as overt and/or respiratory (sub-clinical), using the above groupings. In both situations sheep may be infected and may or may not be infectious. In the model, overt abscesses may resolve and respiratory abscesses are considered to be present for life. Using the location of the abscesses, three routes of transmission are postulated: overt to overt, respiratory to overt and respiratory to respiratory. Data from four naturally infected flocks were used to describe populations of sheep with epidemic CLA and to estimate transmission coefficients for each of the postulated transmission routes. The infection process parameters were derived from literature where possible. Parameters were estimated using maximum likelihood methods and compared to the data using a multinomial distribution. The distribution of abscesses in the flocks was similar to endemic data reported in other studies. In the model most infected sheep developed abscesses, and approximately 36% of sheep with overt abscesses recovered from infection. The average time for respiratory abscesses to become infectious was 41 days. In these data, overt to overt transmission was the most frequent route of transmission since it had the highest coefficient in the model compared with respiratory to overt and respiratory to respiratory transmission. Transmission

  2. Recommendations for Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccine for Persons 10 Years and Older.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    This policy statement provides recommendations for the prevention of serogroup B meningococcal disease through the use of 2 newly licensed serogroup B meningococcal vaccines: MenB-FHbp (Trumenba; Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, a subsidiary of Pfizer, Philadelphia, PA) and MenB-4C (Bexsero; Novartis Vaccines, Siena, Italy). Both vaccines are approved for use in persons 10 through 25 years of age. MenB-FHbp is licensed as a 2- or 3-dose series, and MenB-4C is licensed as a 2-dose series for all groups. Either vaccine is recommended for routine use in persons 10 years and older who are at increased risk of serogroup B meningococcal disease (category A recommendation). Persons at increased risk of meningococcal serogroup B disease include the following: (1) persons with persistent complement component diseases, including inherited or chronic deficiencies in C3, C5-C9, properdin, factor D, or factor H or persons receiving eculizumab (Soliris; Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Cheshire, CT), a monoclonal antibody that acts as a terminal complement inhibitor by binding C5 and inhibiting cleavage of C5 to C5A; (2) persons with anatomic or functional asplenia, including sickle cell disease; and (3) healthy persons at increased risk because of a serogroup B meningococcal disease outbreak. Both serogroup B meningococcal vaccines have been shown to be safe and immunogenic and are licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration for individuals between the ages of 10 and 25 years. On the basis of epidemiologic and antibody persistence data, the American Academy of Pediatrics agrees with the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that either vaccine may be administered to healthy adolescents and young adults 16 through 23 years of age (preferred ages are 16 through 18 years) to provide short-term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease (category B recommendation).

  3. Sequence diversity within the capsular genes of Streptococcus pneumoniae serogroup 6 and 19.

    PubMed

    Elberse, Karin; Witteveen, Sandra; van der Heide, Han; van de Pol, Ingrid; Schot, Corrie; van der Ende, Arie; Berbers, Guy; Schouls, Leo

    2011-01-01

    The main virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae is the capsule. The polysaccharides comprising this capsule are encoded by approximately 15 genes and differences in these genes result in different serotypes. The aim of this study was to investigate the sequence diversity of the capsular genes of serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C, 19A and 19F and to explore a possible effect of vaccination on variation and distribution of these serotypes in the Netherlands. The complete capsular gene locus was sequenced for 25 serogroup 6 and for 20 serogroup 19 isolates. If one or more genes varied in 10 or more base pairs from the reference sequence, it was designated as a capsular subtype. Allele-specific PCRs and specific gene sequencing of highly variable capsular genes were performed on 184 serogroup 6 and 195 serogroup 19 isolates to identify capsular subtypes. This revealed the presence of 6, 3 and a single capsular subtype within serotypes 6A, 6B and 6C, respectively. The serotype 19A and 19F isolates comprised 3 and 4 capsular subtypes, respectively. For serogroup 6, the genetic background, as determined by multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), seemed to be closely related to the capsular subtypes, but this was less pronounced for serogroup 19 isolates. The data also suggest shifts in the occurrence of capsular subtypes within serotype 6A and 19A after introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine. The shifts within these non-vaccine serotypes might indicate that these capsular subtypes are filling the niche of the vaccine serotypes. In conclusion, there is considerable DNA sequence variation of the capsular genes within pneumococcal serogroup 6 and 19. Such changes may result in altered polysaccharides or in strains that produce more capsular polysaccharides. Consequently, these altered capsules may be less sensitive for vaccine induced immunity.

  4. 48 CFR 801.690 - VA's COCP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false VA's COCP. 801.690 Section 801.690 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority,...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lonlay P, Burlina A, van Karnebeek CD, Häberle J. Defective hepatic bicarbonate production due to carbonic anhydrase ... on PubMed GeneReview: Carbonic Anhydrase VA Deficiency Häberle J. Clinical and biochemical aspects of primary and secondary ...

  6. Outbreak of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:1 infection associated with raw milk consumption, Finland, spring 2014.

    PubMed

    Pärn, Triin; Hallanvuo, Saija; Salmenlinna, Saara; Pihlajasaari, Annika; Heikkinen, Seija; Telkki-Nykänen, Hanna; Hakkinen, Marjaana; Ollgren, Jukka; Huusko, Sari; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska

    2015-01-01

    In March 2014, a Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (YP) outbreak was detected by a municipal authority in southern Finland. We conducted epidemiological, microbiological and traceback investigations to identify the source. We defined a case as a person with YP infection notified to the National Infectious Disease Registry between February and April 2014, or their household member, with abdominal pain and fever≥38 °C or erythema nodosum. Healthy household members were used as household-matched controls. We identified 43 cases and 50 controls. The illness was strongly associated with the consumption of raw milk from a single producer. The odds ratio of illness increased with the amount of raw milk consumed. Also previously healthy adults became infected by consuming raw milk. Identical YP strains were identified from cases' stool samples, raw milk sampled from a case's refrigerator and from the milk filter at the producer's farm. The producer fulfilled the legal requirements for raw milk production and voluntarily recalled the raw milk and stopped its production. We advised consumers to heat the raw milk to 72 °C for 15 s. Current legislation for raw milk producers should be reviewed and public awareness of health risks linked to raw milk consumption should be increased.

  7. The YopD translocator of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a multifunctional protein comprised of discrete domains.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Jan; Edqvist, Petra J; Bröms, Jeanette E; Forsberg, Ake; Wolf-Watz, Hans; Francis, Matthew S

    2004-07-01

    To establish an infection, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis utilizes a plasmid-encoded type III translocon to microinject several anti-host Yop effectors into the cytosol of target eukaryotic cells. YopD has been implicated in several key steps during Yop effector translocation, including maintenance of yop regulatory control and pore formation in the target cell membrane through which effectors traverse. These functions are mediated, in part, by an interaction with the cognate chaperone, LcrH. To gain insight into the complex molecular mechanisms of YopD function, we performed a systematic mutagenesis study to search for discrete functional domains. We highlighted amino acids beyond the first three N-terminal residues that are dispensable for YopD secretion and confirmed that an interaction between YopD and LcrH is essential for maintenance of yop regulatory control. In addition, discrete domains within YopD that are essential for both pore formation and translocation of Yop effectors were identified. Significantly, other domains were found to be important for effector microinjection but not for pore formation. Therefore, YopD is clearly essential for several discrete steps during efficient Yop effector translocation. Recognition of this modular YopD domain structure provides important insights into the function of YopD.

  8. Structural characterisation of Tpx from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis reveals insights into the binding of salicylidene acylhydrazide compounds.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsen, Mads; Beckham, Katherine S H; Feher, Victoria A; Zetterström, Caroline E; Wang, Dai; Müller, Sylke; Elofsson, Mikael; Amaro, Rommie E; Byron, Olwyn; Roe, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Thiol peroxidase, Tpx, has been shown to be a target protein of the salicylidene acylhydrazide class of antivirulence compounds. In this study we present the crystal structures of Tpx from Y. pseudotuberculosis (ypTpx) in the oxidised and reduced states, together with the structure of the C61S mutant. The structures solved are consistent with previously solved atypical 2-Cys thiol peroxidases, including that for "forced" reduced states using the C61S mutant. In addition, by investigating the solution structure of ypTpx using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we have confirmed that reduced state ypTpx in solution is a homodimer. The solution structure also reveals flexibility around the dimer interface. Notably, the conformational changes observed between the redox states at the catalytic triad and at the dimer interface have implications for substrate and inhibitor binding. The structural data were used to model the binding of two salicylidene acylhydrazide compounds to the oxidised structure of ypTpx. Overall, the study provides insights into the binding of the salicylidene acylhydrazides to ypTpx, aiding our long-term strategy to understand the mode of action of this class of compounds.

  9. Structural Characterisation of Tpx from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Reveals Insights into the Binding of Salicylidene Acylhydrazide Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Feher, Victoria A.; Zetterström, Caroline E.; Wang, Dai; Müller, Sylke; Elofsson, Mikael; Amaro, Rommie E.; Byron, Olwyn; Roe, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Thiol peroxidase, Tpx, has been shown to be a target protein of the salicylidene acylhydrazide class of antivirulence compounds. In this study we present the crystal structures of Tpx from Y. pseudotuberculosis (ypTpx) in the oxidised and reduced states, together with the structure of the C61S mutant. The structures solved are consistent with previously solved atypical 2-Cys thiol peroxidases, including that for “forced” reduced states using the C61S mutant. In addition, by investigating the solution structure of ypTpx using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we have confirmed that reduced state ypTpx in solution is a homodimer. The solution structure also reveals flexibility around the dimer interface. Notably, the conformational changes observed between the redox states at the catalytic triad and at the dimer interface have implications for substrate and inhibitor binding. The structural data were used to model the binding of two salicylidene acylhydrazide compounds to the oxidised structure of ypTpx. Overall, the study provides insights into the binding of the salicylidene acylhydrazides to ypTpx, aiding our long-term strategy to understand the mode of action of this class of compounds. PMID:22384182

  10. Basic Reproduction Number and Transmission Dynamics of Common Serogroups of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, Michael W.; Lee, Chihoon; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Renter, David G.; Lanzas, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding the transmission dynamics of pathogens is essential to determine the epidemiology, ecology, and ways of controlling enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) in animals and their environments. Our objective was to estimate the epidemiological fitness of common EHEC strains in cattle populations. For that purpose, we developed a Markov chain model to characterize the dynamics of 7 serogroups of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) in cattle production environments based on a set of cross-sectional data on infection prevalence in 2 years in two U.S. states. The basic reproduction number (R0) was estimated using a Bayesian framework for each serogroup based on two criteria (using serogroup alone [the O-group data] and using O serogroup, Shiga toxin gene[s], and intimin [eae] gene together [the EHEC data]). In addition, correlations between external covariates (e.g., location, ambient temperature, dietary, and probiotic usage) and prevalence/R0 were quantified. R0 estimates varied substantially among different EHEC serogroups, with EHEC O157 having an R0 of >1 (∼1.5) and all six other EHEC serogroups having an R0 of less than 1. Using the O-group data substantially increased R0 estimates for the O26, O45, and O103 serogroups (R0 > 1) but not for the others. Different covariates had distinct influences on different serogroups: the coefficients for each covariate were different among serogroups. Our modeling and analysis of this system can be readily expanded to other pathogen systems in order to estimate the pathogen and external factors that influence spread of infectious agents. IMPORTANCE In this paper we describe a Bayesian modeling framework to estimate basic reproduction numbers of multiple serotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli according to a cross-sectional study. We then coupled a compartmental model to reconstruct the infection dynamics of these serotypes and quantify their risk

  11. Characteristics of a new meningococcal serogroup B vaccine, bivalent rLP2086 (MenB-FHbp; Trumenba®).

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Ashesh; Balmer, Paul; York, Laura J

    2016-08-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a common cause of bacterial meningitis, often leading to permanent sequelae or death. N. meningitidis is classified into serogroups based on the composition of the bacterial capsular polysaccharide; the 6 major disease-causing serogroups are designated A, B, C, W, X, and Y. Four of the 6 disease-causing serogroups (A, C, Y, and W) can be effectively prevented with available quadrivalent capsular polysaccharide protein conjugate vaccines; however, capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccines are not effective against meningococcal serogroup B (MnB). There is no vaccine available for serogroup X. The public health need for an effective serogroup B vaccine is evident, as MnB is the most common cause of meningococcal disease in the United States and is responsible for almost half of all cases in persons aged 17 to 22 years. In fact, serogroup B meningococci were responsible for the recent meningococcal disease outbreaks on college campuses. However, development of a suitable serogroup B vaccine has been challenging, as serogroup B polysaccharide-based vaccines were found to be poorly immunogenic. Vaccine development for MnB focused on identifying potential outer membrane protein targets that elicit broadly protective immune responses across strains from the vast number of proteins that exist on the bacterial surface. Human factor H binding protein (fHBP; also known as LP2086), a conserved surface-exposed bacterial lipoprotein, was identified as a promising vaccine candidate. Two recombinant protein-based serogroup B vaccines that contain fHBP have been successfully developed and licensed in the United States under an accelerated approval process: bivalent rLP2086 (MenB-FHbp; Trumenba®) and 4CMenB (MenB-4 C; Bexsero®). This review will focus on bivalent rLP2086 only, including vaccine components, mechanism of action, and potential coverage across serogroup B strains in the United States.

  12. The Pan-Genome of the Animal Pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Reveals Differences in Genome Plasticity between the Biovar ovis and equi Strains

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Siomar C.; Silva, Artur; Trost, Eva; Blom, Jochen; Ramos, Rommel; Carneiro, Adriana; Ali, Amjad; Santos, Anderson R.; Pinto, Anne C.; Diniz, Carlos; Barbosa, Eudes G. V.; Dorella, Fernanda A.; Aburjaile, Flávia; Rocha, Flávia S.; Nascimento, Karina K. F.; Guimarães, Luís C.; Almeida, Sintia; Hassan, Syed S.; Bakhtiar, Syeda M.; Pereira, Ulisses P.; Abreu, Vinicius A. C.; Schneider, Maria P. C.; Miyoshi, Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of several infectious and contagious chronic diseases, including caseous lymphadenitis, ulcerative lymphangitis, mastitis, and edematous skin disease, in a broad spectrum of hosts. In addition, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infections pose a rising worldwide economic problem in ruminants. The complete genome sequences of 15 C. pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from different hosts and countries were comparatively analyzed using a pan-genomic strategy. Phylogenomic, pan-genomic, core genomic, and singleton analyses revealed close relationships among pathogenic corynebacteria, the clonal-like behavior of C. pseudotuberculosis and slow increases in the sizes of pan-genomes. According to extrapolations based on the pan-genomes, core genomes and singletons, the C. pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis shows a more clonal-like behavior than the C. pseudotuberculosis biovar equi. Most of the variable genes of the biovar ovis strains were acquired in a block through horizontal gene transfer and are highly conserved, whereas the biovar equi strains contain great variability, both intra- and inter-biovar, in the 16 detected pathogenicity islands (PAIs). With respect to the gene content of the PAIs, the most interesting finding is the high similarity of the pilus genes in the biovar ovis strains compared with the great variability of these genes in the biovar equi strains. Concluding, the polymerization of complete pilus structures in biovar ovis could be responsible for a remarkable ability of these strains to spread throughout host tissues and penetrate cells to live intracellularly, in contrast with the biovar equi, which rarely attacks visceral organs. Intracellularly, the biovar ovis strains are expected to have less contact with other organisms than the biovar equi strains, thereby explaining the significant clonal-like behavior of the biovar ovis strains. PMID:23342011

  13. Serogroup and Clonal Characterization of Czech Invasive Neisseria meningitidis Strains Isolated from 1971 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Jandova, Zuzana; Musilek, Martin; Vackova, Zuzana; Kozakova, Jana; Krizova, Pavla

    2016-01-01

    Background This study presents antigenic and genetic characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis strains recovered from invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in the Czech Republic in 1971–2015. Material and Methods A total of 1970 isolates from IMD, referred to the National Reference Laboratory for Meningococcal Infections in 1971–2015, were studied. All isolates were identified and characterized by conventional biochemical and serological tests. Most isolates (82.5%) were characterized by multilocus sequence typing method. Results In the study period 1971–2015, the leading serogroup was B (52.4%), most often assigned to clonal complexes cc32, cc41/44, cc18, and cc269. A significant percentage of strains were of serogroup C (41.4%), with high clonal homogeneity due to hyperinvasive complex cc11, which played an important role in IMD in the Czech Republic in the mid-1990s. Serogroup Y isolates, mostly assigned to cc23, and isolates of clonally homogeneous serogroup W have also been recovered more often over the last years. Conclusion The incidence of IMD and distribution of serogroups and clonal complexes of N. meningitidis in the Czech Republic varied over time, as can be seen from the long-term monitoring, including molecular surveillance data. Data from the conventional and molecular IMD surveillance are helpful in refining the antimeningococcal vaccination strategy in the Czech Republic. PMID:27936105

  14. Serogroup quantitation of multivalent polysaccharide and polysaccharide-conjugate meningococcal vaccines from China.

    PubMed

    Cook, Matthew C; Gibeault, Sabrina; Filippenko, Vasilisa; Ye, Qiang; Wang, Junzhi; Kunkel, Jeremy P

    2013-07-01

    The active components of most meningococcal vaccines are four antigenic serogroup capsular polysaccharides (A, C, Y, W135). The vaccines, monovalent or multivalent mixtures of either free polysaccharides or polysaccharides conjugated to antigenic carrier proteins, may be in liquid or lyophilised formulations, with or without excipients. Acid hydrolysis and chromatographic methods for serogroup quantitation, which were previously optimised and qualified using polysaccharide-based standards and a narrow range of real vaccines, are here challenged with multiple lots of a broad assortment of additional multivalent polysaccharide-based meningococcal vaccine products. Centrifugal filtration successfully removed all interfering lactose excipient without loss of polysaccharides to allow for the determination of Y and W135 serogroups. Replicate operations by three different analysts indicated high method reproducibility. Results indicated some lot-to-lot and product-to-product variations. However, all vaccines were within general specifications for each serogroup polysaccharide, with the exception of all lots of one polysaccharide vaccine - which by these methods were found to be deficient in the serogroup A component only. These robust techniques are very useful for the evaluation of antigen content and consistency of manufacture. The deformulation, hydrolysis and chromatographic methods may be adaptable for the evaluation of other types of polysaccharide-based vaccines.

  15. Direct detection and serogroup characterization of Neisseria meningitidis from outbreak of meningococcal meningitis in Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Negi, SS; Grover, SS; Rautela, SS; Rawat, DS; Gupta, S; Khare, S; Lal, S; Rai, A

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives Rapid clinical manifestation/progression of the meningococcal meningitis and lacunae in conventional bacteriological test often encourages indiscriminate use of antibiotics much before the etiology is established. Accordingly this study was planned to evaluate ctrA PCR for rapid molecular detection. In addition, multiplex PCR and sequencing was done for serogroup prediction to provide essential epidemiological and laboratory evidence for decision makers of health department of the country for choosing appropriate vaccine and phylogenetic analysis to establish its lineage. Materials and Methods 73 CSF samples, collected from equal number of suspected cases, were investigated by both bacteriological (microscopy, culture, LA and drug sensitivity testing) as well as molecular tests i.e. PCR targeting conserved ctrA gene, multiplex PCR for serogroup characterization and DNA sequencing. Results ctrA PCR revealed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of 93.15%, 100%,100%, and 88.23% respectively. Multiplex PCR based genogrouping followed by DNA sequencing, BLAST and phylogenetic analysis revealed complete homology with earlier submitted Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A strain Z2491 to suggest the sole involvement of only serogroup A in the outbreak. Two strains showed resistance to cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid. Only one strain showed resistance to ciprofloxacin, emphasizing the need for a constant surveillance system. Conclusion These diagnostic molecular tools are of paramount importance in establishing etiology, serogrouping, and epidemiological surveillance especially in developing countries like India. PMID:22347552

  16. Host response in rabbits to infection with Pasteurella multocida serogroup F strains originating from fowl cholera

    PubMed Central

    Jaglic, Zoran; Jeklova, Edita; Christensen, Henrik; Leva, Lenka; Register, Karen; Kummer, Vladimir; Kucerova, Zdenka; Faldyna, Martin; Maskova, Jarmila; Nedbalcova, Katerina

    2011-01-01

    Although Pasteurella multocida serogroup F has been described as an avian-adapted serogroup, it was recently found in rabbit nests in the Czech Republic. Therefore, the ability of 2 avian P. multocida serogroup F strains to induce disease in rabbits was investigated. Two groups of 18 Pasteurella-free rabbits were intranasally challenged with strains isolated from chickens and turkeys. Half of the animals in each challenge group were immunosuppressed using dexamethasone. All of the challenged rabbits exhibited clinical signs of peracute septicemic disease, ending with shock, and died or were euthanized in the terminal stages of the disease 1 to 2 d post-infection. Gross pathological changes included systemic vascular collapse and vascular leak syndrome. Hyperemia, hemorrhage, edema, inflammatory cell infiltrates, focal necrosis, and degenerative changes were observed histologically in parenchymatous organs. This is the first study directly demonstrating that avian P. multocida serogroup F strains are highly virulent in rabbits and that avian hosts cannot be excluded as a possible source of rabbit infection with serogroup F. PMID:22210996

  17. Serogroup and Clonal Characterization of Czech Invasive Neisseria meningitidis Strains Isolated from 1971 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Jandova, Zuzana; Musilek, Martin; Vackova, Zuzana; Kozakova, Jana; Krizova, Pavla

    2016-01-01

    This study presents antigenic and genetic characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis strains recovered from invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in the Czech Republic in 1971-2015. A total of 1970 isolates from IMD, referred to the National Reference Laboratory for Meningococcal Infections in 1971-2015, were studied. All isolates were identified and characterized by conventional biochemical and serological tests. Most isolates (82.5%) were characterized by multilocus sequence typing method. In the study period 1971-2015, the leading serogroup was B (52.4%), most often assigned to clonal complexes cc32, cc41/44, cc18, and cc269. A significant percentage of strains were of serogroup C (41.4%), with high clonal homogeneity due to hyperinvasive complex cc11, which played an important role in IMD in the Czech Republic in the mid-1990s. Serogroup Y isolates, mostly assigned to cc23, and isolates of clonally homogeneous serogroup W have also been recovered more often over the last years. The incidence of IMD and distribution of serogroups and clonal complexes of N. meningitidis in the Czech Republic varied over time, as can be seen from the long-term monitoring, including molecular surveillance data. Data from the conventional and molecular IMD surveillance are helpful in refining the antimeningococcal vaccination strategy in the Czech Republic.

  18. Effects of three oxidizing biocides on Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1

    SciTech Connect

    Domingue, E.L.; Tyndall, R.L.; Mayberry, W.R.; Pancorbo, O.C.

    1988-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine the bactericidal effects of ozone and hydrogen peroxide relative to that of free chlorine on Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. In laboratory batch-type experiments, organisms seeded at various densities were exposed to different concentrations of these biocides in demand-free buffers. Bactericidal effects were measured by determining the ability of L. pneumophila to grow on buffered charcoal-yeast extract agar supplemented with ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate. Ozone was the most potent of the three biocide, with a greater than 99% kill of L. pneumophila occurring during a 5-min exposure to 0.10 to 0.30 ..mu..g of O/sub 3/ per ml. The bactericidal action of O/sub 3/ was not markedly affected by changes in pH or temperature. Concentrations of 0.30 and 0.40 /sup +/g of free chlorine per ml killed 99% of the L. pneumophila after 30- and 5-min exposures, respectively. A 30-min exposure to 1000 ..mu..g of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ per ml was required to effect a 99% reduction of the viable L. pneumophila population. However, no viable L. pneumophila could be detected after a 24-h exposure to 100 or 300 ..mu..g of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ per ml. Attempts were made to correlate the biocidal effects of O/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ with the oxidation of L. pneumophila fatty acids. These tests indicated that certain biocidal concentrations of O/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ resulted in a loss or severe reduction of L. pneumophila unsaturated fatty acids.

  19. Genomic Epidemiology of Hypervirulent Serogroup W, ST-11 Neisseria meningitidis

    PubMed Central

    Mustapha, Mustapha M.; Marsh, Jane W.; Krauland, Mary G.; Fernandez, Jorge O.; de Lemos, Ana Paula S.; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C.; Wang, Xin; Mayer, Leonard W.; Lawrence, Jeffrey G.; Hiller, N. Luisa; Harrison, Lee H.

    2015-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a leading bacterial cause of sepsis and meningitis globally with dynamic strain distribution over time. Beginning with an epidemic among Hajj pilgrims in 2000, serogroup W (W) sequence type (ST) 11 emerged as a leading cause of epidemic meningitis in the African ‘meningitis belt’ and endemic cases in South America, Europe, Middle East and China. Previous genotyping studies were unable to reliably discriminate sporadic W ST-11 strains in circulation since 1970 from the Hajj outbreak strain (Hajj clone). It is also unclear what proportion of more recent W ST-11 disease clusters are caused by direct descendants of the Hajj clone. Whole genome sequences of 270 meningococcal strains isolated from patients with invasive meningococcal disease globally from 1970 to 2013 were compared using whole genome phylogenetic and major antigen-encoding gene sequence analyses. We found that all W ST-11 strains were descendants of an ancestral strain that had undergone unique capsular switching events. The Hajj clone and its descendants were distinct from other W ST-11 strains in that they shared a common antigen gene profile and had undergone recombination involving virulence genes encoding factor H binding protein, nitric oxide reductase, and nitrite reductase. These data demonstrate that recent acquisition of a distinct antigen-encoding gene profile and variations in meningococcal virulence genes was associated with the emergence of the Hajj clone. Importantly, W ST-11 strains unrelated to the Hajj outbreak contribute a significant proportion of W ST-11 cases globally. This study helps illuminate genomic factors associated with meningococcal strain emergence and evolution. PMID:26629539

  20. Accessing VA Healthcare During Large-Scale Natural Disasters.

    PubMed

    Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Pinnock, Laura; Dobalian, Aram

    2017-01-01

    Natural disasters can lead to the closure of medical facilities including the Veterans Affairs (VA), thus impacting access to healthcare for U.S. military veteran VA users. We examined the characteristics of VA patients who reported having difficulty accessing care if their usual source of VA care was closed because of natural disasters. A total of 2,264 veteran VA users living in the U.S. northeast region participated in a 2015 cross-sectional representative survey. The study used VA administrative data in a complex stratified survey design with a multimode approach. A total of 36% of veteran VA users reported having difficulty accessing care elsewhere, negatively impacting the functionally impaired and lower income VA patients.

  1. Roles of RpoS in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis stress survival, motility, biofilm formation and type VI secretion system expression.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jingyuan; Xiao, Xiao; Xu, Shengjuan; Gao, Fen; Wang, Jianbo; Wang, Tietao; Song, Yunhong; Pan, Junfeng; Shen, Xihui; Wang, Yao

    2015-09-01

    RpoS (σ(S)), the stationary phase/stress σ factor, controls the expression of a large number of genes involved in cellular responses to a variety of stresses. However, the role of RpoS appears to differ in different bacteria. While RpoS is an important regulator of flagellum biosynthesis, it is associated with biofilm development in Edwardsiella tarda. Biofilms are dense communities formed by bacteria and are important for microbe survival under unfavorable conditions. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) discovered recently is reportedly associated with several phenotypes, ranging from biofilm formation to stress sensing. For example, Vibrio anguillarum T6SS was proposed to serve as a sensor for extracytoplasmic signals and modulates RpoS expression and stress response. In this study, we investigated the physiological roles of RpoS in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, including bacterial survival under stress conditions, flagella formation, biofilm development and T6SS expression. We found that RpoS is important in resistance to multiple stressors-including H2O2, acid, osmotic and heat shock-in Y. pseudotuberculosis. In addition, our study showed that RpoS not only modulates the expression of T6SS but also regulates flagellum formation by positively controlling the flagellar master regulatory gene flhDC, and affects the formation of biofilm on Caenorhabditis elegans by regulating the synthesis of exopolysaccharides. Taken together, these results show that RpoS plays a central role in cell fitness under several adverse conditions in Y. pseudotuberculosis.

  2. Clonal analysis of meningococci during a 26 year period prior to the introduction of meningococcal serogroup C vaccines.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Christopher B; Diggle, Mathew A; Davies, Robert L; Clarke, Stuart C

    2015-01-01

    Meningococcal disease remains a public health burden in the UK and elsewhere. Invasive Neisseria meningitidis, isolated in Scotland between 1972 and 1998, were characterised retrospectively to examine the serogroup and clonal structure of the circulating population. 2607 isolates causing invasive disease were available for serogroup and MLST analysis whilst 2517 were available for multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis only. Serogroup distribution changed from year to year but serogroups B and C were dominant throughout. Serogroup B was dominant throughout the 1970s and early 1980s until serogroup C became dominant during the mid-1980s. The increase in serogroup C was not associated with one particular sequence type (ST) but was associated with a number of STs, including ST-8, ST-11, ST-206 and ST-334. This is in contrast to the increase in serogroup C disease seen in the 1990s that was due to expansion of the ST-11 clonal complex. While there was considerable diversity among the isolates (309 different STs among the 2607 isolates), a large proportion of isolates (59.9%) were associated with only 10 STs. These data highlight meningococcal diversity over time and the need for ongoing surveillance during the introduction of new meningococcal vaccines.

  3. An outer membrane vesicle vaccine for prevention of serogroup A and W-135 meningococcal disease in the African meningitis belt.

    PubMed

    Norheim, G; Tunheim, G; Næss, L M; Kristiansen, P A; Caugant, D A; Rosenqvist, E

    2012-08-01

    The bacterium Neisseria meningitidis of serogroups A and W-135 has in the recent decade caused most of the cases of meningococcal meningitis in the African meningitis belt, and there is currently no efficient and affordable vaccine available demonstrated to protect against both these serogroups. Previously, deoxycholate-extracted outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines against serogroup B meningococci have been shown to be safe and induce protection in humans in clonal outbreaks. The serogroup A and W-135 strains isolated from meningitis belt epidemics demonstrate strikingly limited variation in major surface-exposed protein structures. We have here investigated whether the OMV vaccine strategy also can be applied to prevent both serogroups A and W-135 meningococcal disease. A novel vaccine combining OMV extracted from recent African serogroup A and W-135 strains and adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide was developed and its antigenic characteristics and immunogenicity were studied in mice. The specificity of the antibody responses was analysed by immunoblotting and serum bactericidal activity (SBA) assays. Moreover, the bivalent A+W-135 vaccine was compared with monovalent A and W-135 OMV vaccines. The bivalent OMV vaccine was able to induce similar SBA titres as the monovalent A or W-135 OMV towards both serogroups. High SBA titres were also observed against a meningococcal serogroup C strain. These results show that subcapsular antigens may be of importance when developing broadly protective and affordable vaccines for the meningitis belt. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O139: Isolation from Cholera Patients and Asymptomatic Household Family Members in Bangladesh between 2013 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Fahima; Mather, Alison E.; Begum, Yasmin Ara; Asaduzzaman, Muhammad; Baby, Nabilah; Sharmin, Salma; Biswas, Rajib; Ikhtear Uddin, Muhammad; LaRocque, Regina C.; Harris, Jason B.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Ryan, Edward T.; Clemens, John D.; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Qadri, Firdausi

    2015-01-01

    Background Cholera is endemic in Bangladesh, with outbreaks reported annually. Currently, the majority of epidemic cholera reported globally is El Tor biotype Vibrio cholerae isolates of the serogroup O1. However, in Bangladesh, outbreaks attributed to V. cholerae serogroup O139 isolates, which fall within the same phylogenetic lineage as the O1 serogroup isolates, were seen between 1992 and 1993 and in 2002 to 2005. Since then, V. cholerae serogroup O139 has only been sporadically isolated in Bangladesh and is now rarely isolated elsewhere. Methods Here, we present case histories of four cholera patients infected with V. cholerae serogroup O139 in 2013 and 2014 in Bangladesh. We comprehensively typed these isolates using conventional approaches, as well as by whole genome sequencing. Phenotypic typing and PCR confirmed all four isolates belonging to the O139 serogroup. Findings Whole genome sequencing revealed that three of the isolates were phylogenetically closely related to previously sequenced El Tor biotype, pandemic 7, toxigenic V. cholerae O139 isolates originating from Bangladesh and elsewhere. The fourth isolate was a non-toxigenic V. cholerae that, by conventional approaches, typed as O139 serogroup but was genetically divergent from previously sequenced pandemic 7 V. cholerae lineages belonging to the O139 or O1 serogroups. Conclusion These results suggest that previously observed lineages of V. cholerae O139 persist in Bangladesh and can cause clinical disease and that a novel disease-causing non-toxigenic O139 isolate also occurs. PMID:26562418

  5. Preliminary Characterization of Mus musculus–Derived Pathogenic Strains of Leptospira borgpetersenii Serogroup Ballum in a Hamster Model

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Éverton F.; Félix, Samuel R.; Cerqueira, Gustavo M.; Fagundes, Michel Q.; Neto, Amilton C. P. S.; Grassmann, André A.; Amaral, Marta G.; Gallina, Tiago; Dellagostin, Odir A.

    2010-01-01

    Human and animal leptospirosis caused by Leptospira spp. belonging to serogroup Ballum has increased worldwide in the past decade. We report the isolation and serologic and molecular characterization of four L. borgpetersenii serogroup Ballum isolates obtained from Mus musculus, and preliminary virulence studies. These isolates are useful for diagnosis of leptospirosis and for epidemiologic studies of its virulence and pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:20682877

  6. Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O139: Isolation from Cholera Patients and Asymptomatic Household Family Members in Bangladesh between 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Fahima; Mather, Alison E; Begum, Yasmin Ara; Asaduzzaman, Muhammad; Baby, Nabilah; Sharmin, Salma; Biswas, Rajib; Uddin, Muhammad Ikhtear; LaRocque, Regina C; Harris, Jason B; Calderwood, Stephen B; Ryan, Edward T; Clemens, John D; Thomson, Nicholas R; Qadri, Firdausi

    2015-11-01

    Cholera is endemic in Bangladesh, with outbreaks reported annually. Currently, the majority of epidemic cholera reported globally is El Tor biotype Vibrio cholerae isolates of the serogroup O1. However, in Bangladesh, outbreaks attributed to V. cholerae serogroup O139 isolates, which fall within the same phylogenetic lineage as the O1 serogroup isolates, were seen between 1992 and 1993 and in 2002 to 2005. Since then, V. cholerae serogroup O139 has only been sporadically isolated in Bangladesh and is now rarely isolated elsewhere. Here, we present case histories of four cholera patients infected with V. cholerae serogroup O139 in 2013 and 2014 in Bangladesh. We comprehensively typed these isolates using conventional approaches, as well as by whole genome sequencing. Phenotypic typing and PCR confirmed all four isolates belonging to the O139 serogroup. Whole genome sequencing revealed that three of the isolates were phylogenetically closely related to previously sequenced El Tor biotype, pandemic 7, toxigenic V. cholerae O139 isolates originating from Bangladesh and elsewhere. The fourth isolate was a non-toxigenic V. cholerae that, by conventional approaches, typed as O139 serogroup but was genetically divergent from previously sequenced pandemic 7 V. cholerae lineages belonging to the O139 or O1 serogroups. These results suggest that previously observed lineages of V. cholerae O139 persist in Bangladesh and can cause clinical disease and that a novel disease-causing non-toxigenic O139 isolate also occurs.

  7. A Novel Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Serogroup Identification of Neisseria meningitidis in Cerebrospinal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Lee, DoKyung; Kim, Eun Jin; Kilgore, Paul E.; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Ohnishi, Makoto; Tomono, Jun; Miyamoto, Shigehiko; Omagari, Daisuke; Kim, Dong Wook; Seki, Mitsuko

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a novel Neisseria meningitidis serogroup-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for six of the most common meningococcal serogroups (A, B, C, W, X, and Y). The assay was evaluated using a set of 31 meningococcal LAMP assay positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from 1574 children with suspected meningitis identified in prospective surveillance between 1998 and 2002 in Vietnam, China, and Korea. Primer specificity was validated using 15 N. meningitidis strains (including serogroups A, B, C, E, W, X, Y, and Z) and 19 non-N. meningitidis species. The N. meningitidis serogroup LAMP detected down to ten copies and 100 colony-forming units per reaction. Twenty-nine CSF had N. meningitidis serogroup identified by LAMP compared with two CSF in which N. meningitidis serogroup was identified by culture and multi-locus sequence typing. This is the first report of a serogroup-specific identification assay for N. meningitidis using the LAMP method. Our results suggest that this assay will be a rapid, sensitive, and uniquely serogroup-specific assay with potential for application in clinical laboratories and public health surveillance systems. PMID:26793181

  8. Rapid O serogroup identification of the six clinically relevant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by antibody microarray

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antibody array was developed for the detection of the top six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O serogroups. Sensitivity of the array was 10**5 CFU, and the limit of detection of serogroups in ground beef was 1-10 CFU following 12 h of enrichment. The array utilized a minimal amount...

  9. Comparative genomic analysis of Brazilian Leptospira kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Kremer, Frederico S; Miraglia, Fabiana; Loureiro, Ana P; Eslabao, Marcus R; Dellagostin, Odir A; Lilenbaum, Walter; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-08-01

    Leptospira kirschneri is one of the pathogenic species of the Leptospira genus. Human and animal infection from L. kirschneri gained further attention over the last few decades. Here we present the isolation and characterisation of Brazilian L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok strain M36/05 and the comparative genomic analysis with Brazilian human strain 61H. The M36/05 strain caused pulmonary hemorrhagic lesions in the hamster model, showing high virulence. The studied genomes presented high symmetrical identity and the in silico multilocus sequence typing analysis resulted in a new allelic profile (ST101) that so far has only been associated with the Brazilian L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok strains. Considering the environmental conditions and high genomic similarity observed between strains, we suggest the existence of a Brazilian L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok lineage that could represent a high public health risk; further studies are necessary to confirm the lineage significance and distribution.

