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Sample records for pseudotuberculosis serogroup va

  1. YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS, SEROGROUP O:1A, INFECTION IN TWO AMAZON PARROTS (AMAZONA AESTIVA AND AMAZONA ORATRIX) WITH HEPATIC HEMOSIDEROSIS.

    PubMed

    Galosi, Livio; Farneti, Silvana; Rossi, Giacomo; Cork, Susan Catherine; Ferraro, Stefano; Magi, Gian Enrico; Petrini, Stefano; Valiani, Andrea; Cuteri, Vincenzo; Attili, Anna-Rita

    2015-09-01

    Necropsies were conducted on a female blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) and a female yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix) that died after depression, ruffled feathers, diarrhea, and biliverdin in the urine. Gross and microscopic examinations revealed multifocal necrosis in the liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, intestines, and heart caused by acute bacteremia. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, serogroup O:1a, was isolated by culturing from the visceral lesions in the liver, intestines, and spleen. Virulence gene analysis showed the presence of the inv gene and the complete pathogenicity island: IS100, psn, yptE, irp1, irp2 ybtP-ybtQ, ybtX-ybtS, and int asnT-Int. Histopathologic findings and chemical analysis also demonstrated hepatic hemosiderosis. As has been demonstrated in other species, hemosiderosis may predispose Amazona spp. to systemic infection with Y. pseudotuberculosis after enteric disease.

  2. Molecular detection of nine clinically important non-O157 Escherichia coli serogroups from raw sheep meat in Chaharmahal-va-Bakhtiari province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Tahmasby, Hossein; Mehrabiyan, Samaneh; Tajbakhsh, Elahe; Farahmandi, Sharmin; Monji, Hadi; Farahmandi, Keyvan

    2014-08-01

    STEC isolates and also stx-negative Escherichia coli isolates from sheep meat from the Chaharmahal-va-Bakhtiari province, Iran were analyzed for nine clinically important non-O157 serotypes by PCR. A total of 90 E. coli isolates were tested. Stx-positive and eae-positive E. coli isolates did not belong to the nine most clinically relevant non-O157 STECs. Of the 80 non-STEC isolates, two belonged to the O103 and two belonged to the O128 groups. Stx-negative E. coli O103 and O128 strains isolated have potential in acquiring stx genes and continuing into the digestive system of consumers. Further studies are needed to analyze virulence characteristics of these E. coli strains to determine their potential role in causing disease in humans. For the sake of public health, it is important to monitor and investigate non-O157 diarrheagenic E. coli strains in meat in order to control and prevent them.

  3. Three outbreaks of yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Nakashima, H; Ishida, T; Tsubokura, M

    1988-08-01

    Three outbreaks of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection during 1982 to 1984 in Okayama Prefecture, Japan are described. In outbreak A, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis a causal organism was detected in 16 patients (serotype 5A). The latent period of the infection was 2 to 20 days estimating, from time of ingesting food suspected of being contaminated and onset of the illness. Outbreak B and C occurred in remote mountain areas. In outbreak B, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis bacilli were detected in the feces of 35 out of 276 people (serotype 4B in 34 stools, 2C and 4B in one stool). In outbreak C, 12 children became sick; one of the 4 patients whose stools were examined, showed an organism belonging to serotype 4B. The inhabitants in the area of outbreak B and C took unchlorinated mountain stream and well water for drinking. After the outbreak B and C, we examined water and wild animals fecea in these areas for the bacilli. As a result, they were detected in 3 out of 51 water samples (serotype 4A in one, 6 in 2 samples) and 2 out of 57 wild animal fecal samples (serotype 2C in 2 samples) in B area, and 4 out of 33 water samples (serotype 4A in 2, 4B in 2 samples) in C area.

  4. Presence of a virulence-associated plasmid in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gemski, P; Lazere, J R; Casey, T; Wohlhieter, J A

    1980-01-01

    We have shown that Yersinia pseudotuberculosis can possess plasmids which are similar in size and function to the previously described Vwa plasmids of Y. enterocolitica. These plasmids are associated with the production of V and W antigens (calcium dependency) and pathogenicity of the organism. Further investigation of these plasmids from Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica with restriction endonucleases revealed significant differences in their fragmentation pattern. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6249747

  5. Factor analysis of serogroups botanica and aurisina of Leptospira biflexa.

    PubMed

    Cinco, M

    1977-11-01

    Factor analysis is performed on serovars of Botanica and Aurisina serogroup of Leptospira biflexa. The results show the arrangement of main factors serovar and serogroup specific, as well as the antigens common with serovars of heterologous serogroups.

  6. [The bacteriophages Yersinia pseudotuberculosis: the detection in strains of different O-serovars and their identification].

    PubMed

    Makedonova, L D; Kudriakova, T A; Kachkina, G V; Gaevskaia, N E

    2013-08-01

    The sample included five indicator pseudotuberculosis strains. The application of these strains permitted to isolate out of 161 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis 9 bacteriophages identical by their morphologic and serologic characteristics but having individual particularities in their lytic activity. The test on sensitivity to bacteriophages can be used in laboratory diagnostic to differentiate the strains of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

  7. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis liver abscess in a mature alpaca (Lama pacos)

    PubMed Central

    Sprake, Philippa; Gold, Jenifer R.

    2012-01-01

    A mature female alpaca was evaluated for weight loss and a 10-day history of anorexia, diarrhea, abdominal distension, and ventral edema. Ultrasonography revealed a hepatic mass, culture of which identified Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. This is the first reported case of an internal caseous lymphadenitis lesion resulting in clinical disease in a camelid. PMID:23024384

  8. Immunological characterization of diphtheria toxin recovered from Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Selim, Salha Abdelkareem; Mohamed, Farida Hessain; Hessain, Ashgan Mohamed; Moussa, Ihab Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Diphtheria toxin (DT) is a potent toxin produced by the so-called diphtheria group which includes Corynebacterium diphtheriae (C. diphtheriae), Corynebacterium ulcerans (C. ulcerans), and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (C. pseudotuberculosis). The present investigation is aimed to study in detail the production of DT by C. pseudotuberculosis. Twenty isolates were obtained from sheep diseased with caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) and twenty-six isolates were obtained from 26 buffaloes diseased with oedematous skin disease (OSD). All isolates were identified by standard microbiological and DT production was assayed serologically by modified Elek test and immunoblotting. All sheep isolates were nitrate negative, failed to hydrolyze starch and could not produce DT, while all buffalo isolates (biotype II) revealed positive results and a specific band of 62 kDa, specific to DT, was resulted in all concentrated cell fractions (CF), but was absent from non-toxigenic biotype I isolates. At the same time, another band of 31 kDa specific to the PLD gene was obtained with all isolates of biotype I and II. Moreover, all isolates showed positive synergistic hemolytic activity and antagonistic hemolysis with β-hemolytic Staphylococci. The obtained results also indicated that C. pseudotuberculosis could be classified into two strains; non-toxigenic biotype I strain, which failed to produce DT as well as being negative to nitrate and starch hydrolysis, and toxigenic biotype II strain, which can reduce nitrate, hydrolyze starch as well as produce DT. PMID:26981011

  9. Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Detection in Foods

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, H.; Shimizu, S.; Inatsu, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis which can cause yersiniosis in humans and animals are thought to be significant food-borne pathogens and be important as hygiene indicator in food safety. The pathogenic Y. enterocolitica serotypes/biotypes are O:3/4 and 3 variant VP negative, O:5, 27/2, O:8/1b, and O:9/2, have been reported worldwide. Y. pseudotuberculosis is distributed less widely than Y. enterocolitica. Isolation methods usually involve selective and recovery enrichment of the food sample followed by plating onto selective media, confirmation of typical colonies and testing for virulence properties of isolated strains. Recently, DNA-based methods, such as PCR assays, have been developed to detect pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in foods more rapidly, and sensitivity than can be achieved by conventional culture methods. This paper reviews commercially available conventional and PCR-based procedures for the detection of pathogenic Yersinia in food. These methods are effective as the isolation and detection methods to target pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in foods. PMID:22567341

  10. Multiple Outbreaks of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Infections in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Jalava, Katri; Hallanvuo, S.; Nakari, U.-M.; Ruutu, P.; Kela, E.; Heinäsmäki, T.; Siitonen, A.; Nuorti, J. P.

    2004-01-01

    During 2001, 89 culture-confirmed cases of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were reported in Finland; 55 (62%) were serotype O:1, and 34 (38%) were serotype O:3. Four major pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles were identified. A case-control study of 25 case patients and 71 healthy controls identified eating outside the home as a risk factor for infection. PMID:15184472

  11. Experimental transmission of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in horses by house flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The route of infection of pigeon fever remains undetermined. The purpose of this study was to investigate house flies (Musca domestica L.) as vectors of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in horses. Eight ponies were used in a randomized, controlled, blinded experimental study. Ten wounds were creat...

  12. Population structure of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis complex according to multilocus sequence typing

    PubMed Central

    Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Didelot, Xavier; Jolley, Keith A.; Morelli, Giovanna; Sangal, Vartul; Kristo, Paula; Imori, Priscilla F. M.; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Siitonen, Anja; Tseneva, Galina; Voskressenskaya, Ekaterina; Falcao, Juliana P.; Korkeala, Hannu; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Mazzoni, Camila; Carniel, Elisabeth; Skurnik, Mikael; Achtman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Summary Multilocus sequence analysis of 417 strains of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis revealed that it is a complex of four populations, three of which have been previously assigned species status [Y. pseudotuberculosis sensu stricto (s.s.), Yersinia pestis and Yersinia similis] and a fourth population, which we refer to as the Korean group, which may be in the process of speciation. We detected clear signs of recombination within Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s. as well as imports from Y. similis and the Korean group. The sources of genetic diversification within Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s. were approximately equally divided between recombination and mutation, whereas recombination has not yet been demonstrated in Y. pestis, which is also much more genetically monomorphic than is Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s. Most Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s. belong to a diffuse group of sequence types lacking clear population structure, although this species contains a melibiose-negative clade that is present globally in domesticated animals. Yersinia similis corresponds to the previously identified Y. pseudotuberculosis genetic type G4, which is probably not pathogenic because it lacks the virulence factors that are typical for Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s. In contrast, Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s., the Korean group and Y. pestis can all cause disease in humans. PMID:21951486

  13. Serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccines in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Paul A; Jørgensen, Hannah J; Caugant, Dominique A

    2015-01-01

    Serogroup A meningococcal epidemics have been a recurrent public health problem, especially in resource-poor countries of Africa. Recently, the administration in mass vaccination campaigns of a single dose of the monovalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac, to the 1-29 year-old population of sub-Saharan Africa has prevented epidemics of meningitis caused by serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis. This strategy has also been shown to provide herd protection of the non-vaccinated population. Development of meningococcal conjugate vaccines covering other serogroups and enhanced use of the pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines must be pursued to fully control bacterial meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26358167

  14. Serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccines in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Paul A; Jørgensen, Hannah J; Caugant, Dominique A

    2015-01-01

    Serogroup A meningococcal epidemics have been a recurrent public health problem, especially in resource-poor countries of Africa. Recently, the administration in mass vaccination campaigns of a single dose of the monovalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac, to the 1-29 year-old population of sub-Saharan Africa has prevented epidemics of meningitis caused by serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis. This strategy has also been shown to provide herd protection of the non-vaccinated population. Development of meningococcal conjugate vaccines covering other serogroups and enhanced use of the pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines must be pursued to fully control bacterial meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa.

  15. Multiplex PCR serogrouping of Listeria monocytogenes isolated in Japan

    PubMed Central

    SHIMOJIMA, Yukako; IDA, Miki; NISHINO, Yukari; ISHITSUKA, Rie; KURODA, Sumiyo; HIRAI, Akihiko; SADAMASU, Kenji; NAKAMA, Akiko; KAI, Akemi

    2015-01-01

    PCR serogrouping methods were used to examine strains of L. monocytogenes isolated in Japan. Among 187 strains, 99.5% were classified into 4 PCR serogroups corresponding to conventional serotypes. Only one isolate had a new PCR profile, which may be a variant of serogroup IVb. PMID:26537550

  16. Lipoprotein NMB0928 from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B as a novel vaccine candidate.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Maité; Yero, Daniel; Niebla, Olivia; González, Sonia; Climent, Yanet; Pérez, Yusleydis; Cobas, Karem; Caballero, Evelín; García, Darien; Pajón, Rolando

    2007-12-01

    Polysaccharide-based vaccines for serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis have failed to induce protective immunity. As a result, efforts to develop vaccines for serogroup B meningococcal disease have mostly focused on outer membrane proteins (OMP). Vaccine candidates based on meningococcal OMP have emerged in the form of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) or, more recently, purified recombinant proteins, as alternative strategies for serogroup B vaccine development. In our group, the protein composition of the Cuban OMVs-based vaccine VA-MENGOC-BC was elucidated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The proteomic map of this product allowed the identification of new putative protective proteins not previously reported as components of an antimeningococcal vaccine. In the present study, we have determined the immunogenicity and protective capacity of NMB0928, one of those proteins present in the OMVs. The antigen was obtained as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli, purified and used to immunize mice. The antiserum produced against the protein was capable to recognize the natural protein in different meningococcal strains by whole-cell ELISA and Western blotting. After immunization, recombinant NMB0928 induced bactericidal antibodies, and when the protein was administered inserted into liposomes, the elicited antibodies were protective in the infant rat model. These results suggest that NMB0928 is a novel antigen worth to be included in a broadly protective meningococcal vaccine.

  17. Blastocystis hominis in animals: incidence of four serogroups.

    PubMed

    König, G; Müller, H E

    1997-10-01

    In toto, 520 faecal samples from mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and snails were investigated (see Table 1). 91 strains of Blastocystis hominis could be isolated by culture. However, only 48 of them were suitable for axenisation. 96 percent of samples belonged to four serogroups detected in humans but two strains, one from a pig and another from a duck, could not be classified, suggesting the existence of one or two further serogroups. While humans showed mainly serogroups I and II, pigs harboured serogroups III and IV. Four serogroups were isolated from monkeys. The question whether the genus Blastocystis consists of one or more species is discussed. PMID:9361389

  18. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP32953 survives and replicates in trophozoites and persists in cysts of Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed

    Santos-Montañez, Jennifer; Benavides-Montaño, Javier A; Hinz, Angela K; Vadyvaloo, Viveka

    2015-07-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a foodborne enteric pathogen that causes a mild self-limiting diarrhea in humans. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is able to persist in soil and water and in association with fresh produce, but the mechanism by which it persists is unknown. It has been shown that Y. pseudotuberculosis co-occurs with protozoans in these environments; therefore, this study investigates if bacterivorous free-living amoeba (FLA) are able to support persistence of Y. pseudotuberculosis. Coculture studies of Y. pseudotuberculosis and the prototype FLA, Acanthamoeba castellanii revealed that bacteria had an enhanced capacity to survive in association with amoeba and in the absence of any cytotoxic effects. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is able to survive and replicate in trophozoites specifically localized within vacuoles, and persists within cysts over a period of at least a week. These data present the first evidence that Y. pseudotuberculosis is able to resist the bacterivorous nature of FLA and instead exhibits an enhanced ability to replicate and persist in coculture with amoeba. This study sheds light on the potential role of FLA in the ecology of Y. pseudotuberculosis which may have implications for food safety. PMID:26025069

  19. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP32953 survives and replicates in trophozoites and persists in cysts of Acanthamoeba castellanii

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Montañez, Jennifer; Benavides-Montaño, Javier A.; Hinz, Angela K.; Vadyvaloo, Viveka

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a foodborne enteric pathogen that causes a mild self-limiting diarrhea in humans. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is able to persist in soil and water and in association with fresh produce, but the mechanism by which it persists is unknown. It has been shown that Y. pseudotuberculosis co-occurs with protozoans in these environments; therefore, this study investigates if bacterivorous free-living amoeba (FLA) are able to support persistence of Y. pseudotuberculosis. Coculture studies of Y. pseudotuberculosis and the prototype FLA, Acanthamoeba castellanii revealed that bacteria had an enhanced capacity to survive in association with amoeba and in the absence of any cytotoxic effects. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is able to survive and replicate in trophozoites specifically localized within vacuoles, and persists within cysts over a period of at least a week. These data present the first evidence that Y. pseudotuberculosis is able to resist the bacterivorous nature of FLA and instead exhibits an enhanced ability to replicate and persist in coculture with amoeba. This study sheds light on the potential role of FLA in the ecology of Y. pseudotuberculosis which may have implications for food safety. PMID:26025069

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain E19, Isolated from a Horse in Chile.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Ana Lídia Q; Dias, Larissa M; Alves, Jorianne T C; Veras, Adonney A O; Guimarães, Luis C; Rocha, Flávia S; Gala-García, Alfonso; Retamal, Patricio; Ramos, Rommel T J; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur; Carneiro, Adriana R

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is related to several diseases infecting horses and small ruminants, causing economic losses to agribusiness. Here, we present the genome sequence of C. pseudotuberculosis strain E19. The genome includes one circular chromosome 2,367,956 bp (52.1% G+C content), with 2,112 genes predicted, 12 rRNAs, and 48 tRNAs.

  1. Progression of ‘OMICS’ methodologies for understanding the pathogenicity of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis: the Brazilian experience

    PubMed Central

    Dorella, Fernanda A.; Gala-Garcia, Alfonso; Pinto, Anne C.; Sarrouh, Boutros; Antunes, Camila A.; Ribeiro, Dayana; Aburjaile, Flavia F.; Fiaux, Karina K.; Guimarães, Luis C.; Seyffert, Núbia; El-Aouar, Rachid A.; Silva, Renata; Hassan, Syed S.; Castro, Thiago L. P.; Marques, Wanderson S.; Ramos, Rommel; Carneiro, Adriana; de Sá, Pablo; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Since the first successful attempt at sequencing the Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis genome, large amounts of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic data have been generated. C. pseudotuberculosis is an interesting bacterium due to its great zoonotic potential and because it causes considerable economic losses worldwide. Furthermore, different strains of C. pseudotuberculosis are capable of causing various diseases in different hosts. Currently, we seek information about the phylogenetic relationships between different strains of C. pseudotuberculosis isolates from different hosts across the world and to employ these data to develop tools to diagnose and eradicate the diseases these strains cause. In this review, we present the latest findings on C. pseudotuberculosis that have been obtained with the most advanced techniques for sequencing and genomic organization. We also discuss the development of in silico tools for processing these data to prompt a better understanding of this pathogen. PMID:24688721

  2. [Demonstration of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in in cultivated soils].

    PubMed

    Barre, N; Louzis, C; Treignier, M; Dubois-Darnaudpeys, A

    1977-06-13

    The bacteriological analysis of 37 pools of cultivated soils collected in a limited area in the Parisian district permits the isolation of 14 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis: 9 strains are of serotype II, 3 of serotype I, 1 of serotype III, and of serotype IV. This diversity contrasts with the prevalence of serotype I in infections of man and animals and the scarcity of type III and IV in these species. The abundance of our isolates is in favour of a large distribution of the germ in this substratum, which can be considered as a potential contamination source. PMID:408041

  3. Yersiniosis due to infection by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis 4b in captive meerkats (Suricata suricatta) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shin-Ichi; Hayashidani, Hideki; Yonezawa, Aya; Suzuki, Isao; Une, Yumi

    2015-09-01

    Two meerkats (Suricata suricatta) housed in the same zoological garden in Japan died due to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype 4b infection. Gross and microscopic lesions included necrotizing enteritis and enlargement of the spleen and liver with multifocal necrosis. Inflammatory cells, primarily neutrophils, and nuclear debris were associated with clusters of Gram-negative bacilli. Additionally, there were aberrant organism forms that were larger than bacilli and appeared as basophilic globular bodies. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the bacilli and globular bodies were strongly positive for Y. pseudotuberculosis O4 antigen. The globular bodies were considered a shape-changed form of Y. pseudotuberculosis, and these morphologically abnormal bacteria could present a diagnostic challenge.

  4. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection intractable by antibiotics: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Jiro; Sasaki, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection is usually cured spontaneously or with administration of antibiotics. Presentation of case The patient is a twelve-year-old boy with right lower quadrant pain who had enterocolitis one month previously. Contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography showed a distended and edematous ileum and an intra-abdominal abscess adjacent to the mesentery with a normal appendix. The patient’s general condition did not improve with antibiotics, so an ileocecectomy was performed. Discussion Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection requiring an operation is rare. In our case, antibiotics were not effective in treating the abscess therefore surgery was required. An early diagnosis using serological studies, ultrasound of the abdomen, and fecal culture, with appropriate administration of antibiotics, may have avoided the need for surgery. Considering YP infection as a differential diagnosis is therefore important when encountering patients with enterocolitis, especially with right lower quadrant pain. Early diagnosis may assist in avoiding unnecessary operations. Conclusion Diagnosis of YP infection may be missed or delayed because it is rare and difficult to detect, and must be distinguished from appendicitis. Although most YP infections are self-limiting, some rare cases will require surgery, therefore early diagnosis is essential. PMID:27002288

  5. Pathogenesis of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in Human Yersiniosis

    PubMed Central

    Galindo, Cristi L.; Rosenzweig, Jason A.; Kirtley, Michelle L.; Chopra, Ashok K.

    2011-01-01

    Yersiniosis is a food-borne illness that has become more prevalent in recent years due to human transmission via the fecal-oral route and prevalence in farm animals. Yersiniosis is primarily caused by Yersinia enterocolitica and less frequently by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Infection is usually characterized by a self-limiting acute infection beginning in the intestine and spreading to the mesenteric lymph nodes. However, more serious infections and chronic conditions can also occur, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are both heterogeneous organisms that vary considerably in their degrees of pathogenicity, although some generalizations can be ascribed to pathogenic variants. Adhesion molecules and a type III secretion system are critical for the establishment and progression of infection. Additionally, host innate and adaptive immune responses are both required for yersiniae clearance. Despite the ubiquity of enteric Yersinia species and their association as important causes of food poisoning world-wide, few national enteric pathogen surveillance programs include the yersiniae as notifiable pathogens. Moreover, no standard exists whereby identification and reporting systems can be effectively compared and global trends developed. This review discusses yersinial virulence factors, mechanisms of infection, and host responses in addition to the current state of surveillance, detection, and prevention of yersiniosis. PMID:22567322

  6. Temperature-responsive in vitro RNA structurome of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Righetti, Francesco; Nuss, Aaron M; Twittenhoff, Christian; Beele, Sascha; Urban, Kristina; Will, Sebastian; Bernhart, Stephan H; Stadler, Peter F; Dersch, Petra; Narberhaus, Franz

    2016-06-28

    RNA structures are fundamentally important for RNA function. Dynamic, condition-dependent structural changes are able to modulate gene expression as shown for riboswitches and RNA thermometers. By parallel analysis of RNA structures, we mapped the RNA structurome of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis at three different temperatures. This human pathogen is exquisitely responsive to host body temperature (37 °C), which induces a major metabolic transition. Our analysis profiles the structure of more than 1,750 RNAs at 25 °C, 37 °C, and 42 °C. Average mRNAs tend to be unstructured around the ribosome binding site. We searched for 5'-UTRs that are folded at low temperature and identified novel thermoresponsive RNA structures from diverse gene categories. The regulatory potential of 16 candidates was validated. In summary, we present a dynamic bacterial RNA structurome and find that the expression of virulence-relevant functions in Y. pseudotuberculosis and reprogramming of its metabolism in response to temperature is associated with a restructuring of numerous mRNAs. PMID:27298343

  7. Long-Term Persistence of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Gengler, Samuel; Laudisoit, Anne; Batoko, Henri; Wattiau, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are small worms whose ecological behaviour consists to invade, kill insects and feed on their cadavers thanks to a species-specific symbiotic bacterium belonging to any of the genera Xenorhabdus or Photorhabdus hosted in the gastro-intestinal tract of EPNs. The symbiont provides a number of biological functions that are essential for its EPN host including the production of entomotoxins, of enzymes able to degrade the insect constitutive macromolecules and of antimicrobial compounds able to prevent the growth of competitors in the insect cadaver. The question addressed in this study was to investigate whether a mammalian pathogen taxonomically related to Xenorhabdus was able to substitute for or “hijack” the symbiotic relationship associating Xenorhabdus and Steinernema EPNs. To deal with this question, a laboratory experimental model was developed consisting in Galleria mellonella insect larvae, Steinernema EPNs with or without their natural Xenorhabdus symbiont and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis brought artificially either in the gut of EPNs or in the haemocoel of the insect larva prior to infection. The developed model demonstrated the capacity of EPNs to act as an efficient reservoir ensuring exponential multiplication, maintenance and dissemination of Y. pseudotuberculosis. PMID:25635766

  8. Experimental transmission of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar equi in horses by house flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The route of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in horses remains undetermined, but transmission by insects is suspected. Scientists from CMAVE and Auburn University investigated house flies (Musca domestica L.) as possible vectors. Three ponies were directly inoculated with C. pseudotuber...

  9. Experimental inoculation of house flies Musca domestica with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis serovar equi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (Actinomycetales: Corynebacteriaceae) infection in horses causes external abscesses, infection of internal organs and ulcerative lymphangitis. The exact mechanism of infection remains unknown, but fly transmission is suspected. Scientists at Auburn University and U...

  10. Experimental inoculation of house flies, Musca domestica L., with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis serovar equi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (Actinomycetales: Corynebacteriaceae) infection in horses causes three different disease syndromes: external abscesses, infection of internal organs and ulcerative lymphangitis. The route of infection in horses remains undetermined, but transmission by insect vecto...

  11. Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup X in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Agnememel, Alain; Hong, Eva; Giorgini, Dario; Nuñez-Samudio, Viginia; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of meningococcal disease varies by geography and time. Whole-genome sequencing of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup X isolates from sub-Saharan Africa and Europe showed that serogroup X emergence in sub-Saharan Africa resulted from expansion of particular variants within clonal complex 181. Virulence of these isolates in experimental mouse models was high. PMID:26982628

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain E19, Isolated from a Horse in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante, Ana Lídia Q.; Dias, Larissa M.; Alves, Jorianne T. C.; Veras, Adonney A. O.; Guimarães, Luis C.; Rocha, Flávia S.; Gala-García, Alfonso; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is related to several diseases infecting horses and small ruminants, causing economic losses to agribusiness. Here, we present the genome sequence of C. pseudotuberculosis strain E19. The genome includes one circular chromosome 2,367,956 bp (52.1% G+C content), with 2,112 genes predicted, 12 rRNAs, and 48 tRNAs. PMID:26607893

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Cp31, Isolated from an Egyptian Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Ribeiro Carneiro, Adriana; Cybelle Pinto, Anne; de Castro Soares, Siomar; Rodrigues Santos, Anderson; Silva Almeida, Sintia; Guimarães, Luis Carlos; Figueira Aburjaile, Flávia; Vieira Barbosa, Eudes Guilherme; Alves Dorella, Fernanda; Souza Rocha, Flávia; Souza Lopes, Thiago; Kawasaki, Regiane; Gomes Sá, Pablo; da Rocha Coimbra, Nilson Antônio; Teixeira Cerdeira, Louise; Silvanira Barbosa, Maria; Cruz Schneider, Maria Paula; Miyoshi, Anderson; Selim, Salah Abdel Karim; Moawad, Mohamed Salah; Azevedo, Vasco

    2012-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is of major veterinary importance because it affects many animal species, causing economically significant livestock diseases and losses. Therefore, the genomic sequencing of various lines of this organism, isolated from different hosts, will aid in the development of diagnostic methods and new prevention and treatment strategies and improve our knowledge of the biology of this microorganism. In this study, we present the genome of C. pseudotuberculosis Cp31, isolated from a buffalo in Egypt. PMID:23144408

  14. Whole-Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis 262 Biovar equi Isolated from Cow Milk

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Carlos Leonardo de A.; Dias, Larissa M.; Veras, Adonney A. O.; Alves, Jorianne T. C.; Cavalcante, Ana Lídia Q.; Dowson, Christopher G.; Azevedo, Vasco; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Silva, Artur

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis 262, isolated from a bovine host. C. pseudotuberculosis is an etiological agent of diseases with medical and veterinary relevance. The genome contains 2,325,749 bp, 52.8% G+C content, 2,022 coding sequences (CDS), 50 pseudogenes, 48 tRNAs, and 12 rRNAs. PMID:27013052

  15. Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection: a regulatory RNA perspective

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Chavarría, Luary C.; Vadyvaloo, Viveka

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, responsible for causing fulminant plague, has evolved clonally from the enteric pathogen, Y. pseudotuberculosis, which in contrast, causes a relatively benign enteric illness. An ~97% nucleotide identity over 75% of their shared protein coding genes is maintained between these two pathogens, leaving much conjecture regarding the molecular determinants responsible for producing these vastly different disease etiologies, host preferences and transmission routes. One idea is that coordinated production of distinct factors required for host adaptation and virulence in response to specific environmental cues could contribute to the distinct pathogenicity distinguishing these two species. Small non-coding RNAs that direct posttranscriptional regulation have recently been identified as key molecules that may provide such timeous expression of appropriate disease enabling factors. Here the burgeoning field of small non-coding regulatory RNAs in Yersinia pathogenesis is reviewed from the viewpoint of adaptive colonization, virulence and divergent evolution of these pathogens. PMID:26441890

  16. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis RNA-seq data from abiotic stresses

    PubMed Central

    de Sá, Pablo H.C.G.; Veras, Adonney A.O.; Carneiro, Adriana R.; Barúna, Rafael A.; Guimarães, Luís C.; Pinheiro, Kenny C.; Pinto, Anne C.; Soares, Siomar C.; Schneider, Maria P.C.; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur; Ramos, Rommel T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis causes significant loss to goat and sheep farmers because it is the causal agent of the infectious disease caseous lymphadenitis, which may lead to outcomes ranging from skin injury to animal death (Ruiz et al., 2011) [1]. This bacterium was grown under osmotic (2 M), acid (pH) and heat (50 °C) stress and under control (Normal-BHI brain heart infusion) conditions, which simulate the conditions faced by the bacteria during the infectious process. Subsequently, cDNA of each condition was sequenced by the SOLiD3 Plus platform using the RNA-Seq technique [2], [3], [4]. The data produced was processed to evaluate the differential gene expression, which is helpful to understand the adaptation mechanisms during the infection in the host. The sequencing data of all conditions are available in the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) repository under accession number E-MTAB-2017. PMID:26702428

  17. Typing and Clustering of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Isolates by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis Using Insertion Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Voskresenskaya, E.; Savin, C.; Leclercq, A.; Tseneva, G.

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is an enteropathogen that has an animal reservoir and causes human infections, mostly in temperate and cold countries. Most of the methods previously used to subdivide Y. pseudotuberculosis were performed on small numbers of isolates from a specific geographical area. One aim of this study was to evaluate the typing efficiency of restriction fragment length polymorphism of insertion sequence hybridization patterns (IS-RFLP) compared to other typing methods, such as serotyping, ribotyping, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), on the same set of 80 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis of global origin. We found that IS100 was not adequate for IS-RFLP but that both IS285 and IS1541 efficiently subtyped Y. pseudotuberculosis. The discriminatory index (DI) of IS1541-RFLP (0.980) was superior to those of IS285-RFLP (0.939), ribotyping (0.944), MLST (0.861), and serotyping (0.857). The combination of the two IS (2IS-RFLP) further increased the DI to 0.998. Thus, IS-RFLP is a powerful tool for the molecular typing of Y. pseudotuberculosis and has the advantage of exhibiting well-resolved banding patterns that allow for a reliable comparison of strains of worldwide origin. The other aim of this study was to assess the clustering power of IS-RFLP. We found that 2IS-RFLP had a remarkable capacity to group strains with similar genotypic and phenotypic markers, thus identifying robust populations within Y. pseudotuberculosis. Our study thus demonstrates that 2IS- and even IS1541-RFLP alone might be valuable tools for the molecular typing of global isolates of Y. pseudotuberculosis and for the analysis of the population structure of this species. PMID:24671793

  18. Typing and clustering of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolates by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using insertion sequences.

    PubMed

    Voskresenskaya, E; Savin, C; Leclercq, A; Tseneva, G; Carniel, E

    2014-06-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is an enteropathogen that has an animal reservoir and causes human infections, mostly in temperate and cold countries. Most of the methods previously used to subdivide Y. pseudotuberculosis were performed on small numbers of isolates from a specific geographical area. One aim of this study was to evaluate the typing efficiency of restriction fragment length polymorphism of insertion sequence hybridization patterns (IS-RFLP) compared to other typing methods, such as serotyping, ribotyping, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), on the same set of 80 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis of global origin. We found that IS100 was not adequate for IS-RFLP but that both IS285 and IS1541 efficiently subtyped Y. pseudotuberculosis. The discriminatory index (DI) of IS1541-RFLP (0.980) was superior to those of IS285-RFLP (0.939), ribotyping (0.944), MLST (0.861), and serotyping (0.857). The combination of the two IS (2IS-RFLP) further increased the DI to 0.998. Thus, IS-RFLP is a powerful tool for the molecular typing of Y. pseudotuberculosis and has the advantage of exhibiting well-resolved banding patterns that allow for a reliable comparison of strains of worldwide origin. The other aim of this study was to assess the clustering power of IS-RFLP. We found that 2IS-RFLP had a remarkable capacity to group strains with similar genotypic and phenotypic markers, thus identifying robust populations within Y. pseudotuberculosis. Our study thus demonstrates that 2IS- and even IS1541-RFLP alone might be valuable tools for the molecular typing of global isolates of Y. pseudotuberculosis and for the analysis of the population structure of this species.

  19. Genome Sequence of the Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Cp316 Strain, Isolated from the Abscess of a Californian Horse

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Pinto, Anne Cybelle; Soares, Siomar de Castro; Santos, Anderson Rodrigues; Almeida, Sintia Silva; Guimarães, Luis Carlos; Aburjaile, Flávia Figueira; Barbosa, Eudes Guilherme Vieira; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; Rocha, Flávia Souza; Cerdeira, Louise Teixeira; Barbosa, Maria Silvanira; Tauch, Andreas; Edman, Judy; Spier, Sharon; Miyoshi, Anderson; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Azevedo, Vasco

    2012-01-01

    The bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is of major veterinary importance because it affects livestock, particularly sheep, goats, and horses, in several countries, including Australia, Brazil, the United States, and Canada, resulting in significant economic losses. In the present study, we describe the complete genome of the Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Cp316 strain, biovar equi, isolated from the abscess of a North American horse. PMID:23144380

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain 1/06-A, Isolated from a Horse in North America

    PubMed Central

    Pethick, Florence E.; Lainson, Alex F.; Yaga, Raja; Flockhart, Allen; Smith, David G. E.; Donachie, Willie; Cerdeira, Louise T.; Silva, Artur; Bol, Erik; Lopes, Thiago S.; Barbosa, Maria S.; Pinto, Anne C.; dos Santos, Anderson R.; Soares, Siomar C.; Almeida, Sintia S.; Guimaraes, Luis C.; Aburjaile, Flavia F.; Abreu, Vinicius A. C.; Ribeiro, Dayana; Fiaux, Karina K.; Diniz, Carlos A. A.; Barbosa, Eudes G. V.; Pereira, Ulisses P.; Hassan, Syed S.; Ali, Amjad; Bakhtiar, Syeda M.; Dorella, Fernanda A.; Carneiro, Adriana R.; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Rocha, Flavia S.; Schneider, Maria P. C.; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco

    2012-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis causes disease in several animal species, although distinct biovars exist that appear to be restricted to specific hosts. In order to facilitate a better understanding of the differences between biovars, we report here the complete genome sequence of the equine pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain 1/06-A. PMID:22843601

  1. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A capsular polysaccharide acetyltransferase, methods and compositions

    DOEpatents

    Stephens, David S.; Gudlavalleti, Seshu K.; Tzeng, Yih-Ling; Datta, Anup K.; Carlson, Russell W.

    2011-02-08

    Provided are methods for recombinant production of an O-acetyltransferase and methods for acetylating capsular polysaccharides, especially those of a Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis using the recombinant O-acetyltransferase, and immunogenic compositions comprising the acetylated capsular polysaccharide.

  2. Molecular typing of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis by using an IS200-like element.

    PubMed

    Odaert, M; Berche, P; Simonet, M

    1996-09-01

    The IS200-like insertion sequence (IS) is a 708-bp element recently found in Yersinia pestis. Its nucleotide sequence is 85% identical to that of IS200 recovered in most Salmonella enterica isolates. It is also present in multiple copies in Y. pseudotuberculosis. In contrast, this IS is found in some (biotype 1B strains) but not other Y. enterocolitica strains and is absent in the nonpathogenic yersiniae: Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii, Y. intermedia, Y. bercovieri, and Y. mollaretii. The number and locations of the ISs in the Y. pseudotuberculosis genome vary among strains, resulting in a high degree of polymorphism, but IS fingerprints are stable after multiple subcultures of clinical isolates. The discriminative power of IS typing is better than that of ribotyping and almost as good as that of the time-consuming method of pulsotyping. Overall, IS200-like is a useful molecular marker in determining the epidemiology of Y. pseudotuberculosis infections.

  3. Yersiniosis due to infection by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis 4b in captive meerkats (Suricata suricatta) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shin-Ichi; Hayashidani, Hideki; Yonezawa, Aya; Suzuki, Isao; Une, Yumi

    2015-09-01

    Two meerkats (Suricata suricatta) housed in the same zoological garden in Japan died due to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype 4b infection. Gross and microscopic lesions included necrotizing enteritis and enlargement of the spleen and liver with multifocal necrosis. Inflammatory cells, primarily neutrophils, and nuclear debris were associated with clusters of Gram-negative bacilli. Additionally, there were aberrant organism forms that were larger than bacilli and appeared as basophilic globular bodies. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the bacilli and globular bodies were strongly positive for Y. pseudotuberculosis O4 antigen. The globular bodies were considered a shape-changed form of Y. pseudotuberculosis, and these morphologically abnormal bacteria could present a diagnostic challenge. PMID:26179097

  4. Acute encephalopathy and tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kaito, Hiroshi; Kamei, Koichi; Ogura, Masao; Kikuchi, Eriko; Hoshino, Hideki; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Matsuoka, Kentaro; Abe, Jun; Ito, Shuichi

    2012-12-01

    We report the case of a 28-month-old boy with encephalopathy and acute tubulointerstitial nephritis possibly associated with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Yp) infection. He was transferred to our center because of impairment of renal function and altered consciousness. He had fever for 5 days after recurrent vomiting and diarrhea. Computed tomography scan was normal, but electroencephalogram (EEG) analyses showed generalized slow wave patterns. Continuous hemodialysis was undergone and then his renal function was improved, but altered consciousness persisted. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) revealed abnormally low signals at entire field, which suggested that he was suffered from encephalopathy. Phenobarbital administration and post-encephalopathy rehabilitation were started, and he recovered in fully premorbid state with normal EEG and SPECT findings on the 33rd hospital day. Various bacterial cultures were negative, but both Yp antibody and Yp-derived mitogen (YPM) antibody, the antibody of a specific Yp exotoxin, had an extremely high titer. This is the first report of encephalopathy potentially caused by Yp, indicated by the presence of a high Yp and YPM antibody titer.

  5. Comparative Genomic Hybridization Analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Identifies Genetic Traits to Elucidate Their Different Ecologies

    PubMed Central

    Jaakkola, Kaisa; Somervuo, Panu; Korkeala, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are both etiological agents for intestinal infection known as yersiniosis, but their epidemiology and ecology bear many differences. Swine are the only known reservoir for Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains, which are the most common cause of human disease, while Y. pseudotuberculosis has been isolated from a variety of sources, including vegetables and wild animals. Infections caused by Y. enterocolitica mainly originate from swine, but fresh produce has been the source for widespread Y. pseudotuberculosis outbreaks within recent decades. A comparative genomic hybridization analysis with a DNA microarray based on three Yersinia enterocolitica and four Yersinia pseudotuberculosis genomes was conducted to shed light on the genomic differences between enteropathogenic Yersinia. The hybridization results identified Y. pseudotuberculosis strains to carry operons linked with the uptake and utilization of substances not found in living animal tissues but present in soil, plants, and rotting flesh. Y. pseudotuberculosis also harbors a selection of type VI secretion systems targeting other bacteria and eukaryotic cells. These genetic traits are not found in Y. enterocolitica, and it appears that while Y. pseudotuberculosis has many tools beneficial for survival in varied environments, the Y. enterocolitica genome is more streamlined and adapted to their preferred animal reservoir. PMID:26605338

  6. Production of monoclonal antibodies to Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 and 6.

    PubMed Central

    Para, M F; Plouffe, J F

    1983-01-01

    To better define the surface antigens of Legionella pneumophila for clinical and experimental purposes, we have produced monoclonal antibodies to L. pneumophila serogroups 1 and 6. Two hybridomas were produced in serogroup 1. One antibody, LP-I-17, recognized a serogroup-common antigen. The second antibody, LP-I-81, was specific for serogroup 1. This antibody was able to agglutinate bacterial cells belonging to the serogroup 1 reference strains. Philadelphia and Knoxville. Microagglutination assays of environmental and clinical isolates revealed a subgroup of serogroup 1 environmental isolates which were not agglutinated by LP-I-81. This subset of isolates was segregated to certain buildings in the medical complex. Immunodiffusion studies showed identity between the LP-I-81 antigen and the serogroup-specific antigen of serogroup 1 organisms. This antigen could be absorbed out of the serogroup 1 organism extract with LP-I-81-coated Staphylococcus aureus, leaving the serogroup-common antigens. Three hybridomas were produced to serogroup 6. All three produced antibodies which were serogroup 6 specific and agglutinated serogroup 6 bacteria. Images PMID:6415102

  7. Serology and clinical relevance of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae).

    PubMed

    Jung, Byeong Yeal; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Ha-Young; Byun, Jae-Won; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Daekeun; Kwak, Dongmi

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the seroprevalence and clinical relevance of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, which is the causative agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae). A total of 466 native Korean goats from 40 herds (11 to 12 samples per herd) were randomly selected throughout the nation and evaluated by direct palpation, bacterial isolation, ELISA, and PCR. In serological examinations, 267 (57.3 %) of the goats tested were positive against C. pseudotuberculosis. When seroprevalence was analyzed according to age, region, and season, statistically significant differences were observed in relation to all three parameters (P < 0.05). For clinical examination, the superficial lymph nodes of all goats were palpated to diagnose CLA. Pus samples taken from superficial abscesses were used for bacterial isolation. Among the 466 goats tested, 34 (7.3 %) were presumptively diagnosed with CLA, and C. pseudotuberculosis was isolated from 24 goats (70.6 % of goats with CLA lesions) whose infections were confirmed by PCR. Considering the high seroprevalence and bacterial isolation rate from most of the superficial CLA lesions, it is suspected that many internal CLA lesions exist in this goat population. These results suggest that C. pseudotuberculosis infection is widespread in native Korean goats, and appropriate control programs need to be established.

  8. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ST42 (O:1) Strain Misidentified as Yersinia pestis by Mass Spectrometry Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gérôme, Patrick; Le Flèche, Philippe; Blouin, Yann; Scholz, Holger C; Thibault, François M; Raynaud, Françoise; Vergnaud, Gilles; Pourcel, Christine

    2014-06-12

    We report here the draft sequence of strain CEB14_0017, alias HIAD_DUP, recovered from a human patient and initially identified as Yersinia pestis by mass spectrometry analysis. Genotyping based on tandem repeat polymorphism assigned the strain to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis sequence type 42 (ST42). The total assembly length is 4,894,739 bp.

  9. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ST42 (O:1) Strain Misidentified as Yersinia pestis by Mass Spectrometry Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gérôme, Patrick; Le Flèche, Philippe; Blouin, Yann; Scholz, Holger C.; Thibault, François M.; Raynaud, Françoise; Vergnaud, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    We report here the draft sequence of strain CEB14_0017, alias HIAD_DUP, recovered from a human patient and initially identified as Yersinia pestis by mass spectrometry analysis. Genotyping based on tandem repeat polymorphism assigned the strain to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis sequence type 42 (ST42). The total assembly length is 4,894,739 bp. PMID:24926044

  10. Draft Genome Sequences of Five Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ST19 Isolates and One Isolate Variant.

    PubMed

    Platonov, Mikhail E; Blouin, Yann; Evseeva, Vera V; Afanas'ev, Maxim V; Pourcel, Christine; Balakhonov, Sergey V; Vergnaud, Gilles; Anisimov, Andrey P

    2013-04-11

    We report the first draft genome sequences of five Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolates of sequence type (ST) 19 and of a variant from one of the five isolates. The total length of assemblies ranged from 4,226,485 bp to 4,274,148 bp, including between 3,808 and 3,843 predicted coding sequences.

  11. Draft Genome Sequences of Five Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ST19 Isolates and One Isolate Variant

    PubMed Central

    Platonov, Mikhail E.; Blouin, Yann; Evseeva, Vera V.; Afanas’ev, Maxim V.; Pourcel, Christine; Balakhonov, Sergey V.

    2013-01-01

    We report the first draft genome sequences of five Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolates of sequence type (ST) 19 and of a variant from one of the five isolates. The total length of assemblies ranged from 4,226,485 bp to 4,274,148 bp, including between 3,808 and 3,843 predicted coding sequences. PMID:23580708

  12. Far East Scarlet-Like Fever Caused by a Few Related Genotypes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Russia.

    PubMed

    Timchenko, Nelly F; Adgamov, Ruslan R; Popov, Alexander F; Psareva, Ekaterina K; Sobyanin, Konstantin A; Gintsburg, Alexander L; Ermolaeva, Svetlana A

    2016-03-01

    We used multivirulence locus sequence typing to analyze 68 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolates from patients in Russia during 1973-2014, including 41 isolates from patients with Far East scarlet-like fever. Four genotypes were found responsible, with 1 being especially prevalent. Evolutionary analysis suggests that epidemiologic advantages could cause this genotype's dominance.

  13. Far East Scarlet-Like Fever Caused by a Few Related Genotypes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Timchenko, Nelly F.; Adgamov, Ruslan R.; Popov, Alexander F.; Psareva, Ekaterina K.; Sobyanin, Konstantin A.; Gintsburg, Alexander L.

    2016-01-01

    We used multivirulence locus sequence typing to analyze 68 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolated in Russia during 1973–2014, including 41 isolates from patients with Far East scarlet-like fever. Four genotypes were found responsible, with 1 being especially prevalent. Evolutionary analysis suggests that epidemiologic advantages could cause this genotype’s dominance. PMID:26889961

  14. Mice and moles inhabiting mountainous areas of Shimane Peninsula as sources of infection with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, H; Gomyoda, M; Kaneko, S

    1990-11-01

    A total of 1,835 Yersinia spp. were isolated from 925 (60.5%) of 1,530 wild mice and from 139 (79.9%) of 174 moles living in mountainous areas of eastern Shimane Prefecture, Japan. The Yersinia spp. included 1,106 Yersinia enterocolitica, 26 Y. enterocolitica-like, 176 Yersinia mollaretii, 149 Yersinia frederiksenii, 70 Yersinia intermedia, 231 Yersinia kristensenii, 5 Yersinia aldovae, and 72 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was not isolated. Y. pseudotuberculosis was divided into 10 virulent 40- to 50-MDa plasmid-positive (P+) strains (serotypes 1b, 4b, and untypeable) and 62 plasmid-negative (P-) strains (serotypes 1b, 2b, 2c, 4a, 5a, 5b, 6, 7, and untypeable). P+ strains of serotypes 1b (two strains), 4b (seven strains), and untypeable (one strain) were isolated from nine Apodemus specious and one Apodemus argenteus. The isolates of Yersinia spp. were more frequently detected in newborn mice and during the breeding season. The P+ Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were recovered at less than 10(4) cells per g of the cecal contents. Thus, the prevalence of Yersinia spp. in small wild animals depends on the newborn animals born during the cold months, and wild mice in mountainous areas are important reservoirs of Y. pseudotuberculosis.

  15. Mice and moles inhabiting mountainous areas of Shimane Peninsula as sources of infection with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, H; Gomyoda, M; Kaneko, S

    1990-01-01

    A total of 1,835 Yersinia spp. were isolated from 925 (60.5%) of 1,530 wild mice and from 139 (79.9%) of 174 moles living in mountainous areas of eastern Shimane Prefecture, Japan. The Yersinia spp. included 1,106 Yersinia enterocolitica, 26 Y. enterocolitica-like, 176 Yersinia mollaretii, 149 Yersinia frederiksenii, 70 Yersinia intermedia, 231 Yersinia kristensenii, 5 Yersinia aldovae, and 72 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was not isolated. Y. pseudotuberculosis was divided into 10 virulent 40- to 50-MDa plasmid-positive (P+) strains (serotypes 1b, 4b, and untypeable) and 62 plasmid-negative (P-) strains (serotypes 1b, 2b, 2c, 4a, 5a, 5b, 6, 7, and untypeable). P+ strains of serotypes 1b (two strains), 4b (seven strains), and untypeable (one strain) were isolated from nine Apodemus specious and one Apodemus argenteus. The isolates of Yersinia spp. were more frequently detected in newborn mice and during the breeding season. The P+ Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were recovered at less than 10(4) cells per g of the cecal contents. Thus, the prevalence of Yersinia spp. in small wild animals depends on the newborn animals born during the cold months, and wild mice in mountainous areas are important reservoirs of Y. pseudotuberculosis. Images PMID:2254420

  16. Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain PA02 Isolated from an Ovine Host in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Muge, Gabriel R. S.; Veras, Adonney A. O.; de Sá, Pablo H. C. G.; Cavalcante, Ana Lídia Queiroz; Alves, Jorianne Thyeska Castro; Morais, Ezequiel; Silva, André G. M.; Azevedo, Vasco; Folador, Adriana Ribeiro Carneiro; Silva, Artur

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain PA02 isolated from an ovine host. The genome contains 2,328,435 bp, a 52.2% G+C content, 2,035 coding sequences, 12 rRNA operons, 45 tRNAs, and 14 predicted pseudogenes. PMID:27516524

  17. Insights into the evolution of Yersinia pestis through whole-genome comparison with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Chain, Patrick S. G.; Carniel, E.; Larimer, Frank W; Lamerdin, Jane; Vergez, Lisa; Land, Miriam L; Motin, V. L.; Brubaker, R. R.; Fowler, J.; Hinnebusch, J.; Marceau, M.; Medigue, Claudine; Chenal-Francisque, V.; Souza, B.; Dacheux, D.; Elliott, J. M.; Derbise, A.; Hauser, Loren John; Garcia, Emilio

    2004-09-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is a highly uniform clone that diverged recently from the enteric pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Despite their close genetic relationship, they differ radically in their pathogenicity and transmission. Here, we report the complete genomic sequence of Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 and its use for detailed genome comparisons with available Y. pestis sequences. Analyses of identified differences across a panel of Yersinia isolates from around the world reveal 32 Y. pestis chromosomal genes that, together with the two Y. pestis-specific plasmids, to our knowledge, represent the only new genetic material in Y. pestis acquired since the the divergence from Y. pseudotuberculosis. In contrast, 149 other pseudogenes (doubling the previous estimate) and 317 genes absent from Y. pestis were detected, indicating that as many as 13% of Y. pseudotuberculosis genes no longer function in Y. pestis. Extensive insertion sequence-mediated genome rearrangements and reductive evolution through massive gene loss, resulting in elimination and modification of preexisting gene expression pathways, appear to be more important than acquisition of genes in the evolution of Y. pestis. These results provide a sobering example of how a highly virulent epidemic clone can suddenly emerge from a less virulent, closely related progenitor.

  18. Insights into the genome evolution of Yersinia pestis through whole genome comparison with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, B; Stoutland, P; Derbise, A; Georgescu, A; Elliott, J; Land, M; Marceau, M; Motin, V; Hinnebusch, J; Simonet, M; Medigue, C; Dacheux, D; Chenal-Francisque, V; Regala, W; Brubaker, R R; Carniel, E; Chain, P; Verguez, L; Fowler, J; Garcia, E; Lamerdin, J; Hauser, L; Larimer, F

    2004-01-24

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is a highly uniform clone that diverged recently from the enteric pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Despite their close genetic relationship, they differ radically in their pathogenicity and transmission. Here we report the complete genomic sequence of Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 and its use for detailed genome comparisons to available Y. pestis sequences. Analyses of identified differences across a panel of Yersinia isolates from around the world reveals 32 Y. pestis chromosomal genes that, together with the two Y. pestis-specific plasmids, represent the only new genetic material in Y. pestis acquired since the divergence from Y. pseudotuberculosis. In contrast, 149 new pseudogenes (doubling the previous estimate) and 317 genes absent from Y. pestis were detected, indicating that as many as 13% of Y. pseudotuberculosis genes no longer function in Y. pestis. Extensive IS-mediated genome rearrangements and reductive evolution through massive gene loss, resulting in elimination and modification of pre-existing gene expression pathways appear to be more important than acquisition of new genes in the evolution of Y. pestis. These results provide a sobering example of how a highly virulent epidemic clone can suddenly emerge from a less virulent, closely related progenitor.

  19. Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain PA02 Isolated from an Ovine Host in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Muge, Gabriel R S; Veras, Adonney A O; de Sá, Pablo H C G; Cavalcante, Ana Lídia Queiroz; Alves, Jorianne Thyeska Castro; Morais, Ezequiel; Silva, André G M; Guimarães, Luís C; Azevedo, Vasco; Folador, Adriana Ribeiro Carneiro; Silva, Artur; Ramos, Rommel T J

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain PA02 isolated from an ovine host. The genome contains 2,328,435 bp, a 52.2% G+C content, 2,035 coding sequences, 12 rRNA operons, 45 tRNAs, and 14 predicted pseudogenes. PMID:27516524

  20. Inhibition of the Fc receptor-mediated oxidative burst in macrophages by the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis tyrosine phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Bliska, J B; Black, D S

    1995-01-01

    Suppression of host-cell-mediated immunity is a hallmark feature of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection. To better understand this process, the interaction of Y. pseudotuberculosis with macrophages and the effect of the virulence plasmid-encoded Yersinia tyrosine phosphatase (YopH) on the oxidative burst was analyzed in a chemiluminescence assay. An oxidative burst was generated upon infection of macrophages with a plasmid-cured strain of Y. pseudotuberculosis opsonized with immunoglobulin G antibody. Infection with plasmid-containing Y. pseudotuberculosis inhibited the oxidative burst triggered by secondary infection with opsonized bacteria. The tyrosine phosphatase activity of YopH was necessary for this inhibition. These results indicate that YopH inhibits Fc receptor-mediated signal transduction in macrophages in a global fashion. In addition, bacterial protein synthesis was not required for macrophage inhibition, suggesting that YopH export and translocation are controlled at the posttranslational level. PMID:7822039

  1. Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis MB20 bv. equi Isolated from a Pectoral Abscess of an Oldenburg Horse in California

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Luís C.; Veras, Adonney A. O.; de Sá, Pablo H. C. G.; Graças, Diego A.; Pinheiro, Kenny C.; Silva, Andreia S. S.; Folador, Edson L.; Benevides, Leandro J.; Viana, Marcus V. C.; Carneiro, Adriana R.; Schneider, Maria P. C.; Spier, Sharon J.; Edman, Judy M.; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur

    2014-01-01

    The genome of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis MB20 bv. equi was sequenced using the Ion Personal Genome Machine (PGM) platform, and showed a size of 2,363,089 bp, with 2,365 coding sequences and a GC content of 52.1%. These results will serve as a basis for further studies on the pathogenicity of C. pseudotuberculosis bv. equi. PMID:25395628

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain PA01, Isolated from Sheep in Pará, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Jorianne T. C.; Veras, Adonney A. O.; Cavalcante, Ana Lídia Q.; de Sá, Pablo H. C. G.; Dias, Larissa M.; Guimarães, Luis C.; Morais, Ezequiel; Silva, André G. M.; Azevedo, Vasco; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Silva, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiological agent of caseous lymphadenitis disease. In this work, we present the first complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain PA01, isolated in northern Brazil from an infected sheep. The genome length is 2,337,920 bp, and 2,003 coding sequences (CDS), 12 rRNAs, and 49 tRNAs were predicted. PMID:26823595

  3. Fatal coinfection with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 8 and Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Guillouzouic, Aurélie; Bemer, Pascale; Gay-Andrieu, Françoise; Bretonnière, Cédric; Lepelletier, Didier; Mahé, Pierre-Joachim; Villers, Daniel; Jarraud, Sophie; Reynaud, Alain; Corvec, Stéphane

    2008-02-01

    Legionella pneumophila is an important cause of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. We report on a patient who simultaneously developed L. pneumophila serogroup 8 pneumonia and Aspergillus fumigatus lung abscesses. Despite appropriate treatments, Aspergillus disease progressed with metastasis. Coinfections caused by L. pneumophila and A. fumigatus remain exceptional. In apparently immunocompetent patients, corticosteroid therapy is a key risk factor for aspergillosis.

  4. Continuing effectiveness of serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, Chad, 2013.

    PubMed

    Gamougam, Kadidja; Daugla, Doumagoum M; Toralta, Jacques; Ngadoua, Cyriaque; Fermon, Florence; Page, Anne-Laure; Djingarey, Mamoudou H; Caugant, Dominique A; Manigart, Olivier; Trotter, Caroline L; Stuart, James M; Greenwood, Brian M

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, vaccination with a serogroup A meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine was implemented in 3 of 23 regions in Chad. Cases of meningitis declined dramatically in vaccinated areas, but an epidemic continued in the rest of Chad. In 2012, the remaining Chad population was vaccinated, and the epidemic was halted.

  5. Fatal coinfection with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 8 and Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Guillouzouic, Aurélie; Bemer, Pascale; Gay-Andrieu, Françoise; Bretonnière, Cédric; Lepelletier, Didier; Mahé, Pierre-Joachim; Villers, Daniel; Jarraud, Sophie; Reynaud, Alain; Corvec, Stéphane

    2008-02-01

    Legionella pneumophila is an important cause of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. We report on a patient who simultaneously developed L. pneumophila serogroup 8 pneumonia and Aspergillus fumigatus lung abscesses. Despite appropriate treatments, Aspergillus disease progressed with metastasis. Coinfections caused by L. pneumophila and A. fumigatus remain exceptional. In apparently immunocompetent patients, corticosteroid therapy is a key risk factor for aspergillosis. PMID:17945454

  6. Protozoa and human macrophages infection by Legionella pneumophila environmental strains belonging to different serogroups.

    PubMed

    Messi, Patrizia; Patrizia, Messi; Bargellini, Annalisa; Annalisa, Bargellini; Anacarso, Immacolata; Immacolata, Anacarso; Marchesi, Isabella; Isabella, Marchesi; de Niederhäusern, Simona; Bondi, Moreno; Moreno, Bondi

    2013-02-01

    Three Legionella pneumophila strains isolated from municipal hot tap water during a multicentric Italian survey and belonging to serogroups 1, 6, 9 and the reference strain Philadelphia-1 were studied to determine the intracellular replication capability and the cytopathogenicity in human monocyte cell line U937 and in an Acanthamoeba polyphaga strain. Our results show that both serogroups 1 and Philadelphia-1 were able to multiply into macrophages inducing cytopathogenicity, while serogroup 6 and ever more serogroup 9 were less efficient in leading to death of the infected macrophages. Both serogroups 1 and 6 displayed a quite good capability of intracellular replication in A. polyphaga, although serogroup 1 was less cytopathogenic than serogroup 6. Serogroup 9, like Philadelphia-1 strain, showed a reduced efficiency of infection and replication and a low cytopathogenicity towards the protozoan. Our study suggests that bacterial pathogenesis is linked to the difference in the virulence expression of L. pneumophila serogroups in both hosts, as demonstrated by the fact that only L. pneumophila serogroup 1 shows the contextual expression of the two virulence traits. Serogroup 6 proves to be a good candidate as pathogen since it shows a good capacity for intracellular replication in protozoan.

