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Sample records for psidii winter em

  1. An analysis of the risk of introduction of additional strains of the rust puccinia psidii Winter ('Ohi'a Rust) to Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loope, Lloyd; La Rosa, Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    In April 2005, the rust fungus Puccinia psidii (most widely known as guava rust or eucalyptus rust) was found in Hawai'i. This was the first time this rust had been found outside the Neotropics (broadly-defined, including subtropical Florida, where the rust first established in the 1970s). First detected on a nursery-grown 'ohi'a plant, it became known as ''ohi'a rust'in Hawai'i. The rust spread rapidly and by August 2005 had been found throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. The rust probably reached Hawai'i via the live plant trade or via the foliage trade. In Hawai'i, the rust has infected three native plant species and at least eight non-native species. Effects have been substantial on the endangered endemic plant Eugenia koolauensis and the introduced rose apple, Syzygium jambos. Billions of yellow, asexual urediniospores are produced on rose apple, but a complete life cycle (involving sexual reproduction) has not yet been observed. The rust is autoecious (no alternate host known) on Myrtaceae. The strain introduced into Hawai'i is found sparingly on 'ohi'a (Metrosideros polymorpha), the dominant tree of Hawai'i's forests, with sporadic damage detected to date. The introduction of a rust strain that causes widespread damage to 'ohi'a would be catastrophic for Hawai'i's native biodiversity. Most imports of material potentially contaminated with rust are shipped to Hawai'i from Florida and California (from which P. psidii was reported in late 2005 by Mellano, 2006). Florida is known to have multiple strains. The identity of the strain or strains in California is unclear, but one of them is known to infect myrtle, Myrtus communis, a species commonly imported into Hawai'i. It is important to ecosystem conservation and commercial forestry that additional rust strains or genotypes be prevented from establishing in Hawai'i. The purpose of this analysis of risk is to evaluate the need for an interim rule by the Hawai'i Department of Agriculture to regulate plant

  2. Tracking down worldwide Puccinia psidii dispersal

    Treesearch

    Rodrigo Neves Graca; Amy Ross-Davis; Ned Klopfenstein; Mee Sook Kim; Tobin Peever; Phil Cannon; Janice Uchida; Acelino Couto Alfenas

    2011-01-01

    Puccinia psidii causes rust disease on many host species in the Myrtaceae [1]. First reported in 1884 on guava in Southern Brazil [2], the rust has since been detected on several myrtaceous in South America, Central America, Caribbean, Mexico, USA: in Florida, California, and Hawaii. More recently, P. psidii was reported in Japan infecting M. polymorpha[3]. Of special...

  3. Tracking the distribution of Puccinia psidii genotypes that cause rust disease on diverse myrtaceous trees and shrubs

    Treesearch

    Amy L. Ross-Davis; Rodrigo N. Graca; Acelino C. Alfenas; Tobin L. Peever; Jack W. Hanna; Janice Y. Uchida; Rob D. Hauff; Chris Y. Kadooka; Mee-Sook Kim; Phil G. Cannon; Shigetou Namba; Nami Minato; Sofia Simeto; Carlos A. Perez; Min B. Rayamajhi; Mauricio Moran; D. Jean Lodge; Marcela Arguedas; Rosario Medel-Ortiz; M. Armando Lopez-Ramirez; Paula Tennant; Morag Glen; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2014-01-01

    Puccinia psidii Winter (Basidiomycota, Uredinales) is a biotrophic rust fungus that was first reported in Brazil from guava in 1884 (Psidium guajava; Winter 1884) and later from eucalypt in 1912 (Joffily 1944). Considered to be of neotropical origin, the rust has also been reported to infect diverse myrtaceous hosts elsewhere in South America, Central America, the...

  4. Determining if there are lines of guava rust (Puccinia psidii) that could seriously impact ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha), in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    Philip G. Cannon; Acelino Couto Alfenas; Rodrigo Neves Graca; Mee-Sook Kim; Tobin L. Peever; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2010-01-01

    The rust, Puccinia psidii, was first found on the leaves, stems and fruit of guava in Brazil in 1894 (Winter, 1984). As a result, it was first called guava rust. It has subsequently been identified in other countries of the western hemisphere including Paraguay in 1884, Uruguay in 1989, Puerto Rico in 1913, Colombia in 1913, Cuba in 1926, Jamaica in 1936, Florida in...

  5. Developing clones of Eucalyptus cloeziana resistant to rust (Puccinia psidii)

    Treesearch

    Rafael F. Alfenas; Marcelo M. Coutinho; Camila S. Freitas; Rodrigo G. Freitas; Acelino C. Alfenas

    2012-01-01

    Besides its high resistance to Chrysoporthe cubensis canker, Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell. is a highly valuable tree species for wood production. It can be used for furniture, electric poles, fence posts, and charcoal. Nevertheless, it is highly susceptible to the rust caused by Puccinia psidii, which...

  6. Genetic diversity of the myrtle rust pathogen (Austropuccinia psidii) in the Americas and Hawaii: Global implications for invasive threat assessments

    Treesearch

    J. E. Stewart; A.L. Ross-Davis; R. N. Graҫa; A. C. Alfenas; T. L. Peever; J. W. Hanna; J. Y. Uchida; R. D. Hauff; C. Y. Kadooka; M.-S. Kim; P. G. Cannon; S. Namba; S. Simeto; C. A. Pérez; M. B. Rayamajhi; D.J. Lodge; M. Arguedas; R. Medel-Ortiz; M. A. López-Ramirez; P. Tennant; M. Glen; P. S. Machado; A. R. McTaggart; A. J. Carnegie; N. B. Klopfenstein; M. Cleary

    2017-01-01

    Since the myrtle rust pathogen (Austropuccinia psidii) was first reported (as Puccinia psidii) in Brazil on guava (Psidium guajava) in 1884, it has been found infecting diverse myrtaceous species. Because A. psidii has recently spread rapidly worldwide with an extensive host range,...

  7. Low genetic diversity among pathogenic strains of Erwinia psidii from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Ana C. O.; Marques, Abi S. A.; Ferreira, Marisa A. S. V.

    2009-01-01

    Erwinia psidii causes bacterial disease of guava in Brazil. Phenotypic and molecular characterization through rep-PCR fingerprinting of 42 strains from different geographical regions showed that E. psidii populations in Brazil have a low level of genetic diversity and suggest that contaminated plant material is the main source for pathogen dissemination in the country. PMID:24031414

  8. A baseline analysis of the distribution, host-range, and severity of the rust Puccinia Psidii in the Hawaiian islands, 2005-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Puccinia psidii was first described by Winter (1884) on guava (Psidium guajava L.) in Brazil. The rust is still a major pest of native guava in Brazil and is often referred to as “guava rust” internationally. It is unusual among rust fungi because of its broad and ever-expanding host-range within the Myrtaceae plant family (Simpson et al. 2006). The pathogen is regarded as a major threat to Eucalyptus plantations and other Myrtaceae worldwide (Coutinho et al. 1998, Grgurinovic et al. 2006, Glen et al. 2007). Infections of leaves and meristems are particularly severe on susceptible seedlings, cuttings, young trees, and coppice, causing plants to be stunted and multi-branched, inhibiting normal growth and development, and sometimes causing death to young seedlings (Booth et al. 2000, Rayachhetry et al. 2001). The fungus has expanded its host-range in Brazil, affecting both native and introduced Myrtaceae (Coutinho et al. 1998).


    Since its discovery in 1884, P. psidii has continually been discovered to have an expanding host-range within the Myrtaceae, affecting hosts throughout much of South and Central America and the Caribbean. Spreading out originally from Brazil in 1884, the fungus has been reported on hosts in the following countries (first record in parentheses): Paraguay (1884), Uruguay (1889), Ecuador (1891), Colombia (1913), Puerto Rico (1913), Cuba (1926), Dominican Republic (1933), Venezuela (1934), Jamaica (1936), Argentina (1946), Dominica (1948), Trinidad and Tobago (1951), Guatemala (1968), United States (Florida; 1977), Mexico (1981), El Salvador (1987), and Costa Rica (1998) (Simpson et al. 2006). It is possible that P. psidii was present in El Salvador and Costa Rica prior to 1980, but was not reported until 1987 and 1998, respectively.


    Until recently, Puccinia psidii was restricted to the Neotropics, Mexico, and the

  9. Multilocus genotypes indicate differentiation among Puccinia psidii populations from South America and Hawaii

    Treesearch

    R. N. Graca; A. C. Alfenas; A. L. Ross-Davis; Ned Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim; T. L. Peever; P. G. Cannon; J. Y. Uchida; C. Y. Kadooka; R. D. Hauff

    2011-01-01

    Puccinia psidii is the cause of rust disease of many host species in the Myrtaceae family, including guava (Psidium spp.), eucalypt (Eucalyptus spp.), rose apple (Syzygium jambos), and 'ohi'a (Metrosideros polymorpha). First reported in 1884 on guava in Brazil, the rust has since been detected in South America (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Paraguay, Uruguay,...

  10. Differential response by Melaleuca quinquenervia trees to attack by the rust fungus Puccinia psidii in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca, paperbark tree) is an exotic invasive tree in Florida, Hawaii, and some Caribbean islands. Puccinia psidii (guava rust-fungus) is a Neotropical rust fungus, reported to attack many species in the Myrtaceae and one genus in the Heteropyxidaceae, both members of the...

  11. A bioclimatic approach to predict global regions with suitable climate space for Puccina psidii

    Treesearch

    J. W. Hanna; R. N. Graca; M. -S. Kim; A. L. Ross-Davis; R. D. Hauff; J. W. Uchida; C. Y. Kadooka; M. B. Rayamajhi; M. Arguedas Gamboa; D. J. Lodge; R. Medel Medel-Ortiz; A. Lopez Ramirez; P. G. Cannon; A. C. Alfenas; N. B. Klopfenstein

    2012-01-01

    Puccinia psidii, the cause of eucalypt-guava-'ohi'a-myrtle rust, can infect diverse plants within the Myrtaceae, and this rust pathogen has the potential to threaten numerous forest ecosystems worldwide. Known occurrence records from Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, Costa Rica, USA (Hawaii, Florida, and Puerto Rico), and Japan were used to develop bioclimatic...

  12. Approaches to predicting current and future distributions of Puccinia psidii in South America under climate change scenarios

    Treesearch

    N. B. Klopfenstein; J. W. Hanna; R. N. Graca; A. L. Ross-Davis; P. G. Cannon; A. C. Alfenas; M. -S. Kim

    2011-01-01

    Puccinia psidii is the cause of Eucalyptus/guava/myrtle rust disease of many host species in the Myrtaceae family, including guava (Psidium spp.), eucalypt (Eucalyptus spp.), rose apple (Syzygium jambos), and ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha) (Farr and Rossman 2010). First reported in 1884 on guava in Brazil (Maclachlan 1938), the rust has since been detected in other...

  13. Rust disease of eucalypts, caused by Puccinia psidii, did not originate via host jump from guava in Brazil

    Treesearch

    Rodrigo N. Graca; Amy L. Ross-Davis; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim; Tobin L. Peever; Phil G. Cannon; Cristina P. Aun; Eduardo G. Mizubuti; Acelino C. Alfenas

    2013-01-01

    The rust fungus, Puccinia psidii, is a devastating pathogen of introduced eucalypts (Eucalyptus spp.) in Brazil where it was first observed in 1912. This pathogen is hypothesized to be endemic to South and Central America and to have first infected eucalypts via a host jump from native guava (Psidium guajava). Ten microsatellite markers were used to genotype 148 P....