  10. Ribotyping as an additional molecular marker for studying Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B epidemic strains.

    PubMed Central

    Tondella, M L; Sacchi, C T; Neves, B C

    1994-01-01

    The molecular method of ribotyping was used as an additional epidemiological marker to study the epidemic strains of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B, referred to as the ET-5 complex, responsible for the epidemic which occurred in greater São Paulo, Brazil. Ribotyping analysis of these strains showed only a single rRNA gene restriction pattern (Rb1), obtained with ClaI restriction enzyme. This method, as well as multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, provided useful information about the clonal characteristics of the N. meningitidis serogroup B strains isolated during this epidemic. The N. meningitidis serogroup B isolates obtained from epidemics which occurred in Norway, Chile, and Cuba also demonstrated the same pattern (Rb1). Ribotyping was a procedure which could be applied to a large number of isolates and was felt to be appropriate for routine use in laboratories, especially because of the convenience of using nonradioactive probes. Images PMID:7852566

  11. Comparative genomic analysis of Brazilian Leptospira kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Kremer, Frederico S; Miraglia, Fabiana; Loureiro, Ana P; Eslabao, Marcus R; Dellagostin, Odir A; Lilenbaum, Walter; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-01-01

    Leptospira kirschneri is one of the pathogenic species of the Leptospira genus. Human and animal infection from L. kirschneri gained further attention over the last few decades. Here we present the isolation and characterisation of Brazilian L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok strain M36/05 and the comparative genomic analysis with Brazilian human strain 61H. The M36/05 strain caused pulmonary hemorrhagic lesions in the hamster model, showing high virulence. The studied genomes presented high symmetrical identity and the in silico multilocus sequence typing analysis resulted in a new allelic profile (ST101) that so far has only been associated with the Brazilian L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok strains. Considering the environmental conditions and high genomic similarity observed between strains, we suggest the existence of a Brazilian L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok lineage that could represent a high public health risk; further studies are necessary to confirm the lineage significance and distribution. PMID:27581124

  12. Detecting bunyaviruses of the Bunyamwera and California serogroups by a PCR technique.

    PubMed Central

    Kuno, G; Mitchell, C J; Chang, G J; Smith, G C

    1996-01-01

    Many bunyaviruses of the Bunyamwera and California serogroups are medically important human pathogens. The development of an effective technique to detect the viruses by using molecular biologic tools, such as PCR, improves not only clinical diagnosis but also virologic surveillance of mosquito vectors in the field. In this study, we evaluated eight pairs of primers for reactivity with 44 viruses of the genus Bunyavirus, using a reverse transcriptase PCR technique. With a pair of serogroup-specific primers we designed, all viruses of the serogroups tested could be detected. Further, virus-specific primer pairs were identified for California encephalitis virus, Jamestown Canyon virus, La Crosse virus, and snowshoe hare virus for use in North America. Using this technique, we could detect one La Crosse virus-infected mosquito in a pool of 100 mosquitoes with undetectable plaque titers. PMID:8727900

  13. Effect of a serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (PsA–TT) on serogroup A meningococcal meningitis and carriage in Chad: a community study

    PubMed Central

    Daugla, DM; Gami, JP; Gamougam, K; Naibei, N; Mbainadji, L; Narbé, M; Toralta, J; Kodbesse, B; Ngadoua, C; Coldiron, ME; Fermon, F; Page, A-L; Djingarey, MH; Hugonnet, S; Harrison, OB; Rebbetts, LS; Tekletsion, Y; Watkins, ER; Hill, D; Caugant, DA; Chandramohan, D; Hassan-King, M; Manigart, O; Nascimento, M; Woukeu, A; Trotter, C; Stuart, JM; Maiden, MCJ; Greenwood, BM

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background A serogroup A meningococcal polysaccharide–tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA–TT, MenAfriVac) was licensed in India in 2009, and pre-qualified by WHO in 2010, on the basis of its safety and immunogenicity. This vaccine is now being deployed across the African meningitis belt. We studied the effect of PsA–TT on meningococcal meningitis and carriage in Chad during a serogroup A meningococcal meningitis epidemic. Methods We obtained data for the incidence of meningitis before and after vaccination from national records between January, 2009, and June, 2012. In 2012, surveillance was enhanced in regions where vaccination with PsA–TT had been undertaken in 2011, and in one district where a reactive vaccination campaign in response to an outbreak of meningitis was undertaken. Meningococcal carriage was studied in an age-stratified sample of residents aged 1–29 years of a rural area roughly 13–15 and 2–4 months before and 4–6 months after vaccination. Meningococci obtained from cerebrospinal fluid or oropharyngeal swabs were characterised by conventional microbiological and molecular methods. Findings Roughly 1·8 million individuals aged 1–29 years received one dose of PsA–TT during a vaccination campaign in three regions of Chad in and around the capital N'Djamena during 10 days in December, 2011. The incidence of meningitis during the 2012 meningitis season in these three regions was 2·48 per 100 000 (57 cases in the 2·3 million population), whereas in regions without mass vaccination, incidence was 43·8 per 100 000 (3809 cases per 8·7 million population), a 94% difference in crude incidence (p<0·0001), and an incidence rate ratio of 0·096 (95% CI 0·046–0·198). Despite enhanced surveillance, no case of serogroup A meningococcal meningitis was reported in the three vaccinated regions. 32 serogroup A carriers were identified in 4278 age-stratified individuals (0·75%) living in a rural area near the capital 2–4

  14. An integrated structural proteomics approach along the druggable genome of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis species for putative druggable targets

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (Cp) causes caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), mastitis, ulcerative lymphangitis, and oedema in a number of hosts, comprising ruminants, thereby intimidating economic and dairy industries worldwide. So far there is no effective drug or vaccine available against Cp. Previously, a pan-genomic analysis was performed for both biovar equi and biovar ovis and a Pathogenicity Islands (PAIS) analysis within the strains highlighted a large set of proteins that could be relevant therapeutic targets for controlling the onset of CLA. In the present work, a structural druggability analysis pipeline was accomplished along 15 previously sequenced Cp strains from both biovar equi and biovar ovis. Methods and results We computed the whole modelome of a reference strain Cp1002 (NCBI Accession: NC_017300.1) and then the homology models of proteins, of 14 different Cp strains, with high identity (≥ 85%) to the reference strain were also done. Druggability score of all proteins pockets was calculated and only those targets that have a highly druggable (HD) pocket in all strains were kept, a set of 58 proteins. Finally, this information was merged with the previous PAIS analysis giving two possible highly relevant targets to conduct drug discovery projects. Also, off-targeting information against host organisms, including Homo sapiens and a further analysis for protein essentiality provided a final set of 31 druggable, essential and non-host homologous targets, tabulated in table S4, additional file 1. Out of 31 globally druggable targets, 9 targets have already been reported in other pathogenic microorganisms, 3 of them (3-isopropylmalate dehydratase small subunit, 50S ribosomal protein L30, Chromosomal replication initiator protein DnaA) in C. pseudotuberculosis. Conclusion Overall we provide valuable information of possible targets against C. pseudotuberculosis where some of these targets have already been reported in other

  15. Nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence of the medium RNA segment of Oropouche, a Simbu serogroup virus: comparison with the middle RNA of Bunyamwera and California serogroup viruses.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Beasley, D W; Li, L; Holbrook, M R; Barrett, A D

    2001-03-01

    The Bunyavirus genus of the family Bunyaviridae contains 18 serogroups. To date nucleotide sequence data has been obtained for three serogroups, Bunyamwera, California and Simbu, based on analysis of the small (S) RNA segment. In comparison, there is only nucleotide sequence data for the large and medium (M) RNA segments for members of the Bunyamwera and California serogroups. In this paper we report the nucleotide sequence of the M RNA of Oropouche (ORO) virus, a member of the Simbu serogroup. The M RNA was 4396 nucleotides in length with G1, G2 and NSm proteins similar in size to those reported for members of the Bunyamwera and California serogroups. However, there was limited nucleotide (50-52%) and amino acid (30-32%) homology between ORO virus M RNA and those of published members of the other two serogroups. The Bunyamwera and California serogroups are more closely related to each other than the Simbu serogroup virus Oropouche. These data were consistent with that previously reported for the S RNA (Saeed et al., 2000. J. Gen. Virol. 81, 743-748). It has been noted previously that three of four potential N-linked glycosylation sites of the Bunayamwera and California serogroups are conserved in G1 and G2 proteins. In contrast, ORO virus was found to have only three potential N-linked glycosylation sites of which only one, in G1, was conserved with members of the other two serogroups. Comparison of M RNA sequences of different strains of ORO virus revealed genetic variation consistent with that reported previously for the S RNA.

  16. [ISOLATION OF ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE GENES IN VIBRIO CHOLERAE O1 AND O139 SEROGROUP STRAINS].

    PubMed

    Zadnova, S P; Smirnova, N I

    2015-01-01

    Determination of sensitivity of V. cholerae O1 serogroup El Tor biovar and O139 serogroup strains to antibiotics and determination of the presence of antibiotics resistance genes in their genome. The studies were carried out in 75 V. cholerae O1 and O139 serogroup strains. Sensitivity of cultures to antibiotics was determined by disc-diffusion method. DNA isolation was carried out in the presence of 6M guanidine thiocyanate. PCR was carried out in multi-channel amplificator Tercyc. A multiplex PCR was constructed, that includes 5 primer pairs for the detection of O1 and O139 serogroup resistance genes of vibrios to sulfame- thoxazolum, streptomycin B, trimethoprim, the presence of SXT element, an amplification program was developed. Using the developed PCR, V. cholerae O1 serogroup El Tor biovar strains with multiple drug resistance were established to be imported into Russia in 1993. The presence of SXT elements with genes of resistance to 4 antibiotics simultaneously was detected precisely in these strains, that belong to toxigenic genovariants of V. cholerae El Tor biovar. All the El Tor vibrio strains imported in the subsequent years were shown to stably preserve SXT element, this indicates its important role in biology of cholera vibrios. O139 serogroup strains with intact SXT element and having a deletion of the gene coding trimethoprim resistance were isolated. The data obtained may be used to establish molecular-genetic mechanisms of emergence of antibiotics resistant strains of cholera vibrio, construction of novel gene diagnostic test-systems and carrying out passportization of strains that are stored in the State collection of pathogenic bacteria.

  17. Lipopolysaccharide Specific Immunochromatography Based Lateral Flow Assay for Serogroup Specific Diagnosis of Leptospirosis in India

    PubMed Central

    Vanithamani, Shanmugam; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Narayanan, Ramasamy; Raja, Veerapandian; Kanagavel, Murugesan; Sivasankari, Karikalacholan; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a re-emerging infectious disease that is under-recognized due to low-sensitivity and cumbersome serological tests. MAT is the gold standard test and it is the only serogroup specific test used till date. Rapid reliable alternative serogroup specific tests are needed for surveillance studies to identify locally circulating serogroups in the study area. Methods/Principal Findings In the present investigation the serological specificity of leptospiral lipopolysaccharides (LPS) was evaluated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), dot blot assay and rapid immunochromatography based lateral flow assay (ICG-LFA). Sera samples from 120 MAT positive cases, 174 cases with febrile illness other than leptospirosis, and 121 seronegative healthy controls were evaluated for the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the developed assays. LPS was extracted from five locally predominant circulating serogroups including: Australis (27.5%), Autumnalis (11.7%), Ballum (25.8%), Grippotyphosa (12.5%), Pomona (10%) and were used as antigens in the diagnostics to detect IgM antibodies in patients’ sera. The sensitivity observed by IgM ELISA and dot blot assay using various leptospiral LPS was >90% for homologous sera. Except for Ballum LPS, no other LPS showed cross-reactivity to heterologous sera. An attempt was made to develop LPS based ICG-LFA for rapid and sensitive serogroup specific diagnostics of leptospirosis. The developed ICG-LFA showed sensitivity in the range between 93 and 100% for homologous sera. The Wilcoxon analysis showed LPS based ICG-LFA did not differ significantly from the gold standard MAT (P>0.05). Conclusion The application of single array of LPS for serogroup specific diagnosis is first of its kind. The developed assay could potentially be evaluated and employed for as MAT alternative. PMID:26340095

  18. Seroprotection against serogroup C meningococcal disease in adolescents in the United Kingdom: observational study

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the persistence of bactericidal antibody titres following immunisation with serogroup C meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine at age 6-15 years in order to examine changes in persistence of antibodies with age. Design Observational study. Setting Secondary and tertiary educational institutions in the United Kingdom. Participants Healthy adolescents aged 11-20 years previously immunised between 6 and 15 years of age with one of the three serogroup C meningococcal vaccines. Intervention Serum obtained by venepuncture. Main outcome measures Percentage of participants with (rabbit complement) serum bactericidal antibody titres of at least 1:8; geometric mean titres of serogroup C meningococcal serum bactericidal antibody. Results Five years after immunisation, 84.1% (95% confidence interval 81.6% to 86.3%) of 987 participants had a bactericidal antibody titre of at least 1:8. Geometric mean titres of bactericidal antibody were significantly lower in 11-13 year olds (147, 95% confidence interval 115 to 188) than in 14-16 year olds (300, 237 to 380) and 17-20 year olds (360, 252 to 515) (P<0.0001 for both comparisons). Within these age bands, no significant difference in geometric mean titres of bactericidal antibody between recipients of the different serogroup C meningococcal vaccines was seen. More than 70% of participants had received a vaccine from one manufacturer; in this cohort, geometric mean titres were higher in those immunised at aged 10 years or above than in those immunised before the age of 10. Conclusions Higher concentrations of bactericidal antibody are seen five years after immunisation with serogroup C meningococcal vaccine at age 10 years or above than in younger age groups, possibly owing to immunological maturation. This provides support for adolescent immunisation programmes to generate sustained protection against serogroup C meningococcal disease not only for the vaccine recipients but also, through the maintenance of herd

  19. Lipopolysaccharide Specific Immunochromatography Based Lateral Flow Assay for Serogroup Specific Diagnosis of Leptospirosis in India.

    PubMed

    Vanithamani, Shanmugam; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Narayanan, Ramasamy; Raja, Veerapandian; Kanagavel, Murugesan; Sivasankari, Karikalacholan; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a re-emerging infectious disease that is under-recognized due to low-sensitivity and cumbersome serological tests. MAT is the gold standard test and it is the only serogroup specific test used till date. Rapid reliable alternative serogroup specific tests are needed for surveillance studies to identify locally circulating serogroups in the study area. In the present investigation the serological specificity of leptospiral lipopolysaccharides (LPS) was evaluated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), dot blot assay and rapid immunochromatography based lateral flow assay (ICG-LFA). Sera samples from 120 MAT positive cases, 174 cases with febrile illness other than leptospirosis, and 121 seronegative healthy controls were evaluated for the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the developed assays. LPS was extracted from five locally predominant circulating serogroups including: Australis (27.5%), Autumnalis (11.7%), Ballum (25.8%), Grippotyphosa (12.5%), Pomona (10%) and were used as antigens in the diagnostics to detect IgM antibodies in patients' sera. The sensitivity observed by IgM ELISA and dot blot assay using various leptospiral LPS was >90% for homologous sera. Except for Ballum LPS, no other LPS showed cross-reactivity to heterologous sera. An attempt was made to develop LPS based ICG-LFA for rapid and sensitive serogroup specific diagnostics of leptospirosis. The developed ICG-LFA showed sensitivity in the range between 93 and 100% for homologous sera. The Wilcoxon analysis showed LPS based ICG-LFA did not differ significantly from the gold standard MAT (P>0.05). The application of single array of LPS for serogroup specific diagnosis is first of its kind. The developed assay could potentially be evaluated and employed for as MAT alternative.

  20. Serogroup W meningococcal disease: global spread and current affect on the Southern Cone in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Abad, R; López, E L; Debbag, R; Vázquez, J A

    2014-12-01

    Meningococcal serogroup W strains have been emerging throughout the current century with most of the isolates belonging to the sequence type (ST11)/electrophoretic type (ET37) clonal complex (ST11/E37 CC), particularly since the international outbreak following Hajj 2000. That outbreak appears to have triggered off that trend, contributing to the spread of W ST11/ET37 CC strains globally; however, local strains could be also responsible for increases in the percentage and/or incidence rates of this serogroup in some countries. More recently, unexpected increases in the percentage and incidence rate of W has been noticed in different countries located in the South Cone in Latin America, and W ST11/ET37 CC strains now appear as endemic in the region and an extensive immunization programme with tetravalent conjugate vaccine (covering serogroups A, C, Y and W) has been recently implemented in Chile. It is difficult to ascertain whether we are observing the emergence of W ST11 CC strains in different geographical areas or whether the Hajj 2000 strain is still spreading globally. Several aspects of the evolution of that situation are analysed in this paper, reviewing also the implications in immunization programmes. Closely related with the analysis of this potential evolution, it will be very interesting to monitor the evolution of serogroup W in the African meningitis belt after implementation of the extensive immunization programme with serogroup A conjugate vaccine that is currently underway. More data about carriers, transmission, clonal lineages, etc. are needed for taking decisions (target groups, outbreak control, defining the extent, etc.) to adapt the response strategy with potential interventions with broad coverage vaccines against the emergent serogroup W.

  1. Clonal and serotype dynamics of serogroup 6 isolates causing invasive pneumococcal disease in Portugal: 1999-2012

    PubMed Central

    Diamantino-Miranda, Jorge; Aguiar, Sandra Isabel; Carriço, João André; Melo-Cristino, José

    2017-01-01

    Although serogroup 6 was among the first to be recognized among Streptococcus pneumoniae, several new serotypes were identified since the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). A decrease of the 6B-2 variant among invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), but not 6B-1, was noted post conjugate vaccine introduction, underpinned by a decrease of CC273 isolates. Serotype 6C was associated with adult IPD and increased in this age group representing two lineages (CC315 and CC395), while the same lineages expressed other serogroup 6 serotypes in children. Taken together, these findings suggest a potential cross-protection of PCVs against serotype 6C IPD among vaccinated children but not among adults. Serotype 6A became the most important serogroup 6 serotype in children but it decreased in adult IPD. No other serogroup 6 serotypes were detected, so available phenotypic or simple genotypic assays remain adequate for distinguishing serotypes within serogroup 6 isolates. PMID:28152029

  2. 78 FR 48609 - Safety Zone; James River; Newport News, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; James River; Newport News, VA AGENCY: Coast... as follows: Sec. 165.T05-0670 Safety Zone, James River, Newport News, VA. (a) Definitions. For the...'' N longitude 076 38'40'' W, located near Fort Eustis in Newport News, VA. (c) Regulations. (1)...

  3. 38 CFR 1.920 - Referral of VA debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., the date on which payment became due, and the date VA's right to collect the debt first accrued. (c) This certification will also state that VA provided the debtor with written notice of: (1) The nature... opportunity to inspect and copy VA records pertaining to the debt; (4) The right to contest both the existence...

  4. 48 CFR 819.7109 - VA review of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false VA review of application... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS VA Mentor-Protégé Program 819.7109 VA review of application. (a... that the information that is in VAAR 819.7108 is included. If the application relates to a specific...

  5. 38 CFR 74.27 - How will VA store information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How will VA store information? 74.27 Section 74.27 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VETERANS SMALL BUSINESS REGULATIONS Records Management § 74.27 How will VA store information? VA...

  6. 38 CFR 3.1700 - Types of VA burial benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Types of VA burial... ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: General § 3.1700 Types of VA burial benefits. Pt. 3, Subpt. B, Nt. (a) Burial benefits. VA provides the following types of burial benefits, which are discussed in §§...

  7. Development of a standardized subgrouping scheme for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Joly, J R; McKinney, R M; Tobin, J O; Bibb, W F; Watkins, I D; Ramsay, D

    1986-01-01

    A panel of monoclonal antibodies to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 and a subclassification scheme were developed in a collaborative project among three laboratories. The seven most useful monoclonal antibodies were selected from three previously developed panels on the basis of indirect fluorescent antibody patterns with 83 strains of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 that were obtained from widely distributed geographic locations. The isolates were divided into 10 major subgroups on the basis of reactivity patterns that can be readily reproduced in any laboratory and are not subject to major inconsistencies of interpretation of staining intensity. A standard protocol for the indirect fluorescent antibody procedure was also developed. PMID:3517064

  8. VaST: Variability Search Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovsky, Kirill V.; Lebedev, Alexandr A.

    2017-04-01

    VaST (Variability Search Toolkit) finds variable objects on a series of astronomical images in FITS format. The software performs object detection and aperture photometry using SExtractor (ascl:1010.064) on each image, cross-matches lists of detected stars, performs magnitude calibration with respect to the first (reference) image and constructs a lightcurve for each object. The sigma-magnitude, Stetson's L variability index, Robust Median Statistic (RoMS) and other plots may be used to visually identify variable star candidates. The two distinguishing features of VaST are its ability to perform accurate aperture photometry of images obtained with non-linear detectors and to handle complex image distortions. VaST can be used in cases of unstable PSF (e.g., bad guiding or with digitized wide-field photographic images), and has been successfully applied to images obtained with telescopes ranging from 0.08 to 2.5m in diameter equipped with a variety of detectors including CCD, CMOS, MIC and photographic plates.

  9. Retrospective evaluation of the Du Pont radioimmunoassay kit for detection of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 antigenuria in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Aguero-Rosenfeld, M E; Edelstein, P H

    1988-01-01

    We used the Du Pont radioimmunoassay kit for soluble Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 antigenuria (Du Pont Co., Wilmington, Del.) to test 422 urine samples from patients with and without Legionnaires disease (LD). The urine specimens were collected from 23 patients with culture-proven LD and from 346 patients without LD. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from 14 patients with culture-proven LD, and other L. pneumophila serogroups or other Legionella species were isolated from 9 patients; 58 urine specimens were tested from these 23 patients. The non-LD group was composed of 75 bacteremic patients (35 gram-negative and 40 gram-positive bacteremias), 7 patients with candidemia, 48 patients with non-LD pneumonia, 90 patients with gram-negative bacteriuria (greater than 10(5) CFU/ml), 23 patients with gram-positive bacteriuria (greater than 10(5) CFU/ml), 14 patients with candiduria (greater than 10(5) CFU/ml), and 89 outpatients with negative urine cultures. All tests were performed in duplicate, including positive and negative controls. Sample results with values greater than or equal to 3.0 times those of the negative controls were considered positive for L. pneumophila serogroup 1 antigenuria. The average sample-to-negative ratios were 19.1 for the L. pneumophila serogroup 1 specimens, and 1.0 for both the non-serogroup 1 legionella group and the non-LD specimens. All but one of the patients who were culture positive for L. pneumophila serogroup 1 had at least one specimen positive for serogroup 1 antigenuria; none of the non-L. pneumophila serogroup 1 patients had a positive urine test. The test was highly specific (100%) and sensitive (93%) for the detection of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 antigenuria. Concentrations of urine by vacuum evaporation increased test sensitivity without apparently affecting specificity. PMID:3183024

  10. Retrospective evaluation of the Du Pont radioimmunoassay kit for detection of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 antigenuria in humans.

    PubMed

    Aguero-Rosenfeld, M E; Edelstein, P H

    1988-09-01

    We used the Du Pont radioimmunoassay kit for soluble Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 antigenuria (Du Pont Co., Wilmington, Del.) to test 422 urine samples from patients with and without Legionnaires disease (LD). The urine specimens were collected from 23 patients with culture-proven LD and from 346 patients without LD. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from 14 patients with culture-proven LD, and other L. pneumophila serogroups or other Legionella species were isolated from 9 patients; 58 urine specimens were tested from these 23 patients. The non-LD group was composed of 75 bacteremic patients (35 gram-negative and 40 gram-positive bacteremias), 7 patients with candidemia, 48 patients with non-LD pneumonia, 90 patients with gram-negative bacteriuria (greater than 10(5) CFU/ml), 23 patients with gram-positive bacteriuria (greater than 10(5) CFU/ml), 14 patients with candiduria (greater than 10(5) CFU/ml), and 89 outpatients with negative urine cultures. All tests were performed in duplicate, including positive and negative controls. Sample results with values greater than or equal to 3.0 times those of the negative controls were considered positive for L. pneumophila serogroup 1 antigenuria. The average sample-to-negative ratios were 19.1 for the L. pneumophila serogroup 1 specimens, and 1.0 for both the non-serogroup 1 legionella group and the non-LD specimens. All but one of the patients who were culture positive for L. pneumophila serogroup 1 had at least one specimen positive for serogroup 1 antigenuria; none of the non-L. pneumophila serogroup 1 patients had a positive urine test. The test was highly specific (100%) and sensitive (93%) for the detection of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 antigenuria. Concentrations of urine by vacuum evaporation increased test sensitivity without apparently affecting specificity.

  11. Demarcating SurA Activities Required for Outer Membrane Targeting of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Adhesins

    PubMed Central

    Obi, Ikenna R.

    2013-01-01

    SurA is a periplasmic protein folding factor involved in chaperoning and trafficking of outer membrane proteins across the Gram-negative bacterial periplasm. In addition, SurA also possesses peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity. We have previously reported that in enteropathogenic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, SurA is needed for bacterial virulence and envelope integrity. In this study, we investigated the role of SurA in the assembly of important Yersinia adhesins. Using genetic mutation, biochemical characterization, and an in vitro-based bacterial host cell association assay, we confirmed that surface localization of the invasin adhesin is dependent on SurA. As a surA deletion also has some impact on the levels of individual components of the BAM complex in the Yersinia outer membrane, abolished invasin surface assembly could reflect both a direct loss of SurA-dependent periplasmic targeting and a potentially compromised BAM complex assembly platform in the outer membrane. To various degrees, the assembly of two other adhesins, Ail and the pH 6 antigen fibrillum PsaA, also depends on SurA. Consequently, loss of SurA leads to a dramatic reduction in Yersinia attachment to eukaryotic host cells. Genetic complementation of surA deletion mutants indicated a prominent role for SurA chaperone function in outer membrane protein assembly. Significantly, the N terminus of SurA contributed most of this SurA chaperone function. Despite a dominant chaperoning role, it was also evident that SurA isomerization activity did make a modest contribution to this assembly process. PMID:23589578

  12. Oral administration of a recombinant attenuated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain elicits protective immunity against plague.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Sanapala, Shilpa; Rahav, Hannah; Curtiss, Roy

    2015-11-27

    A Yersinia pseudotuberculosis PB1+ (Yptb PB1+) mutant strain combined with chromosome insertion of the caf1R-caf1A-caf1M-caf1 operon and deletions of yopJ and yopK, χ10068 [pYV-ω2 (ΔyopJ315 ΔyopK108) ΔlacZ044::caf1R-caf1M-caf1A-caf1] was constructed. Results indicated that gene insertion and deletion did not affect the growth rate of χ10068 compared to wild-type Yptb cultured at 26 °C. In addition, the F1 antigen in χ10068 was synthesized and secreted on the surface of bacteria at 37 °C (mammalian body temperature), not at ambient culture temperature (26 °C). Immunization with χ10068 primed antibody responses and specific T-cell responses to F1 and YpL (Y. pestis whole cell lysate). Oral immunization with a single dose of χ10068 provided 70% protection against a subcutaneous (s.c.) challenge with ∼ 2.6 × 10(5) LD50 of Y. pestis KIM6+ (pCD1Ap) (KIM6+Ap) and 90% protection against an intranasal (i.n.) challenge with ∼ 500 LD50 of KIM6+Ap in mice. Our results suggest that χ10068 can be used as an effective precursor to make a safe vaccine to prevent plague in humans and to eliminate plague circulation among humans and animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of outer membrane proteins of Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from India.

    PubMed

    Khushiramani, Rekha; Tuteja, Urmil; Shukla, Jyoti; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2004-05-01

    The majority of virulence factors including the 12 Yersinia outer membrane proteins (Yops), 29 Yop secretion proteins (Ysc) and few specific Yop chaperone (Syc) are contributed by the 70 kb LCR middle plasmid of Yersinia pestis. Yersinia pestis isolates recovered during 1994 plague outbreak and rodent surveillance samples of Southern states of India were studied for the presence of important Yops by the conventional procedure of partially purifying outer membrane proteins (Omps) after cultivation in calcium deficient media. Prominent bands numbering 4-5 between 34-42 kDa region corresponding to important Yops were seen in all the isolates as well as in other Yersinia and non-Yersinia species by SDS-PAGE. Western blotting with the polyclonal antisera raised against these Omp preparations revealed few immuno-reactive bands that appeared to be shared among Y. pestis, Y. pseudotruberculosis, Y. enterocolitica, Y. fredrocksenii, Y. intermedia, Y. kristensenii and E. coli. Three recombinant Yop proteins namely, YopM, YopB and LcrV were produced and antisera to these proteins could reveal presence of these Yops in the Y. pestis Omp preparations. In order to further characterize the important Yops among Omps, attempts were made to generate monoclonal antibodies against Omp preparation. Three of the 4 stable reactive clones that were obtained, when tested, had extensive cross-reactions among pathogenic Yersinia species, Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates, other Yersinia species and the members of Enterobacteriaceae in dot-ELISA and Western blotting. One of the monoclonal antibodies, YP1, exhibited reaction to all the pathogenic Yersinia species and the isolates, with restricted cross-reactivity to Y. intermedia, Y. kristensenii, K. pneumoniae. None of the 4 monoclonal antibodies had reactions with the 3 recombinant Yop proteins. It appears that under low calcium response, the Y. pestis not only activates secretion of Yops but also a large number of other proteins

  14. 76 FR 61150 - Enhanced-Use Lease (EUL) of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Real Property at the VA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ..., manage, maintain and operate the EUL development. As consideration for the lease, the lessee will be... AFFAIRS Enhanced-Use Lease (EUL) of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Real Property at the VA... Intent to Enter into an Enhanced-Use Lease. SUMMARY: The Secretary of VA intends to enter into an EUL...

  15. A direct link between the global regulator PhoP and the Csr regulon in Y. pseudotuberculosis through the small regulatory RNA CsrC.

    PubMed

    Nuss, Aaron M; Schuster, Franziska; Kathrin Heroven, Ann; Heine, Wiebke; Pisano, Fabio; Dersch, Petra

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the influence of the global response regulator PhoP on the complex regulatory cascade controlling expression of early stage virulence genes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis via the virulence regulator RovA. Our analysis revealed the following novel features: (1) PhoP activates expression of the CsrC RNA in Y. pseudotuberculosis, leading to activation of RovA synthesis through the CsrABC-RovM cascade, (2) activation of csrC transcription is direct and PhoP is shown to bind to two separate PhoP box-like sites, (3) PhoP-mediated activation results in transcription from two different promoters closely downstream of the PhoP binding sites, leading to two distinct CsrC RNAs, and (4) the stability of the CsrC RNAs differs significantly between the Y. pseudotuberculosis strains YPIII and IP32953 due to a 20 nucleotides insertion in CsrC(IP32953), which renders the transcript more susceptible to degradation. In summary, our study showed that PhoP-mediated influence on the regulatory cascade controlling the Csr system and RovA in Y. pseudotuberculosis varies within the species, suggesting that the Csr system is a focal point to readjust and adapt the genus to different hosts and reservoirs.

  16. A direct link between the global regulator PhoP and the Csr regulon in Y. pseudotuberculosis through the small regulatory RNA CsrC

    PubMed Central

    Nuss, Aaron M; Schuster, Franziska; Kathrin Heroven, Ann; Heine, Wiebke; Pisano, Fabio; Dersch, Petra

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the influence of the global response regulator PhoP on the complex regulatory cascade controlling expression of early stage virulence genes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis via the virulence regulator RovA. Our analysis revealed the following novel features: (1) PhoP activates expression of the CsrC RNA in Y. pseudotuberculosis, leading to activation of RovA synthesis through the CsrABC-RovM cascade, (2) activation of csrC transcription is direct and PhoP is shown to bind to two separate PhoP box-like sites, (3) PhoP-mediated activation results in transcription from two different promoters closely downstream of the PhoP binding sites, leading to two distinct CsrC RNAs, and (4) the stability of the CsrC RNAs differs significantly between the Y. pseudotuberculosis strains YPIII and IP32953 due to a 20 nucleotides insertion in CsrCIP32953, which renders the transcript more susceptible to degradation. In summary, our study showed that PhoP-mediated influence on the regulatory cascade controlling the Csr system and RovA in Y. pseudotuberculosis varies within the species, suggesting that the Csr system is a focal point to readjust and adapt the genus to different hosts and reservoirs. PMID:24786463

  17. A Role for Sigma Factor σE in Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Resistance to Nitric Oxide/Peroxide Stress

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Luis G. C.; Castro, Thiago L. P.; Carvalho, Rodrigo D.; Moraes, Pablo M.; Dorella, Fernanda A.; Carvalho, Natália B.; Slade, Susan E.; Scrivens, James H.; Feelisch, Martin; Meyer, Roberto; Miyoshi, Anderson; Oliveira, Sergio C.; Dowson, Christopher G.; Azevedo, Vasco

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic intracellular bacteria can respond to antimicrobial mechanisms of the host cell through transient activation of stress-responsive genes by alternative sigma (σ) factors of the RNA polymerase. We evaluated the contribution of the extracytoplasmic function sigma factor σE for Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis resistance to stress conditions resembling those found intracellularly during infection. A sigE-null mutant strain (ΔsigE) of this bacterium was more susceptible in vitro to acidic pH, cell surface stressors, and biologically relevant concentrations of nitric oxide (NO). The same mutant strain was unable to persist in C57BL/6 mice but remained infective in mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), confirming the significance of σE for resistance to nitric oxide/peroxide stress in vivo. High-throughput proteomic analysis identified NO-responsive extracellular proteins of C. pseudotuberculosis and demonstrated the participation of σE in composition of this bacterium’s exoproteome. PMID:22514549

  18. Homology analysis and cross-immunogenicity of OmpA from pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuhuang; Duan, Ran; Li, Xu; Li, Kewei; Liang, Junrong; Liu, Chang; Qiu, Haiyan; Xiao, Yuchun; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    The outer membrane protein A (OmpA) is one of the intra-species conserved proteins with immunogenicity widely found in the family of Enterobacteriaceae. Here we first confirmed OmpA is conserved in the three pathogenic Yersinia: Yersinia pestis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, with high homology at the nucleotide level and at the amino acid sequence level. The identity of ompA sequences for 262 Y. pestis strains, 134 Y. pseudotuberculosis strains and 219 pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains are 100%, 98.8% and 97.7% similar. The main pattern of OmpA of pathogenic Yersinia are 86.2% and 88.8% identical at the nucleotide and amino acid sequence levels, respectively. Immunological analysis showed the immunogenicity of each OmpA and cross-immunogenicity of OmpA for pathogenic Yersinia where OmpA may be a vaccine candidate for Y. pestis and other pathogenic Yersinia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The importance of the magnesium transporter MgtB for virulence of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Ford, Donna C; Joshua, George W P; Wren, Brendan W; Oyston, Petra C F

    2014-12-01

    Mg(2+) has been shown to be an important signal controlling gene regulation via the PhoPQ two-component regulatory system for a range of Gram-negative bacteria, including Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The magnesium ion transporter MgtB is part of the complex PhoPQ regulon, being upregulated in response to low Mg(2+). Despite the presence of other Mg(2+) transport systems in Yersinia, inactivation of mgtB had a significant effect on the ability of the bacteria to scavenge this crucial ion. Whereas inactivation of PhoPQ is reported to adversely affect intracellular survival, we show that Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis ΔmgtB mutants survived equally as well as the respective parent strain within macrophages, although they were more sensitive to killing in the Galleria model of infection. Surprisingly, despite MgtB being only one member of the Mg(2+) stimulon and PhoPQ controlling the expression levels of a range of genes including mgtB, the Yersinia ΔmgtB mutants were more highly attenuated than the equivalent Yersinia ΔphoP mutants in mouse models of infection. MgtB may be a suitable target for development of novel antimicrobials, and investigation of its role may help elucidate the contribution of this component of the PhoPQ regulon to pathogenesis. © 2014 British Crown Copyright 2014/DSTL.

  20. [Comparison of efficacy of tests for differentiation of typical and atypical strains of Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Arsen'eva, T E; Lebedeva, S A; Trukhachev, A L; Vasil'eva, E A; Ivanova, V S; Bozhko, N V

    2010-01-01

    To characterize species specificity of officially recommended tests for differentiation of Yersiniapestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and propose additional tests allowing for more accurate identification. Natural, laboratory and typical strains oftwo Yersinia species were studied using microbiological, molecular and biochemical methods. For PCR species-specific primers complementary to certain fragments of chromosomal DNA of each species as well as to several plasmid genes of Y. pestis were used. It was shown that such attributes of Y. pestis as form of colonies, fermentation ofrhamnose, melibiose and urea, susceptibility to diagnostic phages, nutritional requirements could be lost in pestis bacterial species or detected in pseudotuberculosis species. Such attribute as mobility as well as positive result of CoA-reaction on fraction V antigen are more reliable. Guaranteed differentiation of typical and changed according to differential tests strains is provided only by PCR-analysis with primers vlml2for/ISrev216 and JS respectively, which are homologous to certain chromosome fragments of one of two Yersinia species.