  7. Distribution of Pseudomonas syringae pathovars into twenty-three O serogroups.

    PubMed Central

    Saunier, M; Malandrin, L; Samson, R

    1996-01-01

    Serological reactions of Pseudomonas syringae and Pseudomonas viridiflava were studied by Ouchterlony double diffusion. A total of 55 polyclonal antisera, containing anti-lipopolysaccharide (anti-LPS) precipitating antibodies, were cross-tested against antigenic suspensions of 51 strains. Twenty-three O serogroups were defined, primarily on the reaction of the type strains. Two families of O serogroups showed antigenic crossreactivities (PHA, MOP1, MOP2, MOP3, HEL1, HEL2, and SYR1; PERSAVTOM1, PERSAVTOM2, DEL, POR, and SYR2). Ten O serogroups showed a clearcut specificity: APTPIS, TAB, VIR1, VIR2, VIR3, SYR3, SYR4, SYR5, HUS, and LAC. The last serogroup (RIB) contained strains with rough colony morphology and side chain-deficient LPSs, as evidenced by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polycrylamide gel electrophoresis. The LPS basis of the O serogroups was demonstrated by immunoblotting. Serological reference strains were designated for all of the O serogroups and correspondence was established between the O serogroups studied and seven previous serogroups (L. T. Pastushenko and I.D. Simonovich, Mikrobiol, Zh. 41:222-229 and 330-339, 1979). A total of 355 strains of P. syringae (sensu lato) belonging to 15 pathovars, not including pathovar syringae, were typed into the 23 described O serogroups. O serogroups were assigned after double-diffusion reactions, with each strain compared with serological references. The utility of O serogrouping to study P. syringae pathovar structure and diversity is discussed. PMID:8779574

  8. Genome assortment, not serogroup, defines Vibrio cholerae pandemic strains

    SciTech Connect

    Brettin, Thomas S; Bruce, David C; Challacombe, Jean F; Detter, John C; Han, Cliff S; Munik, A C; Chertkov, Olga; Meincke, Linda; Saunders, Elizabeth; Choi, Seon Y; Haley, Bradd J; Taviani, Elisa; Jeon, Yoon - Seong; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Jae - Hak; Walters, Ronald A; Hug, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a bacterium autochthonous to the aquatic environment, and a serious public health threat. V. cholerae serogroup O1 is responsible for the previous two cholera pandemics, in which classical and El Tor biotypes were dominant in the 6th and the current 7th pandemics, respectively. Cholera researchers continually face newly emerging and re-emerging pathogenic clones carrying combinations of new serogroups as well as of phenotypic and genotypic properties. These genotype and phenotype changes have hampered control of the disease. Here we compare the complete genome sequences of 23 strains of V. cholerae isolated from a variety of sources and geographical locations over the past 98 years in an effort to elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms governing genetic diversity and genesis of new pathogenic clones. The genome-based phylogeny revealed 12 distinct V. cholerae phyletic lineages, of which one, designated the V. cholerae core genome (CG), comprises both O1 classical and EI Tor biotypes. All 7th pandemic clones share nearly identical gene content, i.e., the same genome backbone. The transition from 6th to 7th pandemic strains is defined here as a 'shift' between pathogenic clones belonging to the same O1 serogroup, but from significantly different phyletic lineages within the CG clade. In contrast, transition among clones during the present 7th pandemic period can be characterized as a 'drift' between clones, differentiated mainly by varying composition of laterally transferred genomic islands, resulting in emergence of variants, exemplified by V.cholerae serogroup O139 and V.cholerae O1 El Tor hybrid clones that produce cholera toxin of classical biotype. Based on the comprehensive comparative genomics presented in this study it is concluded that V. cholerae undergoes extensive genetic recombination via lateral gene transfer, and, therefore, genome assortment, not serogroup, should be used to define pathogenic V

  9. The Yersinia pseudotuberculosis complex: characterization and delineation of a new species, Yersinia wautersii.

    PubMed

    Savin, Cyril; Martin, Liliane; Bouchier, Christiane; Filali, Sofia; Chenau, Jérôme; Zhou, Zhemin; Becher, François; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Thomson, Nicholas R; Scholz, Holger C; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2014-05-01

    The genus Yersinia contains three species pathogenic for humans, one of which is the enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. A recent analysis by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) of the 'Y. pseudotuberculosis complex' revealed that this complex comprises three distinct populations: the Y. pestis/Y. pseudotuberculosis group, the recently described species Yersinia similis, and a third not yet characterized population designated 'Korean Group', because most strains were isolated in Korea. The aim of this study was to perform an in depth phenotypic and genetic characterization of the three populations composing the Y. pseudotuberculosis complex (excluding Y. pestis, which belonged to the Y. pseudotuberculosis cluster in the MLST analysis). Using a set of strains representative of each group, we found that the three populations had close metabolic properties, but were nonetheless distinguishable based on D-raffinose and D-melibiose fermentation, and on pyrazinamidase activity. Moreover, high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry highlighted protein peaks characteristic of each population. Their 16S rRNA gene sequences shared high identity (≥99.5%), but specific nucleotide signatures for each group were identified. Multi-Locus Sequence Analysis also identified three genetically closely related but distinct populations. Finally, an Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) analysis performed after sequencing the genomes of a subset of strains of each group also showed that intragroup identity (average for each group ≥99%) was higher than intergroup diversity (94.6-97.4%). Therefore, all phenotypic and genotypic traits studied concurred with the initial MLST data indicating that the Y. pseudotuberculosis complex comprises a third and clearly distinct population of strains forming a novel Yersinia species that we propose to designate Yersinia wautersii sp. nov. The isolation of some strains from humans, the detection of virulence genes (on the pYV and pVM82 plasmids

  10. VA telemental health: suicide assessment.

    PubMed

    Godleski, Linda; Nieves, J Edwin; Darkins, Adam; Lehmann, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) encompasses one of the largest telemental health networks in the world, with over 45,000 videoconferencing and over 5,000 home telemental health encounters annually. Recently, the VA designated suicide prevention as a major priority, with telehealth modalities providing opportunities for remote interventions. Suicide risk assessments, using videoconferencing, are now documented in the literature, as are current studies that find telemental health to be equivalent to face-to-face treatment. Remote assessment of suicidality, however, involves complex legal issues: licensing requirements for remote delivery of care, legal procedures for involuntary detainment and commitment of potentially harmful patients, and liability questions related to the remote nature of the mental health service. VA best practices for remote suicide risk assessment include paradigms for establishing procedures in the context of legal challenges (licensing and involuntary detainment/commitment), for utilizing clinical assessment and triage decision protocols, and for contingency planning to optimize patient care and reduce liability.

  11. Expression, purification and characterization of cold shock protein A of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Lindae, Antje; Eberle, Raphael J; Caruso, Icaro P; Coronado, Monika A; de Moraes, Fabio R; Azevedo, Vasco; Arni, Raghuvir K

    2015-08-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the causative agent of different diseases that cause dramatically reduced yields of wool and milk, and results in weight loss, carcass condemnation and also death mainly in sheep, equids, cattle and goats and therefore globally results in considerable economical loss. Cold shock proteins are conserved in many bacteria and eukaryotic cells and they help to restore normal cell functions after cold shock in which some appear to have specific functions at normal growth temperature as well. Cold shock protein A from C. pseudotuberculosis was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The thermal unfolding/refolding process characterized by circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry and NMR spectroscopy techniques indicated that the refolding process was almost completely reversible.

  12. Expression, purification and characterization of cold shock protein A of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Lindae, Antje; Eberle, Raphael J; Caruso, Icaro P; Coronado, Monika A; de Moraes, Fabio R; Azevedo, Vasco; Arni, Raghuvir K

    2015-08-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the causative agent of different diseases that cause dramatically reduced yields of wool and milk, and results in weight loss, carcass condemnation and also death mainly in sheep, equids, cattle and goats and therefore globally results in considerable economical loss. Cold shock proteins are conserved in many bacteria and eukaryotic cells and they help to restore normal cell functions after cold shock in which some appear to have specific functions at normal growth temperature as well. Cold shock protein A from C. pseudotuberculosis was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The thermal unfolding/refolding process characterized by circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry and NMR spectroscopy techniques indicated that the refolding process was almost completely reversible. PMID:25907380

  13. The Twin Arginine Translocation System Is Essential for Virulence of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lavander, Moa; Ericsson, Solveig K.; Bröms, Jeanette E.; Forsberg, Åke

    2006-01-01

    Yersinia species pathogenic to humans have been extensively characterized with respect to type III secretion and its essential role in virulence. This study concerns the twin arginine translocation (Tat) pathway utilized by gram-negative bacteria to secrete folded proteins across the bacterial inner membrane into the periplasmic compartment. We have shown that the Yersinia Tat system is functional and required for motility and contributes to acid resistance. A Yersinia pseudotuberculosis mutant strain with a disrupted Tat system (tatC) was, however, not affected in in vitro growth or more susceptible to high osmolarity, oxidative stress, or high temperature, nor was it impaired in type III secretion. Interestingly, the tatC mutant was severely attenuated via both the oral and intraperitoneal routes in the systemic mouse infection model and highly impaired in colonization of lymphoid organs like Peyer's patches and the spleen. Our work highlights that Tat secretion plays a key role in the virulence of Y. pseudotuberculosis. PMID:16495550

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of the Attenuated Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain T1.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Sintia; Loureiro, Dan; Portela, Ricardo W; Mariano, Diego C B; Sousa, Thiago J; Pereira, Felipe L; Dorella, Fernanda A; Carvalho, Alex F; Moura-Costa, Lilia F; Leal, Carlos A G; Figueiredo, Henrique C; Meyer, Roberto; Azevedo, Vasco

    2016-01-01

    We present here the genome sequence of the attenuated Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain T1. The sequencing was performed with an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine platform. The genome is a circular chromosome of 2,337,201 bp, with a G+C content of 52.85% and a total of 2,125 coding sequences (CDSs), 12 rRNAs, 49 tRNAs, and 24 pseudogenes. PMID:27609922

  15. [Regulation of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis major porin expression in response to antibiotic stress].

    PubMed

    Bystritskaia, E P; Stenkova, A M; Portniagina, O Iu; Rakin, A V; Rasskazov, V A; Isaeva, M P

    2014-01-01

    The OmpF porin gene expression in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in response to antibiotics of two different classes (kanamycin and nalidixic acid) was analyzed using quantitative PCR and a fluorescence reporter system. Both antibiotics downregulated the expression of the ompF gene. The nalidixic acid significantly reduced ompF expression, while kanamycin, for which porins are considered to be an alternative transport route, only slightly reduced the ompF level.

  16. [Regulation of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis major porin expression in response to antibiotic stress].

    PubMed

    Bystritskaia, E P; Stenkova, A M; Portniagina, O Iu; Rakin, A V; Rasskazov, V A; Isaeva, M P

    2014-01-01

    The OmpF porin gene expression in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in response to antibiotics of two different classes (kanamycin and nalidixic acid) was analyzed using quantitative PCR and a fluorescence reporter system. Both antibiotics downregulated the expression of the ompF gene. The nalidixic acid significantly reduced ompF expression, while kanamycin, for which porins are considered to be an alternative transport route, only slightly reduced the ompF level. PMID:25080814

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of the Attenuated Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain T1

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Sintia; Loureiro, Dan; Mariano, Diego C. B.; Sousa, Thiago J.; Pereira, Felipe L.; Dorella, Fernanda A.; Carvalho, Alex F.; Moura-Costa, Lilia F.; Leal, Carlos A. G.; Figueiredo, Henrique C.; Meyer, Roberto; Azevedo, Vasco

    2016-01-01

    We present here the genome sequence of the attenuated Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain T1. The sequencing was performed with an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine platform. The genome is a circular chromosome of 2,337,201 bp, with a G+C content of 52.85% and a total of 2,125 coding sequences (CDSs), 12 rRNAs, 49 tRNAs, and 24 pseudogenes. PMID:27609922

  18. Sequence Type 4821 Clonal Complex Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis in China, 1978–2013

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bingqing; Xu, Zheng; Du, Pengcheng; Xu, Li; Sun, Xiaofang; Gao, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis strains belonging to sequence type 4821 clonal complex (CC4821), a hyperinvasive lineage first identified for serogroup C in 2003, have been increasingly isolated in China. We characterized the outer membrane protein genes of 48 serogroup B and 214 serogroup C strains belonging to CC4821 and analyzed the genomic sequences of 22 strains. Four serogroup B strains had porin A (i.e., PorA), PorB, and ferric enterobactin transport (i.e., FetA) genotypes identical to those for serogroup C. Phylogenetic analysis of the genomic sequences showed that the 22 CC4821 strains from patients and healthy carriers were unevenly clustered into 2 closely related groups; each group contained serogroup B and C strains. Serogroup B strains appeared variable at the capsule locus, and several recombination events had occurred at uncertain breakpoints. These findings suggest that CC4821 serogroup C N. meningitidis is the probable origin of highly pathogenic CC4821 serogroup B strains. PMID:25989189

  19. Genome-wide evaluation of the interplay between Caenorhabditis elegans and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis during in vivo biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Joshua, George W P; Atkinson, Steve; Goldstone, Robert J; Patrick, Hannah L; Stabler, Richard A; Purves, Joanne; Cámara, Miguel; Williams, Paul; Wren, Brendan W

    2015-01-01

    The formation of an incapacitating biofilm on Caenorhabditis elegans by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis represents a tractable model for investigating the genetic basis for host-pathogen interplay during the biofilm-mediated infection of a living surface. Previously we established a role for quorum sensing (QS) and the master motility regulator, FlhDC, in biofilm formation by Y. pseudotuberculosis on C. elegans. To obtain further genome-wide insights, we used transcriptomic analysis to obtain comparative information on C. elegans in the presence and absence of biofilm and on wild-type Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pseudotuberculosis QS mutants. Infection of C. elegans with the wild-type Y. pseudotuberculosis resulted in the differential regulation of numerous genes, including a distinct subset of nematode C-lectin (clec) and fatty acid desaturase (fat) genes. Evaluation of the corresponding C. elegans clec-49 and fat-3 deletion mutants showed delayed biofilm formation and abolished biofilm formation, respectively. Transcriptomic analysis of Y. pseudotuberculosis revealed that genes located in both of the histidine utilization (hut) operons were upregulated in both QS and flhDC mutants. In addition, mutation of the regulatory gene hutC resulted in the loss of biofilm, increased expression of flhDC, and enhanced swimming motility. These data are consistent with the existence of a regulatory cascade in which the Hut pathway links QS and flhDC. This work also indicates that biofilm formation by Y. pseudotuberculosis on C. elegans is an interactive process during which the initial attachment/recognition of Yersinia to/by C. elegans is followed by bacterial growth and biofilm formation.

  20. Evaluation of three methods for DNA fingerprinting of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from goats in Poland.

    PubMed

    Stefańska, Ilona; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Binek, Marian

    2008-01-01

    Phenotypic approaches based on metabolic and biological characteristics of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis have been limited due to insufficient discrimination between closely related isolates. In this paper we present performance and convenience of three molecular typing methods: BOX-PCR, random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplification of DNA fragments surrounding rare restriction site (ADSRRS-fingerprinting) in genome analysis of these bacteria. Among examined 61 strains there were distinguished four, eight and 10 different genotypes by BOX-PCR, RAPD and ADSRRS-fingerprinting, respectively. The value of discrimination index was the lowest for BOX-PCR (D = 0.265), much bigger for RAPD (D = 0.539) and the highest for ADSRRS-fingerprinting (D = 0.604). The good discriminatory ability and reproducibility of RAPD and ADSRRS-fingerprinting indicates that those techniques may be particularly applied for epidemiological studies of C. pseudotuberculosis isolates. We found that ADSRRS-fingerprinting is a rapid method offering good discrimination power, excellent reproducibility and may be applied for epidemiological studies of intraspecific genetic relatedness of C. pseudotuberculosis strains.

  1. Natural Killer Cells Mediate Protection against Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in the Mesenteric Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Rosenheinrich, Maik; Heine, Wiebke; Schmühl, Carina M.; Pisano, Fabio; Dersch, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer cells play a crucial role in the initial defense against bacterial pathogens. The crosstalk between host cells infected with intracellular pathogens and NK cells has been studied intensively, but not much attention has been given to characterize the role of NK cells in the response to extracellular bacterial pathogens such as yersiniae. In this study we used antibody-mediated NK cell depletion to address the importance of this immune cell type in controlling a Y. pseudotuberculosis infection. Analysis of the bacterial counts was used to follow the infection and flow cytometry was performed to characterize the composition and dynamic of immune cells. Depletion of NK cells led to higher bacterial loads within the mesenteric lymph nodes. We further show that in particular CD11b+ CD27+ NK cells which express higher levels of the activation marker CD69 increase within the mesenteric lymph nodes during a Y. pseudotuberculosis infection. Moreover, in response to the activation NK cells secrete higher levels of IFNy, which in turn triggers the production of the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα. These results suggest, that NK cells aid in the clearance of Y. pseudotuberculosis infections mainly by triggering the expression of proinflammatory cytokines manipulating the host immune response. PMID:26296209

  2. virF-Positive Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica Found in Migratory Birds in Sweden†

    PubMed Central

    Niskanen, Taina; Waldenström, Jonas; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Olsen, Björn; Korkeala, Hannu

    2003-01-01

    During spring and autumn migrations, 468 fecal samples from 57 different species of migratory birds were collected in Sweden. In total, Yersinia spp. were isolated from 12.8% of collected samples. The most commonly found species was Yersinia enterocolitica, which was isolated from 5.6% of all collected samples, followed by Y. intermedia (3.8%), Y. frederiksenii (3.0%), Y. kristensenii (0.9%), Y. pseudotuberculosis (0.6%), and Y. rohdei (0.4%). The pathogenic, virF-positive Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were recovered from three thrushes. These strains belonged to the same bioserotype, 1/O:2, but had two different profiles as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with NotI and SpeI enzymes. In addition, 10 Y. enterocolitica strains, all from barnacle geese, belonged to bioserotype 3/O:3, which is associated with human disease. Two of the strains were pathogenic, carrying the virF gene on their plasmids. All pathogenic Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica strains were recovered during the spring, and as the birds were caught during active migration they likely became infected at an earlier stage of the migration, thus potentially transporting these bacterial pathogens over long geographical distances. PMID:12902256

  3. Reproductive Pathological Changes Associated with Experimental Subchronic Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Infection in Nonpregnant Boer Does

    PubMed Central

    Othman, A. M.; Abba, Y.; Jesse, F. F. A.; Ilyasu, Y. M.; Saharee, A. A.; Haron, A. W.; Zamri-Saad, M.; Lila, M. A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis causes caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), which is a contagious and chronic disease in sheep and goats. In order to assess the histopathological changes observed in the reproductive organs of nonpregnant does infected with the bacteria, 20 apparently healthy adult Boer does were divided into four inoculation groups, intradermal, intranasal, oral, and control, consisting of five goats each. Excluding the control group, which was unexposed, other does were inoculated with 107 CFU/1 mL of live C. pseudotuberculosis through the various routes stated above. Thirty days after infection, the ovaries, uterus, and iliac lymph nodes were collected for bacterial recovery and molecular detection, as well as histopathological examination. The mean changes in necrosis, congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and oedema varied in severity among the ovaries, uterus, and iliac lymph nodes following different inoculation routes. Overall, the intranasal route of inoculation showed more severe (p < 0.05) lesions in all the organs examined. The findings of this study have shown that C. pseudotuberculosis could predispose to infertility resulting from pathological lesions in the uterus and ovaries of does. PMID:27006831

  4. Cross-reactivity among Legionella species and serogroups.

    PubMed Central

    Pelaz, C.; García Albert, L.; Bourgon, C. M.

    1987-01-01

    Cross-reactions of 17 members of the family Legionellaceae were studied by four different serological techniques: immunofluorescence (IF), slide agglutination (SA), microagglutination (MA) and immunodiffusion (ID), using antigens and rabbit antisera prepared in our laboratory. Results obtained corresponded closely with those described by other authors, especially for IF and SA. The 17 antigens were further tested by IF with a panel of sera previously diagnosed as positive for legionella. A high number of positive reactions with several of the antigens tested were found, half of them being positive for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, usually in combination with other serogroups or species. The remaining sera presented a great variety of patterns combining different antigens. PMID:3123264

  5. Complete Genome Sequences of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strains 3/99-5 and 42/02-A, Isolated from Sheep in Scotland and Australia, Respectively

    PubMed Central

    Pethick, Florence E.; Lainson, Alex F.; Yaga, Raja; Flockhart, Allen; Smith, David G. E.; Donachie, Willie; Cerdeira, Louise T.; Silva, Artur; Bol, Erik; Lopes, Thiago S.; Barbosa, Maria S.; Pinto, Anne C.; dos Santos, Anderson R.; Soares, Siomar C.; Almeida, Sintia S.; Guimaraes, Luis C.; Aburjaile, Flavia F.; Abreu, Vinicius A. C.; Ribeiro, Dayana; Fiaux, Karina K.; Diniz, Carlos A. A.; Barbosa, Eudes G. V.; Pereira, Ulisses P.; Hassan, Syed S.; Ali, Amjad; Bakhtiar, Syeda M.; Dorella, Fernanda A.; Carneiro, Adriana R.; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Rocha, Flavia S.; Schneider, Maria P. C.; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco

    2012-01-01

    Here, we report the whole-genome sequences of two ovine-pathogenic Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolates: strain 3/99-5, which represents the first C. pseudotuberculosis genome originating from the United Kingdom, and 42/02-A, the second from Australia. These genome sequences will contribute to the objective of determining the global pan-genome of this bacterium. PMID:22887652

  6. Isolation of Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1 from potting mixes.

    PubMed

    Steele, T W; Lanser, J; Sangster, N

    1990-01-01

    Following a statewide outbreak of legionellosis due to Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1 in South Australia in 1988 and 1989, studies were performed to find a source of the organism. A number of water and soil samples with and without acid decontamination were examined for L. longbeachae by using a selective medium containing vancomycin, aztreonam, and pimafucin. There were no isolations of L. longbeachae from water samples. Organisms resembling L. longbeachae were isolated from a number of samples of potting mixes and from soil surrounding plants in pots collected from the homes of four patients. The organisms were found to persist for 7 months in two potting mixes stored at room temperature. Legionellae were isolated with difficulty from potting mixes which were allowed to dry out. Identification of isolates as L. longbeachae serogroup 1 was confirmed by quantitative DNA hybridization and serological tests. Restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism studies showed minor differences between patient and environmental isolates but differentiated these readily from L. longbeachae serogroup 2 and other antigenically related legionellae. The isolation of L. longbeachae from some potting mixes and the prolonged survival of the organisms in this medium suggest that soil rather than water is the natural habitat of this species and may be the source of human infections.

  7. Isolation of Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1 from potting mixes.

    PubMed Central

    Steele, T W; Lanser, J; Sangster, N

    1990-01-01

    Following a statewide outbreak of legionellosis due to Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1 in South Australia in 1988 and 1989, studies were performed to find a source of the organism. A number of water and soil samples with and without acid decontamination were examined for L. longbeachae by using a selective medium containing vancomycin, aztreonam, and pimafucin. There were no isolations of L. longbeachae from water samples. Organisms resembling L. longbeachae were isolated from a number of samples of potting mixes and from soil surrounding plants in pots collected from the homes of four patients. The organisms were found to persist for 7 months in two potting mixes stored at room temperature. Legionellae were isolated with difficulty from potting mixes which were allowed to dry out. Identification of isolates as L. longbeachae serogroup 1 was confirmed by quantitative DNA hybridization and serological tests. Restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism studies showed minor differences between patient and environmental isolates but differentiated these readily from L. longbeachae serogroup 2 and other antigenically related legionellae. The isolation of L. longbeachae from some potting mixes and the prolonged survival of the organisms in this medium suggest that soil rather than water is the natural habitat of this species and may be the source of human infections. Images PMID:1968736

  8. [Modified EMJH medium for cultivation of Leptospira interrogans serogroup ballum].

    PubMed

    González, A; Borrero, R; Ruiz, J; Batista, N; Fernández, Y; Valdés, Y; González, M

    2006-01-01

    Strains within the Ballum serogroup of spirochete Leptospira show fastidious growth with more exigent nutritional requirements than those of other Leptospira pathogenic strains. The influence of 37 nutritional compounds on the growth of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Ballum was investigated employing the synthetic EMJH medium as the base for the study. Microbial growth was estimated spectrophotometrically and direct counts were performed with a Petroff-Hausser counting chamber. Virulence stability was evaluated by calculating the mean lethal dose in hamsters. Antigenicity stability was evaluated by Western blotting using a specific antiserum. Cell yields commonly obtained in EMJH were triplicated without virulence or antigenicity depletions after culturing in a modified EMJH medium with an increased concentration of Tween 80, and the incorporation of sodium acetate and beef extract. Neither the increased concentration of at least 6 components of EMJH nor the incorporation of a variety of new nutrients stimulated cell yields or the growth rate of the microorganism. The results allow us to make use of an enriched culture medium that promotes high cell yields of this fastidious serogroup most prevalent in humans in Cuba. PMID:17037250

  9. The complete genome sequence of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP31758, the causative agent of Far East scarlet-like fever.

    PubMed

    Eppinger, Mark; Rosovitz, M J; Fricke, Wolfgang Florian; Rasko, David A; Kokorina, Galina; Fayolle, Corinne; Lindler, Luther E; Carniel, Elisabeth; Ravel, Jacques

    2007-08-01

    The first reported Far East scarlet-like fever (FESLF) epidemic swept the Pacific coastal region of Russia in the late 1950s. Symptoms of the severe infection included erythematous skin rash and desquamation, exanthema, hyperhemic tongue, and a toxic shock syndrome. The term FESLF was coined for the infection because it shares clinical presentations with scarlet fever caused by group A streptococci. The causative agent was later identified as Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, although the range of morbidities was vastly different from classical pseudotuberculosis symptoms. To understand the origin and emergence of the peculiar clinical features of FESLF, we have sequenced the genome of the FESLF-causing strain Y. pseudotuberculosis IP31758 and compared it with that of another Y. pseudotuberculosis strain, IP32953, which causes classical gastrointestinal symptoms. The unique gene pool of Y pseudotuberculosis IP31758 accounts for more than 260 strain-specific genes and introduces individual physiological capabilities and virulence determinants, with a significant proportion horizontally acquired that likely originated from Enterobacteriaceae and other soil-dwelling bacteria that persist in the same ecological niche. The mobile genome pool includes two novel plasmids phylogenetically unrelated to all currently reported Yersinia plasmids. An icm/dot type IVB secretion system, shared only with the intracellular persisting pathogens of the order Legionellales, was found on the larger plasmid and could contribute to scarlatinoid fever symptoms in patients due to the introduction of immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive capabilities. We determined the common and unique traits resulting from genome evolution and speciation within the genus Yersinia and drew a more accurate species border between Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis. In contrast to the lack of genetic diversity observed in the evolutionary young descending Y. pestis lineage, the population genetics of Y

  10. Ultraviolet inactivation kinetics of Escherichia coli and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in annular reactors.

    PubMed

    Ye, Z; Koutchma, T; Parisi, B; Larkin, J; Forney, L J

    2007-06-01

    Terrorist threats have precipitated the need for information on the ultraviolet (UV) resistance of potential biothreat agents in food processing, such as Yersinia pestis. The objective of this study was to characterize the resistance of the Yersinia species to UV treatment using a single-lamp annular UV reactor. A novel method is proposed to measure the inactivation kinetics of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, a surrogate of Y. pestis. This proposed method can overcome the disadvantages of the traditional collimated beam approach for liquids with high absorptive properties, such as liquid foods. As a reference, an inactivation rate of Escherichia coli K12 in caramel model solutions was measured first. Both first-order and series-event inactivation models were used to fit UV inactivation data. For the series-event model, an inactivation constant of k(SE)= 0.675 cm(2)/mJ and threshold n= 4 were obtained for E. coli K12 with the coefficient of determination R(2)= 0.987 and the standard deviation of log(10) reductions sigma(y)= 0.133. For Y. pseudotuberculosis, k(SE)= 0.984 cm(2)/mJ and n= 3 were obtained with R(2)= 0.972 and sigma(y)= 0.212. In contrast, for the first-order inactivation model, the first-order inactivation constant k(1)= 0.325 cm(2)/mJ with R(2)= 0.907 and sigma(y)= 0.354 was found for E. coli; and k(1)= 0.557 cm(2)/mJ with R(2)= 0.916 and sigma(y)= 0.402 was obtained for Y. pseudotuberculosis. Based on R(2), sigma(y), and the maximum absolute and relative errors, the series-event inactivation model describes the UV inactivation kinetics of Y. pseudotuberculosis and E. coli better than the first-order model. It is apparent that Y. pseudotuberculosis is less resistant to UV light than E. coli K12.

  11. Is the microagglutination test (MAT) good for predicting the infecting serogroup for leptospirosis in Brazil?

    PubMed

    Blanco, Roberta Morozetti; dos Santos, Luis Fernando; Galloway, Renee Lynn; Romero, Eliete Caló

    2016-02-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection caused by pathogenic members of the genus Leptospira spp. Knowledge of the prevalent serovars and their maintenance hosts is essential to understand the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of serology by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) to predict the serogroups compared with results of identification of leptospires in São Paulo, Brazil. MAT correctly assigned the serogroup of the infecting isolate in 49/52 cases (94.23%). The serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae was the predominant serogroup (88.46%). This study showed the usefulness of the MAT to correctly identify the infecting serogroup with a good overall agreement between the serologically-identified infecting serogroup and by identification of the isolate and can be used in epidemiological surveys in São Paulo. However, it should be complemented by the identification of Leptospira isolates. PMID:26851592

  12. Distribution of Leptospira Serogroups in Cattle Herds and Dogs in France

    PubMed Central

    Ayral, Florence C.; Bicout, Dominique J.; Pereira, Helena; Artois, Marc; Kodjo, Angeli

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to identify and describe the distribution pattern of Leptospira serogroups in domestic animals in France. The population consisted of cattle herds and dogs with clinically suspected leptospirosis that were tested at the “Laboratoire des Leptospires” between 2008 and 2011. The laboratory database was queried for records of cattle and dogs in which seroreactivity in Leptospira microagglutination tests was consistent with a recent or current infection, excluding vaccine serogroups in dogs. A total of 394 cattle herds and 232 dogs were diagnosed with clinical leptospirosis, and the results suggested infection by the Leptospira serogroup Australis in 43% and 63%, respectively; by the Leptospira serogroup Grippotyphosa in 17% and 9%, respectively; and by the Leptospira serogroup Sejroe in 33% and 6%, respectively. This inventory of infecting Leptospira serogroups revealed that current vaccines in France are not fully capable of preventing the clinical form of the disease. PMID:25092816

  13. Distribution of Leptospira serogroups in cattle herds and dogs in France.

    PubMed

    Ayral, Florence C; Bicout, Dominique J; Pereira, Helena; Artois, Marc; Kodjo, Angeli

    2014-10-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to identify and describe the distribution pattern of Leptospira serogroups in domestic animals in France. The population consisted of cattle herds and dogs with clinically suspected leptospirosis that were tested at the "Laboratoire des Leptospires" between 2008 and 2011. The laboratory database was queried for records of cattle and dogs in which seroreactivity in Leptospira microagglutination tests was consistent with a recent or current infection, excluding vaccine serogroups in dogs. A total of 394 cattle herds and 232 dogs were diagnosed with clinical leptospirosis, and the results suggested infection by the Leptospira serogroup Australis in 43% and 63%, respectively; by the Leptospira serogroup Grippotyphosa in 17% and 9%, respectively; and by the Leptospira serogroup Sejroe in 33% and 6%, respectively. This inventory of infecting Leptospira serogroups revealed that current vaccines in France are not fully capable of preventing the clinical form of the disease. PMID:25092816

  14. Far East Scarlet-Like Fever: A Review of the Epidemiology, Symptomatology, and Role of Superantigenic Toxin: Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-Derived Mitogen A.

    PubMed

    Amphlett, A

    2016-01-01

    Far East scarlet-like fever (FESLF) is a severe inflammatory disease that occurs sporadically and in outbreaks in Russia and Japan. Far East scarlet-like fever is caused by Yersinia pseudotubuclosis infection, an organism that typically causes self-limiting gastroenteritis in Europe. Studies suggest the ability of Far Eastern strains to produce superantigen toxin Y pseudotuberculosis-derived mitogen A is integral to FESLF pathogenesis. In Europe, human Y pseudotuberculosis infection typically occurs sporadically, in the form of a self-limiting gastroenteritis. In Russia and Japan, outbreaks of Y pseudotuberculosis infection cause severe systemic inflammatory symptoms. This disease variant is called FESLF. Geographical heterogeneity exists between virulence factors produced by European and Far Eastern Y pseudotuberculosis strains, implicating superantigen Y pseudotuberculosis-derived mitogen A (YPMa) in the pathogenesis of FESLF. This article describes the epidemiology and clinical features of FESLF, and it presents the evidence for the role of YPMa in FESLF pathogenesis.

  15. Far East Scarlet-Like Fever: A Review of the Epidemiology, Symptomatology, and Role of Superantigenic Toxin: Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-Derived Mitogen A

    PubMed Central

    Amphlett, A.

    2016-01-01

    Far East scarlet-like fever (FESLF) is a severe inflammatory disease that occurs sporadically and in outbreaks in Russia and Japan. Far East scarlet-like fever is caused by Yersinia pseudotubuclosis infection, an organism that typically causes self-limiting gastroenteritis in Europe. Studies suggest the ability of Far Eastern strains to produce superantigen toxin Y pseudotuberculosis-derived mitogen A is integral to FESLF pathogenesis. In Europe, human Y pseudotuberculosis infection typically occurs sporadically, in the form of a self-limiting gastroenteritis. In Russia and Japan, outbreaks of Y pseudotuberculosis infection cause severe systemic inflammatory symptoms. This disease variant is called FESLF. Geographical heterogeneity exists between virulence factors produced by European and Far Eastern Y pseudotuberculosis strains, implicating superantigen Y pseudotuberculosis-derived mitogen A (YPMa) in the pathogenesis of FESLF. This article describes the epidemiology and clinical features of FESLF, and it presents the evidence for the role of YPMa in FESLF pathogenesis. PMID:26819960

  16. Salmonella Serogroup C: Current Status of Vaccines and Why They Are Needed.

    PubMed

    Fuche, Fabien J; Sow, Ousmane; Simon, Raphael; Tennant, Sharon M

    2016-09-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS; i.e., Salmonella enterica organisms that do not cause typhoid or paratyphoid) are responsible for 94 million infections and 155,000 deaths worldwide annually, 86% of which are estimated to be foodborne. Although more than 50 serogroups and 2,600 serovars have been described, not all Salmonella serovars cause disease in humans and animals. Efforts are being made to develop NTS vaccines, with most approaches eliciting protection against serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis (serogroups B [O:4] and D [O:9], respectively), as they are widely considered the most prevalent. Here, we show that serogroup C (O:6,7, O:6,8, or O:8 epitopes) is the most common serogroup in the United States, and the prevalence of serovars from this serogroup has been increasing in Europe and the United States over the last decade. They are also the most commonly isolated serovars from healthy cattle and poultry, indicating the underlying importance of surveillance in animals. Four out of the 10 most lethal serovars in the United States are serogroup C, and reports from African countries suggest that strains within this serogroup are highly antibiotic resistant. Serogroup C consists of highly diverse organisms among which 37 serovars account for the majority of human cases, compared to 17 and 11 serovars for serogroups B and D, respectively. Despite these concerning data, no human vaccines targeting serogroup C NTS are available, and animal vaccines are in limited use. Here, we describe the underestimated burden represented by serogroup C NTS, as well as a discussion of vaccines that target these pathogens. PMID:27413069

  17. Bayesian Geostatistical Analysis and Ecoclimatic Determinants of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Infection among Horses.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Courtney; Davis, Elizabeth G; Beard, Laurie A; Lubbers, Brian V; Raghavan, Ram K

    2015-01-01

    Kansas witnessed an unprecedented outbreak in Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection among horses, a disease commonly referred to as pigeon fever during fall 2012. Bayesian geostatistical models were developed to identify key environmental and climatic risk factors associated with C. pseudotuberculosis infection in horses. Positive infection status among horses (cases) was determined by positive test results for characteristic abscess formation, positive bacterial culture on purulent material obtained from a lanced abscess (n = 82), or positive serologic evidence of exposure to organism (≥ 1:512)(n = 11). Horses negative for these tests (n = 172)(controls) were considered free of infection. Information pertaining to horse demographics and stabled location were obtained through review of medical records and/or contact with horse owners via telephone. Covariate information for environmental and climatic determinants were obtained from USDA (soil attributes), USGS (land use/land cover), and NASA MODIS and NASA Prediction of Worldwide Renewable Resources (climate). Candidate covariates were screened using univariate regression models followed by Bayesian geostatistical models with and without covariates. The best performing model indicated a protective effect for higher soil moisture content (OR = 0.53, 95% CrI = 0.25, 0.71), and detrimental effects for higher land surface temperature (≥ 35°C) (OR = 2.81, 95% CrI = 2.21, 3.85) and habitat fragmentation (OR = 1.31, 95% CrI = 1.27, 2.22) for C. pseudotuberculosis infection status in horses, while age, gender and breed had no effect. Preventative and ecoclimatic significance of these findings are discussed.

  18. Proteome scale comparative modeling for conserved drug and vaccine targets identification in Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Syed Shah; Tiwari, Sandeep; Guimarães, Luís Carlos; Jamal, Syed Babar; Folador, Edson; Sharma, Neha Barve; de Castro Soares, Siomar; Almeida, Síntia; Ali, Amjad; Islam, Arshad; Póvoa, Fabiana Dias; de Abreu, Vinicius Augusto Carvalho; Jain, Neha; Bhattacharya, Antaripa; Juneja, Lucky; Miyoshi, Anderson; Silva, Artur; Barh, Debmalya; Turjanski, Adrian Gustavo; Azevedo, Vasco; Ferreira, Rafaela Salgado

    2014-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (Cp) is a pathogenic bacterium that causes caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), ulcerative lymphangitis, mastitis, and edematous to a broad spectrum of hosts, including ruminants, thereby threatening economic and dairy industries worldwide. Currently there is no effective drug or vaccine available against Cp. To identify new targets, we adopted a novel integrative strategy, which began with the prediction of the modelome (tridimensional protein structures for the proteome of an organism, generated through comparative modeling) for 15 previously sequenced C. pseudotuberculosis strains. This pan-modelomics approach identified a set of 331 conserved proteins having 95-100% intra-species sequence similarity. Next, we combined subtractive proteomics and modelomics to reveal a set of 10 Cp proteins, which may be essential for the bacteria. Of these, 4 proteins (tcsR, mtrA, nrdI, and ispH) were essential and non-host homologs (considering man, horse, cow and sheep as hosts) and satisfied all criteria of being putative targets. Additionally, we subjected these 4 proteins to virtual screening of a drug-like compound library. In all cases, molecules predicted to form favorable interactions and which showed high complementarity to the target were found among the top ranking compounds. The remaining 6 essential proteins (adk, gapA, glyA, fumC, gnd, and aspA) have homologs in the host proteomes. Their active site cavities were compared to the respective cavities in host proteins. We propose that some of these proteins can be selectively targeted using structure-based drug design approaches (SBDD). Our results facilitate the selection of C. pseudotuberculosis putative proteins for developing broad-spectrum novel drugs and vaccines. A few of the targets identified here have been validated in other microorganisms, suggesting that our modelome strategy is effective and can also be applicable to other pathogens.

  19. Bayesian Geostatistical Analysis and Ecoclimatic Determinants of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Infection among Horses

    PubMed Central

    Boysen, Courtney; Davis, Elizabeth G.; Beard, Laurie A.; Lubbers, Brian V.; Raghavan, Ram K.

    2015-01-01

    Kansas witnessed an unprecedented outbreak in Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection among horses, a disease commonly referred to as pigeon fever during fall 2012. Bayesian geostatistical models were developed to identify key environmental and climatic risk factors associated with C. pseudotuberculosis infection in horses. Positive infection status among horses (cases) was determined by positive test results for characteristic abscess formation, positive bacterial culture on purulent material obtained from a lanced abscess (n = 82), or positive serologic evidence of exposure to organism (≥1:512)(n = 11). Horses negative for these tests (n = 172)(controls) were considered free of infection. Information pertaining to horse demographics and stabled location were obtained through review of medical records and/or contact with horse owners via telephone. Covariate information for environmental and climatic determinants were obtained from USDA (soil attributes), USGS (land use/land cover), and NASA MODIS and NASA Prediction of Worldwide Renewable Resources (climate). Candidate covariates were screened using univariate regression models followed by Bayesian geostatistical models with and without covariates. The best performing model indicated a protective effect for higher soil moisture content (OR = 0.53, 95% CrI = 0.25, 0.71), and detrimental effects for higher land surface temperature (≥35°C) (OR = 2.81, 95% CrI = 2.21, 3.85) and habitat fragmentation (OR = 1.31, 95% CrI = 1.27, 2.22) for C. pseudotuberculosis infection status in horses, while age, gender and breed had no effect. Preventative and ecoclimatic significance of these findings are discussed. PMID:26473728

  20. Bayesian Geostatistical Analysis and Ecoclimatic Determinants of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Infection among Horses.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Courtney; Davis, Elizabeth G; Beard, Laurie A; Lubbers, Brian V; Raghavan, Ram K

    2015-01-01

    Kansas witnessed an unprecedented outbreak in Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection among horses, a disease commonly referred to as pigeon fever during fall 2012. Bayesian geostatistical models were developed to identify key environmental and climatic risk factors associated with C. pseudotuberculosis infection in horses. Positive infection status among horses (cases) was determined by positive test results for characteristic abscess formation, positive bacterial culture on purulent material obtained from a lanced abscess (n = 82), or positive serologic evidence of exposure to organism (≥ 1:512)(n = 11). Horses negative for these tests (n = 172)(controls) were considered free of infection. Information pertaining to horse demographics and stabled location were obtained through review of medical records and/or contact with horse owners via telephone. Covariate information for environmental and climatic determinants were obtained from USDA (soil attributes), USGS (land use/land cover), and NASA MODIS and NASA Prediction of Worldwide Renewable Resources (climate). Candidate covariates were screened using univariate regression models followed by Bayesian geostatistical models with and without covariates. The best performing model indicated a protective effect for higher soil moisture content (OR = 0.53, 95% CrI = 0.25, 0.71), and detrimental effects for higher land surface temperature (≥ 35°C) (OR = 2.81, 95% CrI = 2.21, 3.85) and habitat fragmentation (OR = 1.31, 95% CrI = 1.27, 2.22) for C. pseudotuberculosis infection status in horses, while age, gender and breed had no effect. Preventative and ecoclimatic significance of these findings are discussed. PMID:26473728

  1. Yersiniae other than Y. enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. pestis: the ignored species.

    PubMed

    Sulakvelidze, A

    2000-04-01

    The genus Yersinia is composed of 11 species, of which three (Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. enterocolitica) have been exhaustively characterized. The remaining eight species (Y. frederiksenii, Y. intermedia, Y. kristensenii, Y. bercovieri, Y. mollaretii, Y. rohdei, Y. ruckeri, and Y. aldovae) have not been studied extensively and, because of the absence of classical Yersinia virulence markers, are generally considered to be nonpathogenic. However, recent data suggest that some of these eight species may cause disease by virtue of their having virulence factors distinct from those of Y. enterocolitica. These data raise intriguing questions about the mechanisms by which these species interact with their host cells and elicit human disease.

  2. Increase in Meningococcal Serogroup W Disease, Victoria, Australia, 2013–2015

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Kerrie; Sohail, Asma; Franklin, Lucinda J.; Bond, Katherine A.; Brahmi, Aicha; Romanes, Finn; Ong, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    In Victoria, Australia, invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W increased from 4% of all cases in 2013 to 30% in 2015. This increase resulted largely from strains similar to those in the serogroup W sequence type 11 clonal complex, previously described in the United Kingdom and South America. PMID:27648521

  3. Trends in ExPEC serogroups in the UK and their significance.

    PubMed

    Ciesielczuk, H; Jenkins, C; Chattaway, M; Doumith, M; Hope, R; Woodford, N; Wareham, D W

    2016-10-01

    Extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli are a significant cause of urinary tract infection and bacteraemia within the UK. We sought to identify the serogroups of 658 E. coli isolates collected in the UK between January 2011 and March 2012, to better understand the ExPEC population and understand the relevance of serogroups in this pathotype. Isolates were typed and serogroup identified using established phenotypic and molecular methods. Sixty-two serogroups were identified; 54 among urinary isolates and 35 among bloodstream isolates. However, serogroups O25, O6, and O2 dominated both infection types. These serogroups were linked to the major ExPEC STs as follows: ST131-O25, ST73-O6, ST127-O6, and ST95-O2. The serogroup data from this study have increased our understanding of the ExPEC population in the UK, but also highlighted key ST-serogroup relationships within the major ExPEC clones. These data can be used to guide vaccine design and in the development of laboratory diagnostic tests targeting the ExPEC population. PMID:27329302

  4. Characterisation of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolated from animals with yersiniosis during 1996-2013 indicates the presence of pathogenic and Far Eastern strains in Italy.

    PubMed

    Magistrali, C F; Cucco, L; Pezzotti, G; Farneti, S; Cambiotti, V; Catania, S; Prati, P; Fabbi, M; Lollai, S; Mangili, P; Sebastiani, C; Bano, L; Dionisi, A M; Luzzi, I

    2015-10-22

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a pathogen that infects both animals and humans worldwide. The epidemiology of infection caused by Y. pseudotuberculosis is poorly understood; however, its outbreaks have been traced back to a probable source in wildlife. This study aimed to characterise Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates collected from animals with yersiniosis. This study included 90 isolates of Y. pseudotuberculosis collected from different animals with yersiniosis between 1996 and 2013 in Italy. The isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and were biotyped. Genes associated with virulence plasmid pYV and those encoding O-antigen, high pathogenicity island (HPI), and superantigenic toxin (YPM) were determined by performing PCR. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed using NotI and SpeI enzymes, and 3 dendrograms were generated. No antibiotic resistance was found. The presence of pYV was shown in 57 out of 90 isolates. Virulence profiles of majority of the isolates indicated that they belonged to O:1a and O:1b serotypes, biotype 1, and genetic type 2. Isolates belonging to O:2a serotype were detected in sheep and cattle and were found to be associated (for the first time) with septicemia in hares. Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates belonging to O:5a and O:12-O13 serotypes were also detected in hares. To our knowledge, this is the first study to detect Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates belonging to the O:12-O13 serotype from a clinical case in Europe. Results of PFGE indicated that it was a reliable method for investigating the genetic relatedness of Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates. Thus, characterisation of Y. pseudotuberculosis infection in animals should be considered a possible tool for the surveillance of pseudotuberculosis.

  5. Whole genome sequence-based serogrouping of Listeria monocytogenes isolates.

    PubMed

    Hyden, Patrick; Pietzka, Ariane; Lennkh, Anna; Murer, Andrea; Springer, Burkhard; Blaschitz, Marion; Indra, Alexander; Huhulescu, Steliana; Allerberger, Franz; Ruppitsch, Werner; Sensen, Christoph W

    2016-10-10

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is currently becoming the method of choice for characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates in national reference laboratories (NRLs). WGS is superior with regards to accuracy, resolution and analysis speed in comparison to several other methods including serotyping, PCR, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and multivirulence-locus sequence typing (MVLST), which have been used thus far for the characterization of bacterial isolates (and are still important tools in reference laboratories today) to control and prevent listeriosis, one of the major sources of foodborne diseases for humans. Backward compatibility of WGS to former methods can be maintained by extraction of the respective information from WGS data. Serotyping was the first subtyping method for L. monocytogenes capable of differentiating 12 serovars and national reference laboratories still perform serotyping and PCR-based serogrouping as a first level classification method for Listeria monocytogenes surveillance. Whole genome sequence based core genome MLST analysis of a L. monocytogenes collection comprising 172 isolates spanning all 12 serotypes was performed for serogroup determination. These isolates clustered according to their serotypes and it was possible to group them either into the IIa, IIc, IVb or IIb clusters, respectively, which were generated by minimum spanning tree (MST) and neighbor joining (NJ) tree data analysis, demonstrating the power of the new approach.

  6. [Effect of blue-green alga (Cyanobacteria) and their exometabolites on formation of resting forms and variability of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Solokhina, L V; Pushkareva, V I; Litvin, V Iu

    2001-01-01

    Research, carried out with the use of bacteriological methods and polymerase chain reaction, revealed that the transformation of Y. pseudotuberculosis, associated with blue-green algae Anabaena variabilis, into resting (noncultivable) forms took shorter time than in soil extract containing no algae. The exometabolites of "old" cultures of these algae sharply accelerated the formation of resting Y. pseudotuberculosis forms. The influence of the algae and the products of their metabolism was manifested far more intensively at 22 degrees C than at 4 degrees C. After passage through infusoria resting Y. pseudotuberculosis forms, preserved in the mucous covering of cyanobacteria, partially reverted into vegetative forms, capable of growing on solid culture media. The revertants essentially differed from the initial vegetative forms by having lower enzymatic activity, agglutinability and cytopathogenicity, as well as by the loss of plasmid p45. The probable role of blue-green algae, widely spread in soils and water reservoirs, in the processes of reversible transformation of Y. pseudotuberculosis vegetative and resting forms, closely connected with seasonal changes of temperature conditions. PMID:11550552

  7. Mixed infections of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria in South African antelopes presenting with tuberculosis-like lesions.

    PubMed

    Müller, Borna; de Klerk-Lorist, Lin-Mari; Henton, Marijke M; Lane, Emily; Parsons, Sven; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C; Kotze, Antoinette; van Helden, Paul D; Tanner, Manfred

    2011-01-27

    Routine meat inspection of antelope carcasses from a South African game reserve revealed a high prevalence of tuberculosis-like lesions. This study aimed to identify the causative agent of this disease and to describe its pathological features. In total, 139 antelopes were randomly harvested from the game reserve and subjected to meat inspection. Of these animals, 46 (33%) showed gross visible, tuberculosis-like lesions. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of encapsulated necrogranulomas in organs and/or lymph nodes of 22 of 27 animals tested. Tissue samples from lesions were processed for both non-selective bacterial culture and mycobacterial culture following decontamination. In non-selective cultures of lesions from 25 of 31 animals tested, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was detected. Isolation of C. pseudotuberculosis was closely associated with the presence of necrogranulomas. In mycobacterial cultures of lesions from 9 of 41 animals tested, different species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTMs) were detected. In 5 instances, depending on the culture procedure that was applied, either C. pseudotuberculosis or NTMs were isolated from the same tissue sample. Our results suggest that the disease has been caused by infections with C. pseudotuberculosis. In sub-Saharan Africa, the role of pathogens other than Mycobacterium bovis may be underestimated in causing tuberculosis-like lesions. In cases where potentially pathogenic NTMs are isolated from mycobacterial cultures of tuberculosis-like lesions, the non-use of additional non-selective culture techniques could lead to misinterpretations of the diagnostic test results.

  8. In Vitro Susceptibility of Equine-Obtained Isolates of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis to Gallium Maltolate and 20 Other Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Batista, M.; Lawhon, S. D.; Zhang, S.; Kuskie, K. R.; Swinford, A. K.; Bernstein, L. R.; Cohen, N. D.

    2014-01-01

    This study's objective was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of gallium maltolate (GaM) and 20 other antimicrobial agents against clinical equine isolates of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. The growth of cultured isolates was not inhibited by any concentration of GaM. MIC data revealed susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobials. PMID:24829243

  9. Tips and tricks for the assembly of a Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis genome using a semiconductor sequencer

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Soares, Siomar de Castro; dos Santos, Anderson Rodrigues; Almeida, Sintia; Guimarães, Luis; Figueira, Flávia; Barbosa, Eudes; Tauch, Andreas; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur

    2013-01-01

    New sequencing platforms have enabled rapid decoding of complete prokaryotic genomes at relatively low cost. The Ion Torrent platform is an example of these technologies, characterized by lower coverage, generating challenges for the genome assembly. One particular problem is the lack of genomes that enable reference-based assembly, such as the one used in the present study, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar equi, which causes high economic losses in the US equine industry. The quality treatment strategy incorporated into the assembly pipeline enabled a 16-fold greater use of the sequencing data obtained compared with traditional quality filter approaches. Data preprocessing prior to the de novo assembly enabled the use of known methodologies in the next-generation sequencing data assembly. Moreover, manual curation was proved to be essential for ensuring a quality assembly, which was validated by comparative genomics with other species of the genus Corynebacterium. The present study presents a modus operandi that enables a greater and better use of data obtained from semiconductor sequencing for obtaining the complete genome from a prokaryotic microorganism, C. pseudotuberculosis, which is not a traditional biological model such as Escherichia coli. PMID:23199210

  10. Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Genes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Promote Resistance to Antimicrobial Chemokines.

    PubMed

    Erickson, David L; Lew, Cynthia S; Kartchner, Brittany; Porter, Nathan T; McDaniel, S Wade; Jones, Nathan M; Mason, Sara; Wu, Erin; Wilson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial chemokines (AMCs) are a recently described family of host defense peptides that play an important role in protecting a wide variety of organisms from bacterial infection. Very little is known about the bacterial targets of AMCs or factors that influence bacterial susceptibility to AMCs. In an effort to understand how bacterial pathogens resist killing by AMCs, we screened Yersinia pseudotuberculosis transposon mutants for those with increased binding to the AMCs CCL28 and CCL25. Mutants exhibiting increased binding to AMCs were subjected to AMC killing assays, which revealed their increased sensitivity to chemokine-mediated cell death. The majority of the mutants exhibiting increased binding to AMCs contained transposon insertions in genes related to lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. A particularly strong effect on susceptibility to AMC mediated killing was observed by disruption of the hldD/waaF/waaC operon, necessary for ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose synthesis and a complete lipopolysaccharide core oligosaccharide. Periodate oxidation of surface carbohydrates also enhanced AMC binding, whereas enzymatic removal of surface proteins significantly reduced binding. These results suggest that the structure of Y. pseudotuberculosis LPS greatly affects the antimicrobial activity of AMCs by shielding a protein ligand on the bacterial cell surface.

  11. Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Genes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Promote Resistance to Antimicrobial Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, David L.; Lew, Cynthia S.; Kartchner, Brittany; Porter, Nathan T.; McDaniel, S. Wade; Jones, Nathan M.; Mason, Sara; Wu, Erin; Wilson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial chemokines (AMCs) are a recently described family of host defense peptides that play an important role in protecting a wide variety of organisms from bacterial infection. Very little is known about the bacterial targets of AMCs or factors that influence bacterial susceptibility to AMCs. In an effort to understand how bacterial pathogens resist killing by AMCs, we screened Yersinia pseudotuberculosis transposon mutants for those with increased binding to the AMCs CCL28 and CCL25. Mutants exhibiting increased binding to AMCs were subjected to AMC killing assays, which revealed their increased sensitivity to chemokine-mediated cell death. The majority of the mutants exhibiting increased binding to AMCs contained transposon insertions in genes related to lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. A particularly strong effect on susceptibility to AMC mediated killing was observed by disruption of the hldD/waaF/waaC operon, necessary for ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose synthesis and a complete lipopolysaccharide core oligosaccharide. Periodate oxidation of surface carbohydrates also enhanced AMC binding, whereas enzymatic removal of surface proteins significantly reduced binding. These results suggest that the structure of Y. pseudotuberculosis LPS greatly affects the antimicrobial activity of AMCs by shielding a protein ligand on the bacterial cell surface. PMID:27275606

  12. Characterization of the Opp Peptide Transporter of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and Its Role in Virulence and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Pablo M. R. O.; Seyffert, Nubia; Silva, Wanderson M.; Castro, Thiago L. P.; Silva, Renata F.; Lima, Danielle D.; Hirata, Raphael; Silva, Artur; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco

    2014-01-01

    Despite the economic importance of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), a chronic disease caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, few genes related to the virulence of its etiologic agent have been characterized. The oligopeptide permease (Opp) transporters are located in the plasma membrane and have functions generally related to the uptake of peptides from the extracellular environment. These peptide transporters, in addition to having an important role in cell nutrition, also participate in the regulation of various processes involving intercellular signaling, including the control of the expression of virulence genes in pathogenic bacteria. To study the role of Opp in C. pseudotuberculosis, an OppD deficient strain was constructed via simple crossover with a nonreplicative plasmid carrying part of the oppD gene sequence. As occurred to the wild-type, the ΔoppD strain showed impaired growth when exposed to the toxic glutathione peptide (GSH), indicating two possible scenarios: (i) that this component can be internalized by the bacterium through an Opp-independent pathway or (ii) that there is toxicity while the peptide is extracellular. Additionally, the ΔoppD mutant presented a reduced ability to adhere to and infect macrophages compared to the wild-type, although both strains exhibit the same potential to colonize spleens and cause injury and death to infected mice. PMID:24895581

  13. Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Genes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Promote Resistance to Antimicrobial Chemokines.

    PubMed

    Erickson, David L; Lew, Cynthia S; Kartchner, Brittany; Porter, Nathan T; McDaniel, S Wade; Jones, Nathan M; Mason, Sara; Wu, Erin; Wilson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial chemokines (AMCs) are a recently described family of host defense peptides that play an important role in protecting a wide variety of organisms from bacterial infection. Very little is known about the bacterial targets of AMCs or factors that influence bacterial susceptibility to AMCs. In an effort to understand how bacterial pathogens resist killing by AMCs, we screened Yersinia pseudotuberculosis transposon mutants for those with increased binding to the AMCs CCL28 and CCL25. Mutants exhibiting increased binding to AMCs were subjected to AMC killing assays, which revealed their increased sensitivity to chemokine-mediated cell death. The majority of the mutants exhibiting increased binding to AMCs contained transposon insertions in genes related to lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. A particularly strong effect on susceptibility to AMC mediated killing was observed by disruption of the hldD/waaF/waaC operon, necessary for ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose synthesis and a complete lipopolysaccharide core oligosaccharide. Periodate oxidation of surface carbohydrates also enhanced AMC binding, whereas enzymatic removal of surface proteins significantly reduced binding. These results suggest that the structure of Y. pseudotuberculosis LPS greatly affects the antimicrobial activity of AMCs by shielding a protein ligand on the bacterial cell surface. PMID:27275606

  14. Whole-Genome Characterization of Epidemic Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C and Resurgence of Serogroup W, Niger, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Kretz, Cecilia B.; Retchless, Adam C.; Sidikou, Fati; Issaka, Bassira; Ousmane, Sani; Schwartz, Stephanie; Tate, Ashley H.; Pana, Assimawè; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Nzeyimana, Innocent; Nse, Ricardo Obama; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine; Hong, Eva; Brynildsrud, Ola Brønstad; Novak, Ryan T.; Meyer, Sarah A.; Oukem-Boyer, Odile Ouwe Missi; Ronveaux, Olivier; Caugant, Dominique A.; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, Niger reported the largest epidemic of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (NmC) meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa. The NmC epidemic coincided with serogroup W (NmW) cases during the epidemic season, resulting in a total of 9,367 meningococcal cases through June 2015. To clarify the phylogenetic association, genetic evolution, and antibiotic determinants of the meningococcal strains in Niger, we sequenced the genomes of 102 isolates from this epidemic, comprising 81 NmC and 21 NmW isolates. The genomes of 82 isolates were completed, and all 102 were included in the analysis. All NmC isolates had sequence type 10217, which caused the outbreaks in Nigeria during 2013–2014 and for which a clonal complex has not yet been defined. The NmC isolates from Niger were substantially different from other NmC isolates collected globally. All NmW isolates belonged to clonal complex 11 and were closely related to the isolates causing recent outbreaks in Africa. PMID:27649262

  15. Whole-Genome Characterization of Epidemic Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C and Resurgence of Serogroup W, Niger, 2015.

    PubMed

    Kretz, Cecilia B; Retchless, Adam C; Sidikou, Fati; Issaka, Bassira; Ousmane, Sani; Schwartz, Stephanie; Tate, Ashley H; Pana, Assimawè; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Nzeyimana, Innocent; Nse, Ricardo Obama; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine; Hong, Eva; Brynildsrud, Ola Brønstad; Novak, Ryan T; Meyer, Sarah A; Oukem-Boyer, Odile Ouwe Missi; Ronveaux, Olivier; Caugant, Dominique A; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Wang, Xin

    2016-10-01

    In 2015, Niger reported the largest epidemic of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (NmC) meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa. The NmC epidemic coincided with serogroup W (NmW) cases during the epidemic season, resulting in a total of 9,367 meningococcal cases through June 2015. To clarify the phylogenetic association, genetic evolution, and antibiotic determinants of the meningococcal strains in Niger, we sequenced the genomes of 102 isolates from this epidemic, comprising 81 NmC and 21 NmW isolates. The genomes of 82 isolates were completed, and all 102 were included in the analysis. All NmC isolates had sequence type 10217, which caused the outbreaks in Nigeria during 2013-2014 and for which a clonal complex has not yet been defined. The NmC isolates from Niger were substantially different from other NmC isolates collected globally. All NmW isolates belonged to clonal complex 11 and were closely related to the isolates causing recent outbreaks in Africa. PMID:27649262

  16. Subcellular proteomic analysis of host-pathogen interactions using human monocytes exposed to Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, C G; Gonzales, A D; Choi, M W; Chromy, B A; Fitch, J P; McCutchen-Maloney, S L

    2004-05-20

    Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague, is of concern to human health both from an infectious disease and a civilian biodefense perspective. While Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis share more than 90% DNA homology, they have significantly different clinical manifestations. Plague is often fatal if untreated, yet Y. pseudotuberculosis causes severe intestinal distress and is rarely fatal. A better understanding of host response to these closely related pathogens may help explain the different mechanisms of virulence and pathogenesis that result in such different clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to characterize host protein expression changes in human monocyte-like U937 cells after exposure to Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis. In order to gain global proteomic coverage of host response, proteins from cytoplasmic, nuclear and membrane fractions of host cells were studied by 2-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and relative protein expression differences were quantitated. Differentially expressed proteins, with at least 1.5 fold expression changes and p values of 0.01 or less, were identified by MALDI-MS or LC/MS/MS. With these criteria, differential expression was detected in 16 human proteins after Y. pestis exposure and 13 human proteins after Y. pseudotuberculosis exposure, of which only two of the differentially expressed proteins identified were shared between the two exposures. Proteins identified in this study are reported to be involved in a wide spectrum of cellular functions and host defense mechanisms including apoptosis, cytoskeletal rearrangement, protein synthesis and degradation, DNA replication and transcription, metabolism, protein folding, and cell signaling. Notably, the differential expression patterns observed can distinguish the two pathogen exposures from each other and from unexposed host cells. The functions of the differentially expressed proteins identified provide insight on the different

  17. KaVA ESTEMA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyadomari, Miyako; Imai, Hiroshi; Cho, Se-Hyung; Asaki, Yoshiharu; Choi, Yoon-Kyong; Kim, Jaeheon; Yun, Youngjoo; Matsumoto, Naoko; Min, Cheul-Hong; Oyama, Tomoaki; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Yoon, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Jin; Dodson, Richard; Rioja, Maria; Burns, Ross; Orosz, Gabor; Nakagawa, Akiharu; Chibueze O, James; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Sobolev, Andrey

    2016-07-01

    The ESTEMA (Expanded Study on Stellar Masers) project is one of three Large Programs of the KaVA (the combined array of the Korean VLBI Network and Japanese VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry), and conducted in 2015-2016. It aims to publish a database of the largest sample of VLBI images of circumstellar water (H2O) and silicon-monoxide (SiO) maser sources towards circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of 80 evolved stars in late AGB to early post-AGB phase. Here we present the specifications of the ESTEMA observations and the planned scientific goals in order to share the basic information of the ESTEMA with astronomical community and encourage future collaborations with the ESTEMA and future follow-up observations for the targeted stars.