  14. Label-Free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Puccinia psidii Uredospores Reveals Differences of Fungal Populations Infecting Eucalyptus and Guava

    PubMed Central

    Bini, Andressa Peres; Regiani, Thais; Franceschini, Lívia Maria; Budzinski, Ilara Gabriela Frasson; Marques, Felipe Garbelini; Labate, Mônica Teresa Veneziano; Guidetti-Gonzalez, Simone; Moon, David Henry; Labate, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l.) is the causal agent of eucalyptus and guava rust, but it also attacks a wide range of plant species from the myrtle family, resulting in a significant genetic and physiological variability among populations accessed from different hosts. The uredospores are crucial to P. psidii dissemination in the field. Although they are important for the fungal pathogenesis, their molecular characterization has been poorly studied. In this work, we report the first in-depth proteomic analysis of P. psidii s.l. uredospores from two contrasting populations: guava fruits (PpGuava) and eucalyptus leaves (PpEucalyptus). NanoUPLC-MSE was used to generate peptide spectra that were matched to the UniProt Puccinia genera sequences (UniProt database) resulting in the first proteomic analysis of the phytopathogenic fungus P. psidii. Three hundred and fourty proteins were detected and quantified using Label free proteomics. A significant number of unique proteins were found for each sample, others were significantly more or less abundant, according to the fungal populations. In PpGuava population, many proteins correlated with fungal virulence, such as malate dehydrogenase, proteossomes subunits, enolases and others were increased. On the other hand, PpEucalyptus proteins involved in biogenesis, protein folding and translocation were increased, supporting the physiological variability of the fungal populations according to their protein reservoirs and specific host interaction strategies. PMID:26731728

  15. Rust disease of eucalypts, caused by Puccinia psidii, did not originate via host jump from guava in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Graça, Rodrigo N; Ross-Davis, Amy L; Klopfenstein, Ned B; Kim, Mee-Sook; Peever, Tobin L; Cannon, Phil G; Aun, Cristina P; Mizubuti, Eduardo S G; Alfenas, Acelino C

    2013-12-01

    The rust fungus, Puccinia psidii, is a devastating pathogen of introduced eucalypts (Eucalyptus spp.) in Brazil where it was first observed in 1912. This pathogen is hypothesized to be endemic to South and Central America and to have first infected eucalypts via a host jump from native guava (Psidium guajava). Ten microsatellite markers were used to genotype 148 P. psidii samples from eucalypts and guava plus five additional myrtaceous hosts across a wide geographic range of south-eastern Brazil and Uruguay. Principal coordinates analysis, a Bayesian clustering analysis and a minimum-spanning network revealed two major genetic clusters among the sampled isolates, one associated with guava and another associated with eucalypts and three additional hosts. Multilocus genotypes infecting guava differed by multiple mutational steps at eight loci compared with those infecting eucalypts. Approximate Bayesian computation revealed that evolutionary scenarios involving a coalescence event between guava- and eucalypt-associated pathogen populations within the past 1000 years are highly unlikely. None of the analyses supported the hypothesis that eucalypt-infecting P. psidii in Brazil originated via host jump from guava following the introduction of eucalypts to Brazil approximately 185 years ago. The existence of host-associated biotypes of P. psidii in Brazil indicates that this diversity must be considered when assessing the invasive threat posed by this pathogen to myrtaceous hosts worldwide.

  16. Label-Free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Puccinia psidii Uredospores Reveals Differences of Fungal Populations Infecting Eucalyptus and Guava.

    PubMed

    Quecine, Maria Carolina; Leite, Thiago Falda; Bini, Andressa Peres; Regiani, Thais; Franceschini, Lívia Maria; Budzinski, Ilara Gabriela Frasson; Marques, Felipe Garbelini; Labate, Mônica Teresa Veneziano; Guidetti-Gonzalez, Simone; Moon, David Henry; Labate, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l.) is the causal agent of eucalyptus and guava rust, but it also attacks a wide range of plant species from the myrtle family, resulting in a significant genetic and physiological variability among populations accessed from different hosts. The uredospores are crucial to P. psidii dissemination in the field. Although they are important for the fungal pathogenesis, their molecular characterization has been poorly studied. In this work, we report the first in-depth proteomic analysis of P. psidii s.l. uredospores from two contrasting populations: guava fruits (PpGuava) and eucalyptus leaves (PpEucalyptus). NanoUPLC-MSE was used to generate peptide spectra that were matched to the UniProt Puccinia genera sequences (UniProt database) resulting in the first proteomic analysis of the phytopathogenic fungus P. psidii. Three hundred and fourty proteins were detected and quantified using Label free proteomics. A significant number of unique proteins were found for each sample, others were significantly more or less abundant, according to the fungal populations. In PpGuava population, many proteins correlated with fungal virulence, such as malate dehydrogenase, proteossomes subunits, enolases and others were increased. On the other hand, PpEucalyptus proteins involved in biogenesis, protein folding and translocation were increased, supporting the physiological variability of the fungal populations according to their protein reservoirs and specific host interaction strategies.

  17. Combining a Climatic Niche Model of an Invasive Fungus with Its Host Species Distributions to Identify Risks to Natural Assets: Puccinia psidii Sensu Lato in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Kriticos, Darren J.; Morin, Louise; Leriche, Agathe; Anderson, Robert C.; Caley, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l.) is an invasive rust fungus threatening a wide range of plant species in the family Myrtaceae. Originating from Central and South America, it has invaded mainland USA and Hawai'i, parts of Asia and Australia. We used CLIMEX to develop a semi-mechanistic global climatic niche model based on new data on the distribution and biology of P. psidii s.l. The model was validated using independent distribution data from recently invaded areas in Australia, China and Japan. We combined this model with distribution data of its potential Myrtaceae host plant species present in Australia to identify areas and ecosystems most at risk. Myrtaceaeous species richness, threatened Myrtaceae and eucalypt plantations within the climatically suitable envelope for P. psidii s.l in Australia were mapped. Globally the model identifies climatically suitable areas for P. psidii s.l. throughout the wet tropics and sub-tropics where moist conditions with moderate temperatures prevail, and also into some cool regions with a mild Mediterranean climate. In Australia, the map of species richness of Myrtaceae within the P. psidii s.l. climatic envelope shows areas where epidemics are hypothetically more likely to be frequent and severe. These hotspots for epidemics are along the eastern coast of New South Wales, including the Sydney Basin, in the Brisbane and Cairns areas in Queensland, and in the coastal region from the south of Bunbury to Esperance in Western Australia. This new climatic niche model for P. psidii s.l. indicates a higher degree of cold tolerance; and hence a potential range that extends into higher altitudes and latitudes than has been indicated previously. The methods demonstrated here provide some insight into the impacts an invasive species might have within its climatically suited range, and can help inform biosecurity policies regarding the management of its spread and protection of valued threatened assets. PMID:23704988

  18. Acyl-homoserine lactones from Erwinia psidii R. IBSBF 435T, a guava phytopathogen (Psidium guajava L.).

    PubMed

    Pomini, Armando M; Manfio, Gilson P; Araújo, Welington L; Marsaioli, Anita J

    2005-08-10

    The phytopathogen Erwinia psidii R. IBSBF 435T causes rot in branches, flowers, and fruits of guava (Psidium guajava L.), being responsible for crop losses, and has no effective control. It was demonstrated that this strain produces two compounds [S-(-)-N-hexanoyl and N-heptanoyl-homoserine lactone], both belonging to the class of quorum-sensing signaling substances. A protocol using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection with chiral stationary phase is described for the absolute configuration determination of a natural acyl-homoserine lactone. Biological assays with specific reporter and synthesis of identified substances are also described. This is the first report on the N-heptanoyl-homoserine lactone occurrence in the Erwinia genus.

  19. The challenge of retarding erosion of island biodiversity through phytosanitary measures: An update on the case of Puccinia psidii in Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loope, Lloyd L.; Uchida, Janice Y.

    2012-01-01

    Most rust fungi are highly host specific, but Puccina psidii has an extremely broad host range within Myrtaceae and gained notoriety with a host jump in its native Brazil from common guava (Psidium guajava) to commercial Eucalyptus plantations. When detected in Hawaiʻi in April 2005, the first invasion outside the neotropics/subtropics, there was immediate concern for ʻōhiʻa (Metrosideros polymorpha). ʻŌhiʻa composes 80% of native forest statewide, providing stable watersheds and habitat for most Hawaiian forest birds and plants. Within months, rust spores spread statewide on wind currents, but ʻōhiʻa was found to be only a minor host, showing very light damage. The primary host was nonnative rose apple (Syzygium jambos), severely affected at a landscape scale, but the epiphytotic subsided as rose apple was largely defoliated or killed within several years. The limited and stable host range in Hawaiʻi (versus elsewhere) led the local conservation community to explore possibilities for excluding new genetic strains of P. psidii. Although national/international phytosanitary standards require strong scientific justification for regulations involving an infraspecific taxonomic level, hopes were buoyed when genetic studies showed no apparent genetic variation/evolution in Hawaiʻi's rust strain. A sophisticated genetic study of P. psidii in its home range is near completion; genetic variation is substantial, and host species strongly influences rust population structure. To prevent introduction of new strains, the Hawaiʻi Department of Agriculture is moving ahead with establishing stringent measures that restrict entry of Myrtaceae into Hawaiʻi. Meanwhile, P. psidii poses a major threat to Myrtaceae biodiversity worldwide.

  20. Winter Weeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Lois

    1981-01-01

    Try to learn all you can about a plant in the winter. As the season changes, you can see what the dried seed pod is like in bloom. You are a convert if you notice a spectacular show of summer wildflowers and wonder what sort of winter weed will result. (Author/CM)

  1. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  2. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  3. (1R,2S,6R)-Papayanal: a new male-specific volatile compound released by the guava weevil Conotrachelus psidii (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Romero-Frías, Alicia; Murata, Yasuhiro; Simões Bento, José Maurício; Osorio, Coralia

    2016-05-01

    The guava weevil, Conotrachelus psidii is an aggressive pest of guava (Psidium guajava L.) that causes irreparable damages inside the fruit. The volatile compounds of male and female insects were separately collected by headspace solid-phase microextraction or with dynamic headspace collection on a polymer sorbent, and comparatively analyzed by GC-MS. (1R,2S,6R)-2-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-dimethyl-3-oxabicyclo[4.2.0]octane (papayanol), and (1R,2S,6R)-2,6-dimethyl-3-oxabicyclo[4.2.0]octane-2-carbaldehyde (papayanal) were identified (ratio of 9:1, respectively) as male-specific guava weevil volatiles. Papayanal structure was confirmed by comparison of spectroscopic (EIMS) and chromatographic (retention time) data with those of the synthetic pure compound. The behavioral response of the above-mentioned compounds was studied in a Y-tube olfactometer bioassay, and their role as aggregation pheromone candidate components was suggested in this species.

  4. Winter Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Outdoor Educators of Quebec, Montreal.

    Materials on 11 topics presented at a winter workshop for Quebec outdoor educators have been compiled into this booklet. Action story, instant replay, shoe factory, sound and action, and find an object to fit the description are described and recommended as group dynamic activities. Directions for five games (Superlative Selection; Data…

  5. Winter Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarbuth, Lawson, Comp.

    Educators may find activities for indoor and outdoor winter programs in the games of the traditional Eskimo. These games are dominated by few-step operations and low level structural organization. For the most part they are quickly organized, begun, terminated, and ready to be recommenced. All types of games can be found, including quiet ones,…

  6. Winter Wonderlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Listening to people complain about the hardships of winter and the dreariness of the nearly constant gray sky prompted the author to help her sixth graders recognize and appreciate the beauty that surrounds them for nearly five months of the year in western New York. The author opines that if students could see things more artistically, the winter…

  7. Winter Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarbuth, Lawson, Comp.

    Educators may find activities for indoor and outdoor winter programs in the games of the traditional Eskimo. These games are dominated by few-step operations and low level structural organization. For the most part they are quickly organized, begun, terminated, and ready to be recommenced. All types of games can be found, including quiet ones,…

  8. A summary of information on the rust Puccinia psidii Winter (guava rust) with emphasis on means to prevent introduction of additional strains to Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loope, Lloyd

    2010-01-01

    Hawaii Department of Agriculture has a clear mandate to protect Hawaii’s natural environment, forestry and cultivated Myrtaceae. Principles of the World Trade Organization’s Treaty on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures and the International Plant Protection Convention are consistent with the right of Hawaii to take action. The current threat of P. psidiiand the other five serious threats to Myrtaceae are primarily posed by the importation of infected plants from the continental United States; however, that may change in the future. If Hawaii were to decide to take a stand (through State regulation) to protect its native and introduced Myrtaceae, there is a possibility that USDA would consider Federal regulation of Myrtaceae from foreign countries.

  9. Volcanic winters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Self, Stephen; Stothers, Richard B.

    1988-01-01

    The impact of volcanic eruptions on weather and climate is considered. The data from nineteenth-century eruptions is examined, showing the importance of sulfur volatiles for climate change. Information obtained from ice cores is discussed, and the contrasts between the eruptions of Mt. St. Helens and El Chichon are pointed out. The atmospheric effects of the greatest historic eruptions are recalled. The potential for the occurrence of 'volcanic winters' and the possible role of volcanism in mass extinctions are considered.

  10. An economic approach to assessing import policies designed to prevent the arrival of invasive species: the case of Puccinia psidii in Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnett, Kimberly; D'Evelyn, Sean; Loope, Lloyd; Wada, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Since its first documented introduction to Hawai‘i in 2005, the rust fungus Puccinia psidii has already severely damaged Syzygium jambos (Indian rose apple) trees and the federally endangered Eugenia koolauensis (nioi). Fortunately, the particular strain has yet to cause serious damage to Metrosideros polymorpha (‘ōhi‘a), which comprises roughly 80% of the state's native forests and covers 400,000 ha. Although the rust has affected less than 5% of Hawaii's ‘ōhi‘a trees thus far, the introduction of more virulent strains and the genetic evolution of the current strain are still possible. Since the primary pathway of introduction is Myrtaceae plant material imported from outside the state, potential damage to ‘ōhi‘a can be minimized by regulating those high-risk imports. We discuss the economic impact on the state's florist, nursery, landscaping, and forest plantation industries of a proposed rule that would ban the import of non-seed Myrtaceae plant material and require a 1-year quarantine of seeds. Our analysis suggests that the benefits to the forest plantation industry of a complete ban on non-seed material would likely outweigh the costs to other affected sectors, even without considering the reduction in risk to ‘ōhi‘a. Incorporating the value of ‘ōhi‘a protection would further increase the benefit–cost ratio in favor of an import ban.