  1. [Large scale outbreak of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype 5a infection at Noheji-machi in Aomori Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Toyokawa, Y; Ohtomo, Y; Akiyama, T; Masuda, K; Kasai, M; Kaneko, S; Maruyama, T

    1993-01-01

    In June 1991, there were large scale outbreaks of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis at 4 primary schools and 1 junior high-school in Noheji-machi in Aomori Prefecture. A total of 732 patients (725 pupils and school children, 7 teachers and personnel) were affected and 134 were hospitalized. Sex ratio of incidence was 1.1:1.0 without appreciable difference. Clinical symptoms (478 patients) were represented frequently by pyrexia (86.4%), eruption (73.8%), abdominal pain (66.7%), vomiting nausea (63.4%), etc., and were characterized by a strawberry tongue, pharyngeal redness, membranous desquamation of the fingers and arthralgia during convalescence. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was isolated from 27 (81.8%) of 33 patients stool specimens, 1 waste water specimen and 2 (11.7%) of cooking employees' stool specimens. The isolates were confirmed serotype 5a, and positive for calcium-dependency and autoagglutination, and harboring 40-50 megadalton virulent plasmid. Restrictive endonuclease digestive pattern of plasmid proved to be identical. In many cases, patients' serum antibody titer showed a significant increase ratio to the isolated strain. In term of drug susceptibility, all the strains were sensitive to cefem, penicillin and amino-glycoside series and resistant to macrolide and sulfa series. The infectious source was limited to the school feeding, but the responsible food remained unknown. Mean latency and exposure day were presumed to be 6.5 days and May 30, respectively.

  2. Improvements to a PCR-based serogrouping scheme for Salmonella enterica from dairy farm samples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The PCR method described by Herrera-León, et al. (Research in Microbiology 158:122-127, 2007) has proved to be a simple and useful technique for characterizing isolates of Salmonella enterica enterica belonging to serogroups B, C1, C2, D1, and E1, groups which encompass a majority of the isolates fr...

  3. Widespread molecular detection of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 in cold water taps across the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States 3,522 cases of legionellosis were reported to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2009. Of these reports, it is estimated that 84% are caused by the microorganism Legionella pneumophila Serogroup (Sg) 1. Legionella spp. have been isolated and r...

  4. Persistence of Serogroup C Antibody Responses Following Quadrivalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccination in United States Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-14

    prior to vaccination , and at least one sample within 3 ears post- vaccination . Individuals with a history of ≥2 doses of eningococcal vaccine were...demographic information, including sex, age and race, and meningococcal vaccination history were obtained from DMSS. Pre- vaccination samples from all...Naval Health Research Center Persistence of Serogroup C Antibody Responses following Quadrivalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccination in United

  5. Carriage rates of Neisseria meningitidis serogroups: determination among freshmen conscripts before vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Ataee, Ramezan Ali; Mehrabi-Tavana, Ali; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Kaviani, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Neisseria meningitidis is transmitted from person-to-person. Thus, close contact with a healthy carrier can facilitate the spread of the bacteria and lead to life-threatening meningococcal disease. The aim of this study was to identify oropharyngeal carriers of N. meningitidis in volunteers preparing for military service before vaccination. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 226 volunteers entering military service were referred to the Shemiranat Health Center for meningococcal vaccination and assayed. Before vaccination, the participants underwent sampling of the throat using separate swabs. Thayer-Martin Agar medium and microbiological standard methods were used for culture and isolation of the organisms. The bacterial isolates were subjected to DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction. The obtained data were descriptively analyzed. Results: Out of the 226 (100%) young volunteers, only 18 (8%) yielded Gram-negative diplococci. The results showed the presence of N. meningitidis (carriage rate: 8%) in their oropharyngeal regions. The isolated serogroups were C, A, Y, W-135, and X with frequencies of 50, 22.2, 16.6, 5.5, and 5.5, respectively. Discussion: This study showed that the carriage rate in young volunteers for military service is around 8% before vaccination. Although the rates for serogroups A and C were dominant, the existence of serogroups Y and W indicate the necessary revision of the A/C vaccine. More research is needed to determine serogroup diversity and decrease the risk of meningococcal disease in individual groups. PMID:27928488

  6. Draft Whole-Genome Sequences of 10 Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Serogroup O6 Strains

    PubMed Central

    Bopp, Cheryl A.

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhea in children under the age of 5 years and in adults living in developing countries, as well as in travelers to these countries. In this announcement, we release the draft whole-genome sequences of 10 ETEC serogroup O6 strains. PMID:26044422

  7. Factors affecting the recovery of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 from cooling tower water systems.

    PubMed

    Lu, H F; Tsou, M F; Huang, S Y; Tsai, W C; Chung, J G; Cheng, K S

    2001-09-01

    A total of 20 water samples collected from the cooling towers at 20 different sites were analyzed under various conditions for the presence of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. A comparative assessment was performed to evaluate methods of sample collection (spray drops, beneath water at 20- to 40-cm depth, and water outlet), concentration (filtration and centrifugation), acid buffer treatment (no treatment, treatment for 3, 5, and 15 min), and CO2 incubation or candle jar incubation. The reduction in viable colonies and false negative rate were compared for the different factors. No quantitative differences in isolation of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 was found among samples collected from water at a depth of 20 to 40 cm, from water outlet, and from spray drops. Treatment in an acid buffer for 15 min significantly reduced the recovery rate, with a reduction in bacterial counts of about 40%, compared with a 3-min (12%) or a 5-min (25%) treatment. Acid buffer treatment for 3 or 5 min reduced the overgrowth of commensal flora. This treatment improved the selectivity but not the sensitivity for L. pneumophila serogroup 1. Colonies on plates incubated at 37 degrees C in a candle jar with a humidified atmosphere grew better than those incubated at 35 degrees C with 5% CO2. These results demonstrate that methods of sample collection, concentration, and incubation, but not collection site, can affect the isolation rate for L. pneumophila serogroup 1.

  8. Host Response in Rabbits to Infection with Pasteurella multocida Serogroup F Strains Originating from Fowl Cholera

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ability of two avian Pasteurella multocida serogroup F strains to induce disease in rabbits was investigated in this study. Two groups of 18 Pasteurella-free rabbits each were intranasally challenged with strains isolated from chicken and turkey, respectively. Half the animals in each challenge ...

  9. Outbreak of Legionnaire’s Disease Caused by Legionella pneumophila Serogroups 1 and 13

    PubMed Central

    Amemura-Maekawa, Junko; Ohya, Hitomi; Furukawa, Ichiro; Suzuki, Miyuki; Masaoka, Tomoka; Aikawa, Kastuhiro; Hibi, Kazumi; Morita, Masatomo; Lee, Ken-ichi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Kura, Fumiaki

    2017-01-01

    In Japan, hot springs and public baths are the major sources of legionellosis. In 2015, an outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease occurred among 7 patients who had visited a spa house. Laboratory investigation indicated that L. pneumophila serogroup 1 and 13 strains caused the outbreak and that these strains were genetically related. PMID:28098535

  10. Community-acquired Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 10 linked to the private home.

    PubMed

    Lück, Paul Christian; Schneider, Thomas; Wagner, Jutta; Walther, Ilona; Reif, Ursula; Weber, Stefan; Weist, Klaus

    2008-02-01

    We describe the case of a 66-year-old man with a culture-proven Legionella pneumonia after kidney transplantation. The patient developed the infection 15 days after discharge from a university hospital. Legionella pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 5/10 was established by positive direct fluorescence assay, positive urinary-antigen detection and isolation of the causative agent. The infection was successfully treated by giving appropriate antibiotics, but the further course was complicated by invasive aspergillosis, cytomegalovirus pneumonia, failure of the transplanted kidney and development of septic anaemia. Four months after the diagnosis of Legionella pneumonia the patient died of multi-organ failure. The microbiological and epidemiological investigation revealed that strains from the water supply of the patient's private home were indistinguishable from the patient's isolate by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequence-based typing (SBT). Unrelated strains of serogroups 4, 5, 8 and 10 from the Dresden strain collection were of different SBT types. Thus, SBT is a very useful tool for epidemiological investigation of infections by L. pneumophila serogroups other than serogroup 1.

  11. A Seroepidemiological Study of Serogroup A Meningococcal Infection in the African Meningitis Belt

    PubMed Central

    Manigart, Olivier; Trotter, Caroline; Findlow, Helen; Assefa, Abraham; Mihret, Wude; Moti Demisse, Tesfaye; Yeshitela, Biruk; Osei, Isaac; Hodgson, Abraham; Quaye, Stephen Laryea; Sow, Samba; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Diallo, Kanny; Traore, Awa; Collard, Jean-Marc; Moustapha Boukary, Rahamatou; Djermakoye, Oumarou; Mahamane, Ali Elhaji; Jusot, Jean-François; Sokhna, Cheikh; Alavo, Serge; Doucoure, Souleymane; Ba, El Hadj; Dieng, Mariétou; Diallo, Aldiouma; Daugla, Doumagoum Moto; Omotara, Babatunji; Chandramohan, Daniel; Hassan-King, Musa; Nascimento, Maria; Woukeu, Arouna; Borrow, Ray; Stuart, James M.; Greenwood, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of epidemic meningococcal disease in the African meningitis belt may be influenced by the background level of population immunity but this has been measured infrequently. A standardised enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibodies was established at five centres within the meningitis belt. Antibody concentrations were then measured in 3930 individuals stratified by age and residence from six countries. Seroprevalence by age was used in a catalytic model to determine the force of infection. Meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibody concentrations were high in each country but showed heterogeneity across the meningitis belt. The geometric mean concentration (GMC) was highest in Ghana (9.09 μg/mL [95% CI 8.29, 9.97]) and lowest in Ethiopia (1.43 μg/mL [95% CI 1.31, 1.57]) on the margins of the belt. The force of infection was lowest in Ethiopia (λ = 0.028). Variables associated with a concentration above the putative protective level of 2 μg/mL were age, urban residence and a history of recent vaccination with a meningococcal vaccine. Prior to vaccination with the serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibody concentrations were high across the African meningitis belt and yet the region remained susceptible to epidemics. PMID:26872255

  12. Shiga toxin-producing serogroup O91 Escherichia coli strains isolated from food and environmental samples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains of the O91: H21 serotype have caused severe infections, including hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Strains of the O91 serogroup have been isolated from food, animals, and the environment worldwide but are not well characterized. We used a microarray an...

  13. Hybridoma-derived monoclonal immunoglobulin M antibodies to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 with diagnostic potential.

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, K K; Drüeke, V; Brandis, H

    1983-01-01

    Mouse hybridomas were isolated by fusing P3-X63-Ag 8.653 myeloma cells with spleen cells from mice that had been repeatedly immunized with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 organisms. In one fusion, three independent hybridoma cultures which secreted antibodies that reacted with the immunizing strain in the indirect immunofluorescent-antibody test were selected for cloning. Representative continuously growing clones, one of each hybridoma, which remained stable in producing high-titer antibodies were examined in detail. Extensive specificity tests revealed that these hybridoma-derived monoclonal antibodies were specifically directed against L. pneumophila serogroup 1 organisms and showed no cross-reactions in the indirect immunofluorescent-antibody test either with the other known serogroups of L. pneumophila or with other unrelated bacterial species. The three monoclonal antibodies F4/CB5/K18, F/4CB5/K104, and F4/JD3.8/K101 belonged to the immunoglobulin M class and were capable of agglutinating serogroup 1 organisms of L. pneumophila exquisitely. These monoclonal antibodies against L. pneumophila with defined fine specificity should enable purification and subsequent analysis of the corresponding antigenic determinant(s) and can also be used for the preparation of unlimited supplies of standard diagnostic reagents for the identification of L. pneumophila in the tissues and body fluids. PMID:6874913

  14. Widespread molecular detection of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 in cold water taps across the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States 3,522 cases of legionellosis were reported to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2009. Of these reports, it is estimated that 84% are caused by the microorganism Legionella pneumophila Serogroup (Sg) 1. Legionella spp. have been isolated and r...

  15. [Abdominal acute pain as initial symptom of invasive meningococcus serogroup A illness].

    PubMed

    Sanz Álvarez, Débora; Blázquez Gamero, Daniel; Ruiz Contreras, Jesús

    2011-04-01

    The abdominal acute pain as an initial symptom of meningococcemia is an infrequent entity rarely described in the literature. We present a 10 month-old infant with fever and acute abdominal pain, who was admitted in Emergency Care. Later, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A was isolated from blood cultures.

  16. Intranasal inoculation of mice with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis causes a lethal lung infection that is dependent on Yersinia outer proteins and PhoP.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Michael L; Castillo, Cynthia; Mecsas, Joan

    2007-01-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infects many mammals and birds including humans, livestock, and wild rodents and can be recovered from the lungs of infected animals. To determine the Y. pseudotuberculosis factors important for growth during lung infection, we developed an intranasal model of infection in mice. Following intranasal inoculation, we monitored both bacterial growth in lungs and dissemination to systemic tissues. Intranasal inoculation with as few as 18 CFU of Y. pseudotuberculosis caused a lethal lung infection in some mice. Over the course of 7 days, wild-type Y. pseudotuberculosis replicated to nearly 1 x 10(8) CFU/g of lung in BALB/c mice, induced histopathology in lungs consistent with pneumonia, but disseminated sporadically to other tissues. In contrast, a Delta yopB deletion strain was attenuated in this model, indicating that translocation of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) is essential for virulence. Additionally, a Delta yopH null mutant failed to grow to wild-type levels by 4 days postintranasal inoculation, but deletions of any other single effector YOP did not attenuate lung colonization 4 days postinfection. Strains with deletions in yopH and any one of the other known effector yop genes were more attenuated that the Delta yopH strain, indicating a unique role for yopH in lungs. In summary, we have characterized the progression of a lung infection with an enteric Yersinia pathogen and shown that YopB and YopH are important in lung colonization and dissemination. Furthermore, this lung infection model with Y. pseudotuberculosis can be used to test potential therapeutics against Yersinia and other gram-negative infections in lungs.

  17. Evaluation of the Role of the opgGH Operon in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Its Deletion during the Emergence of Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Quintard, Kévin; Dewitte, Amélie; Reboul, Angéline; Madec, Edwige; Bontemps-Gallo, Sébastien; Dondeyne, Jacqueline; Marceau, Michaël; Simonet, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The opgGH operon encodes glucosyltransferases that synthesize osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (OPGs) from UDP-glucose, using acyl carrier protein (ACP) as a cofactor. OPGs are required for motility, biofilm formation, and virulence in various bacteria. OpgH also sequesters FtsZ in order to regulate cell size according to nutrient availability. Yersinia pestis (the agent of flea-borne plague) lost the opgGH operon during its emergence from the enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. When expressed in OPG-negative strains of Escherichia coli and Dickeya dadantii, opgGH from Y. pseudotuberculosis restored OPGs synthesis, motility, and virulence. However, Y. pseudotuberculosis did not produce OPGs (i) under various growth conditions or (ii) when overexpressing its opgGH operon, its galUF operon (governing UDP-glucose), or the opgGH operon or Acp from E. coli. A ΔopgGH Y. pseudotuberculosis strain showed normal motility, biofilm formation, resistance to polymyxin and macrophages, and virulence but was smaller. Consistently, Y. pestis was smaller than Y. pseudotuberculosis when cultured at ≥37°C, except when the plague bacillus expressed opgGH. Y. pestis expressing opgGH grew normally in serum and within macrophages and was fully virulent in mice, suggesting that small cell size was not advantageous in the mammalian host. Lastly, Y. pestis expressing opgGH was able to infect Xenopsylla cheopis fleas normally. Our results suggest an evolutionary scenario whereby an ancestral Yersinia strain lost a factor required for OPG biosynthesis but kept opgGH (to regulate cell size). The opgGH operon was presumably then lost because OpgH-dependent cell size control became unnecessary. PMID:26150539

  18. Evaluation of the Role of the opgGH Operon in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Its Deletion during the Emergence of Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Quintard, Kévin; Dewitte, Amélie; Reboul, Angéline; Madec, Edwige; Bontemps-Gallo, Sébastien; Dondeyne, Jacqueline; Marceau, Michaël; Simonet, Michel; Lacroix, Jean-Marie; Sebbane, Florent

    2015-09-01

    The opgGH operon encodes glucosyltransferases that synthesize osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (OPGs) from UDP-glucose, using acyl carrier protein (ACP) as a cofactor. OPGs are required for motility, biofilm formation, and virulence in various bacteria. OpgH also sequesters FtsZ in order to regulate cell size according to nutrient availability. Yersinia pestis (the agent of flea-borne plague) lost the opgGH operon during its emergence from the enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. When expressed in OPG-negative strains of Escherichia coli and Dickeya dadantii, opgGH from Y. pseudotuberculosis restored OPGs synthesis, motility, and virulence. However, Y. pseudotuberculosis did not produce OPGs (i) under various growth conditions or (ii) when overexpressing its opgGH operon, its galUF operon (governing UDP-glucose), or the opgGH operon or Acp from E. coli. A ΔopgGH Y. pseudotuberculosis strain showed normal motility, biofilm formation, resistance to polymyxin and macrophages, and virulence but was smaller. Consistently, Y. pestis was smaller than Y. pseudotuberculosis when cultured at ≥ 37°C, except when the plague bacillus expressed opgGH. Y. pestis expressing opgGH grew normally in serum and within macrophages and was fully virulent in mice, suggesting that small cell size was not advantageous in the mammalian host. Lastly, Y. pestis expressing opgGH was able to infect Xenopsylla cheopis fleas normally. Our results suggest an evolutionary scenario whereby an ancestral Yersinia strain lost a factor required for OPG biosynthesis but kept opgGH (to regulate cell size). The opgGH operon was presumably then lost because OpgH-dependent cell size control became unnecessary.

  19. Immunization with a DNA adenine methylase over-producing Yersinia pseudotuberculosis vaccine confers robust cross-protection against heterologous pathogenic serotypes.

    PubMed

    Kubicek-Sutherland, Jessica Z; Heithoff, Douglas M; Ersoy, Selvi C; Shimp, William R; Mahan, Michael J

    2014-03-14

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a foodborne pathogen that can cause serious human illness. Although the source and route of transmission often remain obscure, livestock have been implicated in some cases. The diversity of yersiniae present on farms and their widespread distribution in animal and environmental reservoirs necessitates the use of broad prophylactic strategies that are efficacious against many serotypes simultaneously. Herein, immunization of mice with a modified, live attenuated Y. pseudotuberculosis vaccine that overproduces the DNA adenine methylase (Dam(OP)) conferred robust protection against virulent challenge (150-fold LD50) with homologous and heterologous serotypes that have been associated with human disease (O:1, O:1a, O:3). Further, the dam gene was shown to be essential for cell viability in all (7 of 7) Y. pseudotuberculosis strains tested. Direct selection for the inheritance of dam mutant alleles in Y. pseudotuberculosis resulted in dam strain variants that contained compensatory (second-site suppressor) mutations in genes encoding methyl-directed mismatch repair proteins (mutHLS) that are involved in suppression of the non-viable cell phenotype in all (19/19) strains tested. Such dam mutH variants exhibited a significant increase in virulence and spontaneous mutation frequency relative to that of a Dam(OP) vaccine strain. These studies indicate that Y. pseudotuberculosis Dam(OP) strains conferred potent cross-protective efficacy as well as decreased virulence and spontaneous mutation frequency relative to those that lack Dam, which have compensatory mutations in mutHLS loci. These data suggest that development of yersiniae livestock vaccines based on Dam overproduction is a viable mitigation strategy to reduce these potential foodborne contaminants.

  20. Antigenic lipopolysaccharide components of Legionella pneumophila recognized by monoclonal antibodies: possibilities and limitations for division of the species into serogroups.

    PubMed Central

    Helbig, J H; Kurtz, J B; Pastoris, M C; Pelaz, C; Lück, P C

    1997-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila accounts for the majority of cases of Legionnaires' disease. By using rabbit antisera, the species has been divided into 14 numbered and 1 unnumbered serogroups. To recognize the antigenic diversity of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responsible for this classification, the Dresden Legionella LPS MAb panel, containing 98 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), was created. Each serogroup reference strain possesses at least one specific epitope not found on any other reference strain and therefore designated the serogroup-specific epitope. When the appropriate MAbs were used for serotyping of 1,064 human and environmental isolates, 1,045 (98%) could be placed into the known serogroups. In most cases (97%), this was in agreement with the polyclonal typing. Of the 29 isolates that showed strong cross-reactivities with the rabbit antiserum panel, 11 could be typed easily by MAbs; for the remaining 18, however, only serogroup-cross-reactive epitopes could be determined. Below the serogroup level, monoclonal subtypes were found for 11 serogroups. Altogether, the Dresden Legionella LPS MAb panel was able to divide the 1,064 isolates tested into 64 phenons, indicating its usefulness for both serogrouping and subgrouping of L. pneumophila strains. In order to compare the identities of patient and environmental isolates, testing their reactivity with MAbs should be the first step, especially if large numbers of colonies are to be typed. Only in cases of identical patterns are the more time consuming and expensive genetic fingerprints necessary. Moreover, the MAbs can also be used for specific antigen detection in respiratory specimens on the serogroup or subgroup level. PMID:9350744

  1. 48 CFR 853.215-70 - VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA. 853.215-70 Section 853.215-70 Federal... 853.215-70 VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA. VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA, will be used for...

  2. 48 CFR 853.215-70 - VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA. 853.215-70 Section 853.215-70 Federal... 853.215-70 VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA. VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA, will be used for...

  3. 48 CFR 853.215-70 - VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA. 853.215-70 Section 853.215-70 Federal... 853.215-70 VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA. VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA, will be used for...

  4. 48 CFR 853.215-70 - VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA. 853.215-70 Section 853.215-70 Federal... 853.215-70 VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA. VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA, will be used for...

  5. 48 CFR 853.215-70 - VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA. 853.215-70 Section 853.215-70 Federal... 853.215-70 VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA. VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA, will be used for...

  6. Development of a DNA Aptamer for Screening Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup B by Cell SELEX

    PubMed

    Mirzakhani, Kimia; Mousavi Gargari, Seyed Latif; Rasooli, Iraj; Rasoulinejad, Samaneh

    2017-09-24

    Artificial oligonucleotides like DNA or RNA aptamers can be used as biodiagnostic alternatives for antibodies to detect pathogens. Comparing to antibodies, artificial oligonucleotides are produced easily at lower costs and are more stable. Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningitis, is responsible for about 1% of infections in an epidemic period. Specific DNA aptamers that bind to N. meningitidis serogroup B were identified by whole-cell Systemic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential Enrichment (SELEX). The SELEX begins with a library of labeled ssDNA molecules. After six rounds of selection and two rounds of counter-selection, 60 clones were obtained, of which the binding efficiency of 21 aptamers to the aforementioned bacterium was tested by flow cytometry. The aptamers K3 and K4 showed the highest affinity to N. meningitidis serogroup B and no affinity to N. meningitidis serogroups Y, A, and C, or to other meningitis causing bacteria. The dissociation constant (Kd value) for K3 and K4 were calculated as 28.3±8.9 pM and 39.1±8.6 pM, respectively. K3 aptamer with the lowest Kd was chosen as the main aptamer. K3 could detect N. meningitidis in patients’ cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples and in CSF from healthy volunteers inoculated with N. meningitidis serogroup B (ATCC 13090) at 200 and 100 CFU ml-1, respectively. The findings suggest the application of the developed aptamer in specific detection of N. meningitidis serogroup B amongst a group of meningitis causing bacteria.

  7. Increased genetic diversity of Neisseria meningitidis isolates after the introduction of meningococcal serogroup C polysaccharide conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Diggle, Mathew A; Clarke, Stuart C

    2005-09-01

    During the 1990s, the incidence of meningococcal disease was high in the United Kingdom. This was due primarily to an increase in serogroup C disease, particularly that within the ET-37/ST-11 genetic lineage. Serogroup C meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines were introduced in the United Kingdom in 1999, but the sequence types of meningococci causing disease since that time have not yet been reported. We have used serogrouping and multilocus sequence typing to characterize meningococci from patients with invasive disease over a 4-year period and show that there is a significant increase in genetic diversity but no genetic evidence of capsule switching.

  8. Diagnostic Utility of Splenial Lesions in a Case of Legionnaires' Disease due to Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 2.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Yuji; Hoshino, Yasunobu; Sasaki, Fuyuko; Kurita, Naohide; Kawajiri, Sumihiro; Noda, Kazuyuki; Hattori, Nobutaka; Amemura-Maekawa, Junko; Kura, Fumiaki; Okuma, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    We herein report the case of a 49-year-old man with clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) associated with Legionnaires' disease due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2. Past reports suggest that Legionella infection is frequent in cases of MERS-associated pneumonia. Obtaining an early diagnosis of legionella infection is a challenge, especially if a Legionella pneumophila serogroup other than serogroup 1 contains the causative agent. In this case, the splenial lesion played an important role in recognizing the legionella infection. We suggest that legionella infection should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of splenial lesions associated with pneumonia.

  9. Travel-associated infections caused by unusual serogroups of Legionella pneumophila identified using Legionella BIOCHIP slides in Turkey and Iraq.

    PubMed

    Kocazeybek, Bekir S; Yuksel, Pelin; Keskin, Dilek; Sheikh, Suhail; Habip, Zafer; Yavuzer, Serap Sahin; Caliskan, Reyhan; Altun, Yagız Meric; Kuskucu, Mert; Cengiz, Mahir; Dinc, Harika Oyku; Karakullukcu, Asiye; Ergin, Sevgi; Saribas, Suat; Yilmaz, Nail; Tokman, Hrisi Bahar

    2016-01-01

    Although Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 is the common disease causing serogroup, rare serogroups can also may cause legionellosis. A 54-year-old male patient (index case) reported that he had been on a religious trip (for visiting, tomb of Ali, which is important for Shias) to Iraq with a large group (50 shia pilgrims from Kars city of Turkey) two weeks prior to admission. Due to civil war, the hotel where the patient stayed in Iraq lacked proper hygiene. A large number of people in the travel group were experiencing the same symptoms. Other five cases were 2 males (ages; 50, 45) and 3 females including the wife of the index case (ages; 50, 28, 27). The detection of L. pneumophila IgG and IgM was performed by anti-L. pneumophila Indirect Immunofluorescent IgM, IgG kit. Legionella 1 biochip/verification BIOCHIP slides were used for serogrouping in Euroimmun AG, Leubeck, Germany. In index case, L. pneumophila IgM was positive with a titer of 1/32 titer. IgG was negative with a 1/100 titer. Another case (28 year old female), had clinical symptoms identical to the index case. L. pneumophila IgM and IgG were positive with titers of 1/64 and 1/100, respectively. These two cases were diagnosed with Legionnaires' disease caused by L. pneumophila serogroup 12 (index case) and female (28-year-old) by serogroup 11. The other 4 cases were diagnosed with possible Pontiac fever caused by L. pneumophila serogroups 14 (wife of the index case), 4, and 6 whereas the serogroup of L. pneumophila detected in 27 years old female case could not be identified. A major limitation of this work is the absence of genotyping and the serogroup difference between index case and his wife who shared the same hotel. We suggest that this serogroup difference may be caused by (for men and women) sitting separately in Islamic rules. On the other hand, the movement of people in the context of mutual visits between countries or neighboring countries for tourism-related (i.e., for religious events

  10. Medical Student Psychiatry Examination Performance at VA and Non-VA Clerkship Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Phebe; von Schlageter, Margo Shultes; Park, EunMi; Rosenberg, Emily; Benjamin, Ashley B.; Nawar, Ola

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the effects of medical student assignment to U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center inpatient and outpatient psychiatry clerkship sites versus other university and community sites on the performance outcome measure of National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) subject examination scores. Methods:…

  11. Functional characterization of FlgM in the regulation of flagellar synthesis and motility in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lisha; Wang, Yao; Hu, Yangbo; Atkinson, Steve; Williams, Paul; Chen, Shiyun

    2009-06-01

    We describe here the functional characterization of the flgM gene in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Direct interaction of FlgM with the alternative sigma factor sigma(28) (FliA) was first confirmed. A conserved region in the C-terminus of FlgM was found which included the sigma(28) binding domain. By site-directed mutagenesis, bacterial two-hybrid analysis and Western blotting, the primary FlgM binding sites with sigma(28) were shown to be Ile85, Ala86 and Leu89. A role for FlgM in swimming motility was demonstrated by inactivation of flgM and subsequent complementation in trans. Transcriptional fusion analyses showed differential gene expression of flhDC, fliA, flgM and fliC in the fliA and flgM mutants compared with the wild-type. flhDC expression was not influenced by sigma(28) or FlgM while fliA expression was abolished in the fliA mutant and considerably reduced in the flgM mutant when compared to the wild-type, indicating that both FliA and FlgM can activate fliA transcription. Conversely, flgM transcription was higher in the fliA mutant when compared to the wild-type, suggesting that flgM transcription was repressed by sigma(28). Interestingly, fliC expression was markedly increased in the flgM mutant, suggesting a negative regulatory role for FlgM in fliC expression. The transcription of other sigma-dependent genes (cheW, flgD, flaA, csrA and fliZ) was also examined in fliA and flgM mutant backgrounds and this revealed that other sigma-factors apart from sigma(28) may be involved in flagellar biogenesis in Y. pseudotuberculosis. Taking together the motility phenotypes and effects of flgM mutation on the regulation of these key motility genes, we propose that the mechanisms regulating flagellar biogenesis in Y. pseudotuberculosis may differ from those described for other bacteria.

  12. Meningococcal serogroup A, C, W, and Y serum bactericidal antibody profiles in Hajj pilgrims.

    PubMed

    Memish, Ziad A; Yezli, Saber; Almasri, Malak; Assiri, Abdullah; Turkestani, Abdulhafeez; Findlow, Helen; Bai, Xilian; Borrow, Ray

    2014-11-01

    The religious seasons of Hajj and Umra in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) have historically been associated with epidemics of meningococcal disease. Due to the effective preventive measures taken in recent years, including vaccination, no meningococcal outbreaks have been reported during Hajj or were Hajj-associated. However, little is known about the immunological profile of pilgrims. The aim of this study was to assess the immunological profile of pilgrims on arrival in KSA against the four meningococcal serogroups, A, C, W, and Y, contained within the quadrivalent vaccine. Following consent, socio-demographic factors and health-related information was collected from pilgrims arriving at King Abdul Aziz International Airport and a blood sample taken. Antibodies were quantified by serum bactericidal antibody assay using baby rabbit complement (rSBA) against the four meningococcal serogroups, A, C, W, and Y. Serum samples were collected from 796 pilgrims; rSBA results were obtained for all four serogroups for 741 of these samples. A total of 48 (6.5%) Hajjis had previously attended Hajj, ranging from 1 to 14 times (median 2 times); 98.2% had received meningococcal quadrivalent vaccine in the last 3 years. Of the 13 who had not, all originated from Bangladesh, with four reporting no previous meningococcal vaccination and nine reporting having received the vaccination more than 3 years ago. For serogroup A, only one pilgrim from Indonesia had an rSBA titre <8. For serogroups C, W, and Y, the percentages of pilgrims with rSBA titres <8 were 9.9%, 17.4%, and 9.4%, respectively. Of note was the high prevalence of non-complement-mediated lysis in pilgrims originating from Nigeria (28/47; 59.6%) and Afghanistan (21/47; 44.7%), but not the other countries. This may be a reflection of the type and pattern of antibiotic usage among these communities. The vast majority of pilgrims are vaccinated and protected against meningococcal serogroups A, C, W, and Y.

  13. Direct Detection and Prediction of All Pneumococcal Serogroups by Target Enrichment-Based Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Liyanapathirana, Veranja; Ang, Irene; Fung, Kitty S. C.; Ng, T. K.; Zhou, Haokui; Tsang, Dominic N. C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of standard methods for pneumococcal serotyping, there is room for improvement in the available methods, in terms of throughput, multiplexing capacity, and the number of serotypes identified. We describe a target enrichment-based next-generation sequencing method applied to nasopharyngeal samples for direct detection and serogroup prediction of all known serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 32 to the serotype level and the rest to the closely related serogroup level. The method was applied to detect and to predict the serogroups of pneumococci directly in clinical samples and from sweeps of primary culture DNA, with increased detection rates versus culture-based identification and agreement with the serotypes/serogroups determined by conventional serotyping methods. We propose this method, in conjunction with traditional serotyping methods, as an alternative to rapid detection and serotyping of pneumococci. PMID:25274995

  14. Ruling out False-Positive Urinary Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 and Streptococcus pneumoniae Antigen Test Results by Heating Urine

    PubMed Central

    Pontoizeau, C.; Dangers, L.; Jarlier, V.; Luyt, C. E.; Guiller, E.; Fievet, M. H.; Lecsö-Bornet, M.; Aubry, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report here false-positive urinary Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 and Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen test results due to rabbit antilymphocyte serum treatment and provide a simple and fast solution to rule them out by heating urine. PMID:25253788

  15. Escherichia coli O-Antigen Gene Clusters of Serogroups O62, O68, O131, O140, O142, and O163: DNA Sequences and Similarity between O62 and O68, and PCR-Based Serogrouping

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanhong; Yan, Xianghe; DebRoy, Chitrita; Fratamico, Pina M.; Needleman, David S.; Li, Robert W.; Wang, Wei; Losada, Liliana; Brinkac, Lauren; Radune, Diana; Toro, Magaly; Hegde, Narasimha; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-01-01

    The DNA sequence of the O-antigen gene clusters of Escherichia coli serogroups O62, O68, O131, O140, O142, and O163 was determined, and primers based on the wzx (O-antigen flippase) and/or wzy (O-antigen polymerase) genes within the O-antigen gene clusters were designed and used in PCR assays to identify each serogroup. Specificity was tested with E. coli reference strains, field isolates belonging to the target serogroups, and non-E. coli bacteria. The PCR assays were highly specific for the respective serogroups; however, the PCR assay targeting the O62 wzx gene reacted positively with strains belonging to E. coli O68, which was determined by serotyping. Analysis of the O-antigen gene cluster sequences of serogroups O62 and O68 reference strains showed that they were 94% identical at the nucleotide level, although O62 contained an insertion sequence (IS) element located between the rmlA and rmlC genes within the O-antigen gene cluster. A PCR assay targeting the rmlA and rmlC genes flanking the IS element was used to differentiate O62 and O68 serogroups. The PCR assays developed in this study can be used for the detection and identification of E. coli O62/O68, O131, O140, O142, and O163 strains isolated from different sources. PMID:25664526

  16. Serological studies of British leptospiral isolates of the Sejroe serogroup. III. The distribution of leptospires of the Sejroe serogroup in the British Isles.

    PubMed Central

    Little, T. W.; Stevens, A. E.; Hathaway, S. C.

    1987-01-01

    Some 94 strains of leptospires belonging to the Sejroe serogroup isolated in the British Isles were identified to the serovar level using specific factor sera. Seventy strains were identified as Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo, 66 from cattle, 2 from pigs and 1 each from a sheep foetus and a human. Twenty-four strains were identified as L. interrogans serovar saxkoebing, most strains were isolated from either wood mice, bank or field voles but strains were also isolated from badgers, a fox and a dog. PMID:3609169

  17. Genetic study of the pVM82 plasmid responsible for some pathogenic traits of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Il`ina, T.S.; Fil`kova, S.L.

    1995-07-01

    The large pVM82 plasmid isolated epidemic strains of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis includes the 25 MDa segment, which encodes a series of properties affecting the virulence of the bacterium. Insertion mutants of pVM82 containing transposition-defective Tn2507 with a kanamycin-resistance marker in different Hind III fragments of the 25 MDa segment were obtained. By recombination between two homologous pVM82 containing genetic markers in different parts, deletion derivatives of pVM82 plasmid and insertions of the plasmid segment, carrying a kanamycin-resistance marker, into a chromosome were obtained. Results were obtained suggesting the presence in the plasmid 25 MDa segment of a transposon-like structure capable of migrating from pVM82 plasmid onto a chromosome and from a chromosome and pVM82 onto pRP1.2 plasmid of a broad host range. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Crystal Structures of the Outer Membrane Domain of Intimin and Invasin from Enterohemorrhagic E. coli and Enteropathogenic Y. pseudotuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Fairman, James W.; Dautin, Nathalie; Wojtowicz, Damian; Liu, Wei; Noinaj, Nicholas; Barnard, Travis J.; Udho, Eshwar; Przytycka, Teresa M.; Cherezov, Vadim; Buchanan, Susan K.

    2012-12-10

    Intimins and invasins are virulence factors produced by pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. They contain C-terminal extracellular passenger domains that are involved in adhesion to host cells and N-terminal {beta} domains that are embedded in the outer membrane. Here, we identify the domain boundaries of an E. coli intimin {beta} domain and use this information to solve its structure and the {beta} domain structure of a Y. pseudotuberculosis invasin. Both {beta} domain structures crystallized as monomers and reveal that the previous range of residues assigned to the {beta} domain also includes a protease-resistant domain that is part of the passenger. Additionally, we identify 146 nonredundant representative members of the intimin/invasin family based on the boundaries of the highly conserved intimin and invasin {beta} domains. We then use this set of sequences along with our structural data to find and map the evolutionarily constrained residues within the {beta} domain.

  19. Effect of phenol-induced changes in lipid composition on conformation of OmpF-like porin of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sanina, Nina; Nina, Sanina; Davydova, Ludmila; Ludmila, Davydova; Bakholdina, Svetlana; Svetlana, Bakholdina; Novikova, Olga; Olga, Novikova; Pornyagina, Olga; Olga, Pornyagina; Solov'eva, Tamara; Tamara, Solov'eva; Shnyrov, Valery; Valery, Shnyrov; Bogdanov, Mikhail; Mikhail, Bogdanov

    2013-07-11

    The present work aimed to compare the effects of different lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) content in lipids derived from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis cells exposed and not exposed to phenol on the conformation of OmpF-like porin of these bacteria. Differential scanning calorimetry and intrinsic protein fluorescence showed that the 2.5-fold increase of LPE content and the corresponding increase in the phase transition temperature of bacterial lipids were accompanied by enhanced protein thermostability. Integral conformational rearrangement of protein was supported by drastic changes in the microenvironment of the tryptophan residues, likely resulting in a convergence of monomers in trimeric porin and exposure of outer tryptophan residues to the water environment. These conformational changes may impede the porin channel permeability under stress conditions in bacteria.

  20. Comparison of arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction, ribotyping, and monoclonal antibody analysis for subtyping Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1.