  18. 77 FR 70967 - Authorization for Non-VA Medical Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ..., Alcoholism, Claims, Day care, Dental health, Drug abuse, Government contracts, Grant programs--health... its regulation governing payment by VA for non-VA outpatient care under VA's statutory authority to provide non-VA care. Under this authority, VA may contract for certain hospital care (inpatient care)...

  19. The VA-Medical School Partnership: The Medical School Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersdorf, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    Issues in the relationship between the Veterans' Administration (VA) and medical schools are discussed, including VA faculty recruitment and retention, ambulatory care in VA teaching hospitals, governance and growth of research within VA medical centers, and effects of cost containment and competition on teaching and training in VA hospitals. (MSE)

  20. 48 CFR 801.690 - VA's COCP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false VA's COCP. 801.690 Section 801.690 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF... Responsibilities 801.690 VA's COCP....

  1. Identification and characterization of serogroup M Dichelobacter nodosus from sheep with virulent footrot.

    PubMed

    Dhungyel, Om; Schiller, Natalie; Whittington, Richard

    2015-04-17

    As part of an outbreak-specific footrot vaccination field trial a total of 1282 footrot lesion samples were collected from 2 sheep flocks on King Island, Tasmania. Breeding rams were shared between the two flocks, suggesting a common source of infection. All samples were tested for Dichelobacter nodosus. A total of 1047 D. nodosus isolates were obtained in pure culture (490 from 670 lesion samples from flock 1, and 557 from 612 lesion samples from flock 2) were tested by agglutination and PCR tests for the 9 common Australian serogroups A to I. After the first rounds of a specific vaccination program, a significant proportion of the isolates of D. nodosus from these flocks were found to be negative in the serogrouping tests and the prevalence of the disease remained high in both. Those isolates were tested retrospectively against New Zealand and Nepal serogroup M antisera and found to be positive. Fimbrial gene (fimA) sequences of three isolates collected over three years were identical indicating that these strains belonged to one serogroup and were most closely related to New Zealand and Nepal serogroup M sequences. More than 40% of the D. nodosus isolates from these flocks belonged to serogroup M and were virulent in tests for protease activity. The next most prevalent serogroup was A (23%). This study reports the identification and characterization of serogroup M isolates of D. nodosus from Australia, and led to routine testing for serogroup M in flocks where specific vaccination will be applied for control, treatment and eradication of the virulent footrot.

  2. New Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Neisseria meningitidis Serogroups A, W135, C, and Y

    PubMed Central

    Chanteau, Suzanne; Dartevelle, Sylvie; Mahamane, Ali Elhadj; Djibo, Saacou; Boisier, Pascal; Nato, Farida

    2006-01-01

    Background Outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis (meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis) are a major public health concern in the African “meningitis belt,” which includes 21 countries from Senegal to Ethiopia. Of the several species that can cause meningitis, N. meningitidis is the most important cause of epidemics in this region. In choosing the appropriate vaccine, accurate N. meningitidis serogroup determination is key. To this end, we developed and evaluated two duplex rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for detecting N. meningitidis polysaccharide (PS) antigens of several important serogroups. Methods and Findings Mouse monoclonal IgG antibodies against N. meningitidis PS A, W135/Y, Y, and C were used to develop two immunochromatography duplex RDTs, RDT1 (to detect serogroups A and W135/Y) and RDT2 (to detect serogroups C and Y). Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy criteria were used to determine diagnostic accuracy of RDTs on reference strains and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples using culture and PCR, respectively, as reference tests. The cutoffs were 105 cfu/ml for reference strains and 1 ng/ml for PS. Sensitivities and specificities were 100% for reference strains, and 93.8%–100% for CSF serogroups A, W135, and Y in CSF. For CSF serogroup A, the positive and negative likelihood ratios (± 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were 31.867 (16.1–63.1) and 0.065 (0.04–0.104), respectively, and the diagnostic odds ratio (± 95% CI) was 492.9 (207.2–1,172.5). For CSF serogroups W135 and Y, the positive likelihood ratio was 159.6 (51.7–493.3) Both RDTs were equally reliable at 25 °C and 45 °C. Conclusions These RDTs are important new bedside diagnostic tools for surveillance of meningococcus serogroups A and W135, the two serogroups that are responsible for major epidemics in Africa. PMID:16953658

  3. Susceptibility of Various Serogroups of Streptococci to Clindamycin and Lincomycin

    PubMed Central

    Karchmer, Adolf W.; Moellering, Robert C.; Watson, Barbara K.

    1975-01-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentration of lincomycin and clindamycin for a large number of strains from multiple serogroups of streptococci was determined. The median minimal inhibitory concentration for streptococci from groups A, B, C, F, G, H, L, and M and nongroupable organisms ranged from 0.02 to 0.39 μg of lincomycin per ml and from ≤0.01 to 0.09 μg of clindamycin per ml. Among the group D strains, Streptococcus faecium and Streptococcus faecalis were resistant to lincomycin and clindamycin, whereas Streptococcus bovis and four American strains of Streptococcus durans resembled nongroup D isolates in their susceptibility to these agents. Occasional strains of nongroup D streptococci were highly resistant to lincomycin and clindamycin. PMID:1137367

  4. The Yersinia pseudotuberculosis cytotoxic necrotizing factor (CNFY) selectively activates RhoA.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Claudia; Pop, Marius; Leemhuis, Jost; Schirmer, Jörg; Aktories, Klaus; Schmidt, Gudula

    2004-04-16

    The cytotoxic necrotizing factors (CNF)1 and CNF2 from pathogenic Escherichia coli strains activate RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 by deamidation of Gln63 (RhoA) or Gln61 (Rac and Cdc42). Recently, a novel cytotoxic necrotizing factor termed CNFY was identified in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains (Lockman, H. A., Gillespie, R. A., Baker, B. D., and Shakhnovich, E. (2002) Infect. Immun. 70, 2708-2714). We amplified the cnfy gene from genomic DNA of Y. pseudotuberculosis, cloned and expressed the recombinant protein, and studied its activity. Recombinant GST-CNFY induced morphological changes in HeLa cells and caused an upward shift of RhoA in SDS-PAGE, as is known for GST-CNF1 and GST-CNF2. Mass spectrometric analysis of GST-CNFY-treated RhoA confirmed deamidation at Glu63. Treatment of RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 with GST-CNFY decreased their GTPase activities, indicating that all of these Rho proteins could serve as substrates for GST-CNFY in vitro. In contrast, RhoA, but not Rac or Cdc42, was the substrate of GST-CNFY in culture cells. GST-CNFY caused marked stress fiber formation in HeLa cells after 2 h. In contrast to GST-CNF1, formation of filopodia or lamellipodia was not induced with GST-CNFY. Accordingly, effector pull-down experiments with lysates of toxin-treated cells revealed strong activation of RhoA but no activation of Rac1 or Cdc42 after 6 h of GST-CNFY-treatment. Moreover, in rat hippocampal neurons, GST-CNFY results in the retraction of neurites, indicating RhoA activation. In contrast, no activation of Rac or Cdc42 was found. Altogether, our data suggest that CNFY from Y. pseudotuberculosis is a strong, selective activator of RhoA, which can be used as a powerful tool for constitutive RhoA activation without concomitant activation of Rac1 or Cdc42. PMID:14761941

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Brazilian Leptospira noguchii Serogroup Panama Strain U73, Isolated from Cattle.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Loureiro, Ana P; Miraglia, Fabiana; Matajira, Carlos E C; Kremer, Frederico S; Eslabao, Marcos R; Dellagostin, Odir A; Lilenbaum, Walter; Moreno, Andrea M

    2015-10-15

    Leptospira noguchii is a current zoonotic pathogen in Brazil. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Brazilian L. noguchii serogroup Panama strain U73, isolated from asymptomatic cattle urine.

  6. Lipopolysaccharide structure and serum sensitivity of non-serogroupable Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, C C; Winstanley, F P; Weir, D M; Kinane, D F

    1987-09-01

    Bactericidal activities of normal human serum for non-serogroupable strains of Neisseria meningitidis were determined. In similar experiments with isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from localized infections, strains with group I lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were uniformly serum resistant and those with group II were serum sensitive. We found no similar association between serum sensitivity of the meningococcal strains and their lipopolysaccharide groups determined by the same pyocin typing system used to classify the gonococcal isolates. Immune mouse sera raised against non-serogroupable meningococci of either LPS group I or II were bactericidal for non-serogroupable strains of the same LPS group and also cross-reactive for strains of the opposite group. They were not bactericidal for the majority (13/17) of the serogroupable strains tested. These findings suggest there are antigens, in addition to the LPS and capsules, that elicit some of the "natural" bactericidal antibodies to pathogenic meningococci.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Brazilian Leptospira noguchii Serogroup Panama Strain U73, Isolated from Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Luisa Z.; Loureiro, Ana P.; Miraglia, Fabiana; Matajira, Carlos E. C.; Kremer, Frederico S.; Eslabao, Marcos R.; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Leptospira noguchii is a current zoonotic pathogen in Brazil. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Brazilian L. noguchii serogroup Panama strain U73, isolated from asymptomatic cattle urine. PMID:26472831

  8. Crystal and solution structures of a superantigen from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis reveal a jelly-roll fold.

    PubMed

    Donadini, Roberta; Liew, Chu Wai; Kwan, Ann H Y; Mackay, Joel P; Fields, Barry A

    2004-01-01

    Superantigens are a class of microbial proteins with the ability to excessively activate T cells by binding to the T cell receptor. The staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigens are closely related in structure and possess an N-terminal domain that resembles an OB fold and a C-terminal domain similar to a beta-grasp fold. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis produces superantigens, YPMa, YPMb, and YPMc, which have no significant amino acid similarity to other proteins. We have determined the crystal and solution structures of YPMa, which show that the protein has a jelly-roll fold. The closest structural neighbors to YPMa are viral capsid proteins and members of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily. In the crystal structure, YPMa packs as a trimer, another feature shared with viral capsid proteins and TNF superfamily proteins. However, in solution YPMa behaves as a monomer, and any functional relevance of the trimer observed in the crystals is yet to be established.

  9. Characterization of cytotoxic factors of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis using the MDBK cell line.

    PubMed

    el-Sukhon, S N; Abu-Harfeil, N

    1998-01-01

    The cytotoxin of four strains of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was characterized using the MDBK cell line and by application of the MTT colorimetric test. The highest cytotoxin yield was obtained in tryptic soy broth medium after 24 h. It was detected in the cell-free culture filtrate, and treatment of the cells with CHAPS as a membrane detergent did not decrease significantly their cytotoxic activity. The cytotoxin was inhibited by trypsinization and by increasing values of either acidity or alkalinity. The cytotoxin was inactivated partially by heating at 70 degrees C for 20 min and totally at 90 degrees C for 10 min. The results obtained indicate that the cytotoxin is protein in nature and produced mainly as free exotoxin.

  10. Serology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: coagglutination serogroups WI and WII/III correspond to different outer membrane protein I molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Sandstrom, E G; Chen, K C; Buchanan, T M

    1982-01-01

    The 125I-labeled tryptic peptides of the outer membrane protein I of 33 previously characterized serological reference strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were investigated by peptide maps in relation to their coagglutination W serogroup. Serogroup WI strains tended to have lower-molecular-weight protein I molecules than did WII strains, and WIII strains had the highest-molecular-weight protein I molecules, although the serogroup could not be predicted from the molecular weights of the protein I molecules for a given strain. All 13 strains belonging to serogroup WI were found to have 11 peptides in common, as judged by their migration with respect to one another and to the internal marker valine in the peptide maps. Common peptides isolated from a given strain were found to comigrate with the corresponding common peptides from other strains in the same serogroup under various electrophoretic conditions. The 20 strains belonging to serogroups WII and WIII were all found to have 10 common peptides by the same criteria. When common peptides from serogroup WI were compared with the common peptides of serogroups WII and WIII, only three of these peptides appeared to be similar. Thus, two different outer membrane protein I molecules seem to exist which are mutually exclusive. Protein IA molecules contain the antigens recognized as serogroup WI, and protein IB molecules contain the antigens that characterize serogroups WII and WIII. Images PMID:6183215

  11. The core stimulon of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain 1002 identified using ab initio methodologies.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Anne Cybelle; Ramos, Rommel T J; Silva, Wanderson Marques; Rocha, Flávia Souza; Barbosa, Silvanira; Miyoshi, Anderson; Schneider, Maria P C; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco

    2012-07-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a bacterium which causes diseases such as caseous lymphadenitis in small ruminants, resulting in large-scale economic losses for agribusiness worldwide. Consequently, this bacterium including its transcriptional profile analysis has been the focus of various studies. Identification of the transcripts that appear under conditions that simulate the environment encountered by this bacterial species in the host is of great importance in discovering new targets for the production of more efficient vaccines. We sequenced the cDNA of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain 1002, using the SOLiD V3 system, under the following conditions: osmotic stress (2 M), acidity (pH), heat shock (50 °C) and control condition (N). To identify the transcripts shared among the stimulons and integrate this information with the results from BLAST and BLAST2GO, we developed the software CoreStImulon (CSI) which allows the user to individually distinguish the genes in terms of their participation in biological processes, their function and cellular location. In the biosynthetic processes, eleven genes represented in the core stimulon and twenty genes in the control were observed. This validates the hypothesis that the organisms strategy for surviving in a hostile environment is through growth reduction. The oxidation reduction process, response to stress process, and cell adhesion are controlled by genes that contribute to bacterial cell maintenance under stress conditions; these could be involved in their pathogenicity. The methodology for identification of transcripts obtained by ab initio assembly and shared among the stimulons permitted candidates selection for vaccine studies. CSI is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/corestimulon/.

  12. Development of a DNA Microarray for Molecular Identification of All 46 Salmonella O Serogroups

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dan; Liu, Bin; Liu, Fenxia; Cao, Boyang; Chen, Min; Hao, Xiyan; Feng, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of food-borne disease in many countries. Serotype determination of Salmonella is important for disease assessment, infection control, and epidemiological surveillance. In this study, a microarray system that targets the O antigen-specific genes was developed for simultaneously detecting and identifying all 46 Salmonella O serogroups. Of these, 40 serogroups can be confidently identified, and the remaining 6, in three pairs (serogroups O67 and B, E1 and E4, and A and D1), need to be further distinguished from each other using PCR methods or conventional serotyping methods. The microarray was shown to be highly specific when evaluated against 293 Salmonella strains, 186 Shigella strains, representative Escherichia coli strains, and 10 strains of other bacterial species. The assay correctly identified 288 (98%) of the Salmonella strains. The detection sensitivity was determined to be 50 ng genomic DNA per sample. By testing simulated samples in a tomato background, 2 to 8 CFU per gram inoculated could be detected after enrichment. This newly developed microarray assay is the first molecular protocol that can be used for the comprehensive detection and identification of all 46 Salmonella O serogroups. Compared to the traditional serogrouping method, the microarray provides a reliable, high-throughput, and sensitive approach that can be used for rapid identification of multiple Salmonella O serogroups simultaneously. PMID:23524674

  13. Homology analysis and cross-immunogenicity of OmpA from pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuhuang; Duan, Ran; Li, Xu; Li, Kewei; Liang, Junrong; Liu, Chang; Qiu, Haiyan; Xiao, Yuchun; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    The outer membrane protein A (OmpA) is one of the intra-species conserved proteins with immunogenicity widely found in the family of Enterobacteriaceae. Here we first confirmed OmpA is conserved in the three pathogenic Yersinia: Yersinia pestis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, with high homology at the nucleotide level and at the amino acid sequence level. The identity of ompA sequences for 262 Y. pestis strains, 134 Y. pseudotuberculosis strains and 219 pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains are 100%, 98.8% and 97.7% similar. The main pattern of OmpA of pathogenic Yersinia are 86.2% and 88.8% identical at the nucleotide and amino acid sequence levels, respectively. Immunological analysis showed the immunogenicity of each OmpA and cross-immunogenicity of OmpA for pathogenic Yersinia where OmpA may be a vaccine candidate for Y. pestis and other pathogenic Yersinia.

  14. Hereditary Hemochromatosis Predisposes Mice to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Infection Even in the Absence of the Type III Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Miller, Halie K; Schwiesow, Leah; Au-Yeung, Winnie; Auerbuch, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The iron overload disorder hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) predisposes humans to serious disseminated infection with pathogenic Yersinia as well as several other pathogens. Recently, we showed that the iron-sulfur cluster coordinating transcription factor IscR is required for type III secretion in Y. pseudotuberculosis by direct control of the T3SS master regulator LcrF. In E. coli and Yersinia, IscR levels are predicted to be regulated by iron bioavailability, oxygen tension, and oxidative stress, such that iron depletion should lead to increased IscR levels. To investigate how host iron overload influences Y. pseudotuberculosis virulence and the requirement for the Ysc type III secretion system (T3SS), we utilized two distinct murine models of HH: hemojuvelin knockout mice that mimic severe, early-onset HH as well as mice with the Hfe (C282Y∕C282Y) mutation carried by 10% of people of Northern European descent, associated with adult-onset HH. Hjv (-∕-) and Hfe (C282Y∕C282Y) transgenic mice displayed enhanced colonization of deep tissues by Y. pseudotuberculosis following oral inoculation, recapitulating enhanced susceptibility of humans with HH to disseminated infection with enteropathogenic Yersinia. Importantly, HH mice orally infected with Y. pseudotuberculosis lacking the T3SS-encoding virulence plasmid, pYV, displayed increased deep tissue colonization relative to wildtype mice. Consistent with previous reports using monocytes from HH vs. healthy donors, macrophages isolated from Hfe (C282Y∕C282Y) mice were defective in Yersinia uptake compared to wildtype macrophages, indicating that the anti-phagocytic property of the Yersinia T3SS plays a less important role in HH animals. These data suggest that Yersinia may rely on distinct virulence factors to cause disease in healthy vs. HH hosts. PMID:27446816

  15. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ST43 (O:1b) Strains, B-7194 and B-7195

    PubMed Central

    Blouin, Yann; Platonov, Mikhail E.; Pourcel, Christine; Evseeva, Vera V.; Afanas’ev, Maxim V.; Balakhonov, Sergey V.

    2013-01-01

    We report the first draft genome sequences of two Yersinia pseudotuberculosis sequence type 43 (ST43) (O:1b) strains, B-7194 and B-7195, isolated in Russia. The total lengths of the assemblies are 4,427,121 bp and 4,608,472 bp, and 3,819 and 4,018 coding sequences, respectively, were predicted within the genomes. PMID:23868131

  16. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ST43 (O:1b) Strains, B-7194 and B-7195.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Yann; Platonov, Mikhail E; Pourcel, Christine; Evseeva, Vera V; Afanas'ev, Maxim V; Balakhonov, Sergey V; Anisimov, Andrey P; Vergnaud, Gilles

    2013-07-18

    We report the first draft genome sequences of two Yersinia pseudotuberculosis sequence type 43 (ST43) (O:1b) strains, B-7194 and B-7195, isolated in Russia. The total lengths of the assemblies are 4,427,121 bp and 4,608,472 bp, and 3,819 and 4,018 coding sequences, respectively, were predicted within the genomes.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain CIP 52.97, Isolated from a Horse in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Cerdeira, Louise Teixeira; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Pinto, Anne Cybelle; de Almeida, Sintia Silva; dos Santos, Anderson Rodrigues; Barbosa, Eudes Guilherme Vieira; Ali, Amjad; Aburjaile, Flávia Figueira; de Abreu, Vinicius Augusto Carvalho; Guimarães, Luis Carlos; Soares, Siomar de Castro; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; Rocha, Flávia Souza; Bol, Erick; Gomes de Sá, Pablo Henrique Caracciolo; Lopes, Thiago Souza; Barbosa, Maria Silvanira; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Jucá Ramos, Rommel Thiago; Coimbra, Nilson Antônio da Rocha; Lima, Alex Ranieri Jerônimo; Barh, Debmalya; Jain, Neha; Tiwari, Sandeep; Raja, Rathiram; Zambare, Vasudeo; Ghosh, Preetam; Trost, Eva; Tauch, Andreas; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report the whole-genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis bv. equi strain CIP 52.97 (Collection Institut Pasteur), isolated in 1952 from a case of ulcerative lymphangitis in a Kenyan horse, which has evidently caused significant losses to agribusiness. Therefore, obtaining this genome will allow the detection of important targets for postgenomic studies, with the aim of minimizing problems caused by this microorganism. PMID:22123771

  18. Hereditary Hemochromatosis Predisposes Mice to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Infection Even in the Absence of the Type III Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Halie K.; Schwiesow, Leah; Au-Yeung, Winnie; Auerbuch, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The iron overload disorder hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) predisposes humans to serious disseminated infection with pathogenic Yersinia as well as several other pathogens. Recently, we showed that the iron-sulfur cluster coordinating transcription factor IscR is required for type III secretion in Y. pseudotuberculosis by direct control of the T3SS master regulator LcrF. In E. coli and Yersinia, IscR levels are predicted to be regulated by iron bioavailability, oxygen tension, and oxidative stress, such that iron depletion should lead to increased IscR levels. To investigate how host iron overload influences Y. pseudotuberculosis virulence and the requirement for the Ysc type III secretion system (T3SS), we utilized two distinct murine models of HH: hemojuvelin knockout mice that mimic severe, early-onset HH as well as mice with the HfeC282Y∕C282Y mutation carried by 10% of people of Northern European descent, associated with adult-onset HH. Hjv−∕− and HfeC282Y∕C282Y transgenic mice displayed enhanced colonization of deep tissues by Y. pseudotuberculosis following oral inoculation, recapitulating enhanced susceptibility of humans with HH to disseminated infection with enteropathogenic Yersinia. Importantly, HH mice orally infected with Y. pseudotuberculosis lacking the T3SS-encoding virulence plasmid, pYV, displayed increased deep tissue colonization relative to wildtype mice. Consistent with previous reports using monocytes from HH vs. healthy donors, macrophages isolated from HfeC282Y∕C282Y mice were defective in Yersinia uptake compared to wildtype macrophages, indicating that the anti-phagocytic property of the Yersinia T3SS plays a less important role in HH animals. These data suggest that Yersinia may rely on distinct virulence factors to cause disease in healthy vs. HH hosts. PMID:27446816

  19. Complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain CIP 52.97, isolated from a horse in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Cerdeira, Louise Teixeira; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Pinto, Anne Cybelle; de Almeida, Sintia Silva; dos Santos, Anderson Rodrigues; Barbosa, Eudes Guilherme Vieira; Ali, Amjad; Aburjaile, Flávia Figueira; de Abreu, Vinicius Augusto Carvalho; Guimarães, Luis Carlos; Soares, Siomar de Castro; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; Rocha, Flávia Souza; Bol, Erick; Gomes de Sá, Pablo Henrique Caracciolo; Lopes, Thiago Souza; Barbosa, Maria Silvanira; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Jucá Ramos, Rommel Thiago; Coimbra, Nilson Antônio da Rocha; Lima, Alex Ranieri Jerônimo; Barh, Debmalya; Jain, Neha; Tiwari, Sandeep; Raja, Rathiram; Zambare, Vasudeo; Ghosh, Preetam; Trost, Eva; Tauch, Andreas; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur

    2011-12-01

    In this work, we report the whole-genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis bv. equi strain CIP 52.97 (Collection Institut Pasteur), isolated in 1952 from a case of ulcerative lymphangitis in a Kenyan horse, which has evidently caused significant losses to agribusiness. Therefore, obtaining this genome will allow the detection of important targets for postgenomic studies, with the aim of minimizing problems caused by this microorganism.

  20. Generation of a CRISPR database for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis complex and role of CRISPR-based immunity in conjugation.

    PubMed

    Koskela, Katja A; Mattinen, Laura; Kalin-Mänttäri, Laura; Vergnaud, Gilles; Gorgé, Olivier; Nikkari, Simo; Skurnik, Mikael

    2015-11-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat - CRISPR-associated genes (CRISPR-Cas) system is used by bacteria and archaea against invading conjugative plasmids or bacteriophages. Central to this immunity system are genomic CRISPR loci that contain fragments of invading DNA. These are maintained as spacers in the CRISPR loci between direct repeats and the spacer composition in any bacterium reflects its evolutionary history. We analysed the CRISPR locus sequences of 335 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis complex strains. Altogether 1902 different spacer sequences were identified and these were used to generate a database for the spacer sequences. Only ∼10% of the spacer sequences found matching sequences. In addition, surprisingly few spacers were shared by Yersinia pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis strains. Interestingly, 32 different protospacers were present in the conjugative plasmid pYptb32953. The corresponding spacers were identified from 35 different Y. pseudotuberculosis strains indicating that these strains had encountered pYptb32953 earlier. In conjugation experiments, pYptb32953-specific spacers generally prevented conjugation with spacer-positive and spacer-free strains. However, some strains with one to four spacers were invaded by pYptb32953 and some spacer-free strains were fully resistant. Also some spacer-positive strains were intermediate resistant to conjugation. This suggests that one or more other defence systems are determining conjugation efficiency independent of the CRISPR-Cas system.

  1. Exploring the population-level impact of MenB vaccination via modeling: Potential for serogroup replacement

    PubMed Central

    Hogea, Cosmina; Van Effelterre, Thierry; Vyse, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Various meningococcal conjugate vaccines exist against serogroups A, C, W and Y. A new protein-based vaccine targeting serogroup B (MenB) is also now available. The potential of such vaccines to drive serogroup replacement is considered a possible public health concern when implementing nationwide routine immunization programmes. The aim of this work was to investigate if and how serogroup replacement may occur following widespread vaccination with a MenB vaccine that may protect against carriage. To that end, we built a dynamic transmission model with age and serogroup stratification, focusing on European settings where most invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) cases are caused by serogroups B and C. For illustration purposes, the model was employed in 2 such settings: UK (England and Wales) and Czech Republic. Preliminary model-based projections suggest that, under strong serogroup competition for colonization, vaccine-induced serogroup replacement may occur even with a relatively low vaccine efficacy against serogroup B carriage (e.g., 20%), with potential subsequent increase in serogroup C IMD. The magnitude and speed of the model-projected serogroup C IMD increase depend on the MenB vaccination strategy, vaccine efficacy against carriage and the extent of any potential cross-protection against other serogroups. These analyses are neither exhaustive nor definitive, and focused on simulating potential population-level trends in IMD post-vaccination, under certain assumptions. Due to present inherent limitations and uncertainties, this study has limited quantitative value and is best regarded as an explorative qualitative modeling approach, to complement and challenge the current status quo, and suggest areas where collecting additional data may be essential. PMID:26308796

  2. Exploring the population-level impact of MenB vaccination via modeling: Potential for serogroup replacement.

    PubMed

    Hogea, Cosmina; Van Effelterre, Thierry; Vyse, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Various meningococcal conjugate vaccines exist against serogroups A, C, W and Y. A new protein-based vaccine targeting serogroup B (MenB) is also now available. The potential of such vaccines to drive serogroup replacement is considered a possible public health concern when implementing nationwide routine immunization programmes. The aim of this work was to investigate if and how serogroup replacement may occur following widespread vaccination with a MenB vaccine that may protect against carriage. To that end, we built a dynamic transmission model with age and serogroup stratification, focusing on European settings where most invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) cases are caused by serogroups B and C. For illustration purposes, the model was employed in 2 such settings: UK (England and Wales) and Czech Republic. Preliminary model-based projections suggest that, under strong serogroup competition for colonization, vaccine-induced serogroup replacement may occur even with a relatively low vaccine efficacy against serogroup B carriage (e.g., 20%), with potential subsequent increase in serogroup C IMD. The magnitude and speed of the model-projected serogroup C IMD increase depend on the MenB vaccination strategy, vaccine efficacy against carriage and the extent of any potential cross-protection against other serogroups. These analyses are neither exhaustive nor definitive, and focused on simulating potential population-level trends in IMD post-vaccination, under certain assumptions. Due to present inherent limitations and uncertainties, this study has limited quantitative value and is best regarded as an explorative qualitative modeling approach, to complement and challenge the current status quo, and suggest areas where collecting additional data may be essential. PMID:26308796

  3. Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1 infections linked to potting compost.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, D S J; Brown, A W; Brown, D J; Pravinkumar, S J; Anderson, E; Edwards, G F S

    2012-02-01

    Four cases of legionellosis caused by Legionella longbeachae serogroup (sg) 1 were identified in Scotland from 2008 to 2010. All case patients had exposure to commercially manufactured growing media or potting soils, commonly known as multipurpose compost (MPC), in greenhouse conditions, prior to disease onset. Two patients had been using the same brand of MPC but the clinical isolates were distinct genotypically by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. However, an indistinguishable AFLP profile was also found in an environmental isolate from the supply of MPC used by each patient. The third patient was diagnosed by immunofluorescent antibody serology only; however, the MPC to which this patient was exposed contained L. longbeachae sg 1 in large quantities (80 000 c.f.u. g(-1)). The fourth patient was L. longbeachae sg 1 culture-positive, but L. longbeachae was not identified from 10 samples of garden composting material. As compost is commonly used, but L. longbeachae infection seemingly rare, further work is required to ascertain (i) the prevalence and predictors of L. longbeachae in compost and (ii) the conditions which facilitate transmission and generate an aerosol of the bacteria. As most cases of legionellosis are diagnosed by urinary antigen that is Legionella pneumophila-specific and does not detect infection with L. longbeachae, patients in cases of community-acquired pneumonia with a history of compost exposure should have serum and respiratory samples sent to a specialist Legionella reference laboratory for analysis.

  4. Streptococcus pneumoniae serogroup 6 clones over two decades.

    PubMed

    Payne, D B; Gray, B M

    2014-12-01

    The major evolutionary stresses on Streptococcus pneumoniae are thought to be the widespread use of antibiotics and the deployment of effective vaccines against the capsular polysaccharides. Our current knowledge of genetic lineages among pneumococcal isolates comes largely from investigations just before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduced in 2000. We examined 66 serogroup 6 isolates from the 1970s, long before the introduction of PCV7 and before widespread penicillin resistance was common in Birmingham, Alabama, to look for ancestors of the clones that came into play around the introduction of the PCV7 vaccine. The hypothesis was that some clonal complexes, if not individual clones, would be stable enough to persist over this period of time. We compared the 1970s isolates with 122 isolates from the 1990s in US and worldwide collections. Genotyping with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) revealed that while some clones were probably localized to our area, others have persisted within groups that have expanded or diminished over the years.

  5. Characterization of the meningococcal serogroup X capsule N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase.

    PubMed

    Muindi, Karen M; McCarthy, Pumtiwitt C; Wang, Theresa; Vionnet, Justine; Battistel, Marcos; Jankowska, Ewa; Vann, Willie F

    2014-02-01

    Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, W135 and X are responsible for most cases of meningococcal meningitis. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup X has recently emerged as a contributor to outbreaks of disease in Africa, but there is currently no vaccine against serogroup X. Understanding of the biosynthesis of the serogroup X capsular polysaccharide would provide useful tools for vaccine production. The serogroup X polysaccharide is a homopolymer of (α1→4)-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-1-phosphate. It has been shown that the gene cluster xcbABC encodes synthesis of this polysaccharide. The xcbA gene product has significant homology with sacB, which is responsible for synthesis of the Neisseria serogroup A capsular polysaccharide, an (α1→6)-N-acetylmannosamine-1-phosphate homopolymer. The xcbA protein also shares homology with the catalytic domain of human N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphoryltransferase, a key enzyme in the mannose-6-phosphate receptor pathway. In this study, we show that xcbA in the appropriate background is sufficient for the synthesis of N. meningitidis serogroup X polysaccharide. By ELISA we detected polysaccharide in fractions of Escherichia coli expressing the xcbA gene. We isolated polysaccharide from an E. coli strain expressing XcbA and demonstrated that this polysaccharide has a (13)C-NMR spectrum identical to that of polysaccharide isolated from N. meningitidis Group X. We also demonstrate that the purified XcbA protein is an N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase that transfers N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate from UDP-GlcNAc to the 4-hydroxyl of an N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate oligosaccharide. Oligosaccharides fluorescently labeled at the aglycon are extended by XcbA only after the 4-phosphate occupying the non-reducing GlcNAc has been removed. The minimum size of fluorescent acceptors is a trisaccharide.

  6. Virulence Factors and O-Serogroups Profiles of Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli Isolated from Iranian Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dormanesh, Banafshe; Safarpoor Dehkordi, Farhad; Hosseini, Sahar; Momtaz, Hassan; Mirnejad, Reza; Hoseini, Mohammad Javad; Yahaghi, Emad; Tarhriz, Vahideh; Khodaverdi Darian, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli O- Serogroups with their virulence factors are the most prevalent causes of UTIs. Objectives: The present investigation was performed to study the virulence factors and O-Serogroups profiles of UPEC isolated from Iranian pediatric patients. Patients and Methods: This cross sectional investigation was performed on 100 urine samples collected from hospitalized pediatrics of Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Midstream urine was collected to decrease potential bacterial, cellular and artifactual contamination. All samples were cultured and those with positive results were subjected to polymerase chain reactions to detect pap, cnf1, afa, sfa and hlyA genes and various O- Serogroups. Results: We found that 37.5% of boys and 75% of girls had positive results for Escherichia coli. We also found that O1 (19.33%), O2 (13.33%), O6 (13.33%), O4 (11.66%), and O18 (11.66 %) were the most commonly detected Serogroups. Totally, the serogroup of 5% of all strains were not detected. In addition, all of these O- Serogroups were pap+, cnf1+, hlyA+, and afa+. Totally, pap (70 %), cnf1 (56.66 %), and hlyA (43.33 %) were the most commonly detected virulence genes in the both studied groups of children. The sfa (30 %) and afa (26.66 %) genes had the lowest incidence rates. Conclusions: Special health care should be performed on UTIs management in Iranian pediatric patients. Extended researches should be performed to evaluate relation between other O-Serogroups and virulent genes. PMID:24719745

  7. Recommendations for Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccine for Persons 10 Years and Older.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    This policy statement provides recommendations for the prevention of serogroup B meningococcal disease through the use of 2 newly licensed serogroup B meningococcal vaccines: MenB-FHbp (Trumenba; Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, a subsidiary of Pfizer, Philadelphia, PA) and MenB-4C (Bexsero; Novartis Vaccines, Siena, Italy). Both vaccines are approved for use in persons 10 through 25 years of age. MenB-FHbp is licensed as a 2- or 3-dose series, and MenB-4C is licensed as a 2-dose series for all groups. Either vaccine is recommended for routine use in persons 10 years and older who are at increased risk of serogroup B meningococcal disease (category A recommendation). Persons at increased risk of meningococcal serogroup B disease include the following: (1) persons with persistent complement component diseases, including inherited or chronic deficiencies in C3, C5-C9, properdin, factor D, or factor H or persons receiving eculizumab (Soliris; Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Cheshire, CT), a monoclonal antibody that acts as a terminal complement inhibitor by binding C5 and inhibiting cleavage of C5 to C5A; (2) persons with anatomic or functional asplenia, including sickle cell disease; and (3) healthy persons at increased risk because of a serogroup B meningococcal disease outbreak. Both serogroup B meningococcal vaccines have been shown to be safe and immunogenic and are licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration for individuals between the ages of 10 and 25 years. On the basis of epidemiologic and antibody persistence data, the American Academy of Pediatrics agrees with the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that either vaccine may be administered to healthy adolescents and young adults 16 through 23 years of age (preferred ages are 16 through 18 years) to provide short-term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease (category B recommendation). PMID:27573083

  8. Recommendations for Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccine for Persons 10 Years and Older.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    This policy statement provides recommendations for the prevention of serogroup B meningococcal disease through the use of 2 newly licensed serogroup B meningococcal vaccines: MenB-FHbp (Trumenba; Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, a subsidiary of Pfizer, Philadelphia, PA) and MenB-4C (Bexsero; Novartis Vaccines, Siena, Italy). Both vaccines are approved for use in persons 10 through 25 years of age. MenB-FHbp is licensed as a 2- or 3-dose series, and MenB-4C is licensed as a 2-dose series for all groups. Either vaccine is recommended for routine use in persons 10 years and older who are at increased risk of serogroup B meningococcal disease (category A recommendation). Persons at increased risk of meningococcal serogroup B disease include the following: (1) persons with persistent complement component diseases, including inherited or chronic deficiencies in C3, C5-C9, properdin, factor D, or factor H or persons receiving eculizumab (Soliris; Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Cheshire, CT), a monoclonal antibody that acts as a terminal complement inhibitor by binding C5 and inhibiting cleavage of C5 to C5A; (2) persons with anatomic or functional asplenia, including sickle cell disease; and (3) healthy persons at increased risk because of a serogroup B meningococcal disease outbreak. Both serogroup B meningococcal vaccines have been shown to be safe and immunogenic and are licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration for individuals between the ages of 10 and 25 years. On the basis of epidemiologic and antibody persistence data, the American Academy of Pediatrics agrees with the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that either vaccine may be administered to healthy adolescents and young adults 16 through 23 years of age (preferred ages are 16 through 18 years) to provide short-term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease (category B recommendation).

  9. Do Older Rural and Urban Veterans Experience Different Rates of Unplanned Readmission to VA and Non-VA Hospitals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, William B.; Lee, Richard E.; Wallace, Amy E.; West, Alan N.; Bagian, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Unplanned readmission within 30 days of discharge is an indicator of hospital quality. Purpose: We wanted to determine whether older rural veterans who were enrolled in the VA had different rates of unplanned readmission to VA or non-VA hospitals than their urban counterparts. Methods: We used the combined VA/Medicare dataset to examine…

  10. [A comparative study of the role of the yadA, invA, and psaA genes in the pathogenicity of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Karataev, G I; Markov, A R; Siniashina, L N; Miller, G G; Klitsunova, N V; Titova, I V; Semin, E G; Goncharova, N I; Pokrovskaia, M S; Amelina, I P; Amoako, K; Smirnov, G B

    2008-01-01

    The roles of yadA, invA, and psaA genes introduced into the genetic background of the Y. pseudotuberculosis strain possessing the large p VM82 plasmid in virulence and invasion capacity were studied. Isogenic single mutants as well as double and multiple mutants of these genes were constructed and used. LD50 was used as a measure of virulence and the estimation of the ability to invade mammalian cells and the effect of infection on the weight changes of infected mice were used as additional indicators of pathogenicity. It was shown that the YadA had a major effect on the bacterial virulence when compared with the effects of PsaA and InvA. InvA appears to mediate the main pathway of the cellular invasion. YadA is responsible for the weight loss after infection of mice with sublethal doses of Y. pseudotuberculosis. The effects of YadA on virulence and of InvA on bacterial invasion were independent of the expression of the other genes studied. To our knowledge, this study showed for the first time the direct involvement of YadA in the virulence of Y. pseudotuberculosis in mice. Further pathomorphological studies are required to reveal the differences in the pathogenesis of pseudotuberculosis caused by yadA mutants or yadA+ bacteria of Y. pseudotuberculosis.

  11. Detection, seroprevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in pig tonsils in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bonardi, S; Bruini, I; D'Incau, M; Van Damme, I; Carniel, E; Brémont, S; Cavallini, P; Tagliabue, S; Brindani, F

    2016-10-17

    Yersiniosis is the third most common reported zoonoses in Europe, with Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis responsible for 98.66% and 0.94% of the confirmed human cases in 2013. From June 2013 to October 2014, 201 pigs at slaughter belonging to 67 batches were tested for Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in tonsils. Diaphragm muscle samples were tested for antibodies against Yersinia by a commercially available ELISA test. Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 was detected in 55/201 pig tonsils (27.4%; 95% CI 23.1-37.1). The positive pigs came from 38/67 batches (56.7%) and were reared in 36/61 farms (59.0%). There was no statistical difference between farrow-to-finish and finishing farms. The mean count of Y. enterocolitica was 3.56±0.85log10CFU/g with a minimum of 2.0log10CFU/g and a maximum of 4.78log10CFU/g. Y. pseudotuberculosis was isolated from 4/201 pig tonsils (2.0%; 95% CI 0.0-4.5). Three isolates belonged to serotype O:3 and one to serotype O:1. The positive pigs belonged to 4/67 batches (6.0%) and came from finishing farms only. Y. pseudotuberculosis could be enumerated in one sample only (4.27log10CFU/g). The ELISA test demonstrated that 56.1% of the meat juice samples were positive for Yersinia antibodies. Serological positivity was found in 67.9% (36/53) of the Y. enterocolitica- and 75.0% (3/4) of the Y. pseudotuberculosis positive pigs. A significant association was found between serological results and the presence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsils (OR=1.97, p=0.044). All the Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, gentamicin, ceftazidime, ertapenem and meropenem, 94.5% to cefotaxime, 89.1% to kanamycin and 78.2% to tetracycline. The highest resistance rates were observed for ampicillin (100%), sulphonamides (98.2%) and streptomycin (78.2%). Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were sensitive to all the antimicrobials tested, i.e. amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, azithromycin, cephalothin, cefoxitin

  12. The Development of an Experimental Multiple Serogroups Vaccine for Neisseria meningitidis

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Valerian B.; Burden, Robert; Wagner, Allyn; Moran, Elizabeth E.; Lee, Che-Hung

    2013-01-01

    A native outer membrane vesicles (NOMV) vaccine was developed from three antigenically diverse strains of Neisseria meningitidis that express the L1,8, L2, and L3,7 lipooligosaccharide (LOS) immunotypes, and whose synX, and lpxL1 genes were deleted.. Immunogenicity studies in mice showed that the vaccine induced bactericidal antibody against serogroups B, C, W, Y and X N. meningitidis strains. However, this experimental NOMV vaccine was not effective against serogroup A N. meningitidis strains. N. meningitidis capsular polysaccharide (PS) from serogroups A, C, W and Y were effective at inducing bactericidal antibody when conjugated to either tetanus toxoid or the fHbp1-fHbp2 fusion protein fHbp(1+2). The combination of the NOMV vaccine and the N. meningitidis serogroup A capsular polysaccharide (MAPS) protein conjugate was capable of inducing bactericidal antibodies against a limited number of N. meningitidis strains from serogroups A, B, C, W, Y and X tested in this study. PMID:24244473

  13. Serogroup quantitation of multivalent polysaccharide and polysaccharide-conjugate meningococcal vaccines from China.

    PubMed

    Cook, Matthew C; Gibeault, Sabrina; Filippenko, Vasilisa; Ye, Qiang; Wang, Junzhi; Kunkel, Jeremy P

    2013-07-01

    The active components of most meningococcal vaccines are four antigenic serogroup capsular polysaccharides (A, C, Y, W135). The vaccines, monovalent or multivalent mixtures of either free polysaccharides or polysaccharides conjugated to antigenic carrier proteins, may be in liquid or lyophilised formulations, with or without excipients. Acid hydrolysis and chromatographic methods for serogroup quantitation, which were previously optimised and qualified using polysaccharide-based standards and a narrow range of real vaccines, are here challenged with multiple lots of a broad assortment of additional multivalent polysaccharide-based meningococcal vaccine products. Centrifugal filtration successfully removed all interfering lactose excipient without loss of polysaccharides to allow for the determination of Y and W135 serogroups. Replicate operations by three different analysts indicated high method reproducibility. Results indicated some lot-to-lot and product-to-product variations. However, all vaccines were within general specifications for each serogroup polysaccharide, with the exception of all lots of one polysaccharide vaccine - which by these methods were found to be deficient in the serogroup A component only. These robust techniques are very useful for the evaluation of antigen content and consistency of manufacture. The deformulation, hydrolysis and chromatographic methods may be adaptable for the evaluation of other types of polysaccharide-based vaccines.

  14. Characteristics of a new meningococcal serogroup B vaccine, bivalent rLP2086 (MenB-FHbp; Trumenba®).

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Ashesh; Balmer, Paul; York, Laura J

    2016-08-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a common cause of bacterial meningitis, often leading to permanent sequelae or death. N. meningitidis is classified into serogroups based on the composition of the bacterial capsular polysaccharide; the 6 major disease-causing serogroups are designated A, B, C, W, X, and Y. Four of the 6 disease-causing serogroups (A, C, Y, and W) can be effectively prevented with available quadrivalent capsular polysaccharide protein conjugate vaccines; however, capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccines are not effective against meningococcal serogroup B (MnB). There is no vaccine available for serogroup X. The public health need for an effective serogroup B vaccine is evident, as MnB is the most common cause of meningococcal disease in the United States and is responsible for almost half of all cases in persons aged 17 to 22 years. In fact, serogroup B meningococci were responsible for the recent meningococcal disease outbreaks on college campuses. However, development of a suitable serogroup B vaccine has been challenging, as serogroup B polysaccharide-based vaccines were found to be poorly immunogenic. Vaccine development for MnB focused on identifying potential outer membrane protein targets that elicit broadly protective immune responses across strains from the vast number of proteins that exist on the bacterial surface. Human factor H binding protein (fHBP; also known as LP2086), a conserved surface-exposed bacterial lipoprotein, was identified as a promising vaccine candidate. Two recombinant protein-based serogroup B vaccines that contain fHBP have been successfully developed and licensed in the United States under an accelerated approval process: bivalent rLP2086 (MenB-FHbp; Trumenba®) and 4CMenB (MenB-4 C; Bexsero®). This review will focus on bivalent rLP2086 only, including vaccine components, mechanism of action, and potential coverage across serogroup B strains in the United States. PMID:27467048

  15. Characteristics of a new meningococcal serogroup B vaccine, bivalent rLP2086 (MenB-FHbp; Trumenba®).

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Ashesh; Balmer, Paul; York, Laura J

    2016-08-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a common cause of bacterial meningitis, often leading to permanent sequelae or death. N. meningitidis is classified into serogroups based on the composition of the bacterial capsular polysaccharide; the 6 major disease-causing serogroups are designated A, B, C, W, X, and Y. Four of the 6 disease-causing serogroups (A, C, Y, and W) can be effectively prevented with available quadrivalent capsular polysaccharide protein conjugate vaccines; however, capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccines are not effective against meningococcal serogroup B (MnB). There is no vaccine available for serogroup X. The public health need for an effective serogroup B vaccine is evident, as MnB is the most common cause of meningococcal disease in the United States and is responsible for almost half of all cases in persons aged 17 to 22 years. In fact, serogroup B meningococci were responsible for the recent meningococcal disease outbreaks on college campuses. However, development of a suitable serogroup B vaccine has been challenging, as serogroup B polysaccharide-based vaccines were found to be poorly immunogenic. Vaccine development for MnB focused on identifying potential outer membrane protein targets that elicit broadly protective immune responses across strains from the vast number of proteins that exist on the bacterial surface. Human factor H binding protein (fHBP; also known as LP2086), a conserved surface-exposed bacterial lipoprotein, was identified as a promising vaccine candidate. Two recombinant protein-based serogroup B vaccines that contain fHBP have been successfully developed and licensed in the United States under an accelerated approval process: bivalent rLP2086 (MenB-FHbp; Trumenba®) and 4CMenB (MenB-4 C; Bexsero®). This review will focus on bivalent rLP2086 only, including vaccine components, mechanism of action, and potential coverage across serogroup B strains in the United States.

  16. Effects of three oxidizing biocides on Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1

    SciTech Connect

    Domingue, E.L.; Tyndall, R.L.; Mayberry, W.R.; Pancorbo, O.C.

    1988-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine the bactericidal effects of ozone and hydrogen peroxide relative to that of free chlorine on Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. In laboratory batch-type experiments, organisms seeded at various densities were exposed to different concentrations of these biocides in demand-free buffers. Bactericidal effects were measured by determining the ability of L. pneumophila to grow on buffered charcoal-yeast extract agar supplemented with ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate. Ozone was the most potent of the three biocide, with a greater than 99% kill of L. pneumophila occurring during a 5-min exposure to 0.10 to 0.30 ..mu..g of O/sub 3/ per ml. The bactericidal action of O/sub 3/ was not markedly affected by changes in pH or temperature. Concentrations of 0.30 and 0.40 /sup +/g of free chlorine per ml killed 99% of the L. pneumophila after 30- and 5-min exposures, respectively. A 30-min exposure to 1000 ..mu..g of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ per ml was required to effect a 99% reduction of the viable L. pneumophila population. However, no viable L. pneumophila could be detected after a 24-h exposure to 100 or 300 ..mu..g of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ per ml. Attempts were made to correlate the biocidal effects of O/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ with the oxidation of L. pneumophila fatty acids. These tests indicated that certain biocidal concentrations of O/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ resulted in a loss or severe reduction of L. pneumophila unsaturated fatty acids.

  17. Comparative genomic analysis of Brazilian Leptospira kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Kremer, Frederico S; Miraglia, Fabiana; Loureiro, Ana P; Eslabao, Marcus R; Dellagostin, Odir A; Lilenbaum, Walter; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-08-01

    Leptospira kirschneri is one of the pathogenic species of the Leptospira genus. Human and animal infection from L. kirschneri gained further attention over the last few decades. Here we present the isolation and characterisation of Brazilian L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok strain M36/05 and the comparative genomic analysis with Brazilian human strain 61H. The M36/05 strain caused pulmonary hemorrhagic lesions in the hamster model, showing high virulence. The studied genomes presented high symmetrical identity and the in silico multilocus sequence typing analysis resulted in a new allelic profile (ST101) that so far has only been associated with the Brazilian L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok strains. Considering the environmental conditions and high genomic similarity observed between strains, we suggest the existence of a Brazilian L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok lineage that could represent a high public health risk; further studies are necessary to confirm the lineage significance and distribution. PMID:27581124

  18. Comparative genomic analysis of Brazilian Leptospira kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Kremer, Frederico S; Miraglia, Fabiana; Loureiro, Ana P; Eslabao, Marcus R; Dellagostin, Odir A; Lilenbaum, Walter; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-01-01

    Leptospira kirschneri is one of the pathogenic species of the Leptospira genus. Human and animal infection from L. kirschneri gained further attention over the last few decades. Here we present the isolation and characterisation of Brazilian L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok strain M36/05 and the comparative genomic analysis with Brazilian human strain 61H. The M36/05 strain caused pulmonary hemorrhagic lesions in the hamster model, showing high virulence. The studied genomes presented high symmetrical identity and the in silico multilocus sequence typing analysis resulted in a new allelic profile (ST101) that so far has only been associated with the Brazilian L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok strains. Considering the environmental conditions and high genomic similarity observed between strains, we suggest the existence of a Brazilian L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok lineage that could represent a high public health risk; further studies are necessary to confirm the lineage significance and distribution. PMID:27581124

  19. Comparative genomic analysis of Brazilian Leptospira kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Kremer, Frederico S; Miraglia, Fabiana; Loureiro, Ana P; Eslabao, Marcus R; Dellagostin, Odir A; Lilenbaum, Walter; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-08-01

    Leptospira kirschneri is one of the pathogenic species of the Leptospira genus. Human and animal infection from L. kirschneri gained further attention over the last few decades. Here we present the isolation and characterisation of Brazilian L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok strain M36/05 and the comparative genomic analysis with Brazilian human strain 61H. The M36/05 strain caused pulmonary hemorrhagic lesions in the hamster model, showing high virulence. The studied genomes presented high symmetrical identity and the in silico multilocus sequence typing analysis resulted in a new allelic profile (ST101) that so far has only been associated with the Brazilian L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok strains. Considering the environmental conditions and high genomic similarity observed between strains, we suggest the existence of a Brazilian L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok lineage that could represent a high public health risk; further studies are necessary to confirm the lineage significance and distribution.

  20. Single channel activity of OmpF-like porin from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rokitskaya, Tatyana I; Kotova, Elena A; Naberezhnykh, Gennadiy A; Khomenko, Valentina A; Gorbach, Vladimir I; Firsov, Alexander M; Zelepuga, Elena A; Antonenko, Yuri N; Novikova, Olga D

    2016-04-01

    To gain a mechanistic insight in the functioning of the OmpF-like porin from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (YOmpF), we compared the effect of pH variation on the ion channel activity of the protein in planar lipid bilayers and its binding to lipid membranes. The behavior of YOmpF channels upon acidification was similar to that previously described for Escherichia coli OmpF. In particular, a decrease in pH of the bathing solution resulted in a substantial reduction of YOmpF single channel conductance, accompanied by the emergence of subconductance states. Similar subconductance substates were elicited by the addition of lysophosphatidylcholine. This observation, made with porin channels for the first time, pointed to the relevance of lipid-protein interactions, in particular, the lipid curvature stress, to the appearance of subconductance states at acidic pH. Binding of YOmpF to membranes displayed rather modest dependence on pH, whereas the channel-forming potency of the protein tremendously decreased upon acidification.

  1. Opposite Effects of Lysophosphatidylethanolamines on Conformation of OmpF-like Porin from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Davydova, Ludmila A; Sanina, Nina M; Novikova, Olga D; Portnyagina, Olga Y; Bakholdina, Svetlana I; Velansky, Peter V; Vorobyeva, Natalia S; Khomenko, Valentina A; Shnyrov, Valery L; Bogdanov, Mikhail V

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidyletnolamine (LPE) is one of enigmatic lipids of bacteria. It is generated from major membrane lipid - phosphatidylethanolamine at severe changes of the bacterial growth conditions. Accumulation of this phospholipid in cells of Gram-negative enterobacterium Yersinia pseudotuberculosis results in the enhanced thermostability of OmpF-like porin (YOmpF) from the same bacteria. The respective integral conformational rearrangements may disturb the channel permeability of protein under stress conditions. However, role of fatty acid composition of LPE in this effect remained unclear. Present work demonstrated that the level of unsaturated LPE is 3.5 times higher than saturated one in total LPE of bacterial cells exposed to stress (phenol treatment). Unsaturated 1-oleoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (MOPE) and saturated LPE 1-palmitoyl-2- hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (MPPE) oppositely affect the conformation of YOmpF. MOPE increases the protein thermal stability due to more dense packing of monomers in porin and preserves its trimeric form at elevated temperature, while MPPE weakens the contact between monomers and promotes dissociation of the protein.

  2. Outbreak of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:1 infection associated with raw milk consumption, Finland, spring 2014.

    PubMed

    Pärn, Triin; Hallanvuo, Saija; Salmenlinna, Saara; Pihlajasaari, Annika; Heikkinen, Seija; Telkki-Nykänen, Hanna; Hakkinen, Marjaana; Ollgren, Jukka; Huusko, Sari; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska

    2015-01-01

    In March 2014, a Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (YP) outbreak was detected by a municipal authority in southern Finland. We conducted epidemiological, microbiological and traceback investigations to identify the source. We defined a case as a person with YP infection notified to the National Infectious Disease Registry between February and April 2014, or their household member, with abdominal pain and fever≥38 °C or erythema nodosum. Healthy household members were used as household-matched controls. We identified 43 cases and 50 controls. The illness was strongly associated with the consumption of raw milk from a single producer. The odds ratio of illness increased with the amount of raw milk consumed. Also previously healthy adults became infected by consuming raw milk. Identical YP strains were identified from cases' stool samples, raw milk sampled from a case's refrigerator and from the milk filter at the producer's farm. The producer fulfilled the legal requirements for raw milk production and voluntarily recalled the raw milk and stopped its production. We advised consumers to heat the raw milk to 72 °C for 15 s. Current legislation for raw milk producers should be reviewed and public awareness of health risks linked to raw milk consumption should be increased.

  3. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis show increased outer membrane permeability to hydrophobic agents which correlates with lipopolysaccharide acyl-chain fluidity.

    PubMed

    Bengoechea, J A; Brandenburg, K; Seydel, U; Díaz, R; Moriyón, I

    1998-06-01

    The hydrophobic probe N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine accumulated less in non-pathogenic Yersinia spp. and non-pathogenic and pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica than in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis or Yersinia pestis. This was largely due to differences in the activity of efflux systems, but also to differences in outer membrane permeability because uptake of the probe in KCN/arsenate-poisoned cells was slower in the former group than in Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis. The probe accumulation rate was higher in Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis grown at 37 degrees C than at 26 degrees C and was always highest in Y. pestis. These yersiniae had LPSs with shorter polysaccharides than Y. enterocolitica, particularly when grown at 37 degrees C. Gel<-->liquid-crystalline phase transitions (Tc 28-31 degrees C) were observed in LPS aggregates of Y. enterocolitica grown at 26 and 37 degrees C, with no differences between non-pathogenic and pathogenic strains. Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis LPSs showed no phase transitions and, although the fluidity of LPSs of Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica grown at 26 degrees C were close below the Tc of the latter, they were always in a more fluid state than Y. enterocolitica LPS. Comparison with previous studies of Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis serotype minnesota rough LPS showed that the increased fluidity and absence of transition of Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis LPSs cannot be explained by their shorter polysaccharides and suggested differences at the lipid A/core level. It is proposed that differences in LPS-LPS interactions and efflux activity explain the above observations and reflect the adaptation of Yersinia spp. to different habitats.

  4. The Pan-Genome of the Animal Pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Reveals Differences in Genome Plasticity between the Biovar ovis and equi Strains

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Siomar C.; Silva, Artur; Trost, Eva; Blom, Jochen; Ramos, Rommel; Carneiro, Adriana; Ali, Amjad; Santos, Anderson R.; Pinto, Anne C.; Diniz, Carlos; Barbosa, Eudes G. V.; Dorella, Fernanda A.; Aburjaile, Flávia; Rocha, Flávia S.; Nascimento, Karina K. F.; Guimarães, Luís C.; Almeida, Sintia; Hassan, Syed S.; Bakhtiar, Syeda M.; Pereira, Ulisses P.; Abreu, Vinicius A. C.; Schneider, Maria P. C.; Miyoshi, Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of several infectious and contagious chronic diseases, including caseous lymphadenitis, ulcerative lymphangitis, mastitis, and edematous skin disease, in a broad spectrum of hosts. In addition, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infections pose a rising worldwide economic problem in ruminants. The complete genome sequences of 15 C. pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from different hosts and countries were comparatively analyzed using a pan-genomic strategy. Phylogenomic, pan-genomic, core genomic, and singleton analyses revealed close relationships among pathogenic corynebacteria, the clonal-like behavior of C. pseudotuberculosis and slow increases in the sizes of pan-genomes. According to extrapolations based on the pan-genomes, core genomes and singletons, the C. pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis shows a more clonal-like behavior than the C. pseudotuberculosis biovar equi. Most of the variable genes of the biovar ovis strains were acquired in a block through horizontal gene transfer and are highly conserved, whereas the biovar equi strains contain great variability, both intra- and inter-biovar, in the 16 detected pathogenicity islands (PAIs). With respect to the gene content of the PAIs, the most interesting finding is the high similarity of the pilus genes in the biovar ovis strains compared with the great variability of these genes in the biovar equi strains. Concluding, the polymerization of complete pilus structures in biovar ovis could be responsible for a remarkable ability of these strains to spread throughout host tissues and penetrate cells to live intracellularly, in contrast with the biovar equi, which rarely attacks visceral organs. Intracellularly, the biovar ovis strains are expected to have less contact with other organisms than the biovar equi strains, thereby explaining the significant clonal-like behavior of the biovar ovis strains. PMID:23342011

  5. Clonal Analysis of Meningococci during a 26 Year Period Prior to the Introduction of Meningococcal Serogroup C Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Christopher B.; Diggle, Mathew A.; Davies, Robert L.; Clarke, Stuart C.