  11. Economic analysis of the proposed rule to prevent arrival of new genetic strains of the rust fungus Puccinia psidii in Hawai?i.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnett, Kimberly; D'Evelyn, Sean; Loope, Lloyd; Wada, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Since its first documented introduction to Hawai‘i in 2005, the rust fungus P. psidii has already severely damaged Syzygium jambos (Indian rose apple) trees and the federally endangered Eugenia koolauensis (nioi). Fortunately, the particular strain has yet to cause serious damage to ‘ōhi‘a, which comprises roughly 80% of the state’s native forests and covers 400,000 ha. Although the rust has affected less than 5% of Hawaii’s ‘ōhi‘a trees thus far, the introduction of more virulent strains and the genetic evolution of the current strain are still possible. Since the primary pathway of introduction is Myrtaceae plant material imported from outside the state, potential damage to ‘ohi‘a can be minimized by regulating those high-risk imports. We discuss the economic impact on the state’s florist, nursery, landscaping, and forest plantation industries of a proposed rule that would ban the import of non-seed Myrtaceae plant material and require a one-year quarantine of seeds. Our analysis suggests that the benefits to the forest plantation industry of a complete ban on non-seed material would likely outweigh the costs to other affected sectors, even without considering the reduction in risk to ‘ōhi‘a. Incorporating the value of ‘ōhi‘a protection would further increase the benefit-cost ratio in favor of an import ban.

  12. Isolation and characterization of bioactive metabolites from Xylaria psidii, an endophytic fungus of the medicinal plant Aegle marmelos and their role in mitochondrial dependent apoptosis against pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Arora, Divya; Sharma, Nisha; Singamaneni, Venugopal; Sharma, Vishal; Kushwaha, Manoj; Abrol, Vidushi; Guru, Santosh; Sharma, Sonia; Gupta, Ajai Prakash; Bhushan, Shashi; Jaglan, Sundeep; Gupta, Prasoon

    2016-11-15

    The genus Xylaria has been reported as a rich source of biologically active secondary metabolites. In the present study, an endophytic fungus Xylaria psidii has been isolated from the leaf sample of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr., characterized on the basis of its morphological features and sequence data for the ITS region (KU291350) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Biological screening of ethyl acetate extract of Xylaria psidii displayed a potential therapeutic effect on pancreatic cancer cells. This study was designed systematically to explore Xylaria psidii, an endophytic fungus for the identification of biologically active secondary metabolites against pancreatic cancer cells. While exploring the bioactive secondary metabolites, a sensitive and reliable LC-MS based dereplication approach was applied to identify four compounds A-D from fungal extract. Further bioactivity guided isolation of fungal extract yielded two major metabolites 1 and 2. The structures of 1 and 2 have been determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis including MS, NMR, IR and UV data and similarity with published data. Xylarione A (1) is new whereas (-) 5-methylmellein (2) is reported for the first time from X. psidii. Both the isolated compounds were screened for their effect on the viability and proliferation against a panel of cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MIA-Pa-Ca-2, NCI-H226, HepG2 and DU145) of different tissue origin. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited cytotoxicity against pancreatic cancer (MIA-Pa-Ca-2) cells with IC50 values of 16.0 and 19.0 µm, respectively. The cell cycle distribution in MIA-Pa-Ca-2 cells, confirmed a cell cycle arrest at the sub-G1 phase. Cell death induced by 1 and 2 displayed features characteristic of apoptosis. Flow cytometry based analysis of 1 and 2 using Rhodamine-123 displayed substantial loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in a concentration dependent manner by both the compounds. Results conclude that the isolated compounds 1 and 2 are responsible for the

  13. First report of Puccinia psidii caused rust-disease epiphytotic on the invasive shrub Rhodomyrtus tomentosa in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. (downy-rose myrtle, Family: Myrtaceae) of south Asian origin is an invasive shrub that has formed monotypic stands in Florida. During the winter and spring of 2010-2012, a rust disease of epiphytotic proportion was observed on young foliage, stem terminals and i...

  14. First report of Puccinia psidii caused rust disease epiphytotic on the invasive shrub Rhodomyrtus tomentosa in Florida

    Treesearch

    M. B. Rayamajhi; P. D. Pratt; N. B. Klopfenstein; A. L. Ross-Davis; L. Rodgers

    2013-01-01

    Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. (downy-rose myrtle, family: Myrtaceae), of South Asian origin, is an invasive shrub that has formed monotypic stands in Florida (3). During the winter and spring of 2010 through 2012, a rust disease of epiphytotic proportion was observed on young foliage, stem terminals, and immature fruits of this shrub in natural areas of Martin...

  15. Investigating the Host-Range of the Rust Fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato across Tribes of the Family Myrtaceae Present in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Louise; Aveyard, Ruth; Lidbetter, Jonathan R.; Wilson, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    The exotic rust fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato was first detected in Australia in April 2010. This study aimed to determine the host-range potential of this accession of the rust by testing its pathogenicity on plants of 122 taxa, representative of the 15 tribes of the subfamily Myrtoideae in the family Myrtaceae. Each taxon was tested in two separate trials (unless indicated otherwise) that comprised up to five replicates per taxon and six replicates of a positive control (Syzygium jambos). No visible symptoms were observed on the following four taxa in either trial: Eucalyptus grandis×camaldulensis, E. moluccana, Lophostemon confertus and Sannantha angusta. Only small chlorotic or necrotic flecks without any uredinia (rust fruiting bodies) were observed on inoculated leaves of seven other taxa (Acca sellowiana, Corymbia calophylla ‘Rosea’, Lophostemon suaveolens, Psidium cattleyanum, P. guajava ‘Hawaiian’ and ‘Indian’, Syzygium unipunctatum). Fully-developed uredinia were observed on all replicates across both trials of 28 taxa from 8 tribes belonging to the following 17 genera: Agonis, Austromyrtus, Beaufortia, Callistemon, Calothamnus, Chamelaucium, Darwinia, Eucalyptus, Gossia, Kunzea, Leptospermum, Melaleuca, Metrosideros, Syzygium, Thryptomene, Tristania, Verticordia. In contrast, the remaining 83 taxa inoculated, including the majority of Corymbia and Eucalyptus species, developed a broad range of symptoms, often across the full spectrum, from fully-developed uredinia to no visible symptoms. These results were encouraging as they indicate that some levels of genetic resistance to the rust possibly exist in these taxa. Overall, our results indicated no apparent association between the presence or absence of disease symptoms and the phylogenetic relatedness of taxa. It is most likely that the majority of the thousands of Myrtaceae species found in Australia have the potential to become infected to some degree by the rust, although this wide

  16. A Winter Survival Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Ronald E.

    1979-01-01

    The article is a condensation of materials from the winter survival unit of a Canadian snow ecology course. The unit covers: cold physiology, frostbite, snowblindness, hypothermia, winter campout, and survival strategies. (SB)

  17. Halfway to Southern Winter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-15

    The shadows of Saturn rings edge ever farther southward as Saturn creeps towards southern winter or northern summer. Saturn is now almost exactly halfway between its equinox August 2009 and southern winter solstice in May 2017.

  18. Winter Weather Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  19. Winters fuels report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-27

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter`s pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter`s, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year`s STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories.

  20. Winter Art Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokela, Timo

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how the Department of Art Education at the University of Lapland in Finland has developed winter art as a method of environmental and community-based art education. I will focus on the Snow Show Winter Art Education Project, a training project funded by the European Union and the State Provincial Office…

  1. Winter Art Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokela, Timo

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how the Department of Art Education at the University of Lapland in Finland has developed winter art as a method of environmental and community-based art education. I will focus on the Snow Show Winter Art Education Project, a training project funded by the European Union and the State Provincial Office…

  2. The Winter Is Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1985-01-01

    Teacher, writer, and naturalist Phyllis S. Busch takes the reader on an early evening woodland walk in March, describing the many changes in plants and animals that are perceptible by sight, smell, and sound as nature awakens from winter. (NEC)

  3. Nutrition for winter sports.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Nanna L; Manore, Melinda M; Helle, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Winter sports are played in cold conditions on ice or snow and often at moderate to high altitude. The most important nutritional challenges for winter sport athletes exposed to environmental extremes include increased energy expenditure, accelerated muscle and liver glycogen utilization, exacerbated fluid loss, and increased iron turnover. Winter sports, however, vary greatly regarding their nutritional requirements due to variable physiological and physique characteristics, energy and substrate demands, and environmental training and competition conditions. What most winter sport athletes have in common is a relatively lean physique and high-intensity training periods, thus they require greater energy and nutrient intakes, along with adequate food and fluid before, during, and after training. Event fuelling is most challenging for cross-country skiers competing in long events, ski jumpers aiming to reduce their body weight, and those winter sport athletes incurring repeated qualification rounds and heats. These athletes need to ensure carbohydrate availability throughout competition. Finally, winter sport athletes may benefit from dietary and sport supplements; however, attention should be paid to safety and efficacy if supplementation is considered.

  4. American woodcock winter distribution and fidelity to wintering areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, D.R.; Derleth, E.L.; Vander Haegen, W.M.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    We examined winter distribution and fidelity to wintering areas for the American Woodcock (Scolopax minor), which exhibits reversed, sexual size dimorphism. Band-recovery data revealed no difference in winter distributions of different age/sex classes for woodcock from the same breeding areas. Similarly, band recoveries from woodcock banded on wintering grounds revealed no difference in fidelity to wintering sites. Males may winter north of a latitude that is optimal for survival based on physiological considerations, but they gain a reproductive advantage if they are among the first to arrive on the breeding grounds. This may explain our results, which indicate males and females have similar distribution patterns during winter.

  5. Mammals in Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wapner, Suzanne

    1985-01-01

    Mammals that tolerate the winter cold and stay active all year exploit the harsh northern climate to their advantage. By simple experiments and observation you can better understand their adaptations which include furry bodies, snowshoe feet, extra blubber, light coloration, and strategically distributed food caches. (JHZ)

  6. Teaching Ecology in Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents ideas for teaching ecology in the winter. Suggested topic areas or units include snow insulation and density, snowflakes and snow crystals, goldenrod galls, bird behavior, survival techniques, bacteriology and decomposition, trees and keying, biomass and productivity, pollution, and soil organisms. A sample student activity sheet is…

  7. Winter Playscape Dreaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2006-01-01

    Winter, like all seasons, adds a new sense of mystery and discovery to the world of young children. It is the time when they can study snowflakes, find icicles, or observe the birds that share their yards. This article presents ideas and suggestions on how to plan a playscape. A playscape is a man-made seasonal playground for young children. It…

  8. Influenza, Winter Olympiad, 2002

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Michael A.; Samore, Matthew H.; Lopansri, Bert; Lahey, Timothy; McGuire, Heather L.; Winthrop, Kevin L.; Dunn, James J.; Willick, Stuart E.; Vosters, Randal L.; Waeckerle, Joseph F.; Carroll, Karen C.; Gwaltney, Jack M.; Hayden, Frederick G.; Elstad, Mark R.; Sande, Merle A.

    2006-01-01

    Prospective surveillance for influenza was performed during the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics. Oseltamivir was administered to patients with influenzalike illness and confirmed influenza, while their close contacts were given oseltamivir prophylactically. Influenza A/B was diagnosed in 36 of 188 patients, including 13 athletes. Prompt management limited the spread of this outbreak. PMID:16494733

  9. Winter Here and Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, Joy

    This book contains a wide variety of winter-oriented ideas and activities that can be adapted to all elementary grade levels and can also be integrated into existing mathematics, science, social studies, and/or art programs. The activities aim to help students develop the skills of observation, appreciation, and problem solving as well as…

  10. Winter Playscape Dreaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2006-01-01

    Winter, like all seasons, adds a new sense of mystery and discovery to the world of young children. It is the time when they can study snowflakes, find icicles, or observe the birds that share their yards. This article presents ideas and suggestions on how to plan a playscape. A playscape is a man-made seasonal playground for young children. It…

  11. Gullies in Winter Shadow

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-21

    This is an odd-looking image. It shows gullies during the winter while entirely in the shadow of the crater wall. Illumination comes only from the winter skylight. We acquire such images because gullies on Mars actively form in the winter when there is carbon dioxide frost on the ground, so we image them in the winter, even though not well illuminated, to look for signs of activity. The dark streaks might be signs of current activity, removing the frost, but further analysis is needed. NB: North is down in the cutout, and the terrain slopes towards the bottom of the image. The map is projected here at a scale of 50 centimeters (19.7 inches) per pixel. [The original image scale is 62.3 centimeters (24.5 inches) per pixel (with 2 x 2 binning); objects on the order of 187 centimeters (73.6 inches) across are resolved.] North is up. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21568

  12. The News. Winter 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Ray, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This Winter 2007 quarterly newsletter from the Community College League of California includes: (1) Incumbents: Some Win, Some Lose in November Trustee Elections; (2) Voters Approve $2 Billion in Bonds; (3) Photos from the "Together We Can" conference; (4) Report, Media Criticize Transfer, Completion Rates and Colleges; (5) District…

  13. Titan's Emergence from Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  14. Teaching Ecology in Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents ideas for teaching ecology in the winter. Suggested topic areas or units include snow insulation and density, snowflakes and snow crystals, goldenrod galls, bird behavior, survival techniques, bacteriology and decomposition, trees and keying, biomass and productivity, pollution, and soil organisms. A sample student activity sheet is…

  15. Genomic regions associated with freezing tolerance and snow mold tolerance in winter wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crops grown through the winter are subject to selective pressures that vary with each year’s unique conditions, necessitating tolerance of numerous stress factors. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) associated with tolerance...