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Lus, P; Fields, B S; Benson, R F; Martin, W T; O'Connor, S P; Black, C M

    1993-01-01

    Arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) was used to characterize Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. Cells from a single colony could be subtyped by AP-PCR within a few hours. The discrimination between strains of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 by AP-PCR was equivalent to that by monoclonal antibody analysis and ribotyping. Four strains representing the monoclonal antibody pattern most frequently associated with outbreaks all yielded unique amplicon patterns by AP-PCR. Images PMID:8394380

  1. Standardization and a multilaboratory comparison of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A and C serum bactericidal assays. The Multilaboratory Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Maslanka, S E; Gheesling, L L; Libutti, D E; Donaldson, K B; Harakeh, H S; Dykes, J K; Arhin, F F; Devi, S J; Frasch, C E; Huang, J C; Kriz-Kuzemenska, P; Lemmon, R D; Lorange, M; Peeters, C C; Quataert, S; Tai, J Y; Carlone, G M

    1997-01-01

    A standardized serum bactericidal assay (SBA) is required to evaluate the functional activity of antibody produced in response to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A and C vaccines. We evaluated assay parameters (assay buffer, target strains, growth of target cells, target cell number, complement source and concentration, and methods for growth of surviving bacteria) which may affect the reproducibility of SBA titers. The various assay parameters and specificity of anticapsular antibody to five serogroup A strains (A1, ATCC 13077, F8238, F9205, and F7485) and four serogroup C strains (C11, G7880, G8050, and 1002-90) were evaluated with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention meningococcal quality control sera. The critical assay parameters for the reproducible measurement of SBA titers were found to include the target strain, assay incubation time, and complement. The resulting standardized SBA was used by 10 laboratories to measure functional anticapsular antibody against serogroup A strains F8238 and serogroup C strain C11. In the multilaboratory study, SBA titers were measured in duplicate for 14 pairs of sera (seven adults and seven children) before and after immunization with a quadrivalent polysaccharide (A, C, Y, and W-135) vaccine. The standardized SBA was reliable in all laboratories regardless of experience in performing SBAs. For most sera, intralaboratory reproducibility was +/- 1 dilution; interlaboratory reproducibility was +/- 2 dilutions. The correlation between median titers (interlaboratory) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay total antibody concentrations was high for both serogroup A (r = 0.86; P < 0.001; slope = 0.5) and serogroup C (n = 0.86; P < 0.001; slope = 0.7). The specified assay, which includes the critical parameters of target strain, incubation time, and complement source, will facilitate interlaboratory comparisons of the functional antibody produced in response to current or developing serogroup A and C meningococcal vaccines

  2. Prolonged university outbreak of meningococcal disease associated with a serogroup B strain rarely seen in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sema; Wu, Henry M; MacNeil, Jessica R; Machesky, Kimberly; Garcia, Jocelyn; Plikaytis, Brian D; Quinn, Kim; King, Larry; Schmink, Susanna E; Wang, Xin; Mayer, Leonard W; Clark, Thomas A; Gaskell, James R; Messonnier, Nancy E; DiOrio, Mary; Cohn, Amanda C

    2013-08-01

    College students living in residential halls are at increased risk of meningococcal disease. Unlike that for serogroups prevented by quadrivalent meningococcal vaccines, public health response to outbreaks of serogroup B meningococcal disease is limited by lack of a US licensed vaccine. In March 2010, we investigated a prolonged outbreak of serogroup B disease associated with a university. In addition to case ascertainment, molecular typing of isolates was performed to characterize the outbreak. We conducted a matched case-control study to examine risk factors for serogroup B disease. Five controls per case, matched by college year, were randomly selected. Participants completed a risk factor questionnaire. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. Between January 2008 and November 2010, we identified 13 meningococcal disease cases (7 confirmed, 4 probable, and 2 suspected) involving 10 university students and 3 university-linked persons. One student died. Ten cases were determined to be serogroup B. Isolates from 6 confirmed cases had an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern and belonged to sequence type 269, clonal complex 269. Factors significantly associated with disease were Greek society membership (matched odds ratio [mOR], 15.0; P = .03), >1 kissing partner (mOR, 13.66; P = .03), and attending bars (mOR, 8.06; P = .04). The outbreak was associated with a novel serogroup B strain (CC269) and risk factors were indicative of increased social mixing. Control measures were appropriate but limited by lack of vaccine. Understanding serogroup B transmission in college and other settings will help inform use of serogroup B vaccines currently under consideration for licensure.

  3. Inactivation of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, as a surrogate for Yersinia pestis, by liquid biocides in the presence of food residue.

    PubMed

    Hilgren, J; Swanson, K M J; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Cords, B

    2009-02-01

    The efficacy of liquid biocides is influenced by surface cleanliness, treatment time, and temperature. Experiments were completed to measure the impact of these variables on the ability of commercial biocides to inactivate Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ATCC 29910, as a surrogate for Yersinia pestis, in the presence of food residues. The test organism was mixed with water, milk, flour, or egg yolk and then dried onto stainless steel coupons. Coupons were then exposed to sodium hypochlorite, acidified sodium chlorite, a quaternary ammonium compound, an iodophor, hydrogen peroxide, peroxyacetic acid, or a peroxy-fatty acid mixture, for 10 or 30 min at 10, 20, or 30 degrees C. For all biocides except the iodophor, manufacturer-recommended disinfection levels applied for 10 min at 20 degrees C resulted in 5-log reductions of the test organism dried alone or with flour. However, in the presence of whole milk or egg yolk residue, markedly higher sodium hypochlorite, peroxyacetic acid, peroxy-fatty acid mixture, quaternary ammonium compound, and iodophor concentrations were needed to achieve the 5-log reductions. Further, the quaternary ammonium compound was incapable of achieving 5-log reductions in 10 min in the presence of milk and egg yolk residues. Hydrogen peroxide and acidified sodium chlorite disinfection levels (7.5% and 2500 ppm, respectively) achieved 5-log reductions under all test conditions. These results suggest that commercial disinfectants can adequately decontaminate clean surfaces contaminated with Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis. These results also provide guidance on the feasibility of overcoming the negative influence of food residues on disinfection by adjusting biocide exposure time, temperature, and concentration.

  4. Acquisition of Meningococcal Serogroup W-135 Carriage in Turkish Hajj Pilgrims Who Had Received the Quadrivalent Meningococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Celik, M.; Demir, E. T.; Gurbuz, V.; Aycan, A. E.; Unal, S.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease is a recognized public health problem worldwide, with a dynamic and changeable epidemiology. In Turkey, the second most common pathogenic meningococcal serogroup (after serogroup B) is W-135, including an epidemic in 2005, which has been strongly associated with Hajj pilgrims and their close contacts. In two studies conducted in 2010, we assessed meningococcal carriage in intending Turkish pilgrims to the Hajj when they attended to receive a plain polysaccharide vaccine against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y and, upon their return, to determine the acquisition of meningococcal carriage by the pilgrims themselves and subsequently their household contacts. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from pilgrims before the Hajj and upon their return. Swabs were then obtained from 39 household contacts of pilgrims who were shown to have acquired carriage during the Hajj. Of the 472 pilgrims before the Hajj, 63 (13%) were positive for meningococcal carriage, of which 52 cases (83%) were serogroup W-135. In the 296 pilgrims tested after the Hajj, 81 (27%) were positive for meningococcal carriage, including 74 (91%) with W-135. In 11 family members of pilgrims who acquired W-135 carriage at the Hajj, 10 (91%) had acquired carriage of serogroup W-135. This study illustrates the acquisition of meningococcal carriage, predominantly of serogroup W-135 by pilgrims attending the Hajj, and the transmission of this carriage to their family members on their return, explaining the source of W-135 meningococcal disease in Turkey. PMID:23136117

  5. Acquisition of meningococcal serogroup W-135 carriage in Turkish Hajj pilgrims who had received the quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ceyhan, M; Celik, M; Demir, E T; Gurbuz, V; Aycan, A E; Unal, S

    2013-01-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease is a recognized public health problem worldwide, with a dynamic and changeable epidemiology. In Turkey, the second most common pathogenic meningococcal serogroup (after serogroup B) is W-135, including an epidemic in 2005, which has been strongly associated with Hajj pilgrims and their close contacts. In two studies conducted in 2010, we assessed meningococcal carriage in intending Turkish pilgrims to the Hajj when they attended to receive a plain polysaccharide vaccine against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y and, upon their return, to determine the acquisition of meningococcal carriage by the pilgrims themselves and subsequently their household contacts. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from pilgrims before the Hajj and upon their return. Swabs were then obtained from 39 household contacts of pilgrims who were shown to have acquired carriage during the Hajj. Of the 472 pilgrims before the Hajj, 63 (13%) were positive for meningococcal carriage, of which 52 cases (83%) were serogroup W-135. In the 296 pilgrims tested after the Hajj, 81 (27%) were positive for meningococcal carriage, including 74 (91%) with W-135. In 11 family members of pilgrims who acquired W-135 carriage at the Hajj, 10 (91%) had acquired carriage of serogroup W-135. This study illustrates the acquisition of meningococcal carriage, predominantly of serogroup W-135 by pilgrims attending the Hajj, and the transmission of this carriage to their family members on their return, explaining the source of W-135 meningococcal disease in Turkey.

  6. Distribution of neutralizing antibodies to California and Bunyamwera serogroup viruses in horses and rodents in California.

    PubMed

    Campbell, G L; Reeves, W C; Hardy, J L; Eldridge, B F

    1990-03-01

    Neutralization tests were done on sera from 141 horses from high elevation regions of California. Antibody prevalences to Jamestown Canyon, snowshoe hare, and California encephalitis viruses in the California serogroup and Northway virus in the Bunyamwera serogroup were 55%, 43%, 18%, and 46%, respectively. In 51 horses from rural low elevation regions, seroprevalences were 31%, 35%, 35%, and 37%, respectively. Twenty-four horses from a suburban lowland area were seronegative, except for a single horse with a low titer to snowshoe hare virus. Seroprevalence to Jamestown Canyon and snowshoe hare viruses was associated with increasing age. Only 2 of 177 rodents from the Sierra Nevada had antibodies to Northway virus; none had antibodies to Jamestown Canyon or snowshoe hare viruses.

  7. Meningococcal vaccines and herd immunity: lessons learned from serogroup C conjugate vaccination programs.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Caroline L; Maiden, Martin C J

    2009-07-01

    Effective vaccines provide direct protection to immunized individuals, but may also provide benefits to unvaccinated individuals by reducing transmission and thereby lowering the risk of infection. Such herd immunity effects have been demonstrated following the introduction of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccines, with reductions in disease attack rates in unimmunized individuals and significantly lower serogroup C carriage attributable to the vaccine introduction. In the UK, targeting teenagers for immunization was crucial in maximizing indirect effects, as most meningococcal transmission occurs in this age group. Questions remain regarding the duration of herd protection and the most appropriate long-term immunization strategies. The magnitude of the herd effects following MCC vaccination was largely unanticipated, and has important consequences for the design and evaluation of new meningococcal vaccines.

  8. Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease Outbreak and Carriage Evaluation at a College - Rhode Island, 2015.

    PubMed

    Soeters, Heidi M; McNamara, Lucy A; Whaley, Melissa; Wang, Xin; Alexander-Scott, Nicole; Kanadanian, Koren V; Kelleher, Catherine M; MacNeil, Jessica; Martin, Stacey W; Raines, Nathan; Sears, Steven; Vanner, Cynthia; Vuong, Jeni; Bandy, Utpala; Sicard, Kenneth; Patel, Manisha

    2015-06-12

    On February 2, 2015, the Rhode Island Department of Health was notified of a case of meningococcal disease in a male undergraduate student at Providence College. Three days later, a second case was reported in a male undergraduate with no contact with the first student, indicating an attack rate of 44 cases per 100,000 students, nearly 500 times higher than the national incidence of 0.15 cases per 100,000 among persons aged 17-22 years (Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC, unpublished data, 2013). Both cases were caused by a rare outbreak strain of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (ST-9069); neither case was fatal. In response to the outbreak, potential contacts received antibiotic chemoprophylaxis, and a mass vaccination campaign with a recently licensed serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine was implemented. In collaboration with CDC, the first phase of a meningococcal carriage evaluation was undertaken.

  9. Notes from the Field: Outbreak of Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease at a University - California, 2016.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Hope H; Han, George S; Wendorf, Kristen; Winter, Kathleen; Zipprich, Jennifer; Perti, Tara; Martinez, Linda; Arellano, Aileen; Kyle, Jennifer L; Zhang, Peng; Harriman, Kathleen

    2016-05-27

    On January 31, 2016, the Santa Clara County Public Health Department (SCCPHD) was notified of a suspected case of meningococcal disease in a university undergraduate student. By February 2, two additional suspected cases had been reported in undergraduate students living on the same campus. The index patient (patient A) required intensive care, whereas patients B and C had milder illness; there were no deaths. All three patients were part of overlapping social networks and had attended the same events during the week before the onset of patient A's symptoms, but whether they had direct contact with one another could not be verified. Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis was identified in cerebrospinal fluid and blood from patient A and in blood from patient B. Serogroup B has been responsible for all U.S. college outbreaks of meningococcal disease since 2011 (1). Laboratory results for patient C were inconclusive.

  10. [Legionnaires' disease with acute renal failure caused by Legionella pneumophilla serogroup 4].

    PubMed

    Hase, Isano; Chibana, Kazuyuki; Ohara, Tetsuya; Takizawa, Hidenori; Furihata, Tomoe; Yamada, Issei; Fukushima, Yasutugu; Ishii, Yoshiki; Fukuda, Takeshi; Koide, Michio; Saitou, Atsushi

    2005-11-01

    A 77-year-old man who had fever and chest pain was admitted to a neighboring hospital on a diagnosis of pneumonia. Chest X-ray film finding deteriorated despite treatment with 2 g cefotaxime per day. Because of accompanying acute renal failure, he was transferred to our hospital. Hemodialysis with intravenous administration of erythromycin and meropenem resulted in recovery from acute renal failure, and his general condition improved. Because of liver dysfunction, erythromycin was changed to pazufloxacin. Although he was negative for Legionella urinary antigen determined with a rapid assay kit, Binax NOW, his serum titer for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 4 was elevated. Finally, a diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 4 was established.

  11. Structural peculiarities of the O-specific polysaccharides of Azospirillum bacteria of serogroup III.

    PubMed

    Fedonenko, Yu P; Boiko, A S; Zdorovenko, E L; Konnova, S A; Shashkov, A S; Ignatov, V V; Knirel, Yu A

    2011-07-01

    Lipopolysaccharides and O-specific polysaccharides were isolated from the outer membrane of bacterial cells of three strains belonging to two Azospirillum species, and their structures were established by monosaccharide analysis including determination of the absolute configurations, methylation analysis, and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. It was shown that while having the identical composition, the O-polysaccharides have different branched tetrasaccharide repeating units. Two neutral polysaccharides were found in the lipopolysaccharide of A. brasilense 54, and the structure for the predominant O-polysaccharide was determined. The structural data, together with results of serological studies, enabled assignment of strains examined to a novel serogroup, III. The chemical basis for the serological relatedness among the azospirilla of this serogroup is presumably the presence of a common →3)-α-L-Rhap-(1→2)-α-L-Rhap-(1→3)-α-L-Rhap-(1→ oligosaccharide motif in their O-polysaccharides.

  12. Cluster of Legionnaires disease cases caused by Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1, Scotland, August to September 2013.

    PubMed

    Potts, A; Donaghy, M; Marley, M; Othieno, R; Stevenson, J; Hyland, J; Pollock, K G; Lindsay, D; Edwards, G; Hanson, M F; Helgason, K O

    2013-12-12

    We report six confirmed cases of Legionnaires' disease in Scotland caused by Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1, identified over a four-week period in August–September 2013. All cases required admission to hospital intensive care facilities. All cases were amateur gardeners with frequent exposure to horticultural growing media throughout their incubation period. L. longbeachae was identified in five samples of growing media linked to five cases. Product tracing did not identify a common product or manufacturer.

  13. Proposed comprehensive ototoxicity monitoring program for VA healthcare (COMP-VA)

    PubMed Central

    Konrad-Martin, Dawn; Reavis, Kelly M.; McMillan, Garnett; Helt, Wendy J.; Dille, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    Prevention and rehabilitation of hearing loss and tinnitus, the two most commonly awarded service-connected disabilities, are high priority initiatives in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). At least 4,000 Veterans, most with significant hearing loss, will receive cisplatin this year, with more than half sustaining permanent hearing shift and nearly 40% developing new tinnitus. With improved survivability following cancer treatment, Veterans treated with cisplatin are approached with the dual goals of effective treatment and preserved quality of life. This article describes COMP-VA, a comprehensive ototoxicity monitoring program developed for VA patients receiving cisplatin. The program includes an individualized pretreatment prediction model that identifies the likelihood of hearing shift given cisplatin dose and patient factors. It supports both manual and automated hearing testing with a newly developed portable audiometer capable of performing the recommended procedures on the chemotherapy unit during treatment. It also includes objective methods for identifying outer hair cell changes and predicting audiogram changes using distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. We describe this program of evidence-based ototoxicity monitoring protocols using a case example to give the reader an understanding of how this program would be applied, along with a plan for future work to accomplish the final stages of program development. PMID:24805896

  14. Complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis strain P54B96 isolated from antelope in South Africa obtained by rapid next generation sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Syed Shah; Guimarães, Luis Carlos; Pereira, Ulisses de Pádua; Islam, Arshad; Ali, Amjad; Bakhtiar, Syeda Marriam; Ribeiro, Dayana; Rodrigues Dos Santos, Anderson; Soares, Siomar de Castro; Dorella, Fernanda; Pinto, Anne Cybelle; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Barbosa, Maria Silvanira; Almeida, Síntia; Abreu, Vinícius; Aburjaile, Flávia; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Cerdeira, Louise Teixeira; Fiaux, Karina; Barbosa, Eudes; Diniz, Carlos; Rocha, Flavia S; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Jain, Neha; Tiwari, Sandeep; Barh, Debmalya; Miyoshi, Anderson; Müller, Borna; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco

    2012-12-19

    The Actinobacteria, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain P54B96, a nonmotile, non-sporulating and a mesophile bacterium, was isolated from liver, lung and mediastinal lymph node lesions in an antelope from South Africa. This strain is interesting in the sense that it has been found together with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTMs) which could nevertheless play a role in the lesion formation. In this work, we describe a set of features of C. pseudotuberculosis P54B96, together with the details of the complete genome sequence and annotation. The genome comprises of 2.34 Mbp long, single circular genome with 2,084 protein-coding genes, 12 rRNA, 49 tRNA and 62 pseudogenes and a G+C content of 52.19%. The analysis of the genome sequence provides means to better understanding the molecular and genetic basis of virulence of this bacterium, enabling a detailed investigation of its pathogenesis.

  15. 78 FR 71041 - VA Compensation and Pension Regulation Rewrite Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ...The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) proposes to reorganize and rewrite its compensation and pension regulations in a logical, claimant-focused, and user-friendly format. The intended effect of the proposed revisions is to assist claimants, beneficiaries, veterans' representatives, and VA personnel in locating and understanding these...

  16. 76 FR 52230 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Forest, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Forest, VA AGENCY... Airspace at Forest, VA, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at Forest...

  17. Determining VA physician requirements through empirically based models.

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, J; Kilpatrick, K E; Lee, K L; Pieper, K S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: As part of a project to estimate physician requirements for the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) developed and tested empirically based models of physician staffing, by specialty, that could be applied to each VA facility. DATA SOURCE/STUDY SETTING. These analyses used selected data on all patient encounters and all facilities in VA's management information systems for FY 1989. STUDY DESIGN. Production functions (PFs), with patient workload dependent on physicians, other providers, and nonpersonnel factors, were estimated for each of 14 patient care areas in a VA medical center. Inverse production functions (IPFs), with physician staffing levels dependent on workload and other factors, were estimated for each of 11 specialty groupings. These models provide complementary approaches to deriving VA physician requirements for patient care and medical education. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS. All data were assembled by VA and put in analyzable SAS data sets containing FY 1989 workload and staffing variables used in the PFs and IPFs. All statistical analyses reported here were conducted by the IOM. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Existing VA data can be used to develop statistically strong, clinically plausible, empirically based models for calculating physician requirements, by specialty. These models can (1) compare current physician staffing in a given setting with systemwide norms and (2) yield estimates of future staffing requirements conditional on future workload. CONCLUSIONS. Empirically based models can play an important role in determining VA physician staffing requirements. VA should test, evaluate, and revise these models on an ongoing basis. PMID:7860320

  18. 76 FR 34576 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Waynesboro, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Approach Procedures developed for Eagle's Nest Airport. This action enhances the safety and management of...) to amend Class E airspace at Eagle's Nest Airport, Waynesboro, VA (75 FR 14820) Docket No. FAA-2010... procedures developed at Eagle's Nest Airport, Waynesboro, VA. This action is necessary for the safety and...

  19. VA Dental Insurance Program--federalism. Direct final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-10-22

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is taking direct final action to amend its regulations related to the VA Dental Insurance Program (VADIP), a pilot program to offer premium-based dental insurance to enrolled veterans and certain survivors and dependents of veterans. Specifically, this rule will add language to clarify the limited preemptive effect of certain criteria in the VADIP regulations.

  20. 38 CFR 17.71 - Revocation of VA approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revocation of VA approval... Community Residential Care § 17.71 Revocation of VA approval. (a) If a hearing official determines under... residential care facility and notify the community residential care facility of this revocation. (b)...

  1. 33 CFR 80.510 - Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA. 80.510 Section 80.510 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.510 Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA. A...

  2. 33 CFR 80.510 - Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA. 80.510 Section 80.510 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.510 Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA. A...

  3. 33 CFR 80.510 - Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA. 80.510 Section 80.510 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.510 Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA. A...

  4. 33 CFR 80.510 - Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA. 80.510 Section 80.510 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.510 Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA. A...

  5. 33 CFR 80.510 - Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA. 80.510 Section 80.510 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.510 Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA. A...

  6. 78 FR 63143 - VA Dental Insurance Program-Federalism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AO86 VA Dental Insurance Program--Federalism AGENCY: Department of... its regulations related to the VA Dental Insurance Program (VADIP), a pilot program to offer premium-based dental insurance to enrolled veterans and certain survivors and dependents of...

  7. 78 FR 62441 - VA Dental Insurance Program-Federalism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AO85 VA Dental Insurance Program--Federalism AGENCY: Department of... direct final action to amend its regulations related to the VA Dental Insurance Program (VADIP), a pilot program to offer premium-based dental insurance to enrolled veterans and certain survivors and...

  8. FACILITIES FOR EDUCATION IN VA HOSPITALS. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GREEN, ALAN C.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY WAS AUTHORIZED BY THE VA DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE AND SURGERY FOR THE PURPOSE OF IDENTIFYING AND DETERMINING THE FACILITIES NEEDED TO PROPERLY HOUSE AND SUPPORT EDUCATION ACTIVITIES IN EXISTING AND FUTURE VA HOSPITALS AND TO PRODUCE ARCHITECTURAL GUIDANCE IN THE DESIGN OF THE FACILITIES. CURRENT PRACTICES AND SIGNIFICANT TRENDS IN MEDICAL…

  9. 38 CFR 74.27 - How will VA store information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will VA store information? 74.27 Section 74.27 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VETERANS SMALL BUSINESS REGULATIONS Records Management § 74.27 How will VA store information?...

  10. Serological and genotypic diversity among serogroup 5- reacting environmental Legionella isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Garrity, G M; Elder, E M; Davis, B; Vickers, R M; Brown, A

    1982-01-01

    Five strains of bacteria (strains 684, 687, U7W, U8W, and MICU-B) that were biochemically and morphologically indistinguishable from Legionella pneumophila were recovered from the environment. Strains U7W, U8W, and MICU-B were antigenically identical to L. pneumophila strain Dallas 1E (serogroup 5), as determined by direct fluorescent antibody staining and immunodiffusion. Although strains 694 and 687 shared antigenic determinants with L. pneumophila Dallas 1E, they could be distinguished by immunodiffusion and differential absorption studies. However, as determined by DNA hybridization, the antigenically distinct strains 684 belong to the same DNA homology cluster as previously described authentic strains of L. pneumophila, whereas strain U7W, U8W, and MICU-B belong to a separate homology group. Therefore, two groups could be identified among these environmental isolates; one represents an antigenic subclass of serogroup 5 L. pneumophila (strains 684, and 687), and the other, although antigenically indistinguishable from serogroup 5 L. pneumophila, probably represents a new Legionella species (strains U7W, U8W, and MICU-B). Images PMID:6175657

  11. DISTRIBUTION OF LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA SEROGROUPS ISOLATED FROM WATER SYSTEMS OF PUBLIC FACILITIES IN BUSAN, SOUTH KOREA.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Yeong; Park, Eun-Hee; Park, Yon-Koung; Park, Sun-Hee; Sung, Gyung-Hye; Park, Hye-Young; Lee, Young-Choon

    2016-05-01

    Legionella pneumophila is the major causes of legionellosis worldwide. The distribution of L. pneumophila was investigated in water systems of public facilities in Busan, South Korea during 2007 and 2013-2014. L. pneumophila was isolated from 8.3% of 3,055 samples, of which the highest isolation rate (49%) was from ships and the lowest 4% from fountains. Serogroups of L. pneumophila isolated in 2007 were distributed among serogroups (sgs) 1-7 with the exception of sg 4, while those of isolates during 2013 and 2014 included also 11 sgs ( 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 15). L. pneumophila sg 1 was predominated among isolates from fountains (75%), hotels (60%), buildings (44%), hospitals (38%), and public baths (37%), whereas sg 3 and sg 7 was the most prevalent from ships (46%) and factories (40%), respectively. The predominated serogroup of L. pneumophila isolates from hot and cooling tower water was sg 1 (35% and 46%, respectively), while from cold water was sg 3 (29%). These results should be useful for epidemiological surveys to identify sources of outbreaks of legionellosis in Busan, South Korea.

  12. Genotyping of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains isolated in Northern Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Chiarini, Alfredo; Bonura, Celestino; Ferraro, Donatella; Barbaro, Roberta; Calà, Cinzia; Distefano, Salvatore; Casuccio, Nicolò; Belfiore, Santina; Giammanco, Anna

    2008-04-01

    During a three-year period, from April 2002 to May 2005, one hundred-forty-seven samples, taken from technical systems of water distribution at point of use, were repeatedly collected at six different sites in Northern Sicily and assayed for the presence of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 and serogroups 2 to 14. At the first samplings, the water distribution systems of all the sites were heavily contaminated, and disinfection treatments by the superheat and flush method were therefore performed. Treatments were always successful against L. pneumophila sg.1, but only in a few cases against all other serogroups. Eighty-six strains of L. pneumophila sg. 1, isolated from 26 of these samples, were characterized by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis and sequence-based typing (SBT) procedure. Perfectly overlapping results were obtained by both the procedures and four genotypes were identified, accounting for all the isolates. The easy transferability of the SBT data through a web-based database made it possible to identify the presence in Northern Sicily of the two SBT types most commonly circulating in Europe.

  13. Endemicity of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 3 in a hospital water supply.

    PubMed

    Franzin, L; Castellani Pastoris, M; Gioannini, P; Villani, G

    1989-04-01

    A microbiological and epidemiological investigation at the Infectious Diseases Hospital in Turin, Italy, demonstrated Legionella pneumophila serogroup 3 at 10(2) to greater than 4 X 10(3) cfu l-1 from 24 of 32 hot water samples collected from hand-basins in six separate buildings. A sample taken from the public water supply, and a hot water sample (80 degrees C) collected from hot water tanks, did not yield legionellas. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 3 was found in samples taken at the first point of mixed hot and cold water (50 degrees C) at 3 X 10(2) cfu l-1. 12 of 26 samples from the shower-heads yielded 10(3) to 2.5 X 10(5) cfu l-1 and one of 12 water samples from oxygen bubble humidifiers tested yielded 1.6 X 10(4) cfu l-1. No other legionellas species or serogroups of Legionella pneumophila were isolated during the study. No cases of nosocomial pneumonia were detected among 3653 patients' records, nor was there serological evidence of Legionella infection in the 180 patients tested.

  14. Experimental study of pathogenicity of Pasteurella multocida serogroup F in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Jaglic, Zoran; Jeklova, Edita; Leva, Lenka; Kummer, Vladimir; Kucerova, Zdenka; Faldyna, Martin; Maskova, Jarmila; Nedbalcova, Katerina; Alexa, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    The role of Pasteurella multocida serogroup F in inducing disease in rabbits was investigated in this study. Three groups of 12 Pasteurella-free rabbits each were intranasally (i.n.), subcutaneously (s.c.), and perorally (p.o.) challenged, respectively. Six rabbits of each group were immunosuppressed using dexamethasone. Eight rabbits (four of them immunosuppressed) inoculated i.n. showed symptoms of respiratory distress resulting in respiratory failure and died or were euthanized in the terminal stage of the disease 3-6 days post-infection (p.i.). The main pathological findings were fibrinopurulent pleuropneumonia (immunocompetent rabbits) or diffuse haemorrhagic pneumonia (immunosuppressed rabbits). Septicemic syndrome ending with shock occurred in 11 rabbits (6 of them immunosuppressed) inoculated s.c., which died or were euthanized in the terminal stage of the disease 2-3 days p.i. The most significant pathological findings were extensive cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions. All of the p.o. inoculated rabbits survived the challenge showing no clinical signs of the disease and no macroscopic lesions. The observations in this study indicate that in addition to serogroups A and D of P. multocida, serogroup F also can be highly pathogenic for rabbits and therefore might be a cause of considerable economic loss in commercial rabbit production.

  15. Uncovering an Important Role for YopJ in the Inhibition of Caspase-1 in Activated Macrophages and Promoting Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Schoberle, Taylor J.; Chung, Lawton K.; McPhee, Joseph B.; Bogin, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic Yersinia species utilize a type III secretion system to translocate Yop effectors into infected host cells. Yop effectors inhibit innate immune responses in infected macrophages to promote Yersinia pathogenesis. In turn, Yersinia-infected macrophages respond to translocation of Yops by activating caspase-1, but different mechanisms of caspase-1 activation occur, depending on the bacterial genotype and the state of phagocyte activation. In macrophages activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) prior to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection, caspase-1 is activated by a rapid inflammasome-dependent mechanism that is inhibited by translocated YopM. The possibility that other effectors cooperate with YopM to inhibit caspase-1 activation in LPS-activated macrophages has not been investigated. Toward this aim, epistasis analysis was carried out in which the phenotype of a Y. pseudotuberculosis yopM mutant was compared to that of a yopJ yopM, yopE yopM, yopH yopM, yopT yopM, or ypkA yopM mutant. Activation of caspase-1 was measured by cleavage of the enzyme, release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and pyroptosis in LPS-activated macrophages infected with wild-type or mutant Y. pseudotuberculosis strains. Results show enhanced activation of caspase-1 after infection with the yopJ yopM mutant relative to infection by any other single or double mutant. Similar results were obtained with the yopJ, yopM, and yopJ yopM mutants of Yersinia pestis. Following intravenous infection of mice, the Y. pseudotuberculosis yopJ mutant was as virulent as the wild type, while the yopJ yopM mutant was significantly more attenuated than the yopM mutant. In summary, through epistasis analysis this work uncovered an important role for YopJ in inhibiting caspase-1 in activated macrophages and in promoting Yersinia virulence. PMID:26810037

  16. Isolation and detection of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in the reproductive organs and associated lymph nodes of non-pregnant does experimentally inoculated through intradermal route in chronic form.

    PubMed

    Latif, Nur Amirah Abdul; Abdullah, Faez Firdaus Jesse; Othman, Aishatu Mohammed; Rina, Adza; Chung, Eric Lim Teik; Zamri-Saad, Mohd; Saharee, Abdul Aziz; Haron, Abdul Wahid; Lila, Mohd Azmi Mohd

    2015-07-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiological agent of caseous lymphadenitis that affects sheep and goats. This study was designed to determine the presence of the causative organism in the female reproductive organs and associated lymph nodes in non-pregnant does experimentally inoculated through intradermal route in the chronic form. 18 non-pregnant healthy Katjang does aged 2-year-old were divided randomly into two groups. The first and second group consists of nine non-pregnant does each and the two groups were subdivided into three subgroups. The first group was experimentally inoculated with 1 ml of 10(7)cfu of live C. pseudotuberculosis through intradermal route, whereas the second group was inoculated with 1 ml phosphate buffer saline (pH 7) solution intradermally. The first group were further subdivided into three subgroups where, the first subgroup (B1) were kept for 30 days post-infection, second subgroup (B2) were kept for 60 days post-infection, and third subgroup (B3) were kept for 90 days. The second group was further subdivided into three subgroups (C1, C2, and C3) where they were kept for 39, 60, and 90 days post-infection, respectively. From this study, there was successful isolation of C. pseudotuberculosis from the reproductive organs of the treatment group after 60 days post-infection. The subgroups (B1, C1, C2, and C3) did not show any presence of the causative organism in the reproductive organs. The second subgroup B2 and third subgroup B3 showed positive isolation of the causative organisms from the ovary, uterine horns, uterus, cervix, vagina, and inguinal lymph node of the experimental non-pregnant does. This study showed that chronic infection of C. pseudotuberculosis via intradermal route may cause effect toward the reproductive organs and may be able to influence the reproductive efficiency of the infected animals.

  17. RovM, a novel LysR-type regulator of the virulence activator gene rovA, controls cell invasion, virulence and motility of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Dersch, Petra

    2006-12-01

    RovA is a MarR-type transcriptional regulator that controls transcription of rovA, the expression of the primary invasive factor invasin and other virulence genes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in response to environmental signals. Using a genetic approach to identify regulatory components that negatively influence rovA expression, we identified a new LysR-type regulatory protein, designated RovM, which exhibits homology to the virulence regulator PecT/HexA of plant pathogenic Erwinia species. DNA-binding studies revealed that RovM interacts specifically with a short binding site between promoters P1 and P2 within the rovA regulatory region and negatively modulates rovA transcription in cooperation with the histone-like protein H-NS. The rovM gene itself is under positive autoregulatory control and is significantly induced during growth in minimal media as shown in regulation studies. Disruption of the rovM gene leads to a significant increase of RovA and invasin synthesis and enhances internalization of Y. pseudotuberculosis into host cells. Finally, we show that a Y. pseudotuberculosis rovM mutant is more virulent than wild type and higher numbers of the bacteria are detectable in gut-associated lymphatic tissues and organs in the mouse infection model system. In contrast, elevated levels of the RovM protein, which exert a positive effect on flagellar motility, severely attenuate the ability of Y. pseudotuberculosis to disseminate to deeper tissues. Together, our data show, that RovM is a key regulator implicated in the environmental control of virulence factors, which are crucial for the initiation of a Yersinia infection.

  18. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Eurasian Collared Doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and Retrospective Study of Avian Yersiniosis at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (1990-2015).

    PubMed

    Stoute, Simone T; Cooper, George L; Bickford, Arthur A; Carnaccini, Silvia; Shivaprasad, H L; Sentíes-Cué, C Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    In February 2015, two Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) were submitted dead to the California Animal Health and Food Safety (CAHFS) Laboratory, Turlock branch, from a private aviary experiencing sudden, high mortality (4/9) in adult doves. In both doves, the gross and histologic lesions were indicative of acute, fatal septicemia. Grossly, there were numerous pale yellow foci, 1 to 2 mm in diameter, in the liver and spleen. Microscopically, these foci were composed of acute severe multifocal coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes and splenic pulp with infiltration of heterophils mixed with fibrin and dense colonies of gram-negative bacteria. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was isolated from the lung, liver, spleen, heart, ovary, kidney, and trachea. The organism was susceptible to most antibiotics it was tested against, except erythromycin. Based on a retrospective study of necropsy submissions to CAHFS between 1990 and 2015, there were 77 avian case submissions of Y. pseudotuberculosis. There were 75/77 cases identified from a wide range of captive avian species from both zoo and private facilities and 2/77 cases from two backyard turkeys submitted from one premise. The largest number of cases originated from psittacine species (31/77). The lesions most commonly described were hepatitis (63/77), splenitis (49/77), pneumonia (30/77), nephritis (16/77), and enteritis (12/77). From 1990 to 2015, there was an average of three cases of avian pseudotuberculosis per year at CAHFS. Although there were no cases diagnosed in 1993 and 1994, in all other years, there were between one and eight cases of Y. pseudotuberculosis detected from avian diagnostic submissions.