    2015-01-01

    Meningococcal disease remains a public health burden in the UK and elsewhere. Invasive Neisseria meningitidis, isolated in Scotland between 1972 and 1998, were characterised retrospectively to examine the serogroup and clonal structure of the circulating population. 2607 isolates causing invasive disease were available for serogroup and MLST analysis whilst 2517 were available for multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis only. Serogroup distribution changed from year to year but serogroups B and C were dominant throughout. Serogroup B was dominant throughout the 1970s and early 1980s until serogroup C became dominant during the mid-1980s. The increase in serogroup C was not associated with one particular sequence type (ST) but was associated with a number of STs, including ST-8, ST-11, ST-206 and ST-334. This is in contrast to the increase in serogroup C disease seen in the 1990s that was due to expansion of the ST-11 clonal complex. While there was considerable diversity among the isolates (309 different STs among the 2607 isolates), a large proportion of isolates (59.9%) were associated with only 10 STs. These data highlight meningococcal diversity over time and the need for ongoing surveillance during the introduction of new meningococcal vaccines. PMID:25615448

  6. Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O139: Isolation from Cholera Patients and Asymptomatic Household Family Members in Bangladesh between 2013 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Fahima; Mather, Alison E.; Begum, Yasmin Ara; Asaduzzaman, Muhammad; Baby, Nabilah; Sharmin, Salma; Biswas, Rajib; Ikhtear Uddin, Muhammad; LaRocque, Regina C.; Harris, Jason B.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Ryan, Edward T.; Clemens, John D.; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Qadri, Firdausi

    2015-01-01

    Background Cholera is endemic in Bangladesh, with outbreaks reported annually. Currently, the majority of epidemic cholera reported globally is El Tor biotype Vibrio cholerae isolates of the serogroup O1. However, in Bangladesh, outbreaks attributed to V. cholerae serogroup O139 isolates, which fall within the same phylogenetic lineage as the O1 serogroup isolates, were seen between 1992 and 1993 and in 2002 to 2005. Since then, V. cholerae serogroup O139 has only been sporadically isolated in Bangladesh and is now rarely isolated elsewhere. Methods Here, we present case histories of four cholera patients infected with V. cholerae serogroup O139 in 2013 and 2014 in Bangladesh. We comprehensively typed these isolates using conventional approaches, as well as by whole genome sequencing. Phenotypic typing and PCR confirmed all four isolates belonging to the O139 serogroup. Findings Whole genome sequencing revealed that three of the isolates were phylogenetically closely related to previously sequenced El Tor biotype, pandemic 7, toxigenic V. cholerae O139 isolates originating from Bangladesh and elsewhere. The fourth isolate was a non-toxigenic V. cholerae that, by conventional approaches, typed as O139 serogroup but was genetically divergent from previously sequenced pandemic 7 V. cholerae lineages belonging to the O139 or O1 serogroups. Conclusion These results suggest that previously observed lineages of V. cholerae O139 persist in Bangladesh and can cause clinical disease and that a novel disease-causing non-toxigenic O139 isolate also occurs. PMID:26562418

  7. A Novel Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Serogroup Identification of Neisseria meningitidis in Cerebrospinal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Lee, DoKyung; Kim, Eun Jin; Kilgore, Paul E.; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Ohnishi, Makoto; Tomono, Jun; Miyamoto, Shigehiko; Omagari, Daisuke; Kim, Dong Wook; Seki, Mitsuko

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a novel Neisseria meningitidis serogroup-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for six of the most common meningococcal serogroups (A, B, C, W, X, and Y). The assay was evaluated using a set of 31 meningococcal LAMP assay positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from 1574 children with suspected meningitis identified in prospective surveillance between 1998 and 2002 in Vietnam, China, and Korea. Primer specificity was validated using 15 N. meningitidis strains (including serogroups A, B, C, E, W, X, Y, and Z) and 19 non-N. meningitidis species. The N. meningitidis serogroup LAMP detected down to ten copies and 100 colony-forming units per reaction. Twenty-nine CSF had N. meningitidis serogroup identified by LAMP compared with two CSF in which N. meningitidis serogroup was identified by culture and multi-locus sequence typing. This is the first report of a serogroup-specific identification assay for N. meningitidis using the LAMP method. Our results suggest that this assay will be a rapid, sensitive, and uniquely serogroup-specific assay with potential for application in clinical laboratories and public health surveillance systems. PMID:26793181

  8. Lipopolysaccharide Specific Immunochromatography Based Lateral Flow Assay for Serogroup Specific Diagnosis of Leptospirosis in India

    PubMed Central

    Vanithamani, Shanmugam; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Narayanan, Ramasamy; Raja, Veerapandian; Kanagavel, Murugesan; Sivasankari, Karikalacholan; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a re-emerging infectious disease that is under-recognized due to low-sensitivity and cumbersome serological tests. MAT is the gold standard test and it is the only serogroup specific test used till date. Rapid reliable alternative serogroup specific tests are needed for surveillance studies to identify locally circulating serogroups in the study area. Methods/Principal Findings In the present investigation the serological specificity of leptospiral lipopolysaccharides (LPS) was evaluated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), dot blot assay and rapid immunochromatography based lateral flow assay (ICG-LFA). Sera samples from 120 MAT positive cases, 174 cases with febrile illness other than leptospirosis, and 121 seronegative healthy controls were evaluated for the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the developed assays. LPS was extracted from five locally predominant circulating serogroups including: Australis (27.5%), Autumnalis (11.7%), Ballum (25.8%), Grippotyphosa (12.5%), Pomona (10%) and were used as antigens in the diagnostics to detect IgM antibodies in patients’ sera. The sensitivity observed by IgM ELISA and dot blot assay using various leptospiral LPS was >90% for homologous sera. Except for Ballum LPS, no other LPS showed cross-reactivity to heterologous sera. An attempt was made to develop LPS based ICG-LFA for rapid and sensitive serogroup specific diagnostics of leptospirosis. The developed ICG-LFA showed sensitivity in the range between 93 and 100% for homologous sera. The Wilcoxon analysis showed LPS based ICG-LFA did not differ significantly from the gold standard MAT (P>0.05). Conclusion The application of single array of LPS for serogroup specific diagnosis is first of its kind. The developed assay could potentially be evaluated and employed for as MAT alternative. PMID:26340095

  9. Immunization for meningococcal serogroup B: What does the practitioner need to know?

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Joan L

    2014-01-01

    Most invasive meningococcal disease in Canada is now caused by serogroup B organisms. A vaccine directed against this serogroup (4CMenB) is newly licensed in Canada. A decision will need to be made by all provinces and territories regarding whether a routine infant immunization program is warranted. This decision will need to take into account factors such as uncertain estimates for the effectiveness of the vaccine, the high incidence of fever from the vaccine and the burden of introducing more injections into the current immunization schedule, and consider them against the potentially preventable mortality and morbidity that result from a rare but very serious disease. PMID:24596484

  10. Development of a standardized subgrouping scheme for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Joly, J R; McKinney, R M; Tobin, J O; Bibb, W F; Watkins, I D; Ramsay, D

    1986-01-01

    A panel of monoclonal antibodies to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 and a subclassification scheme were developed in a collaborative project among three laboratories. The seven most useful monoclonal antibodies were selected from three previously developed panels on the basis of indirect fluorescent antibody patterns with 83 strains of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 that were obtained from widely distributed geographic locations. The isolates were divided into 10 major subgroups on the basis of reactivity patterns that can be readily reproduced in any laboratory and are not subject to major inconsistencies of interpretation of staining intensity. A standard protocol for the indirect fluorescent antibody procedure was also developed. PMID:3517064

  11. 76 FR 75509 - Autopsies at VA Expense

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... that amendment, VA promulgated 38 CFR 17.38, on October 6, 1999, 64 FR 54212. Section 17.38, inter alia... spouse or, in a proper case, the next of kin, unless the patient or domiciled person was abandoned by the... next preceding his death, he or she shall be deemed to have been abandoned. (b) If there is no...

  12. 78 FR 32126 - VA Dental Insurance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ...) Resin-based composite restorations. (iv) Endodontic services. (A) Pulp capping. (B) Pulpotomy and... in the Federal Register (77 FR 12517) a proposed rule to amend VA regulations to establish VADIP, a... coverage capabilities as determined during the Federal contracting process. See 77 FR 12518. Although...

  13. 48 CFR 801.690 - VA's COCP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false VA's COCP. 801.690 Section 801.690 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority,...

  14. 75 FR 24757 - Virginia Disaster #VA-00029

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster VA-00029 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street, SW., Suite...

  15. 76 FR 70804 - Virginia Disaster #VA-00037

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster VA-00037 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Virginia... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  16. 76 FR 72994 - Virginia Disaster #VA-00041

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster VA-00041 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  17. 76 FR 56861 - Virginia Disaster #VA-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster VA-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Commonwealth of Virginia (FEMA-4024-DR), dated 09/03/2011. Incident: Hurricane Irene. Incident Period: 08/26..., Southampton, Suffolk City, Sussex, Virginia Beach City, Westmoreland, Williamsburg City, York. The...

  18. 77 FR 73510 - Virginia Disaster #VA-00052

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster VA-00052 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Virginia (FEMA- 4092-DR), dated 11/26/2012. Incident: Hurricane Sandy Incident Period:...

  19. 75 FR 9006 - Virginia Disaster #VA-00028

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster VA-00028 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Commonwealth of Virginia (FEMA-1874-DR), dated 02/16/2010. Incident: Severe Winter Storm and...

  20. 76 FR 40766 - Virginia Disaster #VA-00032

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster VA-00032 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Virginia dated... determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Pulaski. Contiguous Counties:...

  1. 76 FR 72020 - Virginia Disaster #VA-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster VA-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Virginia dated... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Fairfax, Prince William. Contiguous Counties:...

  2. 76 FR 59765 - Virginia Disaster # VA-00036

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster VA-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Virginia dated...: Virginia: Charles City, Chesterfield, Colonial Heights City, Dinwiddie, Hanover, Henrico, James City,...

  3. 76 FR 72022 - Virginia Disaster #VA-00040

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster VA-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Virginia (FEMA- 4042-DR), dated 11/10/2011. Incident: Earthquake. Incident Period:...

  4. 76 FR 40765 - Virginia Disaster #VA-00034

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster VA-00034 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Virginia dated...: Virginia: Bristol City, Grayson, Russell, Scott, Smyth. Tennessee: Johnson, Sullivan. The Interest...

  5. 77 FR 74908 - Virginia Disaster #VA-00051

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster VA-00051 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Virginia dated... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Accomack. Contiguous Counties: Virginia:...

  6. An integrated structural proteomics approach along the druggable genome of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis species for putative druggable targets

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (Cp) causes caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), mastitis, ulcerative lymphangitis, and oedema in a number of hosts, comprising ruminants, thereby intimidating economic and dairy industries worldwide. So far there is no effective drug or vaccine available against Cp. Previously, a pan-genomic analysis was performed for both biovar equi and biovar ovis and a Pathogenicity Islands (PAIS) analysis within the strains highlighted a large set of proteins that could be relevant therapeutic targets for controlling the onset of CLA. In the present work, a structural druggability analysis pipeline was accomplished along 15 previously sequenced Cp strains from both biovar equi and biovar ovis. Methods and results We computed the whole modelome of a reference strain Cp1002 (NCBI Accession: NC_017300.1) and then the homology models of proteins, of 14 different Cp strains, with high identity (≥ 85%) to the reference strain were also done. Druggability score of all proteins pockets was calculated and only those targets that have a highly druggable (HD) pocket in all strains were kept, a set of 58 proteins. Finally, this information was merged with the previous PAIS analysis giving two possible highly relevant targets to conduct drug discovery projects. Also, off-targeting information against host organisms, including Homo sapiens and a further analysis for protein essentiality provided a final set of 31 druggable, essential and non-host homologous targets, tabulated in table S4, additional file 1. Out of 31 globally druggable targets, 9 targets have already been reported in other pathogenic microorganisms, 3 of them (3-isopropylmalate dehydratase small subunit, 50S ribosomal protein L30, Chromosomal replication initiator protein DnaA) in C. pseudotuberculosis. Conclusion Overall we provide valuable information of possible targets against C. pseudotuberculosis where some of these targets have already been reported in other

  7. Estimation of the Impact of Meningococcal Serogroup C Universal Vaccination in Italy and Suggestions for the Multicomponent Serogroup B Vaccine Introduction

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Domenico; Fortunato, Francesca; Cappelli, Maria Giovanna; Cozza, Vanessa; Chironna, Maria; Prato, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    In Italy, the meningococcal C conjugate vaccine (MenC) has been offered in most regions since 2009-2010. The incidence of Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD) was 0.25 confirmed cases per 100,000 in 2011, but this may be considerably underestimated due to underdetection and underreporting. This study estimates the impact of the MenC universal vaccination (URV) in the Puglia region by assessing the completeness of three registration sources (notifications, hospitalizations, and laboratory surveillance). Capture-recapture analysis was performed on meningococcal meningitis collected within 2001–2013. The impact of URV among ≤18-year-olds was assessed by attributable benefit, preventable fraction, and prevented fraction. Missed opportunities for vaccination were evaluated from surveillance of IMD. The proportion of detected serogroups was applied to the number of IMD in the postvaccination period to compute the cases still preventable. The sensitivity of the three sources was 36.7% (95% CI: 17.5%–57.9%) and registrations lost nearly 28 cases/year in the period. Attributable benefit of URV was −0.5 cases per 100,000, preventable fraction 19.6%, and prevented fraction 31.3%. Three adolescent cases missed the opportunity to be vaccinated. The multicomponent serogroup B meningococcal vaccine has the potential to further prevent at least three other cases/year. Vaccination strategy against serogroup B together with existing programmes makes IMD a 100% vaccine-preventable disease. PMID:26351649

  8. Telephone Enrollment in the VA Healthcare System. Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-03-16

    This rulemaking amends VA's medical regulations to allow veterans to complete applications for health care enrollment by telephone by providing application information to a VA employee, agreeing to VA's provisions regarding copayment liability and assignment of third-party insurance benefits, and attesting to the accuracy and authenticity of the information provided over the phone. This action will make it easier for veterans to apply to enroll and will speed VA processing of applications. PMID:26987128

  9. Payment for non-VA physician services associated with either outpatient or inpatient care provided at non-VA facilities--VA. Proposed rule.

    PubMed

    1997-07-22

    This document proposes to amend Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical regulations concerning payment for non-VA physician services that are associated with either outpatient or inpatient care provided to eligible VA beneficiaries at non-VA facilities. We propose that when a service specific reimbursement amount has been calculated under Medicare's Participating Physician Fee Schedule, VA would pay the lesser of the actual billed charge or the calculated amount. We also propose that when an amount has not been calculated, VA would pay the amount calculated under a 75th percentile formula or, in certain limited circumstances, VA would pay the usual and customary rate. In our view, adoption of this proposal would establish reimbursement consistency among federal health benefits programs, would ensure that amounts paid to physicians better represent the relative resource inputs used to furnish a service, and, would, as reflected by a recent VA Office of Inspector General (OIG) audit of the VA fee-basis program, achieve program cost reductions. Further, consistent with statutory requirements, the regulations would continue to specify that VA payment constitutes payment in full.

  10. A Survey of Serum Bactericidal Antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis Serogroups A, C, W and Y in Adolescents and Adults in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background This descriptive epidemiological study aimed to assess the prevalence of serum bactericidal antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W and Y in adolescents and adults in the Republic of Korea. Materials and Methods In total, 987 subjects aged 11-55 years from five geographical regions of Korea were included in the study. Human serum bactericidal assay (hSBA) was used to measure hSBA titres for serogroups A, C, W and Y. Percentages of subjects with hSBA titres ≥4 and ≥8, geometric mean titres (GMTs), and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were estimated. Analysis was performed for the entire study population and stratified by age group or region. No statistical hypotheses were tested. Results The highest percentage of subjects with hSBA titres ≥8 was observed for serogroup W (74%), was similar for serogroups C (34%) and Y (36%), and was lowest for serogroup A (9%). The percentages of subjects with hSBA titres ≥4 were similar to those with hSBA titres ≥8 for all serogroups. GMTs were 2.56 µg/mL (serogroup A), 5.14 µg/mL (serogroup C), 22.63 µg/mL (serogroup W) and 5.28 µg/mL (serogroup Y). Similar trends in GMTs across serogroups were seen for individual regions and age groups. The highest GMTs for serogroups A, W and Y were recorded in the >19-29 years group, and for serogroup C in the >49-55 years group. Across all regions, GMTs were very similar for serogroups A, C and Y, while more variation was seen for serogroup W. Conclusion In the Korean population, among Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W and Y, serum bactericidal antibodies were most prevalent against serogroup W and least prevalent against serogroup A. These trends were maintained across age groups and regions. The highest GMTs for serogroups A, W and Y were observed in the >19-29 years group. The reasons behind the observed differences in prevalence of bactericidal antibodies against the serogroups are currently not understood, although carriage

  11. 48 CFR 819.7109 - VA review of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false VA review of application... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS VA Mentor-Protégé Program 819.7109 VA review of application. (a... that the information that is in VAAR 819.7108 is included. If the application relates to a...

  12. 78 FR 76061 - Authorization for Non-VA Medical Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... Administrative practice and procedure, Alcohol abuse, Alcoholism, Claims, Day care, Dental health, Drug abuse...-VA medical care. In the Federal Register on November 28, 2012, VA proposed to remove an outdated regulatory limitation on veterans' eligibility to be referred for non- VA medical care. On the same date,...

  13. Host Response in Rabbits to Infection with Pasteurella multocida Serogroup F Strains Originating from Fowl Cholera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of two avian Pasteurella multocida serogroup F strains to induce disease in rabbits was investigated in this study. Two groups of 18 Pasteurella-free rabbits each were intranasally challenged with strains isolated from chicken and turkey, respectively. Half the animals in each challenge ...

  14. Improvements to a PCR-based serogrouping scheme for Salmonella enterica from dairy farm samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The PCR method described by Herrera-León, et al. (Research in Microbiology 158:122-127, 2007) has proved to be a simple and useful technique for characterizing isolates of Salmonella enterica enterica belonging to serogroups B, C1, C2, D1, and E1, groups which encompass a majority of the isolates fr...

  15. Detection and serogroup determination of Neisseria meningitidis in CSF by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Porritt, R J; Mercer, J L; Munro, R

    2000-02-01

    A PCR protocol for the detection and serogroup determination of Neisseria meningitidis in CSF from 85 cases of suspected meningitis was evaluated. Screening assays for both IS1106 and the ctrA gene were used to detect meningococcal DNA, and a further two assays using the siaD gene were performed to determine the serogroup. PCR results were compared with results of bacteriological culture and discrepant results resolved by analysis of clinical data and further laboratory test results. The resolved sensitivity and specificity of the PCR screening assay were 89 and 100%, and those of bacteriological culture were 37 and 100%, respectively. The siaD B/C PCR assay was able to determine a serogroup in 85% of cases positive by the PCR screening assay compared with 50% of cases where a serogroup was determined by traditional methods. PCR is a useful tool for diagnosis of meningococcal meningitis when Gram stain and culture tests are negative, a situation that may arise when antibiotic treatment has commenced prior to lumbar puncture.

  16. A Seroepidemiological Study of Serogroup A Meningococcal Infection in the African Meningitis Belt.

    PubMed

    Manigart, Olivier; Trotter, Caroline; Findlow, Helen; Assefa, Abraham; Mihret, Wude; Moti Demisse, Tesfaye; Yeshitela, Biruk; Osei, Isaac; Hodgson, Abraham; Quaye, Stephen Laryea; Sow, Samba; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Diallo, Kanny; Traore, Awa; Collard, Jean-Marc; Moustapha Boukary, Rahamatou; Djermakoye, Oumarou; Mahamane, Ali Elhaji; Jusot, Jean-François; Sokhna, Cheikh; Alavo, Serge; Doucoure, Souleymane; Ba, El Hadj; Dieng, Mariétou; Diallo, Aldiouma; Daugla, Doumagoum Moto; Omotara, Babatunji; Chandramohan, Daniel; Hassan-King, Musa; Nascimento, Maria; Woukeu, Arouna; Borrow, Ray; Stuart, James M; Greenwood, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of epidemic meningococcal disease in the African meningitis belt may be influenced by the background level of population immunity but this has been measured infrequently. A standardised enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibodies was established at five centres within the meningitis belt. Antibody concentrations were then measured in 3930 individuals stratified by age and residence from six countries. Seroprevalence by age was used in a catalytic model to determine the force of infection. Meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibody concentrations were high in each country but showed heterogeneity across the meningitis belt. The geometric mean concentration (GMC) was highest in Ghana (9.09 μg/mL [95% CI 8.29, 9.97]) and lowest in Ethiopia (1.43 μg/mL [95% CI 1.31, 1.57]) on the margins of the belt. The force of infection was lowest in Ethiopia (λ = 0.028). Variables associated with a concentration above the putative protective level of 2 μg/mL were age, urban residence and a history of recent vaccination with a meningococcal vaccine. Prior to vaccination with the serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibody concentrations were high across the African meningitis belt and yet the region remained susceptible to epidemics. PMID:26872255

  17. Widespread molecular detection of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 in cold water taps across the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States 3,522 cases of legionellosis were reported to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2009. Of these reports, it is estimated that 84% are caused by the microorganism Legionella pneumophila Serogroup (Sg) 1. Legionella spp. have been isolated and r...

  18. Mesophilic Aeromonas sp. serogroup O:11 resistance to complement-mediated killing.

    PubMed Central

    Merino, S; Rubires, X; Aguilar, A; Albertí, S; Hernandez-Allés, S; Benedí, V J; Tomas, J M

    1996-01-01

    The complement activation by and resistance to complement-mediated killing of Aeromonas sp. strains from serogroup O:11 were investigated by using different wild-type strains (with an S-layer characteristic of this serogroup) and their isogenic mutants characterized for their surface components (S-layer and lipopolysaccharide [LPS]). All of the Aeromonas sp. serogroup O:11 wild-type strains are unable to activate complement, which suggested that the S-layer completely covered the LPS molecules. We found that the classical complement pathway is involved in serum killing of susceptible Aeromonas sp. mutant strains of serogroup O11, while the alternative complement pathway seems not to be involved, and that the complement activation seems to be independent of antibody. The smooth mutant strains devoid of the S-layer (S-layer isogenic mutants) or isogenic LPS mutant strains with a complete or rather complete LPS core (also without the S-layer) are able to activate complement but are resistant to complement-mediated killing. The reasons for this resistance are that C3b is rapidly degraded, and therefore the lytic membrane attack complex (C5b-9) is not formed. Isogenic LPS rough mutants with an incomplete LPS core are serum sensitive because they bind more C3b than the resistant strains, the C3b is not completely degraded, and therefore the lytic complex (C5b-9) is formed. PMID:8945581

  19. A Seroepidemiological Study of Serogroup A Meningococcal Infection in the African Meningitis Belt.

    PubMed

    Manigart, Olivier; Trotter, Caroline; Findlow, Helen; Assefa, Abraham; Mihret, Wude; Moti Demisse, Tesfaye; Yeshitela, Biruk; Osei, Isaac; Hodgson, Abraham; Quaye, Stephen Laryea; Sow, Samba; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Diallo, Kanny; Traore, Awa; Collard, Jean-Marc; Moustapha Boukary, Rahamatou; Djermakoye, Oumarou; Mahamane, Ali Elhaji; Jusot, Jean-François; Sokhna, Cheikh; Alavo, Serge; Doucoure, Souleymane; Ba, El Hadj; Dieng, Mariétou; Diallo, Aldiouma; Daugla, Doumagoum Moto; Omotara, Babatunji; Chandramohan, Daniel; Hassan-King, Musa; Nascimento, Maria; Woukeu, Arouna; Borrow, Ray; Stuart, James M; Greenwood, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of epidemic meningococcal disease in the African meningitis belt may be influenced by the background level of population immunity but this has been measured infrequently. A standardised enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibodies was established at five centres within the meningitis belt. Antibody concentrations were then measured in 3930 individuals stratified by age and residence from six countries. Seroprevalence by age was used in a catalytic model to determine the force of infection. Meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibody concentrations were high in each country but showed heterogeneity across the meningitis belt. The geometric mean concentration (GMC) was highest in Ghana (9.09 μg/mL [95% CI 8.29, 9.97]) and lowest in Ethiopia (1.43 μg/mL [95% CI 1.31, 1.57]) on the margins of the belt. The force of infection was lowest in Ethiopia (λ = 0.028). Variables associated with a concentration above the putative protective level of 2 μg/mL were age, urban residence and a history of recent vaccination with a meningococcal vaccine. Prior to vaccination with the serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibody concentrations were high across the African meningitis belt and yet the region remained susceptible to epidemics.

  20. A Seroepidemiological Study of Serogroup A Meningococcal Infection in the African Meningitis Belt

    PubMed Central

    Manigart, Olivier; Trotter, Caroline; Findlow, Helen; Assefa, Abraham; Mihret, Wude; Moti Demisse, Tesfaye; Yeshitela, Biruk; Osei, Isaac; Hodgson, Abraham; Quaye, Stephen Laryea; Sow, Samba; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Diallo, Kanny; Traore, Awa; Collard, Jean-Marc; Moustapha Boukary, Rahamatou; Djermakoye, Oumarou; Mahamane, Ali Elhaji; Jusot, Jean-François; Sokhna, Cheikh; Alavo, Serge; Doucoure, Souleymane; Ba, El Hadj; Dieng, Mariétou; Diallo, Aldiouma; Daugla, Doumagoum Moto; Omotara, Babatunji; Chandramohan, Daniel; Hassan-King, Musa; Nascimento, Maria; Woukeu, Arouna; Borrow, Ray; Stuart, James M.; Greenwood, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of epidemic meningococcal disease in the African meningitis belt may be influenced by the background level of population immunity but this has been measured infrequently. A standardised enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibodies was established at five centres within the meningitis belt. Antibody concentrations were then measured in 3930 individuals stratified by age and residence from six countries. Seroprevalence by age was used in a catalytic model to determine the force of infection. Meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibody concentrations were high in each country but showed heterogeneity across the meningitis belt. The geometric mean concentration (GMC) was highest in Ghana (9.09 μg/mL [95% CI 8.29, 9.97]) and lowest in Ethiopia (1.43 μg/mL [95% CI 1.31, 1.57]) on the margins of the belt. The force of infection was lowest in Ethiopia (λ = 0.028). Variables associated with a concentration above the putative protective level of 2 μg/mL were age, urban residence and a history of recent vaccination with a meningococcal vaccine. Prior to vaccination with the serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibody concentrations were high across the African meningitis belt and yet the region remained susceptible to epidemics. PMID:26872255

  1. Draft Whole-Genome Sequences of 10 Serogroup O6 Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains.

    PubMed

    Pattabiraman, Vaishnavi; Bopp, Cheryl A

    2014-12-18

    Entertotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of global diarrhea, resulting in approximately 200 million occurrences and 300,000 to 400,000 deaths annually, primarily in children under the age of five. Here, we announce the release of the draft genomes of 10 ETEC isolates belonging to serogroup O6.

  2. Draft Whole-Genome Sequences of 10 Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Serogroup O6 Strains.

    PubMed

    Pattabiraman, Vaishnavi; Bopp, Cheryl A

    2015-06-04

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhea in children under the age of 5 years and in adults living in developing countries, as well as in travelers to these countries. In this announcement, we release the draft whole-genome sequences of 10 ETEC serogroup O6 strains.

  3. Draft Whole-Genome Sequences of 10 Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Serogroup O6 Strains

    PubMed Central

    Bopp, Cheryl A.

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhea in children under the age of 5 years and in adults living in developing countries, as well as in travelers to these countries. In this announcement, we release the draft whole-genome sequences of 10 ETEC serogroup O6 strains. PMID:26044422

  4. Case-Fatality Rates and Sequelae Resulting from Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Epidemic, Niger, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Salou, Halidou; Sidikou, Fati; Goumbi, Kadadé; Djibo, Ali; Lechevalier, Pauline; Compaoré, Idrissa; Grais, Rebecca F.

    2016-01-01

    We describe clinical symptoms, case-fatality rates, and prevalence of sequelae during an outbreak of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C infection in a rural district of Niger. During home visits, we established that household contacts of reported case-patients were at higher risk for developing meningitis than the general population. PMID:27649257

  5. Optimization of the conjugation method for a serogroup B/C meningococcal vaccine.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Lucila O; Schenkman, Rocilda P F; Perciani, Catia T; Carneiro, Sylvia M; Dias, Waldely O; Tanizaki, Martha M

    2006-11-01

    A conjugate meningococcal vaccine against serogroup B/C consisting of capsular PS (polysaccharide) from serogroup C conjugated to OMV (outer membrane vesicle) from serogroup B would be a very useful vaccine in regions where there is a prevalence of both serogroups, for example in Brazil. For this purpose, the conjugation method that uses ADHy (adipic acid dihydrazide) as spacer and a carbodi-imide derivative, EDAC [1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodi-imide], as catalyser was optimized looking for synthesis yield and maintenance of the antigenicity of both components. The best synthesis conditions preserving the vaccine immunogenicity resulted in a final yield of approx. 17%. Immunogenicity of the vaccine was highest when 10% of the sialic acid residues of the PS were occupied by the ADHy spacer. Sterilization of the conjugate by filtration through a 0.22-microm-pore-size membrane resulted in a low recovery of protein and PS (approximately 50%), although the vaccine immunogenicity was maintained. Using gamma irradiation on freeze-dried sample, it was possible to maintain the integrity of OMV structure and, consequently, its ability to induce bactericidal antibodies. PMID:16776648

  6. Case-Fatality Rates and Sequelae Resulting from Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Epidemic, Niger, 2015.

    PubMed

    Coldiron, Matthew E; Salou, Halidou; Sidikou, Fati; Goumbi, Kadadé; Djibo, Ali; Lechevalier, Pauline; Compaoré, Idrissa; Grais, Rebecca F

    2016-10-01

    We describe clinical symptoms, case-fatality rates, and prevalence of sequelae during an outbreak of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C infection in a rural district of Niger. During home visits, we established that household contacts of reported case-patients were at higher risk for developing meningitis than the general population. PMID:27649257

  7. Draft Whole-Genome Sequences of 10 Serogroup O6 Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains

    PubMed Central

    Bopp, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    Entertotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of global diarrhea, resulting in approximately 200 million occurrences and 300,000 to 400,000 deaths annually, primarily in children under the age of five. Here, we announce the release of the draft genomes of 10 ETEC isolates belonging to serogroup O6. PMID:25523765

  8. Cluster of serogroup W135 meningococci, southeastern Florida, 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Timothy J; Mejia-Echeverry, Alvaro; Fiorella, Paul; Leguen, Fermin; Livengood, John; Kay, Robyn; Hopkins, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Recently, 14 persons in southeastern Florida were identified with Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W135 invasive infections. All isolates tested had matching or near-matching pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and belonged to the multilocus sequence type 11 clonal complex. The epidemiologic investigation suggested recent endemic transmission of this clonal complex in southeastern Florida.

  9. Characterization of outer membrane proteins of Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from India.

    PubMed

    Khushiramani, Rekha; Tuteja, Urmil; Shukla, Jyoti; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2004-05-01

    The majority of virulence factors including the 12 Yersinia outer membrane proteins (Yops), 29 Yop secretion proteins (Ysc) and few specific Yop chaperone (Syc) are contributed by the 70 kb LCR middle plasmid of Yersinia pestis. Yersinia pestis isolates recovered during 1994 plague outbreak and rodent surveillance samples of Southern states of India were studied for the presence of important Yops by the conventional procedure of partially purifying outer membrane proteins (Omps) after cultivation in calcium deficient media. Prominent bands numbering 4-5 between 34-42 kDa region corresponding to important Yops were seen in all the isolates as well as in other Yersinia and non-Yersinia species by SDS-PAGE. Western blotting with the polyclonal antisera raised against these Omp preparations revealed few immuno-reactive bands that appeared to be shared among Y. pestis, Y. pseudotruberculosis, Y. enterocolitica, Y. fredrocksenii, Y. intermedia, Y. kristensenii and E. coli. Three recombinant Yop proteins namely, YopM, YopB and LcrV were produced and antisera to these proteins could reveal presence of these Yops in the Y. pestis Omp preparations. In order to further characterize the important Yops among Omps, attempts were made to generate monoclonal antibodies against Omp preparation. Three of the 4 stable reactive clones that were obtained, when tested, had extensive cross-reactions among pathogenic Yersinia species, Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates, other Yersinia species and the members of Enterobacteriaceae in dot-ELISA and Western blotting. One of the monoclonal antibodies, YP1, exhibited reaction to all the pathogenic Yersinia species and the isolates, with restricted cross-reactivity to Y. intermedia, Y. kristensenii, K. pneumoniae. None of the 4 monoclonal antibodies had reactions with the 3 recombinant Yop proteins. It appears that under low calcium response, the Y. pestis not only activates secretion of Yops but also a large number of other proteins

  10. Oral administration of a recombinant attenuated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain elicits protective immunity against plague.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Sanapala, Shilpa; Rahav, Hannah; Curtiss, Roy

    2015-11-27

    A Yersinia pseudotuberculosis PB1+ (Yptb PB1+) mutant strain combined with chromosome insertion of the caf1R-caf1A-caf1M-caf1 operon and deletions of yopJ and yopK, χ10068 [pYV-ω2 (ΔyopJ315 ΔyopK108) ΔlacZ044::caf1R-caf1M-caf1A-caf1] was constructed. Results indicated that gene insertion and deletion did not affect the growth rate of χ10068 compared to wild-type Yptb cultured at 26 °C. In addition, the F1 antigen in χ10068 was synthesized and secreted on the surface of bacteria at 37 °C (mammalian body temperature), not at ambient culture temperature (26 °C). Immunization with χ10068 primed antibody responses and specific T-cell responses to F1 and YpL (Y. pestis whole cell lysate). Oral immunization with a single dose of χ10068 provided 70% protection against a subcutaneous (s.c.) challenge with ∼ 2.6 × 10(5) LD50 of Y. pestis KIM6+ (pCD1Ap) (KIM6+Ap) and 90% protection against an intranasal (i.n.) challenge with ∼ 500 LD50 of KIM6+Ap in mice. Our results suggest that χ10068 can be used as an effective precursor to make a safe vaccine to prevent plague in humans and to eliminate plague circulation among humans and animals.

  11. A direct link between the global regulator PhoP and the Csr regulon in Y. pseudotuberculosis through the small regulatory RNA CsrC.

    PubMed

    Nuss, Aaron M; Schuster, Franziska; Kathrin Heroven, Ann; Heine, Wiebke; Pisano, Fabio; Dersch, Petra

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the influence of the global response regulator PhoP on the complex regulatory cascade controlling expression of early stage virulence genes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis via the virulence regulator RovA. Our analysis revealed the following novel features: (1) PhoP activates expression of the CsrC RNA in Y. pseudotuberculosis, leading to activation of RovA synthesis through the CsrABC-RovM cascade, (2) activation of csrC transcription is direct and PhoP is shown to bind to two separate PhoP box-like sites, (3) PhoP-mediated activation results in transcription from two different promoters closely downstream of the PhoP binding sites, leading to two distinct CsrC RNAs, and (4) the stability of the CsrC RNAs differs significantly between the Y. pseudotuberculosis strains YPIII and IP32953 due to a 20 nucleotides insertion in CsrC(IP32953), which renders the transcript more susceptible to degradation. In summary, our study showed that PhoP-mediated influence on the regulatory cascade controlling the Csr system and RovA in Y. pseudotuberculosis varies within the species, suggesting that the Csr system is a focal point to readjust and adapt the genus to different hosts and reservoirs.

  12. The importance of the magnesium transporter MgtB for virulence of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Ford, Donna C; Joshua, George W P; Wren, Brendan W; Oyston, Petra C F

    2014-12-01

    Mg(2+) has been shown to be an important signal controlling gene regulation via the PhoPQ two-component regulatory system for a range of Gram-negative bacteria, including Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The magnesium ion transporter MgtB is part of the complex PhoPQ regulon, being upregulated in response to low Mg(2+). Despite the presence of other Mg(2+) transport systems in Yersinia, inactivation of mgtB had a significant effect on the ability of the bacteria to scavenge this crucial ion. Whereas inactivation of PhoPQ is reported to adversely affect intracellular survival, we show that Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis ΔmgtB mutants survived equally as well as the respective parent strain within macrophages, although they were more sensitive to killing in the Galleria model of infection. Surprisingly, despite MgtB being only one member of the Mg(2+) stimulon and PhoPQ controlling the expression levels of a range of genes including mgtB, the Yersinia ΔmgtB mutants were more highly attenuated than the equivalent Yersinia ΔphoP mutants in mouse models of infection. MgtB may be a suitable target for development of novel antimicrobials, and investigation of its role may help elucidate the contribution of this component of the PhoPQ regulon to pathogenesis.

  13. The pyruvate-tricarboxylic acid cycle node: a focal point of virulence control in the enteric pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bücker, René; Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Becker, Judith; Dersch, Petra; Wittmann, Christoph

    2014-10-24

    Despite our increasing knowledge of the specific pathogenicity factors in bacteria, the contribution of metabolic processes to virulence is largely unknown. Here, we elucidate a tight connection between pathogenicity and core metabolism in the enteric pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis by integrated transcriptome and [(13)C]fluxome analysis of the wild type and virulence-regulator mutants. During aerobic growth on glucose, Y. pseudotuberculosis reveals an unusual flux distribution with a high level of secreted pyruvate. The absence of the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators RovA, CsrA, and Crp strongly perturbs the fluxes of carbon core metabolism at the level of pyruvate metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and these perturbations are accompanied by transcriptional changes in the corresponding enzymes. Knock-outs of regulators of this metabolic branch point and of its central enzyme, pyruvate kinase (ΔpykF), result in mutants with significantly reduced virulence in an oral mouse infection model. In summary, our work identifies the pyruvate-TCA cycle node as a focal point for controlling the host colonization and virulence of Yersinia.

  14. 38 CFR 1.9 - Description, use, and display of VA seal and flag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... stationery. (B) Official VA identification cards and security credentials. (C) Business cards for VA employees. (D) Official VA signs. (E) Official publications or graphics issued by and attributed to VA,...

  15. 38 CFR 1.9 - Description, use, and display of VA seal and flag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... stationery. (B) Official VA identification cards and security credentials. (C) Business cards for VA employees. (D) Official VA signs. (E) Official publications or graphics issued by and attributed to VA,...

  16. Evaluation of the Role of the opgGH Operon in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Its Deletion during the Emergence of Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Quintard, Kévin; Dewitte, Amélie; Reboul, Angéline; Madec, Edwige; Bontemps-Gallo, Sébastien; Dondeyne, Jacqueline; Marceau, Michaël; Simonet, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The opgGH operon encodes glucosyltransferases that synthesize osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (OPGs) from UDP-glucose, using acyl carrier protein (ACP) as a cofactor. OPGs are required for motility, biofilm formation, and virulence in various bacteria. OpgH also sequesters FtsZ in order to regulate cell size according to nutrient availability. Yersinia pestis (the agent of flea-borne plague) lost the opgGH operon during its emergence from the enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. When expressed in OPG-negative strains of Escherichia coli and Dickeya dadantii, opgGH from Y. pseudotuberculosis restored OPGs synthesis, motility, and virulence. However, Y. pseudotuberculosis did not produce OPGs (i) under various growth conditions or (ii) when overexpressing its opgGH operon, its galUF operon (governing UDP-glucose), or the opgGH operon or Acp from E. coli. A ΔopgGH Y. pseudotuberculosis strain showed normal motility, biofilm formation, resistance to polymyxin and macrophages, and virulence but was smaller. Consistently, Y. pestis was smaller than Y. pseudotuberculosis when cultured at ≥37°C, except when the plague bacillus expressed opgGH. Y. pestis expressing opgGH grew normally in serum and within macrophages and was fully virulent in mice, suggesting that small cell size was not advantageous in the mammalian host. Lastly, Y. pestis expressing opgGH was able to infect Xenopsylla cheopis fleas normally. Our results suggest an evolutionary scenario whereby an ancestral Yersinia strain lost a factor required for OPG biosynthesis but kept opgGH (to regulate cell size). The opgGH operon was presumably then lost because OpgH-dependent cell size control became unnecessary. PMID:26150539

  17. 48 CFR 853.215-70 - VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA. 853.215-70 Section 853.215-70 Federal... 853.215-70 VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA. VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA, will be used...

  18. 48 CFR 853.215-70 - VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA. 853.215-70 Section 853.215-70 Federal... 853.215-70 VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA. VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA, will be used...

  19. 48 CFR 853.215-70 - VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA. 853.215-70 Section 853.215-70 Federal... 853.215-70 VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA. VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA, will be used...

  20. 48 CFR 853.215-70 - VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA. 853.215-70 Section 853.215-70 Federal... 853.215-70 VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA. VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA, will be used...

  1. 48 CFR 853.215-70 - VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA. 853.215-70 Section 853.215-70 Federal... 853.215-70 VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA. VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA, will be used...

  2. First isolation of Legionella species, including L. pneumophila serogroup 1, in Greek potting soils: possible importance for public health.

    PubMed

    Velonakis, E N; Kiousi, I M; Koutis, C; Papadogiannakis, E; Babatsikou, F; Vatopoulos, A

    2010-06-01

    A total of 21 Legionella isolates were recovered from six out of 22 samples of potting soil from the Athens area, Greece. Legionella pneumophila (serogroups 1 and 2-15) and species and serotypes included in the group of L. longbeachae serogroups 1 and 2, L. bozemanii serogroups 1 and 2, L. dumoffii, L. gormanii, L. jordanis, L. micdadei and L. anisa were isolated on BCYEalpha agar containing cysteine, GVPC and natamycin and on BCYEalpha agar containing cysteine, Wadowsky Yee supplement and natamycin. The bacterial load was 4000-120 000 CFU/g of potting soil. The isolation of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 from Greek potting soils is reported here for the first time.

  3. Escherichia coli O-Antigen Gene Clusters of Serogroups O62, O68, O131, O140, O142, and O163: DNA Sequences and Similarity between O62 and O68, and PCR-Based Serogrouping

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanhong; Yan, Xianghe; DebRoy, Chitrita; Fratamico, Pina M.; Needleman, David S.; Li, Robert W.; Wang, Wei; Losada, Liliana; Brinkac, Lauren; Radune, Diana; Toro, Magaly; Hegde, Narasimha; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-01-01

    The DNA sequence of the O-antigen gene clusters of Escherichia coli serogroups O62, O68, O131, O140, O142, and O163 was determined, and primers based on the wzx (O-antigen flippase) and/or wzy (O-antigen polymerase) genes within the O-antigen gene clusters were designed and used in PCR assays to identify each serogroup. Specificity was tested with E. coli reference strains, field isolates belonging to the target serogroups, and non-E. coli bacteria. The PCR assays were highly specific for the respective serogroups; however, the PCR assay targeting the O62 wzx gene reacted positively with strains belonging to E. coli O68, which was determined by serotyping. Analysis of the O-antigen gene cluster sequences of serogroups O62 and O68 reference strains showed that they were 94% identical at the nucleotide level, although O62 contained an insertion sequence (IS) element located between the rmlA and rmlC genes within the O-antigen gene cluster. A PCR assay targeting the rmlA and rmlC genes flanking the IS element was used to differentiate O62 and O68 serogroups. The PCR assays developed in this study can be used for the detection and identification of E. coli O62/O68, O131, O140, O142, and O163 strains isolated from different sources. PMID:25664526

  4. [Surveillance of Neisseria meningitidis in Argentina, 1993-2005: distribution of serogroups, serotypes and serosubtypes isolated from invasive disease].

    PubMed

    Chiávetta, L; Chávez, E; Ruzic, A; Mollerach, M; Regueira, M

    2007-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is an important cause of meningitis, bacteremia and septic shock syndrome. We herein present the distribution of serogroups, serotypes and serosubtypes of 2244 isolates of N. meningitidis from patients with meningitis or meningococcemia, received within the period 1993-2005, in the National Reference Laboratory, INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán", from 33 Argentine hospitals that are included in a National Network devoted to for the study of bacterial meningitis. Between 1993-1995, serogroup B was prevalent (66%) whereas in the period from 1995-2001, serogroup C prevailed (65%). However, following but after that period, the prevalence of serogroup B was recovered. In the last 5 years of the studied period, the serogroups Y and W135 represented as a whole a 15.6% as a whole whereas up to the year 2000 during the first 6 years they accounted for it was of 4.7%. Higher diversity in the distribution of serotypes and serosubtypes was observed within serogroup B. The nonsubtypable isolates throughout the period of study represented the 52.8%, this high percentage demonstrates the limited capacity of the serotyping for the determination of meningococcal/meningococcus subtypes. of meningococco.

  5. Meningococcal vaccines and herd immunity: lessons learned from serogroup C conjugate vaccination programs.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Caroline L; Maiden, Martin C J

    2009-07-01

    Effective vaccines provide direct protection to immunized individuals, but may also provide benefits to unvaccinated individuals by reducing transmission and thereby lowering the risk of infection. Such herd immunity effects have been demonstrated following the introduction of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccines, with reductions in disease attack rates in unimmunized individuals and significantly lower serogroup C carriage attributable to the vaccine introduction. In the UK, targeting teenagers for immunization was crucial in maximizing indirect effects, as most meningococcal transmission occurs in this age group. Questions remain regarding the duration of herd protection and the most appropriate long-term immunization strategies. The magnitude of the herd effects following MCC vaccination was largely unanticipated, and has important consequences for the design and evaluation of new meningococcal vaccines.

  6. Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease Outbreak and Carriage Evaluation at a College - Rhode Island, 2015.

    PubMed

    Soeters, Heidi M; McNamara, Lucy A; Whaley, Melissa; Wang, Xin; Alexander-Scott, Nicole; Kanadanian, Koren V; Kelleher, Catherine M; MacNeil, Jessica; Martin, Stacey W; Raines, Nathan; Sears, Steven; Vanner, Cynthia; Vuong, Jeni; Bandy, Utpala; Sicard, Kenneth; Patel, Manisha

    2015-06-12

    On February 2, 2015, the Rhode Island Department of Health was notified of a case of meningococcal disease in a male undergraduate student at Providence College. Three days later, a second case was reported in a male undergraduate with no contact with the first student, indicating an attack rate of 44 cases per 100,000 students, nearly 500 times higher than the national incidence of 0.15 cases per 100,000 among persons aged 17-22 years (Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC, unpublished data, 2013). Both cases were caused by a rare outbreak strain of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (ST-9069); neither case was fatal. In response to the outbreak, potential contacts received antibiotic chemoprophylaxis, and a mass vaccination campaign with a recently licensed serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine was implemented. In collaboration with CDC, the first phase of a meningococcal carriage evaluation was undertaken. PMID:26068563

  7. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C in China.

    PubMed

    Shan, X Y; Zhou, H J; Zhang, J; Zhu, B Q; Xu, L; Xu, Z; Hu, G C; Bai, A Y; Shi, Y W; Jiang, B F; Shao, Z J

    2015-10-01

    This study characterized Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C strains in China in order to establish their genetic relatedness and describe the use of multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) to provide useful epidemiological information. A total of 215 N. meningitidis serogroup C strains, obtained from 2003 to 2012 in China, were characterized by MLVA with different published schemes as well as multilocus sequence typing. (i) Based on the MLVA scheme with a combination of five highly variable loci, 203 genotypes were identified; this level of discrimination supports its use for resolving closely related isolates. (ii) Based on a combination of ten low variable loci, clear phylogenetic relationships were established within sequence type complexes. In addition, there was evidence of microevolution of VNTR loci over the decade as strain lineages spread from Anhui to other provinces, the more distant the provinces from Anhui, the higher the genetic variation.

  8. Medical Student Psychiatry Examination Performance at VA and Non-VA Clerkship Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Phebe; von Schlageter, Margo Shultes; Park, EunMi; Rosenberg, Emily; Benjamin, Ashley B.; Nawar, Ola

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the effects of medical student assignment to U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center inpatient and outpatient psychiatry clerkship sites versus other university and community sites on the performance outcome measure of National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) subject examination scores. Methods:…

  9. Improvements in VA health services for women veterans.

    PubMed

    Weiss, T W

    1995-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, health care for women veterans in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has improved considerably, although problems still remain. The lack of privacy for women at many VA facilities and the provision of incomplete physical examinations for women continue to be problematic issues. A 1992 congressional appropriation of $7.5 million has substantially increased the awareness of women veterans health care in the VA. This appropriation, from Public Law 102-585, Veterans Health Care Act of 1992, Title I-Women Veterans Health Programs, has allowed VA to expand services for women veterans. Using these funds, VA has established eight comprehensive women veterans health centers, 23 full-time women veterans coordinators, and four regional stress disorder teams. This paper describes these and other important new initiatives and discusses how they will serve as the foundation on which VA expands care for women within the context of a changing health care system.

  10. Microbiological and epidemiological investigation of the Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A epidemic in Niger in 2009: last wave before the introduction of the serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine?

    PubMed

    Collard, J M; Maman, Z; Abani, A; Mainasara, H B; Djibo, S; Yacouba, H; Maitournam, R; Sidikou, F; Nicolas, P; Rocourt, J; Jusot, J F

    2011-11-01

    The 2009 meningitis season in Niger was characterized by an early onset, beginning in the very first weeks of the year and peaking from the 12th to the 15th week with 5655 clinical cases over the 4 weeks. From 1 January 2009 to 28 June 2009 (week 26), a total of 13,733 clinical cases of meningitis were reported to the national epidemiological surveillance system with a case-fatality rate of 4·2%. During the season 25 of the 42 health districts reached the epidemic threshold and 11 the alert threshold. Reactive mass vaccination campaigns involving a total of 5 166,741 doses of the polysaccharide meningococcal bivalent (A+C) vaccine progressively controlled the outbreak in most parts of the country. A total of 3755 cerebrospinal fluid samples representing 28·1% of the suspected meningitis cases were analysed. Serogroup A meningococci were the causative agent in 97·5% of the meningococcal cases. Multi-locus sequence typing of 26 meningococal serogroup A strains showed 25 sequence type (ST)7 and one ST2859, both sequence types belonging to the ST5 clonal complex (CC5) of subgroup III. This is the largest epidemic observed in Niger since those of 1995-1996 (59,948 notified cases) and 2000 (14,633 notified cases). PMID:21251346

  11. DISTRIBUTION OF LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA SEROGROUPS ISOLATED FROM WATER SYSTEMS OF PUBLIC FACILITIES IN BUSAN, SOUTH KOREA.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Yeong; Park, Eun-Hee; Park, Yon-Koung; Park, Sun-Hee; Sung, Gyung-Hye; Park, Hye-Young; Lee, Young-Choon

    2016-05-01

    Legionella pneumophila is the major causes of legionellosis worldwide. The distribution of L. pneumophila was investigated in water systems of public facilities in Busan, South Korea during 2007 and 2013-2014. L. pneumophila was isolated from 8.3% of 3,055 samples, of which the highest isolation rate (49%) was from ships and the lowest 4% from fountains. Serogroups of L. pneumophila isolated in 2007 were distributed among serogroups (sgs) 1-7 with the exception of sg 4, while those of isolates during 2013 and 2014 included also 11 sgs ( 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 15). L. pneumophila sg 1 was predominated among isolates from fountains (75%), hotels (60%), buildings (44%), hospitals (38%), and public baths (37%), whereas sg 3 and sg 7 was the most prevalent from ships (46%) and factories (40%), respectively. The predominated serogroup of L. pneumophila isolates from hot and cooling tower water was sg 1 (35% and 46%, respectively), while from cold water was sg 3 (29%). These results should be useful for epidemiological surveys to identify sources of outbreaks of legionellosis in Busan, South Korea. PMID:27405130

  12. Endemicity of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 3 in a hospital water supply.

    PubMed

    Franzin, L; Castellani Pastoris, M; Gioannini, P; Villani, G

    1989-04-01

    A microbiological and epidemiological investigation at the Infectious Diseases Hospital in Turin, Italy, demonstrated Legionella pneumophila serogroup 3 at 10(2) to greater than 4 X 10(3) cfu l-1 from 24 of 32 hot water samples collected from hand-basins in six separate buildings. A sample taken from the public water supply, and a hot water sample (80 degrees C) collected from hot water tanks, did not yield legionellas. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 3 was found in samples taken at the first point of mixed hot and cold water (50 degrees C) at 3 X 10(2) cfu l-1. 12 of 26 samples from the shower-heads yielded 10(3) to 2.5 X 10(5) cfu l-1 and one of 12 water samples from oxygen bubble humidifiers tested yielded 1.6 X 10(4) cfu l-1. No other legionellas species or serogroups of Legionella pneumophila were isolated during the study. No cases of nosocomial pneumonia were detected among 3653 patients' records, nor was there serological evidence of Legionella infection in the 180 patients tested. PMID:2567758

  13. Biotypes, serogroups and antibiotic susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Chile.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, G; Troncoso, M; Galeno, H; Soto, V; Toledo, M S

    1990-03-01

    Phenotypic markers were studied in 105 strains of thermophilic campylobacters isolated from human beings, animals and drinking water in Santiago, Chile. The strains were identified as Campylobacter jejuni (n = 49) and Campylobacter coli (n = 56). Biotypes I and II (Lior schema) accounted for 96% C. jejuni isolates, the other 4% being biotype IV but the two biotypes of C. coli were about equally represented. A total of 28 serogroups (Lior's heat-labile antigens) were identified. Lior 13, 9, 79, 2 and 4 were prevalent among the C. jejuni, while Lior 8, 21 and 29/75 were prevalent among the C. coli isolates. These serogroups accounted for 73% all isolates. The distribution of biotypes and serogroups in patients and asymptomatic persons were similar. Human campylobacters were often resistant to ampicillin (31%) but sensitive to erythromycin and furazolidone. Swine C. coli isolates proved resistant to streptomycin (46%), tetracycline (38%) and erythromycin (15%). Determination of phenotypic and serological characters provides valuable epidemiological markers in the study of campylobacter infections.

  14. Effect of phenol-induced changes in lipid composition on conformation of OmpF-like porin of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sanina, Nina; Nina, Sanina; Davydova, Ludmila; Ludmila, Davydova; Bakholdina, Svetlana; Svetlana, Bakholdina; Novikova, Olga; Olga, Novikova; Pornyagina, Olga; Olga, Pornyagina; Solov'eva, Tamara; Tamara, Solov'eva; Shnyrov, Valery; Valery, Shnyrov; Bogdanov, Mikhail; Mikhail, Bogdanov

    2013-07-11

    The present work aimed to compare the effects of different lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) content in lipids derived from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis cells exposed and not exposed to phenol on the conformation of OmpF-like porin of these bacteria. Differential scanning calorimetry and intrinsic protein fluorescence showed that the 2.5-fold increase of LPE content and the corresponding increase in the phase transition temperature of bacterial lipids were accompanied by enhanced protein thermostability. Integral conformational rearrangement of protein was supported by drastic changes in the microenvironment of the tryptophan residues, likely resulting in a convergence of monomers in trimeric porin and exposure of outer tryptophan residues to the water environment. These conformational changes may impede the porin channel permeability under stress conditions in bacteria.

  15. Temperature-inducible outer membrane protein of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica is associated with the virulence plasmid.

    PubMed Central

    Bölin, I; Norlander, L; Wolf-Watz, H

    1982-01-01

    A strain of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis which harbors a 63-kilobase plasmid was found to cause a lethal infection in Swiss albino mice. The rate of infection paralleled the ability of the pathogenic organism to attach to a monolayer of HeLa cells. One novel outer membrane protein (protein 1) with a molecular weight of 140,000 was found to be associated with the possession of the 63-kilobase plasmid not at 26 degrees C, and expression was moderately affected by the concentration of calcium in the growth medium. Moreover, it was found that synthesis of protein 1 associated outer membrane protein showing similar properties was also found to be expressed in plasmid-containing strains of Yersinia enterocolitica. The properties of protein 1 indicate that it could be identical to the previously described virulence W antigen. Images PMID:6749681

  16. Genetic study of the pVM82 plasmid responsible for some pathogenic traits of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Il`ina, T.S.; Fil`kova, S.L.

    1995-07-01

    The large pVM82 plasmid isolated epidemic strains of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis includes the 25 MDa segment, which encodes a series of properties affecting the virulence of the bacterium. Insertion mutants of pVM82 containing transposition-defective Tn2507 with a kanamycin-resistance marker in different Hind III fragments of the 25 MDa segment were obtained. By recombination between two homologous pVM82 containing genetic markers in different parts, deletion derivatives of pVM82 plasmid and insertions of the plasmid segment, carrying a kanamycin-resistance marker, into a chromosome were obtained. Results were obtained suggesting the presence in the plasmid 25 MDa segment of a transposon-like structure capable of migrating from pVM82 plasmid onto a chromosome and from a chromosome and pVM82 onto pRP1.2 plasmid of a broad host range. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Telephone Enrollment in the VA Healthcare System. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-09-12

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as final, without change, an interim final rule amending its medical regulations. Specifically, this rule allows veterans to complete applications for health care enrollment by providing application information, agreeing to VA's provisions regarding copayment liability and assignment of third-party insurance benefits, and attesting to the accuracy and authenticity of the information provided to a VA employee over the phone. This action makes it easier for veterans to apply to enroll and speeds VA processing of applications. PMID:27632804

  18. Telephone Enrollment in the VA Healthcare System. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-09-12

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as final, without change, an interim final rule amending its medical regulations. Specifically, this rule allows veterans to complete applications for health care enrollment by providing application information, agreeing to VA's provisions regarding copayment liability and assignment of third-party insurance benefits, and attesting to the accuracy and authenticity of the information provided to a VA employee over the phone. This action makes it easier for veterans to apply to enroll and speeds VA processing of applications.

  19. Sequence analysis of the gene for a novel superantigen produced by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and expression of the recombinant protein

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuhiko, Ito; Abe, Jun; Kohsaka, Takao

    1995-06-01

    We previously reported that the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pseudotuberculosis produces a superantigen (YPM, Y. pseudotuberculosis-derived mitogen) that expands T cells bearing V{beta}s 3, 9, 13.1, and 13.2 in an MHC class II-dependent manner. Based on the previously determined N-terminal 23 amino acids of YPM (T-D-Y-D-N-T-L-N-S-I-P-S-L-R-I-P-N-I-A-T-Y-T-G- (one-letter code)), we cloned the ypm gene and analyzed the nucleotide sequence. The gene encodes a 151-amino acid protein with a 20-amino acid signal peptide at its N terminus. The recombinant YPM expressed by the cloned gene exerted a mitogenic activity on human PBMC at a concentration of approximately 1 pg/ml. T cells bearing V{beta} 13.3 were preferentially expanded as well as T cells bearing the same V{beta} repertoires stimulated by native YPM. T cells were stimulated by the recombinant YPM in the presence of either fixed or unfixed HLA class II-transfected mouse fibroblasts. Furthermore, sequence diversity in the junctional region of the TCR {beta}-chain containing the V{beta}3 element could be observed after stimulation by the recombinant YPM. These results indicate that YPM belongs to the category of superantigens and should be included as a novel member. The amino acid sequence of the mature protein showed no significant homology to other superantigens derived from Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. This observation, together with the substantially smaller m.w. suggest that ypm must have evolved from a different ancestral gene. 67 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. PCR Detection of Virulence Genes in Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Investigation of Virulence Gene Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Thoerner, P.; Bin Kingombe, C. I.; Bögli-Stuber, K.; Bissig-Choisat, B.; Wassenaar, T. M.; Frey, J.; Jemmi, T.

    2003-01-01

    PCR-based assays were developed for the detection of plasmid- and chromosome-borne virulence genes in Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, to investigate the distribution of these genes in isolates from various sources. The results of PCR genotyping, based on 5 virulence-associated genes of 140 strains of Y. enterocolitica, were compared to phenotypic tests, such as biotyping and serotyping, and to virulence plasmid-associated properties such as calcium-dependent growth at 37°C and Congo red uptake. The specificity of the PCR results was validated by hybridization. Genotyping data correlated well with biotype data, and most biotypes resulted in (nearly) homogeneous genotypes for the chromosomal virulence genes (ystA, ystB, and ail); however, plasmid-borne genes (yadA and virF) were detected with variable efficiency, due to heterogeneity within the bacterial population for the presence of the virulence plasmid. Of the virulence genes, only ystB was present in biotype 1A; however, within this biotype, pathogenic and apathogenic isolates could not be distinguished based on the detection of virulence genes. Forty Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates were tested by PCR for the presence of inv, yadA, and lcrF. All isolates were inv positive, and 88% of the isolates contained the virulence plasmid genes yadA and lcrF. In conclusion, this study shows that genotyping of Yersinia spp., based on both chromosome- and plasmid-borne virulence genes, is feasible and informative and can provide a rapid and reliable genotypic characterization of field isolates. PMID:12620874

  1. Virulence plasmid-encoded YopK is essential for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis to cause systemic infection in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Holmström, A; Rosqvist, R; Wolf-Watz, H; Forsberg, A

    1995-01-01

    The virulence plasmid common to pathogenic Yersinia species encodes a number of secreted proteins denoted Yops (Yersinia outer proteins). Here, we identify and characterize a novel plasmid-encoded virulence determinant of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, YopK. The yopK gene was found to be conserved among the three pathogenic Yersinia species and to be homologous to the previously described yopQ and yopK genes of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pestis, respectively. Similar to the other Yops, YopK expression and secretion were shown to be regulated by temperature and by the extracellular Ca2+ concentration; thus, yopK is part of the yop regulon. In addition, YopK secretion was mediated by the specific Yop secretion system. In Y. pseudotuberculosis, YopK was shown neither to have a role in this bacterium's ability to resist phagocytosis by macrophages nor to cause cytotoxicity in HeLa cells. YopK was, however, shown to be required for the bacterium to cause a systemic infection in both intraperitoneally and orally infected mice. Characterization of the infection kinetics showed that, similarly to the wild-type strain, the yopK mutant strain colonized and persisted in the Peyer's patches of orally infected mice. A yopE mutant which is impaired in cytotoxicity and in antiphagocytosis was, however, found to be rapidly cleared from these lymphoid organs. Neither the yopK nor the yopE mutant strain could overcome the primary host defense and reach the spleen. This finding implies that YopK acts at a different level during the infections process than the antiphagocytic YopE cytotoxin does. PMID:7768608

  2. The Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (CNFY) Enhances Inflammation and Yop Delivery during Infection by Activation of Rho GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Schweer, Janina; Kulkarni, Devesha; Kochut, Annika; Pezoldt, Joern; Pisano, Fabio; Pils, Marina C.; Genth, Harald; Huehn, Jochen; Dersch, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Some isolates of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis produce the cytotoxic necrotizing factor (CNFY), but the functional consequences of this toxin for host-pathogen interactions during the infection are unknown. In the present study we show that CNFY has a strong influence on virulence. We demonstrate that the CNFY toxin is thermo-regulated and highly expressed in all colonized lymphatic tissues and organs of orally infected mice. Most strikingly, we found that a cnfY knock-out variant of a naturally toxin-expressing Y. pseudotuberculosis isolate is strongly impaired in its ability to disseminate into the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver and spleen, and has fully lost its lethality. The CNFY toxin contributes significantly to the induction of acute inflammatory responses and to the formation of necrotic areas in infected tissues. The analysis of the host immune response demonstrated that presence of CNFY leads to a strong reduction of professional phagocytes and natural killer cells in particular in the spleen, whereas loss of the toxin allows efficient tissue infiltration of these immune cells and rapid killing of the pathogen. Addition of purified CNFY triggers formation of actin-rich membrane ruffles and filopodia, which correlates with the activation of the Rho GTPases, RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42. The analysis of type III effector delivery into epithelial and immune cells in vitro and during the course of the infection further demonstrated that CNFY enhances the Yop translocation process and supports a role for the toxin in the suppression of the antibacterial host response. In summary, we highlight the importance of CNFY for pathogenicity by showing that this toxin modulates inflammatory responses, protects the bacteria from attacks of innate immune effectors and enhances the severity of a Yersinia infection. PMID:24244167

  3. Meningococcal quadrivalent (serogroups A, C, W135 and Y) tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (Nimenrix™).