  16. Titan's Winter Polar Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F.M.; Achterberg, R.K.; Schinder, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Titan's atmosphere has provided an interesting study in contrasts and similarities with Earth's. While both have N$_2$ as the dominant constituent and comparable surface pressures $\\sim1$ bar, Titan's next most abundant molecule is CH$_4$, not O$_2$, and the dissociative breakup of CH$_4$ and N$_2$ by sunlight and electron impact leads to a suite of hydrocarbons and nitriles, and ultimately the photochemical smog that enshrouds the moon. In addition, with a 15.95-day period, Titan is a slow rotator compared to Earth. While the mean zonal terrestrial winds are geostrophic, Titan's are mostly cyclostrophic, whipping around the moon in as little as 1 day. Despite the different dynamical regime, Titan's winter stratosphere exhibits several characteristics that should be familiar to terrestrial meteorologists. The cold winter pole near the 1 -mbar level is circumscribed by strong winds (up to 190 m/s) that act as a barrier to mixing with airmasses at lower latitudes. There is evidence of enhancement of several organic species over the winter pole, indicating subsidence. The adiabatic heating associated with this subsidence gives rise to a warm anomaly at the 0.01-mbar level, raising the stratopause two scale heights above its location at equatorial latitudes. Condensate ices have been detected in Titan's lower stratosphere within the winter polar vortex from infrared spectra. Although not always unambiguously identified, their spatial distribution exhibits a sharp gradient, decreasing precipitously across the vortex away from the winter pole. The interesting question of whether there is important heterogeneous chemistry occurring within the polar vortex, analogous to that occurring in the terrestrial polar stratospheric clouds in the ozone holes, has not been addressed. The breakup of Titan's winter polar vortex has not yet been observed. On Earth, the polar vortex is nonlinearly disrupted by interaction with large-amplitude planetary waves. Large-scale waves have not

  17. Deciduous Plant Twigs in Winter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Eloise

    1977-01-01

    Describing, via illustration and narrative, the winter twigs found in the U.S., this article presents a sophisticated discussion of: beech, white ash, aspen, sycamore, red oak, butternut, and other winter twigs. (JC)

  18. Winter Cardiovascular Diseases Phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Fares, Auda

    2013-01-01

    This paper review seasonal patterns across twelve cardiovascular diseases: Deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection and rupture, stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, hypertension, heart failure, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, venricular arrythmia and atrial fibrillation, and discuss a possible cause of the occurrence of these diseases. There is a clear seasonal trend of cardiovascular diseases, with the highest incidence occurring during the colder winter months, which have been described in many countries. This phenomenon likely contributes to the numbers of deaths occurring in winter. The implications of this finding are important for testing the relative importance of the proposed mechanisms. Understanding the influence of season and other factors is essential when seeking to implement effective public health measures. PMID:23724401

  19. Winter Wilderness Travel and Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilchrest, Norman

    Knowledge and skill are needed for safe and enjoyable travel and camping in the wilderness in winter. The beauty of snow and ice, reduced human use, and higher tolerance of animals toward humans make the wilderness attractive during winter. The uniqueness of winter travel presents several challenges that are not present in other seasons. Safety is…

  20. Winter Frost and Fog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This somewhat oblique blue wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 174 km (108 mi) diameter crater, Terby, and its vicinity in December 2004. Located north of Hellas, this region can be covered with seasonal frost and ground-hugging fog, even in the afternoon, despite being north of 30oS. The subtle, wavy pattern is a manifestation of fog.

    Location near: 28oS, 286oW Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  1. Spirit's Winter Work Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This portion of an image acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera shows the Spirit rover's winter campaign site. Spirit was parked on a slope tilted 11 degrees to the north to maximize sunlight during the southern winter season. 'Tyrone' is an area where the rover's wheels disturbed light-toned soils. Remote sensing and in-situ analyses found the light-toned soil at Tyrone to be sulfate rich and hydrated. The original picture is catalogued as PSP_001513_1655_red and was taken on Sept. 29, 2006.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  2. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-17

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide consise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: Distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; Natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s as well as selected National average prices; Residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; Crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and A 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree days by city.

  3. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-03

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s; as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  4. Spirit Scans Winter Haven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand.

    This view is an approximately true-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  5. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  6. Winter Clouds Over Mie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    12 March 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) red wide angle image shows late winter clouds over the 104 km (65 mi) diameter crater, Mie. Cellular clouds occur in the lower martian atmosphere, surrounding Mie Crater. Their cloudtops are at an altitude that is below the crater rim. Higher than the crater rim occurs a series of lee wave clouds, indicating air circulation moving from west/northwest (left) toward the east/southeast (right). Mie Crater is located in Utopia Planitia, not too far from the Viking 2 landing site, near 48.5 N, 220.4 W. Sunlight illuminates this January 2004 scene from the lower left.

  7. Spirit Scans Winter Haven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand.

    This view is an approximately true-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  8. Winter Survival: A Consumer's Guide to Winter Preparedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This booklet discusses a variety of topics to help consumers prepare for winter. Tips for the home include: winterizing the home, dealing with a loss of heat or power failure, and what you need to have on hand. Another section gives driving tips and what to do in a storm. Health factors include suggestions for keeping warm, signs and treatment for…

  9. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-27

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysis, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 Day, 30-Day and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  10. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-13

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  11. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: Distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s; as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 Day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  12. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-04

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  13. Metabolic Acclimation to Hypoxia in Winter Cereals 1

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Christopher J.; Pomeroy, M. Keith

    1989-01-01

    Cold hardened seedlings of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) show an hypoxic hardening response: an exposure to low temperature flooding increases the tolerance of plants to a subsequent ice encasement exposure. Seedlings of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) do not show such a response in similar experimental conditions. During ice encasement, there are general declines in adenylate energy charge (AEC), total adenylates and ATP:ADP ratios in the crown tissues of two winter wheat cultivars, and a winter barley, but rates of decline are faster in the barley. When the ice period is preceded by low temperature flooding of the whole plant, levels of the adenylate components are raised significantly in the wheats, and to a lesser extent in the barley. The survival of plants in ice preceded by flooding is related to the increased initial level of adenylates at the onset of the ice encasement stress, and the maintenance of higher levels of adenylates and ATP in the early stages of ice encasement as a result of accelerated rates of glycolysis. Higher survival of both winter wheat and barley plants during ice encasement in the light is also associated with significantly higher levels of AEC and adenylates in the early stages of ice encasement. PMID:16667112

  14. Learners in Action, Winter 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Movement for Canadian Literacy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This Winter 2005 issue of "Learners in Action" contains the following: (1) Proud Dad Turns Family Life Around (Nick Prince); (2) Learners Make a Great Impression at Conference; (3) The Story behind the Story; and (4) Learner Resources.

  15. The Challenge of Winter Backpacking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Michael; Mapes, Alan

    1981-01-01

    Tips and techniques for safe and enjoyable winter backpacking are offered. Topics covered include cross county skis, snowshoes, clothing, footwear, shelter, sleeping bags, food, hypothermia prevention, as well as general rules and requirements. (CO)

  16. [Winter sports and shoulder arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Kirchhoff, C; Imhoff, A B; Hinterwimmer, S

    2008-09-01

    Nowadays, a general negative evaluation of sportive activity regarding different kinds of sport following arthroplasty is at present no more scientifically supported. However, at present no valid guidelines regarding sportive activity of patients after implantation of shoulder joint arthroplasty exist. The question regarding the ability of performing winter sports activities of patients treated with shoulder joint endoprothesis has not been answered so far. Therefore the aim of the presented work was to identify winter sports-specific risks for patients treated with shoulder joint endoprothesis as well as to critically discuss the actual literature in refer to winter sport activities. Criteria for the education of patients with shoulder joint endoprothesis as well as consultation regarding winter sport activities will be provided for the orthopaedic surgeon.

  17. Winter Storms and Extreme Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Social Media Contact Us FAQS Publications Emergency Alerts Home Search × Close Search Enter Search Term(s): Languages × ... take when you receive a winter weather storm alert from the National Weather Service for your local ...

  18. Lightning Protection against Winter Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Hitoshi

    Winter lightning, which occurs along the Sea of Japan coast, often damages transmission lines and distribution lines with the conventional lightning protection. These lines in mountainous areas suffer extensive damage from winter lightning. It is very important to investigate the features of lightning outages in detail to improve the lightning protection measures against winter lightning, therefore observations of lightning strokes to transmission lines and distribution lines as well as measurements of lightning surges on these lines have been carried out. And then the lightning performance of various protection methods has studied by experiments and analyses. Taking into account these studies, the effective methods have been adopted. This paper presents the lightning protection of transmission lines and distribution lines against winter lightning.

  19. Winter Outdoor Education Activities: Snowshoes and Exploring the Winter Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.; And Others

    Designed as a resource base upon which elementary school educators can build outdoor learning experiences, this resource packet contains a basic, multidisciplinary snowshoeing lesson plan, pre- and post-trip suggestions, and suggestions for further winter outdoor study on snowshoes. Specifically, there are narratives and illustrations addressed at…

  20. Winter sports dermatology: a review.

    PubMed

    Englund, Sumedha Lamba; Adams, Brian B

    2009-01-01

    As more individuals choose to maintain their fitness level year-round, they inevitably encounter skin problems. During these athletic pursuits, the skin must endure ongoing insult, serving as the interface between the athlete and environmental factors unique to the sport and season. Therefore, primary care physicians and dermatologists must understand how athletic activity and weather contribute to the development of dermatoses. By appropriately recognizing winter sport dermatoses, the practitioner can best provide tailored effective treatment that enables the patient to quickly return to the winter sport.

  1. Game Plan: Save Lives, Winterize!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children & Animals, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Describes a learning center game which deals with the needs of dogs and cats in the winter months. Provides background information on the potential risks to pets during cold weather. Contains the game cards, along with assembly instructions and the rules of the games. (TW)

  2. Reducing winter injury in blackberries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated the combination of primocane training and cane positioning techniques using a rotatable cross-arm (RCA) trellis system and covering plants in winter to protect buds and canes from freezing temperatures in ‘Apache’, ‘Boysenberry’, ‘Siskiyou’, and ‘Triple Crown’ blackberry. After tying p...

  3. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Winter 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-19

    machines and unknown Resiliency in Future Cyber Combat Strategic Studies Quarterly ♦ Winter 2015 [ 91 ] vulnerabilities. Aristotle taught that virtue...27 November 2012, II-9. 7. Edward N. Luttwak, Strategy: The Logic of War and Peace (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2003), 39–40. 8. Aristotle

  4. Xanthophyll cycle pigment and antioxidant profiles of winter-red (anthocyanic) and winter-green (acyanic) angiosperm evergreen species.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Nicole M; Burkey, Kent O; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Smith, William K

    2012-03-01

    Leaves of many angiosperm evergreen species change colour from green to red during winter, corresponding with the synthesis of anthocyanin pigments. The ecophysiological function of winter colour change (if any), and why it occurs in some species and not others, are not yet understood. It was hypothesized that anthocyanins play a compensatory photoprotective role in species with limited capacity for energy dissipation. Seasonal xanthophyll pigment content, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf nitrogen, and low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWA) of five winter-red and five winter-green angiosperm evergreen species were compared. Our results showed no difference in seasonal xanthophyll pigment content (V+A+Z g(-1) leaf dry mass) or LMWA between winter-red and winter-green species, indicating red-leafed species are not deficient in their capacity for non-photochemical energy dissipation via these mechanisms. Winter-red and winter-green species also did not differ in percentage leaf nitrogen, corroborating previous studies showing no difference in seasonal photosynthesis under saturating irradiance. Consistent with a photoprotective function of anthocyanin, winter-red species had significantly lower xanthophyll content per unit chlorophyll and less sustained photoinhibition than winter-green species (i.e. higher pre-dawn F(v)/F(m) and a lower proportion of de-epoxidized xanthophylls retained overnight). Red-leafed species also maintained a higher maximum quantum yield efficiency of PSII at midday (F'(v)/F'(m)) during winter, and showed characteristics of shade acclimation (positive correlation between anthocyanin and chlorophyll content, and negative correlation with chlorophyll a/b). These results suggest that the capacity for photon energy dissipation (photochemical and non-photochemical) is not limited in red-leafed species, and that anthocyanins more likely function as an alternative photoprotective strategy to increased VAZ/Chl during winter.