  19. The Establishment and Diversification of Epidemic-Associated Serogroup W Meningococcus in the African Meningitis Belt, 1994 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fang; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Diarra, Seydou; Knipe, Kristen; Sheth, Mili; Rowe, Lori A.; Sangaré, Lassana; Ky Ba, Absetou; Ouangraoua, Soumeya; Batra, Dhwani; Novak, Ryan T.; Ouédraogo Traoré, Rasmata

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epidemics of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by meningococcal serogroup A have been eliminated from the sub-Saharan African so-called “meningitis belt” by the meningococcal A conjugate vaccine (MACV), and yet, other serogroups continue to cause epidemics. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W remains a major cause of disease in the region, with most isolates belonging to clonal complex 11 (CC11). Here, the genetic variation within and between epidemic-associated strains was assessed by sequencing the genomes of 92 N. meningitidis serogroup W isolates collected between 1994 and 2012 from both sporadic and epidemic IMD cases, 85 being from selected meningitis belt countries. The sequenced isolates belonged to either CC175 (n = 9) or CC11 (n = 83). The CC11 N. meningitidis serogroup W isolates belonged to a single lineage comprising four major phylogenetic subclades. Separate CC11 N. meningitidis serogroup W subclades were associated with the 2002 and 2012 Burkina Faso epidemics. The subclade associated with the 2012 epidemic included isolates found in Burkina Faso and Mali during 2011 and 2012, which descended from a strain very similar to the Hajj (Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca)-related Saudi Arabian outbreak strain from 2000. The phylogeny of isolates from 2012 reflected their geographic origin within Burkina Faso, with isolates from the Malian border region being closely related to the isolates from Mali. Evidence of ongoing evolution, international transmission, and strain replacement stresses the importance of maintaining N. meningitidis surveillance in Africa following the MACV implementation. IMPORTANCE Meningococcal disease (meningitis and bloodstream infections) threatens millions of people across the meningitis belt of sub-Saharan Africa. A vaccine introduced in 2010 protects against Africa’s then-most common cause of meningococcal disease, N. meningitidis serogroup A. However, other serogroups continue to cause epidemics in the

  20. The Establishment and Diversification of Epidemic-Associated Serogroup W Meningococcus in the African Meningitis Belt, 1994 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Retchless, Adam C; Hu, Fang; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Diarra, Seydou; Knipe, Kristen; Sheth, Mili; Rowe, Lori A; Sangaré, Lassana; Ky Ba, Absetou; Ouangraoua, Soumeya; Batra, Dhwani; Novak, Ryan T; Ouédraogo Traoré, Rasmata; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemics of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by meningococcal serogroup A have been eliminated from the sub-Saharan African so-called "meningitis belt" by the meningococcal A conjugate vaccine (MACV), and yet, other serogroups continue to cause epidemics. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W remains a major cause of disease in the region, with most isolates belonging to clonal complex 11 (CC11). Here, the genetic variation within and between epidemic-associated strains was assessed by sequencing the genomes of 92 N. meningitidis serogroup W isolates collected between 1994 and 2012 from both sporadic and epidemic IMD cases, 85 being from selected meningitis belt countries. The sequenced isolates belonged to either CC175 (n = 9) or CC11 (n = 83). The CC11 N. meningitidis serogroup W isolates belonged to a single lineage comprising four major phylogenetic subclades. Separate CC11 N. meningitidis serogroup W subclades were associated with the 2002 and 2012 Burkina Faso epidemics. The subclade associated with the 2012 epidemic included isolates found in Burkina Faso and Mali during 2011 and 2012, which descended from a strain very similar to the Hajj (Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca)-related Saudi Arabian outbreak strain from 2000. The phylogeny of isolates from 2012 reflected their geographic origin within Burkina Faso, with isolates from the Malian border region being closely related to the isolates from Mali. Evidence of ongoing evolution, international transmission, and strain replacement stresses the importance of maintaining N. meningitidis surveillance in Africa following the MACV implementation. IMPORTANCE Meningococcal disease (meningitis and bloodstream infections) threatens millions of people across the meningitis belt of sub-Saharan Africa. A vaccine introduced in 2010 protects against Africa's then-most common cause of meningococcal disease, N. meningitidis serogroup A. However, other serogroups continue to cause epidemics in the region

  1. 38 CFR 1.203 - Information to be reported to VA Police.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reported to VA Police. 1.203 Section 1.203 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... be reported to VA Police. Information about actual or possible violations of criminal laws related to... occurs on VA premises, will be reported by VA management officials to the VA police component with...

  2. 38 CFR 1.203 - Information to be reported to VA Police.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reported to VA Police. 1.203 Section 1.203 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... be reported to VA Police. Information about actual or possible violations of criminal laws related to... occurs on VA premises, will be reported by VA management officials to the VA police component with...

  3. 38 CFR 1.203 - Information to be reported to VA Police.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reported to VA Police. 1.203 Section 1.203 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... be reported to VA Police. Information about actual or possible violations of criminal laws related to... occurs on VA premises, will be reported by VA management officials to the VA police component with...

  4. 38 CFR 1.203 - Information to be reported to VA Police.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reported to VA Police. 1.203 Section 1.203 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... be reported to VA Police. Information about actual or possible violations of criminal laws related to... occurs on VA premises, will be reported by VA management officials to the VA police component with...

  5. 38 CFR 1.203 - Information to be reported to VA Police.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reported to VA Police. 1.203 Section 1.203 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... be reported to VA Police. Information about actual or possible violations of criminal laws related to... occurs on VA premises, will be reported by VA management officials to the VA police component with...

  6. Home Health Care and Patterns of Subsequent VA and Medicare Health Care Utilization for Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Jeffreys, Amy S.; Coffman, Cynthia J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The Veterans Affairs or VA health care system is in the process of significantly expanding home health care (HOC) nationwide. We describe VA HHC use in 2003 for all VA HHC users from 2002; we examine whether VA utilization across a broad spectrum of services differed for a sample of VA HHC users and their propensity-score-matched…

  7. 78 FR 76064 - Authorization for Non-VA Medical Services; Withdrawal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AO47 Authorization for Non-VA Medical Services; Withdrawal AGENCY... amended its regulations regarding payment by VA for medical services under VA's statutory authority to provide non-VA medical care. VA sought to remove an outdated regulatory limitation on veterans...

  8. Expression of Signal Transduction System Encoding Genes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP32953 at 28°C and 3°C

    PubMed Central

    Palonen, Eveliina; Lindström, Miia; Karttunen, Reija; Somervuo, Panu; Korkeala, Hannu

    2011-01-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a significant psychrotrophic food pathogen whose cold tolerance mechanisms are poorly understood. Signal transduction systems serve to monitor the environment, but no systematic investigation of their role at cold temperatures in Y. pseudotuberculosis has yet been undertaken. The relative expression levels of 54 genes predicted to encode proteins belonging to signal transduction systems in Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 were determined at 28°C and 3°C by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR. The relative expression levels of 44 genes were significantly (p<0.05) higher at 3°C than at 28°C. Genes encoding the two-component system CheA/CheY had the highest relative expression levels at 3°C. Mutational analysis revealed that cheA is important for growth and motility at 3°C. The relative expression level of one gene, rssB, encoding an RpoS regulator, was significantly (p<0.05) lower at 3°C than at 28°C. The results suggest that several signal transduction systems might be used during growth at low temperature, and at least, CheA/CheY two-component system is important for low-temperature growth. PMID:21949852

  9. Structure of a complex of uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis with the modified bacteriostatic antibacterial drug determined by X-ray crystallography and computer analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Balaev, V. V.; Lashkov, A. A. Gabdoulkhakov, A. G.; Seregina, T. A.; Dontsova, M. V.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2015-03-15

    Pseudotuberculosis and bubonic plague are acute infectious diseases caused by the bacteria Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis. These diseases are treated, in particular, with trimethoprim and its modified analogues. However, uridine phosphorylases (pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases) that are present in bacterial cells neutralize the action of trimethoprim and its modified analogues on the cells. In order to reveal the character of the interaction of the drug with bacterial uridine phosphorylase, the atomic structure of the unligated molecule of uridine-specific pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (YptUPh) was determined by X-ray diffraction at 1.7 Å resolution with high reliability (R{sub work} = 16.2, R{sub free} = 19.4%; r.m.s.d. of bond lengths and bond angles are 0.006 Å and 1.005°, respectively; DPI = 0.107 Å). The atoms of the amino acid residues of the functionally important secondary-structure elements—the loop L9 and the helix H8—of the enzyme YptUPh were located. The three-dimensional structure of the complex of YptUPh with modified trimethoprim—referred to as 53I—was determined by the computer simulation. It was shown that 53I is a pseudosubstrate of uridine phosphorylases, and its pyrimidine-2,4-diamine group is located in the phosphate-binding site of the enzyme YptUPh.

  10. Structure of a complex of uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis with the modified bacteriostatic antibacterial drug determined by X-ray crystallography and computer analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaev, V. V.; Lashkov, A. A.; Gabdoulkhakov, A. G.; Seregina, T. A.; Dontsova, M. V.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2015-03-01

    Pseudotuberculosis and bubonic plague are acute infectious diseases caused by the bacteria Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis. These diseases are treated, in particular, with trimethoprim and its modified analogues. However, uridine phosphorylases (pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases) that are present in bacterial cells neutralize the action of trimethoprim and its modified analogues on the cells. In order to reveal the character of the interaction of the drug with bacterial uridine phosphorylase, the atomic structure of the unligated molecule of uridine-specific pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ( YptUPh) was determined by X-ray diffraction at 1.7 Å resolution with high reliability ( R work = 16.2, R free = 19.4%; r.m.s.d. of bond lengths and bond angles are 0.006 Å and 1.005°, respectively; DPI = 0.107 Å). The atoms of the amino acid residues of the functionally important secondary-structure elements—the loop L9 and the helix H8—of the enzyme YptUPh were located. The three-dimensional structure of the complex of YptUPh with modified trimethoprim—referred to as 53I—was determined by the computer simulation. It was shown that 53I is a pseudosubstrate of uridine phosphorylases, and its pyrimidine-2,4-diamine group is located in the phosphate-binding site of the enzyme YptUPh.

  11. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infections in goats and other animals diagnosed at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System: 1990-2012.

    PubMed

    Giannitti, Federico; Barr, Bradd C; Brito, Bárbara P; Uzal, Francisco A; Villanueva, Michelle; Anderson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a recognized zoonotic food-borne pathogen; however, little is known about the ecology and epidemiology of diseases caused by the bacterium in California. The objective of the current study was to contribute to the knowledge of the diseases caused by Y. pseudotuberculosis in goats, the animal species most frequently reported with clinical yersiniosis to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, to better understand the epidemiology of this disease. A 23-year retrospective study was conducted to characterize the syndromes caused by the bacterium in goats and their temporospatial distribution, and to determine the number of cases in other animal species. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-associated disease was diagnosed in 42 goats from 21 counties, with a strong seasonality in winter and spring. Most cases (88%) were observed within particular years (1999, 2004-2006, 2010-2011). The most frequently diagnosed syndrome was enteritis and/or typhlocolitis (64.3%), followed by abscessation (14.3%), abortion (11.9%), conjunctivitis (4.75%), and hepatitis (4.75%). Among other animal species, 59 cases were diagnosed in non-poultry avian species and 33 in mammals other than goats.

  12. Whole-genome optical mapping reveals a mis-assembly between two rRNA operons of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain 1002.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Diego César Batista; Sousa, Thiago de Jesus; Pereira, Felipe Luiz; Aburjaile, Flávia; Barh, Debmalya; Rocha, Flávia; Pinto, Anne Cybelle; Hassan, Syed Shah; Saraiva, Tessália Diniz Luerce; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; de Carvalho, Alex Fiorini; Leal, Carlos Augusto Gomes; Figueiredo, Henrique César Pereira; Silva, Artur; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Azevedo, Vasco Ariston Carvalho

    2016-04-30

    Studies have detected mis-assemblies in genomes of the species Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. These new discover have been possible due to the evolution of the Next-Generation Sequencing platforms, which have provided sequencing with accuracy and reduced costs. In addition, the improving of techniques for construction of high accuracy genomic maps, for example, Whole-genome mapping (WGM) (OpGen Inc), have allow high-resolution assembly that can detect large rearrangements. In this work, we present the resequencing of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain 1002 (Cp1002). Cp1002 was the first strain of this species sequenced in Brazil, and its genome has been used as model for several studies in silico of caseous lymphadenitis disease. The sequencing was performed using the platform Ion PGM and fragment library (200 bp kit). A restriction map was constructed, using the technique of WGM with the enzyme KpnI. After the new assembly process, using WGM as scaffolder, we detected a large inversion with size bigger than one-half of genome. A specific analysis using BLAST and NR database shows that the inversion occurs between two homology RNA ribosomal regions. In conclusion, the results showed by WGM could be used to detect mismatches in assemblies, providing genomic maps with high resolution and allow assemblies with more accuracy and completeness. The new assembly of C. pseudotuberculosis was deposited in GenBank under the accession no. CP012837.

  13. VA Health Care: Further Action Needed to Address Weaknesses in Management and Oversight of Non-VA Medical Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-18

    medical care when a VA facility is unable to provide certain specialty care services, such as cardiology or orthopedics, or when a veteran would have...needing treatment in several specialties—including audiology, cardiology , and ophthalmology—were referred to non-VA providers for this reason

  14. Meningococcal quadrivalent (serogroups A, C, W135 and Y) tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (Nimenrix™).

    PubMed

    Croxtall, Jamie D; Dhillon, Sohita

    2012-12-24

    Nimenrix™ (MenACWY-TT) is a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, comprising the polysaccharide serogroups A, C, W135 and Y, and tetanus toxoid (TT) as carrier protein. It is the first quadrivalent vaccine (administered as a single dose) to be approved in Europe for active immunization of individuals aged ≥ 12 months against invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W135 and Y. Administration of a single dose of Nimenrix™ elicited a strong immune response against all four vaccine serogroups in healthy toddlers aged 12-23 months, children and adolescents aged 2-17 years and adults aged 18-55 years in randomized, multicentre, phase III trials. In toddlers, Nimenrix™ was noninferior to Meningitec® in terms of seroresponse rates against meningococcal serogroup C 42 days post-vaccination. In children, adolescents and adults, Nimenrix™ was noninferior to Mencevax™ in terms of vaccination response rates against all four serogroups 1 month post-vaccination. Furthermore, several phase II studies and a phase III trial showed that the immune response elicited by Nimenrix™ in all age groups persisted for 7-42 months after the primary vaccination (when evaluated by rabbit serum bactericidal activity), with the vaccine also inducing immune memory in toddlers. In addition, several randomized, multicentre, phase III, noninferiority trials showed that when coadministered with other childhood vaccines or a seasonal flu vaccine, the immunogenicity of Nimenrix™ or that of the coadministered vaccine was generally not altered. Nimenrix® was generally well tolerated in all age groups whether administered as a single vaccine or coadministered with other routine vaccines. The incidence of grade 3 local or systemic solicited adverse events during the first 4 days following vaccination and of serious adverse events over an extended follow-up period of up to 6 months was low (<4.5%). Although protective effectiveness and longer

  15. Veteran Use of Health Care Systems in Rural States: Comparing VA and Non-VA Health Care Use Among Privately Insured Veterans Under Age 65.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Mary E; Mengeling, Michelle A; Schlichting, Jennifer A; Jiang, Lan; Turvey, Carolyn; Trivedi, Amal N; Kizer, Kenneth W; West, Alan N

    2016-09-01

    To quantify use of VA and non-VA care among working-age veterans with private insurance by linking VA data to private health insurance plan (PHIP) data. Demographics and utilization were compared between dual users of VA and non-VA systems versus single-system users for veterans < 65 living in 2 rural Midwestern states concurrently enrolled in VA health care and a PHIP for ≥ 1 complete federal fiscal year from 2000 to 2010. Chi-square and t-tests were used for univariate analyses. VA reliance was computed as the percentage of visits, admissions and prescriptions in VA. Multinomial logistic regression was used to compare characteristics by dual use versus non-VA only or VA only use. Of 16,330 eligible veterans, 54% used both VA and non-VA services, 39% used non-VA only, and 5% used VA only. Compared with single-system use, dual use was associated with older age, priority levels 1-4, service-connected conditions, rural residence, greater years of study eligibility, and enrollment in the PHIP before VA. VA reliance was 33% for outpatient care, 14% for inpatient, and 40% for pharmacy. PHIP data substantially underestimated VA use compared to VA data; 26% who used VA health care had no VA claims in the PHIP dataset. Over half of working-age veterans enrolled in VA and private insurance used services in both systems. Care coordination efforts across systems should include veterans of all ages, particularly rural veterans more likely to be dual users, and better methods are needed to identify veterans with private insurance and their private providers. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  16. Relationship between Serum Bactericidal Activity and Serogroup-Specific Immunoglobulin G Concentration for Adults, Toddlers, and Infants Immunized with Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Sikkema, Daniel J.; Friedman, Keith E.; Corsaro, Bartholomew; Kimura, Alan; Hildreth, Stephen W.; Madore, Dace V.; Quataert, Sally A.

    2000-01-01

    A new meningococcal group C-CRM197 conjugate vaccine (MnCC; Meningitec) has been evaluated in multiple clinical trials in the United States and most recently has been approved for routine administration in the United Kingdom. Meningococcal serogroup C (MnC)-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in pre- and postimmunization sera obtained from healthy U.S. adults, toddlers, and infants were quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by an antibody-dependent, complement-mediated serum bactericidal assay (SBA). Serogroup-specific IgG antibody (micrograms per milliliter) in adults immunized either with the quadrivalent polysaccharide (A, C, Y, and W-135) vaccine or with MnCC showed a strong correlation (r = 0.848 and 0.934, respectively) by linear regression analysis with SBA. Sera from infants immunized with the MnCC (n = 30) and an age-matched unimmunized control group (n = 15) were also analyzed. Linear regression analysis of serum bactericidal and IgG ELISA data from sera obtained at 2 months of age (preimmunization) showed no correlation; however, a high degree of correlation was observed at time points after two (r = 0.877) and three (r = 0.951) immunizations, where significant rises in anti-MnC polysaccharide antibodies occurred relative to the age-matched control group. Infants previously primed with 3 doses of MnCC were given a booster dose of conjugate vaccine at 12 to 15 months of age. The correlation coefficient of ELISA to SBA for combined pre- and postbooster data was r = 0.836 (n = 48 pairs). In conclusion, increases in serum bactericidal activity in immunized adult, toddler, and infant populations were found to correlate very well with increases in serogroup-specific IgG concentrations, whereas the correlation between these two assays in nonimmunized 2-month-old infants was poor. Characterizing the relationship between these methods is important for understanding the significance of antigen-specific antibody concentrations relative

  17. 75 FR 73016 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kenbridge, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... examined during normal business hours at the office of the Eastern Service Center, Federal Aviation... the Earth. * * * * * AEA VA E5 Kenbridge, VA Lunenburg County Airport, VA (Lat. 36 57'37'' N.,...

  18. Haemophilia utilization group study - Part Va (HUGS Va): design, methods and baseline data.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z-Y; Wu, J; Baker, J; Curtis, R; Forsberg, A; Huszti, H; Koerper, M; Lou, M; Miller, R; Parish, K; Riske, B; Shapiro, A; Ullman, M; Johnson, K

    2011-09-01

    To describe the study design, procedures and baseline characteristics of the Haemophilia Utilization Group Study - Part Va (HUGS Va), a US multi-center observational study evaluating the cost of care and burden of illness in persons with factor VIII deficiency. Patients with factor VIII level ≤ 30%, age 2-64 years, receiving treatment at one of six federally supported haemophilia treatment centres (HTCs) were enrolled in the study. Participants completed an initial interview including questions on socio-demographical characteristics, health insurance status, co-morbidities, access to care, haemophilia treatment regimen, factor utilization, self-reported joint pain and motion limitation and health-related quality of life. A periodic follow-up survey collected data regarding time lost from usual activities, disability days, health care utilization and outcomes of care. HTC clinicians documented participants' baseline clinical characteristics and pharmacy dispensing records for 2 years. Between July 2005 and July 2007, 329 participants were enrolled. Average age was 9.7 years for children and 33.5 years for adults; two-thirds had severe haemophilia. The distributions of age, marital status, education level and barriers to haemophilia care were relatively consistent across haemophilic severity categories. Differences were found in participants' employment status, insurance status and income. Overall, children with haemophilia had quality of life scores comparable to healthy counterparts. Adults had significantly lower physical functioning than the general US population. As one of the largest economic studies of haemophilia care, HUGS Va will provide detailed information regarding the burden of illness and health care utilization in the US haemophilia A population.

  19. Outcomes of invasive meningococcal serogroup B disease in children and adolescents (MOSAIC): a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Viner, Russell M; Booy, Robert; Johnson, Helen; Edmunds, W John; Hudson, Lee; Bedford, Helen; Kaczmarski, Ed; Rajput, Kaukab; Ramsay, Mary; Christie, Deborah

    2012-09-01

    Serogroup B meningococcal disease is the commonest cause of meningitis and septicaemia in high-income countries. Assessment of new serogroup B meningococcal vaccines is hampered by a scarcity of data on the burden of disease in survivors. We aimed to estimate the disease burden in children having survived serogroup B meningococcal disease. In this case-control study, we recruited children from the UK National Meningococcal Registry between May, 2008, and September, 2010. Eligible children were survivors who had had serogroup B meningococcal disease confirmed by culture or PCR and were aged 1 month to 13 years at disease. Age-matched and sex-matched controls were recruited through the family doctor of the children who had the meningococcal disease. Physical, psychological, neurocognitive, and educational outcomes were assessed through a standardised interview with validated instruments. We did matched analyses using generalised estimating equations (GEE). Researchers were masked to the children's serogroup B meningococcal status. Of the 537 children who had serogroup B meningococcal disease and were available for recruitment, 245 were assessed. 328 controls were also recruited; 221 controls were matched with a case and 107 were additional unmatched controls. The mean age was 6·5 (SD 2·8) years in children with serogroup B meningococcal disease and 6·9 (2·9) in controls. In the full sample, children who had serogroup B meningococcal disease were more likely than controls to have bilateral sensorineural hearing loss of 40 dB or more (unmatched 11 [5%] of 232 children with meningococcal disease vs three [<1%] of 318 controls; matched odds ratio [OR] 4·8, 95% CI 1·3 to 17·4, p=0·02), lower full-scale IQ (matched mean 99·5 for children with meningococcal disease and 107·2 for controls; matched coefficient -7·6, 95% CI -9·9 to -5·4, p<0·0001), and psychological disorders (61 [26%] of 235 children with meningococcal disease vs 33 (10%) of 322 controls

  20. LcrV delivered via type III secretion system of live attenuated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis enhances immunogenicity against pneumonic plague.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Sanapala, Shilpa; Henderson, Jeremy C; Sam, Shandiin; Olinzock, Joseph; Trent, M Stephen; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-10-01

    Here, we constructed a Yersinia pseudotuberculosis mutant strain with arabinose-dependent regulated and delayed shutoff of crp expression (araC P(BAD) crp) and replacement of the msbB gene with the Escherichia coli msbB gene to attenuate it. Then, we inserted the asd mutation into this construction to form χ10057 [Δasd-206 ΔmsbB868::P(msbB) msbB(EC) ΔP(crp21)::TT araC P(BAD) crp] for use with a balanced-lethal Asd-positive (Asd(+)) plasmid to facilitate antigen synthesis. A hybrid protein composed of YopE (amino acids [aa]1 to 138) fused with full-length LcrV (YopE(Nt138)-LcrV) was synthesized in χ10057 harboring an Asd(+) plasmid (pYA5199, yopE(Nt138)-lcrV) and could be secreted through a type III secretion system (T3SS) in vitro and in vivo. Animal studies indicated that mice orally immunized with χ10057(pYA5199) developed titers of IgG response to whole-cell lysates of Y. pestis (YpL) and subunit LcrV similar to those seen with χ10057(pYA3332) (χ10057 plus an empty plasmid). However, only immunization of mice with χ10057(pYA5199) resulted in a significant secretory IgA response to LcrV. χ10057(pYA5199) induced a higher level of protection (80% survival) against intranasal (i.n.) challenge with ~240 median lethal doses (LD50) (2.4 × 10(4) CFU) of Y. pestis KIM6+(pCD1Ap) than χ10057(pYA3332) (40% survival). Splenocytes from mice vaccinated with χ10057(pYA5199) produced significant levels of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-17 (IL-17) after restimulation with LcrV and YpL antigens. Our results suggest that it is possible to use an attenuated Y. pseudotuberculosis strain delivering the LcrV antigen via the T3SS as a potential vaccine candidate against pneumonic plague. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Genetically Engineered Frameshifted YopN-TyeA Chimeras Influence Type III Secretion System Function in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Ayad A. A.; Costa, Tiago R. D.; Farag, Salah I.; Avican, Ummehan; Forsberg, Åke; Francis, Matthew S.

    2013-01-01

    Type III secretion is a tightly controlled virulence mechanism utilized by many gram negative bacteria to colonize their eukaryotic hosts. To infect their host, human pathogenic Yersinia spp. translocate protein toxins into the host cell cytosol through a preassembled Ysc-Yop type III secretion device. Several of the Ysc-Yop components are known for their roles in controlling substrate secretion and translocation. Particularly important in this role is the YopN and TyeA heterodimer. In this study, we confirm that Y. pseudotuberculosis naturally produce a 42 kDa YopN-TyeA hybrid protein as a result of a +1 frame shift near the 3 prime of yopN mRNA, as has been previously reported for the closely related Y. pestis. To assess the biological role of this YopN-TyeA hybrid in T3SS by Y. pseudotuberculosis, we used in cis site-directed mutagenesis to engineer bacteria to either produce predominately the YopN-TyeA hybrid by introducing +1 frame shifts to yopN after codon 278 or 287, or to produce only singular YopN and TyeA polypeptides by introducing yopN sequence from Y. enterocolitica, which is known not to produce the hybrid. Significantly, the engineered 42 kDa YopN-TyeA fusions were abundantly produced, stable, and were efficiently secreted by bacteria in vitro. Moreover, these bacteria could all maintain functionally competent needle structures and controlled Yops secretion in vitro. In the presence of host cells however, bacteria producing the most genetically altered hybrids (+1 frameshift after 278 codon) had diminished control of polarized Yop translocation. This corresponded to significant attenuation in competitive survival assays in orally infected mice, although not at all to the same extent as Yersinia lacking both YopN and TyeA proteins. Based on these studies with engineered polypeptides, most likely a naturally occurring YopN-TyeA hybrid protein has the potential to influence T3S control and activity when produced during Yersinia-host cell contact. PMID

  2. Genetically engineered frameshifted YopN-TyeA chimeras influence type III secretion system function in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Amer, Ayad A A; Costa, Tiago R D; Farag, Salah I; Avican, Ummehan; Forsberg, Åke; Francis, Matthew S

    2013-01-01

    Type III secretion is a tightly controlled virulence mechanism utilized by many gram negative bacteria to colonize their eukaryotic hosts. To infect their host, human pathogenic Yersinia spp. translocate protein toxins into the host cell cytosol through a preassembled Ysc-Yop type III secretion device. Several of the Ysc-Yop components are known for their roles in controlling substrate secretion and translocation. Particularly important in this role is the YopN and TyeA heterodimer. In this study, we confirm that Y. pseudotuberculosis naturally produce a 42 kDa YopN-TyeA hybrid protein as a result of a +1 frame shift near the 3 prime of yopN mRNA, as has been previously reported for the closely related Y. pestis. To assess the biological role of this YopN-TyeA hybrid in T3SS by Y. pseudotuberculosis, we used in cis site-directed mutagenesis to engineer bacteria to either produce predominately the YopN-TyeA hybrid by introducing +1 frame shifts to yopN after codon 278 or 287, or to produce only singular YopN and TyeA polypeptides by introducing yopN sequence from Y. enterocolitica, which is known not to produce the hybrid. Significantly, the engineered 42 kDa YopN-TyeA fusions were abundantly produced, stable, and were efficiently secreted by bacteria in vitro. Moreover, these bacteria could all maintain functionally competent needle structures and controlled Yops secretion in vitro. In the presence of host cells however, bacteria producing the most genetically altered hybrids (+1 frameshift after 278 codon) had diminished control of polarized Yop translocation. This corresponded to significant attenuation in competitive survival assays in orally infected mice, although not at all to the same extent as Yersinia lacking both YopN and TyeA proteins. Based on these studies with engineered polypeptides, most likely a naturally occurring YopN-TyeA hybrid protein has the potential to influence T3S control and activity when produced during Yersinia-host cell contact.

  3. Interactions of the CpxA sensor kinase and cognate CpxR response regulator from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The CpxA sensor kinase-CpxR response regulator two-component regulatory system is a sentinel of bacterial envelope integrity. Integrating diverse signals, it can alter the expression of a wide array of components that serve to shield the envelope from damage and to promote bacterial survival. In bacterial pathogens such as Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, this also extends to pathogenesis. CpxR is thought to dimerize upon phosphorylation by the sensor kinase CpxA. This phosphorylation enables CpxR binding to specific DNA sequences where it acts on gene transcription. As Cpx pathway activation is dependent on protein-protein interactions, we performed an interaction analysis of CpxR and CpxA from Y. pseudotuberculosis. Results CpxR full-length and truncated versions that either contained or lacked a putative internal linker were all assessed for their ability to homodimerize and interact with CpxA. Using an adenylate cyclase-based bacterial two hybrid approach, full-length CpxR readily engaged with CpxA. The CpxR N-terminus could also homodimerize with itself and with a full-length CpxR. A second homodimerization assay based upon the λcI repressor also demonstrated that the CpxR C-terminus could homodimerize. While the linker was not specifically required, it enhanced CpxR homodimerization. Mutagenesis of cpxR identified the aspartate at residue 51, putative N-terminal coiled-coil and C-terminal winged-helix-turn-helix domains as mediators of CpxR homodimerization. Scrutiny of CpxA full-length and truncated versions revealed that dimerization involved the N-terminus and an internal dimerization and histidine phosphotransfer domain. Conclusions This interaction analysis mapped regions of CpxR and CpxA that were responsible for interactions with self or with each other. When combined with other physiological and biochemical tests both hybrid-based assays can be useful in dissecting molecular contacts that may underpin Cpx pathway activation and repression

  4. An academic-VA partnership: Student interprofessional teams integrated with VA PACT teams.

    PubMed

    Swenty, Constance L; Schaar, Gina L; Butler, Ryan M

    2016-12-01

    Veterans are challenged with multiple unique healthcare issues related to their military service environment. Likewise, health care providers must understand the special concerns associated with military conflict and recognize how the veteran's care can be optimized by interprofessional care delivery. Little is taught didactically or clinically that supports nursing students in addressing the unique issues of the veteran or the student's need to work collaboratively with allied health team members to enhance the veteran's care. Because of limited exposure to the veteran's special conditions, nursing students who may seek a career with the veteran population often face challenges in rendering appropriate care. The VA offers an invaluable opportunity for health profession students to collaborate with VA interprofessional Patient Aligned Care Teams (PACT) ultimately optimizing veteran health outcomes. This academic partnership, that implements an interprofessional model, will prepare students to better embrace the veteran population. This article describes the immersion of health profession students in interprofessional collaborative practice (IPCP) using PACT team principles which ultimately promotes the students' ability to link theory content to patient care delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. RadNet Air Data From Virginia Beach, VA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Virginia Beach, VA from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  6. 75 FR 35511 - Virginia Disaster Number VA-00028

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster Number VA-00028 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3..., is hereby amended to include the following areas as adversely affected by the disaster....

  7. 76 FR 43575 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Staunton, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... 30320; telephone (404) 305-6364. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History On March 18, 2011, the FAA published... areas extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth. * * * * * AEA VA...

  8. Exploration Day at Busch Gardens, Williamsburg, Va. - Aug. 5, 2011

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Friday, August 8, was NASA Days at Busch Gardens Williamsburg, Va. NASA exhibits and educational specialists worked to inspire young and old, and NASA astronaut Susan Kilrain -- a veteran of two Sp...

  9. 77 FR 67063 - VA Directive 0005 on Scientific Integrity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... technological information from political or commercial influence; Prohibit suppression or alteration of... ``inappropriate influence.'' The definition of ``inappropriate influence'' should be more explicit. VA Response... analyses will be protected from political and commercial influence. The term ``inappropriate...

  10. Eastern Colorado Health Care System (VA Hospital) NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0034991, the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Adams County, Colorado, to a storm sewer to Toll Gate Creek, a tributary of Sand Creek.

  11. VA INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY: Important Initiatives Begun, Yet Serious Vulnerabilities Persist

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Technology Management Issues United States General Accounting Office GAO Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Committee on...VA INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Important Initiatives Begun, Yet Serious Vulnerabilities Persist Statement of David L. McClure Director, Information

  12. ENTRANCE TO CEMETERY FROM VA MEDICAL CENTER CAMPUS, WITH ADMINISTRATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ENTRANCE TO CEMETERY FROM VA MEDICAL CENTER CAMPUS, WITH ADMINISTRATION BUILDING IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTH. - Bath National Cemetery, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Juan Avenue, Bath, Steuben County, NY

  13. VA Is Here for the People Who Support Our Veterans

    MedlinePlus

    ... on track. Calls can be referred to local Suicide Prevention Coordinators and other VA providers who specialize in issues such as: Post-traumatic stress (PTS/PTSD) Traumatic brain injury (TBI) Military sexual ...

  14. RadNet Air Data From Richmond, VA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Richmond, VA from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  15. RadNet Air Data From Harrisonburg, VA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Harrisonburg, VA from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  16. Effect of serogroup, surface material and disinfectant on biofilm formation by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Oosterik, Leon H; Tuntufye, Huruma N; Butaye, Patrick; Goddeeris, Bruno M

    2014-12-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are responsible for significant economic losses in the poultry industry and are difficult to eradicate. Biofilm formation by APEC has the potential to reduce the efficacy of cleaning and disinfection. In this study, biofilm formation on materials used in poultry facilities by APEC strains from laying hens was determined. APEC strains were analysed for an association between biofilm forming capacity and O serogroup. The abilities of two routinely used disinfectants, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC), to kill adherent cells of two strong APEC biofilm producers (05/503 and 04/40) and a non-biofilm producer (05/293) on polystyrene (PS) and polyvinylchloride (PVC) surfaces were tested. Most APEC strains were moderate (PS) or strong biofilm producers (polypropylene, PP, and PVC). Strains in serogroup O2 more often belonged to the moderate (PS) or strong (PP and PVC) biofilm producers than to other groups, while most O78 strains were weak biofilm producers. O78 strains were stronger biofilm producers on stainless steel than on PP and PVC, while O2 strains were stronger biofilm producers on PP and PVC. A concentration of 1% H2O2 killed all adherent bacteria of strains 05/503 and 04/40 on PP and PVC, while 0.5% H2O2 killed all adherent bacteria of strain 05/293. QAC at a concentration of 0.01% killed all adherent cells of strains 05/503, 04/40 and 05/293 under equal conditions. In conclusion, biofilm formation by APEC was affected by serogroup and surface material, and inactivation of APEC was dependent on the disinfectant and surface material.

  17. Identification of new meningococcal serogroup B surface antigens through a systematic analysis of neisserial genomes.

    PubMed

    Pajon, Rolando; Yero, Daniel; Niebla, Olivia; Climent, Yanet; Sardiñas, Gretel; García, Darién; Perera, Yasser; Llanes, Alejandro; Delgado, Maité; Cobas, Karem; Caballero, Evelin; Taylor, Stephen; Brookes, Charlotte; Gorringe, Andrew

    2009-12-11

    The difficulty of inducing an effective immune response against the Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B capsular polysaccharide has lead to the search for vaccines for this serogroup based on outer membrane proteins. The availability of the first meningococcal genome (MC58 strain) allowed the expansion of high-throughput methods to explore the protein profile displayed by N. meningitidis. By combining a pan-genome analysis with an extensive experimental validation to identify new potential vaccine candidates, genes coding for antigens likely to be exposed on the surface of the meningococcus were selected after a multistep comparative analysis of entire Neisseria genomes. Eleven novel putative ORF annotations were reported for serogroup B strain MC58. Furthermore, a total of 20 new predicted potential pan-neisserial vaccine candidates were produced as recombinant proteins and evaluated using immunological assays. Potential vaccine candidate coding genes were PCR-amplified from a panel of representative strains and their variability analyzed using maximum likelihood approaches for detecting positive selection. Finally, five proteins all capable of inducing a functional antibody response vs N. meningitidis strain CU385 were identified as new attractive vaccine candidates: NMB0606 a potential YajC orthologue, NMB0928 the neisserial NlpB (BamC), NMB0873 a LolB orthologue, NMB1163 a protein belonging to a curli-like assembly machinery, and NMB0938 (a neisserial specific antigen) with evidence of positive selection appreciated for NMB0928. The new set of vaccine candidates and the novel proposed functions will open a new wave of research in the search for the elusive neisserial vaccine.

  18. Outer membrane vesicles extracted from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup X for prevention of meningococcal disease in Africa.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Reinaldo; Zayas, Caridad; Norheim, Gunnstein; Fernández, Sonsire; Cedré, Barbara; Aranguren, Yisabel; Cuello, Maribel; Rodriguez, Yaimara; González, Humberto; Mandiarote, Aleida; Pérez, Marylin; Hernández, Maritza; Hernández-Cedeño, Mabel; González, Domingo; Brorson, Sverre-Henning; Rosenqvist, Einar; Naess, Lisbeth; Tunheim, Gro; Cardoso, Daniel; García, Luis

    2017-07-01

    Meningococcal disease is caused mainly by serogroups A, B, C, Y, W of N. meningitidis. However, numerous cases of meningitis caused by serogroup X N. meningitidis (MenX) have recently been reported in several African countries. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines against this pathogen and most of the MenX cases have been caused by meningococci from clonal complex (c.c) 181. Detergent extracted meningococcal outer membrane vesicle (dOMV) vaccines have previously shown to be safe and effective against epidemics of serogroup B meningococcal disease in all age groups. The aim of this work is therefore to obtain, characterize and evaluate the vaccine potential of dOMVs derived from a MenX strain (OMVx). Three experimental lots of OMVx were prepared by deoxycholate extraction from the MenX strain BF 2/97. Size and morphology of the vesicles was determined by Dynamic Light Scattering and electron microscopy, whereas the antigenic composition was characterized by gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. OMVx were thereafter adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide (OMVx/AL) and two doses of OMVx were administered s.c. to groups of Balb/c mice three weeks apart. The immunogenicity and functional antibody activities in sera were evaluated by ELISA (anti-OMVx specific IgG responses) and serum bactericidal activity (SBA) assay. The size range of OMVx was shown to be between 90 and 120nm, whereas some of the antigens detected were the outer membrane proteins PorA, OpcA and RmpM. The OMVx/AL elicited high anti-OMVx antibody responses with bactericidal activity and no bactericidal activity was observed in the control group of no immunised mice. The results demonstrate that OMVx are immunogenic and could form part of a future vaccine to prevent the majority of meningococcal disease in the African meningitis belt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Serogroup, Virulence, and Genetic Traits of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Estuarine Ecosystem of Bangladesh▿

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Munirul; Chowdhury, Wasimul B.; Bhuiyan, N. A.; Islam, Atiqul; Hasan, Nur A.; Nair, G. Balakrish; Watanabe, H.; Siddique, A. K.; Huq, Anwar; Sack, R. Bradley; Akhter, M. Z.; Grim, Christopher J.; Kam, K.-M.; Luey, C. K. Y.; Endtz, Hubert P.; Cravioto, Alejandro; Colwell, Rita R.