    PubMed

    Croxtall, Jamie D; Dhillon, Sohita

    2012-12-24

    Nimenrix™ (MenACWY-TT) is a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, comprising the polysaccharide serogroups A, C, W135 and Y, and tetanus toxoid (TT) as carrier protein. It is the first quadrivalent vaccine (administered as a single dose) to be approved in Europe for active immunization of individuals aged ≥ 12 months against invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W135 and Y. Administration of a single dose of Nimenrix™ elicited a strong immune response against all four vaccine serogroups in healthy toddlers aged 12-23 months, children and adolescents aged 2-17 years and adults aged 18-55 years in randomized, multicentre, phase III trials. In toddlers, Nimenrix™ was noninferior to Meningitec® in terms of seroresponse rates against meningococcal serogroup C 42 days post-vaccination. In children, adolescents and adults, Nimenrix™ was noninferior to Mencevax™ in terms of vaccination response rates against all four serogroups 1 month post-vaccination. Furthermore, several phase II studies and a phase III trial showed that the immune response elicited by Nimenrix™ in all age groups persisted for 7-42 months after the primary vaccination (when evaluated by rabbit serum bactericidal activity), with the vaccine also inducing immune memory in toddlers. In addition, several randomized, multicentre, phase III, noninferiority trials showed that when coadministered with other childhood vaccines or a seasonal flu vaccine, the immunogenicity of Nimenrix™ or that of the coadministered vaccine was generally not altered. Nimenrix® was generally well tolerated in all age groups whether administered as a single vaccine or coadministered with other routine vaccines. The incidence of grade 3 local or systemic solicited adverse events during the first 4 days following vaccination and of serious adverse events over an extended follow-up period of up to 6 months was low (<4.5%). Although protective effectiveness and longer

  4. Prevalence and Serogroup Diversity of Salmonella for Broiler Neck Skin, Whole Carcass Rinse, and Whole Carcass Enrichment Sampling Methodologies following Air or Immersion Chilling.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, D V; Holmes, J M; Cason, J A; Cox, N A; Rigsby, L L; Buhr, R J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate neck skin (NS), whole carcass rinse (WCR), and whole carcass enrichment (WCE) sampling procedures for Salmonella isolation and serogroup identification from the same broiler chicken carcass treated with air or immersion chilling. Commercially processed and eviscerated broiler carcasses were collected from a commercial processing plant, individually bagged, and transported to the pilot processing plant. In experiment 1, carcasses were air chilled to 4°C. In experiment 2, carcasses were immersion chilled with or without chlorine. After air chilling, Salmonella was detected on 78% of NS and 89% of WCE samples. Only one Salmonella serogroup was detected from each of 13 Salmonella-positive NS samples, and two serogroups were detected on 1 Salmonella-positive NS sample. Only one Salmonella serogroup was detected from each of 13 Salmonella-positive WCE samples, and two serogroups were detected from 3 Salmonella-positive WCE samples. After immersion chilling without chlorine, Salmonella was detected on 38% of NS, 45% of WCR, and 100% of WCE samples. Without chlorine, the 15 Salmonella-positive NS samples included 14 samples with one serogroup and 1 sample with two serogroups. Only one Salmonella serogroup was detected from WCR samples after immersion chilling. Of 40 Salmonella-positive WCE samples, 23 had a one, 14 had two, and 3 had three Salmonella serogroups. After immersion chilling with chlorine, Salmonella was detected on 35% of NS, 0% of WCR, and 90% of WCE samples. With chlorine, the 14 Salmonella-positive NS samples included 11 samples with one serogroup and 3 samples with two serogroups. No Salmonella serogroups were detected from WCR samples after immersion chilling with 20 mg/liter free chlorine. The 36 Salmonella-positive WCE samples included 21 samples with one serogroup and 15 samples with two serogroups. NS and WCE sampling methodologies yielded similar prevalence and serogroup diversity after air chilling. However

  5. [Use of immunomodulators isolated from marine invertebrates for reducing the toxic effects of thermostable toxin and lipopolysaccharides from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis on a macroorganism].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, T A; Logvinenko, A A; Timchenko, N F; Epshteĭn, L M; Besednova, N N

    2001-01-01

    The possibility to use immunomodulators isolated from marine invertebrates for the lowering of the toxic effects caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis thermoresistant toxin and lipopolysaccharide was investigated. Effects were evaluated by the animals survival rate in per cent and mice average lifetime after toxin lethal dose injection. It was shown that polypeptide gangleen when compared to timalin as well as glycanes mitilane and strombus had dose-dependent protective effect. These substances increased animals survival rate to 15-17 per cent and prolonged life period for about two times when compared to control group. These results demonstrates the possibility to use investigated immunomodulators is clinical practice at the treatment of the patients with pseudotuberculosis. PMID:11697237

  6. Determinants for thermoinducible cell binding and plasmid-encoded cellular penetration detected in the absence of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin protein.

    PubMed Central

    Isberg, R R

    1989-01-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis inv mutants were analyzed for their ability to bind and penetrate mammalian cell lines. Strains defective for the production of invasin and cured of the Yersinia virulence plasmid pIB1 were extremely defective for entry into the HEp-2 cell line. inv strains harboring the virulence plasmid partially overcame this defect, indicating that the virulence plasmid mediates an invasin-independent pathway for low-level entry into cultured cells. Plasmid-cured inv mutants were able to attach efficiently to mammalian cells after bacterial culture at 37 degrees C but not after culture at a lower temperature. The enhanced cellular binding of inv mutants grown at 37 degrees C did not result in efficient cellular penetration, indicating that invasin-mediated entry is the primary chromosomally encoded pathway responsible for Y. pseudotuberculosis penetration into both HEp-2 and Chinese hamster ovary cells under the assay conditions described here. Images PMID:2543628

  7. [Evaluation of the usefulness of the latex test for detection and identification of O-antigens of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Jagielski, M; Kochman, M; Szych, J; Kałuzewski, S; Rastawicki, W

    1996-01-01

    In the study latex reagents of own production were used, in which latex of 0.9 microns particle diameter was coated with globulins salted out from rabbit sera against Y. enterocolitica groups 03, 05, 06, 08 and 09, and Y. pseudotuberculosis groups I and III. The study was carried out with five standard strains of Y. enterocolitica representing groups 03, 05, 06, 08 and 09, two standard strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis representing group antigens I and III, and 110 strains identified as Yersinia organisms, including 83 strains of Y. enterocolitica, 12 - Y. pseudotuberculosis, 7 - Y. frederiksenii, 4 - Y. intermedia, 2 - Y. kristensenii, and 2 strain of unknown species. Besides that, 54 laboratory strains of Enterobacteriaceae not belonging to Yersinia genus were studied. Latex test was done with bacterial suspensions of 6 x 10(8) cell/ml density of standard Yersinia strains and laboratory strains of Enterobacteriaceae, and with 110 Yersinia strains cultured in broth and peptone water media with tryptophan 0.1%. It was found that the prepared latex reagents reacted in the agglutination test on slide only with the suspensions of homologus. Yersinia organisms but not with suspensions of other Enterobacteriaceae. Among 83 strains identified as Y. enterocolitica 24 belonged to group 03, 19 to 05, 10 to 06, 2 to 08, 2 to 09. In the 12 strains identified as Y. pseudotuberculosis 9 belonged to group I and 2 to group III. The study showed that the latex reagents prepared by us can be used for identification of O-antigen of Yersinia organism immediately in liquid media.

  8. Isolation and detection of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in the reproductive organs and associated lymph nodes of non-pregnant does experimentally inoculated through intradermal route in chronic form

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Nur Amirah Abdul; Abdullah, Faez Firdaus Jesse; Othman, Aishatu Mohammed; Rina, Adza; Chung, Eric Lim Teik; Zamri-Saad, Mohd; Saharee, Abdul Aziz; Haron, Abdul Wahid; Lila, Mohd Azmi Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiological agent of caseous lymphadenitis that affects sheep and goats. This study was designed to determine the presence of the causative organism in the female reproductive organs and associated lymph nodes in non-pregnant does experimentally inoculated through intradermal route in the chronic form. Materials and Methods: 18 non-pregnant healthy Katjang does aged 2-year-old were divided randomly into two groups. The first and second group consists of nine non-pregnant does each and the two groups were subdivided into three subgroups. The first group was experimentally inoculated with 1 ml of 107cfu of live C. pseudotuberculosis through intradermal route, whereas the second group was inoculated with 1 ml phosphate buffer saline (pH 7) solution intradermally. The first group were further subdivided into three subgroups where, the first subgroup (B1) were kept for 30 days post-infection, second subgroup (B2) were kept for 60 days post-infection, and third subgroup (B3) were kept for 90 days. The second group was further subdivided into three subgroups (C1, C2, and C3) where they were kept for 39, 60, and 90 days post-infection, respectively. Results: From this study, there was successful isolation of C. pseudotuberculosis from the reproductive organs of the treatment group after 60 days post-infection. The subgroups (B1, C1, C2, and C3) did not show any presence of the causative organism in the reproductive organs. The second subgroup B2 and third subgroup B3 showed positive isolation of the causative organisms from the ovary, uterine horns, uterus, cervix, vagina, and inguinal lymph node of the experimental non-pregnant does. Conclusion: This study showed that chronic infection of C. pseudotuberculosis via intradermal route may cause effect toward the reproductive organs and may be able to influence the reproductive efficiency of the infected animals. PMID:27047177

  9. Uncovering an Important Role for YopJ in the Inhibition of Caspase-1 in Activated Macrophages and Promoting Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Virulence.

    PubMed

    Schoberle, Taylor J; Chung, Lawton K; McPhee, Joseph B; Bogin, Ben; Bliska, James B

    2016-04-01

    Pathogenic Yersinia species utilize a type III secretion system to translocate Yop effectors into infected host cells. Yop effectors inhibit innate immune responses in infected macrophages to promote Yersinia pathogenesis. In turn,Yersinia-infected macrophages respond to translocation of Yops by activating caspase-1, but different mechanisms of caspase-1 activation occur, depending on the bacterial genotype and the state of phagocyte activation. In macrophages activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) prior to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection, caspase-1 is activated by a rapid inflammasome-dependent mechanism that is inhibited by translocated YopM. The possibility that other effectors cooperate with YopM to inhibit caspase-1 activation in LPS-activated macrophages has not been investigated. Toward this aim, epistasis analysis was carried out in which the phenotype of aY. pseudotuberculosis yopM mutant was compared to that of a yopJ yopM, yopE yopM, yopH yopM, yopT yopM, or ypkA yopM mutant. Activation of caspase-1 was measured by cleavage of the enzyme, release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and pyroptosis in LPS-activated macrophages infected with wild-type or mutant Y. pseudotuberculosis strains. Results show enhanced activation of caspase-1 after infection with the yopJ yopM mutant relative to infection by any other single or double mutant. Similar results were obtained with the yopJ, yopM, and yopJ yopM mutants ofY ersinia pestis Following intravenous infection of mice, theY. pseudotuberculosis yopJ mutant was as virulent as the wild type, while the yopJ yopM mutant was significantly more attenuated than the yopM mutant. In summary, through epistasis analysis this work uncovered an important role for YopJ in inhibiting caspase-1 in activated macrophages and in promoting Yersinia virulence.

  10. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Eurasian Collared Doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and Retrospective Study of Avian Yersiniosis at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (1990-2015).

    PubMed

    Stoute, Simone T; Cooper, George L; Bickford, Arthur A; Carnaccini, Silvia; Shivaprasad, H L; Sentíes-Cué, C Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    In February 2015, two Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) were submitted dead to the California Animal Health and Food Safety (CAHFS) Laboratory, Turlock branch, from a private aviary experiencing sudden, high mortality (4/9) in adult doves. In both doves, the gross and histologic lesions were indicative of acute, fatal septicemia. Grossly, there were numerous pale yellow foci, 1 to 2 mm in diameter, in the liver and spleen. Microscopically, these foci were composed of acute severe multifocal coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes and splenic pulp with infiltration of heterophils mixed with fibrin and dense colonies of gram-negative bacteria. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was isolated from the lung, liver, spleen, heart, ovary, kidney, and trachea. The organism was susceptible to most antibiotics it was tested against, except erythromycin. Based on a retrospective study of necropsy submissions to CAHFS between 1990 and 2015, there were 77 avian case submissions of Y. pseudotuberculosis. There were 75/77 cases identified from a wide range of captive avian species from both zoo and private facilities and 2/77 cases from two backyard turkeys submitted from one premise. The largest number of cases originated from psittacine species (31/77). The lesions most commonly described were hepatitis (63/77), splenitis (49/77), pneumonia (30/77), nephritis (16/77), and enteritis (12/77). From 1990 to 2015, there was an average of three cases of avian pseudotuberculosis per year at CAHFS. Although there were no cases diagnosed in 1993 and 1994, in all other years, there were between one and eight cases of Y. pseudotuberculosis detected from avian diagnostic submissions. PMID:26953950

  11. 38 CFR 1.203 - Information to be reported to VA Police.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reported to VA Police. 1.203 Section 1.203 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... be reported to VA Police. Information about actual or possible violations of criminal laws related to... occurs on VA premises, will be reported by VA management officials to the VA police component...

  12. 38 CFR 1.203 - Information to be reported to VA Police.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reported to VA Police. 1.203 Section 1.203 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... be reported to VA Police. Information about actual or possible violations of criminal laws related to... occurs on VA premises, will be reported by VA management officials to the VA police component...

  13. 38 CFR 1.203 - Information to be reported to VA Police.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reported to VA Police. 1.203 Section 1.203 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... be reported to VA Police. Information about actual or possible violations of criminal laws related to... occurs on VA premises, will be reported by VA management officials to the VA police component...

  14. 38 CFR 1.203 - Information to be reported to VA Police.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reported to VA Police. 1.203 Section 1.203 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... be reported to VA Police. Information about actual or possible violations of criminal laws related to... occurs on VA premises, will be reported by VA management officials to the VA police component...

  15. 38 CFR 1.203 - Information to be reported to VA Police.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reported to VA Police. 1.203 Section 1.203 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... be reported to VA Police. Information about actual or possible violations of criminal laws related to... occurs on VA premises, will be reported by VA management officials to the VA police component...

  16. Home Health Care and Patterns of Subsequent VA and Medicare Health Care Utilization for Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Jeffreys, Amy S.; Coffman, Cynthia J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The Veterans Affairs or VA health care system is in the process of significantly expanding home health care (HOC) nationwide. We describe VA HHC use in 2003 for all VA HHC users from 2002; we examine whether VA utilization across a broad spectrum of services differed for a sample of VA HHC users and their propensity-score-matched…

  17. Expression of a Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Type VI Secretion System Is Responsive to Envelope Stresses through the OmpR Transcriptional Activator

    PubMed Central

    Gueguen, Erwan; Durand, Eric; Zhang, Xiang Y.; d’Amalric, Quentin; Journet, Laure; Cascales, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a macromolecular complex widespread in Gram-negative bacteria. Although several T6SS are required for virulence towards host models, most are necessary to eliminate competitor bacteria. Other functions, such as resistance to amoeba predation, biofilm formation or adaptation to environmental conditions have also been reported. This multitude of functions is reflected by the large repertoire of regulatory mechanisms shown to control T6SS expression, production or activation. Here, we demonstrate that one T6SS gene cluster encoded within the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis genome, T6SS-4, is regulated by OmpR, the response regulator of the two-component system EnvZ-OmpR. We first identified OmpR in a transposon mutagenesis screen. OmpR does not control the expression of the four other Y. pseudotuberculosis T6SS gene clusters and of an isolated vgrG gene, and responds to osmotic stresses to bind to and activate the T6SS-4 promoter. Finally, we show that T6SS-4 promotes Y. pseudotuberculosis survival in high osmolarity conditions and resistance to deoxycholate. PMID:23840509

  18. Effects of orange juice pH on survival, urease activity and DNA profiles of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis stored at 4 degree C

    PubMed Central

    Abdela, Woubit; Graham, Martha; Tsegaye, Habtemariam; Temesgen, Samuel; Yehualaeshet, Teshome

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the survival, growth rate and possible cellular adaptation mechanisms of Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica in orange juice under different pH conditions. Yersinia was inoculated in orange juice with adjusted pH levels of 3.9, 4.0, and 7.0 and stored at 4 C for 3, 24, 72 and 168 hours (h). The inter-and intra-species variation is significant to the pH and time of incubation variables (p<0.05). At 3.9 pH the CFU (colony forming units) count decreased significantly. At pH 3.9 and 4.0, Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis survived for at least 30 days and 15 days, respectively. Yersinia that survived under low pH in orange juice revealed enhanced urease activity within 12 h of incubation. The attachment gene (ail) could not be detected by PCR in Y. enterocolitica from undiluted sample incubated for 24 h or longer. Moreover, the FesI-restriction profile was altered when Y. pseudotuberculosis was stored at pH 4.0 orange juice for 7 days. These results indicate that Yersinia could survive and grow at low pH and the survival mechanisms could also enable the bacteria to survive the stomach pH barrier to cause enteric infection. PMID:22081735

  19. Differential induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha in ovine pulmonary alveolar macrophages following infection with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Pasteurella haemolytica, or lentiviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, J A; Lairmore, M D; O'Toole, D T; Campos, M

    1991-01-01

    Soluble mediators such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) may be important in the pathogenesis of many chronic pulmonary infections. We examined the ability of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Pasteurella haemolytica, and ovine lentiviruses (OvLV) to induce TNF-alpha secretion by pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM). Bronchoalveolar lavage cells, composed of greater than 90% PAM, were obtained from normal sheep. Bronchoalveolar lavage cells were cultured for 2, 24, 48, 72, or 168 h in endotoxin-free RPMI medium (with 10% autologous serum) or in medium containing one of the following additives: lipopolysaccharide, 1-micron polystyrene beads, C. pseudotuberculosis, P. haemolytica, or one of two plaque-cloned OvLV, 85/28 or 85/34. Lipopolysaccharide, C. pseudotuberculosis, and P. haemolytica induced TNF-alpha activity in PAM cultures as early as 2 h after inoculation, as assessed by a colorimetric cytotoxicity assay. This activity could be blocked by rabbit anti-recombinant bovine TNF-alpha serum. In contrast, medium alone, polystyrene beads, and productive infection by OvLV did not induce TNF-alpha activity in PAM cultures. Bacterial pathogens which infect pulmonary macrophages may elicit the secretion of TNF-alpha within the lungs and lead to the cachectic state associated with chronic pneumonia. Images PMID:1652561

  20. Development of an in vitro assay based on humoral immunity for quality control of oil-adjuvant Pseudotuberculosis vaccine in Yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Fumiya; Imamura, Saiki; Nakajima, Nao; Yamamoto, Kinya; Uchiyama, Mariko; Nagai, Hidetaka; Kijima, Mayumi

    2014-01-01

    Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida is an infectious pathogen that causes Pseudotuberculosis in Yellowtail fish. In Japan, several oil-adjuvant vaccines for Pseudotuberculosis have been approved for control of infectious diseases in aquaculture. Before distribution of an approved fish vaccine, an artificial challenge test for quality control is performed by the manufacturer and National Veterinary Assay Laboratory under Pharmaceutical Law of Japan to confirm potency. In this study, artificial challenge tests with a range of five diluted or undiluted approved vaccines was performed to determine the relationship between antigen levels and vaccine efficacy. Immunization of fish with the undiluted vaccine prevented Pseudotuberculosis. Results of artificial challenge tests demonstrated vaccine efficiency was dose dependent. Agglutination assays using immune sera were performed to determine agglutination titers, which were also dose dependent. These results suggest a link between survival rate in the artificial challenge tests and agglutination titers. Western blotting analysis identified a specific protein approximately 37 kDa in size in vaccinated fish. We confirmed antibodies were produced in vaccinated fish by immunoreactions with the approved vaccine. An agglutination assay based on humoral immunoreactions would be a useful alternative to the artificial challenge test for quality control of vaccines for aquaculture. PMID:24325870

  1. Structure of a complex of uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis with the modified bacteriostatic antibacterial drug determined by X-ray crystallography and computer analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaev, V. V.; Lashkov, A. A.; Gabdoulkhakov, A. G.; Seregina, T. A.; Dontsova, M. V.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2015-03-01

    Pseudotuberculosis and bubonic plague are acute infectious diseases caused by the bacteria Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis. These diseases are treated, in particular, with trimethoprim and its modified analogues. However, uridine phosphorylases (pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases) that are present in bacterial cells neutralize the action of trimethoprim and its modified analogues on the cells. In order to reveal the character of the interaction of the drug with bacterial uridine phosphorylase, the atomic structure of the unligated molecule of uridine-specific pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ( YptUPh) was determined by X-ray diffraction at 1.7 Å resolution with high reliability ( R work = 16.2, R free = 19.4%; r.m.s.d. of bond lengths and bond angles are 0.006 Å and 1.005°, respectively; DPI = 0.107 Å). The atoms of the amino acid residues of the functionally important secondary-structure elements—the loop L9 and the helix H8—of the enzyme YptUPh were located. The three-dimensional structure of the complex of YptUPh with modified trimethoprim—referred to as 53I—was determined by the computer simulation. It was shown that 53I is a pseudosubstrate of uridine phosphorylases, and its pyrimidine-2,4-diamine group is located in the phosphate-binding site of the enzyme YptUPh.

  2. Structure of a complex of uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis with the modified bacteriostatic antibacterial drug determined by X-ray crystallography and computer analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Balaev, V. V.; Lashkov, A. A. Gabdoulkhakov, A. G.; Seregina, T. A.; Dontsova, M. V.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2015-03-15

    Pseudotuberculosis and bubonic plague are acute infectious diseases caused by the bacteria Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis. These diseases are treated, in particular, with trimethoprim and its modified analogues. However, uridine phosphorylases (pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases) that are present in bacterial cells neutralize the action of trimethoprim and its modified analogues on the cells. In order to reveal the character of the interaction of the drug with bacterial uridine phosphorylase, the atomic structure of the unligated molecule of uridine-specific pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (YptUPh) was determined by X-ray diffraction at 1.7 Å resolution with high reliability (R{sub work} = 16.2, R{sub free} = 19.4%; r.m.s.d. of bond lengths and bond angles are 0.006 Å and 1.005°, respectively; DPI = 0.107 Å). The atoms of the amino acid residues of the functionally important secondary-structure elements—the loop L9 and the helix H8—of the enzyme YptUPh were located. The three-dimensional structure of the complex of YptUPh with modified trimethoprim—referred to as 53I—was determined by the computer simulation. It was shown that 53I is a pseudosubstrate of uridine phosphorylases, and its pyrimidine-2,4-diamine group is located in the phosphate-binding site of the enzyme YptUPh.

  3. 77 FR 67063 - VA Directive 0005 on Scientific Integrity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... April 9, 2012 (77 FR 21158). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Billy E. Jones, M.D., Senior Advisor to... http://www1.va.gov/vapubs/ . Directive 0005 establishes VA policies that: Foster a culture of... technological information from political or commercial influence; Prohibit suppression or alteration...

  4. FACILITIES FOR EDUCATION IN VA HOSPITALS. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GREEN, ALAN C.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY WAS AUTHORIZED BY THE VA DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE AND SURGERY FOR THE PURPOSE OF IDENTIFYING AND DETERMINING THE FACILITIES NEEDED TO PROPERLY HOUSE AND SUPPORT EDUCATION ACTIVITIES IN EXISTING AND FUTURE VA HOSPITALS AND TO PRODUCE ARCHITECTURAL GUIDANCE IN THE DESIGN OF THE FACILITIES. CURRENT PRACTICES AND SIGNIFICANT TRENDS IN MEDICAL…

  5. 38 CFR 74.27 - How will VA store information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will VA store information? 74.27 Section 74.27 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VETERANS SMALL BUSINESS REGULATIONS Records Management § 74.27 How will VA store information?...

  6. 78 FR 63143 - VA Dental Insurance Program-Federalism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AO86 VA Dental Insurance Program--Federalism AGENCY: Department of... its regulations related to the VA Dental Insurance Program (VADIP), a pilot program to offer premium-based dental insurance to enrolled veterans and certain survivors and dependents of...

  7. 78 FR 62441 - VA Dental Insurance Program-Federalism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AO85 VA Dental Insurance Program--Federalism AGENCY: Department of... direct final action to amend its regulations related to the VA Dental Insurance Program (VADIP), a pilot program to offer premium-based dental insurance to enrolled veterans and certain survivors and...

  8. 33 CFR 80.510 - Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA. 80.510 Section 80.510 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.510 Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA....

  9. 33 CFR 80.510 - Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA. 80.510 Section 80.510 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.510 Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA....

  10. 33 CFR 80.510 - Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA. 80.510 Section 80.510 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.510 Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA....

  11. 33 CFR 80.510 - Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA. 80.510 Section 80.510 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.510 Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA....

  12. 33 CFR 80.510 - Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA. 80.510 Section 80.510 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.510 Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA....

  13. Determining VA physician requirements through empirically based models.

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, J; Kilpatrick, K E; Lee, K L; Pieper, K S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: As part of a project to estimate physician requirements for the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) developed and tested empirically based models of physician staffing, by specialty, that could be applied to each VA facility. DATA SOURCE/STUDY SETTING. These analyses used selected data on all patient encounters and all facilities in VA's management information systems for FY 1989. STUDY DESIGN. Production functions (PFs), with patient workload dependent on physicians, other providers, and nonpersonnel factors, were estimated for each of 14 patient care areas in a VA medical center. Inverse production functions (IPFs), with physician staffing levels dependent on workload and other factors, were estimated for each of 11 specialty groupings. These models provide complementary approaches to deriving VA physician requirements for patient care and medical education. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS. All data were assembled by VA and put in analyzable SAS data sets containing FY 1989 workload and staffing variables used in the PFs and IPFs. All statistical analyses reported here were conducted by the IOM. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Existing VA data can be used to develop statistically strong, clinically plausible, empirically based models for calculating physician requirements, by specialty. These models can (1) compare current physician staffing in a given setting with systemwide norms and (2) yield estimates of future staffing requirements conditional on future workload. CONCLUSIONS. Empirically based models can play an important role in determining VA physician staffing requirements. VA should test, evaluate, and revise these models on an ongoing basis. PMID:7860320

  14. 75 FR 78806 - Agency Information Collection (Create Payment Request for the VA Funding Fee Payment System (VA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Create Payment Request for the VA Funding Fee Payment System (VA... Officer, OMB Human Resources and Housing Branch, New Executive Office Building, Room 10235, Washington, DC... Administration (VBA), Department of Veterans Affairs, will submit the collection of information abstracted...

  15. [An outbreak of Pontiac fever due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 7. II. Epidemiological aspects].

    PubMed

    Yabuuchi, E; Mori, M; Saito, A; Kishimoto, T; Yoshizawa, S; Arakawa, M; Kinouchi, R; Wang, L; Furuhata, K; Koide, M

    1995-06-01

    From August 20 to 22, 1994, an outbreak of acute febrile illness occurred in a Training Center building of a company in Shibuya-ku, Tokyo. All 43 trainees attended in two groups and 2 Center staffs were attacked. Illness was self- limiting, generally lasting three days. Though strains of legionellae, isolated from the water of the cooling tower located at the top of the building, were identified as Legionella pneumophila by microplate DNA-DNA hybridization, they failed to agglutinate with antisera against L. pneumophila serogroups 1 through 6. Two strains were sent to the Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and determined as serogroup 7 of the species. Since the clinical courses agreed with the definition of Pontiac fever by Glick et al. and seroconversion in a patient against the cooling tower strain (EY3698)from 1:16 to 1:256 was determined by indirect fluorescent antibody technique, the epidemic of acute febrile illness was concluded as an outbreak of Pontiac fever due to L. pneumophila serogroup 7. The cooling tower was a cylindrical open style, with volumetric flow rate of 130 liter/min, and was used for air- conditioning exclusively to the third floor of the building. The building equipped no air-inlet, and indoor-air of the training room exchanged at every break time through windows of 168 cm in height and 72 cm in width. The cooling tower was not operated for five days before the Group A trainees checked in the Center on 18 August followed by Group B trainees on 19 August. It was speculated that high atmospheric temperature and stagnation of cooling water during this period would lead L. pneumophila to overly multiply, which could be a source of infection by flowing in through opened windows to the training rooms.

  16. Effect of serogroup, surface material and disinfectant on biofilm formation by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Oosterik, Leon H; Tuntufye, Huruma N; Butaye, Patrick; Goddeeris, Bruno M

    2014-12-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are responsible for significant economic losses in the poultry industry and are difficult to eradicate. Biofilm formation by APEC has the potential to reduce the efficacy of cleaning and disinfection. In this study, biofilm formation on materials used in poultry facilities by APEC strains from laying hens was determined. APEC strains were analysed for an association between biofilm forming capacity and O serogroup. The abilities of two routinely used disinfectants, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC), to kill adherent cells of two strong APEC biofilm producers (05/503 and 04/40) and a non-biofilm producer (05/293) on polystyrene (PS) and polyvinylchloride (PVC) surfaces were tested. Most APEC strains were moderate (PS) or strong biofilm producers (polypropylene, PP, and PVC). Strains in serogroup O2 more often belonged to the moderate (PS) or strong (PP and PVC) biofilm producers than to other groups, while most O78 strains were weak biofilm producers. O78 strains were stronger biofilm producers on stainless steel than on PP and PVC, while O2 strains were stronger biofilm producers on PP and PVC. A concentration of 1% H2O2 killed all adherent bacteria of strains 05/503 and 04/40 on PP and PVC, while 0.5% H2O2 killed all adherent bacteria of strain 05/293. QAC at a concentration of 0.01% killed all adherent cells of strains 05/503, 04/40 and 05/293 under equal conditions. In conclusion, biofilm formation by APEC was affected by serogroup and surface material, and inactivation of APEC was dependent on the disinfectant and surface material.

  17. O serogroups, biotypes, and eae genes in Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic and healthy rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, J E; Blanco, M; Blanco, J; Mora, A; Balaguer, L; Mouriño, M; Juarez, A; Jansen, W H

    1996-01-01

    A total of 305 Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic and healthy rabbits in 10 industrial fattening farms from different areas of Spain were serotyped, biotyped, and tested for the presence of the eae gene and toxin production. The characteristics found in strains isolated from healthy rabbits were generally different from those observed in E. coli strains associated with disease. Thus, strains with the eae gene (74% versus 22%); strains belonging to serogroups O26, O49, O92, O103, and O128 (64% versus 12%); rhamnose-negative strains (51% versus 5%); and rhamnose-negative O103 strains with eae genes present (41% versus 1%) were significantly (P < 0.001 in all cases) more frequently detected in isolates from diarrheic animals than in those from healthy rabbits. Whereas a total of 35 serogroups and 17 biotypes were distinguished, the majority of the strains obtained from diarrheic rabbits belonged to only four serobiotypes, which in order of frequency were O103:B14 (72 strains), O103:B6 (16 strains), O26:B13 (12 strains), and O128:B30 (12 strains). These four serobiotypes accounted for 48% (112 of 231) and 5% (4 of 74) of the E. coli strains isolated from diarrheic and healthy rabbits, respectively. Only six strains were toxigenic (three CNF1+, two CNF2+, and one VT1+). We conclude that enteropathogenic E. coli strains that possess the eae gene are a common cause of diarrhea in Spanish rabbit farms and that the rhamnose-negative highly pathogenic strains of serotype O103:K-:H2 and biotype B14 are especially predominant. Detection of the eae gene is a useful method for the identification of enteropathogenic E. coli strains from rabbits. However, a combination of serogrouping and biotyping may be sufficient to accurately identify the highly pathogenic strains for rabbits. PMID:8940455

  18. Identification of new meningococcal serogroup B surface antigens through a systematic analysis of neisserial genomes.

    PubMed

    Pajon, Rolando; Yero, Daniel; Niebla, Olivia; Climent, Yanet; Sardiñas, Gretel; García, Darién; Perera, Yasser; Llanes, Alejandro; Delgado, Maité; Cobas, Karem; Caballero, Evelin; Taylor, Stephen; Brookes, Charlotte; Gorringe, Andrew

    2009-12-11

    The difficulty of inducing an effective immune response against the Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B capsular polysaccharide has lead to the search for vaccines for this serogroup based on outer membrane proteins. The availability of the first meningococcal genome (MC58 strain) allowed the expansion of high-throughput methods to explore the protein profile displayed by N. meningitidis. By combining a pan-genome analysis with an extensive experimental validation to identify new potential vaccine candidates, genes coding for antigens likely to be exposed on the surface of the meningococcus were selected after a multistep comparative analysis of entire Neisseria genomes. Eleven novel putative ORF annotations were reported for serogroup B strain MC58. Furthermore, a total of 20 new predicted potential pan-neisserial vaccine candidates were produced as recombinant proteins and evaluated using immunological assays. Potential vaccine candidate coding genes were PCR-amplified from a panel of representative strains and their variability analyzed using maximum likelihood approaches for detecting positive selection. Finally, five proteins all capable of inducing a functional antibody response vs N. meningitidis strain CU385 were identified as new attractive vaccine candidates: NMB0606 a potential YajC orthologue, NMB0928 the neisserial NlpB (BamC), NMB0873 a LolB orthologue, NMB1163 a protein belonging to a curli-like assembly machinery, and NMB0938 (a neisserial specific antigen) with evidence of positive selection appreciated for NMB0928. The new set of vaccine candidates and the novel proposed functions will open a new wave of research in the search for the elusive neisserial vaccine.

  19. Molecular Typing of Pathogenic Leptospira Serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae Strains Circulating in China during the Past 50 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cuicai; Yang, Huimian; Li, Xiuwen; Cao, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Haijian; Zeng, Linzi; Xu, Jianmin; Xu, Yinghua; Chang, Yung-Fu; Guo, Xiaokui; Zhu, Yongzhang; Jiang, Xiugao

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is one of the most important neglected tropical infectious diseases worldwide. Icterohaemorrhagiae has been throughout recent history, and still is, the predominant serogroup of this pathogen in China. However, very little in detail is known about the serovars or genotypes of this serogroup. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, 120 epidemic strains from five geographically diverse regions in China collected over a 50 year period (1958~2008), and 8 international reference strains characterized by 16S rRNA sequencing and MLST analysis. 115, 11 and 2 strains were identified as L. interrogans, L. borgpetersenii, and L. kirschneri, respectively. 17 different STs were identified including 69 ST1 strains, 18 ST17, 18 ST128, 9 ST143 and 2 ST209. The remaining 12 strains belonged to 12 different STs. eBURST analysis demonstrated that, among the clonal complexes isolated (CCs), CC1 accounted for 73.3% (88/120) strains representing three STs: ST1, ST128 and ST98. ST1 was the most likely ancestral strain of this CC, followed by singleton CC17 (17/120) and CC143 (11/120). Further analysis of adding 116 serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae strains in the MLST database and studies previously described using global eBURST analysis and MST dendrogram revealed relatively similar ST clustering patterns with five main CCs and 8 singletons among these 244 strains. CC17 was found to be the most prevalent clone of pathogenic Leptospira circulating worldwide. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that ST1 and ST17 strains were distributed among 4 distinct serovars, indicating a highly complicated relationship between serovars and STs. Conclusions/Significance Our studies demonstrated a high level of genetic diversity in the serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae strains. Distinct from ST17 or ST37 circulating elsewhere, ST1 included in CC1, has over the past 50 years or so, proven to be the most prevalent ST of pathogenic leptospires isolated in China. Moreover, the

  20. Predominant Leptospiral Serogroups Circulating among Humans, Livestock and Wildlife in Katavi-Rukwa Ecosystem, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Assenga, Justine A.; Matemba, Lucas E.; Muller, Shabani K.; Mhamphi, Ginethon G.; Kazwala, Rudovick R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease and a serious, under-reported public health problem, particularly in rural areas of Tanzania. In the Katavi-Rukwa ecosystem, humans, livestock and wildlife live in close proximity, which exposes them to the risk of a number of zoonotic infectious diseases, including leptospirosis. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out in the Katavi region, South-west Tanzania, to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira spp in humans, domestic ruminants and wildlife. Blood samples were collected from humans (n = 267), cattle (n = 1,103), goats (n = 248), buffaloes (n = 38), zebra (n = 2), lions (n = 2), rodents (n = 207) and shrews (n = 11). Decanted sera were tested using the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) for antibodies against six live serogroups belonging to the Leptospira spp, with a cutoff point of ≥ 1:160. The prevalence of leptospiral antibodies was 29.96% in humans, 30.37% in cattle, 8.47% in goats, 28.95% in buffaloes, 20.29% in rodents and 9.09% in shrews. Additionally, one of the two samples in lions was seropositive. A significant difference in the prevalence P<0.05 was observed between cattle and goats. No significant difference in prevalence was observed with respect to age and sex in humans or any of the sampled animal species. The most prevalent serogroups with antibodies of Leptospira spp were Sejroe, Hebdomadis, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagie and Australis, which were detected in humans, cattle, goats and buffaloes; Sejroe and Grippotyphosa, which were detected in a lion; Australis, Icterohaemorrhagie and Grippotyphosa, which were detected in rodents; and Australis, which was detected in shrews. Antibodies to serogroup Ballum were detected only in humans. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that leptospiral antibodies are widely prevalent in humans, livestock and wildlife from the Katavi-Rukwa ecosystem. The disease poses a serious

  1. Unusual non-serogroup O1 Vibrio cholerae bacteremia associated with liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, R; Ghafoor, M A; Nasralah, A Y

    1989-01-01

    A 50-year-old woman and a 31-year-old man with underlying liver disease presented with fever and signs of liver failure. The blood cultures in both cases yielded non-serogroup O1 Vibrio cholerae strains which were biochemically identical except that one strain was nonmotile. Despite treatment with antibiotics, the older patient died; the other patient survived. Both strains were found to be susceptible to most antibiotics tested in vitro. No apparent source of infection could be identified in either case. PMID:2592546

  2. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes from three countries and antibiotic resistance differences among countries and Listeria monocytogenes serogroups.

    PubMed

    Obaidat, M M; Bani Salman, A E; Lafi, S Q; Al-Abboodi, A R

    2015-06-01

    A total of 104 Listeria monocytogenes isolates from 330 fish samples from three countries were characterized by multiplex PCR for serogrouping and virulence markers determination and tested for antibiotics resistance. A 53·8% of the isolates belonged to serogroup 1/2a, 3a; 32% belonged to 1/2b, 3b, 7; 14·4% belonged to 4b, 4d, 4e and 1% belonged to 1/2c, 3c. All isolates exhibited resistance to at least one antibiotic but the resistance rates varied among countries. The isolates exhibited high resistance to penicillin, rifampicin, clindamycin, erythromycin and tetracycline, but low resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, gentamicin, chloramphenicol and kanamycin. When comparing countries, the resistance rate for rifampicin, clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid varied among countries. When comparing serogroup, 1/2a, 3a exhibited the highest resistance to clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline and vancomycin while serogroup 4b, 4d, 4e exhibited the highest resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. All isolates carried inlA, inlC, inlJ and lmo2672. Listeriolysin S was carried by 42 and 30% of 4b and 1/2b isolates respectively. Significance and impact of the study: This is one of few studies to correlate antibiotic resistance with Listeria monocytogenes serogroups. The study also compared the antibiotic resistance and serogroups of L. monocytogenes isolates from three countries in one single study. The findings of this study will be helpful in improving data on the antibiotics resistance of L. monocytogenes in developing countries and enriches the epidemiological and public health studies of L. monocytogenes.

  3. Immunogenicity and safety of investigational vaccine formulations against meningococcal serogroups A, B, C, W, and Y in healthy adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Saez-Llorens, Xavier; Aguilera Vaca, Diana Catalina; Abarca, Katia; Maho, Emmanuelle; Graña, Maria Gabriela; Heijnen, Esther; Smolenov, Igor; Dull, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    This phase 2 study assessed the immunogenicity, safety, and reactogenicity of investigational formulations of meningococcal ABCWY vaccines, consisting of recombinant proteins (rMenB) and outer membrane vesicle (OMV) components of a licensed serogroup B vaccine, combined with components of a licensed quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM). A total of 495 healthy adolescents were randomized to 6 groups to receive 2 doses (Months 0, 2) of one of 4 formulations of rMenB antigens, with or without OMV, combined with MenACWY-CRM, or 2 doses of rMenB alone or one dose of MenACWY-CRM then a placebo. Immunogenicity was assessed by serum bactericidal assay with human complement (hSBA) against serogroups ACWY and serogroup B test strains; solicited reactions and any adverse events (AEs) were assessed. Two MenABCWY vaccinations elicited robust ACWY immune responses, with higher seroresponse rates than one dose of MenACWY-CRM. Bactericidal antibody responses against the rMenB antigens and OMV components were highest in subjects who received 2 doses of OMV-containing MenABCWY formulations, with ≥68% of subjects achieving hSBA titers ≥5 against each of the serogroup B test strains. After the first dose, solicited local reaction rates were higher in the MenABCWY or rMenB groups than the MenACWY-CRM group, but similar across groups after the second dose, consisting mainly of transient injection site pain. Fever (≥38.0°C) was rare and there were no vaccine-related serious AEs. In conclusion, investigational MenABCWY formulations containing OMV components elicited highly immunogenic responses against meningococcal serogroups ACWY, as well as serogroup B test strains, with an acceptable safety profile. [NCT01210885] PMID:25969894

  4. LcrV Delivered via Type III Secretion System of Live Attenuated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Enhances Immunogenicity against Pneumonic Plague

    PubMed Central

    Sanapala, Shilpa; Henderson, Jeremy C.; Sam, Shandiin; Olinzock, Joseph; Trent, M. Stephen; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Here, we constructed a Yersinia pseudotuberculosis mutant strain with arabinose-dependent regulated and delayed shutoff of crp expression (araC PBAD crp) and replacement of the msbB gene with the Escherichia coli msbB gene to attenuate it. Then, we inserted the asd mutation into this construction to form χ10057 [Δasd-206 ΔmsbB868::PmsbB msbB(EC) ΔPcrp21::TT araC PBAD crp] for use with a balanced-lethal Asd-positive (Asd+) plasmid to facilitate antigen synthesis. A hybrid protein composed of YopE (amino acids [aa]1 to 138) fused with full-length LcrV (YopENt138-LcrV) was synthesized in χ10057 harboring an Asd+ plasmid (pYA5199, yopENt138-lcrV) and could be secreted through a type III secretion system (T3SS) in vitro and in vivo. Animal studies indicated that mice orally immunized with χ10057(pYA5199) developed titers of IgG response to whole-cell lysates of Y. pestis (YpL) and subunit LcrV similar to those seen with χ10057(pYA3332) (χ10057 plus an empty plasmid). However, only immunization of mice with χ10057(pYA5199) resulted in a significant secretory IgA response to LcrV. χ10057(pYA5199) induced a higher level of protection (80% survival) against intranasal (i.n.) challenge with ∼240 median lethal doses (LD50) (2.4 × 104 CFU) of Y. pestis KIM6+(pCD1Ap) than χ10057(pYA3332) (40% survival). Splenocytes from mice vaccinated with χ10057(pYA5199) produced significant levels of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-17 (IL-17) after restimulation with LcrV and YpL antigens. Our results suggest that it is possible to use an attenuated Y. pseudotuberculosis strain delivering the LcrV antigen via the T3SS as a potential vaccine candidate against pneumonic plague. PMID:25114109

  5. LcrV delivered via type III secretion system of live attenuated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis enhances immunogenicity against pneumonic plague.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Sanapala, Shilpa; Henderson, Jeremy C; Sam, Shandiin; Olinzock, Joseph; Trent, M Stephen; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-10-01

    Here, we constructed a Yersinia pseudotuberculosis mutant strain with arabinose-dependent regulated and delayed shutoff of crp expression (araC P(BAD) crp) and replacement of the msbB gene with the Escherichia coli msbB gene to attenuate it. Then, we inserted the asd mutation into this construction to form χ10057 [Δasd-206 ΔmsbB868::P(msbB) msbB(EC) ΔP(crp21)::TT araC P(BAD) crp] for use with a balanced-lethal Asd-positive (Asd(+)) plasmid to facilitate antigen synthesis. A hybrid protein composed of YopE (amino acids [aa]1 to 138) fused with full-length LcrV (YopE(Nt138)-LcrV) was synthesized in χ10057 harboring an Asd(+) plasmid (pYA5199, yopE(Nt138)-lcrV) and could be secreted through a type III secretion system (T3SS) in vitro and in vivo. Animal studies indicated that mice orally immunized with χ10057(pYA5199) developed titers of IgG response to whole-cell lysates of Y. pestis (YpL) and subunit LcrV similar to those seen with χ10057(pYA3332) (χ10057 plus an empty plasmid). However, only immunization of mice with χ10057(pYA5199) resulted in a significant secretory IgA response to LcrV. χ10057(pYA5199) induced a higher level of protection (80% survival) against intranasal (i.n.) challenge with ~240 median lethal doses (LD50) (2.4 × 10(4) CFU) of Y. pestis KIM6+(pCD1Ap) than χ10057(pYA3332) (40% survival). Splenocytes from mice vaccinated with χ10057(pYA5199) produced significant levels of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-17 (IL-17) after restimulation with LcrV and YpL antigens. Our results suggest that it is possible to use an attenuated Y. pseudotuberculosis strain delivering the LcrV antigen via the T3SS as a potential vaccine candidate against pneumonic plague.

  6. Influence of Season and Feedlot Location on Prevalence and Virulence Factors of Seven Serogroups of Escherichia coli in Feces of Western-Canadian Slaughter Cattle.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Kim; Johnson, Roger P; Alexander, Trevor W; McAllister, Tim A; Reuter, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Pooled feces collected over two years from 1749 transport trailers hauling western-Canadian slaughter cattle were analysed by PCR for detection of Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157. Sequential immunomagnetic separation was then used to collect bacterial isolates (n = 1035) from feces positive for target serogroups. Isolated bacteria were tested by PCR to confirm serogroup and the presence of eae, ehxA, stx1, and stx2 virulence genes. Based on PCR screening, serogroup prevalence in feces ranged from 7.0% (O145) to 94.4% (O103) with at least 3 serogroups present in 79.5% of samples. Origin of cattle affected serogroup PCR prevalence and O157 was most prevalent in feces from south-west Alberta (P < 0.001). All serogroups demonstrated seasonal variations in PCR prevalence, with O26, O45, O103, O121, and O157 least prevalent (P < 0.001) in cooler winter months, while uncommon serogroups O111 and O145 increased in prevalence during winter (P < 0.001). However, isolates collected during winter were predominantly from serogroups O103 and O45. No seasonal variation was noted in proportion of isolates which were Shiga toxin containing E. coli (STEC; P = 0.18) or positive for Shiga toxin and eae (enterohemorrhagic E. coli; EHEC; P = 0.29). Isolates of serogroups O111, O145, and O157 were more frequently EHEC than were others, although 37.6-54.3% of isolates from other serogroups were also EHEC. Shiga-toxin genes present also varied by geographic origin of cattle (P < 0.05) in all serogroups except O157. As cattle within feedlots are sourced from multiple regions, locational differences in serogroup prevalence and virulence genes imply existence of selection pressures for E. coli and their virulence in western-Canadian cattle. Factors which reduce carriage or expression of virulence genes, particularly in non-O157 serogroups, should be investigated.

  7. Influence of Season and Feedlot Location on Prevalence and Virulence Factors of Seven Serogroups of Escherichia coli in Feces of Western-Canadian Slaughter Cattle.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Kim; Johnson, Roger P; Alexander, Trevor W; McAllister, Tim A; Reuter, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Pooled feces collected over two years from 1749 transport trailers hauling western-Canadian slaughter cattle were analysed by PCR for detection of Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157. Sequential immunomagnetic separation was then used to collect bacterial isolates (n = 1035) from feces positive for target serogroups. Isolated bacteria were tested by PCR to confirm serogroup and the presence of eae, ehxA, stx1, and stx2 virulence genes. Based on PCR screening, serogroup prevalence in feces ranged from 7.0% (O145) to 94.4% (O103) with at least 3 serogroups present in 79.5% of samples. Origin of cattle affected serogroup PCR prevalence and O157 was most prevalent in feces from south-west Alberta (P < 0.001). All serogroups demonstrated seasonal variations in PCR prevalence, with O26, O45, O103, O121, and O157 least prevalent (P < 0.001) in cooler winter months, while uncommon serogroups O111 and O145 increased in prevalence during winter (P < 0.001). However, isolates collected during winter were predominantly from serogroups O103 and O45. No seasonal variation was noted in proportion of isolates which were Shiga toxin containing E. coli (STEC; P = 0.18) or positive for Shiga toxin and eae (enterohemorrhagic E. coli; EHEC; P = 0.29). Isolates of serogroups O111, O145, and O157 were more frequently EHEC than were others, although 37.6-54.3% of isolates from other serogroups were also EHEC. Shiga-toxin genes present also varied by geographic origin of cattle (P < 0.05) in all serogroups except O157. As cattle within feedlots are sourced from multiple regions, locational differences in serogroup prevalence and virulence genes imply existence of selection pressures for E. coli and their virulence in western-Canadian cattle. Factors which reduce carriage or expression of virulence genes, particularly in non-O157 serogroups, should be investigated. PMID:27482711

  8. Influence of Season and Feedlot Location on Prevalence and Virulence Factors of Seven Serogroups of Escherichia coli in Feces of Western-Canadian Slaughter Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Roger P.; Alexander, Trevor W.; McAllister, Tim A.; Reuter, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Pooled feces collected over two years from 1749 transport trailers hauling western-Canadian slaughter cattle were analysed by PCR for detection of Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157. Sequential immunomagnetic separation was then used to collect bacterial isolates (n = 1035) from feces positive for target serogroups. Isolated bacteria were tested by PCR to confirm serogroup and the presence of eae, ehxA, stx1, and stx2 virulence genes. Based on PCR screening, serogroup prevalence in feces ranged from 7.0% (O145) to 94.4% (O103) with at least 3 serogroups present in 79.5% of samples. Origin of cattle affected serogroup PCR prevalence and O157 was most prevalent in feces from south-west Alberta (P < 0.001). All serogroups demonstrated seasonal variations in PCR prevalence, with O26, O45, O103, O121, and O157 least prevalent (P < 0.001) in cooler winter months, while uncommon serogroups O111 and O145 increased in prevalence during winter (P < 0.001). However, isolates collected during winter were predominantly from serogroups O103 and O45. No seasonal variation was noted in proportion of isolates which were Shiga toxin containing E. coli (STEC; P = 0.18) or positive for Shiga toxin and eae (enterohemorrhagic E. coli; EHEC; P = 0.29). Isolates of serogroups O111, O145, and O157 were more frequently EHEC than were others, although 37.6–54.3% of isolates from other serogroups were also EHEC. Shiga-toxin genes present also varied by geographic origin of cattle (P < 0.05) in all serogroups except O157. As cattle within feedlots are sourced from multiple regions, locational differences in serogroup prevalence and virulence genes imply existence of selection pressures for E. coli and their virulence in western-Canadian cattle. Factors which reduce carriage or expression of virulence genes, particularly in non-O157 serogroups, should be investigated. PMID:27482711

  9. Characterization of vaccine antigens of meningococcal serogroup W isolates from Ghana and Burkina Faso from 2003 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Ispasanie, Emma; Pluschke, Gerd; Hodgson, Abraham; Sie, Ali; MacLennan, Calman; Koeberling, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of bacterial meningitis and a considerable health problem in the 25 countries of the 'African Meningitis Belt' that extends from Senegal in West Africa to Ethiopia in the East. Approximately 80% of cases of meningococcal meningitis in Africa have been caused by strains belonging to capsular serogroup A. After the introduction of a serogroup A conjugate polysaccharide vaccine, MenAfriVac (™), that began in December 2010, the incidence of meningitis due to serogroup A has markedly declined in this region. Currently, serogroup W of N. meningitidis accounts for the majority of cases. Vaccines based on sub-capsular antigens, such as Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA), are under investigation for use in Africa. To analyse the antigenic properties of a serogroup W wave of colonisation and disease, we investigated the molecular diversity of the protein vaccine antigens PorA, Neisserial Adhesin A (NadA), Neisserial heparin-binding antigen (NHBA) and factor H binding protein (fHbp) of 31 invasive and carriage serogroup W isolates collected as part of a longitudinal study from Ghana and Burkina Faso between 2003 and 2009. We found that the isolates all expressed fHbp variant 2 ID 22 or 23, differing from each other by only one amino acid, and a single PorA subtype of P1.5,2. Of the isolates, 49% had a functional nhbA gene and 100% had the nadA allele 3, which contained the insertion sequence IS1301 in five isolates. Of the W isolates tested, 41% had high fHbp expression when compared with a reference serogroup B strain, known to be a high expresser of fHbp variant 2. Our results indicate that in this collection of serogroup W isolates, there is limited antigenic diversification over time of vaccine candidate outer membrane proteins (OMP), thus making them promising candidates for inclusion in a protein-based vaccine against meningococcal meningitis for Africa. PMID:25901274

  10. Increased incidence of invasive meningococcal disease of serogroup C / clonal complex 11, Tuscany, Italy, 2015 to 2016.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Paola; Miglietta, Alessandro; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Fazio, Cecilia; Neri, Arianna; Vacca, Paola; Voller, Fabio; D'Ancona, Fortunato P; Guerra, Raniero; Iannazzo, Stefania; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Rezza, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    We report an increase of serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis invasive meningococcal disease in Tuscany. From January 2015 to end February 2016, 43 cases were reported, among which 10 were fatal, compared to two cases caused by serogroup C recorded in 2014 and three in 2013. No secondary cases occurred. Thirty-five strains belonged to C:P1.5-1,10-8:F3-6:ST-11(cc11). Control measures have been adopted and immunisation campaigns implemented. Studies on risk factors and carriage are ongoing. PMID:27035155

  11. Characterization of Leptospira santarosai Serogroup Grippotyphosa Serovar Bananal Isolated from Capybara ( Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris ) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Miraglia, Fabiana; Marvulo, Maria F V; Silva, Jean C R; Paula, Catia D; Costa, Barbara L P; Morais, Zenaide M; Ferreira, Fernando; Neto, José S Ferreira; Dellagostin, Odir A; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-07-01

    Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. Rodents appear to be the most important reservoirs of infection. They contaminate the environment and food and can transmit the pathogen when they are consumed by carnivores. Capybara ( Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris ) are efficient reservoirs of Leptospira, and because they are in close contact with farm animals and are found in semiurban areas, they represent a risk to public health. We isolated five Leptospira strains from capybara kidneys in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in 2001 and typed them using serologic and molecular techniques. These strains include the Leptospira santarosai serogroup Grippotyphosa serovar Bananal. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis resulted in a unique pattern distinct from the reference strains, and the isolates clustered with greater than 85% similarity. The isolates also presented higher growth rates than other Leptospira serovars, with high minimal inhibitory concentration values for most of the tested antibiotics, with the exception of penicillin and ampicillin. This isolation and characterization of the L. santarosai serogroup Grippotyphosa serovar Bananal from capybara, highlights the importance of wild and sinantropic rodents as carriers of pathogenic leptospires.

  12. Characterization of Leptospira santarosai Serogroup Grippotyphosa Serovar Bananal Isolated from Capybara ( Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris ) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Miraglia, Fabiana; Marvulo, Maria F V; Silva, Jean C R; Paula, Catia D; Costa, Barbara L P; Morais, Zenaide M; Ferreira, Fernando; Neto, José S Ferreira; Dellagostin, Odir A; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-07-01

    Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. Rodents appear to be the most important reservoirs of infection. They contaminate the environment and food and can transmit the pathogen when they are consumed by carnivores. Capybara ( Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris ) are efficient reservoirs of Leptospira, and because they are in close contact with farm animals and are found in semiurban areas, they represent a risk to public health. We isolated five Leptospira strains from capybara kidneys in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in 2001 and typed them using serologic and molecular techniques. These strains include the Leptospira santarosai serogroup Grippotyphosa serovar Bananal. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis resulted in a unique pattern distinct from the reference strains, and the isolates clustered with greater than 85% similarity. The isolates also presented higher growth rates than other Leptospira serovars, with high minimal inhibitory concentration values for most of the tested antibiotics, with the exception of penicillin and ampicillin. This isolation and characterization of the L. santarosai serogroup Grippotyphosa serovar Bananal from capybara, highlights the importance of wild and sinantropic rodents as carriers of pathogenic leptospires. PMID:27258408

  13. Distribution of Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1 and other legionellae in potting soils in Australia.

    PubMed

    Steele, T W; Moore, C V; Sangster, N

    1990-10-01

    Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1 and other Legionella spp. were isolated from 73% of 45 potting soils made in Australia by 13 manufacturers but were not detected in 19 potting soils made in Greece, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom examined between March 1989 and May 1990. Several Legionella species were isolated from a small number of samples of uncomposted pine sawdusts, but it is not known whether sawdust was the source of some of the legionellae found in potting soils. Legionella spp. persisted for periods ranging from 3 to 10 months in a potting soil held at temperatures between -20 and 35 degrees C. Isolates of L. longbeachae serogroup 1 from soil did not grow at 43 degrees C, a temperature which was also lethal for this species in soil. Most Legionella spp. isolated from potting and natural soils belonged to one distinct group according to analysis of ubiquinones and were serologically related to several known species in this group. A small number of potting soils contained L. pneumophila and L. micdadei.

  14. Emergence of Multidrug Resistance in Ubiquitous and Dominant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Serogroup O:11

    PubMed Central

    Tassios, Panayotis T.; Gennimata, Vassiliki; Maniatis, Anthony N.; Fock, Caroline; Legakis, Nicholas J.; Group, The Greek Pseudomonas aeruginosa Study

    1998-01-01

    The serotypes of 88 nonreplicate nosocomial Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from 11 Greek hospitals were studied in relation to their antibiotic susceptibilities. Rates of resistance to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, and quinolones ranged from 31 to 65%, except for those to ceftazidime (15%) and imipenem (21%). Four serotypes were dominant: O:12 (25% of isolates), O:1 (17%), O:11 (16%), and O:6 (10%). Multidrug resistance rates in the major serogroups O:12 (91%) and O:11 (79%) were higher than those in serogroups O:1 (40%) and O:6 (43%). Further typing with respect to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns following XbaI digestion of genomic DNA discriminated the isolates into 74 types. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the ubiquitous O:12 group was genetically homogeneous, since 95% of strains belonged to two clusters of genotypic similarity, while the O:11 strains, present in 8 of the 11 hospitals, were distributed among five such clusters. Therefore, apart from the already reported O:12 multidrug-resistant European clone, an O:11 population, characterized by a serotype known to be dominant in the environment and the hospital in several parts of the world, but previously not associated with multidrug resistance to antibiotics, has progressed to a multidrug-resistant state. PMID:9542905

  15. Meningococcal serogroup B vaccine in Italy: state-of-art, organizational aspects and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, C; Chiesa, V; Odone, A

    2015-08-31

    Neisseria meningitidis causes severe invasive meningococcal diseases (IMDs) in humans including meningitis and septicemia, responsible for serious clinical conditions and leading to life-long disabilities and death. Serogroup B dominates IMDs burden in Italy, accounting for over 60% of total cases. On January 2013 the European Medicine Agency (EMA) licensed the first serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine in Europe. A number of European countries and Regions have introduced the new MenB vaccine in their immunization schedule, including Italy. In this paper we present the state of art, related critical issues and future perspectives of MenB vaccine introduction in Italy, in the context of the most recent available epidemiological data. In particular, we systematically assess the ongoing processes in the 8 Italian regions and one autonomous province that have already introduced MenB vaccine. With the new 2014-2018 National Vaccine Prevention Plan including active MenB vaccine offer about to be adopted, it is of fundamental importance to gather further evidence on MenB vaccine clinical effectiveness, duration of protection and cost-effectiveness. Italian regions are called to organize and manage MenB immunization programs. Careful consideration will need to be devoted on timing, doses, and co-administration with other vaccines but also to economic assessments and strengthened communication to the general public. Our data will help to plan, implement and evaluate MenB immunization programmes in other Italian and international settings.

  16. Identification of Legionella pneumophila serogroups and other Legionella species by mip gene sequencing.

    PubMed

    Haroon, Attiya; Koide, Michio; Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao; Fujita, Jiro

    2012-04-01

    The virulence factor known as the macrophage infectivity potentiator (mip) is responsible for the intracellular survival of Legionella species. In this study, we investigated the potential of the mip gene sequence to differentiate isolates of different species of Legionella and different serogroups of Legionella pneumophila. We used 35 clinical L. pneumophila isolates and one clinical isolate each of Legionella micdadei, Legionella longbeachae, and Legionella dumoffii (collected from hospitals all over Japan between 1980 and 2007). We used 19 environmental Legionella anisa isolates (collected in the Okinawa, Nara, Osaka, and Hyogo prefectures between 1987 and 2007) and two Legionella type strains. We extracted bacterial genomic DNA and amplified out the mip gene by PCR. PCR products were purified by agarose gel electrophoresis and the mip gene was then sequenced. The L. pneumophila isolates could be divided into two groups: one group was very similar to the type strain and was composed of serogroup (SG) 1 isolates only; the second group had more sequence variations and was composed of SG1 isolates as well as SG2, SG3, SG5, and SG10 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis displayed one cluster for L. anisa isolates, while other Legionella species were present at discrete levels. Our findings show that mip gene sequencing is an effective technique for differentiating L. pneumophila strains from other Legionella species.