  5. Winter movement dynamics of black brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindberg, Mark S.; Ward, David H.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Roser, John

    2007-01-01

    Although North American geese are managed based on their breeding distributions, the dynamics of those breeding populations may be affected by events that occur during the winter. Birth rates of capital breeding geese may be influenced by wintering conditions, mortality may be influenced by timing of migration and wintering distribution, and immigration and emigration among breeding populations may depend on winter movement and timing of pair formation. We examined factors affecting movements of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) among their primary wintering sites in Mexico and southern California, USA, (Mar 1998–Mar 2000) using capture–recapture models. Although brant exhibited high probability (>0.85) of monthly and annual fidelity to the wintering sites we sampled, we observed movements among all wintering sites. Movement probabilities both within and among winters were negatively related to distance between sites. We observed a higher probability both of southward movement between winters (Mar to Dec) and northward movement between months within winters. Between-winter movements were probably most strongly affected by spatial and temporal variation in habitat quality as we saw movement patterns consistent with contrasting environmental conditions (e.g., La Niña and El Niño southern oscillation cycles). Month-to-month movements were related to migration patterns and may also have been affected by differences in habitat conditions among sites. Patterns of winter movements indicate that a network of wintering sites may be necessary for effective conservation of brant.

  6. Winter movement dynamics of Black Brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindberg, Mark S.; Ward, David H.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Roser, John

    2007-01-01

    Although North American geese are managed based on their breeding distributions, the dynamics of those breeding populations may be affected by events that occur during the winter. Birth rates of capital breeding geese may be influenced by wintering conditions, mortality may be influenced by timing of migration and wintering distribution, and immigration and emigration among breeding populations may depend on winter movement and timing of pair formation. We examined factors affecting movements of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) among their primary wintering sites in Mexico and southern California, USA, (Mar 1998-Mar 2000) using capture-recapture models. Although brant exhibited high probability (>0.85) of monthly and annual fidelity to the wintering sites we sampled, we observed movements among all wintering sites. Movement probabilities both within and among winters were negatively related to distance between sites. We observed a higher probability both of southward movement between winters (Mar to Dec) and northward movement between months within winters. Between-winter movements were probably most strongly affected by spatial and temporal variation in habitat quality as we saw movement patterns consistent with contrasting environmental conditions (e.g., La Niña and El Niño southern oscillation cycles). Month-to-month movements were related to migration patterns and may also have been affected by differences in habitat conditions among sites. Patterns of winter movements indicate that a network of wintering sites may be necessary for effective conservation of brant.

  7. Wintering ecology of adult North American ospreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Washburn, Brian E.; Martell, Mark S.; Bierregaard, Richard O.; Henny, Charles J.; Dorr, Brian S.; Olexa, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    North American Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) typically migrate long distances to their wintering grounds in the tropics. Beyond the general distribution of their wintering range (i.e., the Caribbean, South America, and Central America), very little is known about the wintering ecology of these birds. We used satellite telemetry to determine the duration of wintering period, to examine the characteristics of wintering areas used by Ospreys, and to quantify space use and activity patterns of wintering Ospreys. Adult Ospreys migrated to wintering sites and exhibited high wintering site fidelity among years. Overall, Ospreys wintered on river systems (50.6%) more than on lakes (19.0%), and use of coastal areas was (30.4%) intermediate. Ospreys remained on their wintering grounds for an average of 154 d for males and 167 d for females. Locations of wintering Ospreys obtained via GPS-capable satellite telemetry suggest these birds move infrequently and their movements are very localized (i.e., 2 and 1.4 km2, respectively. Overall, our findings suggest wintering adult North American Ospreys are very sedentary, demonstrating a pattern of limited daily movements and high fidelity to a few select locations (presumably roosts). We suggest this wintering strategy might be effective for reducing the risk of mortality and maximizing energy conservation.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Baraitser-Winter syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Share on Twitter Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Search MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Baraitser-Winter syndrome Baraitser-Winter ...

  9. GOES Satellite Movie of 2014 Winter Storms

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This new animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery shows the movement of winter storms from January 1 to March 24 making for a snowier-than-normal winter along the U.S. East coast and Midwest...

  10. Winter cover crops influence Amaranthus palmeri establishment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Winter cover crops were evaluated for their effect on Palmer amaranth (PA) suppression in cotton production. Cover crops examined included rye and four winter legumes: narrow-leaf lupine, crimson clover, Austrian winter pea, and cahaba vetch. Each legume was evaluated alone and in a mixture with rye...

  11. Leadership in American Indian Communities: Winter Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metoyer, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Winter lessons, or stories told in the winter, were one of the ways in which tribal elders instructed and directed young men and women in the proper ways to assume leadership responsibilities. Winter lessons stressed the appropriate relationship between the leader and the community. The intent was to remember the power and purpose of that…

  12. Sustained winter streamflow from groundmelt

    Treesearch

    C. Anthony Federer

    1965-01-01

    The watersheds of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in the White Mountains of New Hampshire are among the few small gaged watersheds for which continuous winter streamflow records are obtained while deep snow covers the area. Records show that a remarkably steady flow of between 0.006 and 0.025 area-inch of water per day leaves the watershed in spite of snow depths...

  13. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xia; Yang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years.

  14. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years. PMID:28178351

  15. Research on Winter Lightning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Masaru

    Winter lightning in Japan is known for such characteristics as frequent occurrence of upward lightning and of positive ground flashes. On the engineering side, higher frequencies of troubles at transmission lines or wind turbines in winter due to lightning than those in summer have been experienced in the winter thunderstorm area of Japan, despite the much smaller number of lightning strokes in winter observed by lightning location systems (LLS). Such frequent troubles by lightning in the cold season are unique in Japan, which have promoted intensive research on winter lightning in Japan since 1980s.

  16. Communicating Certainty About Nuclear Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    I have been spending much of my time in the past several years trying to warn the world about the continuing danger of nuclear weapons, and that the solution is a rapid reduction in the nuclear arsenal. I feel that a scientist who discovers dangers to society has an ethical duty to issue a warning, even if the danger is so scary that it is hard for people to deal with. The debate about nuclear winter in the 1980s helped to end the nuclear arms race, but the planet still has enough nuclear weapons, even after reductions planned for 2017 under the New START treaty, to produce nuclear winter, with temperatures plunging below freezing in the summer in major agricultural regions, threatening the food supply for most of the planet. New research by myself, Brian Toon, Mike Mills, and colleagues over the past six years has found that a nuclear war between any two countries, such as India and Pakistan, using 50 atom bombs each of the size dropped on Hiroshima could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history, and a world food crisis because of the agricultural effects. This is much less than 1% of the current global arsenal. Communicating certainty - what we know for sure - has been much more effective than communicating uncertainty. The limited success I have had has come from persistence and serendipity. The first step was to do the science. We have published peer-reviewed articles in major journals, including Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Physics Today, and Climatic Change. But policymakers do not read these journals. Through fairly convoluted circumstances, which will be described in this talk, we were able to get papers published in Scientific American and the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. I have also published several encyclopedia articles on the subject. As a Lead Author of Chapter 8 (Radiative Forcing) of the recently published Fifth Assessment

  17. [Responses of winter wheat growth to winter warming in Gansu Province].

    PubMed

    Pu, Jin-yong; Yao, Yu-bi; Ma, Peng-li; Deng, Zhen-yong; Wang, Wei-tai; Zhang, Mou-cao

    2007-06-01

    Based on the observation data of the air temperature at Tianshui and Xifeng in 1951-2005 and of the phenology of winter wheat at Tianshui and Xifeng in 1981-2003, the tendency of winter warming in past 50 years and the responses of winter wheat growth to climate warming in Gansu Province were analyzed. The results showed that the growth and development of winter wheat were seriously influenced by winter warming. In recent 20 years or more, the overwintering mortality of winter wheat dropped to <2% , overwintering days reduced by 7-8 days, whole growth period shorted by 8-10 days, and jointing-flowering period extended by 7 days, which would benefit the production of winter wheat and the utilization of climatic resource. However, the higher winter temperature and lesser precipitation also made the grain yield instable and the plant diseases and insect pests more frequent, resulting in more uncertain factors in winter wheat safe production.

  18. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping

    1992-01-01

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95 percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  19. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Robock, A.; Mao, J.

    1992-01-01

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95 percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  20. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping

    1992-01-01

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95-percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  1. Winter leaf reddening in 'evergreen' species.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Nicole M

    2011-05-01

    Leaf reddening during autumn in senescing, deciduous tree species has received widespread attention from the public and in the scientific literature, whereas leaf reddening in evergreen species during winter remains largely ignored. Winter reddening can be observed in evergreen herbs, shrubs, vines and trees in Mediterranean, temperate, alpine, and arctic regions, and can persist for several months before dissipating with springtime warming. Yet, little is known about the functional significance of this colour change, or why it occurs in some species but not others. Here, the biochemistry, physiology and ecology associated with winter leaf reddening are reviewed, with special focus on its possible adaptive function. Photoprotection is currently the favoured hypothesis for winter reddening, but alternative explanations have scarcely been explored. Intraspecific reddening generally increases with sunlight incidence, and may also accompany photosynthetic inferiority in photosynthetically 'weak' (e.g. low-nitrogen) individuals. Red leaves tend to show symptoms of shade acclimation relative to green, consistent with a photoprotective function. However, winter-red and winter-green species often cohabitate the same high-light environments, and exhibit similar photosynthetic capacities. The factors dictating interspecific winter leaf colouration therefore remain unclear. Additional outstanding questions and future directions are also highlighted, and possible alternative functions of winter reddening discussed.

  2. Xanthophyll cycle pigment and antioxidant profiles of winter-red (anthocyanic) and winter-green (acyanic) angiosperm evergreen species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leaves of many angiosperm evergreen species turn red during winter, corresponding with synthesis of anthocyanin pigments. The function of winter color change, and why it occurs in some species and not others, is not yet understood. We hypothesized that anthocyanins play a compensatory photoprotect...

  3. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race... Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. (a) Regulated area. The regulated area includes all waters of Winter... Coast Guard patrol commander may delay, modify, or cancel the race as conditions or circumstances...

  4. Introducing winter canola to the winter wheat-fallow region of the Pacific Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Growers in the low-rainfall, winter wheat-fallow region of the Pacific Northwest are in need of an alternative crop to diversify their markets, manage pests, and increase wheat yields. Winter canola may be a viable crop option for growers in the region. However, agronomic research for winter canol...

  5. Animals in Winter. Young Discovery Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sairigne, Catherine

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume introduces the habits of a variety of animals during the winter. Topics include: (1) surviving during winter, including concepts such as migration, hibernation, and skin color change; (2) changing…

  6. Chapter 7: Migration and winter ecology

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch; Jeffrey F. Kelly; Jean-Luc E. Cartron

    2000-01-01

    The willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) is a Neotropical migrant that breeds in North America, but winters in Central and northern South America. Little specific information is known about migration and wintering ecology of the southwestern willow flycatcher (E. t. extimus) (Yong and Finch 1997). Our report applies principally...

  7. Does cold winter weather produce depressive symptoms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvey, Michael J.; Goodes, Mike; Furlong, Candy; Tollefson, Gary D.

    1988-06-01

    To examine whether harsh winter weather is associated with depressive symptoms, 45 healthy subjects from Minnesota were compared to 42 subjects from California near the end of the winter season. No differences in the prevalence of depressive symptoms were found between the two groups.

  8. 36 CFR 2.19 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter activities. 2.19 Section 2.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice...

  9. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Winter activities. 1002.19 Section 1002.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing...

  10. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter activities. 1002.19 Section 1002.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing...

  11. Stem rust resistance in 'Jagger' winter wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    "Jagger" has been utilized widely as a parent to develop hard red winter wheat varieties throughout the U.S. southern Great Plains. Jagger has resistance to stem rust pathogen race TTTTF, which is virulent to many winter wheat cultivars, yet the genetic basis of this resistance remains unknown. Mark...

  12. Animals in Winter. Young Discovery Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sairigne, Catherine

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume introduces the habits of a variety of animals during the winter. Topics include: (1) surviving during winter, including concepts such as migration, hibernation, and skin color change; (2) changing…

  13. Sochi, Russia Winter Olympic Sites Mountain Cluster

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-05

    The 2014 Winter Olympic ski runs may be rated double black diamond, but theyre not quite as steep as they appear in this image acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft, of the skiing and snowboarding sites for the Sochi Winter Olympic Games.

  14. Photosynthetic capacity of red spruce during winter

    Treesearch

    P.G. Schaberg; J.B. Shane; P.F. Cali; J.R. Donnelly; G.R. Strimbeck

    1998-01-01

    We measured the photosynthetic capacity (Pmax) of plantation-grown red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) during two winter seasons (1993-94 and 1994-95) and monitored field photosynthesis of these trees during one winter (1993-94). We also measured Pmax for mature montane trees from January through May 1995....

  15. Nuclear Winter: Scientists in the Political Arena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2001-03-01

    The nuclear winter phenomenon is used to illustrate the many paths by which scientific advice reaches decision makers in the United States government. Because the Reagan administration was hostile to the strategic policy that the scientific discovery seemed to demand, the leading proponent of nuclear winter, Carl Sagan, used his formidable talent for popularization to reach a larger audience.