    2009-01-01

    Forty-two strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were isolated from Bay of Bengal estuaries and, with two clinical strains, analyzed for virulence, phenotypic, and molecular traits. Serological analysis indicated O8, O3, O1, and K21 to be the major O and K serogroups, respectively, and O8:K21, O1:KUT, and O3:KUT to be predominant. The K antigen(s) was untypeable, and pandemic serogroup O3:K6 was not detected. The presence of genes toxR and tlh were confirmed by PCR in all but two strains, which also lacked toxR. A total of 18 (41%) strains possessed the virulence gene encoding thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), and one had the TDH-related hemolysin (trh) gene, but not tdh. Ten (23%) strains exhibited Kanagawa phenomenon that surrogates virulence, of which six, including the two clinical strains, possessed tdh. Of the 18 tdh-positive strains, 17 (94%), including the two clinical strains, had the seromarker O8:K21, one was O9:KUT, and the single trh-positive strain was O1:KUT. None had the group-specific or ORF8 pandemic marker gene. DNA fingerprinting employing pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of SfiI-digested DNA and cluster analysis showed divergence among the strains. Dendrograms constructed using PFGE (SfiI) images from a soft database, including those of pandemic and nonpandemic strains of diverse geographic origin, however, showed that local strains formed a cluster, i.e., “clonal cluster,” as did pandemic strains of diverse origin. The demonstrated prevalence of tdh-positive and diarrheagenic serogroup O8:K21 strains in coastal villages of Bangladesh indicates a significant human health risk for inhabitants. PMID:19684167

  20. [Prevention of serogroup B meningococcal disease using a four-component vaccine].

    PubMed

    Gil, A; Barranco, D; Batalla, J; Bayas, J M; Campins, M; Gorrotxategi Gorrotxategi, P; Lluch, J; Martinón-Torres, F; Mellado, M J; Moreno-Pérez, D; Uriel, B; Vázquez, J A

    2014-04-01

    Meningococcal disease is an infection caused by Neisseria meningitidis, and those of serogroup B are currently the most predominant. It has been difficult to create effective vaccines for this serogroup in order to modify or reduce its morbidity. The aim of this study was to review existing data on the new vaccine 4CMenB and its potential contribution to the prevention of this infection. A panel of 12 experts (from Pediatrics, Public Health and Vaccinology) conducted a literature search and prioritized 74 publications. A review of the vaccine was then prepared, which was discussed in a meeting and subsequently validated by e-mail. 4CMenB vaccine, based on four components (NadA, fHbp, NHBA and OMVnz), was designed by reverse vaccinology. The Meningococcal Antigen Typing System (MATS) shows a potential of 70-80% coverage of the strains in Europe. Clinical trials show that the vaccine is safe and immunogenic in infants, children, adolescents, and adults, and induces an anamnestic response. The incidence of fever is similar to systemic vaccines administered alone, but higher when co-administered with them, although the fever pattern is predictable and self-limited. It is compatible with the Spanish routine vaccines, and can be administered simultaneously with the currently available hexavalent and pentavalent vaccines, as well as the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. The 4CMenB vaccine is the only strategy currently available to prevent meningococcal disease caused by serogroup B. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro adherence patterns of Shigella serogroups to bovine recto-anal junction squamous epithelial (RSE) cells are similar to those of Escherichia coli O157.

    PubMed

    Kudva, Indira T

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether Shigella species, which are human gastrointestinal pathogens, can adhere to cattle recto-anal junction squamous epithelial (RSE) cells using a recently standardized in vitro adherence assay, and to compare their adherence patterns with that of Escherichia coli O157. Shigella dysenteriae (serogroup A), S. flexneri (serogroup B), S. boydii (serogroup C), and S. sonnei (serogroup D) were tested in adherence assays using both RSE and HEp-2 cells, in the presence or absence of D+mannose. Escherichia coli O157, which adheres to RSE cells in a Type I fimbriae-independent manner, was used as a positive control. Shigella serogroups A, B, D, but not C adhered to RSE cells with distinct adherence patterns in the presence of D+mannose. No such distinction could be made between the four Shigella serogroups based on the HEp-2 cell adherence patterns. Thus, this study provides evidence that certain Shigella serogroups adhere to RSE cells in a manner that is similar to the adherence pattern of E. coli O157. These unexpected observations of in vitro binding of these foodborne human pathogens to cells of the bovine gastrointestinal tract warrant evaluation of Shigella carriage by cattle using both experimental and observational studies, especially for serogroups B and D. Such studies are currently underway.

  2. Opsonophagocytosis of Fluorescent Polystyrene Beads Coupled to Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup A, C, Y, or W135 Polysaccharide Correlates with Serum Bactericidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Joseph; Pilishvili, Tamara; Barnard, Suzanne; Caba, Joseph; Spear, Willie; Romero-Steiner, Sandra; Carlone, George M.

    2002-01-01

    We developed a polysaccharide-specific flow cytometric opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) for the simultaneous measurement of functional antibody to Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, Y, and W135. OPA titers significantly correlated with serum bactericidal assay titers for all serogroups tested (mean r = 0.96; P < 0.001). OPA could be used in meningococcal vaccine evaluation. PMID:11874898

  3. Evidence from ITS sequence analysis of 31 and 110 serogroup soybean strains that extant members of the genus Bradyrhizobium are likely the products of reticulate evolutionary events

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Internally Transcribed Space (ITS) sequence of several members within each of seventeen soybean bradyrhizobial serogroups was determined to establish whether this region within each genome would serve as a convenient marker for distinguishing serogroup affinity of new isolates. With the excepti...

  4. Adjuvant can improve protection induced by OMV vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis serogroups B/C in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Lucila O; Dias, Waldely O; Schenkman, Rocilda P F; Raw, I; Tanizaki, Martha M

    2004-07-01

    Meningococcal outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines are weak antigens in infants. This study aimed at investigating alternative adjuvants for induction of functional antibodies in newborn mice. Serogroup B/C anti-meningococcal vaccines, consisting of capsular polysaccharide from serogroup C (PSC) conjugated to OMV from one serogroup B serosubtype prevalent in Brazil, combined with OMV from another prevalent serosubtype, were tested in newborn and adult mice with the following adjuvants: aluminum hydroxide, MPL (monophosphoryl lipid A), Titermax and MF59. Total IgG, IgG avidity index determination and bactericidal assay were performed with sera from immunized mice. Antibodies induced against PSC in newborn mice showed avidity and bactericidal titers, similar to those obtained in adult mice, independently of the adjuvant. Evidence is presented that the inclusion of MF59 enhanced the immune response against OMV in newborn mice.

  5. Predominant Leptospiral Serogroups Circulating among Humans, Livestock and Wildlife in Katavi-Rukwa Ecosystem, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Assenga, Justine A.; Matemba, Lucas E.; Muller, Shabani K.; Mhamphi, Ginethon G.; Kazwala, Rudovick R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease and a serious, under-reported public health problem, particularly in rural areas of Tanzania. In the Katavi-Rukwa ecosystem, humans, livestock and wildlife live in close proximity, which exposes them to the risk of a number of zoonotic infectious diseases, including leptospirosis. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out in the Katavi region, South-west Tanzania, to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira spp in humans, domestic ruminants and wildlife. Blood samples were collected from humans (n = 267), cattle (n = 1,103), goats (n = 248), buffaloes (n = 38), zebra (n = 2), lions (n = 2), rodents (n = 207) and shrews (n = 11). Decanted sera were tested using the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) for antibodies against six live serogroups belonging to the Leptospira spp, with a cutoff point of ≥ 1:160. The prevalence of leptospiral antibodies was 29.96% in humans, 30.37% in cattle, 8.47% in goats, 28.95% in buffaloes, 20.29% in rodents and 9.09% in shrews. Additionally, one of the two samples in lions was seropositive. A significant difference in the prevalence P<0.05 was observed between cattle and goats. No significant difference in prevalence was observed with respect to age and sex in humans or any of the sampled animal species. The most prevalent serogroups with antibodies of Leptospira spp were Sejroe, Hebdomadis, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagie and Australis, which were detected in humans, cattle, goats and buffaloes; Sejroe and Grippotyphosa, which were detected in a lion; Australis, Icterohaemorrhagie and Grippotyphosa, which were detected in rodents; and Australis, which was detected in shrews. Antibodies to serogroup Ballum were detected only in humans. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that leptospiral antibodies are widely prevalent in humans, livestock and wildlife from the Katavi-Rukwa ecosystem. The disease poses a serious

  6. Epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae serogroup 6 isolates from IPD in children and adults in Germany.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Mark; Winkel, Nadine; Küntzel, Sharon; Farkas, Aron; Perniciaro, Stephanie Russo; Reinert, Ralf René; Imöhl, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    This study presents serogroup 6 isolates from invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) before and after the recommendation for childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Germany (July 2006). A total of 19,299 (children: 3508, adults: 15,791) isolates were serotyped. Serogroup 6 isolates accounted for 9.5% (children) and 6.7% (adults), respectively. 548 isolates had serotype 6A, 558 had serotype 6B, 285 had serotype 6C, and 4 had serotype 6D. Among children, serotype 6B was most prevalent (7.5% of isolates) before vaccination, followed by 6A and 6C. After the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), the prevalence of serotype 6B significantly decreased (p = 0.040), a pattern which continued in the higher-valent PCV period (PCV10, PCV13). Serotype 6A prevalence showed a slight increase directly after the start of PCV7 vaccination, followed by a decrease which continued throughout the PCV10/13 period. Serotype 6C prevalence remained low. Serotype 6D was not found among IPD isolates from children. Among adults, prevalence of both 6A and 6B decreased, with 6B reaching statistical significance (p = 0.045) and 6A showing a small increase in 2011-2012. Serotype 6C prevalence was 1.5% or lower before vaccination, but increased post-vaccination to 3.6% in 2011/12 (p = 0.031). Four serotype 6D isolates were found post-PCV7 childhood vaccination, and two post-PCV10/13. Antibiotic resistance was found mainly in serotype 6B; serotype 6A showed lower resistance rates. Serotype 6C isolates only showed resistance among adults; serotype 6D isolates showed no resistance. Multilocus sequence typing showed that sequence type (ST) 1692 was the most prevalent serotype 6C clone. Thirty-two other STs were found among serotype 6C isolates, of which 12 have not been previously reported. The four serotype 6D isolates had ST 948, ST 2185 and two new STs: 8422 and 8442. Two serogroup 6 isolates could not be assigned to a serotype, but had STs common to serogroup 6.

  7. [Diseases associated with viruses of the California encephalitis serogroup, in Russia].

    PubMed

    Kolobukhina, L V; L'vov, D K; Skvortsova, T M; Butenko, A M; Gromashevskiĭ, V L; L'vov, S D; Galkina, I V; Nedialkova, M S; Merkulova, L N; Rudometov, Iu P

    1998-01-01

    Studies of 1986-1995 revealed diseases etiologically connected with California serogroup viruses (Bunyaviridae, Bunyavirus) all over the country. Highly endemic zones are the tundra, taiga, and leafy forest. The disease occurs mainly in summer, the patients are mostly young: under 30 years of age. Analysis of 183 cases confirmed by laboratory findings enabled us to distinguish the following forms: influenza-like (70.9%) with the predominant involvement of the bronchopulmonary system (bronchitis and pneumonia) and neuroinfection (20.2%) (serous meningitis and meningoencephalitis).

  8. Molecular Typing of Pathogenic Leptospira Serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae Strains Circulating in China during the Past 50 Years.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cuicai; Yang, Huimian; Li, Xiuwen; Cao, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Haijian; Zeng, Linzi; Xu, Jianmin; Xu, Yinghua; Chang, Yung-Fu; Guo, Xiaokui; Zhu, Yongzhang; Jiang, Xiugao

    2015-05-01

    Leptospirosis is one of the most important neglected tropical infectious diseases worldwide. Icterohaemorrhagiae has been throughout recent history, and still is, the predominant serogroup of this pathogen in China. However, very little in detail is known about the serovars or genotypes of this serogroup. In this study, 120 epidemic strains from five geographically diverse regions in China collected over a 50 year period (1958~2008), and 8 international reference strains characterized by 16S rRNA sequencing and MLST analysis. 115, 11 and 2 strains were identified as L. interrogans, L. borgpetersenii, and L. kirschneri, respectively. 17 different STs were identified including 69 ST1 strains, 18 ST17, 18 ST128, 9 ST143 and 2 ST209. The remaining 12 strains belonged to 12 different STs. eBURST analysis demonstrated that, among the clonal complexes isolated (CCs), CC1 accounted for 73.3% (88/120) strains representing three STs: ST1, ST128 and ST98. ST1 was the most likely ancestral strain of this CC, followed by singleton CC17 (17/120) and CC143 (11/120). Further analysis of adding 116 serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae strains in the MLST database and studies previously described using global eBURST analysis and MST dendrogram revealed relatively similar ST clustering patterns with five main CCs and 8 singletons among these 244 strains. CC17 was found to be the most prevalent clone of pathogenic Leptospira circulating worldwide. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that ST1 and ST17 strains were distributed among 4 distinct serovars, indicating a highly complicated relationship between serovars and STs. Our studies demonstrated a high level of genetic diversity in the serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae strains. Distinct from ST17 or ST37 circulating elsewhere, ST1 included in CC1, has over the past 50 years or so, proven to be the most prevalent ST of pathogenic leptospires isolated in China. Moreover, the complicated relationship between STs and serovars indicates an

  9. [Antimicrobial susceptibility of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from humans in Poland during 2004-2009].

    PubMed

    Szych, Jolanta; Jakubczak, Aleksandra; Wardak, Sebastian; Madajczak, Grzegorz

    2009-01-01

    The number of yersiniosis has increased in the last few years in Poland, especially an increase of Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 1B/O:8 infections was observed. From 2004 to 2009 265 of Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3, 108 of Y. enterocolitica 1B/O:8, 8 of Y. enterocolitica 2/O:9 and 4 of Y. pseudotuberculosis clinical isolates were collected. To obtain basic data for resistance monitoring purpose 385 Yersinia strains were tested by standard disc diffusion method for their susceptibilities to 12 antimicrobial agents. In addition beta-lactamase (enzyme A) inhibition assays were undertaken with ticarcillin and clavulanic acid and beta-lactamase (enzyme B) induction tests were perfonned with imipenem as the inducer for 135 strains. The present study demonstrated a high susceptibility of clinical strains to most of the tested antibiotics with the exception of ampicillin, ticarcillin and streptomycin. No strains were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, gentamicin and tetracyclin. Less than 10% isolates were resistant to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (except--all Y. enterocolitica 2/O:9 strains were resistant), sulfonamide, trimetoprim/sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol. Four isolates of Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 and one Y. enterocolitica 2/O:9 was multidrug resistant (MDR). Detection of enzyme A by disc diffusion in all tested strains, with the exception of the three Y. pseudotubeculosis I isolates, was highly reliable but results of enzyme B detection by the disc diffusion test were, especially for Y. enterocolitica 1B/O:8, faced with the difficulties.

  10. Inhibition of phagocytosis in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis: a virulence plasmid-encoded ability involving the Yop2b protein.

    PubMed Central

    Rosqvist, R; Bölin, I; Wolf-Watz, H

    1988-01-01

    Virulence plasmid-containing cells of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis had the ability to inhibit phagocytosis by mouse peritoneal macrophages cultured in vitro, but cells of its plasmid-cured derivative did not. Inhibition was most pronounced when the pathogen was incubated under Ca2+-deficient conditions, which allowed a high level of expression of outer membrane proteins (Yops). The addition of 2.5 mM Ca2+ to the growth medium reduced the degree of inhibition by the pathogen, but it was still significantly higher than that of the plasmid-cured strain. An avirulent mutant strain, from which the entire yopH gene was deleted, was impaired in its phagocytosis inhibition ability. This mutant could be trans-complemented by the yopH+ gene back to the wild-type phenotype with respect to virulence, as well as the ability to inhibit phagocytosis, demonstrating that the ability to inhibit phagocytosis is an important virulence function. The mutant strain was still cytotoxic for HeLa cells, indicating that inhibition of phagocytosis can be genetically separated from the ability to cause a cytotoxic effect. Images PMID:3294185

  11. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis uses Ail and YadA to circumvent neutrophils by directing Yop translocation during lung infection.

    PubMed

    Paczosa, Michelle K; Fisher, Michael L; Maldonado-Arocho, Francisco J; Mecsas, Joan

    2014-02-01

    A Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Yptb) murine model of lung infection was previously developed using the serotype III IP2666NdeI strain, which robustly colonized lungs but only sporadically disseminated to the spleen and liver. We demonstrate here that a serotype Ib Yptb strain, IP32953, colonizes the lungs at higher levels and disseminates more efficiently to the spleen and liver compared with IP2666NdeI . The role of adhesins was investigated during IP32953 lung infection by constructing isogenic Δail, Δinv, ΔpsaE and ΔyadA mutants. An IP32953ΔailΔyadA mutant initially colonized but failed to persist in the lungs and disseminate to the spleen and liver. Yptb expressing these adhesins selectively bound to and targeted neutrophils for translocation of Yops. This selective targeting was critical for virulence because persistence of the ΔailΔyadA mutant was restored following intranasal infection of neutropenic mice. Furthermore, Ail and YadA prevented killing by complement-mediated mechanisms during dissemination to and/or growth in the spleen and liver, but not in the lungs. Combined, these results demonstratethat Ail and YadA are critical, redundant virulence factors during lung infection, because they thwart neutrophils by directing Yop-translocation specifically into these cells. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. YscU/FlhB of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Harbors a C-terminal Type III Secretion Signal*

    PubMed Central

    Login, Frédéric H.; Wolf-Watz, Hans

    2015-01-01

    All type III secretion systems (T3SS) harbor a member of the YscU/FlhB family of proteins that is characterized by an auto-proteolytic process that occurs at a conserved cytoplasmic NPTH motif. We have previously demonstrated that YscUCC, the C-terminal peptide generated by auto-proteolysis of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis YscU, is secreted by the T3SS when bacteria are grown in Ca2+-depleted medium at 37 °C. Here, we investigated the secretion of this early T3S-substrate and showed that YscUCC encompasses a specific C-terminal T3S signal within the 15 last residues (U15). U15 promoted C-terminal secretion of reporter proteins like GST and YopE lacking its native secretion signal. Similar to the “classical” N-terminal secretion signal, U15 interacted with the ATPase YscN. Although U15 is critical for YscUCC secretion, deletion of the C-terminal secretion signal of YscUCC did neither affect Yop secretion nor Yop translocation. However, these deletions resulted in increased secretion of YscF, the needle subunit. Thus, these results suggest that YscU via its C-terminal secretion signal is involved in regulation of the YscF secretion. PMID:26338709

  13. YscU/FlhB of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Harbors a C-terminal Type III Secretion Signal.

    PubMed

    Login, Frédéric H; Wolf-Watz, Hans

    2015-10-23

    All type III secretion systems (T3SS) harbor a member of the YscU/FlhB family of proteins that is characterized by an auto-proteolytic process that occurs at a conserved cytoplasmic NPTH motif. We have previously demonstrated that YscUCC, the C-terminal peptide generated by auto-proteolysis of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis YscU, is secreted by the T3SS when bacteria are grown in Ca(2+)-depleted medium at 37 °C. Here, we investigated the secretion of this early T3S-substrate and showed that YscUCC encompasses a specific C-terminal T3S signal within the 15 last residues (U15). U15 promoted C-terminal secretion of reporter proteins like GST and YopE lacking its native secretion signal. Similar to the "classical" N-terminal secretion signal, U15 interacted with the ATPase YscN. Although U15 is critical for YscUCC secretion, deletion of the C-terminal secretion signal of YscUCC did neither affect Yop secretion nor Yop translocation. However, these deletions resulted in increased secretion of YscF, the needle subunit. Thus, these results suggest that YscU via its C-terminal secretion signal is involved in regulation of the YscF secretion. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Genetics and evolution of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O-specific polysaccharides: a novel pattern of O-antigen diversity

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Johanna J.; Cunneen, Monica M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract O-antigen polysaccharide is a major immunogenic feature of the lipopolysaccharide of Gram-negative bacteria, and most species produce a large variety of forms that differ substantially from one another. There are 18 known O-antigen forms in the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis complex, which are typical in being composed of multiple copies of a short oligosaccharide called an O unit. The O-antigen gene clusters are located between the hemH and gsk genes, and are atypical as 15 of them are closely related, each having one of five downstream gene modules for alternative main-chain synthesis, and one of seven upstream modules for alternative side-branch sugar synthesis. As a result, many of the genes are in more than one gene cluster. The gene order in each module is such that, in general, the earlier a gene product functions in O-unit synthesis, the closer the gene is to the 5΄ end for side-branch modules or the 3΄ end for main-chain modules. We propose a model whereby natural selection could generate the observed pattern in gene order, a pattern that has also been observed in other species. PMID:28364730

  15. Influence of Season and Feedlot Location on Prevalence and Virulence Factors of Seven Serogroups of Escherichia coli in Feces of Western-Canadian Slaughter Cattle.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Kim; Johnson, Roger P; Alexander, Trevor W; McAllister, Tim A; Reuter, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Pooled feces collected over two years from 1749 transport trailers hauling western-Canadian slaughter cattle were analysed by PCR for detection of Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157. Sequential immunomagnetic separation was then used to collect bacterial isolates (n = 1035) from feces positive for target serogroups. Isolated bacteria were tested by PCR to confirm serogroup and the presence of eae, ehxA, stx1, and stx2 virulence genes. Based on PCR screening, serogroup prevalence in feces ranged from 7.0% (O145) to 94.4% (O103) with at least 3 serogroups present in 79.5% of samples. Origin of cattle affected serogroup PCR prevalence and O157 was most prevalent in feces from south-west Alberta (P < 0.001). All serogroups demonstrated seasonal variations in PCR prevalence, with O26, O45, O103, O121, and O157 least prevalent (P < 0.001) in cooler winter months, while uncommon serogroups O111 and O145 increased in prevalence during winter (P < 0.001). However, isolates collected during winter were predominantly from serogroups O103 and O45. No seasonal variation was noted in proportion of isolates which were Shiga toxin containing E. coli (STEC; P = 0.18) or positive for Shiga toxin and eae (enterohemorrhagic E. coli; EHEC; P = 0.29). Isolates of serogroups O111, O145, and O157 were more frequently EHEC than were others, although 37.6-54.3% of isolates from other serogroups were also EHEC. Shiga-toxin genes present also varied by geographic origin of cattle (P < 0.05) in all serogroups except O157. As cattle within feedlots are sourced from multiple regions, locational differences in serogroup prevalence and virulence genes imply existence of selection pressures for E. coli and their virulence in western-Canadian cattle. Factors which reduce carriage or expression of virulence genes, particularly in non-O157 serogroups, should be investigated.

  16. Influence of Season and Feedlot Location on Prevalence and Virulence Factors of Seven Serogroups of Escherichia coli in Feces of Western-Canadian Slaughter Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Roger P.; Alexander, Trevor W.; McAllister, Tim A.; Reuter, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Pooled feces collected over two years from 1749 transport trailers hauling western-Canadian slaughter cattle were analysed by PCR for detection of Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157. Sequential immunomagnetic separation was then used to collect bacterial isolates (n = 1035) from feces positive for target serogroups. Isolated bacteria were tested by PCR to confirm serogroup and the presence of eae, ehxA, stx1, and stx2 virulence genes. Based on PCR screening, serogroup prevalence in feces ranged from 7.0% (O145) to 94.4% (O103) with at least 3 serogroups present in 79.5% of samples. Origin of cattle affected serogroup PCR prevalence and O157 was most prevalent in feces from south-west Alberta (P < 0.001). All serogroups demonstrated seasonal variations in PCR prevalence, with O26, O45, O103, O121, and O157 least prevalent (P < 0.001) in cooler winter months, while uncommon serogroups O111 and O145 increased in prevalence during winter (P < 0.001). However, isolates collected during winter were predominantly from serogroups O103 and O45. No seasonal variation was noted in proportion of isolates which were Shiga toxin containing E. coli (STEC; P = 0.18) or positive for Shiga toxin and eae (enterohemorrhagic E. coli; EHEC; P = 0.29). Isolates of serogroups O111, O145, and O157 were more frequently EHEC than were others, although 37.6–54.3% of isolates from other serogroups were also EHEC. Shiga-toxin genes present also varied by geographic origin of cattle (P < 0.05) in all serogroups except O157. As cattle within feedlots are sourced from multiple regions, locational differences in serogroup prevalence and virulence genes imply existence of selection pressures for E. coli and their virulence in western-Canadian cattle. Factors which reduce carriage or expression of virulence genes, particularly in non-O157 serogroups, should be investigated. PMID:27482711

  17. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes from three countries and antibiotic resistance differences among countries and Listeria monocytogenes serogroups.

    PubMed

    Obaidat, M M; Bani Salman, A E; Lafi, S Q; Al-Abboodi, A R

    2015-06-01

    A total of 104 Listeria monocytogenes isolates from 330 fish samples from three countries were characterized by multiplex PCR for serogrouping and virulence markers determination and tested for antibiotics resistance. A 53·8% of the isolates belonged to serogroup 1/2a, 3a; 32% belonged to 1/2b, 3b, 7; 14·4% belonged to 4b, 4d, 4e and 1% belonged to 1/2c, 3c. All isolates exhibited resistance to at least one antibiotic but the resistance rates varied among countries. The isolates exhibited high resistance to penicillin, rifampicin, clindamycin, erythromycin and tetracycline, but low resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, gentamicin, chloramphenicol and kanamycin. When comparing countries, the resistance rate for rifampicin, clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid varied among countries. When comparing serogroup, 1/2a, 3a exhibited the highest resistance to clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline and vancomycin while serogroup 4b, 4d, 4e exhibited the highest resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. All isolates carried inlA, inlC, inlJ and lmo2672. Listeriolysin S was carried by 42 and 30% of 4b and 1/2b isolates respectively. Significance and impact of the study: This is one of few studies to correlate antibiotic resistance with Listeria monocytogenes serogroups. The study also compared the antibiotic resistance and serogroups of L. monocytogenes isolates from three countries in one single study. The findings of this study will be helpful in improving data on the antibiotics resistance of L. monocytogenes in developing countries and enriches the epidemiological and public health studies of L. monocytogenes.

  18. First Use of a Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccine in the US in Response to a University Outbreak.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Lucy A; Shumate, Alice M; Johnsen, Peter; MacNeil, Jessica R; Patel, Manisha; Bhavsar, Tina; Cohn, Amanda C; Dinitz-Sklar, Jill; Duffy, Jonathan; Finnie, Janet; Garon, Denise; Hary, Robert; Hu, Fang; Kamiya, Hajime; Kim, Hye-Joo; Kolligian, John; Neglia, Janet; Oakley, Judith; Wagner, Jacqueline; Wagner, Kathy; Wang, Xin; Yu, Yon; Montana, Barbara; Tan, Christina; Izzo, Robin; Clark, Thomas A

    2015-05-01

    In 2013-2014, an outbreak of serogroup B meningococcal disease occurred among persons linked to a New Jersey university (University A). In the absence of a licensed serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine in the United States, the Food and Drug Administration authorized use of an investigational MenB vaccine to control the outbreak. An investigation of the outbreak and response was undertaken to determine the population at risk and assess vaccination coverage. The epidemiologic investigation relied on compilation and review of case and population data, laboratory typing of meningococcal isolates, and unstructured interviews with university staff. Vaccination coverage data were collected during the vaccination campaign held under an expanded-access Investigational New Drug protocol. Between March 25, 2013, and March 10, 2014, 9 cases of serogroup B meningococcal disease occurred in persons linked to University A. Laboratory typing results were identical for all 8 isolates available. Through May 14, 2014, 89.1% coverage with the 2-dose vaccination series was achieved in the target population. From the initiation of MenB vaccination through February 1, 2015, no additional cases of serogroup B meningococcal disease occurred in University A students. However, the ninth case occurred in March 2014 in an unvaccinated close contact of University A students. No serogroup B meningococcal disease cases occurred in persons who received 1 or more doses of 4CMenB vaccine, suggesting 4CMenB may have protected vaccinated individuals from disease. However, the ninth case demonstrates that carriage of serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis among vaccinated persons was not eliminated. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Immunogenicity and safety of investigational vaccine formulations against meningococcal serogroups A, B, C, W, and Y in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saez-Llorens, Xavier; Aguilera Vaca, Diana Catalina; Abarca, Katia; Maho, Emmanuelle; Graña, Maria Gabriela; Heijnen, Esther; Smolenov, Igor; Dull, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    This phase 2 study assessed the immunogenicity, safety, and reactogenicity of investigational formulations of meningococcal ABCWY vaccines, consisting of recombinant proteins (rMenB) and outer membrane vesicle (OMV) components of a licensed serogroup B vaccine, combined with components of a licensed quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM). A total of 495 healthy adolescents were randomized to 6 groups to receive 2 doses (Months 0, 2) of one of 4 formulations of rMenB antigens, with or without OMV, combined with MenACWY-CRM, or 2 doses of rMenB alone or one dose of MenACWY-CRM then a placebo. Immunogenicity was assessed by serum bactericidal assay with human complement (hSBA) against serogroups ACWY and serogroup B test strains; solicited reactions and any adverse events (AEs) were assessed. Two MenABCWY vaccinations elicited robust ACWY immune responses, with higher seroresponse rates than one dose of MenACWY-CRM. Bactericidal antibody responses against the rMenB antigens and OMV components were highest in subjects who received 2 doses of OMV-containing MenABCWY formulations, with ≥68% of subjects achieving hSBA titers ≥5 against each of the serogroup B test strains. After the first dose, solicited local reaction rates were higher in the MenABCWY or rMenB groups than the MenACWY-CRM group, but similar across groups after the second dose, consisting mainly of transient injection site pain. Fever (≥38.0°C) was rare and there were no vaccine-related serious AEs. In conclusion, investigational MenABCWY formulations containing OMV components elicited highly immunogenic responses against meningococcal serogroups ACWY, as well as serogroup B test strains, with an acceptable safety profile. [NCT01210885].

  20. Serological evidence of infection with California serogroup viruses (family Bunyaviridae) in residents of Long Hua, suburb of Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Gu, H X; Spence, L; Artsob, H; Chia, W K; Th'ng, C; Lampotang, V

    1984-01-01

    Sera from 126 residents of Long Hua, a suburb of Shanghai, in the People's Republic of China, were studied. Sera were tested for haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies to alphavirus (eastern equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis), flavivirus (St. Louis encephalitis, Powassan, dengue) and California serogroup (snowshoe hare) antigens. Flavivirus antibodies were found in 14 (11.1%) and California serogroup antibodies in 5 (3.9%) individuals. Neutralizing antibodies with highest titres to snowshoe hare virus were demonstrated in 3 of the 5 California serogroup reactors. We believe this to be the first report of California serogroup virus antibodies in Chinese residents and the first evidence to suggest that California serogroup viruses may be circulating in the Orient.

  1. Molecular characterization of double-stranded RNA segments encoding the major capsid proteins of a Palyam serogroup orbivirus that caused an epizootic of congenital abnormalities in cattle.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, M; Furuuchi, S; Minobe, Y

    1999-01-01

    cDNA cloning of the double-stranded RNA genome of Chuzan virus, a member of the Palyam serogroup orbiviruses, was carried out and the complete nucleotide sequences of RNA segments 2, 3, 6 and 7, encoding the major capsid proteins VP2, VP3, VP5 and VP7, respectively, were determined. The individual segments had single open reading frames and short inverted repeats adjacent to the conserved terminal sequences. Comparative sequence analysis with other serogroups of the genus Orbivirus suggested that VP2 is the principal determinant of serotype specificity and the neutralizing antigen of the Palyam serogroup. VP5 is also considered to be associated with antigenic variability. Both VP3 and VP7 probably contain serogroup-specific epitopes. Phylogenetic profiles demonstrated that the Palyam serogroup virus is more closely related to African horsesickness virus than to bluetongue virus and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus.

  2. Outbreak of Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease Primarily Affecting Men Who Have Sex with Men - Southern California, 2016.

    PubMed

    Nanduri, Srinivas; Foo, Chelsea; Ngo, Van; Jarashow, Claire; Civen, Rachel; Schwartz, Ben; Holguin, John; Shearer, Eric; Zahn, Matt; Harriman, Kathleen; Winter, Kathleen; Kretz, Cecilia; Chang, How Yi; Meyer, Sarah; MacNeil, Jessica

    2016-09-09

    During March 4-August 11, 2016, 25 outbreak-associated cases of meningococcal disease, including two deaths (8% case-fatality ratio), were reported in Southern California. Twenty-four of the cases were caused by serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis (NmC) and one by N. meningitidis with an undetermined serogroup (Figure). On June 24, 2016, in response to this increase in NmC cases, primarily among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Los Angeles County, the city of Long Beach, and Orange County, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) issued a press release and health advisory, declaring an outbreak of NmC in Southern California (1).

  3. Severe Legionnaires' disease with pneumonia and biopsy-confirmed myocarditis most likely caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 6.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Naoto; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Tokuda, Yasuharu; Takano, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    We herein describe the successful treatment of a patient with possible Legionella pneumophila serogroup 6 infection complicated by pneumonia and myocarditis. A 32-year-old man presented with a five-day history of cough, dyspnea and chest pain. Chest radiography revealed patchy opacities in both lungs suggestive of bilateral pneumonia, and a urinary antigen test for Legionella pneumophila was positive. After admission, the patient developed congestive heart failure due to pathologically confirmed myocarditis. He was successfully treated with minocycline, macrolide, steroids and noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV). He eventually recovered with a normalized cardiac function. L. pneumophila serogroup 6 was isolated from the bathwater in the patient's home.

  4. Molecular Epidemiology of Leptospira Serogroup Pomona Infections Among Wild and Domestic Animals in Spain.

    PubMed

    Arent, Z J; Gilmore, C; San-Miguel Ayanz, J M; Neyra, L Quevedo; García-Peña, F J

    2017-03-01

    Strains of Leptospira serogroup Pomona are known to cause widespread animal infections in many parts of the world. Forty-three isolates retrieved from domestic animals and wild small mammals suggest that serogroup Pomona is epidemiologically relevant in Spain. This is supported by the high prevalence of serovar Pomona antibodies in livestock and wild animals. In this study, the strains were serologically and genetically characterized in an attempt to elucidate their epidemiology. Serological typing was based on the microscopic agglutination test but molecular typing involved species-specific polymerase chain reaction, restriction endonuclease analysis, and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis. The study revealed that the infections are caused by two serovars, namely Pomona and Mozdok. Serovar Pomona was derived only from farm animals and may be adapted to pigs, which are recognized as the maintenance host. The results demonstrated that serovar Pomona is genetically heterogeneous and three different types were recognized. This heterogeneity was correlated with different geographical distributions of the isolates. All strains derived from small wild mammals were identified as serovar Mozdok. Some isolates of this serovar retrieved from cattle confirm that this serovar may also be the cause of infections in food-producing animals for which these wild species may be source of infection.

  5. Seroepidemiology of California and Bunyamwera serogroup (Bunyaviridae) virus infections in native populations of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Walters, L L; Tirrell, S J; Shope, R E

    1999-05-01

    This study investigated the geographic distribution and prevalence of antibodies to California and Bunyamwera serogroup viruses in Native populations of Alaska, and demographic and ecologic risk factors associated with exposure. Sera (n = 1,635) from 18 communities were screened using an ELISA. All age groups were tested for antibodies to Jamestown Canyon (JC), Inkoo (INK), snowshoe hare (SSH), and Northway (NOR) viruses; persons > or = 45 years old (n = 90) from six communities were additionally tested for antibodies to Tahyna (TAH), Batai (BAT), Cache Valley (CV), and Sindbis (SIN) viruses. Thirty free-ranging mammals were tested by a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for antibodies to all eight viruses and to Getah (GET) virus. In Natives, overall antibody prevalence was 24.9% (JC = 17.6%, monotypic JC = 6.5%, INK = 11.1%, monotypic INK = 0.6%, SSH = 6.8%, monotypic SSH = 3.5%, and NOR = 6.2%). Five TAH, CV, and BAT virus exposures may be serologic cross-reactions, and no SIN virus antibodies were detected. Sindbis-like virus antibodies were found in 30% of the mammals. Most mammals had antibodies to NOR (83.3%) and California serogroup (70.0%) viruses; no GET virus exposures were found. Significant risk factors for human bunyavirus exposures were age group, ethnic-linguistic group, biotic province, climate zone, terrestrial vegetation, and presence of some ungulates and small mammals in communities. Sex was not a significant risk factor.

  6. Jamestown Canyon virus (California serogroup) is the etiologic agent of widespread infection in Michigan humans.

    PubMed

    Grimstad, P R; Calisher, C H; Harroff, R N; Wentworth, B B

    1986-03-01

    In a sample population of 780 Michigan residents tested for neutralizing antibodies to California serogroup viruses, 216 (27.7%) had specific neutralizing antibody to Jamestown Canyon virus. An additional eight (1.0%) had specific neutralizing to trivittatus virus; none had specific neutralizing antibody to La Crosse virus. Significantly more male residents than female residents of the Lower Peninsula had antibody to Jamestown Canyon virus. The frequency of neutralizing antibody titers fits the Poisson distribution, suggesting that Jamestown Canyon virus infections occur endemically in residents of Michigan. Among 128 sera with specific neutralizing antibody to Jamestown Canyon virus, only two (1.6%) were found to have significant hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titers with La Crosse virus, while 23 of 44 (52%) had significant titers with Jamestown Canyon virus; a single serum had significant antibody by complement fixation tests with both La Crosse and Jamestown Canyon viruses. This study confirms earlier speculation that complement fixation and hemagglutination-inhibition tests with La Crosse virus (the only tests for California serogroup virus infections performed by most state diagnostic laboratories) fail to detect antibody to Jamestown Canyon virus. ASPEX computer-drawn maps demonstrated that the distribution of persons with antibody to Jamestown Canyon virus and residing in Michigan's Lower Peninsula is closely correlated with the estimated distribution of white-tailed deer in that part of the state, further supporting the hypothesis that white-tailed deer are the primary vertebrate host for Jamestown Canyon virus.