  17. Genomic resolution of an aggressive, widespread, diverse and expanding meningococcal serogroup B, C and W lineage

    PubMed Central

    Lucidarme, Jay; Hill, Dorothea M.C.; Bratcher, Holly B.; Gray, Steve J.; du Plessis, Mignon; Tsang, Raymond S.W.; Vazquez, Julio A.; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Ceyhan, Mehmet; Efron, Adriana M.; Gorla, Maria C.; Findlow, Jamie; Jolley, Keith A.; Maiden, Martin C.J.; Borrow, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of meningitis and septicaemia. The hyperinvasive ST-11 clonal complex (cc11) caused serogroup C (MenC) outbreaks in the US military in the 1960s and UK universities in the 1990s, a global Hajj-associated serogroup W (MenW) outbreak in 2000–2001, and subsequent MenW epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa. More recently, endemic MenW disease has expanded in South Africa, South America and the UK, and MenC cases have been reported among European and North American men who have sex with men (MSM). Routine typing schemes poorly resolve cc11 so we established the population structure at genomic resolution. Methods Representatives of these episodes and other geo-temporally diverse cc11 meningococci (n = 750) were compared across 1546 core genes and visualised on phylogenetic networks. Results MenW isolates were confined to a distal portion of one of two main lineages with MenB and MenC isolates interspersed elsewhere. An expanding South American/UK MenW strain was distinct from the ‘Hajj outbreak’ strain and a closely related endemic South African strain. Recent MenC isolates from MSM in France and the UK were closely related but distinct. Conclusions High resolution ‘genomic’ multilocus sequence typing is necessary to resolve and monitor the spread of diverse cc11 lineages globally. PMID:26226598

  18. [THE INFECTION INDUCED BY STREPTOCOCCUS OF SEROGROUP B IN PREGNANT WOMEN, PUERPERA AND NEWBORNS].

    PubMed

    Naumkina, E V; Abrosimova, O A; Pakhalkova, E V; Rogatikh, N A; Mironov A Yu

    2016-02-01

    The streptococci of serogroup B (Streptococcus agalactiae) are one of major etiologic agents responsible for occurrence of severe perinatal infections in puerpera and newborns. The prevalence of streptococci of group B is analyzed in various categories of women (stage of preconception training, pregnancy, puerpera) and newborns transferred for particular reasons to second stage of raising. The data of microbiological monitoring during four years was involved. It is established that prevalence of carriage of streptococci of serogroup B in genital tracts of women of reproductive age on territory of Omsk consists 6-8% in different categories of female patients and has no tendency to decrease. In most cases, high or moderate level of dissemination, association with other opportunistic microorganisms. The perinatal infection of premature newborns with low body mass at birth with S. agalactiae results in clinical manifestation of generalized infectious process. The infection of healthy premature newborns most often does not result in severe infectious pathology. However; in the half of all cases development of local (significantly more rarely - generalized) pyoinflammatory induced by S. agalactiae as both isolated and in association with other opportunistic microorganisms. The relatively high rate of realization of potential of agent in newborns of risk group requires attention to the issues of diagnostic of carriage of streptococci group B in pregnant women, inclusion of this type of analysis into standards of observation for given category of female patients with purpose of timely sanitation, development and elaboration of standards of laboratory analysis on this agent. PMID:27455565

  19. Meningococcal serogroup B vaccine in Italy: state-of-art, organizational aspects and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, C; Chiesa, V; Odone, A

    2015-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis causes severe invasive meningococcal diseases (IMDs) in humans including meningitis and septicemia, responsible for serious clinical conditions and leading to life-long disabilities and death. Serogroup B dominates IMDs burden in Italy, accounting for over 60% of total cases. On January 2013 the European Medicine Agency (EMA) licensed the first serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine in Europe. A number of European countries and Regions have introduced the new MenB vaccine in their immunization schedule, including Italy. In this paper we present the state of art, related critical issues and future perspectives of MenB vaccine introduction in Italy, in the context of the most recent available epidemiological data. In particular, we systematically assess the ongoing processes in the 8 Italian regions and one autonomous province that have already introduced MenB vaccine. With the new 2014-2018 National Vaccine Prevention Plan including active MenB vaccine offer about to be adopted, it is of fundamental importance to gather further evidence on MenB vaccine clinical effectiveness, duration of protection and cost-effectiveness. Italian regions are called to organize and manage MenB immunization programs. Careful consideration will need to be devoted on timing, doses, and co-administration with other vaccines but also to economic assessments and strengthened communication to the general public. Our data will help to plan, implement and evaluate MenB immunization programmes in other Italian and international settings. PMID:26788733

  20. A serological survey of Australian wildlife for antibodies to Leptospires of the Hebdomadis serogroup.

    PubMed

    Durfee, P T; Presidente, P J

    1979-04-01

    A serological survey for antibodies to Leptospira interrograns serovar hardjo was conducted on 574 serum samples from 10 native and 4 introduced wildlife species in south-eastern Australia. The microscopic agglutination (MA) test was used, and titres to hardjo antigen were detected in 33.5% of 352 brushtailed possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) sampled in several areas of Victoria. Prevalence of reactors ranged from 14 to 66% in 4 populations examined intensively. Serovar balcanica was isolated from possums with hardjo antibodies from two different areas. Of 20 wombats Vombatus ursinus) examined in Victoria, antibodies to hardjo were found in sera from 4 and titres to Pyrogenes and Pomona serogroups were detected in another. Hardjo antibodies were demonstrated in sera from 13 of 19 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis). Negative MA test results to hardjo antigens were recorded in 55 mountain possums (T. caninus), 63 macropods (Macropus spp.), 17 water rats (Hydrmys chrysogaster), 39 fallow deer (Dama dama), 2 hog deer (Axis porcinus) and 2 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalus). No MA antibodies to any of 16 leptospiral serogroups were detected in 17 water rats tested. Kidneys were examined from 330 of these animals and focal interstitial nephritis suggestive of leptospirosis was found in kidneys of 63 of 169 T. vulpecula, 3 of 55 T. caninus, 12 of 18 V. ursinus, 6 of 22 Macropus spp., 9 of 16 H. chrysogaster, 5 of 11 C. timorensis and 3 of 39 D. dama. A statistical association between focal interstitial nephritis and MA antibodies to hardjo was found in T. vulpecula.

  1. Vector and host relationships of California serogroup viruses in western Siberia.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C J; Lvov, S D; Savage, H M; Calisher, C H; Smith, G C; Lvov, D K; Gubler, D J

    1993-07-01

    During 1990 and 1991, adult mosquitoes were collected along the Ob River and its tributaries in western Siberia from approximately 51 degrees 18'N to 66 degrees 4'N. Fifteen virus strains were isolated from 74,196 mosquitoes tested in 1,874 pools. These included Tahyna virus from Aedes cataphylla-punctor subgroup (one) and Ae. excrucians (one), and Inkoo (INK) virus from Ae. communis (one), Ae. communis subgroup (one), Ae. hexodontus (two), Ae. punctor subgroup (two), Ae. punctor complex (one), and unidentified Aedes species (three). In addition, a single Ae. euedes yielded a strain of snowshoe hare (SSH) virus and a strain of Getah, an alphavirus. A Bunyamwera serogroup virus was isolated from Ae. excrucians. With the exception of the two isolates from a single mosquito, minimum infection rates among mosquito taxa ranged from 0.4 to 16.7 per 1,000. The INK virus isolates were widely distributed geographically; however, seven of the 10 isolates were from two sites north of the Arctic Circle. During 1991, sera from two mouse species, five vole species, and four shrew species were collected along the upper Ob River for serologic tests. The prevalence of neutralizing antibody to SSH virus in these sera was 80%. Prevalence rates in the four most abundant species were Apodemus agrarius, 73%; Clethrionomys rutilus, 71%; Microtus arvalis, 80%; and Sorex araneus, 91%. This is the first attempt to clarify the vector and vertebrate host relationships of California serogroup viruses in western Siberia. PMID:8352392

  2. Exploration Day at Busch Gardens, Williamsburg, Va. - Aug. 5, 2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    Friday, August 8, was NASA Days at Busch Gardens Williamsburg, Va. NASA exhibits and educational specialists worked to inspire young and old, and NASA astronaut Susan Kilrain -- a veteran of two Sp...

  3. 75 FR 35511 - Virginia Disaster Number VA-00028

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster Number VA-00028 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3... Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) Roger B. Garland, Acting Associate Administrator...

  4. Mutant OmpF porins of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis with deletions of external loops: structure-functional and immunochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Sidorova, O V; Khomenko, V A; Portnyagina, O Yu; Likhatskaya, G N; Vakorina, T I; Kim, N Yu; Chistyulin, D K; Solov'eva, T F; Novikova, O D

    2014-03-01

    Recombinant mutant OmpF porins from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis outer membrane were obtained using site-directed mutagenesis. Here we used four OmpF mutants where single extracellular loops L1, L4, L6, and L8 were deleted one at a time. The proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli at levels comparable to full-sized recombinant OmpF porin and isolated from the inclusion bodies. Purified trimers of the mutant porins were obtained after dialysis and consequent ion-exchange chromatography. Changes in molecular and spatial structure of the mutants obtained were studied using SDS-PAGE and optical spectroscopy (circular dichroism and intrinsic protein fluorescence). Secondary and tertiary structure of the mutant proteins was found to have some features in comparison with that of the full-sized recombinant OmpF. As shown by bilayer lipid membrane technique, the pore-forming activity of purified mutant porins was identical to OmpF porin isolated from the bacterial outer membrane. Lacking of the external loops mentioned above influenced significantly upon the antigenic structure of the porin as demonstrated using ELISA.

  5. YopJ-Promoted Cytotoxicity and Systemic Colonization Are Associated with High Levels of Murine Interleukin-18, Gamma Interferon, and Neutrophils in a Live Vaccine Model of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Bliska, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Several Yersinia species have been utilized as live attenuated vaccines to prime protective immunity against yersiniae and other pathogens. A type III secretion system effector known as YopJ in Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis and YopP in Y. enterocolitica has been shown to regulate host immune responses to live Yersinia vaccines. YopJ/P kills macrophages and dendritic cells, reduces their production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-12 (IL-12), and promotes systemic colonization in mouse models of intestinal Yersinia infection. Furthermore, YopP activity decreases antigen presentation by dendritic cells, and a yopP mutant of a live Y. enterocolitica carrier vaccine elicited effective priming of CD8 T cells to a heterologous antigen in mice. These results suggest that YopJ/P activity suppresses both innate and adaptive immune responses to live Yersinia vaccines. Here, a sublethal intragastric mouse infection model using wild-type and catalytically inactive yopJ mutant strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis was developed to further investigate how YopJ action impacts innate and adaptive immune responses to a live vaccine. Surprisingly, YopJ-promoted cytotoxicity and systemic colonization were associated with significant increases in neutrophils in spleens and the proinflammatory cytokines IL-18 and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in serum samples of mice vaccinated with Y. pseudotuberculosis. Secretion of IL-18 accompanied YopJ-mediated killing of macrophages infected ex vivo with Y. pseudotuberculosis, suggesting a mechanism by which this effector directly increases proinflammatory cytokine levels in vivo. Mice vaccinated with the wild-type strain or the yopJ mutant produced similar levels of antibodies to Y. pseudotuberculosis antigens and were equally resistant to lethal intravenous challenge with Y. pestis. The findings indicate that a proinflammatory, rather than anti-inflammatory, process accompanies YopJ-promoted cytotoxicity, leading to

  6. Escherichia coli O-antigen gene clusters of serogroups O62, O68, O131, O140, O142, and O163: DNA sequences and similarity between O62 and O68, and PCR-based serogrouping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The DNA sequences of the O-antigen gene clusters of the Escherichia coli serogroups O62, O131, O140, O142 and O163 were determined. There were 9-14 open reading frames (ORFs) identified, encoding genes required for O-antigen sugar biosynthesis, transfer, and processing. Primers based on the wzx (O...

  7. DNA sequence and analysis of the O-antigen gene clusters of Escherichia coli serogroups O62, O68, O131, O140, O142, and O163 and serogroup-specific PCR assays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The DNA sequence of the O-antigen gene clusters of Escherichia coli serogroups O62, O68, O131, O140, O142, and O163 was determined. There were 9 to 12 open reading frames (ORFs) identified, encoding genes required for O-antigen sugar biosynthesis, transfer, and processing. Primers based on the wzx...

  8. Use of Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccines in Persons Aged ≥10 Years at Increased Risk for Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2015.

    PubMed

    Folaranmi, Temitope; Rubin, Lorry; Martin, Stacey W; Patel, Manisha; MacNeil, Jessica R

    2015-06-12

    In October 2014, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licensed the first serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine (MenB-FHbp [Trumenba, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Inc.]) as a 3-dose series. In January 2015, FDA licensed a second MenB vaccine (MenB-4C [Bexsero, Novartis Vaccines]) as a 2-dose series. Both vaccines were approved for use in persons aged 10-25 years. Following outbreaks of serogroup B meningococcal disease on two college campuses in 2013, both MenB vaccines were granted Breakthrough Therapy designations, which expedites drug development and review by FDA, and were licensed based on accelerated approval regulations. On February 26, 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended use of MenB vaccines among certain groups of persons aged ≥10 years who are at increased risk for serogroup B meningococcal disease. This report summarizes information on MenB administration and provides recommendations and guidance for use of these vaccines among persons aged ≥10 years in certain groups who are at increased risk for serogroup B meningococcal disease, and reviews the evidence considered by ACIP to make these recommendations. Recommendations for broader use of MenB vaccines in adolescents and college students will be considered separately by ACIP.

  9. Variation in antigen-antibody affinity among serotypes of Salmonella O4 serogroup, determined using specific antisera.

    PubMed

    Aribam, Swarmistha Devi; Elsheimer-Matulova, Marta; Matsui, Hidenori; Hirota, Jiro; Shiraiwa, Kazumasa; Ogawa, Yohsuke; Hikono, Hirokazu; Shimoji, Yoshihiro; Eguchi, Masahiro

    2015-11-01

    Serotyping is widely used for typing Salmonella during surveillance, and depends on determining the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen and the flagellar protein (H-antigens) components. As the O-antigen is highly variable, and structurally unique to each serotype, we investigated the binding affinities of LPS from Salmonella serotypes of O4 serogroup with specific anti-antigen serum via immunoblot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Since the serotypes from O4 serogroup also express the O-antigen factor 12, O12 antiserum was also used for the analysis. LPS from the different serotypes showed different binding affinities with the antisera. Therefore, based on the antigen-antibody affinity, a modified agglutination assay was carried out by using O4 and O12 antisera. Although serotypes from O4 serogroup have the common O-antigen factors 4 and 12, the analysis showed that the degree of agglutination reaction is different for each of the serotypes. We suggest that Salmonella serogroup O4 serotypes exhibit different binding affinities with specific antisera despite the presence of common O-antigen factors 4 and 12.

  10. Biotypes and O serogroups of Escherichia coli involved in intestinal infections of weaned rabbits: clues to diagnosis of pathogenic strains.

    PubMed Central

    Camguilhem, R; Milon, A

    1989-01-01

    A total of 575 Escherichia coli strains isolated from weaned rabbits experiencing diarrhea in 119 French commercial farms were tested for O serogroups. The results showed a strong predominance of serogroup O103 strains. A sample of 126 strains were further checked for simplified biotypes by using five carbohydrate fermentation reactions. Of 72 O103 strains, 70 were shown to belong to biotypes characterized by a rhamnose-negative reaction. Four of nine serogroup O68 strains also showed this type of reaction. Thirty-nine strains, representative of the serotypes and biotypes found, were further tested for experimental pathogenicity in weaned rabbits and for antibiotic susceptibility. All the rhamnose-negative strains produced life-threatening watery or hemorrhagic diarrhea, whereas rhamnose-positive strains induced only mild diarrheic syndrome without any mortality or no clinical signs at all. Rhamnose-negative, highly pathogenic strains did not belong to related antibiotypes. We think that O serogrouping together with biotyping, or even rhamnose fermentation testing, may be an important clue in the diagnosis of enteropathogenic strains from rabbits in France, permitting rapid identification of highly pathogenic strains and leading to improved prognosis and treatment. PMID:2656746

  11. Comparative Genome Biology of a Serogroup B Carriage and Disease Strain Supports a Polygenic Nature of Meningococcal Virulence▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Biju; Schneiker-Bekel, Susanne; Schramm-Glück, Anja; Blom, Jochen; Claus, Heike; Linke, Burkhard; Schwarz, Roland F.; Becker, Anke; Goesmann, Alexander; Frosch, Matthias; Schoen, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B strains are responsible for most meningococcal cases in the industrialized countries, and strains belonging to the clonal complex ST-41/44 are among the most prevalent serogroup B strains in carriage and disease. Here, we report the first genome and transcriptome comparison of a serogroup B carriage strain from the clonal complex ST-41/44 to the serogroup B disease strain MC58 from the clonal complex ST-32. Both genomes are highly colinear, with only three major genome rearrangements that are associated with the integration of mobile genetic elements. They further differ in about 10% of their gene content, with the highest variability in gene presence as well as gene sequence found for proteins involved in host cell interactions, including Opc, NadA, TonB-dependent receptors, RTX toxin, and two-partner secretion system proteins. Whereas housekeeping genes coding for metabolic functions were highly conserved, there were considerable differences in their expression pattern upon adhesion to human nasopharyngeal cells between both strains, including differences in energy metabolism and stress response. In line with these genomic and transcriptomic differences, both strains also showed marked differences in their in vitro infectivity and in serum resistance. Taken together, these data support the concept of a polygenic nature of meningococcal virulence comprising differences in the repertoire of adhesins as well as in the regulation of metabolic genes and suggest a prominent role for immune selection and genetic drift in shaping the meningococcal genome. PMID:20709895

  12. CD8(+) T cells specific to a single Yersinia pseudotuberculosis epitope restrict bacterial replication in the liver but fail to provide sterilizing immunity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Haiqian; Gonzalez-Juarbe, Norberto; Blanchette, Krystle; Crimmins, Gregory; Bergman, Molly A; Isberg, Ralph R; Orihuela, Carlos J; Dube, Peter H

    2016-09-01

    CD8(+) T cells use contact-dependent cytolysis of target cells to protect the host against intracellular pathogens. We have previously shown that CD8(+) T cells and perforin are required to protect against the extracellular pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Here we establish an experimental system where CD8(+) T cells specific to a single model antigen are the only memory response present at time of challenge. Using mice immunized with a vaccine strain of Listeria monocytogenes that expresses secreted ovalbumin (Lm-OVA), we show that OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells are generated and provide limited protection against challenge with virulent OVA(+)Y. pseudotuberculosis. Perforin expression by OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells was required, as Lm-OVA-immunized perforin-deficient mice showed higher bacterial burden as compared to Lm-OVA-immunized perforin-sufficient mice. Surprisingly, antigen-specific T cell protection waned over time, as Lm-OVA-immune mice eventually succumbed to Yersinia infection. Kinetic analysis of infection in mice with and without OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells revealed that bacterial numbers increased sharply in OVA-naïve mice until death, while OVA-immune mice held bacterial burden to a lower level throughout the duration of illness until death. Clonal analysis of bacterial populations in OVA-naïve and OVA-immune mice at distinct time points revealed equivalent and severe bottle-neck effects for bacteria in both sets of mice immediately after intravenous challenge, demonstrating a dominant role for other aspects of the immune system regardless of CD8(+) T cell status. These studies indicate that CD8(+) T cells against a single antigen can restrict Y. pseudotuberculosis colonization in a perforin-dependent manner, but ultimately are insufficient in their ability to provide sterilizing immunity and protect against death. PMID:27268148

  13. CD8(+) T cells specific to a single Yersinia pseudotuberculosis epitope restrict bacterial replication in the liver but fail to provide sterilizing immunity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Haiqian; Gonzalez-Juarbe, Norberto; Blanchette, Krystle; Crimmins, Gregory; Bergman, Molly A; Isberg, Ralph R; Orihuela, Carlos J; Dube, Peter H

    2016-09-01

    CD8(+) T cells use contact-dependent cytolysis of target cells to protect the host against intracellular pathogens. We have previously shown that CD8(+) T cells and perforin are required to protect against the extracellular pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Here we establish an experimental system where CD8(+) T cells specific to a single model antigen are the only memory response present at time of challenge. Using mice immunized with a vaccine strain of Listeria monocytogenes that expresses secreted ovalbumin (Lm-OVA), we show that OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells are generated and provide limited protection against challenge with virulent OVA(+)Y. pseudotuberculosis. Perforin expression by OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells was required, as Lm-OVA-immunized perforin-deficient mice showed higher bacterial burden as compared to Lm-OVA-immunized perforin-sufficient mice. Surprisingly, antigen-specific T cell protection waned over time, as Lm-OVA-immune mice eventually succumbed to Yersinia infection. Kinetic analysis of infection in mice with and without OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells revealed that bacterial numbers increased sharply in OVA-naïve mice until death, while OVA-immune mice held bacterial burden to a lower level throughout the duration of illness until death. Clonal analysis of bacterial populations in OVA-naïve and OVA-immune mice at distinct time points revealed equivalent and severe bottle-neck effects for bacteria in both sets of mice immediately after intravenous challenge, demonstrating a dominant role for other aspects of the immune system regardless of CD8(+) T cell status. These studies indicate that CD8(+) T cells against a single antigen can restrict Y. pseudotuberculosis colonization in a perforin-dependent manner, but ultimately are insufficient in their ability to provide sterilizing immunity and protect against death.

  14. 78 FR 18425 - Proposed Information Collection VA Police Officer Pre-Employment Screening Checklist); Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection VA Police Officer Pre-Employment Screening Checklist); Comment... applicant's qualification and suitability as a VA police officer. DATES: Written comments and... information technology. Title: VA Police Officer Pre-Employment Screening Checklist, VA Form 0120. OMB...

  15. 78 FR 38452 - Agency Information Collection (VA Police Officer Pre-Employment Screening Checklist) Activities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (VA Police Officer Pre-Employment Screening Checklist) Activities... ``OMB Control No. 2900-0524.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: VA Police Officer Pre-Employment... checks on applicants seeking employment as VA police officers. VA will use the data collected...

  16. Genetic basis for biosynthesis of the (alpha 1-->4)-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate capsule of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup X.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Yih-Ling; Noble, Corie; Stephens, David S

    2003-12-01

    The genetic basis for biosynthesis of the (alpha1-->4)-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate capsule of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup X was defined. The biosynthesis gene cassette was a approximately 4.2-kb region located between ctrA of the capsule transport operon and galE, which encodes the UDP-glucose-4-epimerase. This location was identical to the locations of the biosynthesis cassettes in other meningococcal serogroups. Three open reading frames unique to meningococcus serogroup X were identified. Deletion-insertion mutation and colony immunoblotting confirmed that these three genes were essential for serogroup X capsule expression, and the genes were designated xcbA, xcbB, and xcbC (serogroup X capsule biosynthesis). Reverse transcriptase PCR indicated that the xcbABC genes form an operon and are cotranscribed divergently from ctrA. XcbA exhibited 52% amino acid similarity to SacB, the putative capsule polymerase of meningococcus serogroup A, suggesting that it plays a role as the serogroup X capsule polymerase. An IS1016 element was found within the intergenic region separating ctrA and xcbA in multiple strains, and this element did not interfere with capsule expression.

  17. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 subgrouping by monoclonal antibodies--an epidemiological tool.

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, I. D.; Tobin, J. O.; Dennis, P. J.; Brown, W.; Newnham, R.; Kurtz, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    A panel of 10 monoclonal antibodies was used to subgroup 326 strains of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. All but two strains could be classified into three major subgroups named after their representative strains Pontiac 1, Olda and Bellingham 1. Of the 50 isolates from patients, 44 representing 32 separate incidents were of the Pontiac subgroup. This subgroup was also found in 16 of 18 buildings epidemiologically associated with Legionnaires' Disease. In contrast, strains of the Olda subgroup predominated in buildings where no infections had occurred. In 9 of the 11 incidents where isolates were available from at least one patient as well as from the suspected environmental source, the monoclonal antibody reaction patterns of strains from patients were identical to those of one or more of their environmental counterparts. PMID:3905954

  18. Cluster of serogroup W-135 meningococcal disease in 3 military recruits.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yu Mi; Bae, Song-Mee; Kang, Yeon-Ho

    2015-05-01

    We describe a group of 3 cases of invasive meningococcal disease that occurred in a military training camp in April 2011. All three patients were hospitalized. Ultimately, two patients recovered and one died. One patient had meningitis, one patient had septicemia and meningitis, and the other had no definite septicemia or meningitis. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W-135 was detected in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of all patients by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In the one case of mortality, two strains were isolated from the patient's blood and CSF. Using multilocus sequence typing analysis, these strains were identified as a novel sequence type, ST-8912. Special attention is required for the meningococcal disease in military camp because the military personnels are in high risk of contact transmission.

  19. [An outbreak of Pontiac fever due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 7. I. Clinical aspects].

    PubMed

    Mori, M; Hoshino, K; Sonoda, H; Yoshida, H; Yabuuchi, E; Yamashiro, Y; Koide, M; Saito, A; Kishimoto, T; Furuhata, K

    1995-06-01

    In August 1994, an epidemic of acute febrile illness occurred at the Education Center Building of a company in Shibuya-ku, Tokyo. All 43 trainees attended in two groups and 2 staff members of the Center fell ill. The 45 patients came to one of our hospitals in two groups, and 35 patients were treated. The patients were 4 males and 31 females, and the average age was 29.0 years. The duration until falling ill was 36 to 90 hours after entering the Center. Symptoms were fever, lumbago arthralgia, headache, dyspnea, general fatigue, etc. Physical examination revealed slightly injected mucosa of the pharynx in a patient who complained of a sore throat. On laboratory examination, leukocytosis with a left shift of the nucleus and elevation of serum CRP levels were found. Erythromycin (600 mg, daily) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were given by mouth to almost every patient. Two patients were hospitalized. The illness was self-limited, generally lasting from two to five days. Strains of legionellae isolated from the water of the cooling tower located at the top of the Center, were identified as L. pneumophila serogroup 7. Since seroconversion in a patient against the cooling tower strain from 1:16 to 1:256 was determined and the clinical courses agreed with the definition of Pontiac fever by Glick et al, we concluded that the epidemic was an outbreak of Pontiac fever due to L. pneumophila serogroup 7. Pontiac fever is considered to be one of the community-acquired diseases. Thus, we have to note that Pontiac fever may be misdiagnosed as we examine patients who complain of the symptoms noted above.

  20. Characterization of epidemic and nonepidemic Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A strains from Sudan and Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Salih, M A; Danielsson, D; Bäckman, A; Caugant, D A; Achtman, M; Olcén, P

    1990-01-01

    A random selection of 25 strains isolated during an epidemic caused by serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis in Sudan (1988), 3 preepidemic meningococcal strains (1985), and 26 serogroup A strains isolated from sporadic cases of meningitis in Sweden (1973 to 1987) were assessed for multilocus enzyme genotypes (ETs), DNA restriction enzyme patterns, outer membrane proteins, lipopolysaccharides, pilus formation, and antibiograms. All of the 25 Sudanese epidemic isolates and 22 of the Swedish strains were of the same or closely related ETs (ETs 3, 4, and 5), corresponding to clone III-1, which has been responsible for two pandemic waves in the last three decades. The earlier pandemic involved Scandinavia, and the last one caused an outbreak during the pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia (August 1987), spreading to Sudan, Chad, and Ethiopia. The three Sudanese preepidemic isolates (1985) were clone IV-1 (sulfonamide susceptible), which has been resident in the African meningitis belt for the last 25 years. The uniformity of clone III-1 strains (all sulfonamide resistant) from Sudan and Sweden was confirmed by DNA restriction enzyme patterns. ETs 3, 4, and 5 from Sudan and Sweden had 86 to 100% similarity to a Swedish clone III-1 reference strain, whereas ETs 1, 2, 6, and 7 showed 50 to 80% similarity. Class 1 protein for clone III-1 showed serosubtype antigens P1.9 and P1.x, whereas ET6 strains (clone IV-1) had serosubtype P1.7. Lipopolysaccharides were variable in the Sudanese and Swedish strains. Pili were expressed in all clone III-1 isolates from Sudan and Sweden but in none of the clone IV-1 isolates (Sudan, 1985). Images PMID:1975593

  1. Genomic Characterization of a Large Outbreak of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 Strains in Quebec City, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Mendis, Nilmini; Cantin, Philippe; Marchand, Geneviève; Charest, Hugues; Raymond, Frédéric; Huot, Caroline; Goupil-Sormany, Isabelle; Desbiens, François; Faucher, Sébastien P.; Corbeil, Jacques; Tremblay, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    During the summer of 2012, a major Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 outbreak occurred in Quebec City, Canada, which caused 182 declared cases of Legionnaire's disease and included 13 fatalities. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from 23 patients as well as from 32 cooling towers located in the vicinity of the outbreak were recovered for analysis. In addition, 6 isolates from the 1996 Quebec City outbreak and 4 isolates from patients unrelated to both outbreaks were added to allow comparison. We characterized the isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, sequence-based typing, and whole genome sequencing. The comparison of patients-isolated strains to cooling tower isolates allowed the identification of the tower that was the source of the outbreak. Legionella pneumophila strain Quebec 2012 was identified as a ST-62 by sequence-based typing methodology. Two new Legionellaceae plasmids were found only in the epidemic strain. The LVH type IV secretion system was found in the 2012 outbreak isolates but not in the ones from the 1996 outbreak and only in half of the contemporary human isolates. The epidemic strains replicated more efficiently and were more cytotoxic to human macrophages than the environmental strains tested. At least four Icm/Dot effectors in the epidemic strains were absent in the environmental strains suggesting that some effectors could impact the intracellular replication in human macrophages. Sequence-based typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis combined with whole genome sequencing allowed the identification and the analysis of the causative strain including its likely environmental source. PMID:25105285

  2. A serological survey of Australian wildlife for antibodies to Leptospires of the Hebdomadis serogroup.

    PubMed

    Durfee, P T; Presidente, P J

    1979-04-01

    A serological survey for antibodies to Leptospira interrograns serovar hardjo was conducted on 574 serum samples from 10 native and 4 introduced wildlife species in south-eastern Australia. The microscopic agglutination (MA) test was used, and titres to hardjo antigen were detected in 33.5% of 352 brushtailed possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) sampled in several areas of Victoria. Prevalence of reactors ranged from 14 to 66% in 4 populations examined intensively. Serovar balcanica was isolated from possums with hardjo antibodies from two different areas. Of 20 wombats Vombatus ursinus) examined in Victoria, antibodies to hardjo were found in sera from 4 and titres to Pyrogenes and Pomona serogroups were detected in another. Hardjo antibodies were demonstrated in sera from 13 of 19 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis). Negative MA test results to hardjo antigens were recorded in 55 mountain possums (T. caninus), 63 macropods (Macropus spp.), 17 water rats (Hydrmys chrysogaster), 39 fallow deer (Dama dama), 2 hog deer (Axis porcinus) and 2 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalus). No MA antibodies to any of 16 leptospiral serogroups were detected in 17 water rats tested. Kidneys were examined from 330 of these animals and focal interstitial nephritis suggestive of leptospirosis was found in kidneys of 63 of 169 T. vulpecula, 3 of 55 T. caninus, 12 of 18 V. ursinus, 6 of 22 Macropus spp., 9 of 16 H. chrysogaster, 5 of 11 C. timorensis and 3 of 39 D. dama. A statistical association between focal interstitial nephritis and MA antibodies to hardjo was found in T. vulpecula. PMID:485984

  3. Development of a glycoconjugate vaccine to prevent meningitis in Africa caused by meningococcal serogroup X

    PubMed Central

    Micoli, Francesca; Romano, Maria Rosaria; Tontini, Marta; Cappelletti, Emilia; Gavini, Massimiliano; Proietti, Daniela; Rondini, Simona; Swennen, Erwin; Santini, Laura; Filippini, Sara; Balocchi, Cristiana; Adamo, Roberto; Pluschke, Gerd; Norheim, Gunnstein; Pollard, Andrew; Saul, Allan; Rappuoli, Rino; MacLennan, Calman A.; Berti, Francesco; Costantino, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of bacterial meningitis worldwide, especially in the African meningitis belt, and has a high associated mortality. The meningococcal serogroups A, W, and X have been responsible for epidemics and almost all cases of meningococcal meningitis in the meningitis belt over the past 12 y. Currently no vaccine is available against meningococcal X (MenX). Because the development of a new vaccine through to licensure takes many years, this leaves Africa vulnerable to new epidemics of MenX meningitis at a time when the epidemiology of meningococcal meningitis on the continent is changing rapidly, following the recent introduction of a glycoconjugate vaccine against serogroup A. Here, we report the development of candidate glycoconjugate vaccines against MenX and preclinical data from their use in animal studies. Following optimization of growth conditions of our seed MenX strain for polysaccharide (PS) production, a scalable purification process was developed yielding high amounts of pure MenX PS. Different glycoconjugates were synthesized by coupling MenX oligosaccharides of varying chain length to CRM197 as carrier protein. Analytical methods were developed for in-process control and determination of purity and consistency of the vaccines. All conjugates induced high anti-MenX PS IgG titers in mice. Antibodies were strongly bactericidal against African MenX isolates. These findings support the further development of glycoconjugate vaccines against MenX and their assessment in clinical trials to produce a vaccine against the one cause of epidemic meningococcal meningitis that currently cannot be prevented by available vaccines. PMID:24191022

  4. Genomic characterization of a large outbreak of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains in Quebec City, 2012.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Simon; Plante, Pier-Luc; Mendis, Nilmini; Cantin, Philippe; Marchand, Geneviève; Charest, Hugues; Raymond, Frédéric; Huot, Caroline; Goupil-Sormany, Isabelle; Desbiens, François; Faucher, Sébastien P; Corbeil, Jacques; Tremblay, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    During the summer of 2012, a major Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 outbreak occurred in Quebec City, Canada, which caused 182 declared cases of Legionnaire's disease and included 13 fatalities. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from 23 patients as well as from 32 cooling towers located in the vicinity of the outbreak were recovered for analysis. In addition, 6 isolates from the 1996 Quebec City outbreak and 4 isolates from patients unrelated to both outbreaks were added to allow comparison. We characterized the isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, sequence-based typing, and whole genome sequencing. The comparison of patients-isolated strains to cooling tower isolates allowed the identification of the tower that was the source of the outbreak. Legionella pneumophila strain Quebec 2012 was identified as a ST-62 by sequence-based typing methodology. Two new Legionellaceae plasmids were found only in the epidemic strain. The LVH type IV secretion system was found in the 2012 outbreak isolates but not in the ones from the 1996 outbreak and only in half of the contemporary human isolates. The epidemic strains replicated more efficiently and were more cytotoxic to human macrophages than the environmental strains tested. At least four Icm/Dot effectors in the epidemic strains were absent in the environmental strains suggesting that some effectors could impact the intracellular replication in human macrophages. Sequence-based typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis combined with whole genome sequencing allowed the identification and the analysis of the causative strain including its likely environmental source. PMID:25105285

  5. Fis Is Essential for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Virulence and Protects against Reactive Oxygen Species Produced by Phagocytic Cells during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Green, Erin R.; Clark, Stacie; Crimmins, Gregory T.; Mack, Matthias; Kumamoto, Carol A.; Mecsas, Joan

    2016-01-01

    All three pathogenic Yersinia species share a conserved virulence plasmid that encodes a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS) and its associated effector proteins. During mammalian infection, these effectors are injected into innate immune cells, where they block many bactericidal functions, including the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, Y. pseudotuberculosis (Yptb) lacking the T3SS retains the ability to colonize host organs, demonstrating that chromosome-encoded factors are sufficient for growth within mammalian tissue sites. Previously we uncovered more than 30 chromosomal factors that contribute to growth of T3SS-deficient Yptb in livers. Here, a deep sequencing-based approach was used to validate and characterize the phenotype of 18 of these genes during infection by both WT and plasmid-deficient Yptb. Additionally, the fitness of these mutants was evaluated in immunocompromised mice to determine whether any genes contributed to defense against phagocytic cell restriction. Mutants containing deletions of the dusB-fis operon, which encodes the nucleoid associated protein Fis, were markedly attenuated in immunocompetent mice, but were restored for growth in mice lacking neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes, two of the major cell types responsible for restricting Yersinia infection. We determined that Fis was dispensable for secretion of T3SS effectors, but was essential for resisting ROS and regulated the transcription of several ROS-responsive genes. Strikingly, this protection was critical for virulence, as growth of ΔdusB-fis was restored in mice unable to produce ROS. These data support a model in which ROS generated by neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes that have not been translocated with T3SS effectors enter bacterial cells during infection, where their bactericidal effects are resisted in a Fis-dependent manner. This is the first report of the requirement for Fis during Yersinia infection and also highlights a novel mechanism by

  6. [Distribution of serogroups of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 non-O139 with specific reference to their ability to produce cholera toxin, and addition of novel serogroups].

    PubMed

    Yamai, S; Okitsu, T; Shimada, T; Katsube, Y

    1997-10-01

    A total of 1898 strains of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 non-O139, which had been collected worldwide for the past 3 year period of 1994-1996, were serogrouped. The strains were also examined for presence of cholera toxin (CT) gene (ctx) and NAG-ST gene, and strains which carried to ctx were further analyzed for their ability to produce CT. In addition, attempts were made to establish novel serogroups for those serologically untypable strains. Of those examined, 1,774 strains of V. cholerae non-O1 non-O139 was classified into 128 known serogroups while 50 strains were found to belong to R type, and the rest of the 74 strains could not be serotyped. Distribution of the serogroups did not seem to correspond to either the strains geographic distribution or sources of isolation. Of those serologically untypable strains, 38 novel serogroups (O156-O193) were established and added to our reference of V. cholerae antigenic schema. It was also found that antisera raised against many V. cholerae strains included R antibodies. This indicates that any V. cholerae antisera for diagnostic purpose should be absorbed with the reference R strains, CA385, before use. There were luminescence producing strains among those sucrose and VP reaction negative strains. Subsequent DNA/DNA homology analysis revealed that they were identified as V. cholerae. This points to a possibility that strains tentatively identified as Vibrio mimicus by conventional biochemical tests may have included luminescent strains of V. cholerae. It is thus highly recommended that strains in question should be tested for the luminescence production in order to differentiate V. cholerae from V. mimicus. Of those 1989 strains examined, 37 strains (ca. 2%) were found to produce CT. Interestingly, CT producing strains were prevalent in serogroup O141; 10 strains out of 16 strains (63%) were positive for CT. The evidence calls for a caution to possible occurrence of cholera-like diarrhea caused by V. cholerae O141 in the

  7. Women in addictions treatment: comparing VA and community samples.

    PubMed

    Davis, Tania M; Carpenter, Kelly M; Malte, Carol A; Carney, Molly; Chambers, Sharon; Saxon, Andrew J

    2002-07-01

    Despite increasing awareness of gender issues in substance use treatment, women with substance use disorders (SUD) and gender-specific treatment remain understudied. This study examines differences, including identification of comorbid issues and patients' perceived treatment needs, between women in different SUD treatment settings: an intensive VA outpatient program (VA; N = 76) and a private residential/outpatient program (Residence XII; N = 308). In both settings the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) was administered at intake; ASI data were collected from retrospective chart review. Results support previous findings that women entering SUD treatment endorse high rates of psychiatric and medical comorbidity, and past abuse. Women in VA SUD treatment experienced more impairment on indices of medical, psychiatric, and employment issues whereas the private agency sample had higher alcohol and family/social composite scores. The differences between and similarities among the two treatment groups have implications for design of women-specific SUD treatment programs.

  8. Role of VAMP3 and VAMP7 in the commitment of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis to LC3-associated pathways involving single- or double-membrane vacuoles

    PubMed Central

    Ligeon, Laure-Anne; Moreau, Kevin; Barois, Nicolas; Bongiovanni, Antonino; Lacorre, Delphine-Armelle; Werkmeister, Elisabeth; Proux-Gillardeaux, Véronique; Galli, Thierry; Lafont, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis can replicate inside macrophages by hijacking autophagy and blocking autophagosome acidification. In bone marrow-derived macrophages, the bacteria are mainly observed inside double-membrane vacuoles positive for LC3, a hallmark of autophagy. Here, we address the question of the membrane traffic during internalization of Yersinia investigating the role of vesicle- associated membrane proteins (VAMPs). First, we show that as in epithelial cells, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis replicates mainly in nonacidic LC3-positive vacuoles. Second, in these cells, we unexpectedly found that VAMP3 localizes preferentially to Yersinia-containing vacuoles (YCVs) with single membranes using correlative light-electron microscopy. Third, we reveal the precise kinetics of VAMP3 and VAMP7 association with YCVs positive for LC3. Fourth, we show that VAMP7 knockdown alters LC3′s association with single-and multimembrane-YCVs. Finally, in uninfected epithelial cells stimulated for autophagy, VAMP3 overexpression and knockdown led respectively to a lower and higher number of double-membrane, LC3-positive vesicles. Hence, our results highlight the role that VAMPs play in selection of the pathways leading to generation of ultrastructurally different LC3 compartments and pave the way for determining the full set of docking and fusion proteins involved in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis’ intravesicular life cycle. PMID:25046114

  9. DNA sequencing of the gene encoding a bacterial superantigen, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-derived mitogen (YPM), and characterization of the gene product, cloned YPM

    SciTech Connect

    Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Kato, Hidehito; Uchiyama, Takehiko

    1995-05-15

    Previously, we found a novel bacterial superantigen from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, designated Y. pseudotuberculosis-derived mitogen (YPM). In the present study, we analyzed the DNA sequence of the gene encoding YPM. The YPM gene was cloned into a plasmid vector pMW119 and expressed in Escherichia coli DH10B. Like the native YPM, the cloned YPM required the expression of MHC class II molecules on accessory cells in the induction of IL-2 production by human T cells. TCR-V{beta} repertoire of human T cells reactive with the cloned YPM was V{beta}3, V{beta}9, V{beta}13.1, and V{beta}13.2. This repertoire is the same as that of T cells reactive with the native YPM. These results indicate that the cloned YPM expressed in E. coli is identical to the native YPM. Sequencing of the YPM gene revealed that the gene contained an open reading frame of 456 base pairs encoding a precursor form of 151 amino acid residues with m.w. 16,679 that is processed into a mature form of 131 amino acid residues with m.w. 14,529. Homology analysis revealed that the homology of amino acid sequence is quite low among YPM and other well known bacterial superantigens. We designated the gene encoding YPM as ypm. 30 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Three-dimensional structures of unligated uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis at 1.4 Å resolution and its complex with an antibacterial drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaev, V. V.; Lashkov, A. A.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Dontsova, M. V.; Mironov, A. S.; Betzel, C.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Uridine phosphorylases play an essential role in the cellular metabolism of some antibacterial agents. Acute infectious diseases (bubonic plague, yersiniosis, pseudotuberculosis, etc., caused by bacteria of the genus Yersinia) are treated using both sulfanilamide medicines and antibiotics, including trimethoprim. The action of an antibiotic on a bacterial cell is determined primarily by the character of its interactions with cellular components, including those which are not targets (for example, with pyrimidine phosphorylases). This type of interaction should be taken into account in designing drugs. The three-dimensional structure of uridine phosphorylase from the bacterium Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ( YptUPh) with the free active site was determined for the first time by X-ray crystallography and refined at 1.40 Å resolution (DPI = 0.062 Å; ID PDB: 4OF4). The structure of the complex of YptUPh with the bacteriostatic drug trimethoprim was studied by molecular docking and molecular dynamics methods. The trimethoprim molecule was shown to be buffered by the enzyme YptUPh, resulting in a decrease in the efficiency of the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria of the genus Yersinia with trimethoprim.

  11. Quest for a broad-range vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B: implications of genetic variations of the surface-exposed proteins.

    PubMed

    de Filippis, Ivano

    2009-09-01

    Despite the development of new vaccine formulations using new biotechnology resources to combat emerging and re-emerging diseases, serogroup B meningococcal disease is still a worldwide burden, accounting for many deaths and disabilities every year. The successful approach of coupling a polysaccharide (PS) with a carrier protein in order to increase long-lasting immunity could not be exploited against Neisseria meningitidis B because of the limitations of using the capsular PS of serogroup B meningococci. Tailor-made vaccines based on exposed proteins were shown to be a promising approach to overcome these flaws. However, the continuous adaptation of surface meningococcal structures to the external environment has led to genetic shifts of potential vaccine-target epitopes, hampering the quest for a broad-range vaccine that could be used against all serogroups, especially against serogroup B.

  12. Molecular analysis of a novel Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-domain containing virulence protein of Y. pseudotuberculosis among Far East scarlet-like fever serotype I strains.

    PubMed

    Nörenberg, Dominik; Wieser, Andreas; Magistro, Giuseppe; Hoffmann, Christiane; Meyer, Christian; Messerer, Maxim; Schubert, Sören

    2013-12-01

    Pathogenicity of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is determined by an arsenal of virulence factors. Particularly, the Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) and the Type III secretion system (T3SS) encoded on the pYV virulence plasmid are required for Yersinia pathogenicity. A specific group of Y. pseudotuberculosis, responsible for the clinical syndrome described as Far East scarlet-like fever (FESLF), is known to have an altered virulence gene cluster. Far East strains cause unique clinical symptoms for which the pYV virulence plasmid plays apparently a rather secondary role. Here, we characterize a previously unknown protein of Y. pseudotuberculosis serotype I strains (TcpYI) which can be found particularly among the FESLF strain group. The TcpYI protein shares considerable sequence homology to members of the Toll/IL-1 receptor family. Bacterial TIR domain containing proteins (Tcps) interact with the innate immune system by TIR-TIR interactions and subvert host defenses via individual, multifaceted mechanisms. In terms of virulence, it appears that the TcpYI protein of Y. pseudotuberculosis displays its own virulence phenotype compared to the previously characterized bacterial Tcps. Our results clearly demonstrate that TcpYI increases the intracellular survival of the respective strains in vitro. Furthermore, we show here that the intracellular survival benefit of the wild-type strain correlates with an increase in tcpYI gene expression inside murine macrophages. In support of this, we found that TcpYI enhances the survival inside the spleens of mice in a mouse model of peritonitis. Our results may point toward involvement of the TcpYI protein in inhibition of phagocytosis, particularly in distinct Y. pseudotuberculosis strains of the FESLF strain group where the pYV virulence plasmid is absent.

  13. Serology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: W-antigen serogrouping by coagglutination and protein I serotyping by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay both detect protein I antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Sandstrom, E G; Knapp, J S; Buchanan, T B

    1982-01-01

    A total of 224 strains were serogrouped by coagglutination (COA) and serotyped by protein I enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of these strains, 61 were from patients with disseminated gonococcal infection, 21 were from patients with pelvic inflammatory disease, and 115 were from patients with uncomplicated gonococcal infection in Singapore, the Philippines, and Denmark. Twenty-seven were laboratory reference strains. Of the patient strains, 102 belonged to COA serogroup WI, and all of the 100 strains that typed with protein I serotypes 1, 2, or 3 were in this group. Most of the strains of gonococci from the 61 patients with disseminated gonococcal infection were within this group (COA WI, 53 or 87%; protein I serotypes 1, 2, or 3, 51 or 84%). All 46 strains that were protein I serotypes 4 through 7 were also COA serogroup WII. Protein I serotypes 8 and 9 accounted for 49 (25%) of the 197 patient strains. Twenty-eight of these strains typed as COA serogroup WII, 20 typed as serogroup WIII, and 1 typed as serogroups WII and WIII. COA W serogrouping and protein I ELISA both appeared to detect antigens on the protein I molecule of the outer membrane of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Protein I serotyping, which uses unboiled organisms, may generally recognize more variable and surface-exposed antigenic determinants. In contrast, COA W serogrouping, which uses boiled organisms, may recognize less exposed shared antigenic determinants in addition to variable protein I antigenic determinants. Both methods may prove useful for further studies of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of gonorrhea. Images PMID:6172380

  14. Outbreak of Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease Primarily Affecting Men Who Have Sex with Men - Southern California, 2016.

    PubMed

    Nanduri, Srinivas; Foo, Chelsea; Ngo, Van; Jarashow, Claire; Civen, Rachel; Schwartz, Ben; Holguin, John; Shearer, Eric; Zahn, Matt; Harriman, Kathleen; Winter, Kathleen; Kretz, Cecilia; Chang, How Yi; Meyer, Sarah; MacNeil, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    During March 4-August 11, 2016, 25 outbreak-associated cases of meningococcal disease, including two deaths (8% case-fatality ratio), were reported in Southern California. Twenty-four of the cases were caused by serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis (NmC) and one by N. meningitidis with an undetermined serogroup (Figure). On June 24, 2016, in response to this increase in NmC cases, primarily among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Los Angeles County, the city of Long Beach, and Orange County, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) issued a press release and health advisory, declaring an outbreak of NmC in Southern California (1). PMID:27606798

  15. Occurrence of virulent genes among environmental isolates of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains from various parts of peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Arushothy, Revathy; Ahmad, Norazah

    2008-12-01

    Legionella pneumophila are intracellular pathogens, associated with human disease, attributed to the presence and absence of certain virulent genes. In this study, virulent gene loci (lvh and rtxA regions) associated with human disease were determined. Thirty-three cooling tower water isolates, isolated between 2004 to 2006, were analyzed for the presence of these genes by PCR method. Results showed that 19 of 33 (57.5%) of the L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates have both the genes. Six (18.2%) of the isolates have only the lvh gene and 2 (6.1%) of the isolates have only the rtxA gene. However, both genes were absent in 6 (18.2%) of the L. pneumophila isolates. The result of our study provides some insight into the presence of the disease causing L. pneumophila serogroup 1 in the environment. Molecular epidemiological studies will provide better understanding of the prevalence of the disease in Malaysia. PMID:19287368

  16. 78 FR 2708 - Virginia Disaster Number VA-00052

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster Number VA-00052 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement...

  17. 77 FR 25591 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Intracoastal Waterway, Chesapeake, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ...The Commander Fifth Coast Guard District has issued a temporary deviation from the regulations governing the operation of the Norfolk Southern 7 Railroad Bridge, across the Intracoastal Waterway, mile 5.8, in Chesapeake, VA. The deviation is necessary to facilitate replacing the lift joints of the drawbridge. This deviation restricts operation of the draw span, allowing it to remain......

  18. 78 FR 72002 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Danville, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Class E surface area airspace at Danville Regional Airport, Danville, VA. (78 FR, 48079). Interested... rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The...

  19. 77 FR 51100 - Virginia Disaster No. VA-00048

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster No. VA-00048 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1.... ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and..., Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street, SW., Suite...

  20. 76 FR 77270 - Board Meeting; January 9, 2012, Arlington, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting; January 9, 2012, Arlington, VA The U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board... under section 5051 of Public Law 100-203, Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the U.S....

  1. 76 FR 34576 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Waynesboro, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ...) to amend Class E airspace at Eagle's Nest Airport, Waynesboro, VA (75 FR 14820) Docket No. FAA-2010..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  2. 48 CFR 801.695 - VA's Appointment of HCAs Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false VA's Appointment of HCAs Program. 801.695 Section 801.695 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development,...

  3. Military and VA General Dentistry Training: A National Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atchison, Kathryn A.; Bachand, William; Buchanan, C. Richard; Lefever, Karen H.; Lin, Sylvia; Engelhardt, Rita

    2002-01-01

    Compared the program characteristics of the postgraduate general dentistry (PGD) training programs sponsored by the military and the Veterans Health Administration (VA). Gathered information on program infrastructure and emphasis, resident preparation prior to entering the program, and patients served and types of services provided. Programs…

  4. Medical care collection or recovery--VA. Notice.

    PubMed

    1998-10-13

    In a companion document published in the "Proposed Rules" section of this issue of the Federal Register, we proposed to amend VA's medical regulations concerning collection or recovery by VA for medical care or services provided or furnished to a veteran: (i) For a non-service connected disability for which the veteran is entitled to care (or the payment of expenses of care) under a health-plan contract; (ii) For a non-service connected disability incurred incident to the veteran's employment and covered under a worker's compensation law or plan that provides reimbursement or indemnification for such care and services; or (iii) For a non-service connected disability incurred as a result of a motor vehicle accident in a State that requires automobile accident reparations insurance. The proposed rule includes methodology for establishing charges for VA medical care or services. Using this methodology, information for calculating proposed charge amounts at individual VA facilities for inpatient facility charges, skilled nursing facility/sub-acute inpatient facility charges, outpatient facility charges, and physician charges is set forth below. If this methodology were adopted subsequently as a final rule, the applicable data in this document, designed for the period August 1998 through September 1999, would be used for the period from the effective date of the final rule through September 1999. Accordingly, interested parties may wish to retain this document for future reference.

  5. 76 FR 43575 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Staunton, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Valley Regional Airport, Staunton, VA (76 FR 14822) Docket No. FAA- 2010-1285. Interested parties were... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  6. 75 FR 41247 - Virginia Disaster Number VA-00028

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster Number VA-00028 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 4... Only for the Commonwealth of Virginia (FEMA-1874-DR), dated 02/16/2010. Incident: Severe Winter Storm... disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the Commonwealth of Virginia, dated...

  7. 77 FR 530 - Virginia Disaster Number VA-00037

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster Number VA-00037 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Virginia (FEMA-4042-DR), dated 11/04/2011. Incident: Earthquake. Incident Period: 08/23/2011 through 10/25... major disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Virginia, dated 11/04/2011 is hereby amended...

  8. 76 FR 62132 - Virginia Disaster Number VA-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster Number VA-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... only for the State of Virginia (FEMA-4024-DR), dated 09/03/2011. Incident: Hurricane Irene. Incident... Non-Profit organizations in the State of Virginia, dated 09/03/2011, is hereby amended to include...

  9. 75 FR 26813 - VIRGINIA Disaster Number VA-00028

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION VIRGINIA Disaster Number VA-00028 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... Only for the Commonwealth of VIRGINIA (FEMA-1874-DR), dated 02/16/2010. Incident: Severe Winter Storm... disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the Commonwealth of VIRGINIA, dated...

  10. 76 FR 74837 - Virginia Disaster Number VA-00040

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster Number VA-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Only for the State of Virginia (FEMA-4042-DR), dated 11/10/2011. Incident: Earthquake. Incident Period... non-profit organizations in the State of Virginia, dated 11/10/2011, is hereby amended to include...

  11. 77 FR 1547 - Virginia Disaster Number VA-00040

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster Number VA-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3... Only for the Commonwealth of Virginia (FEMA--4042-DR), dated 11/10/2011. Incident: Earthquake. Incident... Non-Profit organizations in the Commonwealth of Virginia, dated 11/10/2011, is hereby amended...

  12. 77 FR 1547 - Virginia Disaster Number VA-00037

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster Number VA-00037 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... Virginia (FEMA-4042-DR), dated 11/04/ 2011. Incident: Earthquake. Incident Period: 08/23/2011 Through 10/25... disaster declaration for the State of Virginia, dated 11/04/2011 is hereby amended to include the...

  13. 75 FR 21370 - Virginia Disaster Number VA-00028

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster Number VA-00028 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Only for the Commonwealth of Virginia (FEMA-1874-DR), dated 02/16/2010. Incident: Severe Winter Storm... disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the Commonwealth of Virginia, dated...

  14. 76 FR 78957 - Virginia Disaster Number VA-00040

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster Number VA-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... Only for the Commonwealth of Virginia (FEMA--4042--DR), dated 11/10/2011. Incident: Earthquake... Private Non-Profit organizations in the Commonwealth of Virginia, dated 11/10/2011, is hereby amended...

  15. 76 FR 52230 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Forest, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ..., VA (76 FR 34196) Docket No. FAA-2011-0378. Interested parties were invited to participate in this... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory Evaluation.... 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0...

  16. 76 FR 72838 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Luray, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Luray, VA, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard... Support Group, Eastern Service Center, Federal Aviation Administration, P.O. Box 20636, Atlanta, Georgia... FR 52292). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by...

  17. 38 CFR 1.920 - Referral of VA debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... purpose of salary offset shall be done in accordance with 38 CFR 1.980 through 1.995 and regulations prescribed by the Director of the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) in 5 CFR part 550, subpart K... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Referral of VA debts....

  18. 38 CFR 1.920 - Referral of VA debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... purpose of salary offset shall be done in accordance with 38 CFR 1.980 through 1.995 and regulations prescribed by the Director of the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) in 5 CFR part 550, subpart K... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral of VA debts....

  19. VA Library Service--Today's look at Tomorrow's Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veterans Administration, Washington, DC.

    The Conference Poceedings are divided into three broad topics: systems planning, audiovisuals in biomedical communication, and automation and networking. Speakers from within the Veterans Administration (VA), from the National Medical Audiovisual Center, and the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications, National Library of…

  20. 76 FR 60713 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bumpass, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... establish Class E airspace at Bumpass, VA (76 FR 45479) Docket No. FAA-2011-0377. Interested parties were...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...

  1. 32 CFR 105.10 - SARC and SAPR VA procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to accept reports of sexual assault along with the SAPR VA and healthcare personnel. (6) Report directly to the installation commander in accordance with 32 CFR part 103, to include providing regular... criminal investigative personnel on the SAPR policy and program and the roles and responsibilities of...

  2. 12 CFR 324.205 - VaR-based measure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... risk-based capital requirements. The FDIC-supervised institution must update data sets at least monthly... observation period of at least one year. Data used to determine the VaR-based measure must be relevant to the... portfolio over a full business cycle. An FDIC-supervised institution using this option must update its...

  3. 12 CFR 3.205 - VaR-based measure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... bank or Federal savings association must update data sets at least monthly or more frequently as... be based on a historical observation period of at least one year. Data used to determine the VaR... using this option must update its data more frequently than monthly and in a manner appropriate for...

  4. 12 CFR 217.205 - VaR-based measure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... requirements. The Board-regulated institution must update data sets at least monthly or more frequently as... year. Data used to determine the VaR-based measure must be relevant to the Board-regulated institution.... A Board-regulated institution using this option must update its data more frequently than...

  5. 78 FR 71041 - VA Compensation and Pension Regulation Rewrite Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... effect of the proposed revisions is to assist claimants, beneficiaries, veterans' representatives, and VA... quoted at length from NPRM AM 01, 72 FR 28770, May 22, 2007, to rebut the Secretary's assertion that his... noted that the NPRM stated that it explained any substantive changes between part 3 and part 5, 72...

  6. Geropsychology Training in a VA Nursing Home Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karel, Michele J.; Moye, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing need for professional psychology training in nursing home settings, and nursing homes provide a rich environment for teaching geropsychology competencies. We describe the nursing home training component of our Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Predoctoral Internship and Geropsychology Postdoctoral Fellowship programs. Our…

  7. 75 FR 79295 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Crewe, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at Crewe, VA (75 FR 57215...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3)...

  8. Genetic diversity of RNA segments 5, 7 and 9 of the Palyam serogroup orbiviruses from Japan, Australia and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, M; Ohashi, S; Kanno, T; Yamazoe, R; Yoshida, K; Tsuda, T; Sakamoto, K

    2000-07-01

    Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods, based on the sequences of RNA segments 5, 7 and 9 of Chuzan virus, were established for specific detection and molecular characterization of the Palyam serogroup orbiviruses. Nucleotide sequences obtained from the amplified cDNA fragments of these three genes of 24 isolates were analyzed and compared individually to determine the intra-serogroup phylogenetic relationship of Japanese, Australian and Zimbabwean isolates. It seems that Chuzan virus isolates in Japan are genetically stable. Interestingly, mutations have occurred almost simultaneously on these three genes of Chuzan virus. In all cases, isolates from the same geographical area were closely related to each other at the molecular level, irrespective of serotype. The data suggested that the Palyam serogroup viruses can be differentiated into geographically distinct groups and that the viruses evolve independently in the different gene pools. A strain KY-115 was considered to be produced by reassortment of genome segments between different groups. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of these PCR products is useful for rapid discrimination of isolates and for detection of genetic mutations.

  9. Phenotypic characterization of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2, a lipopolysaccharide-based homogeneous O serogroup within Vibrio vulnificus.

    PubMed Central

    Biosca, E G; Oliver, J D; Amaro, C

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we have reevaluated the taxonomic position of biotype 2 of Vibrio vulnificus. For this purpose, we have biochemically and serologically characterized 83 biotype 2 strains from diseased eels, comparing them with 17 biotype 1 strains from different sources. Selected strains were also molecularly analyzed and tested for eel and mouse pathogenicity. Results have shown that biotype 2 (i) is biochemically homogeneous, indole production being the main trait that distinguishes it from biotype 1, (ii) presents small variations in DNA restriction profiles and outer membrane protein patterns, some proteins being immunologically related to outer membrane proteins from biotype 1, (iii) expresses a common lipopolysaccharide (LPS) profile, which is immunologically identical among strains and distinct from that of LPS of tested biotype 1 strains, and (iv) contains at least two high-Mr plasmids. Regarding host range, we have confirmed that both biotypes are pathogenic for mice but only biotype 2 is pathogenic for eels. On the basis of these data, we propose that biotype 2 of V. vulnificus constitutes an LPS-based O serogroup which is phenotypically homogeneous and pathogenic for eels. In this article, the serogroup is designated serogroup E (for eels). PMID:8975619

  10. Legionella species and serogroups in Malaysian water cooling towers: identification by latex agglutination and PCR-DNA sequencing of isolates.