  16. Short winters threaten temperate fish populations.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Troy M; Marschall, Elizabeth A; Dabrowski, Konrad; Ludsin, Stuart A

    2015-07-15

    Although climate warming is expected to benefit temperate ectotherms by lengthening the summer growing season, declines in reproductive success following short, warm winters may counter such positive effects. Here we present long-term (1973-2010) field patterns for Lake Erie yellow perch, Perca flavescens, which show that failed annual recruitment events followed short, warm winters. Subsequent laboratory experimentation and field investigations revealed how reduced reproductive success following short, warm winters underlie these observed field patterns. Following short winters, females spawn at warmer temperatures and produce smaller eggs that both hatch at lower rates and produce smaller larvae than females exposed to long winters. Our research suggests that continued climate warming can lead to unanticipated, negative effects on temperate fish populations.

  17. Short winters threaten temperate fish populations

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Troy M.; Marschall, Elizabeth A.; Dabrowski, Konrad; Ludsin, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Although climate warming is expected to benefit temperate ectotherms by lengthening the summer growing season, declines in reproductive success following short, warm winters may counter such positive effects. Here we present long-term (1973–2010) field patterns for Lake Erie yellow perch, Perca flavescens, which show that failed annual recruitment events followed short, warm winters. Subsequent laboratory experimentation and field investigations revealed how reduced reproductive success following short, warm winters underlie these observed field patterns. Following short winters, females spawn at warmer temperatures and produce smaller eggs that both hatch at lower rates and produce smaller larvae than females exposed to long winters. Our research suggests that continued climate warming can lead to unanticipated, negative effects on temperate fish populations. PMID:26173734

  18. Short winters threaten temperate fish populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, Troy M.; Marschall, Elizabeth A.; Dabrowski, Konrad; Ludsin, Stuart A.

    2015-07-01

    Although climate warming is expected to benefit temperate ectotherms by lengthening the summer growing season, declines in reproductive success following short, warm winters may counter such positive effects. Here we present long-term (1973-2010) field patterns for Lake Erie yellow perch, Perca flavescens, which show that failed annual recruitment events followed short, warm winters. Subsequent laboratory experimentation and field investigations revealed how reduced reproductive success following short, warm winters underlie these observed field patterns. Following short winters, females spawn at warmer temperatures and produce smaller eggs that both hatch at lower rates and produce smaller larvae than females exposed to long winters. Our research suggests that continued climate warming can lead to unanticipated, negative effects on temperate fish populations.

  19. EPS Workshop on Nuclear Winters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, D. H.

    1988-01-01

    This workshop was held in Geneva in October 1986 and was attended by invited delegates from both East (14) and West (13), members of the ACPS (5) and the President. Relevant disciplines as well as Physics were represented which lead to comprehensive discussions. The factors which have a bearing on the probabilities of a nuclear winter were reviewed using the SCOPE-ENUWAR studies as a basis. These covered the nature of a possible nuclear war; the quantities of dust and smoke thrown into the atmosphere, its particle size, height and lifetime; the resulting effects on sunlight and temperature; and the consequences for vegetation and animal life both terrestrial and marine. There are many uncertainties in such analyses. Much more work is needed on many facets. The more important were highlighted as further topics for East-West collaboration. Never the less it was concluded that:- Climatic effects involving temperature falls of only three or four degrees below normal combined with a large fall in light intensity during the growing season of cereal crops would have disastrous consequences.

  20. Nuclear winter or nuclear fall?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, André

    Climate is universal. If a major modern nuclear war (i.e., with a large number of small-yield weapons) were to happen, it is not even necessary to have a specific part of the world directly involved for there to be cause to worry about the consequences for its inhabitants and their future. Indeed, smoke from fires ignited by the nuclear explosions would be transported by winds all over the world, causing dark and cold. According to the first study, by Turco et al. [1983], air surface temperature over continental areas of the northern mid-latitudes (assumed to be the nuclear war theatre) would fall to winter levels even in summer (hence the term “nuclear winter”) and induce drastic climatic conditions for several months at least. The devastating effects of a nuclear war would thus last much longer than was assumed initially. Discussing to what extent these estimations of long-term impacts on climate are reliable is the purpose of this article.

  1. Climate warming will not decrease winter mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staddon, Philip L.; Montgomery, Hugh E.; Depledge, Michael H.

    2014-03-01

    It is widely assumed by policymakers and health professionals that the harmful health impacts of anthropogenic climate change will be partially offset by a decline in excess winter deaths (EWDs) in temperate countries, as winters warm. Recent UK government reports state that winter warming will decrease EWDs. Over the past few decades, however, the UK and other temperate countries have simultaneously experienced better housing, improved health care, higher incomes and greater awareness of the risks of cold. The link between winter temperatures and EWDs may therefore no longer be as strong as before. Here we report on the key drivers that underlie year-to-year variations in EWDs. We found that the association of year-to-year variation in EWDs with the number of cold days in winter ( <5 °C), evident until the mid 1970s, has disappeared, leaving only the incidence of influenza-like illnesses to explain any of the year-to-year variation in EWDs in the past decade. Although EWDs evidently do exist, winter cold severity no longer predicts the numbers affected. We conclude that no evidence exists that EWDs in England and Wales will fall if winters warm with climate change. These findings have important implications for climate change health adaptation policies.

  2. How to Find Insects Weathering the Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Jane

    1979-01-01

    Discusses how and where to find insects and other invertebrates in winter, as well as how to collect samples in order to watch those animals reappear in spring. Includes crickets, honey bees, mosquitoes, house flies, and butterflies and moths. (MA)

  3. Winter swimming improves general well-being.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, Pirkko; Kokko, Leena; Ylijukuri, Virpi

    2004-05-01

    This study deals with the effects of regular winter swimming on the mood of the swimmers. Profile of Mood State (POMS) and OIRE questionnaires were completed before (October) and after (January) the four-month winter swimming period. In the beginning, there were no significant differences in the mood states and subjective feelings between the swimmers and the controls. The swimmers had more diseases (about 50%) diagnosed by a physician. Tension, fatigue, memory and mood negative state points in the swimmers significantly decreased with the duration of the swimming period. After four months, the swimmers felt themselves to be more energetic, active and brisk than the controls. Vigour-activity scores were significantly greater (p < 0.05). All swimmers who suffered from rheumatism, fibromyalgia, or asthma, reported that winter swimming had relieved pains. Improvement of general well-being is thus a benefit induced by regular winter swimming.

  4. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    MedlinePlus

    ... the risk for damage. Both snow and strong wind can wear away sunscreen and reduce its effectiveness, ... protect your skin from the bitter cold, heavy winds and winter sun, follow these important sun protection ...

  5. Zika Still a Threat During Winter Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162518.html Zika Still a Threat During Winter Months Public health ... doesn't necessarily mean the end of the Zika threat in the United States, a public health ...

  6. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Robock, A.; Jianping Mao )

    1992-12-24

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95% level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Physical characteristics of Eurasian winter temperature variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Yul; Son, Seok-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Despite the on-going global warming, recent winters in Eurasian mid-latitudes were much colder than average. In an attempt to better understand the physical characteristics for cold Eurasian winters, major sources of variability in surface air temperature (SAT) are investigated based on cyclostationary EOF analysis. The two leading modes of SAT variability represent the effect of Arctic amplification (AA) and the Arctic oscillation (AO), respectively. These two modes are distinct in terms of the physical characteristics, including surface energy fluxes and tropospheric circulations, and result in significantly different winter SAT patterns over the Eurasian continent. The AA-related SAT anomalies are dipolar with warm Arctic, centered at the Barents-Kara Seas, and cold East Asia. In contrast, the negative AO-related SAT anomalies are characterized by widespread cold anomalies in Northern Eurasia. Relative importance of the AA and the negative AO contributions to cold Eurasian winters is sensitive to the region of interest.

  8. How to Find Insects Weathering the Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Jane

    1979-01-01

    Discusses how and where to find insects and other invertebrates in winter, as well as how to collect samples in order to watch those animals reappear in spring. Includes crickets, honey bees, mosquitoes, house flies, and butterflies and moths. (MA)

  9. [The skin, cold and winter sports].

    PubMed

    Claes, G; Henry, F; Letawe, C; Piérard, G E

    2001-04-01

    Winter sports are responsible for various dermatoses which could be often avoided by simple preventive procedures. Both the severity and duration of cold exposure combined with wind speed, altitude and environmental hygrometric value govern the potential types of cold injuries.

  10. ENSO and winter storms in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, D.R.; Bromirski, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of North Pacific winter storms that penetrate the California coast drives the winds, sea level, precipitation and streamflow that are crucial influences on coastal processes. There is considerable variability of these storm characteristics, in large part owing to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO} phenomenon. There is a great contrast of the storm characteristics during the El Nino phase vs. the La Nina phase, with the largest scale, southerly extensive winter storms generated during El Nino.

  11. Drought and Winter Drying (Pest Alert)

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service

    Drought and winter drying have periodically caused major damage to trees. Drought reduces the amount of water available in the soil. In the case of winter drying, the water may be in the soil, but freezing of the soil makes the water unavailable to the tree. In both cases, more water is lost through transpiration than is available to the plant. Symptoms of drought and...

  12. Interferometic Observations of Japanese Winter Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, M.; Kawasaki, Z. I.; Kudo, A.; Nakamura, Y.; Ushio, T.

    2016-12-01

    Japanese winter lightning happens along the northern coast of Japan, where storms occur because of warm air residing over the sea of Japan. Thunderstorms can occur over the Japanese Alps, and also along the coastal area between the mountains and the water. Because of the cold temperatures, the charge layers of the thunderstorm are very close to the ground. Perhaps because of their proximity to the ground, these winter storms produce strikes to ground of both positive and negative polarity, which can propagate in either the downward (from the cloud) and upward (from the ground) direction. Presented are the first observations made by the Lightning Interferometer via VHF Emission (LIVE) of Japanese winter lightning. LIVE was deployed in Uchinada for the 2015 winter season, and consisted of 4 flat plate VHF antennas (30-80 MHz) separated by about 25 meters, and recorded by a 180 MHz digitizer. Japanese winter lightning is found to have extremely active negative breakdown regions. In cloud negative leaders in winter lightning appear to step much more frequently than the in cloud negative leaders of summer lightning.

  13. Key areas for wintering North American herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikuska, T.; Kushlan, J.A.; Hartley, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly all North American heron populations are migratory, but details of where they winter are little known. Locations where North American herons winter were identified using banding recovery data. North American herons winter from Canada through northern South America but especially in eastern North America south of New York, Florida, California, Louisiana, Texas, Mexico and Cuba, these areas accounting for 63% of winter recoveries. We identified regions where recoveries for various species clustered as "key areas." These forty-three areas constitute a network of areas that hold sites that likely are important to wintering North American herons. Within each area, we identify specific sites that are potentially important to wintering herons. The relative importance of each area and site within the network must be evaluated by further on the ground inventory. Because of biases inherent in the available data, these hypothesized key areas are indicative rather than exhaustive. As a first cut, this network of areas can serve to inform further inventory activities and can provide an initial basis to begin planning for the year-round conservation of North American heron populations.

  14. Breeding sites and winter site fidelity of Piping Plovers wintering in The Bahamas, a previously unknown major wintering area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gratto-Trevor, Cheri; Haig, Susan M.; Miller, Mark P.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Maddock, Sidney; Roche, Erin A.; Moore, Predensa

    2016-01-01

    Most of the known wintering areas of Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus) are along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States and into Mexico, and in the Caribbean. However, 1066 threatened/endangered Piping Plovers were recently found wintering in The Bahamas, an area not previously known to be important for the species. Although representing about 27% of the birds counted during the 2011 International Piping Plover Winter Census, the location of their breeding site(s) was unknown. Thus, our objectives were to determine the location(s) of their breeding site(s) using molecular markers and by tracking banded individuals, identify spring and fall staging sites, and examine site fidelity and survival. We captured and color-banded 57 birds in January and February 2010 in The Bahamas. Blood samples were also collected for genetic evaluation of the likely subspecies wintering in The Bahamas. Band re-sightings and DNA analysis revealed that at least 95% of the Piping Plovers wintering in The Bahamas originated on the Atlantic coast of the United States and Canada. Re-sightings of birds banded in The Bahamas spanned the breeding distribution of the species along the Atlantic coast from Newfoundland to North Carolina. Site fidelity to breeding and wintering sites was high (88–100%). Spring and fall staging sites were located along the Atlantic coast of the United States, with marked birds concentrating in the Carolinas. Our estimate of true survival for the marked birds was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.61–0.80). Our results indicate that more than one third of the Piping Plover population that breeds along the Atlantic coast winters in The Bahamas. By determining the importance of The Bahamas to the Atlantic subspecies of Piping Plovers, future conservation efforts for these populations can be better focused on where they are most needed.

  15. Examining winter visitor use in Yellowstone National Park

    Treesearch

    Mae A. Davenport; Wayne A. Freimund; William T. Borrie; Robert E. Manning; William A. Valliere; Benjamin Wang

    2000-01-01

    This research was designed to assist the managers of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) in their decision making about winter visitation. The focus of this report is on winter use patterns and winter visitor preferences. It is the author’s hope that this information will benefit both the quality of winter experiences and the stewardship of the park resources. This report...