  7. Monoclonal antibody characterization of Jamestown Canyon (California serogroup) virus topotypes isolated in Canada.

    PubMed

    Artsob, H; Spence, L; Brodeur, B R; Th'ng, C

    1992-01-01

    Jamestown Canyon (JC) virus of the California (CAL) serogroup has been isolated in 12 American states and 6 Canadian provinces. A study was undertaken to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to JC virus and to use these MAbs to assay for possible heterogeneity among naturally occurring JC topotypes in Canada. MAbs were produced to the prototype strain of JC virus using BALB/c mice. Twenty-seven secreting MAbs were obtained and three of these MAbs were propagated and studied. All three MAbs, M1 (IgG1), M2 (IgG2b), and M3 (IgG2a), were reactive by immunofluorescent antibody assay against JC-infected vero cells and by ELISA against JC antigen. MAb M2 reacted with all members of the Melao complex, MAb M1 reacted only with Keystone virus, while MAb M3 exhibited no reactivity with other CAL serogroup viruses. Only MAb M3 possessed neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition activities against JC virus. The MAbs were also tested by ELISA and for neutralizing activity against 13 JC topotypes isolated in 5 provinces from Newfoundland to Saskatchewan. ELISA confirmed closer identity of the Canadian topotypes to JC as opposed to the closely related South River virus. The MAbs verified all Canadian topotypes to be JC virus but revealed different patterns of reactivity between these topotypes and prototype JC virus.

  8. Distribution of Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1 and other legionellae in potting soils in Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Steele, T W; Moore, C V; Sangster, N

    1990-01-01

    Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1 and other Legionella spp. were isolated from 73% of 45 potting soils made in Australia by 13 manufacturers but were not detected in 19 potting soils made in Greece, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom examined between March 1989 and May 1990. Several Legionella species were isolated from a small number of samples of uncomposted pine sawdusts, but it is not known whether sawdust was the source of some of the legionellae found in potting soils. Legionella spp. persisted for periods ranging from 3 to 10 months in a potting soil held at temperatures between -20 and 35 degrees C. Isolates of L. longbeachae serogroup 1 from soil did not grow at 43 degrees C, a temperature which was also lethal for this species in soil. Most Legionella spp. isolated from potting and natural soils belonged to one distinct group according to analysis of ubiquinones and were serologically related to several known species in this group. A small number of potting soils contained L. pneumophila and L. micdadei. PMID:2285311

  9. Identification of Legionella pneumophila serogroups and other Legionella species by mip gene sequencing.

    PubMed

    Haroon, Attiya; Koide, Michio; Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao; Fujita, Jiro

    2012-04-01

    The virulence factor known as the macrophage infectivity potentiator (mip) is responsible for the intracellular survival of Legionella species. In this study, we investigated the potential of the mip gene sequence to differentiate isolates of different species of Legionella and different serogroups of Legionella pneumophila. We used 35 clinical L. pneumophila isolates and one clinical isolate each of Legionella micdadei, Legionella longbeachae, and Legionella dumoffii (collected from hospitals all over Japan between 1980 and 2007). We used 19 environmental Legionella anisa isolates (collected in the Okinawa, Nara, Osaka, and Hyogo prefectures between 1987 and 2007) and two Legionella type strains. We extracted bacterial genomic DNA and amplified out the mip gene by PCR. PCR products were purified by agarose gel electrophoresis and the mip gene was then sequenced. The L. pneumophila isolates could be divided into two groups: one group was very similar to the type strain and was composed of serogroup (SG) 1 isolates only; the second group had more sequence variations and was composed of SG1 isolates as well as SG2, SG3, SG5, and SG10 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis displayed one cluster for L. anisa isolates, while other Legionella species were present at discrete levels. Our findings show that mip gene sequencing is an effective technique for differentiating L. pneumophila strains from other Legionella species.

  10. Serogrouping of Halophilic Bdellovibrios from Chesapeake Bay and Environs by Immunodiffusion and Immunoelectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Schoeffield, Andrew J.; Falkler, William A.; Desai, Darshana; Williams, Henry N.

    1991-01-01

    Little has been reported on the serological relationship of halophilic bdellovibrios (Bd). Immunodiffusion analysis performed with rabbit or mouse Bd antisera developed against eight halophilic Bd isolates and one terrestrial Bd isolate, when reacted with soluble antigen preparations of 45 isolates of halophilic Bd, allowed separation into seven serogroups, which were distinct from the terrestrial isolate. Soluble antigen preparations of prey bacteria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus P-5 (P-5) and Escherichia coli ML 35 (ML 35), exhibited no reactivity with the antisera by immunodiffusion. Immunoelectrophoresis revealed the presence of three distinct antigens in homologous reactions and one shared antigen in heterologous Bd reactions. Shared antigens were noted between halophilic and terrestrial Bd, in addition to between halophilic Bd strains, indicating the possible existence of an antigen(s) which may be shared among all Bd. Again, no shared antigen was noted when P-5 or ML 35 was allowed by immunoelectrophoresis to react with the antisera. Prey susceptibility testing of the seven distinct groups of halophilic Bd, using 20 test prey, produced essentially identical spectra for each group, indicating that this was not a useful technique in delineating the Bd. While immunoelectrophoresis was able to demonstrate an antigen common to all Bd tested, immunodiffusion was able to delineate strains on the basis of a “serogroup specific” antigen. This suggests that immunological tools may serve as important means to study the taxonomy of halophilic Bd, as well as in the formation of a clearer taxonomic picture of the genus Bdellovibrio. Images PMID:16348597

  11. Soil as a source of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1).

    PubMed

    Wallis, Lara; Robinson, Priscilla

    2005-12-01

    To investigate the potential source of a case of Legionnaires' disease caused by an unusual serotype of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1) in regional Victoria in May 2001. Epidemiological and environmental investigation of the source of infection of a case of Legionnaires' disease in regional Victoria in May 2001. Extensive environmental investigations did not reveal any cooling water tower systems close to the residence or the shopping centre that the case visited prior to illness. The sputum culture and a soil sample from the field at the plant nursery where the case worked prior to illness were both positive for Legionella pneumophilia serogroup 1, MDU pulsovar 97:103. Legionella pneumophila has been found in soil and was further found to be associated with a case of Legionella pneumophila. Public health authorities should consider exposures to soil and potting mixes when investigating cases of Legionella pneumophila where the case has no apparent association with cooling towers. Safe gardening practices should be promoted among the community.

  12. Genomic resolution of an aggressive, widespread, diverse and expanding meningococcal serogroup B, C and W lineage

    PubMed Central

    Lucidarme, Jay; Hill, Dorothea M.C.; Bratcher, Holly B.; Gray, Steve J.; du Plessis, Mignon; Tsang, Raymond S.W.; Vazquez, Julio A.; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Ceyhan, Mehmet; Efron, Adriana M.; Gorla, Maria C.; Findlow, Jamie; Jolley, Keith A.; Maiden, Martin C.J.; Borrow, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of meningitis and septicaemia. The hyperinvasive ST-11 clonal complex (cc11) caused serogroup C (MenC) outbreaks in the US military in the 1960s and UK universities in the 1990s, a global Hajj-associated serogroup W (MenW) outbreak in 2000–2001, and subsequent MenW epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa. More recently, endemic MenW disease has expanded in South Africa, South America and the UK, and MenC cases have been reported among European and North American men who have sex with men (MSM). Routine typing schemes poorly resolve cc11 so we established the population structure at genomic resolution. Methods Representatives of these episodes and other geo-temporally diverse cc11 meningococci (n = 750) were compared across 1546 core genes and visualised on phylogenetic networks. Results MenW isolates were confined to a distal portion of one of two main lineages with MenB and MenC isolates interspersed elsewhere. An expanding South American/UK MenW strain was distinct from the ‘Hajj outbreak’ strain and a closely related endemic South African strain. Recent MenC isolates from MSM in France and the UK were closely related but distinct. Conclusions High resolution ‘genomic’ multilocus sequence typing is necessary to resolve and monitor the spread of diverse cc11 lineages globally. PMID:26226598

  13. Prevalence of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 in water distribution systems in Izmir province of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Uzel, Ataç; Uçar, Füsun; Hameş-Kocabaş, E Esin

    2005-10-01

    Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 occurrence has been investigated in 168 hot water samples from 24 hotels, situated in 6 counties in Izmir province of Turkey, from 15 June to 30 September of the year 2000. Sampling was carried out at 15-day intervals and seven samples were taken from each of the hotels' hot water reservoirs and hot water networks. The samples were (1 L) concentrated using polycarbonate filters (mesh size 0.22 microm). Isolation was achieved using selective medium, GVPC agar. The samples were concentrated by membrane filtration, divided into three portions and cultured without pretreatment, after acid treatment, and after heat treatment, on GVPC agar. One hundred and ten isolates were identified as L.pneumophila sg 1 using the Legionella Latex Test (Oxoid). Arbitrarily primed PCR (AP PCR) was employed to assess the clonal relationship between Legionella pneumophila sg 1 isolates from the hot water samples of the hotels. Three genotypes of L. pneumophila sg 1 isolates were identified. With a high prevalence of type A, 22 hotels were found to be colonized with L. pneumophila serogroup 1, while only 2 were free from the bacteria.

  14. A serological survey of Australian wildlife for antibodies to Leptospires of the Hebdomadis serogroup.

    PubMed

    Durfee, P T; Presidente, P J

    1979-04-01

    A serological survey for antibodies to Leptospira interrograns serovar hardjo was conducted on 574 serum samples from 10 native and 4 introduced wildlife species in south-eastern Australia. The microscopic agglutination (MA) test was used, and titres to hardjo antigen were detected in 33.5% of 352 brushtailed possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) sampled in several areas of Victoria. Prevalence of reactors ranged from 14 to 66% in 4 populations examined intensively. Serovar balcanica was isolated from possums with hardjo antibodies from two different areas. Of 20 wombats Vombatus ursinus) examined in Victoria, antibodies to hardjo were found in sera from 4 and titres to Pyrogenes and Pomona serogroups were detected in another. Hardjo antibodies were demonstrated in sera from 13 of 19 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis). Negative MA test results to hardjo antigens were recorded in 55 mountain possums (T. caninus), 63 macropods (Macropus spp.), 17 water rats (Hydrmys chrysogaster), 39 fallow deer (Dama dama), 2 hog deer (Axis porcinus) and 2 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalus). No MA antibodies to any of 16 leptospiral serogroups were detected in 17 water rats tested. Kidneys were examined from 330 of these animals and focal interstitial nephritis suggestive of leptospirosis was found in kidneys of 63 of 169 T. vulpecula, 3 of 55 T. caninus, 12 of 18 V. ursinus, 6 of 22 Macropus spp., 9 of 16 H. chrysogaster, 5 of 11 C. timorensis and 3 of 39 D. dama. A statistical association between focal interstitial nephritis and MA antibodies to hardjo was found in T. vulpecula.

  15. Characterization of Leptospira santarosai Serogroup Grippotyphosa Serovar Bananal Isolated from Capybara ( Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris ) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Miraglia, Fabiana; Marvulo, Maria F V; Silva, Jean C R; Paula, Catia D; Costa, Barbara L P; Morais, Zenaide M; Ferreira, Fernando; Neto, José S Ferreira; Dellagostin, Odir A; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-07-01

    Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. Rodents appear to be the most important reservoirs of infection. They contaminate the environment and food and can transmit the pathogen when they are consumed by carnivores. Capybara ( Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris ) are efficient reservoirs of Leptospira, and because they are in close contact with farm animals and are found in semiurban areas, they represent a risk to public health. We isolated five Leptospira strains from capybara kidneys in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in 2001 and typed them using serologic and molecular techniques. These strains include the Leptospira santarosai serogroup Grippotyphosa serovar Bananal. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis resulted in a unique pattern distinct from the reference strains, and the isolates clustered with greater than 85% similarity. The isolates also presented higher growth rates than other Leptospira serovars, with high minimal inhibitory concentration values for most of the tested antibiotics, with the exception of penicillin and ampicillin. This isolation and characterization of the L. santarosai serogroup Grippotyphosa serovar Bananal from capybara, highlights the importance of wild and sinantropic rodents as carriers of pathogenic leptospires.

  16. VA Health Care. Additional Efforts to Better Assess Joint Ventures Needed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Kans. Okla. Minn. Iowa Mo. Ark. La. Ill. Miss. Ind. Ky. Tenn. Ala. Ga. S.C. N.C. Va. Ohio N.H. Mass. Mich . Calif. Wash. Wis. N.Y. Maine Vt. W.Va...train VA personnel in a variety of areas, including basic life support and advanced cardiac life support. Finally, VA officials and academic

  17. 78 FR 18425 - Proposed Information Collection VA Police Officer Pre-Employment Screening Checklist); Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection VA Police Officer Pre-Employment Screening Checklist); Comment... information technology. Title: VA Police Officer Pre-Employment Screening Checklist, VA Form 0120. OMB Control... complete VA Form 0120 to document pre- employment history and conduct background checks on...

  18. Shiga Toxin Subtypes of Non-O157 Escherichia coli Serogroups Isolated from Cattle Feces.

    PubMed

    Shridhar, Pragathi B; Siepker, Chris; Noll, Lance W; Shi, Xiaorong; Nagaraja, T G; Bai, Jianfa

    2017-01-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important foodborne pathogens responsible for human illnesses. Cattle are a major reservoir that harbor the organism in the hindgut and shed in the feces. Shiga toxins (Stx) are the primary virulence factors associated with STEC illnesses. The two antigenically distinct Stx types, Stx1 and Stx2, encoded by stx1 and stx2 genes, share approximately 56% amino acid sequence identity. Genetic variants exist within Stx1 and Stx2 based on differences in amino acid composition and in cytotoxicity. The objective of our study was to identify the stx subtypes in strains of STEC serogroups, other than O157, isolated from cattle feces. Shiga toxin gene carrying E. coli strains (n = 192), spanning 27 serogroups originating from cattle (n = 170) and human (n = 22) sources, were utilized in the study. Shiga toxin genes were amplified by PCR, sequenced, and nucleotide sequences were translated into amino acid sequences using CLC main workbench software. Shiga toxin subtypes were identified based on the amino acid motifs that define each subtype. Shiga toxin genotypes were also identified at the nucleotide level by in silico restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Of the total 192 STEC strains, 93 (48.4%) were positive for stx1 only, 43 (22.4%) for stx2 only, and 56 (29.2%) for both stx1 and stx2. Among the 149 strains positive for stx1, 132 (88.6%) were stx1a and 17 (11.4%) were stx1c. Shiga toxin 1a was the most common subtype of stx1 among cattle (87.9%; 123/140) and human strains (100%; 9/9) of non-O157 serogroups. Of the total 99 strains positive for stx2, 79 were stx2a (79.8%), 11 (11.1%) were stx2c, 12 (12.1%) were stx2d. Of the 170 strains originating from cattle feces, 58 (34.1%) were stx2a subtype, 11 (6.5%) were stx2c subtype, and 11 were of subtype stx2d (6.5%). All but one of the human strains were positive for stx2a. Three strains of cattle origin were positive for both stx2a and stx2d. In conclusion, a number

  19. Serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccination in Burkina Faso: analysis of national surveillance data

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Ryan T; Kambou, Jean Ludovic; Diomandé, Fabien V K; Tarbangdo, Tiga F; Ouédraogo-Traoré, Rasmata; Sangaré, Lassana; Lingani, Clement; Martin, Stacey W; Hatcher, Cynthia; Mayer, Leonard W; LaForce, F Marc; Avokey, Fenella; Djingarey, Mamoudou H; Messonnier, Nancy E; Tiendrébéogo, Sylvestre R; Clark, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background An affordable, highly immunogenic Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (PsA–TT) was licensed for use in sub-Saharan Africa in 2009. In 2010, Burkina Faso became the first country to implement a national prevention campaign, vaccinating 11.4 million people aged 1–29 years. We analysed national surveillance data around PsA–TT introduction to investigate the early effect of the vaccine on meningitis incidence and epidemics. Methods We examined national population-based meningitis surveillance data from Burkina Faso using two sources, one with cases and deaths aggregated at the district level from 1997 to 2011, and the other enhanced with results of cerebrospinal fluid examination and laboratory testing from 2007 to 2011. We compared mortality rates and incidence of suspected meningitis, probable meningococcal meningitis by age, and serogroup-specific meningococcal disease before and during the first year after PsA–TT implementation. We assessed the risk of meningitis disease and death between years. Findings During the 14 year period before PsA–TT introduction, Burkina Faso had 148 603 cases of suspected meningitis with 17 965 deaths, and 174 district-level epidemics. After vaccine introduction, there was a 71% decline in risk of meningitis (hazard ratio 0.29, 95% CI 0.28–0.30, p<0.0001) and a 64% decline in risk of fatal meningitis (0.36, 0.33–0.40, p<0.0001). We identified a statistically significant decline in risk of probable meningococcal meningitis across the age group targeted for vaccination (62%, cumulative incidence ratio [CIR] 0.38, 95% CI 0.31–0.45, p<0.0001), and among children aged less than 1 year (54%, 0.46, 0.24–0.86, p=0.02) and people aged 30 years and older (55%, 0.45, 0.22–0.91, p=0.003) who were ineligible for vaccination. No cases of serogroup A meningococcal meningitis occurred among vaccinated individuals, and epidemics were eliminated. The incidence of laboratory

  20. The C-terminal tail of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis YopM is critical for interacting with RSK1 and for virulence.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Melissa W; Marré, Meghan L; Lesser, Cammie F; Mecsas, Joan

    2010-06-01

    Yersinia spp. undermine the immune responses of infected animals by translocating Yops directly into host cells with a type III secretion system. YopM, a leucine-rich repeat protein, is a critical virulence factor in infection. YopM localizes to both the nucleus and the cytoplasm in cultured cells, interacts with mammalian p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1), and causes a decrease in NK cell populations in spleens. Little is known about the molecular interaction between YopM and RSK1 and its significance in pathogenesis. We performed a systematic deletion analysis of YopM in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis to determine which regions are required for RSK1 interactions, nuclear localization, virulence, and changes in immune cell populations during infection of mice. Full-length YopM associated with RSK1 in at least two protein complexes in infected cells, and deletion of its C-terminal tail abrogated all RSK1 interactions. The C-terminal tail was required for tissue colonization, as yopM mutants that failed to interact with RSK1 were as defective for tissue colonization as was a DeltayopM mutant; however, nuclear localization of YopM was not dependent on its RSK1 interaction. Mutants expressing YopM proteins which do not interact with RSK1 caused more pathology than did the DeltayopM mutant, suggesting that there are other RSK1-independent functions of YopM. Histopathological and flow cytometric analyses of spleens showed that infection with wild-type Y. pseudotuberculosis caused an influx of neutrophils, while mice infected with yopM mutants had increased numbers of macrophages. Decreases in NK cells after Y. pseudotuberculosis infection did not correlate with YopM expression. In conclusion, the C terminus of YopM is essential for RSK1 interactions and for virulence.

  1. Comprehensive profiling of N-acylhomoserine lactones produced by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis using liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ortori, Catharine A; Atkinson, Steve; Chhabra, Siri Ram; Cámara, Miguel; Williams, Paul; Barrett, David A

    2007-01-01

    A method for the comprehensive profiling of the N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) family of bacterial quorum-sensing molecules is presented using liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap (QqQLIT) mass spectrometry. Information-dependent acquisition (IDA), using triggered combinations of triple-quadrupole and linear ion trap modes in the same LC-MS/MS run, was used to simultaneously screen, quantify and identify multiple AHLs in a single sample. This MS method uses common AHL fragment ions attributed to the homoserine moiety and the 3-oxo-, 3-hydroxy- or unsubstituted acyl side chains, to identify unknown AHLs in cell-free culture supernatants in an unbiased manner. This LC-MS technique was applied to determine the relative molar ratios of AHLs produced by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and the consequences of inactivating by mutation either or both of the AHL synthase genes (ypsI and ytbI) on AHL profile and concentration. The Y. pseudotuberculosis wild type but not the ypsI ytbI double mutant produced at least 24 different AHLs with acyl chains ranging from C4 to C15 with or without 3-oxo or 3-hydroxy substituents. YtbI, in contrast to YpsI, could direct the synthesis of all of the AHLs identified. The most abundant and hence most biologically relevant Y. pseudotuberculosis AHLs were found to be the 3-oxo-substituted C6, C7 and C8 AHLs and the unsubstituted C6 and C8 compounds. The LC-QqQLIT methodology is broadly applicable to quorum-sensing signal molecule analysis and can provide comprehensive AHL profiles and concentrations from a single sample and simultaneously collect confirmatory spectra for each AHL identified.

  2. DNA sequence and analysis of the O-antigen gene clusters of Escherichia coli serogroups O62, O68, O131, O140, O142, and O163 and serogroup-specific PCR assays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The DNA sequence of the O-antigen gene clusters of Escherichia coli serogroups O62, O68, O131, O140, O142, and O163 was determined. There were 9 to 12 open reading frames (ORFs) identified, encoding genes required for O-antigen sugar biosynthesis, transfer, and processing. Primers based on the wzx...

  3. Escherichia coli O-antigen gene clusters of serogroups O62, O68, O131, O140, O142, and O163: DNA sequences and similarity between O62 and O68, and PCR-based serogrouping

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The DNA sequences of the O-antigen gene clusters of the Escherichia coli serogroups O62, O131, O140, O142 and O163 were determined. There were 9-14 open reading frames (ORFs) identified, encoding genes required for O-antigen sugar biosynthesis, transfer, and processing. Primers based on the wzx (O...

  4. Serological studies on British isolates of the Sejroe serogroup of leptospira. II. An evaluation of the factor analysis method of identifying leptospires using strains belonging to the Sejroe serogroup.

    PubMed Central

    Little, T. W.; Stevens, A. E.; Hathaway, S. C.

    1987-01-01

    Twelve British isolates of leptospira belonging to the Sejroe serogroup were examined using a series of six factor sera prepared by a number of different absorption methods. Ten of the isolates were identified as Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo and two as L. interrogans serovar saxkoebing. These isolates had previously been identified using the cross agglutination absorption method. PMID:3609168

  5. Uncovering an Important Role for YopJ in the Inhibition of Caspase-1 in Activated Macrophages and Promoting Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Virulence.

    PubMed

    Schoberle, Taylor J; Chung, Lawton K; McPhee, Joseph B; Bogin, Ben; Bliska, James B

    2016-04-01

    Pathogenic Yersinia species utilize a type III secretion system to translocate Yop effectors into infected host cells. Yop effectors inhibit innate immune responses in infected macrophages to promote Yersinia pathogenesis. In turn,Yersinia-infected macrophages respond to translocation of Yops by activating caspase-1, but different mechanisms of caspase-1 activation occur, depending on the bacterial genotype and the state of phagocyte activation. In macrophages activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) prior to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection, caspase-1 is activated by a rapid inflammasome-dependent mechanism that is inhibited by translocated YopM. The possibility that other effectors cooperate with YopM to inhibit caspase-1 activation in LPS-activated macrophages has not been investigated. Toward this aim, epistasis analysis was carried out in which the phenotype of aY. pseudotuberculosis yopM mutant was compared to that of a yopJ yopM, yopE yopM, yopH yopM, yopT yopM, or ypkA yopM mutant. Activation of caspase-1 was measured by cleavage of the enzyme, release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and pyroptosis in LPS-activated macrophages infected with wild-type or mutant Y. pseudotuberculosis strains. Results show enhanced activation of caspase-1 after infection with the yopJ yopM mutant relative to infection by any other single or double mutant. Similar results were obtained with the yopJ, yopM, and yopJ yopM mutants ofY ersinia pestis Following intravenous infection of mice, theY. pseudotuberculosis yopJ mutant was as virulent as the wild type, while the yopJ yopM mutant was significantly more attenuated than the yopM mutant. In summary, through epistasis analysis this work uncovered an important role for YopJ in inhibiting caspase-1 in activated macrophages and in promoting Yersinia virulence. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Roles of factor Va heavy and light chains in protein and lipid rearrangements associated with the formation of a bovine factor Va-membrane complex.

    PubMed Central

    Koppaka, V; Talbot, W F; Zhai, X; Lentz, B R

    1997-01-01

    Factor Va is an essential protein cofactor of the enzyme factor Xa, which activates prothrombin to thrombin during blood coagulation. Peptides with an apparent Mr of approximately 94,000 (heavy chain; HC) and approximately 74,000 or 72,000 (light chain; LC) interact in the presence of Ca2+ to form active Va. The two forms of Va-LC differ in their carboxyl-terminal C2 domain. Using Va reconstituted with either LC form, we examined the effects of the two LC species on membrane binding and on the activity of membrane-bound Va. We found that 1) Va composed of the 72,000 LC bound only slightly more tightly to membranes composed of a mixture of neutral and acidic lipids, the Kd being reduced by a factor of approximately 3 at 5 mM and by a factor of 6 at 2 mM Ca2+. 2) The two forms of Va seemed to undergo different conformational changes when bound to a membrane. 3) The activity of bovine Va varied somewhat with LC species, the difference being greatest at limiting Xa concentration. We have also addressed the role of the two Va peptides in membrane lipid rearrangements and binding: 1) Va binding increased lateral packing density in mixed neutral/acidic lipid membranes. In the solid phase, Va-HC had no effect, whereas Va-LC and whole Va had similar but small effects. In the fluid phase, Va-HC and whole Va both altered membrane packing, with Va-HC having the largest effect. 2) Va-HC bound reversibly and in a Ca2+-independent fashion to membranes composed of neutral phospholipid (Kd, approximately 0.3 microM; stoichiometry approximately 91). High ionic strength had little effect on binding. 3) The substantial effect of Va on packing within neutral phospholipid membranes was mimicked by Va-HC. 4) Based on measurements of membrane phase behavior, binding of Va or its peptide components did not induce thermodynamically discernible lateral membrane domains. These results suggest that the membrane association of factor Va is a complex process involving both chains of Va, changes

  7. Poststroke Rehabilitation and Restorative Care Utilization: A Comparison Between VA Community Living Centers and VA-contracted Community Nursing Homes.

    PubMed

    Jia, Huanguang; Pei, Qinglin; Sullivan, Charles T; Cowper Ripley, Diane C; Wu, Samuel S; Bates, Barbara E; Vogel, W Bruce; Bidelspach, Douglas E; Wang, Xinping; Hoffman, Nannette

    2016-03-01

    Effective poststroke rehabilitation care can speed patient recovery and minimize patient functional disabilities. Veterans affairs (VA) community living centers (CLCs) and VA-contracted community nursing homes (CNHs) are the 2 major sources of institutional long-term care for Veterans with stroke receiving care under VA auspices. This study compares rehabilitation therapy and restorative nursing care among Veterans residing in VA CLCs versus those Veterans in VA-contracted CNHs. Retrospective observational. All Veterans diagnosed with stroke, newly admitted to the CLCs or CNHs during the study period who completed at least 2 Minimum Data Set assessments postadmission. The outcomes were numbers of days for rehabilitation therapy and restorative nursing care received by the Veterans during their stays in CLCs or CNHs as documented in the Minimum Data Set databases. For rehabilitation therapy, the CLC Veterans had lower user rates (75.2% vs. 76.4%, P=0.078) and fewer observed therapy days (4.9 vs. 6.4, P<0.001) than CNH Veterans. However, the CLC Veterans had higher adjusted odds for therapy (odds ratio=1.16, P=0.033), although they had fewer average therapy days (coefficient=-1.53±0.11, P<0.001). For restorative nursing care, CLC Veterans had higher user rates (33.5% vs. 30.6%, P<0.001), more observed average care days (9.4 vs. 5.9, P<0.001), higher adjusted odds (odds ratio=2.28, P<0.001), and more adjusted days for restorative nursing care (coefficient=5.48±0.37, P<0.001). Compared with their counterparts at VA-contracted CNHs, Veterans at VA CLCs had fewer average rehabilitation therapy days (both unadjusted and adjusted), but they were significantly more likely to receive restorative nursing care both before and after risk adjustment.

  8. Drug and drug-related supply promotion by pharmaceutical company representatives at VA facilities. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-03-05

    This final rule amends the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) regulations regarding access to VA facilities by pharmaceutical company representatives. The purposes of the rule are to reduce or eliminate any potential for disruption in the patient care environment, manage activities and promotions at VA facilities, and provide pharmaceutical company representatives with a consistent standard of permissible business practice at VA facilities. The amendments will facilitate mutually beneficial relationships between VA and pharmaceutical company representatives.

  9. Clinical features and outcome of pediatric Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W135 infection: a report of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Faye, Albert; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Angoulvant, François; Antonios, Micheline; Aubertin, Guillaume; Soussan, Valérie; Bingen, Edouard; Bourrillon, Antoine

    2004-06-01

    We describe 5 pediatric cases of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W135 infection. Infectious and/or reactive extrameningeal involvement was frequent. One patient had a persistent postmeningococcal inflammatory syndrome. Four of 5 isolates belonged to the clonal complex 37. The important risk of extrameningeal complications must be borne in mind when treating children with N. meningitidis W135 infection.

  10. New Virus Genome Sequences of the Guama Serogroup (Genus Orthobunyavirus, Family Bunyaviridae), Isolated in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Márcio R. T.; Medeiros, Daniele B. A.; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Lima, Clayton P. S.; Inada, Davi T.; Cardoso, Jedson F.; Vianez, João L. S. G.; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This is the first announcement of two nearly complete viral genome sequences belonging to the Guama serogroup (genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae) isolated in the Brazilian Amazon region: Mirim virus (MIRV; BEAN7722) and Ananindeua virus (ANUV; BEAN109303). PMID:28254992

  11. Biotypes and O serogroups of Escherichia coli involved in intestinal infections of weaned rabbits: clues to diagnosis of pathogenic strains.

    PubMed Central

    Camguilhem, R; Milon, A

    1989-01-01

    A total of 575 Escherichia coli strains isolated from weaned rabbits experiencing diarrhea in 119 French commercial farms were tested for O serogroups. The results showed a strong predominance of serogroup O103 strains. A sample of 126 strains were further checked for simplified biotypes by using five carbohydrate fermentation reactions. Of 72 O103 strains, 70 were shown to belong to biotypes characterized by a rhamnose-negative reaction. Four of nine serogroup O68 strains also showed this type of reaction. Thirty-nine strains, representative of the serotypes and biotypes found, were further tested for experimental pathogenicity in weaned rabbits and for antibiotic susceptibility. All the rhamnose-negative strains produced life-threatening watery or hemorrhagic diarrhea, whereas rhamnose-positive strains induced only mild diarrheic syndrome without any mortality or no clinical signs at all. Rhamnose-negative, highly pathogenic strains did not belong to related antibiotypes. We think that O serogrouping together with biotyping, or even rhamnose fermentation testing, may be an important clue in the diagnosis of enteropathogenic strains from rabbits in France, permitting rapid identification of highly pathogenic strains and leading to improved prognosis and treatment. PMID:2656746

  12. Differentiating non-0157:H7 STEC serogroups from ground beef plated on agar media by hyperspetral imaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: The development of an assay to detect and confirm a positive non-O157:H7 isolate is challenging when mixed morphologically results are obtained from the serogroups growing on Rainbow agar. Rainbow agar is only claimed by the manufacturer to be very specific for E.coli O157:H7 strain...

  13. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 3 pneumonia in a patient with low-grade 4 non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Nosocomial legionellosis has generally been described in immunodepressed patients, but Legionella pneumophila serogroup 3 has rarely been identified as the causative agent. Case presentation We report the case of nosocomial L. pneumophila serogroup 3 pneumonia in a 70-year-old Caucasian man with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Diagnosis was carried out by culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The results of a urinary antigen test were negative. A hospital environmental investigation revealed that the hospital water system was highly colonized by L. pneumophila serogroups 3, 4, and 8. The hospital team involved in the prevention of infections was informed, long-term control measures to reduce the environmental bacterial load were adopted, and clinical monitoring of legionellosis occurrence in high-risk patients was performed. No further cases of Legionella pneumonia have been observed so far. Conclusions In this report, we describe a case of legionellosis caused by L. pneumophila serogroup 3, which is not usually a causative agent of nosocomial infection. Our research confirms the importance of carrying out cultures of respiratory secretions to diagnose legionellosis and highlights the limited value of the urinary antigen test for hospital infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. It also indicates that, to reduce the bacterial load and prevent nosocomial legionellosis, appropriate control measures should be implemented with systematic monitoring of hospital water systems. PMID:21849075

  14. VA's National PTSD Brain Bank: a National Resource for Research.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Matthew J; Huber, Bertrand R; Brady, Christopher B; Ursano, Robert J; Benedek, David M; Kowall, Neil W; McKee, Ann C

    2017-08-25

    The National PTSD Brain Bank (NPBB) is a brain tissue biorepository established to support research on the causes, progression, and treatment of PTSD. It is a six-part consortium led by VA's National Center for PTSD with participating sites at VA medical centers in Boston, MA; Durham, NC; Miami, FL; West Haven, CT; and White River Junction, VT along with the Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences. It is also well integrated with VA's Boston-based brain banks that focus on Alzheimer's disease, ALS, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and other neurological disorders. This article describes the organization and operations of NPBB with specific attention to: tissue acquisition, tissue processing, diagnostic assessment, maintenance of a confidential data biorepository, adherence to ethical standards, governance, accomplishments to date, and future challenges. Established in 2014, NPBB has already acquired and distributed brain tissue to support research on how PTSD affects brain structure and function.

  15. Technology Changes and VA Mental Health Computer Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gottfredson, Douglas; Finkelstein, Allan; Christensen, Phillip; Weaver, Richard; Sells, Jeffery; Miller, David; Anderson, Ronald

    1993-01-01

    Since 1972, the Department of Veterans Affairs has had mental health computer applications for clinicians, managers, and researchers, operating on main frame and mini computers. The advent of personal computers has provided the opportunity to further enhance mental health automation. With Congressional support, VA's Mental Health and Behavioral Sciences Service placed micro computers in 168 VA Medical Centers and developed additional mental health applications. Using wide area networking procedures, a National Mental Health Database System (NMHDS) was established. In addition, a Computer-assisted Assessment, Psychotherapy, Education, and Research system (CAPER), a Treatment Planner, a Suicide and Assaultive Behavior Monitoring system, and a national registry of VA mental health treatment resources were developed. Each of these computer applications is demonstrated and discussed.

  16. Fis Is Essential for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Virulence and Protects against Reactive Oxygen Species Produced by Phagocytic Cells during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Green, Erin R.; Clark, Stacie; Crimmins, Gregory T.; Mack, Matthias; Kumamoto, Carol A.; Mecsas, Joan

    2016-01-01

    All three pathogenic Yersinia species share a conserved virulence plasmid that encodes a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS) and its associated effector proteins. During mammalian infection, these effectors are injected into innate immune cells, where they block many bactericidal functions, including the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, Y. pseudotuberculosis (Yptb) lacking the T3SS retains the ability to colonize host organs, demonstrating that chromosome-encoded factors are sufficient for growth within mammalian tissue sites. Previously we uncovered more than 30 chromosomal factors that contribute to growth of T3SS-deficient Yptb in livers. Here, a deep sequencing-based approach was used to validate and characterize the phenotype of 18 of these genes during infection by both WT and plasmid-deficient Yptb. Additionally, the fitness of these mutants was evaluated in immunocompromised mice to determine whether any genes contributed to defense against phagocytic cell restriction. Mutants containing deletions of the dusB-fis operon, which encodes the nucleoid associated protein Fis, were markedly attenuated in immunocompetent mice, but were restored for growth in mice lacking neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes, two of the major cell types responsible for restricting Yersinia infection. We determined that Fis was dispensable for secretion of T3SS effectors, but was essential for resisting ROS and regulated the transcription of several ROS-responsive genes. Strikingly, this protection was critical for virulence, as growth of ΔdusB-fis was restored in mice unable to produce ROS. These data support a model in which ROS generated by neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes that have not been translocated with T3SS effectors enter bacterial cells during infection, where their bactericidal effects are resisted in a Fis-dependent manner. This is the first report of the requirement for Fis during Yersinia infection and also highlights a novel mechanism by

  17. VA Telemedicine: An Analysis of Cost and Time Savings.

    PubMed

    Russo, Jack E; McCool, Ryan R; Davies, Louise

    2016-03-01

    The Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system provides beneficiary travel reimbursement ("travel pay") to qualifying patients for traveling to appointments. Travel pay is a large expense for the VA and hence the U.S. Government, projected to cost nearly $1 billion in 2015. Telemedicine in the VA system has the potential to save money by reducing patient travel and thus the amount of travel pay disbursed. In this study, we quantify this savings and also report trends in VA telemedicine volumes over time. All telemedicine visits based at the VA Hospital in White River Junction, VT between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed (5,695 visits). Travel distance and time saved as a result of telemedicine were calculated. Clinical volume in the mental health department, which has had the longest participation in telemedicine, was analyzed. Telemedicine resulted in an average travel savings of 145 miles and 142 min per visit. This led to an average travel payment savings of $18,555 per year. Telemedicine volume grew significantly over the study period such that by the final year the travel pay savings had increased to $63,804, or about 3.5% of the total travel pay disbursement for that year. The number of mental health telemedicine visits rose over the study period but remained small relative to the number of face-to-face visits. A higher proportion of telemedicine visits involved new patients. Telemedicine at the VA saves travel distance and time, although the reduction in travel payments remains modest at current telemedicine volumes.