    PubMed

    Yong, Stacey Foong Yee; Goh, Fen-Ning; Ngeow, Yun Fong

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the distribution of Legionella species in water cooling towers located in different parts of Malaysia to obtain information that may inform public health policies for the prevention of legionellosis. A total of 20 water samples were collected from 11 cooling towers located in three different states in east, west and south Malaysia. The samples were concentrated by filtration and treated with an acid buffer before plating on to BCYE agar. Legionella viable counts in these samples ranged from 100 to 2,000 CFU ml(-1); 28 isolates from the 24 samples were examined by latex agglutination as well as 16S rRNA and rpoB PCR-DNA sequencing. These isolates were identified as Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (35.7%), L. pneumophila serogroup 2-14 (39%), L. pneumophila non-groupable (10.7%), L. busanensis, L. gormanii, L. anisa and L. gresilensis. L. pneumophila was clearly the predominant species at all sampling sites. Repeat sampling from the same cooling tower and testing different colonies from the same water sample showed concurrent colonization by different serogroups and different species of Legionella in some of the cooling towers. PMID:20009251

  11. A Comparison of Culture- and PCR-Based Methods to Detect Six Major Non-O157 Serogroups of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Cattle Feces.

    PubMed

    Noll, Lance W; Shridhar, Pragathi B; Dewsbury, Diana M; Shi, Xiaorong; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Renter, David G; Nagaraja, T G

    2015-01-01

    Culture-based methods to detect the six major non-O157 (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145) Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) are not well established. Our objectives of this study were to develop a culture-based method to detect the six non-O157 serogroups in cattle feces and compare the detection with a PCR method. Fecal samples (n = 576) were collected in a feedlot from 24 pens during a 12-week period and enriched in E. coli broth at 40° C for 6 h. Enriched samples were subjected to immunomagnetic separation, spread-plated onto a selective chromogenic medium, and initially pooled colonies, and subsequently, single colonies were tested by a multiplex PCR targeting six serogroups and four virulence genes, stx1, stx2, eae, and ehxA (culture method). Fecal suspensions, before and after enrichment, were also tested by a multiplex PCR targeting six serogroups and four virulence genes (PCR method). There was no difference in the proportions of fecal samples that tested positive (74.3 vs. 77.4%) for one or more of the six serogroups by either culture or the PCR method. However, each method detected one or more of the six serogroups in samples that were negative by the other method. Both culture method and PCR indicated that O26, O45, and O103 were the dominant serogroups. Higher proportions (P < 0.05) of fecal samples were positive for O26 (44.4 vs. 22.7%) and O121 (22.9 vs. 2.3%) serogroups by PCR than by the culture method. None of the fecal samples contained more than four serogroups. Only a small proportion of the six serogroups (23/640; 3.6%) isolated carried Shiga toxin genes. The culture method and the PCR method detected all six serogroups in samples negative by the other method, highlighting the importance of subjecting fecal samples to both methods for accurate detection of the six non-O157 STEC in cattle feces.

  12. A Comparison of Culture- and PCR-Based Methods to Detect Six Major Non-O157 Serogroups of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Cattle Feces.

    PubMed

    Noll, Lance W; Shridhar, Pragathi B; Dewsbury, Diana M; Shi, Xiaorong; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Renter, David G; Nagaraja, T G

    2015-01-01

    Culture-based methods to detect the six major non-O157 (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145) Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) are not well established. Our objectives of this study were to develop a culture-based method to detect the six non-O157 serogroups in cattle feces and compare the detection with a PCR method. Fecal samples (n = 576) were collected in a feedlot from 24 pens during a 12-week period and enriched in E. coli broth at 40° C for 6 h. Enriched samples were subjected to immunomagnetic separation, spread-plated onto a selective chromogenic medium, and initially pooled colonies, and subsequently, single colonies were tested by a multiplex PCR targeting six serogroups and four virulence genes, stx1, stx2, eae, and ehxA (culture method). Fecal suspensions, before and after enrichment, were also tested by a multiplex PCR targeting six serogroups and four virulence genes (PCR method). There was no difference in the proportions of fecal samples that tested positive (74.3 vs. 77.4%) for one or more of the six serogroups by either culture or the PCR method. However, each method detected one or more of the six serogroups in samples that were negative by the other method. Both culture method and PCR indicated that O26, O45, and O103 were the dominant serogroups. Higher proportions (P < 0.05) of fecal samples were positive for O26 (44.4 vs. 22.7%) and O121 (22.9 vs. 2.3%) serogroups by PCR than by the culture method. None of the fecal samples contained more than four serogroups. Only a small proportion of the six serogroups (23/640; 3.6%) isolated carried Shiga toxin genes. The culture method and the PCR method detected all six serogroups in samples negative by the other method, highlighting the importance of subjecting fecal samples to both methods for accurate detection of the six non-O157 STEC in cattle feces. PMID:26270482

  13. Development of Three Multiplex PCR Assays Targeting the 21 Most Clinically Relevant Serogroups Associated with Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli Infection in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Sergio; Llorente, María Teresa; Echeita, María Aurora; Herrera-León, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli serogroups O5, O15, O26, O45, O55, O76, O91, O103, O104, O111, O113, O118, O121, O123, O128, O145, O146, O157, O165, O172, and O177 are the O-antigen forms of the most clinically relevant Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) serotypes. In this study, three multiplex PCR assays able to specifically detect these 21 serogroups were developed and validated. For this purpose, the O-antigen gene clusters of E. coli O5 and O76 were fully sequenced, their associated genes were identified on the basis of homology, and serogroup-specific primers were designed. After preliminary evaluation, these two primer pairs were proven to be highly specific and suitable for the development of PCR assays for O5 and O76 serogroup identification. Specific primers were also designed for serogroups O15, O45, O55, O91, O104, O113, O118, O123, O128, O146, O157, O165, O172, and O177 based on previously published sequences, and previously published specific primers for serogroups O26, O103, O111, O121, and O145 were also included. These 21 primer pairs were shown to be specific for their target serogroup when tested against E. coli type strains representing 169 known O-antigen forms of E. coli and Shigella and therefore suitable for being used in PCR assays for serogroup identification. In order to validate the three multiplex PCR assays, 22 E. coli strains belonging to the 21 covered serogroups and 18 E. coli strains belonging to other serogroups were screened in a double-blind test and their sensitivity was determined as 1 ng chromosomal DNA. The PCR assays developed in this study could be a faster, simpler, and less expensive strategy for serotyping of the most clinically relevant STEC strains in both clinical microbiology and public health laboratories, and so their development could benefit for clinical diagnosis, epidemiological investigations, surveillance, and control of STEC infections. PMID:25629697

  14. Development of three multiplex PCR assays targeting the 21 most clinically relevant serogroups associated with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli infection in humans.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Sergio; Llorente, María Teresa; Echeita, María Aurora; Herrera-León, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli serogroups O5, O15, O26, O45, O55, O76, O91, O103, O104, O111, O113, O118, O121, O123, O128, O145, O146, O157, O165, O172, and O177 are the O-antigen forms of the most clinically relevant Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) serotypes. In this study, three multiplex PCR assays able to specifically detect these 21 serogroups were developed and validated. For this purpose, the O-antigen gene clusters of E. coli O5 and O76 were fully sequenced, their associated genes were identified on the basis of homology, and serogroup-specific primers were designed. After preliminary evaluation, these two primer pairs were proven to be highly specific and suitable for the development of PCR assays for O5 and O76 serogroup identification. Specific primers were also designed for serogroups O15, O45, O55, O91, O104, O113, O118, O123, O128, O146, O157, O165, O172, and O177 based on previously published sequences, and previously published specific primers for serogroups O26, O103, O111, O121, and O145 were also included. These 21 primer pairs were shown to be specific for their target serogroup when tested against E. coli type strains representing 169 known O-antigen forms of E. coli and Shigella and therefore suitable for being used in PCR assays for serogroup identification. In order to validate the three multiplex PCR assays, 22 E. coli strains belonging to the 21 covered serogroups and 18 E. coli strains belonging to other serogroups were screened in a double-blind test and their sensitivity was determined as 1 ng chromosomal DNA. The PCR assays developed in this study could be a faster, simpler, and less expensive strategy for serotyping of the most clinically relevant STEC strains in both clinical microbiology and public health laboratories, and so their development could benefit for clinical diagnosis, epidemiological investigations, surveillance, and control of STEC infections.

  15. Adenine Glycosylase MutY of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis presents the antimutator phenotype and evidences of glycosylase/AP lyase activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    de Faria, Rafael Cançado; Vila-Nova, Liliane Gonçalves; Bitar, Mainá; Resende, Bruno Carvalho; Arantes, Larissa Sousa; Rebelato, Arnaldo Basso; Azevedo, Vasco Ariston Carvalho; Franco, Glória Regina; Machado, Carlos Renato; Santos, Luciana Lara Dos; de Oliveira Lopes, Débora

    2016-10-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiological agent of caseous lymphadenitis, a disease that predominantly affects small ruminants, causing significant economic losses worldwide. As a facultative intracellular pathogen, this bacterium is exposed to an environment rich in reactive oxygen species (ROS) within macrophages. To ensure its genetic stability, C. pseudotuberculosis relies on efficient DNA repair pathways for excision of oxidative damage such as 8-oxoguanine, a highly mutagenic lesion. MutY is an adenine glycosylase involved in adenine excision from 8-oxoG:A mismatches avoiding genome mutation incorporation. The purpose of this study was to characterize MutY protein from C. pseudotuberculosis and determine its involvement with DNA repair. In vivo functional complementation assay employing mutY gene deficient Escherichia coli transformed with CpmutY showed a 13.5-fold reduction in the rate of spontaneous mutation, compared to cells transformed with empty vector. Also, under oxidative stress conditions, CpMutY protein favored the growth of mutY deficient E. coli, relative to the same strain in the absence of CpMutY. To demonstrate the involvement of this enzyme in recognition and excision of 8-oxoguanine lesion, an in vitro assay was performed. CpMutY protein was capable of recognizing and excising 8-oxoG:A but not 8-oxoG:C presenting evidences of glycosylase/AP lyase activity in vitro. In silico structural characterization revealed the presence of preserved motifs related to the MutY activity on DNA repair, such as catalytic residues involved in glycosylase/AP lyase activity and structural DNA-binding elements, such as the HhH motif and the [4Fe-4S] cluster. The three-dimensional structure of CpMutY, generated by comparative modeling, exhibits a catalytic domain very similar to that of E. coli MutY. Taken together, these results indicate that the CpmutY encodes a functional protein homologous to MutY from E. coli and is involved in the prevention of

  16. Adenine Glycosylase MutY of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis presents the antimutator phenotype and evidences of glycosylase/AP lyase activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    de Faria, Rafael Cançado; Vila-Nova, Liliane Gonçalves; Bitar, Mainá; Resende, Bruno Carvalho; Arantes, Larissa Sousa; Rebelato, Arnaldo Basso; Azevedo, Vasco Ariston Carvalho; Franco, Glória Regina; Machado, Carlos Renato; Santos, Luciana Lara Dos; de Oliveira Lopes, Débora

    2016-10-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiological agent of caseous lymphadenitis, a disease that predominantly affects small ruminants, causing significant economic losses worldwide. As a facultative intracellular pathogen, this bacterium is exposed to an environment rich in reactive oxygen species (ROS) within macrophages. To ensure its genetic stability, C. pseudotuberculosis relies on efficient DNA repair pathways for excision of oxidative damage such as 8-oxoguanine, a highly mutagenic lesion. MutY is an adenine glycosylase involved in adenine excision from 8-oxoG:A mismatches avoiding genome mutation incorporation. The purpose of this study was to characterize MutY protein from C. pseudotuberculosis and determine its involvement with DNA repair. In vivo functional complementation assay employing mutY gene deficient Escherichia coli transformed with CpmutY showed a 13.5-fold reduction in the rate of spontaneous mutation, compared to cells transformed with empty vector. Also, under oxidative stress conditions, CpMutY protein favored the growth of mutY deficient E. coli, relative to the same strain in the absence of CpMutY. To demonstrate the involvement of this enzyme in recognition and excision of 8-oxoguanine lesion, an in vitro assay was performed. CpMutY protein was capable of recognizing and excising 8-oxoG:A but not 8-oxoG:C presenting evidences of glycosylase/AP lyase activity in vitro. In silico structural characterization revealed the presence of preserved motifs related to the MutY activity on DNA repair, such as catalytic residues involved in glycosylase/AP lyase activity and structural DNA-binding elements, such as the HhH motif and the [4Fe-4S] cluster. The three-dimensional structure of CpMutY, generated by comparative modeling, exhibits a catalytic domain very similar to that of E. coli MutY. Taken together, these results indicate that the CpmutY encodes a functional protein homologous to MutY from E. coli and is involved in the prevention of

  17. 75 FR 41577 - VBA/VHA Musculoskeletal Forum: Improving VA's Disability Evaluation Criteria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... presentations made by subject matter experts. VA plans to use this information to update the sections of VA's... system. See 38 CFR 4.40-4.73. Specifically, diagnostic code descriptors and evaluation criteria will...

  18. 77 FR 24268 - Agency Information Collection (Dependents' Application for VA Educational Benefits) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Dependents' Application for VA Educational Benefits) Activity Under... INFORMATION: Title: Dependents' Application for VA Educational Benefits (Under Provisions of Chapters 33 and... spouses and children of veterans or servicemembers to apply for Survivors' and Dependents'...

  19. 31. FELGATES CREEK BRIDGE (HAER No. VA48I), VIEW FROM WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. FELGATES CREEK BRIDGE (HAER No. VA-48-I), VIEW FROM WEST END. NOTE ALUMINUM RAILING ON EAST SIDE FOR CANTILEVERED BIKE PATH. - Colonial Parkway, Yorktown to Jamestown Island, Yorktown, York County, VA

  20. Carriage Rate and Effects of Vaccination after Outbreaks of Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease, Brazil, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Carvalhanas, Telma Regina Marques Pinto; Paula de Lemos, Ana; Gorla, Maria Cecilia Outeiro; Salgado, Maristela; Fukasawa, Lucila O.; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Higa, Fabio; Brandileone, Maria Cristina Cunto; Sacchi, Claudio Tavares; Ribeiro, Ana Freitas; Sato, Helena Keico; Bricks, Lucia Ferro; Cassio de Moraes, José

    2014-01-01

    During 2010, outbreaks of serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) disease occurred in 2 oil refineries in São Paulo State, Brazil, leading to mass vaccination of employees at 1 refinery with a meningococcal polysaccharide A/C vaccine. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of meningococci carriage among workers at both refineries and to investigate the effect of vaccination on and the risk factors for pharyngeal carriage of meningococci. Among the vaccinated and nonvaccinated workers, rates of overall meningococci carriage (21.4% and 21.6%, respectively) and of MenC carriage (6.3% and 4.9%, respectively) were similar. However, a MenC strain belonging to the sequence type103 complex predominated and was responsible for the increased incidence of meningococcal disease in Brazil. A low education level was associated with higher risk of meningococci carriage. Polysaccharide vaccination did not affect carriage or interrupt transmission of the epidemic strain. These findings will help inform future vaccination strategies. PMID:24751156

  1. Carriage rate and effects of vaccination after outbreaks of serogroup C meningococcal disease, Brazil, 2010.

    PubMed

    Sáfadi, Marco Aurelio Palazzi; Carvalhanas, Telma Regina Marques Pinto; Paula de Lemos, Ana; Gorla, Maria Cecilia Outeiro; Salgado, Maristela; Fukasawa, Lucila O; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Higa, Fabio; Brandileone, Maria Cristina Cunto; Sacchi, Claudio Tavares; Ribeiro, Ana Freitas; Sato, Helena Keico; Bricks, Lucia Ferro; Cassio de Moraes, José

    2014-05-01

    During 2010, outbreaks of serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) disease occurred in 2 oil refineries in São Paulo State, Brazil, leading to mass vaccination of employees at 1 refinery with a meningococcal polysaccharide A/C vaccine. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of meningococci carriage among workers at both refineries and to investigate the effect of vaccination on and the risk factors for pharyngeal carriage of meningococci. Among the vaccinated and nonvaccinated workers, rates of overall meningococci carriage (21.4% and 21.6%, respectively) and of MenC carriage (6.3% and 4.9%, respectively) were similar. However, a MenC strain belonging to the sequence type103 complex predominated and was responsible for the increased incidence of meningococcal disease in Brazil. A low education level was associated with higher risk of meningococci carriage. Polysaccharide vaccination did not affect carriage or interrupt transmission of the epidemic strain. These findings will help inform future vaccination strategies.

  2. Prevention and control of meningococcal outbreaks: The emerging role of serogroup B meningococcal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Oviedo-Orta, Ernesto; Ahmed, Sohail; Rappuoli, Rino; Black, Steven

    2015-07-17

    Recently an investigational meningococcal B vaccine has been used in two college outbreaks in the US. This is the first time that a meningococcal B vaccine has been used for outbreak control in the US. However, strain specific vaccines for meningococcal B outbreaks have been developed in Norway, Cuba and to control a large prolonged outbreak in New Zealand. Although meningococcal disease is mostly endemic and baseline rates in the US have fallen over the past decade, outbreaks are not uncommon in the US and globally. In an outbreak, disease risk can rise 1000 fold or more and such outbreaks can last a decade or longer causing significant morbidity and mortality. Here we review the evolution of several serogroup B outbreaks, and, when applicable, the development and impact of meningococcal B vaccines to control these outbreaks. Prior to the availability of "broad spectrum" meningococcal B vaccines, vaccines developed to control meningococcal B outbreaks were strain specific. With the development of two newly licensed meningococcal B vaccines - a four component meningococcal B vaccine (Bexsero, Novartis) and the two component fHBP vaccine (Trumenba, Pfizer) that target a broad array of meningococcal B strains, there is now the potential to prevent outbreaks and as well as to shorten the delay between identification of an outbreak and availability of a vaccine.

  3. Polysaccharide Production in Pilot Scale Bioreactor Cultivations of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C

    PubMed Central

    Baruque-Ramos, Julia; Juncioni de Arauz, Luciana; Fossa da Paz, Marcelo; Vicentin, Marcio Alberto; Hiss, Haroldo

    2016-01-01

    Serogroup C polysaccharide from Neisseria meningitidis (PS) constitutes the antigen for the respective vaccine production. In order to investigate the enhancement of the final PS concentration (Pf), as well as the overall yield factor (PS/biomass) (YP/X), 13 total cultivations distributed in 6 series (from A to F) were carried out in Frantz medium (40 L plus inoculum) in a 80L bioreactor at 35oC, 0.4 atm, 120 rpm, airflow rate of 5 L/min and KLa = 4.2 h-1. The series (A-F) correspond to different experimental conditions as follows: A) without pH and dissolved O2 controls; B) pH control at 6.5; C) pH control at 6.5 and glucose pulse at the 10th hour; D) dissolved O2 control at 10% saturation value; E) pH control at 7.4; F) dissolved O2 limitation (set rotation at 55 rpm). Concentrations of dry biomass, PS, cellular nitrogen, residual glucose, organic and inorganic nitrogen in the medium were measured. The best results were represented by series A (averages of Pf = 0.15 g/L and YP/X = 107 mg/g). The presented findings could be useful for a proper Frantz medium reformulation in order to obtain a greater amount of PS and improve the vaccine development in industrial scale-up production.

  4. Vaccines against meningococcal serogroup B disease containing outer membrane vesicles (OMV)

    PubMed Central

    Holst, Johan; Oster, Philipp; Arnold, Richard; Tatley, Michael V.; Næss, Lisbeth M.; Aaberge, Ingeborg S.; Galloway, Yvonne; McNicholas, Anne; O’Hallahan, Jane; Rosenqvist, Einar; Black, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The utility of wild-type outer membrane vesicle (wtOMV) vaccines against serogroup B (MenB) meningococcal disease has been explored since the 1970s. Public health interventions in Cuba, Norway and New Zealand have demonstrated that these protein-based vaccines can prevent MenB disease. Data from large clinical studies and retrospective statistical analyses in New Zealand give effectiveness estimates of at least 70%. A consistent pattern of moderately reactogenic and safe vaccines has been seen with the use of approximately 60 million doses of three different wtOMV vaccine formulations. The key limitation of conventional wtOMV vaccines is their lack of broad protective activity against the large diversity of MenB strains circulating globally. The public health intervention in New Zealand (between 2004–2008) when MeNZB was used to control a clonal MenB epidemic, provided a number of new insights regarding international and public-private collaboration, vaccine safety surveillance, vaccine effectiveness estimates and communication to the public. The experience with wtOMV vaccines also provide important information for the next generation of MenB vaccines designed to give more comprehensive protection against multiple strains. PMID:23857274

  5. Carriage rate and effects of vaccination after outbreaks of serogroup C meningococcal disease, Brazil, 2010.

    PubMed

    Sáfadi, Marco Aurelio Palazzi; Carvalhanas, Telma Regina Marques Pinto; Paula de Lemos, Ana; Gorla, Maria Cecilia Outeiro; Salgado, Maristela; Fukasawa, Lucila O; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Higa, Fabio; Brandileone, Maria Cristina Cunto; Sacchi, Claudio Tavares; Ribeiro, Ana Freitas; Sato, Helena Keico; Bricks, Lucia Ferro; Cassio de Moraes, José

    2014-05-01

    During 2010, outbreaks of serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) disease occurred in 2 oil refineries in São Paulo State, Brazil, leading to mass vaccination of employees at 1 refinery with a meningococcal polysaccharide A/C vaccine. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of meningococci carriage among workers at both refineries and to investigate the effect of vaccination on and the risk factors for pharyngeal carriage of meningococci. Among the vaccinated and nonvaccinated workers, rates of overall meningococci carriage (21.4% and 21.6%, respectively) and of MenC carriage (6.3% and 4.9%, respectively) were similar. However, a MenC strain belonging to the sequence type103 complex predominated and was responsible for the increased incidence of meningococcal disease in Brazil. A low education level was associated with higher risk of meningococci carriage. Polysaccharide vaccination did not affect carriage or interrupt transmission of the epidemic strain. These findings will help inform future vaccination strategies. PMID:24751156

  6. Twenty year surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease in Nottingham: serogroups responsible and implications for immunisation

    PubMed Central

    Ispahani, P; Slack, R; Donald, F; Weston, V; Rutter, N

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the incidence, spectrum of clinical manifestations, and outcome of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children. To determine the major serogroups of Streptococcus pneumoniae responsible for invasive disease and the potential coverage by the new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Methods: Analysis of prospectively recorded information of all children admitted to two teaching hospitals in Nottingham with IPD between January 1980 and December 1999. Results: A total of 266 episodes of IPD in children were identified; 103 (39%) were aged <1 year and 160 (60%) <2 years. Major clinical presentations were meningitis in 86 (32%), pneumonia in 82 (31%), and bacteraemia without an obvious focus in 80 (30%). The age specific mean annual incidence rates of IPD overall among children aged <1, <2, and <5 years were 47.1, 37.8, and 20 per 100 000 population, respectively. Mortality rates for children with meningitis and non-meningitic infection were 20% and 7%, respectively. Neurological sequelae following meningitis were documented in 16 (26%) of the 61 survivors assessed. The potential coverage rates in children between the ages of 6 months and 5 years are 84% by the 7-valent, 91% by the 9-valent, and 95% by the 11-valent conjugate vaccines. Conclusion: This study indicates that inclusion of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the primary immunisation programme in the UK would have a considerable effect on the mortality and morbidity associated with IPD. PMID:15269078

  7. The Impact of VA's Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Centers on Academic Affiliates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Elizabeth J.; Meganathan, Karthikeyan; Shay, Kenneth; Gilman, Stuart C.; Zeiss, Robert A.; Hettler, Debbie L.

    2011-01-01

    The education mission of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is to train health professionals to benefit VA and the United States. One approach for achieving that mission, along with VA's research and clinical missions, was the establishment of Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Centers (GRECCs) in 1975. These were developed at VA…

  8. 78 FR 76412 - Agency Information Collection (VA National Rehabilitation Special Events, Event Registration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ...-0759''. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Titles: a. National Disabled Veterans Winter Sports Clinic... sports Clinic Event Application, VA Form 0928a, c. l. Volunteer Application, VA Form 0928h. m. Surfing... already approved collection. Abstract: Veterans who are enrolled for VA health care may apply...

  9. 78 FR 26250 - Payment for Home Health Services and Hospice Care to Non-VA Providers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... November 21, 2011 (76 FR 71920), VA proposed to amend its regulations concerning the billing methodology... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN98 Payment for Home Health Services and Hospice Care to Non-VA Providers... services and hospice care. Because the newly applicable methodology cannot supersede rates for which VA...

  10. 78 FR 11094 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; James River, Between Isle of Wight and Newport News, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... and Newport News, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of deviation from drawbridge regulation... News, VA. This deviation is necessary to facilitate generator replacement on the James River Draw... operating schedule, the James River Bridge, mile 5.0, between Isle of Isle and Newport News, VA opens...

  11. 48 CFR 853.236-70 - VA Form 10-6298, Architect-Engineer Fee Proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false VA Form 10-6298, Architect... VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 853.236-70 VA Form 10-6298, Architect-Engineer Fee Proposal. VA Form 10-6298, Architect-Engineer Fee Proposal, shall be used as prescribed in...

  12. 75 FR 78808 - Agency Information Collection (VA Request for Determination of Reasonable Value) Activity Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (VA Request for Determination of Reasonable Value) Activity Under... comment. The PRA submission describes the nature of the information collection and its expected cost and... INFORMATION: Title: VA Request for Determination of Reasonable Value VA Form 26- 1805 and 26-1805-1....

  13. 78 FR 59773 - Proposed Information Collection (VA Request for Determination of Reasonable Value) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (VA Request for Determination of Reasonable Value) Activity... solicits comments for information needed to determine the reasonable value of properties for guaranteed or... information technology. Title: VA Request for Determination of Reasonable Value, VA Form 26-1805 and...

  14. 38 CFR 26.9 - Information on and public participation in VA environmental process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... participation in VA environmental process. 26.9 Section 26.9 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...) ACTIONS § 26.9 Information on and public participation in VA environmental process. (a) During the..., the Office of Environmental Affairs, or a VA element, information is available by writing to...

  15. 76 FR 63357 - VA National Academic Affiliations Council; Notice of Establishment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... AFFAIRS VA National Academic Affiliations Council; Notice of Establishment As required by Section 9(a)(2... establishment of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) National Academic Affiliations Council. The Secretary... partnerships between VA and its academic affiliates. The Council will provide a forum for discussion and...

  16. Characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica, Y. intermedia, Y. aldovae, Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii and Y. pseudotuberculosis by electrophoretic polymorphism of acid phosphatase, esterases, and glutamate and malate dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Goullet, P; Picard, B

    1988-02-01

    Acid phosphatase, esterases, and glutamate and malate dehydrogenases of 192 strains of Yersinia enterocolitica, Y. intermedia, Y. aldovae, Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii and Y. pseudotuberculosis were analysed by horizontal polyacrylamide agarose gel electrophoresis and by isoelectrofocusing in thin-layer polyacrylamide gels. The six species were clearly separated from each other by their distinct enzyme electrophoretic polymorphism. For Y. enterocolitica, the strains of biotype 5 were differentiated from the other biotypes by the mobility of glutamate dehydrogenase. For Y. frederiksenii, six zymotypes were delineated by pI and by the mobility of the enzymes. Variation in number or mobility of esterases within each species could represent a marker for epidemiological and ecological analyses. A linear relationship was obtained between the mean genetic diversity coefficient of enzymes and the mean percentage DNA-DNA relatedness of Y. intermedia, Y. aldovae, Y. enterocolitica and Y. frederiksenii.

  17. An NF-κB-Based High-Throughput Screen Identifies Piericidins as Inhibitors of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Type III Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Miles C.; Wong, Weng Ruh; Dupzyk, Allison J.; Bray, Walter M.; Linington, Roger G.

    2014-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a bacterial appendage used by dozens of Gram-negative pathogens to subvert host defenses and cause disease, making it an ideal target for pathogen-specific antimicrobials. Here, we report the discovery and initial characterization of two related natural products with T3SS-inhibitory activity that were derived from a marine actinobacterium. Bacterial extracts containing piericidin A1 and the piericidin derivative Mer-A 2026B inhibited Yersinia pseudotuberculosis from triggering T3SS-dependent activation of the host transcription factor NF-κB in HEK293T cells but were not toxic to mammalian cells. As the Yersinia T3SS must be functional in order to trigger NF-κB activation, these data indicate that piericidin A1 and Mer-A 2026B block T3SS function. Consistent with this, purified piericidin A1 and Mer-A 2026B dose-dependently inhibited translocation of the Y. pseudotuberculosis T3SS effector protein YopM inside CHO cells. In contrast, neither compound perturbed bacterial growth in vitro, indicating that piericidin A1 and Mer-A 2026B do not function as general antibiotics in Yersinia. In addition, when Yersinia was incubated under T3SS-inducing culture conditions in the absence of host cells, Mer-A 2026B and piericidin A1 inhibited secretion of T3SS cargo as effectively as or better than several previously described T3SS inhibitors, such as MBX-1641 and aurodox. This suggests that Mer-A 2026B and piericidin A1 do not block type III secretion by blocking the bacterium-host cell interaction, but rather inhibit an earlier stage, such as T3SS needle assembly. In summary, the marine-derived natural products Mer-A 2026B and piericidin A1 possess previously uncharacterized activity against the bacterial T3SS. PMID:24295981

  18. Crp induces switching of the CsrB and CsrC RNAs in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and links nutritional status to virulence.

    PubMed

    Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Sest, Maike; Pisano, Fabio; Scheb-Wetzel, Matthias; Steinmann, Rebekka; Böhme, Katja; Klein, Johannes; Münch, Richard; Schomburg, Dietmar; Dersch, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Colonization of the intestinal tract and dissemination into deeper tissues by the enteric pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis demands expression of a special set of virulence factors important for the initiation and the persistence of the infection. In this study we demonstrate that many virulence-associated functions are coregulated with the carbohydrate metabolism. This link is mediated by the carbon storage regulator (Csr) system, including the regulatory RNAs CsrB and CsrC, and the cAMP receptor protein (Crp), which both control virulence gene expression in response to the nutrient composition of the medium. Here, we show that Crp regulates the synthesis of both Csr RNAs in an opposite manner. A loss of the crp gene resulted in a strong upregulation of CsrB synthesis, whereas CsrC levels were strongly reduced leading to downregulation of the virulence regulator RovA. Switching of the Csr RNA involves Crp-mediated repression of the response regulator UvrY which activates csrB transcription. To elucidate the regulatory links between virulence and carbon metabolism, we performed comparative metabolome, transcriptome, and phenotypic microarray analyses and found that Crp promotes oxidative catabolism of many different carbon sources, whereas fermentative patterns of metabolism are favored when crp is deleted. Mouse infection experiments further demonstrated that Crp is pivotal for a successful Y. pseudotuberculosis infection. In summary, placement of the Csr system and important virulence factors under control of Crp enables this pathogen to link its nutritional status to virulence in order to optimize biological fitness and infection efficiency through the infectious life cycle.

  19. Water Surface Turbulance and Internal Waves, Norfolk, VA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Norfolk and the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, VA, (37.5N, 75.5W) was exposed in sunglint conditions to emphasizes water surface patterns. Outgoing tides from the bay generate considerable turbulence as they encounter coastal ocean currents and can be observed as differences in the reflective properties of the water surface. Smooth flowing water has high reflectivity. Turbulent water has a rough surface and low reflectance. Ship wakes can also be seen.

  20. 'Baby talk' attracts neighbors to new Manassas, Va., birthing center.

    PubMed

    Botvin, Judith D

    2005-01-01

    An dollar 80 million expansion plan recently was launched by Prince William Hospital, Manassas, Va. The cornerstone of the plan is the new Hylton Family Birthing Center. The hospital employed a full range of tactics to promote the opening of the birthing center. These ranged from quarterly newsletters to billboards; from tours and radio spots to a newly revised web site. The campaign is characterized by infant testimonials, gentle humor and bright colors. PMID:15971721

  1. Multiplex Quantitative PCR Assays for the Detection and Quantification of the Six Major Non-O157 Escherichia coli Serogroups in Cattle Feces.

    PubMed

    Shridhar, P B; Noll, L W; Shi, X; An, B; Cernicchiaro, N; Renter, D G; Nagaraja, T G; Bai, J

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, called non-O157 STEC, are important foodborne pathogens. Cattle, a major reservoir, harbor the organisms in the hindgut and shed them in the feces. Although limited data exist on fecal shedding, concentrations of non-O157 STEC in feces have not been reported. The objectives of our study were (i) to develop and validate two multiplex quantitative PCR (mqPCR) assays, targeting O-antigen genes of O26, O103, and O111 (mqPCR-1) and O45, O121, and O145 (mqPCR-2); (ii) to utilize the two assays, together with a previously developed four-plex qPCR assay (mqPCR-3) targeting the O157 antigen and three virulence genes (stx1, stx2, and eae), to quantify seven serogroups and three virulence genes in cattle feces; and (iii) to compare the three mqPCR assays to a 10-plex conventional PCR (cPCR) targeting seven serogroups and three virulence genes and culture methods to detect seven E. coli serogroups in cattle feces. The two mqPCR assays (1 and 2) were shown to be specific to the target genes, and the detection limits were 4 and 2 log CFU/g of pure culture-spiked fecal samples, before and after enrichment, respectively. A total of 576 fecal samples collected from a feedlot were enriched in E. coli broth and were subjected to quantification (before enrichment) and detection (after enrichment). Of the 576 fecal samples subjected, before enrichment, to three mqPCR assays for quantification, 175 (30.4%) were quantifiable (≥4 log CFU/g) for at least one of the seven serogroups, with O157 being the most common serogroup. The three mqPCR assays detected higher proportions of postenriched fecal samples (P > 0.01) as positive for one or more serogroups compared with cPCR and culture methods. This is the first study to assess the applicability of qPCR assays to detect and quantify six non-O157 serogroups in cattle feces and to generate data on fecal concentration of the six serogroups.

  2. Validation of KENO V.a Comparison with Critical Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, W.C.

    1999-01-01

    Section 1 of this report documents the validation of KENO V.a against 258 critical experiments. Experiments considered were primarily high or low enriched uranium systems. The results indicate that the KENO V.a Monte Carlo Criticality Program accurately calculates a broad range of critical experiments. A substantial number of the calculations showed a positive or negative bias in excess of 1 1/2% in k-effective (k{sub eff}). Classes of criticals which show a bias include 3% enriched green blocks, highly enriched uranyl fluoride slab arrays, and highly enriched uranyl nitrate arrays. If these biases are properly taken into account, the KENO V.a code can be used with confidence for the design and criticality safety analysis of uranium-containing systems. Section 2 of this report documents the results of investigation into the cause of the bias observed in Sect. 1. The results of this study indicate that the bias seen in Sect. 1 is caused by code bias, cross-section bias, reporting bias, and modeling bias. There is evidence that many of the experiments used in this validation and in previous validations are not adequately documented. The uncertainty in the experimental parameters overshadows bias caused by the code and cross sections and prohibits code validation to better than about 1% in k{sub eff}.

  3. Four monoclonal antibodies against capsular polysaccharides of Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, Y and W135: its application in identity tests.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Fátima; Amin, Nevis; Otero, Oscar; Aguilar, Alicia; Cuello, Maribel; Valdés, Yolanda; García, Luis G; Cardoso, Daniel; Camacho, Frank

    2013-07-01

    Murine hybridoma monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against the capsular polysaccharide (CPs) of serogroups A, C, W135 and Y meningococci (MenA, MenC, MenW, MenY) in order to develop immunological reagents for the identification of meningococcal polysaccharides. Each serogroup-specific MAb reacted with the CPs from its homologous serogroup only and did not react with CPs from the other three serogroups. The affinity constant (Ka) of the four MAbs measured by non-competitive ELISA was 6.62 × 10(9), 2.76 × 10(9), 1.48 × 10(9) and 3.8 × 10(9) M(-1) for MenA, MenC, MenW and MenY MAbs respectively. The application of these MAbs for identity tests was demonstrated by their abilities to correctly identify the CPs from serogroups A, C, W135 and Y in meningococcal CPs-based vaccines through ELISA. The MAbs obtained in this work are a very valuable set of tools for study meningococcal polysaccharides vaccines.

  4. Acceptability of meningococcal serogroup B vaccine among parents and health care workers in Italy: a survey.

    PubMed

    Mameli, Chiara; Faccini, Marino; Mazzali, Cristina; Picca, Marina; Colella, Giacomo; Duca, Pier Giorgio; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    A new meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4 CMenB) has recently been licensed. This study assessed the acceptability of 4 CMenB vaccine among parents and healthcare workers (HCWs). From May to July 2013 in Milan, Italy, self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 2050 parents of infants presenting at immunization clinics for the mandatory hexavalent vaccination and submitted to 350 HCWs involved in immunization practices. 1842 parents (89.1%) responded to the survey; 64.4% of parents wanted their child to receive the 4 CMenB vaccine and 5.1% would not vaccinate their children. Multivariate analysis showed that recognition of the severity of meningitis [a life threatening vs a mild or unthreatening disease (Odds ratio (OR): 2.3; confidence interval (CI): 1.4-3.6], awareness of vaccination as a beneficial preventive measure (very beneficial vs not beneficial OR = 6.4; CI 3.0-13.7) and knowledge of the Meningococcal C vaccine (OR = 1.4; CI 1.1-1.8) were strongly associated to willingness to receive 4 CMenB vaccine. On the contrary, level of education was associated with refusal of immunization (university vs education level lower than middle school OR = 0.68; CI 0.47-0.97). Among the parents who were willing to immunize their children, 66.9% would agree with three injections to be administered during the same visit. A total of 291 HCWs (83.1%) agreed to participate in the survey; 73% considered 4 CMenB vaccine a priority in infants' immunization schedule; 26.8% of HCWs suggested the concomitant administration with routine infant immunization. Parental and HCWs acceptability of 4 CMenB vaccine was high. Increasing knowledge about meningitis and vaccine prevention might further increase the acceptability of this vaccine. PMID:25483638

  5. Comparative Genomics Reveal That Host-Innate Immune Responses Influence the Clinical Prevalence of Legionella pneumophila Serogroups

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Adil; Knox, Natalie; Prashar, Akriti; Alexander, David; Abdel-Nour, Mena; Duncan, Carla; Tang, Patrick; Amatullah, Hajera; Dos Santos, Claudia C.; Tijet, Nathalie; Low, Donald E.; Pourcel, Christine; Van Domselaar, Gary; Terebiznik, Mauricio; Ensminger, Alexander W.; Guyard, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is the primary etiologic agent of legionellosis, a potentially fatal respiratory illness. Amongst the sixteen described L. pneumophila serogroups, a majority of the clinical infections diagnosed using standard methods are serogroup 1 (Sg1). This high clinical prevalence of Sg1 is hypothesized to be linked to environmental specific advantages and/or to increased virulence of strains belonging to Sg1. The genetic determinants for this prevalence remain unknown primarily due to the limited genomic information available for non-Sg1 clinical strains. Through a systematic attempt to culture Legionella from patient respiratory samples, we have previously reported that 34% of all culture confirmed legionellosis cases in Ontario (n = 351) are caused by non-Sg1 Legionella. Phylogenetic analysis combining multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis and sequence based typing profiles of all non-Sg1 identified that L. pneumophila clinical strains (n = 73) belonging to the two most prevalent molecular types were Sg6. We conducted whole genome sequencing of two strains representative of these sequence types and one distant neighbour. Comparative genomics of the three L. pneumophila Sg6 genomes reported here with published L. pneumophila serogroup 1 genomes identified genetic differences in the O-antigen biosynthetic cluster. Comparative optical mapping analysis between Sg6 and Sg1 further corroborated this finding. We confirmed an altered O-antigen profile of Sg6, and tested its possible effects on growth and replication in in vitro biological models and experimental murine infections. Our data indicates that while clinical Sg1 might not be better suited than Sg6 in colonizing environmental niches, increased bloodstream dissemination through resistance to the alternative pathway of complement mediated killing in the human host may explain its higher prevalence. PMID:23826259

  6. Priorities for research on meningococcal disease and the impact of serogroup A vaccination in the African meningitis belt.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Danny; Aseffa, Abraham; Bash, Margaret; Basta, Nicole; Borrow, Ray; Broome, Claire; Caugant, Dominique; Clark, Tom; Collard, Jean-Marc; Djingarey, Mamoudou; Goldblatt, David; Greenwood, Brian; Griffiths, Ulla; Hajjeh, Rana; Hassan-King, Musa; Hugonnet, Stephane; Kimball, Ann Marie; LaForce, Marc; MacLennan, Calman; Maiden, Martin C J; Manigart, Olivier; Mayer, Leonard; Messonnier, Nancy; Moisi, Jennifer; Moore, Katie; Moto, Daugla Doumagoum; Mueller, Judith; Nascimento, Maria; Obaro, Stephen; Ouedraogo, Rasmata; Page, Anne-Laure; Perea, Willima; Pluschke, Gerd; Preziosi, Mari-Pierre; Sow, Samba; Stephens, David; Stuart, James; Thomson, Madeleiene; Tiendrebeogo, Sylvestre; Trape, Jean-Francois; Vernet, Guy

    2013-03-01

    For over 100 years, large epidemics of meningococcal meningitis have occurred every few years in areas of the African Sahel and sub-Sahel known as the African meningitis belt. Until recently, the main approach to the control of these epidemics has been reactive vaccination with a polysaccharide vaccine after an outbreak has reached a defined threshold and provision of easy access to effective treatment but this approach has not prevented the occurrence of new epidemics. Meningococcal conjugate vaccines, which can prevent meningococcal carriage and thus interrupt transmission, may be more effective than polysaccharide vaccines at preventing epidemics. Because the majority of African epidemics have been caused by serogroup A meningococci, a serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid protein conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) has recently been developed. Results from an initial evaluation of the impact of this vaccine on meningococcal disease and meningococcal carriage in Burkina Faso have been encouraging. To review how the research agenda for meningococcal disease in Africa has been changed by the advent of PsA-TT and to define a new set of research priorities for study of meningococcal infection in Africa, a meeting of 41 scientists was held in Dakar, Senegal on April 24th and 25th 2012. The research recommendations developed during the course of this meeting are presented in this paper. The need for enhanced surveillance for meningitis in defined populations with good diagnostic facilities in African countries at risk of epidemics was identified as the highest priority. This is needed to determine the duration of protection against serogroup A meningococcal disease provided by PsA-TT and to determine the risk of disease and carriage caused by meningococci of other serogroups. Other research areas given high priority included identification and validation of serological correlates of protection against meningococcal disease and carriage, development of improved methods for

  7. Viruses isolated from Aedeomyia squamipennis mosquitoes collected in Panama, Ecuador, and Argentina: establishment of the Gamboa serogroup.

    PubMed

    Calisher, C H; Lazuick, J S; Justines, G; Francy, D B; Monath, T P; Gutierrez, E; Sabattini, M S; Bowen, G S; Jakob, W L

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-four virus strains were isolated from Aedeomyia squamipennis mosquitoes collected in Ecuador. One additional strain each was isolated from this species from Panama and ARgentina. All 26 isolates were shown to be related serologically to prototype Gamboa virus, originally isolated from Ad. squamipennis mosquitoes collected in Panama. Antigenic comparisons of eight strains, including prototype Gamboa virus, indicated the existence of four distinct viruses. Neutralization tests with sera from a variety of mammalian and avian species from Argentina provided further evidence that Gamboa serogroup viruses are transmitted between Ad. squamipennis and birds. PMID:6111232

  8. Phenotypic variation amongst genotypically homogeneous Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates: implications for the investigation of outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, T. G.; Saunders, N. A.; Haththotuwa, A.; Hallas, G.; Birtles, R. J.; Taylor, A. G.

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-nine isolates of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, obtained from a site associated with an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease, were examined by monoclonal antibody subgrouping, restriction fragment length polymorphism typing, restriction endonuclease analysis and plasmid content. Nine distinct phenotypes were detected but at the genotypic level all strains were closely related. The data presented indicate that phenotypic variation of a single parent strain can occur within an environmental site. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the investigation of outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:1969803

  9. Diversity within Serogroups of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viceae in the Palouse Region of Eastern Washington as Indicated by Plasmid Profiles, Intrinsic Antibiotic Resistance, and Topography.

    PubMed

    Brockman, F J; Bezdicek, D F

    1989-01-01

    Serology, plasmid profiles, and intrinsic antibiotic resistance (IAR) were determined for 192 isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viceae from nodules of peas (Pisum sativum L.) grown on the south slope and bottomland topographic positions in eastern Washington State. A total of 3 serogroups and 18 plasmid profile groups were identified. Nearly all isolates within each plasmid profile group were specific for one of the three serogroups. Cluster analysis of IAR data showed that individual clusters were dominated by one serogroup and by one or two plasmid profile groups. Plasmid profile analysis and IAR analysis grouped 72% of the isolates similarly. Most plasmid profile groups and several IAR clusters favored either the south slope or the bottomland topographic position. These findings show that certain intraserogroup strains possess a greater competitiveness for nodulation and/or possess a greater ability to survive in adjacent soil environments.

  10. Molecular analysis of leptospires from serogroup Sejroe obtained from asymptomatic cattle in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil reveals genetic proximity to serovar Guaricura.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, A P; Hamond, C; Pinto, P; Bremont, S; Bourhy, P; Lilenbaum, W

    2016-04-01

    Bovine leptospirosis causes substantial reproductive failure in cattle, mainly due to infections with serovar (sv) Hardjo infection. Notwithstanding, other serovars from the serogroup (sg) Sejroe could also have important roles in bovine leptospirosis. The objective was to investigate genetic diversity of serogroup Sejroe isolates obtained from asymptomatic cattle in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Urine and vaginal fluid (VF) were collected from clinically healthy cattle immediately after slaughter. Five isolates were recovered and characterized (serogrouping) as belonging to sg Sejroe. Sequencing of rrs and secY genes further identified them as Leptospira santarosai. Analysis of secY sequences indicated a high level of sequence homology to sv Guaricura strains. Based on culture and sequence data, we inferred that other members of sg Sejroe may be important in bovine leptospiral infection, particularly genotypes of L. santarosai serovar Guaricura.

  11. Further development of sample preparation and detection methods for O157 and the top 6 non-O157 STEC serogroups in cattle feces.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Cheyenne C; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A; Thomas, James; Reuter, Tim

    2014-10-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are food-borne pathogens responsible for outbreaks of human infections worldwide. Ruminant livestock harbor STEC in their intestinal tract, and through fecal contamination possess the potential to compromise the safety of food and water. As a human health safety risk, STEC detection methods on beef carcasses and trim are needed as mandated by the USDA-FSIS. In order to monitor STEC prior to harvest and human consumption, our goal was to evaluate and/or improve detection of seven STEC serogroups in cattle feces. In comparison to traditional approaches, sample processing methods in bovine feces were evaluated using a multi-factorial Latin square design which involved freezing or freeze drying feces. Autoclaved versus non-autoclaved feces were spiked with O26:H11 or O157:H7 serotypes in various dilutions and enriched for up to 6h. Each hour, enriched aliquots were compared using traditional culture methods and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Furthermore, a 7-serogroup multiplex PCR (mPCR) was developed to detect O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145 and O157 serogroups simultaneously. The diagnostic sensitivity of our mPCR assay following 6h enrichment was superior (10CFU/g across all serogroups) compared to a previously established PCR assay (10CFU/g for O26, and O103; ≥10(4)CFU/g for all other serogroups). Obtaining viable isolates appeared to be limited by the efficiency of current immunomagnetic separation (IMS) methods, which ranged from 20 to 100% effectiveness at retrieving colonies depending on serogroup. After IMS, 70 putative STEC isolates were screened for Shiga toxin and attachment genes by mPCR. Sixty-five isolates contained one or both Shiga toxin genes.

  12. The VA Maryland Health Care System's telemental health program.

    PubMed

    Koch, Edward F

    2012-05-01

    The VA Maryland Health Care System introduced videoconferencing technology to provide psychiatry, evidenced-based psychotherapy, case management, and patient education at rural clinics where it was difficult to recruit providers. Telemental health services enable rural clinics to offer additional services, such as case management and patient education. Services have been expanded to urban outpatient clinics where a limited number of mental health clinic hours are available. This technology expands the availability of mental health providers and services, allowing patients to receive services from providers located at distant medical centers.

  13. Changing Emergence of Shigella Sero-Groups in Bangladesh: Observation from Four Different Diarrheal Disease Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sumon Kumar; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Ferdous, Farzana; Farzana, Fahmida Dil; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Leung, Daniel T.; Malek, Mohammad Abdul; Talukder, Kaisar Ali; Bardhan, Pradip Kumar; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Raqib, Rubhana

    2013-01-01

    Background Shigellosis continues to be a public health challenge for developing countries, including Bangladesh. The aim of the study is to demonstrate recent changes in Shigella sero-groups and their geographical diversity. Methods Data were extracted from data archive of four diarrheal disease surveillance systems. A 2% sub sample from urban Dhaka Hospital (2008–2011; n = 10,650), and 10% from urban Mirpur Treatment Centre (2009–2011; n = 3,585), were enrolled systematically; whereas, all patients coming from the Health and Demographic Surveillance System area in rural Matlab (2008–2011; n = 6,399) and rural Mirzapur (2010–2011; n = 2,812) were included irrespective of age, sex, and disease severity. A fresh stool specimen was collected for identification of Shigella spp. Of them, 315 (3%) were positive for Shigella in Dhaka, 490 (8%) from Matlab, 109 (3%) from Mirpur and 369 (13%) from Mirzapur and considered as analyzable sample size. Results Among all Shigella isolates regardless of age, significant decreases in percentage of S. flexneri over time was observed in Mirpur (55→29%; p value of χ2-for trend = 0.019) and Mirzapur (59→47%; p = 0.025). A non-significant decrease was also seen in Dhaka (58→48%), while in Matlab there was a non-significant increase (73→81%). Similar patterns were observed among under-5 children at all sites. Emergence of S. sonnei was found in Dhaka (8→25%; p<0.001) and Mirpur (10→33%; p = 0.015), whereas it decreased in Mirzapur (32→23%; p = 0.056). The emergence of S. boydii was seen in all ages in Mirzapur [(3→28%; p<0.001); (3→27%; p<0.001)]. On the other hand, we saw non-significant percent reductions in S. boydii in Dhaka [overall (25→16%); under-5 (16→9%)]. Decreasing rates of Shigella dysenteriae were observed in Matlab, Mirpur and Mirzapur; whereas, in Dhaka it remained unchanged. Conclusion and Significance Emergence of S. sonnei and S. boydii as important

  14. Comparative Proteomics Analysis of Two Strains of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup B and Neisseria lactamica

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhi, Raheleh; Amin, Mansour; Hamidinia, Maryam; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad Ali; Rostami, Soodabeh; Mojtahedi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antigenic similarities between Neisseria lactamica as a commensal species and N. meningitidis serogroup B (NmB) as an important cause of meningitis infection have been considered for the development of an effective vaccine based on their common proteins to prevent life-threatening bacterial meningitis. Objectives: The main aims of this study were to determine whole proteome profiles of N. lactamica strains and to compare them with whole proteome profile of a reference strain of NmB for identification of some of common proteins between the two species. Materials and Methods: We compared the whole proteomic profiles of N. lactamica strains and a reference strain of NmB. Lysates from bacterial strains were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), followed by Coomassie Brilliant blue staining. Some of the protein spots were excised from the gel and subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis. Results: The analysis of Coomassie-stained gels using ImageMaster 2D Platinum software identified approximately 800 reproducible protein spots in the range of pI 4.5 - 9.5 and Mr of 8 - 100 kDa for each 2-DE gel of the studied bacterial strains. By comparing proteome maps of 2-DE gels, more than 200 common protein spots were recognized between the two species. Forty-eight common protein spots between the studied bacterial strains were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. The results indicated that among the protein spots identified by MOLDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry, the groups of proteins included cell surface, energy metabolism, amino acid transport and metabolism, coenzyme metabolism, defense, multifunctional cellular processes, DNA, RNA and protein synthesis, ribosomal structure, regulatory functions, replication, transcription, translation, unknown and hypothetical proteins with unknown function. We found that N. lactamica strains have a proteome profile somewhat similar to

  15. Persistence of serogroup C antibody responses following quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccination in United States military personnel.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manisha; Romero-Steiner, Sandra; Broderick, Michael P; Thomas, Cynthia G; Plikaytis, Brian D; Schmidt, Daniel S; Johnson, Scott E; Milton, Andrea S; Carlone, George M; Clark, Thomas A; Messonnier, Nancy E; Cohn, Amanda C; Faix, Dennis J

    2014-06-24

    Serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) disease accounts for one-third of all meningococcal cases and causes meningococcal outbreaks in the U.S. Quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (MenACYWD) was recommended in 2005 for adolescents and high risk groups such as military recruits. We evaluated anti-MenC antibody persistence in U.S. military personnel vaccinated with either MenACYWD or meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV4). Twelve hundred subjects vaccinated with MenACYWD from 2006 to 2008 or MPSV4 from 2002 to 2004 were randomly selected from the Defense Medical Surveillance System. Baseline serologic responses to MenC were assessed in all subjects; 100 subjects per vaccine group were tested during one of the following six post-vaccination time-points: 5-7, 11-13, 17-19, 23-25, 29-31, or 35-37 months. Anti-MenC geometric mean titers (GMT) were measured by rabbit complement serum bactericidal assay (rSBA) and geometric mean concentrations (GMC) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Continuous variables were compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum test and the proportion of subjects with an rSBA titer ≥ 8 by chi-square. Pre-vaccination rSBA GMT was <8 for the MenACWYD group. rSBA GMT increased to 703 at 5-7 months post-vaccination and decreased by 94% to 43 at 3 years post-vaccination. GMT was significantly lower in the MenACWYD group at 5-7 months post-vaccination compared to the MPSV4 group. The percentage of MenACWYD recipients achieving an rSBA titer of ≥ 8 decreased from 87% at 5-7 months to 54% at 3 years. There were no significant differences between vaccine groups in the proportion of subjects with a titer of ≥ 8 at any time-point. GMC for the MenACWYD group was 0.14 μg/mL at baseline, 1.07 μg/mL at 5-7 months, and 0.66 μg/mL at 3 years, and significantly lower than the MPSV4 group at all time-points. Anti-MenC responses wane following vaccination with MenACYWD; a booster dose is needed to maintain protective levels

  16. Functional expression of the capsule polymerase of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup X: a new perspective for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Fiebig, Timm; Berti, Francesco; Freiberger, Friedrich; Pinto, Vittoria; Claus, Heike; Romano, Maria Rosaria; Proietti, Daniela; Brogioni, Barbara; Stummeyer, Katharina; Berger, Monika; Vogel, Ulrich; Costantino, Paolo; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita

    2014-02-01

    Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and sepsis. A key feature in pathogenicity is the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) that prevents complement activation and thus supports bacterial survival in the host. Twelve serogroups characterized by immunologically and structurally different CPSs have been identified. Meningococcal CPSs elicit bactericidal antibodies and consequently are used for the development of vaccines. Vaccination against the epidemiologically most relevant serogroups was initially carried out with purified CPS and later followed by conjugate vaccines which consist of CPS covalently linked to a carrier protein. Of increasing importance in the African meningitis belt is NmX for which no vaccine is currently available. Here, we describe the molecular cloning, recombinant expression and purification of the capsule polymerase (CP) of NmX called CsxA. The protein expressed with N- and/or C-terminal epitope tags was soluble and could be purified to near homogeneity. With short oligosaccharide primers derived from the NmX capsular polysaccharide (CPSX), recombinant CsxA produced long polymer chains in vitro that in immunoblots were detected with NmX-specific antibodies. Moreover, the chemical identity of in vitro produced NmX polysaccharides was confirmed by NMR. Besides the demonstration that the previously identified gene csxA encodes the NmX CP CsxA, the data presented in this study pave the way for the use of the recombinant CP as a safe and economic way to generate the CPSX in vaccine developmental programs.

  17. A proposed sero-grouping scheme for epidemiological investigation of food poisoning due to Clostridium perfringens type A.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, A K; Narayan, K G

    1979-10-01

    Serological studies with soluble and particulate antigens of Cl. perfringens type A revealed that enterotoxin and spore antigens could be used as a suitable marker for epidemiological studies. 94% of the food poisoning strains of Cl. perfringens type A could be grouped into 3 groups with the help of 2 enterotoxin-specific sera and 90% in 4 groups with antispore sera. Heat-sensitive strains were found to be antigenically more homogenous than the heat-resistant ones. Sera raised against spores of heat-resistant strains could not agglutinate spore of any of the heat-sensitive strains. Similarly no spores of heat-resistant strains were agglutinable by serum raised against spores of heat-sensitive strains. On the basis of typing efficiency the two antigen, viz enterotoxin and spore antigens were used in the serogrouping scheme proposed for the epidemiological investigation of food poisoning with Cl. perfringens type A. Used together, enterotoxin and spore agglutinogen form an antigenic formula for each strain showing the serogroup to which it belongs. PMID:44603

  18. Similarities in Leptospira Serogroup and Species Distribution in Animals and Humans in the Indian Ocean Island of Mayotte

    PubMed Central

    Desvars, Amélie; Naze, Florence; Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Cardinale, Eric; Picardeau, Mathieu; Michault, Alain; Bourhy, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to identify local animal reservoirs of leptospirosis to explain the unusual features of Leptospira strains recently described among patients on the island of Mayotte. By means of a microscopic agglutination test using local clinical isolates, we found that 11.2% of black rats were seropositive to Leptospira, whereas 10.2% of flying foxes, 2% of lemurs, 93.1% of domestic dogs, and 87.5% of stray dogs were seropositive. As observed in humans, Mini was the main serogroup circulating in animals, whereas serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae was absent. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we also showed that 29.8% of rats carried leptospires in their kidneys. The sequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences of Leptospira found in black rat kidneys identified four genomospecies (Leptospira borgpetersenii, Leptospira interrogans, Leptospira kirschneri, and L. borgpetersenii group B), which established black rats as the major source of leptospirosis transmission to humans. The origins of such a genetic diversity in Leptospira strains are discussed. PMID:22764304

  19. Cloning, Sequencing, and Role in Virulence of Two Phospholipases (A1 and C) from Mesophilic Aeromonas sp. Serogroup O:34

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Susana; Aguilar, Alicia; Nogueras, Maria Mercedes; Regue, Miguel; Swift, Simon; Tomás, Juan M.

    1999-01-01

    Two different representative recombinant clones encoding Aeromonas hydrophila lipases were found upon screening on tributyrin (phospholipase A1) and egg yolk agar (lecithinase-phospholipase C) plates of a cosmid-based genomic library of Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3 (serogroup O34) introduced into Escherichia coli DH5α. Subcloning, nucleotide sequencing, and in vitro-coupled transcription-translation experiments showed that the phospholipase A1 (pla) and C (plc) genes code for an 83-kDa putative lipoprotein and a 65-kDa protein, respectively. Defined insertion mutants of A. hydrophila AH-3 defective in either pla or plc genes were defective in phospholipase A1 and C activities, respectively. Lecithinase (phospholipase C) was shown to be cytotoxic but nonhemolytic or poorly hemolytic. A. hydrophila AH-3 plc mutants showed a more than 10-fold increase in their 50% lethal dose on fish and mice, and complementation of the plc single gene on these mutants abolished this effect, suggesting that Plc protein is a virulence factor in the mesophilic Aeromonas sp. serogroup O:34 infection process. PMID:10417167

  20. Molecular characterization reveals similar virulence gene content in unrelated clonal groups of Escherichia coli of serogroup O174 (OX3).

    PubMed

    Tarr, Cheryl L; Nelson, Adam M; Beutin, Lothar; Olsen, Katharina E P; Whittam, Thomas S

    2008-02-01

    Most severe illnesses that are attributed to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli are caused by isolates that also carry a pathogenicity island called the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). However, many cases of severe disease are associated with LEE-negative strains. We characterized the virulence gene content and the evolutionary relationships of Escherichia coli isolates of serogroup O174 (formerly OX3), strains of which have been implicated in cases of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. A total of 56 isolates from humans, farm animals, and food were subjected to multilocus virulence gene profiling (MVGP), and a subset of 16 isolates was subjected to multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). The MLSA revealed that the O174 isolates fall into four separate evolutionary clusters within the E. coli phylogeny and are related to a diverse array of clonal groups, including enteropathogenic E. coli 2 (EPEC 2), enterohemorrhagic E. coli 2 (EHEC 2), and EHEC-O121. Of the 15 genes that we surveyed with MVGP, only 6 are common in the O174 strains. The different clonal groups within the O174 serogroup appear to have independently acquired and maintained similar sets of genes that include the Shiga toxins (stx1 and stx2) and two adhesins (saa and iha). The absence of certain O island (OI) genes, such as those found on OI-122, is consistent with the notion that certain pathogenicity islands act cooperatively with the LEE island.

  1. Use of Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccines in Adolescents and Young Adults: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2015.

    PubMed

    MacNeil, Jessica R; Rubin, Lorry; Folaranmi, Temitope; Ortega-Sanchez, Ismael R; Patel, Manisha; Martin, Stacey W

    2015-10-23

    At its June 2015 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended that adolescents and young adults aged 16–23 years may be vaccinated with a serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine to provide short-term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease. This report summarizes the deliberations of ACIP, the rationale for its decision, and recommendations for use of MenB vaccines in adolescents and young adults. Two MenB vaccines have recently been licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the United States and approved for use in persons aged 10–25 years: MenB-FHbp (Trumenba, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) and MenB-4C (Bexsero, Novartis Vaccines). Both MenB vaccines were licensed based on statutory regulations for accelerated approval, which enabled FDA to approve the MenB vaccines for serious or life-threatening diseases based on safety and demonstration that vaccine effectiveness, as measured by bactericidal antibody responses with assays using several MenB test strains that were representative of prevalent strains in the United States, is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit. As a requirement for accelerated approval, confirmatory studies in the postmarketing period will be conducted to verify and further describe the effectiveness of the vaccines against an extended number of MenB strains that represent a broader diversity of endemic disease. Additional postlicensure safety data are also needed and will be reviewed by ACIP as they become available.