  16. Prairie Winter Play Patterns: (b) Winter and Play. Research Project 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Charles H.; Borowiecka, Alexandra

    This guidebook provides an empirically-based set of planning and design guidelines for the construction of winter play facilities for Canadian youth residing in locations where outdoor play in winter is curtailed for approximately 4 months of the year. Information used in developing the guidelines was derived from field observations, a literature…

  17. Key areas for wintering North American herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikuska, T.; Kushlan, J.A.; Hartley, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly all North American heron populations are migratory, but details of where they winter are little known. Locations where North American herons winter were identified using banding recovery data. North American herons winter from Canada through northern South America but especially in eastern North America south of New York, Florida, California, Louisiana, Texas, Mexico and Cuba, these areas accounting for 63% of winter recoveries. We identified regions where recoveries for various species clustered as 'key areas.' These forty-three areas constitute a network of areas that hold sites that likely are important to wintering herons. The relative importance of each area and site within the network must be evaluated by further on the ground inventory. Because of biases inherent in the available data, these hypothesized key areas are indicative rather than exhaustive. As a first cut, this network of areas can serve to inform further inventory activities and can provide an initial basis to begin planning for the year-round conservation of North American heron populations.

  18. Winter distribution of willow flycatcher subspecies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, E.H.; Unitt, P.; Sogge, M.K.; Whitfield, M.; Keim, P.

    2011-01-01

    Documenting how different regions across a species' breeding and nonbreeding range are linked via migratory movements is the first step in understanding how events in one region can influence events in others and is critical to identifying conservation threats throughout a migratory animal's annual cycle. We combined two studies that evaluated migratory connectivity in the Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii), one using mitochondrial DNA sequences from 172 flycatchers sampled throughout their winter range, and another which examined morphological characteristics of 68 museum specimens collected in the winter range. Our results indicate that the four subspecies occupy distinct but overlapping regions of the winter range. Connectivity between specific breeding and winter grounds appears to be moderate to strong, with distributions that suggest migration patterns of both the chain and leap-frog types connecting the breeding and nonbreeding grounds. The Pacific lowlands of Costa Rica appear to be a key winter location for the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (E. t. extimus), although other countries in Central America may also be important for the subspecies. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  19. Nuclear winter: the implications for civil defense

    SciTech Connect

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    It is generally believed possible for some range of heavy nuclear attacks directed against cities that significant but not lethal climate alteration will ensue for at least a few weeks. Three-dimensional global circulation models being developed and used at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the National Center for Atmospheric Research for a reasonable attack size seem to be converging on a temperature depression of the order of 10 to 15/degree/C, averaged over all land areas of the temperate region of the northern hemisphere. Temperature depressions as large as 25/degree/C are predicted in the interiors of continents for attacks in the summertime. Winter wars produce temperature depressions of only a few degrees. The authors have drawn the following implications for civil defense of the possibility of nuclear winter: (1) Neither cold nor drought is likely to be a direct threat to human survival. (2) The principal threat of nuclear winter is to agriculture. (3) Nuclear winter does not present an entirely new threat from nuclear war to the United States or the Soviet Union. (4) The consequences of nuclear winter would fall more heavily on the Soviet Union.

  20. Variability in winter climate and winter extremes reduces population growth of an alpine butterfly.

    PubMed

    Roland, Jens; Matter, Stephen F

    2013-01-01

    We examined the long-term, 15-year pattern of population change in a network of 21 Rocky Mountain populations of Parnassius smintheus butterflies in response to climatic variation. We found that winter values of the broadscale climate variable, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index, were a strong predictor of annual population growth, much more so than were endogenous biotic factors related to population density. The relationship between PDO and population growth was nonlinear. Populations declined in years with extreme winter PDO values, when there were either extremely warm or extremely cold sea surface temperatures in the eastern Pacific relative to that in the western Pacific. Results suggest that more variable winters, and more frequent extremely cold or warm winters, will result in more frequent decline of these populations, a pattern exacerbated by the trend for increasingly variable winters seen over the past century.

  1. [Treatment of winter diseases in summer].

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhi-Ping

    2014-04-01

    To explore the connotation and essence of treatment of winter diseases in summer with analysis and deduction. Treating winter diseases in summer is the concrete embodiment and application of taking advantage of "recuperating yang in spring and summer". Winter diseases are formed by compound factors with deficiency of yangqi as the prerequisite and yin as well as cold as the predominant pathogens. Its pathological characteristic rests with stagnation in meri-dians and collaterals. Aiming at curing chronic diseases, reinforcing yangqi and removing stagnation in meridians and collaterals, treatment in summer is a treating strategy focused on proper opportunity of treatment, which is expected to yield twice the result with half the effort. To select the suitable indications is taken as the core of this treating strategy. And at the same time, blind expansion without careful consideration is not suggested.

  2. Monitoring Canadian bird populations with winter counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunn, Erica H.; Sauer, J.R.; Dunn, Erica H.; Cadman, M.D.; Falls, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Two winter bird surveys in Canada have range-wide population monitoring potential: Christmas Bird Counts (CBCs) and Project FeederWatch (PFW). CBC trends are shown to be correlated to Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) trends, whether or not part of the winter range lies outside the CBC coverage area. Some species are poorly covered by this survey (e.g. seabirds, nocturnal species, and Neotropical migrants). Only eight Canadian breeding species that are not sampled by the BBS have their winter range well-covered by the CBC, but the CBC should be valuable as an independent source of trend data for many more species, including northern nesters with only marginal BBS coverage. More work is needed to show whether PFW trends match BBS trends; even if they do, PFW covers relatively few species, and most are monitored already by the BBS and/or CBC

  3. Risk management model of winter navigation operations.

    PubMed

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A; Goerlandt, Floris; Kuzmin, Vladimir; Kujala, Pentti; Montewka, Jakub

    2016-07-15

    The wintertime maritime traffic operations in the Gulf of Finland are managed through the Finnish-Swedish Winter Navigation System. This establishes the requirements and limitations for the vessels navigating when ice covers this area. During winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland, the largest risk stems from accidental ship collisions which may also trigger oil spills. In this article, a model for managing the risk of winter navigation operations is presented. The model analyses the probability of oil spills derived from collisions involving oil tanker vessels and other vessel types. The model structure is based on the steps provided in the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and adapted into a Bayesian Network model. The results indicate that ship independent navigation and convoys are the operations with higher probability of oil spills. Minor spills are most probable, while major oil spills found very unlikely but possible.

  4. BOREAS HYD-5 Winter Surface Flux Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Richard; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl Fred (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS HYD-5 team collected tower flux, surface meteorological, and surface temperature data on a frozen lake (Namekus Lake) and in a mature jack pine forest in the Beartrap Creek watershed. Both sites were located in the BOREAS SSA. The objective of this study was to characterize the winter energy and water vapor fluxes, as well as related properties (such as snow density, depth, temperature, and melt) for forested and nonforested areas of the boreal forest. Data were collected on Namekus Lake in the winters of 1994 and 1996, and at Beartrap Creek in the winter of 1994 only. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884) or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  5. Nuclear winter: the continuing debate. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Nida, A.V.

    1987-03-23

    This essay examines the debate over the climatic consequences of global nuclear war as related in the so-called Nuclear Winter hypothesis. This review examines the major components of the theory and traces development of the scientific knowledge leading to a second phase of the controversy two years after the first hypothesis. The conclusions of the essay are that the original nuclear winter findings have been altered by later scientific study and, therefore, the political conclusions drawn by Carl Sagan in 1983 can no longer be supported by theory or facts. Continued use of the Crutzen-Birks (Ambio, 1982) and TTAPS (Science, December 1983) studies worst-case evidence from NCAR (Foreign Affairs, Summer 86) represents selective science. Arguing for strategic policy changes based on nuclear winter risks constitutes anti-nuclear rhetoric and not scientific reasoning.

  6. Implanting radio transmitters in wintering canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Dein, F.J.; Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    To conduct telemetry studies of wintering canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) on Chesapeake Bay [Maryland, USA], we needed to devise a suitable method of radio transmitter attachment. We describe as aseptic, intraabdominal surgical technique, using the inhalation anesthetic isoflurane, to implant 20-g radio transmitters in free-ranging canvasbacks. We evaluated the technique over 3 winters (1987-89), when an annual average of 83 female canvasbacks received implant surgery during a 9-day period in mid-December. Of 253 ducks, 248 (98%) were implanted successfully, and 200 (80.65) completed the 70-day study until early March. No mortality or abnormal behavior from surgery was identified post-release.

  7. Severe European winters in a secular perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoy, Andreas; Hänsel, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    Temperature conditions during the winter time are substantially shaped by a strong year-to-year variability. European winters since the late 1980s - compared to previous decades and centuries - were mainly characterised by a high temperature level, including recent record-warm winters. Yet, comparably cold winters and severe cold spells still occur nowadays, like recently observed from 2009 to 2013 and in early 2017. Central England experienced its second coldest December since start of observations more than 350 years ago in 2010, and some of the lowest temperatures ever measured in northern Europe (below -50 °C in Lapland) were recorded in January 1999. Analysing thermal characteristics and spatial distribution of severe (historical) winters - using early instrumental data - helps expanding and consolidating our knowledge of past weather extremes. This contribution presents efforts towards this direction. We focus on a) compiling and assessing a very long-term instrumental, spatially widespread and well-distributed, high-quality meteorological data set to b) investigate very cold winter temperatures in Europe from early measurements until today. In a first step, we analyse the longest available time series of monthly temperature averages within Europe. Our dataset extends from the Nordic countries up to the Mediterranean and from the British Isles up to Russia. We utilise as much as possible homogenised times series in order to ensure reliable results. Homogenised data derive from the NORDHOM (Scandinavia) and HISTALP (greater alpine region) datasets or were obtained from national weather services and universities. Other (not specifically homogenised) data were derived from the ECA&D dataset or national institutions. The employed time series often start already during the 18th century, with Paris & Central England being the longest datasets (from 1659). In a second step, daily temperature averages are involved. Only some of those series are homogenised, but

  8. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-(that) would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications.

  9. Does stratosphereic sudden warming occur more frequently during ENSO winters than during normal winters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Seok-Woo; Song, Kanghyun

    2017-04-01

    Stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) events exhibit pronounced interannual variability. Based on WMO definition of SSW, it has been suggested that SSW events occur more preferably during El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) winters (both El Niño and La Niña winters) than during normal winters. This nonlinear relationship is re-examined here by considering six different definitions of SSW. For all definitions, SSW events are detected more frequently during El Niño winters than during normal winters, in consistent with an enhanced planetary-scale wave activity. However, a systematic relationship is not found during La Niña winters. While two SSW definitions, including WMO definition, show an increased SSW frequency during La Niña winters, other definitions show no change or even a reduced SSW frequency. This result is insensitive to the choice of reanalysis datasets and ENSO index, indicating that the reported ENSO-SSW relationship is not robust but dependent on the details of SSW definition.

  10. Distribution of alewives in southeastern Lake Ontario in autumn and winter: a clue to winter mortalities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; O'Gorman, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in the Great Lakes are thought to avoid extreme cold in winter by moving to deep water where the temperature is usually highest because of inverse thermal stratification. Information collected in Lake Ontario during autumn and winter 1981–1984 with an echo sounder and bottom and midwater trawls indicated that many alewives remained at depths above 110 m, regardless of water temperature. Alewives in the Great Lakes that did not descend to greater depths would be exposed to potentially lethal temperatures during cold winters.inters.

  11. Comparison of sea-ice thickness measurements under summer and winter conditions in the Arctic using a small electromagnetic induction device

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, C.; Eicken, H.; Miller, H.; Gerland, S.

    1997-05-01

    Drillhole-determined sea-ice thickness was compared with values derived remotely using a portable small-offset loop-loop steady state electromagnetic (EM) induction device during expeditions to Fram Strait and the Siberian Arctic, under typical winter and summer conditions. Simple empirical transformation equations are derived to convert measured apparent conductivity into ice thickness. Despite the extreme seasonal differences in sea-ice properties as revealed by ice core analysis, the transformation equations vary little for winter and summer. Thus, the EM induction technique operated on the ice surface in the horizontal dipole mode yields accurate results within 5 to 10% of the drillhole determined thickness over level ice in both seasons. The robustness of the induction method with respect to seasonal extremes is attributed to the low salinity of brine or meltwater filling the extensive pore space in summer. Thus, the average bulk ice conductivity for summer multiyear sea ice derived according to Archie`s law amounts to 23 mS/m compared to 3 mS/m for winter conditions. These mean conductivities cause only minor differences in the EM response, as is shown by means of 1-D modeling. However, under summer conditions the range of ice conductivities is wider. Along with the widespread occurrence of surface melt ponds and freshwater lenses underneath the ice, this causes greater scatter in the apparent conductivity/ice thickness relation. This can result in higher deviations between EM-derived and drillhole determined thicknesses in summer than in winter.