  18. Structural comparison of O-antigen gene clusters of Legionella pneumophila and its application of a serogroup-specific multiplex PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Cao, Boyang; Tian, Zhenyang; Wang, Suwei; Zhu, Zhiyan; Sun, Yamin; Feng, Lu; Wang, Lei

    2015-12-01

    The Legionella pneumophila serogroups O1, O4, O6, O7, O10 and O13 are pathogenic strains associated with pneumonia. The surface O-antigen gene clusters of L. pneumophila serogroups O4, O6, O7, O10 and O13 were sequenced and analyzed, with the function annotated on the basis of homology to that of the genes of L. pneumophila serogroup O1 (L. pneumophila subsp. pneumophila str. Philadelphia 1). The gene locus of the six L. pneumophila serogroups contains genes of yvfE, neuABCD, pseA-like for nucleotide sugar biosynthesis, wecA for sugar transfer, and wzm as well as wzt for O-antigen processing. The detection of O-antigen genes allows the fine differentiation at species and serogroup level without the neccessity of nucleotide sequencing. The O-antigen-processing genes wzm and wzt, which were found to be distinctive for different for different serogroups, have been used as the target genes for the detection and identification of L. pneumophila strains of different O serogroups. In this report, a multiplex PCR assay based on wzm or wzt that diferentiates all the six serogroups by amplicon size was developed with the newly designed specific primer pairs for O1 and O7, and the specific primer pairs for O4, O6, O10, and O13 reported previously. The array was validated by analysis of 34 strains including 15 L. pneumophila O-standard reference strains, eight reference strains of other Legionella non-pneumophila species, six other bacterial species, and five L. pneumophila environmental isolates. The detection sensitivity was one ng genomic DNA. The accurate and sensitive assay is suitable for the identification and detection of strains of these serogroups in environmental and clinical samples.

  19. Approach to the Discovery, Development, and Evaluation of a Novel Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup B Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Green, Luke R; Eiden, Joseph; Hao, Li; Jones, Tom; Perez, John; McNeil, Lisa K; Jansen, Kathrin U; Anderson, Annaliesa S

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe a research and development pathway to identify and demonstrate the efficacy of a Neisseria meningitidis non-capsular vaccine, the recently licensed N. meningitidis serogroup B (MnB) vaccine, Trumenba(®). While other approaches have been followed in the identification of a MnB vaccine (Pizza et al. Science 287:1816-1820, 2000), the methods described here reflect the distinctive approach and experiences in discovering and developing Trumenba(®). In contrast to the development and licensure of polysaccharide-conjugate vaccines against meningococcal serotypes A, C, W, and Y, the development of a vaccine to produce broadly protective antibodies against meningococcal serogroup B has proved difficult, due to the antigenic mimicry of the serogroup B polysaccharide capsule, which is composed of polysialic acid structures similar to those expressed on human neuronal cells. Early development efforts for these vaccines failed because the MnB polysaccharide structures resemble autoantigens and thus were poorly immunogenic. The development of an MnB vaccine has therefore focused on non-polysaccharide approaches. It was critical to identify MnB cell surface-exposed antigens capable of inducing a protective response against diverse, circulating strains of invasive MnB to ensure global coverage. Once candidate antigens were identified, it was important to characterize antigenic variation and expression levels, and subsequently to assure that antigens were expressed broadly among diverse clinical isolates. Prior to the initiation of clinical trials in humans, candidate vaccine antigens were tested in functional immunogenicity assays and yielded responses that were correlated with protection from meningococcal disease. These functional immunogenicity assays (serum bactericidal assays using human complement, hSBAs) measure the titer of complement-dependent bactericidal antibodies in serum from immunized test animals using diverse clinical MnB isolates as

  20. The Impact of Private Insurance Coverage on Veterans' Use of VA Care: Insurance and Selection Effects

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yujing; Hendricks, Ann; Wang, Fenghua; Gardner, John; Kazis, Lewis E

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine private insurance coverage and its impact on use of Veterans Health Administration (VA) care among VA enrollees without Medicare coverage. Data Sources The 1999 National Health Survey of Veteran Enrollees merged with VA administrative data, with other information drawn from American Hospital Association data and the Area Resource File. Study Design We modeled VA enrollees' decision of having private insurance coverage and its impact on use of VA care controlling for sociodemographic information, patients' health status, VA priority status and access to VA and non-VA alternatives. We estimated the true impact of insurance on the use of VA care by teasing out potential selection bias. Bias came from two sources: a security selection effect (sicker enrollees purchase private insurance for extra security and use more VA and non-VA care) and a preference selection effect (VA enrollees who prefer non-VA care may purchase private insurance and use less VA care). Principal Findings VA enrollees with private insurance coverage were less likely to use VA care. Security selection dominated preference selection and naïve models that did not control for selection effects consistently underestimated the insurance effect. Conclusions Our results indicate that prior research, which has not controlled for insurance selection effects, may have underestimated the potential impact of any private insurance policy change, which may in turn affect VA enrollees' private insurance coverage and consequently their use of VA care. From the decline in private insurance coverage from 1999 to 2002, we projected an increase of 29,400 patients and 158 million dollars for VA health care services. PMID:18211529

  1. What the VA can teach us about geriatric care.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Edward R; West, Melissa; Hartwig, Kristopher N; Meyer, Bruce C

    2013-01-01

    The innovation now being demanded by Medicare is creating new opportunities for health care organizations to redesign how they deliver care for elderly people. For many years, the VA Health System has experimented with ways to deliver care more effectively and efficiently. Hospital-based postacute and palliative care and home-based primary care are two examples of successful approaches that non-VA providers should be looking at as they move away from fee-for-service reimbursement and invent new care-delivery models.

  2. A case of community-acquired pneumonia due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 9 in which initial treatment with single-dose oral azithromycin appeared useful.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akihiro; Ishida, Tadashi; Tachibana, Hiromasa; Ito, Yuhei; Takaiwa, Takuya; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Toru; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Amemura-Maekawa, Junko

    2017-09-11

    Legionella species are important causative pathogens for severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Most cases of Legionella pneumonia are due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, and CAP due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 9 is rare. A fourth case of CAP due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 9 is reported, and initial treatment using single-dose oral azithromycin appeared useful. Azithromycin injection or fluoroquinolone injection is usually recommended for the treatment of Legionella pneumonia, and no previous reports have shown the effectiveness of single-dose oral azithromycin. This case report is therefore valuable from the perspective of possible treatment for mild to moderate Legionella pneumonia using single-dose oral azithromycin.

  3. Three-dimensional structures of unligated uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis at 1.4 Å resolution and its complex with an antibacterial drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaev, V. V.; Lashkov, A. A.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Dontsova, M. V.; Mironov, A. S.; Betzel, C.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Uridine phosphorylases play an essential role in the cellular metabolism of some antibacterial agents. Acute infectious diseases (bubonic plague, yersiniosis, pseudotuberculosis, etc., caused by bacteria of the genus Yersinia) are treated using both sulfanilamide medicines and antibiotics, including trimethoprim. The action of an antibiotic on a bacterial cell is determined primarily by the character of its interactions with cellular components, including those which are not targets (for example, with pyrimidine phosphorylases). This type of interaction should be taken into account in designing drugs. The three-dimensional structure of uridine phosphorylase from the bacterium Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ( YptUPh) with the free active site was determined for the first time by X-ray crystallography and refined at 1.40 Å resolution (DPI = 0.062 Å; ID PDB: 4OF4). The structure of the complex of YptUPh with the bacteriostatic drug trimethoprim was studied by molecular docking and molecular dynamics methods. The trimethoprim molecule was shown to be buffered by the enzyme YptUPh, resulting in a decrease in the efficiency of the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria of the genus Yersinia with trimethoprim.

  4. Role of VAMP3 and VAMP7 in the commitment of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis to LC3-associated pathways involving single- or double-membrane vacuoles

    PubMed Central

    Ligeon, Laure-Anne; Moreau, Kevin; Barois, Nicolas; Bongiovanni, Antonino; Lacorre, Delphine-Armelle; Werkmeister, Elisabeth; Proux-Gillardeaux, Véronique; Galli, Thierry; Lafont, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis can replicate inside macrophages by hijacking autophagy and blocking autophagosome acidification. In bone marrow-derived macrophages, the bacteria are mainly observed inside double-membrane vacuoles positive for LC3, a hallmark of autophagy. Here, we address the question of the membrane traffic during internalization of Yersinia investigating the role of vesicle- associated membrane proteins (VAMPs). First, we show that as in epithelial cells, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis replicates mainly in nonacidic LC3-positive vacuoles. Second, in these cells, we unexpectedly found that VAMP3 localizes preferentially to Yersinia-containing vacuoles (YCVs) with single membranes using correlative light-electron microscopy. Third, we reveal the precise kinetics of VAMP3 and VAMP7 association with YCVs positive for LC3. Fourth, we show that VAMP7 knockdown alters LC3′s association with single-and multimembrane-YCVs. Finally, in uninfected epithelial cells stimulated for autophagy, VAMP3 overexpression and knockdown led respectively to a lower and higher number of double-membrane, LC3-positive vesicles. Hence, our results highlight the role that VAMPs play in selection of the pathways leading to generation of ultrastructurally different LC3 compartments and pave the way for determining the full set of docking and fusion proteins involved in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis’ intravesicular life cycle. PMID:25046114

  5. Distribution of PLD and FagA, B, C and D genes in Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolates from sheep and goats with caseus lymphadenitis

    PubMed Central

    Aquino de Sá, Maria da Conceição; Gouveia, Gisele Veneroni; Krewer, Carina da Costa; Veschi, Josir Laine Aparecida; de Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luiza; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi

    2013-01-01

    Caseous lymphadenits (CL) is a chronic and subclinical disease that affects goats and sheep and, consequently, causes economic losses, especially to small producers. The purpose of this study, through use of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), was to verify the presence of virulence genes of phospholipase D (PLD), integral membrane protein (FagA), iron enterobactin transporter (FagB), ATP binding cytoplasmic membrane protein (FagC) and iron siderophore binding protein (FagD) in 168 isolates of C. pseudotuberculosis obtained from cases of caseous lymphadenitis in goats and sheep. FagA, FagB and PLD genes were detected in all 145 strains isolated from abscesses in superficial lymph nodes and in 23 strains isolated from viscera. The FagC gene was positive in 167 (99.40%) isolates. The FagD gene was detected in 160 (95.23%) isolates. All virulence factors analyzed were found more frequently among isolates collected in the viscera of animals with CL, indicating a multifactorial nature, as well as variations, in the invasive potential of C. pseudotuberculosis strains. PMID:23885209

  6. Isolation of Jamestown Canyon and snowshoe hare viruses (California serogroup) from Aedes mosquitoes in western Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Walker, E D; Grayson, M A; Edman, J D

    1993-06-01

    Three isolates of Jamestown Canyon virus and one isolate of snowshoe hare virus (California serogroup) were obtained from adult Aedes females collected in western Massachusetts in 1982. Jamestown Canyon virus was isolated from Aedes abserratus/punctor once, and from Aedes intrudens twice. Snowshoe hare virus was isolated from Aedes stimulans group mosquitoes. La Crosse encephalitis (LAC) virus was not isolated from 1,552 adult Aedes triseriatus, nor from 22,557 Aedes triseriatus larvae. However, sera from 1/178 eastern chipmunks, 5/31 gray squirrels, and 8/144 white-tailed deer had neutralizing antibody to LAC virus. No sentinel rabbits placed at sites yielding virus isolates seroconverted to CAL viruses in either year.

  7. Proteus mirabilis RMS 203 as a new representative of the O13 Proteus serogroup.

    PubMed

    Palusiak, Agata; Siwińska, Małgorzata; Zabłotni, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    The unique feature of some Proteus O-polysaccharides is occurrence of an amide of galacturonic acid with N(ε)-[(S/R)-1-Carboxyethyl]-L-lysine, GalA6(2S,8S/R-AlaLys). The results of the serological studies presented here, with reference to known O-antigens structures suggest that GalA6(2S,8S/R-AlaLys) or 2S,8R-AlaLys contribute to cross-reactions of O13 Proteus antisera, and Proteeae LPSs. It was also revealed that the Proteus mirabilis RMS 203 strain can be classified into the O13 serogroup, represented so far by two strains: Proteus mirabilis 26/57 and Proteus vulgaris 8344. The O13 LPS is a serologically important antigen with a fragment common to LPSs of different species in the Proteeae tribe.

  8. Genomic Analysis of a New Serovar of Leptospira weilii Serogroup Manhao

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Huajun; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yuezhu; Zhang, Jinlong; Li, Zhe; Cui, Shenghui; Xin, Xiaofang; Ye, Qiang; Chang, Yung-Fu; Wang, Junzhi

    2017-01-01

    Leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp., is recognized as an important emerging zoonotic disease throughout the world. In this study, multiple approaches were used to characterize the recently discovered serovar Heyan strain L231. This strain can infect guinea pigs and belonged to the pathogenic species L. weilii. Genome sequencing analysis revealed the draft genome of 4.2 M bp with a G+C content of 40.67% for strain L231, and a total of 4,794 ORFs were identified. The strain L231 genome was found to have a larger LPS biosynthesis locus than that of strains L. interrogans serovar Lai and L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjobovis. Phylogenomic reconstructions showed that the evolutionary position of L. weilii serovar Heyan was different from that of other serovars from serogroup Manhao. These findings may lead us to a better understanding of Leptospira pathogenesis and evolution. PMID:28210253

  9. Purification of capsular polysaccharide from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pato, Tânia Pinheiro; Barbosa, Antonio de Pádua R; da Silva Junior, José Godinho

    2006-03-07

    Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C capsular polysaccharide (MenCPS) is an important antigen against meningococcal infection. This paper describes a new purification methodology employing liquid chromatography that resulted in a polysaccharide showing the characteristics recommended by the World Health Organization for vaccine purposes. In this method, steps of the traditional procedure that yield low recovery and use toxic materials were modified. The present process consists in the following steps: (1) continuous flow centrifugation of the culture for removal of the cells; (2) supernatant concentration by tangential filtration (100 kDa cutoff); (3) addition of 0.5% DOC, heating to 55 degrees C during 30 min and tangential filtration (100 kDa cutoff); (4) anion exchange chromatography (Source 15Q) and (5) size exclusion chromatography (Sepharose CL-4B). The polysaccharide C fraction obtained in that way was dialyzed and freeze-dried. The structural identity of the polysaccharide was demonstrated by (1)H-NMR spectrometry.

  10. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 subgrouping by monoclonal antibodies--an epidemiological tool.

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, I. D.; Tobin, J. O.; Dennis, P. J.; Brown, W.; Newnham, R.; Kurtz, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    A panel of 10 monoclonal antibodies was used to subgroup 326 strains of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. All but two strains could be classified into three major subgroups named after their representative strains Pontiac 1, Olda and Bellingham 1. Of the 50 isolates from patients, 44 representing 32 separate incidents were of the Pontiac subgroup. This subgroup was also found in 16 of 18 buildings epidemiologically associated with Legionnaires' Disease. In contrast, strains of the Olda subgroup predominated in buildings where no infections had occurred. In 9 of the 11 incidents where isolates were available from at least one patient as well as from the suspected environmental source, the monoclonal antibody reaction patterns of strains from patients were identical to those of one or more of their environmental counterparts. PMID:3905954

  11. Safety review: two outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines against systemic Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B disease.

    PubMed

    Nøkleby, H; Aavitsland, P; O'Hallahan, J; Feiring, B; Tilman, S; Oster, P

    2007-04-20

    MenBvac is an OMV vaccine against systemic serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis disease. MenBvac was developed for control of a B:15:P1.7,16 subtype epidemic in Norway and administered to 180,000 subjects in 28 clinical studies. MeNZB, a daughter vaccine of MenBvac, was developed for a clonal B:4:P1.7b,4 epidemic in New Zealand and administered to 1 million people <20 years. The vaccines were similar regarding reactogenicity profile. Serious adverse events (SAEs) in general and particularly neurologic SAEs were very rare. Despite frequently reported local reactions and fever in those under 5 years, these OMV-based vaccines containing 25 microg antigen can be considered safe for use in all age groups.

  12. Ecological behaviour of three serogroups of Legionella pneumophila within a model plumbing system.

    PubMed

    Messi, P; Anacarso, I; Bargellini, A; Bondi, M; Marchesi, I; de Niederhäusern, S; Borella, P

    2011-02-01

    Three Legionella pneumophila strains isolated from water samples and belonging to serogroups (sgs) 1, 6 and 9 were analysed for their capacity to colonise an experimental model simulating a domestic hot water distribution system. Ecological factors that could influence the persistence of the sgs such as intracellular life within protozoan hosts and bacterial interference by the production of antagonistic compounds were also studied. Viable counts of L. pneumophila increased both in the planktonic and in the sessile phases. Sg 6 showed a marked prevalence during the whole experiment and exhibited the highest host infection efficiency. Sg 1 was significantly less represented, but showed the highest capacity to reproduce in the protozoan hosts. Sg 9 was poorly represented and less adapted to intracellular life. Among the 14 bacteria constantly isolated in the system, five (35.7%) produced antagonistic substances against Legionella, with differences according to the bacterial strain and L. pneumophila sgs.

  13. Genomic Characterization of a Large Outbreak of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 Strains in Quebec City, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Mendis, Nilmini; Cantin, Philippe; Marchand, Geneviève; Charest, Hugues; Raymond, Frédéric; Huot, Caroline; Goupil-Sormany, Isabelle; Desbiens, François; Faucher, Sébastien P.; Corbeil, Jacques; Tremblay, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    During the summer of 2012, a major Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 outbreak occurred in Quebec City, Canada, which caused 182 declared cases of Legionnaire's disease and included 13 fatalities. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from 23 patients as well as from 32 cooling towers located in the vicinity of the outbreak were recovered for analysis. In addition, 6 isolates from the 1996 Quebec City outbreak and 4 isolates from patients unrelated to both outbreaks were added to allow comparison. We characterized the isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, sequence-based typing, and whole genome sequencing. The comparison of patients-isolated strains to cooling tower isolates allowed the identification of the tower that was the source of the outbreak. Legionella pneumophila strain Quebec 2012 was identified as a ST-62 by sequence-based typing methodology. Two new Legionellaceae plasmids were found only in the epidemic strain. The LVH type IV secretion system was found in the 2012 outbreak isolates but not in the ones from the 1996 outbreak and only in half of the contemporary human isolates. The epidemic strains replicated more efficiently and were more cytotoxic to human macrophages than the environmental strains tested. At least four Icm/Dot effectors in the epidemic strains were absent in the environmental strains suggesting that some effectors could impact the intracellular replication in human macrophages. Sequence-based typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis combined with whole genome sequencing allowed the identification and the analysis of the causative strain including its likely environmental source. PMID:25105285

  14. Seroprevalence of bactericidal antibodies against serogroup B and C Meningococci in a University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Gioia, C A C; Lemos, A P S; Gorla, M C O; Mendoza-Sassi, R; Figueredo, B S; Ballester, T; Von Groll, A; Wedig, B; Ethur, N V; Bragança, L; Silva, P E A; Milagres, L G

    2017-04-20

    Meningococcus serogroup B (MenB), clonal complex 32 (cc 32), was the Brazilian epidemic strain of meningococcal disease (MD) in the 1990's. Currently, meningococcus serogroup C (MenC), cc 103, is responsible for most of the cases of the disease in Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of bactericidal antibody (SBA) against representative epidemic strains of MenC, (N753/00 strain, C:23:P1.22,14-6, cc103) and MenB, (Cu385/83 strain, B:4,7:P1.15,19, cc32) in students and employees of a university hospital in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil). A second MenC strain (N79/96, C:2b:P1.5-2,10, cc 8) was used as a prototype strain of Rio de Janeiro's outbreak that occurred in the 1990's. Our previous study showed a 9% rate of asymptomatic carriers in these same individuals. A second goal was to compare the SBA prevalence in meningococcal carriers and non-carriers. Fifty-nine percent of the studied population showed protective levels of SBA titers (log2≥2) against at least one of the three strains. About 40% of the individuals had protective levels of SBA against N753/00 and Cu385/83 strains. Nonetheless, only 22% of the individuals showed protective levels against N79/96 strain. Significantly higher antibody levels were seen in carriers compared to non-carriers (P≤0.009). This study showed that, similar to other States in Brazil, a MenC (23:P1.22,14-6, cc103) strain with epidemic potential is circulating in this hospital. Close control by the Epidemiological Surveillance Agency of RS of the number of cases of MD caused by MenC strains in the State is recommended to prevent a new disease outbreak.

  15. Investigations on California serogroup orthobunyaviruses in the Tyrols: first description of Tahyna virus in the Alps.

    PubMed

    Sonnleitner, Sissy Therese; Lundström, Jan; Baumgartner, Raphaela; Simeoni, Josef; Schennach, Harald; Zelger, Roland; Prader, Angelika; Schmutzhard, Erich; Nowotny, Norbert; Walder, Gernot

    2014-04-01

    Seroprevalence rates for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to Tahyna virus (TAHV) and Inkoo virus (INKV) were determined in sera of 1630 blood donors from North, East, and South Tyrol by immunofluorescence assays (IFAs) and confirmatory serum neutralization tests (SNTs). Ten sera (0.6%) reacted positive by TAHV IFA, five of which (0.3%) were confirmed by SNT. Eleven sera (0.7%) reacted positive in the INKV IFA; only one thereof (0.06%) was verified by subsequent SNT. To identify the source of infections, mosquitoes were trapped at 18 sampling sites in the study area, resulting in the collection of 2571 adult mosquitoes: 1254 individuals of the genus Aedes (48.8% of total) including A. albopictus, 640 Culex (24.9%), 303 Coquillettidia (11.8%), 252 Ochlerotatus (9.8%), 49 Anopheles (1.9%), and 73 mosquitoes of the genus Culiseta (2.8%). The mosquitoes were pooled according to species, trapping site, and time, and were tested by RT-PCR for the presence of California serogroup orthobunyavirus nucleic acids. PCR amplification products were obtained in five of 195 pools (2.6%), and all were identified as TAHVs by subsequent sequencing. This represents the first evidence of TAHV circulation and human exposure in the Tyrols and in the alpine region in general. Interestingly, all TAHV sequences were identified in Culex pipiens/torrentium mosquitoes. Whether other California serogroup orthobunyaviruses such as INKV are also circulating in this area is subject of further investigations on larger numbers of mosquitoes.

  16. Meningococcal serogroup B vaccine in Italy: state-of-art, organizational aspects and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, C; Chiesa, V; Odone, A

    2015-08-31

    Neisseria meningitidis causes severe invasive meningococcal diseases (IMDs) in humans including meningitis and septicemia, responsible for serious clinical conditions and leading to life-long disabilities and death. Serogroup B dominates IMDs burden in Italy, accounting for over 60% of total cases. On January 2013 the European Medicine Agency (EMA) licensed the first serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine in Europe. A number of European countries and Regions have introduced the new MenB vaccine in their immunization schedule, including Italy. In this paper we present the state of art, related critical issues and future perspectives of MenB vaccine introduction in Italy, in the context of the most recent available epidemiological data. In particular, we systematically assess the ongoing processes in the 8 Italian regions and one autonomous province that have already introduced MenB vaccine. With the new 2014-2018 National Vaccine Prevention Plan including active MenB vaccine offer about to be adopted, it is of fundamental importance to gather further evidence on MenB vaccine clinical effectiveness, duration of protection and cost-effectiveness. Italian regions are called to organize and manage MenB immunization programs. Careful consideration will need to be devoted on timing, doses, and co-administration with other vaccines but also to economic assessments and strengthened communication to the general public. Our data will help to plan, implement and evaluate MenB immunization programmes in other Italian and international settings. © Copyright by Pacini Editore SpA, Pisa, Italy.

  17. Impaired antibody response to conjugated meningococcal serogroup C vaccine in asplenic patients.

    PubMed

    Meerveld-Eggink, A; de Weerdt, O; de Voer, R M; Berbers, G A M; van Velzen-Blad, H; Vlaminckx, B J; Biesma, D H; Rijkers, G T

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the quantity and quality of antibodies against the meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) conjugated vaccine in asplenic patients. In 116 asplenic patients, antibody concentrations (IgG) were measured against meningococcal serogroup C before and after immunisation. Of MenC-specific IgG, both antibody avidity and subclasses of IgG1 and IgG2 were determined. The mean MenC IgG concentration rose from 0.16 μg/mL prior to vaccination to 3.69 μg/mL 3 weeks post-vaccination, with 67% of patients reaching the threshold of ≥ 2.0 μg/mL. The mean IgG concentration at 35 weeks post-vaccination was 3.10 μg/mL. IgG2 concentrations increased more than IgG1. Marginal avidity maturation was seen. Hypo-responders to the first MenC vaccine (IgG anti-MenC ≤ 2.0 μg/mL) were offered a booster dose. After revaccination, 59% reached the chosen IgG threshold. The IgG concentration rose from 0.29 to 1.12 μg/mL, with an increase in the IgG1/IgG2 ratio. Avidity indices remained below 33%. In asplenic patients, the quantity and quality of antibodies produced after one dose of conjugated MenC vaccination is lower than that observed in previous studies in healthy adults. Booster vaccination does, indeed, lead to a rise in IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs), but does not lead to higher avidity of antibodies.

  18. Rise in invasive serogroup W meningococcal disease in Australia 2013-2015.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nicolee V; Ong, Katherine S; Howden, Benjamin P; Lahra, Monica M; Lambert, Stephen B; Beard, Frank H; Dowse, Gary K; Saul, Nathan

    2016-12-24

    Since 2013, there has been an increase in the number of notified cases of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) due to serogroup W (MenW) in Australia. In response to this observed increase, the Communicable Diseases Network Australia convened a working group in 2015 to collate and analyse the epidemiology of MenW disease nationally. Enhanced surveillance data collected by jurisdictions were collated and analysed, and whole genome sequencing (WGS) of MenW isolates assessed the genomic relatedness of strains between 2012 and 2015. This report describes that epidemiology. Since 2013, the incidence and proportion of MenW has increased in Australia, rising from an average of 2% of all IMD cases annually (range 0% to 5%) between 1991 and 2012; to 8% (12/149) of cases in 2013, 10% (17/169) in 2014, and 19% (34/182) in 2015. Victoria has been the main affected state, with 50% (17/34) of national cases in 2015. MenW has affected older populations, with a median age between 2003 and 2015 being 44 years. During this period, case fatality was 10.7% (17/159), 2.3 times higher than for all IMD serogroups combined (4.7%, 173/3720). There were 7 deaths due to MenW in 2015 (CFR 21%). WGS has found the majority of Australian isolates cluster within a group of W:P1.5,2:F1-1:ST11 isolates from the United Kingdom and South America, regions where rapid spread and endemic transmission has occurred since 2009. The recent increase in incidence of MenW in Australia is evolving and is being closely monitored. Lessons learned from the international experience will be important in informing the public health response.

  19. Serogrouping and seroepidemiology of North European hantaviruses using a novel broadly targeted synthetic nucleoprotein antigen array

    PubMed Central

    Rönnberg, Bengt; Vapalahti, Olli; Goeijenbier, Marco; Reusken, Chantal; Gustafsson, Åke; Blomberg, Jonas; Lundkvist, Åke

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Hantaviruses are globally distributed zoonotic pathogens. Great diversity and high antigenic cross-reactivity makes diagnosis by traditional methods cumbersome. Materials and methods: ‘Megapeptides’, 119–120-mers from the amino terminus of the nucleoprotein of 16 hantaviruses, representing the four major branches of the hantavirus phylogenetic tree, were utilized in a novel IgG-based hantavirus suspension multiplex immunoassay (HSMIA) for detection of past hantavirus infections in 155 North European human samples. We compared HSMIA with established EIAs and focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT). Results and discussion: The Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) component in the HSMIA gave concordant results with a PUUV IgG EIA in 142 sera from Northern Sweden (of which 31 were EIA positive, 7 borderline and 104 EIA negative, sensitivity 30/31 = 97%, specificity 104/ 104 = 100%, 134/135 = 99% concordance), with another immunoassay in 40 PUUV IgG positive sera from Finland (36/40 = 90% sensitivity), and was concordant in 8 of 11 cases with PUUV and DOBV neutralization titers, respectively. Two major IgG reactivity patterns were found: (i) a PUUV-specific pattern covering phylogroup IV and its serogroups B and C; and (ii) a Dobrava virus (DOBV)-specific pattern, covering the serogroup A portion of phylogroup III. In addition, we found several minor patterns with reactivity to only one or two megapeptides indicating additional hantaviruses infecting humans in the Swedish and Finnish populations. Conclusion: The broadly reactive and rational HSMIA yielded results highly correlated with the established PUUV EIAs and the NT results. It is a sensitive and specific assay, which will be suited for efficient serosurveillance of hantaviruses in humans. Its use in animals should be further investigated. PMID:28815001

  20. Serologic evidence of Jamestown Canyon and Keystone virus infection in vertebrates of the DelMarVa Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Watts, D M; LeDuc, J W; Bailey, C L; Dalrymple, J M; Gargan, T P

    1982-11-01

    Serological data accumulated during the past decade indicated that a variety of feral and domestic animals of the Delaware-Maryland-Virginia (DelMarVa) Peninsula were infected with Jamestown Canyon (JC) and/or Keystone (KEY) viruses (Bunyaviridae, California serogroup). Neutralizing (N) antibody to JC virus was most prevalent in white-tailed deer, sika deer, cottontail rabbits and horses. KEY virus N antibody was detected most frequently in gray squirrels and domestic goats. N antibody indicative of past infection by one or both viruses also was found in raccoons, horses and humans. JC and/or KEY virus N antibodies were not demonstrable in sera of several other species of small mammals and reptiles. Investigations were extended to evaluate the role of domestic goats as an amplifying host of JC and KEY viruses and to assess their potential as sentinels of virus transmission. Goats maintained in the Pocomoke Cypress Swamp during the summer season of 1978, acquired N antibodies to JC and KEY viruses. Following experimental inoculation with either JC or KEY virus, all goats developed N antibody despite the absence of a demonstrable viremia in most animals. Goats proved to be effective as sentinels for monitoring the transmission of JC and KEY viruses; however, the exceptionally low titers or absence of viremia following inoculation with these viruses would seem to preclude a potential virus-amplifying role for this species. Although findings implicated primarily gray squirrels and white-tailed deer as possible amplifying hosts of KEY and JC virus, respectively, further investigations will be required to clarify their role, particularly since both viruses may be maintained entirely by transovarial transmission.

  1. 48 CFR 801.695 - VA's Appointment of HCAs Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false VA's Appointment of HCAs Program. 801.695 Section 801.695 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development,...

  2. 12 CFR 217.205 - VaR-based measure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... portfolio of correlation trading positions that is modeled under § 217.209. A Board-regulated institution... differences in volatility and less than perfect correlation of rates along the yield curve. (2) The VaR-based measure may incorporate empirical correlations within and across risk categories, provided the Board...

  3. 12 CFR 3.205 - VaR-based measure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... portfolio of correlation trading positions that is modeled under § 3.209. A national bank or Federal savings... less than six—to capture differences in volatility and less than perfect correlation of rates along the yield curve. (2) The VaR-based measure may incorporate empirical correlations within and across risk...

  4. 12 CFR 324.205 - VaR-based measure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of correlation trading positions that is modeled under § 324.209. An FDIC-supervised institution may... differences in volatility and less than perfect correlation of rates along the yield curve. (2) The VaR-based measure may incorporate empirical correlations within and across risk categories, provided the FDIC...

  5. VA contracts give unfair advantage to Picker--study.

    PubMed

    Wagner, M

    1991-08-19

    Service contracts for computed tomography scanners in Dept. of Veterans Affairs hospitals have given an unfair advantage to Picker International, according to a study by the VA's inspector general's office. The report is the latest round in a controversy that has pitted Picker against at least two independent service organizations and enmeshed it in a $1.65 billion lawsuit.

  6. 76 FR 72838 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Luray, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations within the National Airspace System. This action also..., 2011, and effective September 15, 2011, which is incorporated by reference in 14 CFR 71.1. The Class E... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Luray, VA AGENCY:...

  7. Military and VA general dentistry training: a national resource.

    PubMed

    Atchison, Kathryn A; Bachand, William; Buchanan, C Richard; Lefever, Karen H; Lin, Sylvia; Engelhardt, Rita

    2002-06-01

    In 1999, HRSA contracted with the UCLA School of Dentistry to evaluate the postgraduate general dentistry (PDG) training programs. The purpose of this article is to compare the program characteristics of the PGD training programs sponsored by the Armed Services (military) and VA. Surveys mailed to sixty-six VA and forty-two military program directors in fall 2000 sought information regarding the infrastructure of the program, the program emphasis, resident preparation prior to entering the program, and a description of patients served and types of services provided. Of the eighty-one returned surveys (75 percent response rate), thirty were received from military program directors and fifty-one were received from VA program directors. AEGDs reported treating a higher proportion of children patients and GPRs more medically intensive, disadvantaged and HIV/AIDS patients. Over half of the directors reported increases in curriculum emphasis in implantology. The program directors reported a high level of inadequate preparation among incoming dental residents. Having a higher ratio of residents to total number of faculty predicted inadequate preparation (p=.022) although the model was weak. Although HRSA doesn't financially support federally sponsored programs, their goal of improved dental training to care for medically compromised individuals is facilitated through these programs, thus making military and VA general dentistry programs a national resource.

  8. Military and VA General Dentistry Training: A National Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atchison, Kathryn A.; Bachand, William; Buchanan, C. Richard; Lefever, Karen H.; Lin, Sylvia; Engelhardt, Rita

    2002-01-01

    Compared the program characteristics of the postgraduate general dentistry (PGD) training programs sponsored by the military and the Veterans Health Administration (VA). Gathered information on program infrastructure and emphasis, resident preparation prior to entering the program, and patients served and types of services provided. Programs…

  9. 78 FR 2708 - Virginia Disaster Number VA-00052

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster Number VA-00052 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement...

  10. Geropsychology Training in a VA Nursing Home Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karel, Michele J.; Moye, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing need for professional psychology training in nursing home settings, and nursing homes provide a rich environment for teaching geropsychology competencies. We describe the nursing home training component of our Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Predoctoral Internship and Geropsychology Postdoctoral Fellowship programs. Our…

  11. Military and VA General Dentistry Training: A National Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atchison, Kathryn A.; Bachand, William; Buchanan, C. Richard; Lefever, Karen H.; Lin, Sylvia; Engelhardt, Rita

    2002-01-01

    Compared the program characteristics of the postgraduate general dentistry (PGD) training programs sponsored by the military and the Veterans Health Administration (VA). Gathered information on program infrastructure and emphasis, resident preparation prior to entering the program, and patients served and types of services provided. Programs…

  12. 48 CFR 801.695 - VA's Appointment of HCAs Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false VA's Appointment of HCAs Program. 801.695 Section 801.695 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting...

  13. 48 CFR 801.695 - VA's Appointment of HCAs Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false VA's Appointment of HCAs Program. 801.695 Section 801.695 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting...

  14. 48 CFR 801.695 - VA's Appointment of HCAs Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false VA's Appointment of HCAs Program. 801.695 Section 801.695 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting...

  15. VA Library Service--Today's look at Tomorrow's Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veterans Administration, Washington, DC.

    The Conference Poceedings are divided into three broad topics: systems planning, audiovisuals in biomedical communication, and automation and networking. Speakers from within the Veterans Administration (VA), from the National Medical Audiovisual Center, and the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications, National Library of…

  16. 76 FR 60713 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bumpass, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Airspace at Bumpass, VA, to accommodate the new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures serving Lake Anna... for Lake Anna Airport. This action is necessary for the safety and management of IFR operations at the... within the scope of that authority as it establishes controlled airspace at Lake Anna Airport, Bumpass...

  17. 75 FR 2895 - Virginia Disaster Number VA-00027

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster Number VA-00027 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... the original declaration remains unchanged. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and...

  18. Geropsychology Training in a VA Nursing Home Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karel, Michele J.; Moye, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing need for professional psychology training in nursing home settings, and nursing homes provide a rich environment for teaching geropsychology competencies. We describe the nursing home training component of our Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Predoctoral Internship and Geropsychology Postdoctoral Fellowship programs. Our…

  19. 77 FR 51100 - Virginia Disaster No. VA-00048

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster No. VA-00048 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1.... ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and..., Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street, SW., Suite...

  20. An Overview of Patient Safety Climate in the VA

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Christine W; Rosen, Amy K; Meterko, Mark; Shokeen, Priti; Zhao, Shibei; Singer, Sara; Falwell, Alyson; Gaba, David M

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess variation in safety climate across VA hospitals nationally. Study Setting Data were collected from employees at 30 VA hospitals over a 6-month period using the Patient Safety Climate in Healthcare Organizations survey. Study Design We sampled 100 percent of senior managers and physicians and a random 10 percent of other employees. At 10 randomly selected hospitals, we sampled an additional 100 percent of employees working in units with intrinsically higher hazards (high-hazard units [HHUs]). Data Collection Data were collected using an anonymous survey design. Principal Findings We received 4,547 responses (49 percent response rate). The percent problematic response—lower percent reflecting higher levels of patient safety climate—ranged from 12.0–23.7 percent across hospitals (mean=17.5 percent). Differences in safety climate emerged by management level, clinician status, and workgroup. Supervisors and front-line staff reported lower levels of safety climate than senior managers; clinician responses reflected lower levels of safety climate than those of nonclinicians; and responses of employees in HHUs reflected lower levels of safety climate than those of workers in other areas. Conclusions This is the first systematic study of patient safety climate in VA hospitals. Findings indicate an overall positive safety climate across the VA, but there is room for improvement. PMID:18355257