  2. The multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB): origin, composition, health impact and unknown aspects.

    PubMed

    Mameli, Chiara; Galli, Erica; Mantegazza, Cecilia; Fabiano, Valentina; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B is the main cause for meningococcal invasive disease in many parts of the world. Since 2013, a new multicomponent vaccine against meningococcal serogroup B (4CMenB) has been licensed in Europe, Australia, Canada, Chile, Uruguay, USA and Brazil with different immunization schedules. Clinical trials involving adults, adolescents, children and infants showed 4CMenB has a good immunogenicity and safety profile. Strain coverage estimates are similar to or better than other recently approved vaccines, ranging from 66% in Canada to 91% in Unites States. Some points still remain to be clarified such as the best immunization strategy, the effect of 4CMenB on carriage, the long-term persistence of protective bactericidal antibodies titers, long-term safety outcomes, the possible emergence of N. meningitidis escape mutants and the vaccine cost-effectiveness. In this review, we focus on the vaccine composition, clinical trials and suggested schedules, safety data, potential strain coverage and future challenges. PMID:26437903

  3. Leptospira weilii serovar Topaz, a new member of the Tarassovi serogroup isolated from a bovine source in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Corney, B G; Slack, A T; Symonds, M L; Dohnt, M F; McClintock, C S; McGowan, M R; Smythe, L D

    2008-10-01

    This paper reports on a Leptospira isolate of bovine origin and its identification as belonging to a previously unknown serovar, for which the name Topaz is proposed. The isolate (94-79970/3) was cultured from bovine urine from a north Queensland dairy farm in Australia. Strain 94-79970/3 grew at 30 degrees C in Ellinghausen McCullough Johnson Harris (EMJH) medium but failed to grow at 13 degrees C in EMJH medium or in the presence of 8-azaguanine. Serologically, strain 94-79970/3 produced titres against the Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Tarassovi, the reference strain for the Tarassovi serogroup; however, no significant titres to any other serovars within the serogroup were obtained. Using 16S rRNA and DNA gyrase subunit B gene analysis, strain 94-79970/3 was identified as a member of the species Leptospira weilii. We propose that the serovar be named Topaz, after the location where the original isolate was obtained. The reference strain for this serovar is 94-79970/3 (=KIT 94-79970/3=LT722).

  4. Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against California and Bunyamwera serogroup viruses in deer from mountainous areas of California.

    PubMed

    Campbell, G L; Eldridge, B F; Hardy, J L; Reeves, W C; Jessup, D A; Presser, S B

    1989-04-01

    Plaque reduction-serum dilution neutralization was used to evaluate the status of bunyavirus activity in deer in mountainous areas of California. Antibodies against 9 bunyaviruses were measured in 337 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus, O. hemionus californicus, and O. hemionus inyoensis) and black-tailed deer (O. hemionus columbianus). More deer from high mountainous areas had neutralizing antibodies against Jamestown Canyon virus than did deer from low mountainous areas (23% vs. 9%; P less than 0.01). This finding is consistent with transmission by snow pool Aedes mosquitoes. Results for Jerry Slough virus were nearly identical to those for Jamestown Canyon virus, which is further evidence that these are strains of the same virus. Neutralizing antibodies against Northway virus were present in 26% of deer from high mountainous areas and 23% of deer from low mountainous areas, suggesting the involvement of a widespread vector, such as Culiseta inornata. Northway virus is not known to occur outside of Alaska and northwestern Canada. Low prevalences of antibodies were detected in deer to California encephalitis, La Crosse, and snowshoe hare viruses of the California serogroup; and Cache Valley, Lokern, and Main Drain viruses of the Bunyamwera serogroup.

  5. Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine for infants and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Kristina A; Marshall, Gary S

    2011-07-01

    The highest rates of invasive meningococcal disease occur in children under 2 years of age, yet as of early 2011 no vaccine was licensed for the youngest infants. However, a novel vaccine consisting of capsular polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y conjugated to tetanus toxoid (HibMenCY-TT; MenHibrix, GlaxoSmithKline) is in the late stages of development. In clinical trials involving more than 7800 children, HibMenCY-TT was shown to be safe and immunogenic when administered at 2, 4, 6 and 12-15 months of age. Anti-polyribosylribitol phosphate antibody responses were noninferior to those elicited by licensed monovalent Hib vaccines, and most vaccinees developed bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis serogroups C and Y. The majority of subjects retained antibody responses as far as 3 years after vaccination. If licensed, HibMenCY-TT not only represents an incremental option for protection against invasive Hib, but also has the potential to prevent invasive meningococcal disease without increasing the number of injections.

  6. The VA advantage: the gold standard in clinical informatics.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Matthew W

    2005-01-01

    How does a healthcare organization undergo such transformation as described in the lead paper in eight short years? Just imagine being part of an organization that achieved the following transformations: (1) reduction in hospital and long-term-care beds from 92,000 to 53,000 and an increase in outpatient clinics from 200 to 850 (2) a 75% increase in the number of patients treated on an annual basis (from 2.8 million to 4.9 million) with only a 32% cumulative increase in budget (from $19 billion to $25 billion) (3) clinicians who have access to complete medical records for almost all patient visits and all care settings (4) clinicians who willingly enter medication orders 94% of the time (5) patients who are increasingly satisfied with their care, ranking the service consistently higher than the competition (6) improved patient outcomes, achieved at costs 25% less than the competition. Such transformation is impossible to achieve without vision, leadership, talent, teamwork and tools. I will restrict my comments to a discussion of the tools, specifically the VA's clinical information system (VistA, HealtheVet, My HealtheVet. However, it is important to note that the results described in this paper would not be possible without the VA's transformational leadership and dedicated teams of professionals capable of executing the vision.

  7. Use of VA and Medicare Services By Dually Eligible Veterans with Psychiatric Problems

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Kathleen; Montez-Rath, Maria E; Rosen, Amy K; Christiansen, Cindy L; Loveland, Susan; Ettner, Susan L

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine how service accessibility measured by geographic distance affects service sector choices for veterans who are dually eligible for veterans affairs (VA) and Medicare services and who are diagnosed with mental health and/or substance abuse (MH/SA) disorders. Data Sources Primary VA data sources were the Patient Treatment (acute care), Extended Care (long-term care), and Outpatient Clinic files. VA cost data were obtained from (1) inpatient and outpatient cost files developed by the VA Health Economics and Resource Center and (2) outpatient VA Decision Support System files. Medicare data sources were the denominator, Medicare Provider Analysis Review (MEDPAR), Provider-of-Service, Outpatient Standard Analytic and Physician/Supplier Standard Analytic files. Additional sources included the Area Resource File and Census Bureau data. Study Design We identified dually eligible veterans who had either an inpatient or outpatient MH/SA diagnosis in the VA system during fiscal year (FY)'99. We then estimated one- and two-part regression models to explain the effects of geographic distance on both VA and Medicare total and MH/SA costs. Principal Findings Results provide evidence for substitution between the VA and Medicare, demonstrating that poorer geographic access to VA inpatient and outpatient clinics decreased VA expenditures but increased Medicare expenditures, while poorer access to Medicare-certified general and psychiatric hospitals decreased Medicare expenditures but increased VA expenditures. Conclusions As geographic distance to VA medical facility increases, Medicare plays an increasingly important role in providing mental health services to veterans. PMID:18355256

  8. KENO V.a Primer: A Primer for Criticality Calculations with SCALE/KENO V.a Using CSPAN for Input

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, R.D.

    2003-01-17

    The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) computer software system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is widely used and accepted around the world for criticality safety analyses. The well-known KENO V.a three-dimensional Monte Carlo criticality computer code is the primary criticality safety analysis tool in SCALE. The KENO V.a primer is designed to help a new user understand and use the SCALE/KENO V.a Monte Carlo code for nuclear criticality safety analyses. It assumes that the user has a college education in a technical field. There is no assumption of familiarity with Monte Carlo codes in general or with SCALE/KENO V.a in particular. The primer is designed to teach by example, with each example illustrating two or three features of SCALE/KENO V.a that are useful in criticality analyses. The primer is based on SCALE 4.4a, which includes the Criticality Safety Processor for Analysis (CSPAN) input processor for Windows personal computers (PCs). A second edition of the primer, which uses the new KENO Visual Editor, is currently under development at ORNL and is planned for publication in late 2003. Each example in this first edition of the primer uses CSPAN to provide the framework for data input. Starting with a Quickstart section, the primer gives an overview of the basic requirements for SCALE/KENO V.a input and allows the user to quickly run a simple criticality problem with SCALE/KENO V.a. The sections that follow Quickstart include a list of basic objectives at the beginning that identifies the goal of the section and the individual SCALE/KENO V.a features which are covered in detail in the example problems in that section. Upon completion of the primer, a new user should be comfortable using CSPAN to set up criticality problems in SCALE/KENO V.a.

  9. Risk Factors for Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease during Outbreak among Men who Have Sex with Men, New York City, New York, USA.

    PubMed

    Ridpath, Alison; Greene, Sharon K; Robinson, Byron F; Weiss, Don

    2015-08-01

    Risk factors for illness during a serogroup C meningococcal disease outbreak among men who have sex with men in New York City, New York, USA, in 2012-2013 included methamphetamine and cocaine use and sexually transmitted infections. Outbreak investigations should consider routinely capturing information regarding drug use and sex-related risk factors.

  10. Genetic and Phylogenetic Characterization of Tataguine and Witwatersrand Viruses and Other Orthobunyaviruses of the Anopheles A, Capim, Guamá, Koongol, Mapputta, Tete, and Turlock Serogroups.

    PubMed

    Shchetinin, Alexey M; Lvov, Dmitry K; Deriabin, Petr G; Botikov, Andrey G; Gitelman, Asya K; Kuhn, Jens H; Alkhovsky, Sergey V

    2015-11-23

    The family Bunyaviridae has more than 530 members that are distributed among five genera or remain to be classified. The genus Orthobunyavirus is the most diverse bunyaviral genus with more than 220 viruses that have been assigned to more than 18 serogroups based on serological cross-reactions and limited molecular-biological characterization. Sequence information for all three orthobunyaviral genome segments is only available for viruses belonging to the Bunyamwera, Bwamba/Pongola, California encephalitis, Gamboa, Group C, Mapputta, Nyando, and Simbu serogroups. Here we present coding-complete sequences for all three genome segments of 15 orthobunyaviruses belonging to the Anopheles A, Capim, Guamá, Kongool, Tete, and Turlock serogroups, and of two unclassified bunyaviruses previously not known to be orthobunyaviruses (Tataguine and Witwatersrand viruses). Using those sequence data, we established the most comprehensive phylogeny of the Orthobunyavirus genus to date, now covering 15 serogroups. Our results emphasize the high genetic diversity of orthobunyaviruses and reveal that the presence of the small nonstructural protein (NSs)-encoding open reading frame is not as common in orthobunyavirus genomes as previously thought.

  11. Prevalence and serogroup diversity of Salmonella for broiler neck skin, whole carcass rinse, and whole carcass enrichment sampling methodologies following air or immersion chilling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate neck skin (NS), whole carcass rinse (WCR), and whole carcass enrichment (WCE) sampling procedures for Salmonella isolation and serogroup from the same broiler carcass following either air or immersion chilling. Commercially processed and eviscerated broiler ...

  12. Clinical application of a multiplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Legionella species, Legionella pneumophila, and Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1.

    PubMed

    Benitez, Alvaro J; Winchell, Jonas M

    2013-01-01

    We developed a single-tube multiplex real-time PCR assay capable of simultaneously detecting and discriminating Legionella spp., Legionella pneumophila, and Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 in primary specimens. Evaluation of 21 clinical specimens and 115 clinical isolates demonstrated this assay to be a rapid, high-throughput diagnostic test with 100% specificity that may aid during legionellosis outbreaks and epidemiologic investigations.

  13. Ecological aspects of the epidemiology of infection with leptospires of the Ballum serogroup in the black rat (Rattus rattus) and the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) in New Zealand.

    PubMed Central

    Hathaway, S. C.; Blackmore, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    Epidemiological aspects of infection with leptospires of the Ballum serogroup in black rats (Rattus rattus) and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) are described. Rats inhabiting a variety of habitats were investigated and isolates identifed as belonging to the Ballum serogroup were obtained from 21 of 61 black rats (34%) and 63 of 243 brown rats (26%). The high level of endemic ballum serogroup infection in these species reported here has not been described in other countries. A statistical relationship was shown between the prevalence of infection in brown rat populations and population density but this was not evident for black rats. Epidemiological data indicates that the black rat is a maintenance host for leptospires of the Ballum serogroup in New Zealand. The brown rat does not appear to be an efficient maintenance host for these leptospires, however endemic infection can be maintained in high-density populations inhabiting synanthropic foci. An hypothesis of 'competitive exclusion' (preferential maintenance of a particular serovar by a host species) is introduced with regard to leptospiral infection in brown rats. It is concluded that the establishment and maintenance of an endemic focus of leptospirosis is dependant on: introduction of a particular serovar; a suitable host; and a suitable host habitat. Within a maintenance population direct transmission appears to be more important than indirect transmission via the environment. PMID:7310125

  14. Genetic and Phylogenetic Characterization of Tataguine and Witwatersrand Viruses and Other Orthobunyaviruses of the Anopheles A, Capim, Guamá, Koongol, Mapputta, Tete, and Turlock Serogroups

    PubMed Central

    Shchetinin, Alexey M.; Lvov, Dmitry K.; Deriabin, Petr G.; Botikov, Andrey G.; Gitelman, Asya K.; Kuhn, Jens H.; Alkhovsky, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    The family Bunyaviridae has more than 530 members that are distributed among five genera or remain to be classified. The genus Orthobunyavirus is the most diverse bunyaviral genus with more than 220 viruses that have been assigned to more than 18 serogroups based on serological cross-reactions and limited molecular-biological characterization. Sequence information for all three orthobunyaviral genome segments is only available for viruses belonging to the Bunyamwera, Bwamba/Pongola, California encephalitis, Gamboa, Group C, Mapputta, Nyando, and Simbu serogroups. Here we present coding-complete sequences for all three genome segments of 15 orthobunyaviruses belonging to the Anopheles A, Capim, Guamá, Kongool, Tete, and Turlock serogroups, and of two unclassified bunyaviruses previously not known to be orthobunyaviruses (Tataguine and Witwatersrand viruses). Using those sequence data, we established the most comprehensive phylogeny of the Orthobunyavirus genus to date, now covering 15 serogroups. Our results emphasize the high genetic diversity of orthobunyaviruses and reveal that the presence of the small nonstructural protein (NSs)-encoding open reading frame is not as common in orthobunyavirus genomes as previously thought. PMID:26610546

  15. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of meningococcal carriage and disease isolates in Burkina Faso after mass vaccination with a serogroup a conjugate vaccine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The conjugate vaccine against serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis (NmA), MenAfriVac, was first introduced in mass vaccination campaigns of the 1-29-year-olds in Burkina Faso in 2010. The aim of this study was to genetically characterize meningococcal isolates circulating in Burkina Faso before and up to 13 months after MenAfriVac mass vaccination. Methods A total of 1,659 meningococcal carriage isolates were collected in a repeated cross-sectional carriage study of the 1-29-year-olds in three districts of Burkina Faso in 2010 and 2011, before and up to 13 months after mass vaccination. Forty-two invasive isolates were collected through the national surveillance in Burkina Faso in the same period. All the invasive isolates and 817 carriage isolates were characterized by serogroup, multilocus sequence typing and porA-fetA sequencing. Results Seven serogroup A isolates were identified, six in 2010, before vaccination (4 from carriers and 2 from patients), and one in 2011 from an unvaccinated patient; all were assigned to sequence type (ST)-2859 of the ST-5 clonal complex. No NmA carriage isolate and no ST-2859 isolate with another capsule were identified after vaccination. Serogroup X carriage and disease prevalence increased before vaccine introduction, due to the expansion of ST-181, which comprised 48.5% of all the characterized carriage isolates. The hypervirulent serogroup W ST-11 clone that was responsible for most of meningococcal disease in 2011 and 2012 was not observed in 2010; it appeared during the epidemic season of 2011, when it represented 40.6% of the serogroup W carriage isolates. Conclusions Successive clonal waves of ST-181 and ST-11 may explain the changing epidemiology in Burkina Faso after the virtual disappearance of NmA disease and carriage. No ST-2859 strain of any serogroup was found after vaccination, suggesting that capsule switching of ST-2859 did not occur, at least not during the first 13 months after vaccination. PMID:23914778

  16. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from chicken meat in Iran: serogroups, virulence factors, and antimicrobial resistance properties.

    PubMed

    Momtaz, Hassan; Jamshidi, Alireza

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the virulence factors, serogroups, and antibiotic resistance properties of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from chicken meat samples. A total of 422 chicken meat samples were collected from 5 townships of Iran. Specimens were immediately transferred to the laboratory in a cooler with an ice pack. Samples were cultured, and the positive culture samples were analyzed by PCR assays. Finally, the antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed using the disk diffusion method in Mueller-Hinton agar. According to the results, out of 422 samples, 146 (34.59%) were confirmed to be E. coli positive and among E. coli-positive samples, 51 (34.93%) and 31 (21.23%) were from attaching and effacing E. coli (AEEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) subgroups, respectively. All of the EHEC-positive samples had all stx1, eaeA, and ehly virulence genes, whereas only 5 (9.80%) of AEEC subgroup had all stx1, stx2, and eaeA genes. As the data revealed, O157 was the most prevalent and O111 was the least prevalent strains in the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) population. Among STEC strains, sulI and blaSHV had the highest and lowest incidence rate, respectively. There was a high resistance to tetracycline (76.82%), followed by chloramphenicol (73.17%) and nitrofurantoin (63.41%), but there was low resistance to cephalotine (7.31%) antibiotics in isolated strains. Results shows that the PCR technique has a high performance for detection of serogroups, virulence genes, and antibiotic resistance genes in STEC strains. This study is the first prevalence report of detection of virulence genes, serogroups, and antibiotic resistance properties of STEC strains isolated from chicken meat samples in Iran. Based on the results, chicken meat is one of the main sources of STEC strains and its virulence factors in Iran, so an accurate meat inspection would reduce disease outbreaks.

  17. Evaluation of Pastorex meningitis kit performance for the rapid identification of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Uadiale, Kennedy; Bestman, Agatha; Kamau, Charity; Caugant, Dominique A.; Greig, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (NmC) has caused outbreaks in Nigeria of increasing size in three consecutive years since 2013. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for meningitis can facilitate quick identification of the causative pathogen; Pastorex can detect N. meningitidis serogroups A, C (NmC), Y/W135, N. meningitidis serogroup B/Escherichia coli K1, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Streptococcus pneumoniae, and group B Streptococcus. There is no published field evaluation of Pastorex in the identification of NmC. We report our experience with Pastorex in detecting NmC in field conditions. Methods During sequential outbreaks of NmC in Nigeria in 2013, 2014 and 2015, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected from suspected cases of meningitis that met the case definition. Pastorex latex agglutination rapid test was done in the field and trans-isolate media were inoculated with CSF for culture and/or PCR, which was used as the reference standard for 63 paired samples. Results The sensitivity of Pastorex for NmC was 80.0% (95% CI 65.4–90.4%) and the specificity was 94.4% (95% CI 72.7–99.9%). The positive likelihood ratio (LR) was 14.4 (95% CI 2.1–97.3) and negative LR was 0.2 (95% CI 0.1–0.4). The positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were 97.3% (95% CI 85.8–99.9) and 65.4% (95% CI 44.3–82.8), respectively, with a prevalence estimate of 71.4% (95% CI 58.6–82.1). Conclusion Pastorex showed good performance in detecting NmC under field conditions. Prepositioning Pastorex at peripheral health facilities during non-epidemic periods is constrained by a short shelf-life of 1 month after the kit is opened. There is need for development of RDTs that are cheaper and with less challenging requirements for storage and usage. PMID:27496511

  18. The adjuvant effect of TLR7 agonist conjugated to a meningococcal serogroup C glycoconjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Donadei, Agnese; Balocchi, Cristiana; Mancini, Francesca; Proietti, Daniela; Gallorini, Simona; O'Hagan, Derek T; D'Oro, Ugo; Berti, Francesco; Baudner, Barbara C; Adamo, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    Conjugation of a small molecule immunopotentiator to antigens has been proposed to deliver the ligand to the receptor, localize its action and minimize systemic inflammation. However, the effect of conjugation of Toll like receptor 7 agonists (TLR7a) on the immunogenicity of carbohydrate-based vaccines is unknown. In this study we synthesized an anti-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC) glycoconjugate vaccine composed of MenC oligosaccharide antigens covalently linked to the carrier protein CRM197, to which a TLR7a was in turn conjugated. This vaccine was able to activate in vitro the TLR7 comparably to the unconjugated ligand. The magnitude and the quality of the immune response against MenC capsular polysaccharide were evaluated in mice, comparing the MenC-CRM-TLR7a construct to a MenC-CRM197 vaccine, prepared through the same conjugation chemistry and co-administered with the unconjugated TLR7a. A commercially licensed anti-MenC glycoconjugate was used as further control to determine the influence of the coupling approach and the level of carbohydrate incorporation on the anti-MenC immune response. The possible additive effect of co-administration with Alum hydroxide (AlumOH) was also examined. The bactericidal titers against N. meningitidis were in agreement with the elicited anti-carbohydrate IgGs, and unequivocally showed that TLR7a conjugation to CRM197 enhanced the anti-MenC immune response. TLR7a conjugation induced a shift to a Th1 type response, as assessed by the increased IgG2a subclass production, both in the absence and in the presence of AlumOH. The increased immune response was clearly present only in the absence of AlumOH and was less pronounced than the co-administration of a licensed glycoconjugate with a standard dose of TLR7a-phosphonate adsorbed on the inorganic salt. The amount of MenC saccharide that was covalently linked to CRM197 after previous CRM197-TLR7a conjugation resulted in lower responses than achieved with conventional Men

  19. Serotype O:8 isolates in the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis complex have different O-antigen gene clusters and produce various forms of rough LPS.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Johanna J; Duda, Katarzyna A; De Felice, Antonia; Cunneen, Monica M; Molinaro, Antonio; Laitinen, Juha; Skurnik, Mikael; Holst, Otto; Reeves, Peter R; De Castro, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    In Yersinia pseudotuberculosis complex, the O-antigen of LPS is used for the serological characterization of strains, and 21 serotypes have been identified to date. The O-antigen biosynthesis gene cluster and corresponding O-antigen structure have been described for 18, leaving O:8, O:13 and O:14 unresolved. In this study, two O:8 isolates were examined. The O-antigen gene cluster sequence of strain 151 was near identical to serotype O:4a, though a frame-shift mutation was found in ddhD, while No. 6 was different to 151 and carried the O:1b gene cluster. Structural analysis revealed that No. 6 produced a deeply truncated LPS, suggesting a mutation within the waaF gene. Both ddhD and waaF were cloned and expressed in 151 and No. 6 strains, respectively, and it appeared that expression of ddhD gene in strain 151 restored the O-antigen on LPS, while waaF in No. 6 resulted in an LPS truncated less severely but still without the O-antigen, suggesting that other mutations occurred in this strain. Thus, both O:8 isolates were found to be spontaneous O-antigen-negative mutants derived from other validated serotypes, and we propose to remove this serotype from the O-serotyping scheme, as the O:8 serological specificity is not based on the O-antigen.

  20. Study of effect of substitution of the penultimate amino acid residue on expression, structure, and functional properties of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis OmpY porin.

    PubMed

    Solov'eva, T F; Tischenko, N M; Khomenko, V A; Portnyagina, O Y; Kim, N Y; Likhatskaya, G N; Novikova, O D; Isaeva, M P

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the expression of two Yersinia pseudotuberculosis proteins, wild-type porin OmpY and the mutant porin OmpY designated as OmpY-Q having the uncharged amino acid residue Gln instead of positively charged Arg at the penultimate position in the same heterologous host. According to the literature, a similar substitution (Lys to Gln) of the penultimate amino acid residue in Neisseria meningitidis porin PorA drastically improved the assembly of the protein in the E. coli outer membrane in vivo. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to replace Arg by Gln (R338Q) in OmpY, and the conditions for optimal expression and maturation of OmpY-Q were selected. It was found that the growth rates of E. coli strains producing OmpY and OmpY-Q and the expression levels of the porins were approximately equal. Comparative analysis of recombinant OmpY and OmpY-Q did not show significant differences in structure, antigenic, and functional properties of the porins, or any noticeable effect of the R338Q substitution in OmpY on its assembly in the E. coli outer membrane in vivo. The probable causes of discrepancies between our results and the previous data on porin PorA are discussed considering the known mechanisms of biogenesis of porins at the periplasmic stage.

  1. Transcriptomic profiling of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis reveals reprogramming of the Crp regulon by temperature and uncovers Crp as a master regulator of small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Nuss, Aaron M; Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Waldmann, Barbara; Reinkensmeier, Jan; Jarek, Michael; Beckstette, Michael; Dersch, Petra

    2015-03-01

    One hallmark of pathogenic yersiniae is their ability to rapidly adjust their life-style and pathogenesis upon host entry. In order to capture the range, magnitude and complexity of the underlying gene control mechanisms we used comparative RNA-seq-based transcriptomic profiling of the enteric pathogen Y. pseudotuberculosis under environmental and infection-relevant conditions. We identified 1151 individual transcription start sites, multiple riboswitch-like RNA elements, and a global set of antisense RNAs and previously unrecognized trans-acting RNAs. Taking advantage of these data, we revealed a temperature-induced and growth phase-dependent reprogramming of a large set of catabolic/energy production genes and uncovered the existence of a thermo-regulated 'acetate switch', which appear to prime the bacteria for growth in the digestive tract. To elucidate the regulatory architecture linking nutritional status to virulence we also refined the CRP regulon. We identified a massive remodelling of the CRP-controlled network in response to temperature and discovered CRP as a transcriptional master regulator of numerous conserved and newly identified non-coding RNAs which participate in this process. This finding highlights a novel level of complexity of the regulatory network in which the concerted action of transcriptional regulators and multiple non-coding RNAs under control of CRP adjusts the control of Yersinia fitness and virulence to the requirements of their environmental and virulent life-styles.

  2. In vivo-induced InvA-like autotransporters Ifp and InvC of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis promote interactions with intestinal epithelial cells and contribute to virulence.

    PubMed

    Pisano, Fabio; Kochut, Annika; Uliczka, Frank; Geyer, Rebecca; Stolz, Tatjana; Thiermann, Tanja; Rohde, Manfred; Dersch, Petra

    2012-03-01

    The Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Ifp and InvC molecules are putative autotransporter proteins with a high homology to the invasin (InvA) protein. To characterize the function of these surface proteins, we expressed both factors in Escherichia coli K-12 and demonstrated the attachment of Ifp- and InvC-expressing bacteria to human-, mouse-, and pig-derived intestinal epithelial cells. Ifp also was found to mediate microcolony formation and internalization into polarized human enterocytes. The ifp and invC genes were not expressed under in vitro conditions but were found to be induced in the Peyer's patches of the mouse intestinal tract. In a murine coinfection model, the colonization of the Peyer's patches and the mesenteric lymph nodes of mice by the ifp-deficient strain was significantly reduced, and considerably fewer bacteria reached liver and spleen. The absence of InvC did not have a severe influence on bacterial colonization in the murine infection model, and it resulted in only a slightly reduced number of invC mutants in the Peyer's patches. The analysis of the host immune response demonstrated that the presence of Ifp and InvC reduced the recruitment of professional phagocytes, especially neutrophils, in the Peyer's patches. These findings support a role for the adhesins in modulating host-pathogen interactions that are important for immune defense.

  3. Evaluation of the humoral and cellular immune response to different antigens of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in Canindé goats and their potential protection against caseous lymphadenitis.

    PubMed

    Moura-Costa, L F; Bahia, R C; Carminati, R; Vale, V L C; Paule, B J A; Portela, R W; Freire, S M; Nascimento, I; Schaer, R; Barreto, L M S; Meyer, R

    2008-11-15

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis, a disease that affects goats and sheep, and can cause severe economic losses. In this study, four different antigenic extracts were obtained from the attenuated strain T1, which was isolated in the state of Bahia (Brazil). Forty-four Canindé breed goats were divided in five groups, each receiving a different antigen solution and saline buffer as a control. The humoral response was monitored through the identification of specific IgG by indirect ELISA and Western Blotting, and the production of IFN-gamma was followed in order to observe the activation of cellular response. After twelve weeks of antigen inoculation, the animals were challenged with 2 x 10(5)CFU of a wild strain, also isolated in Bahia, and necropsy was performed on all animals twelve weeks afterwards. It was observed that the attenuated bacteria gave a protection of 33.3%, in addition to the weak humoral response elicited. Animals inoculated with secreted antigen associated with Freund's incomplete adjuvant and oligodeoxynucleotide containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotides (CpG ODN) showed a strong humoral response, but this inoculation could not prevent the spread of challenge bacteria in the majority of animals. These results demonstrate the immunogenic potential of the attenuated T1 strain in the development of a vaccine against caseous lymphadenitis in goats. PMID:18752855

  4. A region of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin protein enhances integrin-mediated uptake into mammalian cells and promotes self-association.

    PubMed Central

    Dersch, P; Isberg, R R

    1999-01-01

    Invasin allows efficient entry into mammalian cells by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. It has been shown that the C-terminal 192 amino acids of invasin are essential for binding of beta1 integrin receptors and subsequent uptake. By analyzing the internalization of latex beads coated with invasin derivatives, an additional domain of invasin was shown to be required for efficient bacterial internalization. A monomeric derivative encompassing the C-terminal 197 amino acids was inefficient at promoting entry of latex beads, whereas dimerization of this derivative by antibody significantly increased uptake. By using the DNA-binding domain of lambda repressor as a reporter for invasin self-interaction, we have demonstrated that a region of the invasin protein located N-terminal to the cell adhesion domain of invasin is able to self-associate. Chemical cross-linking studies of purified and surface-exposed invasin proteins, and the dominant-interfering effect of a non-functional invasin derivative are consistent with the presence of a self-association domain that is located within the region of invasin that enhances bacterial uptake. We conclude that interaction of homomultimeric invasin with multiple integrins establishes tight adherence and receptor clustering, thus providing a signal for internalization. PMID:10064587

  5. A role for Toll-like receptor 4 in the host response to the lung infection of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin-A; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Kim, Jae-Eun; Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Jee-Cheon; Oh, Sang-Muk; Lee, Kyung-Bok; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jae; Park, Jong-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    Although a Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Yptb) lung infection model has been developed to study Y. pestis pathogenesis, it is still necessary to establish a new animal model to mimic the pathophysiological features induced by Y. pestis infection. Here, we provide a new lung infection model using the Yptb strain, IP2777, which displayed rapid spread of bacteria to the liver, spleen, and blood. In addition, we examined whether TLR4 is involved in Yptb-induced pathogenesis in the lung infection model of mice we generated. Following lung infection of WT and TLR4-deficient mice with the Yptb strain IP2777, the survival rate, bacterial colonization, histopathology, and level of cytokines and chemokines in the lung, spleen, liver, and blood were analyzed. TLR4-deficient mice had a lower survival rate than WT mice in response to Yptb lung infection. Although the bacterial colonization and pathology of the lung were comparable between WT and TLR4-deficient mice, those of the spleen and liver were more severe in TLR4-deficient mice. In addition, the levels of TNF-α and CXCL2 in the liver and IL-6 and CXCL2 in the blood were higher in TLR4-deficient mice than in WT mice. Our results demonstrate that TLR4 is necessary for optimal host protection against Yptb lung infection and TLR4-deficient mice may serve as a better genetic model of Yptb infection for mimicking Y. pestis infection. PMID:26851596

  6. Changes in Meningococcal Strains in the Era of a Serogroup C Vaccination Campaign: Trends and Evolution in Belgium during the Period 1997–2012

    PubMed Central

    Mattheus, Wesley; Hanquet, Germaine; Collard, Jean-Marc; Vanhoof, Raymond; Bertrand, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Background Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is a major cause of bacterial meningitides and septicaemia. This study shows the results of the laboratory-based surveillance of IMD in Belgium over the period 1997–2012. Methods The results are based on microbiological and molecular laboratory surveillance of 2997 clinical isolates of N. meningitides received by the Belgian Meningococcal Reference Centre (BMRC) over the period 1997–2012. Results Serogroup B has always been a major cause of meningococcal disease in Belgium, with P3.4 as most frequent serotype till 2008, while an increase in non-serotypable strains has been observed in the last few years. Clonal complexes cc-41/44 and cc-269 are most frequently observed in serogroup B strains. In the late nineties, the incidence of serogroup C disease increased considerably and peaked in 2001, mainly associated with phenotypes C:2a:P1.5,2, C:2a:P1.5 and C:2a:P1.2 (ST-11/ET-37 clonal complex). The introduction of the meningococcal C conjugate vaccine has been followed by an 88% significant decrease in serogroup C disease from 2001 to 2004 nationally, yet sharper in Flanders (92%) compared to Wallonia (77%). Since 2008 a difference in incidence of serogroup C was observed in Flanders (0–0.1/100,000) versus Wallonia (0.1–0.3/100,000). Conclusion This study showed the change in epidemiology and strain population over a 16 years period spanning an exhaustive vaccination campaign and highlights the influence of regional vaccination policies with different cohorts sizes on short and long-term IMD incidences. PMID:26425857

  7. Immunologic response of patients with legionellosis against major protein-containing antigens of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 as shown by immunoblot analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, J S; Plikaytis, B B; Wilkinson, H W

    1986-01-01

    Major protein-containing antigens of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 were were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis with rabbit antisera to 14 different Legionella species or serogroups. Fourteen bands were observed in immunoelectropherograms of whole-cell, sonicated cell, and heated cell preparations, seven of which appeared in the supernatant fluid from the heated cells and three of which were shown in an outer membrane fraction. Immunoblots of whole-cell antigen preparations of 14 Legionella species or serogroups revealed seven major Legionella proteins: antigens with molecular weights of 58,000, 79,000, and 154,000 were present in all Legionella sp. strains, antigens with molecular weights of 44,000 and 97,000 occurred in multiple species, and antigens with molecular weights of 14,000 and 25,000 were present only in L. pneumophila strains. All sera from 15 patients with culture-confirmed L. pneumophila serogroup 1 disease and 14 of 18 (78%) sera from serologically diagnosed patients reacted with the 58-kilodalton (kDa) common antigen. In contrast, less than one-half of the sera reacted with the L. pneumophila-specific proteins (14 and 25 kDa). Absorption of sera with Escherichia coli cells had no effect on their reactivity with the 58-kDa antigen, whereas absorption with L. pneumophila serogroup 1 cells removed reactivity. These data suggest that the 58-kDa antigen may prove useful in serodiagnostic tests for legionellosis. Images PMID:3517046

  8. Serine protease espP subtype alpha, but not beta or gamma, of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli is associated with highly pathogenic serogroups.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Basit; Naim, Asma; Orth, Dorothea; Grif, Katharina; Mohsin, Mashkoor; Prager, Rita; Dierich, Manfred P; Würzner, Reinhard

    2009-04-01

    Besides Shiga toxins (Stx), Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) harbour several other putative virulence factors, including the serine protease EspP. We have investigated 214 STEC strains from Austria belonging to 61 different serotypes from humans, animals, and food for the presence of this serine protease gene and have determined the espP subtypes and their association with clinical outcome. espP was detected in 121 (57%) out of 214 strains. Sixty-five of 68 strains (96%) of non-sorbitol-fermenting (NSF) O157:H7/NM (NM, non-motile) were positive for espP, while none of 8 SF E. coli O157:NM isolates contained this gene. All 9 strains of serotype O145:NM and 17 of 21 strains (81%) of serotype O26:H11/NM were positive for espP. Nineteen STEC serogroups including O103 and O111 serogroups--considered to be highly pathogenic--were completely negative for espP. Only 5 of 12 strains isolated from patients suffering from haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) were espP-positive (all serogroup NSF O157) as well as 28 of 39 strains from patients with bloody diarrhoea, 40 of 63 strains from patients with non-bloody diarrhoea, and 15 of 19 strains from asymptomatic patients. In O157:H7/NM, O26:H11/NM, and O145:NM only espP subtype alpha was found, whereas in most of the other non-O157 serogroups, subtypes beta and gamma were found. Subtype delta was not detected in our strain collection. Regarding the espP subtypes, only subtype alpha, but not beta and gamma, were found in HUS patients. Moreover, we could demonstrate that espP, and in particular subtype alpha, is associated with highly pathogenic serogroups.

  9. The capsule polymerase CslB of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup L catalyzes the synthesis of a complex trimeric repeating unit comprising glycosidic and phosphodiester linkages.

    PubMed

    Litschko, Christa; Romano, Maria Rosaria; Pinto, Vittoria; Claus, Heike; Vogel, Ulrich; Berti, Francesco; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Fiebig, Timm

    2015-10-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a human pathogen causing bacterial meningitis and sepsis. The capsular polysaccharide surrounding N. meningitidis is a major virulence factor. The capsular polysaccharide consists of polyhexosamine phosphates in N. meningitidis serogroups A and X. The capsule polymerases (CPs) of these serogroups are members of the Stealth protein family comprising d-hexose-1-phosphate transferases from bacterial and protozoan pathogens. CslA, one of two putative CPs of the pathophysiologically less relevant N. meningitidis serogroup L, is one of the smallest known Stealth proteins and caught our attention for structure-function analyses. Because the N. meningitidis serogroup L capsule polymer consists of a trimeric repeating unit ([→3)-β-d-GlcNAc-(1→3)-β-d-GlcNAc-(1→3)-α-d-GlcNAc-(1→OPO3→]n), we speculated that the two predicted CPs (CslA and CslB) work together in polymer production. Consequently, both enzymes were cloned, overexpressed, and purified as recombinant proteins. Contrary to our expectation, enzymatic testing identified CslB to be sufficient to catalyze the synthesis of the complex trimeric N. meningitidis serogroup L capsule polymer repeating unit. No polymerase activity was detected for CslA, although the enzyme facilitated the hydrolysis of UDP-GlcNAc. Bioinformatics analyses identified two glycosyltransferase (GT) domains in CslB. The N-terminal domain modeled with 100% confidence onto a number of GT-A folded proteins, whereas the C-terminal domain modeled with 100% confidence onto TagF, a GT-B folded teichoic acid polymerase from Staphylococcus epidermidis. Amino acid positions known to have critical catalytic functions in the template proteins were conserved in CslB, and their point mutation abolished enzyme activity. CslB represents an enzyme of so far unique complexity regarding both the catalyzed reaction and enzyme architecture.

  10. Parallelization of KENO-Va Monte Carlo code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramón, Javier; Peña, Jorge

    1995-07-01

    KENO-Va is a code integrated within the SCALE system developed by Oak Ridge that solves the transport equation through the Monte Carlo Method. It is being used at the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN) to perform criticality calculations for fuel storage pools and shipping casks. Two parallel versions of the code: one for shared memory machines and other for distributed memory systems using the message-passing interface PVM have been generated. In both versions the neutrons of each generation are tracked in parallel. In order to preserve the reproducibility of the results in both versions, advanced seeds for random numbers were used. The CONVEX C3440 with four processors and shared memory at CSN was used to implement the shared memory version. A FDDI network of 6 HP9000/735 was employed to implement the message-passing version using proprietary PVM. The speedup obtained was 3.6 in both cases.

  11. Development of 30 kVA class fully superconducting generator

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukamoto, O.; Amemiya, N.; Takao, T. . Faculty of Engineering); Akita, S. ); Ohishi, K.; Shimuzu, H.; Tanaka, Y. ); Uchikawa, Y. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the authors are developing a 4 poles 30 kVA class fully superconducting generator to investigate the characteristics of superconducting armature winding subject to the rotating magnetic field produced by the superconducting rotor and behavior of a superconducting generator connected to an electric power utility grid. A static test of the armature winding have been performed by applying 50 Hz AC current. AC quench currents of the armature windings have reached to 200 Arms after several quenches which was well over the rated current. A static test of the field windings have been also performed to verify its rated performance. In the paper, detailed configurations and electrical test results of the generator are shown.

  12. A cluster of invasive meningococcal disease revealed by the characterization of a novel serogroup B meningococcal clone.

    PubMed

    Valinsky, L; Jaffe, J; Keller, N; Block, C; Abramson, N; Stein-Zamir, C

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of invasive infections due to Neisseria meningitidis in Israel is about 1/100 000 population annually. Three cases of meningococcal meningitis were reported in employees at a single plant; the first case appeared in March 2013 and the second and third cases appeared in December, almost 9 months later. N. meningitidis serogroup B was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid samples. Multilocus sequence typing assigned the three meningococcal isolates to ST10418, a new sequence type and a member of the ST32 clonal complex. The clonality was confirmed by performance of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Post-exposure antibiotic prophylaxis was administered to close contacts of the first case. Upon the diagnosis of the additional two cases, post-exposure prophylaxis was administered to all the plant employees. This report demonstrates the importance of combining public health measures and advanced laboratory studies to confirm clonality and to prevent further disease spread in a closed setting. PMID:26113514

  13. Bacillus thuringiensis serovar mogi (flagellar serotype 3a3b3d), a novel serogroup with a mosquitocidal activity.

    PubMed

    Roh, Jong Yul; Liu, Qin; Lee, Dae Weon; Tao, Xueying; Wang, Yong; Shim, Hee Jin; Choi, Jae Young; Seo, Jong Bok; Ohba, Michio; Mizuki, Eiichi; Je, Yeon Ho

    2009-11-01

    The flagellated vegetative cells of the Bacillus thuringiensis strain K4 were agglutinated with the H3 reference antiserum and further, agglutinated with 3b and 3d monospecific factor sera but non-reactive for 3c and 3e factor sera. This creates a new serogroup with flagellar antigenic structure of 3a3b3d: B. thuringiensis serovar mogi. The strain K4 showed high activity against dipteran larvae, Anopheles sinensis and Culex pipienspallens while no lepidopteran toxicity. It produced ovoidal parasporal inclusions (crystals) whose SDS-PAGE protein profile consisted of several bands ranging from 75 to 30kDa. Through the protein identification by nano-LC-ESI-IT MS analysis, the putative peptides of Cry19Ba, Cry40ORF2, Cry27Aa and Cry20Aa were detected.

  14. Enterotoxin production and serogroups of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from patients with diarrhea and from healthy laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lindblom, G B; Kaijser, B; Sjögren, E

    1989-06-01

    Enterotoxin production, a possible virulence factor, was determined in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by two different techniques, the CHO cell test and the GM1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The frequency of enterotoxigenic Campylobacter strains was 32% in strains from both humans with acute enteritis and healthy laying hens, as measured by the CHO cell test. The CHO cell test was significantly more sensitive than the GM1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the detection of enterotoxigenic strains. Enterotoxin production was compared with the presence of heat-stable and heat-labile antigens. There was no significant correlation between enterotoxin production and serogroups for C. jejuni or C. coli. The difference in enterotoxigenicity between C. jejuni (34.1%) and C. coli (21.9%) was not significant.

  15. Update on the use of meningococcal serogroup C CRM₁₉₇-conjugate vaccine (Meningitec) against meningitis.

    PubMed

    Badahdah, Al-Mamoon; Rashid, Harunor; Khatami, Ameneh

    2016-01-01

    Meningitec is a CRM197-conjugated meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) vaccine, first licensed in 1999. It has been used as a primary and booster vaccine in infants, toddlers, older children and adults, and has been shown to be immunogenic and well-tolerated in all age groups, including premature infants. Vaccine effectiveness has been demonstrated using combined data on all three licensed MenC conjugate vaccines. Evidence from clinical trials, however, suggests that the different MenC conjugate vaccines behave differently with respect to the induction and persistence of bactericidal antibody and generation of immune memory. It appears that Meningitec has a less favorable immunologic profile compared particularly to tetanus toxoid (TT) MenC conjugate vaccines. Data from comparative trials have raised interesting questions on priming of the immune system by conjugate vaccines, particularly in infants. The results from these and other studies are reviewed here with specific focus on Meningitec.

  16. Clinical experience with the meningococcal B vaccine, Bexsero(®): Prospects for reducing the burden of meningococcal serogroup B disease.

    PubMed

    Watson, Philip S; Turner, David P J

    2016-02-10

    Although rare, invasive meningococcal disease remains an important cause of mortality and morbidity in children and young adults. Vaccines have been successfully introduced to help protect against meningococcal disease caused by serogroups A, C, W and Y, but until recently, a vaccine for serogroup B (MenB) was not available. In many industrialised countries, MenB causes the majority of meningococcal disease. Moreover, MenB outbreaks occur unpredictably, particularly in high-risk populations, such as university students. In 2013, Bexsero(®) became the first broad-coverage vaccine to be licensed for active immunisation against MenB disease. Bexsero is now licensed in more than 35 countries worldwide for varying age groups, including the EU, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Uruguay and the USA. Clinical recommendations for the use of Bexsero have been published in several countries. Recommendations include use in high-risk groups, outbreak control and routine infant immunisation. Since initial licensure, considerable clinical experience has been gained. In Canada, 43,740 individuals received Bexsero during a vaccination programme in the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region of Quebec, where local disease incidence was high. In the USA, Bexsero was administered to >15,000 individuals during two college outbreaks prior to licensure, under an Investigational New Drug protocol. In the UK, the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation has recommended the inclusion of Bexsero in the routine immunisation schedule for infants. Publically funded vaccination programmes have been initiated in Italy, and there has been widespread use of the vaccine outside of publically reimbursed programmes. Overall, >1,000,000 doses of Bexsero have been distributed in 19 countries worldwide since 2013. The emerging clinical experience with Bexsero is consistent with findings from pre-licensure clinical studies, and no new safety concerns have been identified. Additional data on length of

  17. Clinical experience with the meningococcal B vaccine, Bexsero(®): Prospects for reducing the burden of meningococcal serogroup B disease.

    PubMed

    Watson, Philip S; Turner, David P J

    2016-02-10

    Although rare, invasive meningococcal disease remains an important cause of mortality and morbidity in children and young adults. Vaccines have been successfully introduced to help protect against meningococcal disease caused by serogroups A, C, W and Y, but until recently, a vaccine for serogroup B (MenB) was not available. In many industrialised countries, MenB causes the majority of meningococcal disease. Moreover, MenB outbreaks occur unpredictably, particularly in high-risk populations, such as university students. In 2013, Bexsero(®) became the first broad-coverage vaccine to be licensed for active immunisation against MenB disease. Bexsero is now licensed in more than 35 countries worldwide for varying age groups, including the EU, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Uruguay and the USA. Clinical recommendations for the use of Bexsero have been published in several countries. Recommendations include use in high-risk groups, outbreak control and routine infant immunisation. Since initial licensure, considerable clinical experience has been gained. In Canada, 43,740 individuals received Bexsero during a vaccination programme in the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region of Quebec, where local disease incidence was high. In the USA, Bexsero was administered to >15,000 individuals during two college outbreaks prior to licensure, under an Investigational New Drug protocol. In the UK, the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation has recommended the inclusion of Bexsero in the routine immunisation schedule for infants. Publically funded vaccination programmes have been initiated in Italy, and there has been widespread use of the vaccine outside of publically reimbursed programmes. Overall, >1,000,000 doses of Bexsero have been distributed in 19 countries worldwide since 2013. The emerging clinical experience with Bexsero is consistent with findings from pre-licensure clinical studies, and no new safety concerns have been identified. Additional data on length of

  18. The Impact of VA and Navy Hospital Collaboration on Medical School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atre-Vaidya, Nutan; Ross, Arthur, III; Sandu, Ioana C.; Hassan, Tariq

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is the largest single provider of medical education in the United States and is often the preferred training site for medical students and residents. However, changing priorities of patients and the marketplace are forcing medical schools and the VA to consider new ways of practicing medicine…

  19. 30 CFR 57.22229 - Weekly testing (I-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weekly testing (I-A, III, and V-A mines). 57.22229 Section 57.22229 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...-A, III, and V-A mines). (a) The mine atmosphere shall be tested for methane and carbon monoxide...

  20. 30 CFR 57.22229 - Weekly testing (I-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weekly testing (I-A, III, and V-A mines). 57.22229 Section 57.22229 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...-A, III, and V-A mines). (a) The mine atmosphere shall be tested for methane and carbon monoxide...

  1. 30 CFR 57.22229 - Weekly testing (I-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weekly testing (I-A, III, and V-A mines). 57.22229 Section 57.22229 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...-A, III, and V-A mines). (a) The mine atmosphere shall be tested for methane and carbon monoxide...

  2. Making Bullying Prevention a Priority in Finnish Schools: The KiVa Antibullying Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmivalli, Christina; Poskiparta, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    The KiVa antibullying program has been widely implemented in Finnish comprehensive schools since 2009. The program is predicated on the idea that a positive change in the behaviors of classmates can reduce the rewards gained by the perpetrators of bullying and consequently their motivation to bully in the first place. KiVa involves both universal…

  3. 48 CFR 852.219-9 - VA Small business subcontracting plan minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... review of personnel in the Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. (e) The contractor may... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false VA Small business... Provisions and Clauses 852.219-9 VA Small business subcontracting plan minimum requirements. As prescribed...

  4. 77 FR 21158 - VA Directive 0005 on Scientific Integrity: Availability for Review and Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... AFFAIRS VA Directive 0005 on Scientific Integrity: Availability for Review and Comment AGENCY: Office of... (VA) Directive 0005 on Scientific Integrity. The Draft Directive incorporates the principles of scientific integrity contained in the Presidential Memorandum of March 9, 2009, and the Director, Office...

  5. 33 CFR 334.350 - Chesapeake Bay off Fort Monroe, Va.; firing range danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Va.; firing range danger zone. 334.350 Section 334.350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.350 Chesapeake Bay off Fort Monroe, Va.; firing range danger zone. (a) The danger zone. All of...

  6. 33 CFR 80.515 - Cape Henry, VA to Cape Hatteras, NC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cape Henry, VA to Cape Hatteras, NC. 80.515 Section 80.515 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.515 Cape Henry, VA...

  7. 33 CFR 80.515 - Cape Henry, VA to Cape Hatteras, NC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cape Henry, VA to Cape Hatteras, NC. 80.515 Section 80.515 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.515 Cape Henry, VA...

  8. 33 CFR 80.515 - Cape Henry, VA to Cape Hatteras, NC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cape Henry, VA to Cape Hatteras, NC. 80.515 Section 80.515 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.515 Cape Henry, VA...

  9. 33 CFR 80.515 - Cape Henry, VA to Cape Hatteras, NC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cape Henry, VA to Cape Hatteras, NC. 80.515 Section 80.515 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.515 Cape Henry, VA...

  10. 33 CFR 80.515 - Cape Henry, VA to Cape Hatteras, NC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Henry, VA to Cape Hatteras, NC. 80.515 Section 80.515 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.515 Cape Henry, VA...

  11. 78 FR 28949 - Fund Availability Under VA's Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program (Rehabilitation)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... AFFAIRS Fund Availability Under VA's Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program (Rehabilitation) AGENCY... announces the availability of rehabilitation funds under VA's Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program... local or state codes. Each rehabilitation funded program will submit quarterly reports to the Grant...

  12. Myosin Va Transports Dense Core Secretory Vesicles in Pancreatic MIN6 β-CellsV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Varadi, Aniko; Tsuboi, Takashi; Rutter, Guy A.

    2005-01-01

    The role of unconventional myosins in neuroendocrine cells is not fully understood, with involvement suggested in the movement of both secretory vesicles and mitochondria. Here, we demonstrate colocalization of myosin Va (MyoVa) with insulin in pancreatic β-cells and show that MyoVa copurifies with insulin in density gradients and with the vesicle marker phogrin-enhanced green fluorescent protein upon fluorescence-activated sorting of vesicles. By contrast, MyoVa immunoreactivity was poorly colocalized with mitochondrial or other markers. Demonstrating an important role for MyoVa in the recruitment of secretory vesicles to the cell surface, a reduction of MyoVa protein levels achieved by RNA interference caused a significant decrease in glucose- or depolarization-stimulated insulin secretion. Similarly, expression of the dominant-negative–acting globular tail domain of MyoVa decreased by ∼50% the number of vesicles docked at the plasma membrane and by 87% the number of depolarization-stimulated exocytotic events detected by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We conclude that MyoVa-driven movements of vesicles along the cortical actin network are essential for the terminal stages of regulated exocytosis in β-cells. PMID:15788565

  13. 77 FR 23204 - VA Acquisition Regulation: Electronic Submission of Payment Requests

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... waste in other agency programs and operations. Executive Order 13520 of November 20, 2009 (``Reducing... Electronic Invoicing Could Further Reduce Late Payments'' (GAO-06-358). The report confirmed the... using under VA's current interim electronic invoicing clause. See 74 FR 32223. VA's Electronic...

  14. 77 FR 3841 - Proposed Information Collection (Survey of Veteran Enrollees (Quality and Efficiency of VA Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Care)) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration, Department of Veterans... VA Health Care), VA Form 10-21088. OMB Control Number: 2900-0725. Type of Review: Extension of a... promote quality and efficient delivery of health care through the use of health information...

  15. 76 FR 70831 - Proposed Information Collection (Survey of Veteran Enrollees (Quality and Efficiency of VA Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... Care)) Activity; Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs... Efficiency of VA Health Care), VA Form 10-21088. OMB Control Number: 2900-0725. Type of Review: Extension of... necessary to promote quality and efficient delivery of health care through the use of health...

  16. 33 CFR 334.130 - Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone. 334.130 Section 334.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.130 Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone. (a) The...

  17. 78 FR 56151 - Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA... zone on the navigable waters of the North Atlantic Ocean in Virginia Beach, VA to support the Virginia... over the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean. Due to the need to protect mariners and...

  18. 48 CFR 853.236-70 - VA Form 10-6298, Architect-Engineer Fee Proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false VA Form 10-6298, Architect-Engineer Fee Proposal. 853.236-70 Section 853.236-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...-Engineer Fee Proposal. VA Form 10-6298, Architect-Engineer Fee Proposal, shall be used as prescribed in...

  19. 48 CFR 853.236-70 - VA Form 10-6298, Architect-Engineer Fee Proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false VA Form 10-6298, Architect-Engineer Fee Proposal. 853.236-70 Section 853.236-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...-Engineer Fee Proposal. VA Form 10-6298, Architect-Engineer Fee Proposal, shall be used as prescribed in...

  20. 48 CFR 853.236-70 - VA Form 10-6298, Architect-Engineer Fee Proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false VA Form 10-6298, Architect-Engineer Fee Proposal. 853.236-70 Section 853.236-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...-Engineer Fee Proposal. VA Form 10-6298, Architect-Engineer Fee Proposal, shall be used as prescribed in...

  1. 75 FR 54771 - Safety Zone; Thunder on the Bay, Chesapeake Bay, Buckroe Beach Park, Hampton, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Beach Park, Hampton, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... a fireworks display on the Buckroe Beach Park Fishing Pier over the navigable waters of the...). This safety zone will be established in the vicinity of Buckroe Beach Park in Hampton, VA from 9:15...

  2. 77 FR 12697 - VA Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ...We propose to revise and reorganize regulations which contain the Department of Veterans Affairs' (VA) Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program. This rulemaking would update our current regulations, implement and authorize new VA policies, and generally improve the clarity of part...

  3. 77 FR 39404 - Safety Zone; Wicomico Community Fireworks Rain Date, Great Wicomico River, Mila, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Wicomico Community Fireworks Rain Date..., VA in support of the Wicomico Community Rain Date Fireworks event. This action is necessary to.... 165.T05-0425 Safety Zone; Wicomico Community Fireworks Rain Date, Great Wicomico River, Mila, VA....

  4. Expanded Access to Non-VA Care Through the Veterans Choice Program. Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) revises its medical regulations that implement section 101 of the Veterans Access, Choice, and Accountability Act of 2014 (hereafter referred to as "the Choice Act"), which requires VA to establish a program to furnish hospital care and medical services through eligible non-VA health care providers to eligible veterans who either cannot be seen within the wait-time goals of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) or who qualify based on their place of residence (hereafter referred to as the "Veterans Choice Program" or the "Program"). These regulatory revisions are required by the most recent amendments to the Choice Act made by the Construction Authorization and Choice Improvement Act of 2014, and by the Surface Transportation and Veterans Health Care Choice Improvement Act of 2015. The Construction Authorization and Choice Improvement Act of 2014 amended the Choice Act to define additional criteria that VA may use to determine that a veteran's travel to a VA medical facility is an "unusual or excessive burden," and the Surface Transportation and Veterans Health Care Choice Improvement Act of 2015 amended the Choice Act to cover all veterans enrolled in the VA health care system, remove the 60-day limit on an episode of care, modify the wait-time and 40-mile distance eligibility criteria, and expand provider eligibility based on criteria as determined by VA. This interim final rule revises VA regulations consistent with the changes made to the Choice Act as described above.

  5. 33 CFR 334.290 - Elizabeth River, Southern Branch, Va., naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Va., naval restricted areas. 334.290 Section 334.290 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....290 Elizabeth River, Southern Branch, Va., naval restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1) St. Helena Annex Area. Beginning at a point at St. Helena Annex of the Norfolk Naval Shipyard, on the eastern shore...

  6. 75 FR 20774 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Fort A.P. Hill, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... final rule with a request for comments in the Federal Register on December 7, 2009 (74 FR 63974), Docket... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Fort A.P. Hill, VA... Register December 7, 2009 that establishes Class E airspace at Fort A.P. Hill, VA. DATES: Effective...

  7. 78 FR 77204 - Proposed Information Collection (VA National Veterans Sports Programs and Special Event Surveys...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (VA National Veterans Sports Programs and Special Event Surveys... solicits comments on the information needed to evaluate the National Veterans Sports Programs and Special... ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW (VA National Veterans Sports Programs and Special Event Surveys)'' in...

  8. 77 FR 48127 - Foreign-Trade Zone 20-Suffolk, VA; Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Usui...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 20--Suffolk, VA; Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Usui International Corporation, (Diesel Engine Fuel Lines), Chesapeake, VA The Virginia Port Authority, grantee of FTZ 20, submitted a...

  9. 30 CFR 57.22309 - Methane monitors (V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 CFR part 18, and prevent starting of such equipment when methane levels reach 1.5 percent; and (3... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methane monitors (V-A mines). 57.22309 Section... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Equipment § 57.22309 Methane monitors (V-A mines)....

  10. 30 CFR 57.22309 - Methane monitors (V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 CFR part 18, and prevent starting of such equipment when methane levels reach 1.5 percent; and (3... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methane monitors (V-A mines). 57.22309 Section... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Equipment § 57.22309 Methane monitors (V-A mines)....

  11. 30 CFR 57.22309 - Methane monitors (V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 CFR part 18, and prevent starting of such equipment when methane levels reach 1.5 percent; and (3... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methane monitors (V-A mines). 57.22309 Section... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Equipment § 57.22309 Methane monitors (V-A mines)....

  12. 38 CFR 74.26 - What types of business information will VA collect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VETERANS SMALL BUSINESS REGULATIONS Records Management § 74.26 What types of business information will VA collect? VA will examine a variety of business records. See § 74.12, “What is... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What types of...

  13. 78 FR 55777 - Proposed Information Collection (VA, National Veterans Sports Programs and Special Events, Event...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (VA, National Veterans Sports Programs and Special Events, Event... Events, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Office of National Veterans Sports Programs and Special Events (NVSP), Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), is announcing an opportunity...

  14. 38 CFR 17.96 - Medication prescribed by non-VA physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medication prescribed by non-VA physicians. 17.96 Section 17.96 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Outpatient Treatment § 17.96 Medication prescribed by non-VA physicians. Any prescription, which is not part of...

  15. 78 FR 56271 - FY 2014-2020 Draft VA Strategic Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... AFFAIRS FY 2014-2020 Draft VA Strategic Plan AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice of... availability of the FY 2014-2020 Draft VA Strategic Plan (Strategic Plan) for public review and comment, as...). The Strategic Plan provides the Department's long-term direction and places a stronger emphasis...

  16. 75 FR 61858 - Proposed Information Collection (VA Request for Determination of Reasonable Value) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (VA Request for Determination of Reasonable Value) Activity... solicits comments for information needed to determine the reasonable value of properties for guaranteed or... Request for Determination of Reasonable Value, VA Form 26-1805 and 26-1805-1. OMB Control Number:...

  17. VA and HRS Local Coordination of Florida's Home-Based Services to the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradham, Douglas D.; Chico, Innette Mary

    Florida's District 12 Veterans Administration (VA) wanted to deliver medical case-management services to veterans not receiving home-based services due to the geographic restrictions of the VA's Hospital-Based Home Care Program. The Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services (HRS) desired to demonstrate the effectiveness of nurse…

  18. 33 CFR 334.350 - Chesapeake Bay off Fort Monroe, Va.; firing range danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay off Fort Monroe, Va.; firing range danger zone. 334.350 Section 334.350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....350 Chesapeake Bay off Fort Monroe, Va.; firing range danger zone. (a) The danger zone. All of...

  19. 33 CFR 334.220 - Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range. 334.220 Section 334.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....220 Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range. (a) The danger zone....

  20. 33 CFR 334.350 - Chesapeake Bay off Fort Monroe, Va.; firing range danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay off Fort Monroe, Va.; firing range danger zone. 334.350 Section 334.350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....350 Chesapeake Bay off Fort Monroe, Va.; firing range danger zone. (a) The danger zone. All of...