  12. The Winter Olympics--On Ice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Barbara G.

    1998-01-01

    Describes several science activities designed around the upcoming Winter Olympics ice skating events which demonstrate the scientific principles behind the sport. Students learn that increasing the pressure on ice will lead to the ice melting, the principle involved in the spinning swing, and the technology of skates and skating outfits. (PVD)

  13. The Winter Olympics--On Ice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Barbara G.

    1998-01-01

    Describes several science activities designed around the upcoming Winter Olympics ice skating events which demonstrate the scientific principles behind the sport. Students learn that increasing the pressure on ice will lead to the ice melting, the principle involved in the spinning swing, and the technology of skates and skating outfits. (PVD)

  14. Drag coefficients for winter Antarctic pack ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wamser, Christian; Martinson, Douglas G.

    1993-01-01

    Air-ice and ice-water drag coefficients referenced to 10-m-height winds for winter Antarctic pack ice based on measurements made from R/V Polarstern during the Winter Weddell Sea Project, 1986 (WWSP-86), and from R/V Akademik Fedorov during the Winter Weddell Gyre Study, 1989 (WWGS-89), are presented. The optimal values of the air-ice drag coefficients, made from turbulent flux measurements, are (1.79 +/- 0.06) x 10 exp -3 for WWSP-86 and (1.45 +/- 0.09) x 10 exp -3 for WWGS-89. A single ice-water drag coefficient for both WWSP-86 and WWGS-89, estimated from periods of ice drift throught to represent free-drift conditions, is (1.13 +/- 0.26) x 10 exp -3, and the ice-water turning angle is 18 +/- 18 deg. It is suggested that for a typical Antarctic winter pack ice cover, the ice cover reduces the momentum flux from the atmosphere to the ocean by about 33 percent.

  15. Nuclear winter - Physics and physical mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Ackerman, T. P.; Sagan, C.

    1991-01-01

    The basic physics of the environmental perturbations caused by multiple nuclear detonations is explored, summarizing current knowledge of the possible physical, chemical, and biological impacts of nuclear war. Emphasis is given to the impact of the bomb-generated smoke (soot) particles. General classes of models that have been used to simulate nuclear winter are examined, using specific models as examples.

  16. European Society for Clinical Virology - winter meeting.

    PubMed

    Westh, Henrik

    2004-02-01

    The European Society for Clinical Virology annual winter meeting mainly appeals to clinical virologists interested in human disease. Basic and clinical data were presented, highlighting a number of interesting findings. This report briefly describes options in HIV antiviral treatment, and focuses on fusion inhibitors, a new anti-HIV class of drugs. Recent improvements in experimental DNA vaccines are also presented.

  17. Overview of Spirit's Mars Winter Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidson, R.

    2006-12-01

    On sol 805 (April 2006) the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit reached its Low Ridge winter campaign site within Gusev Crater's Columbia Hills. The site, with its 11.5 degree tilt to the north, was chosen to maximize the probability that the rover would receive enough solar energy to be able to continue operations through the martian winter (southern winter solstice occurred in August 2006) and be able to drive away to explore additional terrains during the ensuing spring. Winter campaign experiments were designed to monitor atmospheric and surface (i.e., aeolian) dynamics and to survey the surrounding rocks and soils using the Pancam multispectral (0.44 to 1 micrometer) and Mini-TES hyperspectral (5 to 29 micrometers) capabilities. This included the collection of a Pancam 360 degree 13 filter McMurdo Panorama of the surface and rover deck over a period of several months. Further, a number of long-duration observations were conducted using the Alpha Particle X-Ray and Moessbauer Spectrometers on rock and soil targets within the work volume of the Instrument Deployment Device. Operations associated with the campaign will be updated during the presentation, and selected scientific highlights will be summarized and placed in an overall context for understanding the evolution of Mars and the role of water.

  18. Winter Video Series Coming in January | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The Scientific Library’s annual Summer Video Series was so successful that it will be offering a new Winter Video Series beginning in January. For this inaugural event, the staff is showing the eight-part series from National Geographic titled “American Genius.” 

  19. Winter Secrets: An Instant Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collyer, Cam

    1997-01-01

    Outdoor lesson plan aims to stimulate student interest in animals' adaptations to winter and the various signs and clues to animal behavior. Includes questions for class discussion, tips for guiding the hike, and instructions for two games that illustrate the predator-prey relationship. Notes curriculum connections to the East York (Ontario) Board…

  20. The Colgate University Winter Wilderness Survival Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskell, Peter C.; Milner, Robert

    In January 1976, Colgate University offered its first Winter Wilderness Survival Program in conjunction with the North American Wilderness Survival School (NAWSS). This post-program evaluation summarizes background of the three-week program, with attention to the leadership, program aims, how the course was publicized, and how it developed month…

  1. Music Activities for Lemonade in Winter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    "Lemonade in Winter: A Book About Two Kids Counting Money" is a children's book about math; however, when sharing it in the music classroom, street cries and clapping games emerge. Jenkins' and Karas' book provides a springboard to lessons addressing several music elements, including form, tempo, and rhythm, as well as…

  2. Clouds in the Winter Arctic Tropopause Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry; Anderson, Bruce; Podolske, James; Sachse, Glen; Avery, Melody; Schoeberl, Mark; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Water vapor in the winter arctic tropopause region is important because, after the tropical tropopause region, the winter arctic tropopause has the coldest temperatures in the tropospheric northern hemisphere. This suggests the potential for cloud formation that can remove water vapor from a part of the atmosphere where radiatively active gases (such as water) exert a disproportionate influence on the earth's radiation budget. Previous work by the same authors has shown that this cloud formation extends into the stratosphere, with 20% of the parcels having ozone values of 300-350 ppbv experiencing ice saturation in any given 10 day period period during the late winter. In fact, temperatures are cold enough that 5-10% of the parcels experience saturation even if the water content is below the prevailing stratospheric value of 5 ppmv. This work describes a case study of clouds observed by aircraft near the winter arctic tropopause during the SAGE Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE). This provided a unique opportunity to examine dehydration processes in this region since in situ water, tracer, cloud particle, and meteorological data were all available simultaneously. During this period, temperatures were cold enough at the tropopause to produce saturation mixing ratios of 3-4 ppmv. Thus, clouds were actually observed within the stratosphere. Back trajectories indicate that the air in these clouds came from lower latitudes and altitudes. The study describes the nature of the clouds, the history of the air, and the possible implications for the upper tropospheric water budget.

  3. Outing Activities and Winter Sports Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knierim, Helen, Ed.; Hobson, Barbara B., Ed.

    This guide contains articles on outdoor recreational activities and official winter sports rules for girls and women. The articles on outdoor activities include the techniques, teaching, and organization of camping, canoeing, competitive cycling, and riflery. Four pages of references on nature and outdoor activities are presented along with two…

  4. Cryopreservation of Salix sp. dormant winter buds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In cryopreservation, using dormant winter buds (DB) as source plant materials is economically advantageous over tissue culture options (TC). Processing DB does not require aseptic conditions and elaborate cryopreservation procedures. However, the DB approach is only feasible for cryopreserving a sel...

  5. Nuclear winter - Physics and physical mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Ackerman, T. P.; Sagan, C.

    1991-01-01

    The basic physics of the environmental perturbations caused by multiple nuclear detonations is explored, summarizing current knowledge of the possible physical, chemical, and biological impacts of nuclear war. Emphasis is given to the impact of the bomb-generated smoke (soot) particles. General classes of models that have been used to simulate nuclear winter are examined, using specific models as examples.

  6. Brownification increases winter mortality in fish.

    PubMed

    Hedström, Per; Bystedt, David; Karlsson, Jan; Bokma, Folmer; Byström, Pär

    2017-02-01

    In northern climates, winter is a bottleneck for many organisms. Low light and resource availability constrains individual foraging rates, potentially leading to starvation and increased mortality. Increasing input of humic substances to aquatic ecosystems causes brownification of water and hence a further decrease of light availability, which may lead to further decreased foraging rates and starvation mortality during winter. To test this hypothesis, we measured the effects of experimentally increased humic water input on consumption and survival of young-of-the-year three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) over winter in large outdoor enclosures. Population densities were estimated in autumn, and the following spring and food availability and consumption were monitored over winter. As hypothesized, mortality was higher under humic (76%) as compared to ambient conditions (64%). In addition, body condition and ingested prey biomass were lower under humic conditions, even though resource availability was not lower under humic conditions. Light conditions were significantly poorer under humic conditions. This suggests that increased mortality and decreased body condition and ingested prey biomass were not due to decreased resource availability but due to decreased search efficiency in this visual feeding consumer. Increased future brownification of aquatic systems may, therefore, negatively affect both recruitment and densities of fish.

  7. Dressing Baby for A Safe Winter Drive

    MedlinePlus

    ... of MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine, the National Institutes of Health, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. More Health News on: Child Safety Motor Vehicle Safety Winter Weather Emergencies Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ...

  8. Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1982-01-01

    The scientific aims, work plan, and organization of the Middle Atmosphere Program winter in northern Europe (MAP/WINE) are described. Proposed contributions to the MAP/WINE program from various countries are enumerated. Specific atmospheric parameters to be examined are listed along with the corresponding measurement technique.

  9. Appalachia's Winter Secret: Downhill on the Mountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Randy

    1991-01-01

    Describes ski-industry and winter-tourism growth in Appalachia. Sketches ski-resort developments in Maryland, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and West Virginia. Describes economic threats to industry, its economic impact on Appalachian states and region, resorts' general qualities, and ski industry's promotional efforts. (TES)

  10. Registration of 'Sunshine' Hard White Winter Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ’Sunshine’ (Reg. No. CV-XXXX, PI 674741) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2014 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Un...

  11. Registration of ‘Atlantic’ winter barley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Atlantic’ (Reg. No. CV-354, PI 665041), a six-row, hulled winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) tested as VA06B-19 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, was released in March 2011. Atlantic was derived from the cross VA97B-176/VA92-44-279 using a modified bulk-breeding method. It was evalua...

  12. Registration of 'Eve' winter hulless barley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Eve’ (Reg. No. CV- PI 659067 ), a six-row winter hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed and tested as VA01H-68 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in May 2007. Eve was derived from the cross SC860974 / VA94-42-13. Eve is widely adapted and provides producers with ...

  13. Winter Video Series Coming in January | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The Scientific Library’s annual Summer Video Series was so successful that it will be offering a new Winter Video Series beginning in January. For this inaugural event, the staff is showing the eight-part series from National Geographic titled “American Genius.” 

  14. Music Activities for Lemonade in Winter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    "Lemonade in Winter: A Book About Two Kids Counting Money" is a children's book about math; however, when sharing it in the music classroom, street cries and clapping games emerge. Jenkins' and Karas' book provides a springboard to lessons addressing several music elements, including form, tempo, and rhythm, as well as…

  15. Drag coefficients for winter Antarctic pack ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wamser, Christian; Martinson, Douglas G.

    1993-01-01

    Air-ice and ice-water drag coefficients referenced to 10-m-height winds for winter Antarctic pack ice based on measurements made from R/V Polarstern during the Winter Weddell Sea Project, 1986 (WWSP-86), and from R/V Akademik Fedorov during the Winter Weddell Gyre Study, 1989 (WWGS-89), are presented. The optimal values of the air-ice drag coefficients, made from turbulent flux measurements, are (1.79 +/- 0.06) x 10 exp -3 for WWSP-86 and (1.45 +/- 0.09) x 10 exp -3 for WWGS-89. A single ice-water drag coefficient for both WWSP-86 and WWGS-89, estimated from periods of ice drift throught to represent free-drift conditions, is (1.13 +/- 0.26) x 10 exp -3, and the ice-water turning angle is 18 +/- 18 deg. It is suggested that for a typical Antarctic winter pack ice cover, the ice cover reduces the momentum flux from the atmosphere to the ocean by about 33 percent.

  16. Hulless winter barley for ethanol production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hulless barley is viable feedstock alternative to corn for ethanol production in areas where small grains are produced. The first barley-based ethanol plant in the US is currently under construction by Osage BioEnergy LLC in Hopewell, VA. New hulless winter barley varieties developed by Virginia T...

  17. Winter Secrets: An Instant Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collyer, Cam

    1997-01-01

    Outdoor lesson plan aims to stimulate student interest in animals' adaptations to winter and the various signs and clues to animal behavior. Includes questions for class discussion, tips for guiding the hike, and instructions for two games that illustrate the predator-prey relationship. Notes curriculum connections to the East York (Ontario) Board…

  18. Winterization strategies for bulk storage of pickles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumbers are commercially fermented and stored in bulk in outdoor open top fiberglass tanks. During winter, snow and ice that accumulates around and on top of tanks influence heat transfer in an unpredictable manner, often compromising quality. This study evaluates the performance of inexpensive an...

  19. Appalachia's Winter Secret: Downhill on the Mountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Randy

    1991-01-01

    Describes ski-industry and winter-tourism growth in Appalachia. Sketches ski-resort developments in Maryland, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and West Virginia. Describes economic threats to industry, its economic impact on Appalachian states and region, resorts' general qualities, and ski industry's promotional efforts. (TES)

  20. Nuclear Winter: The implications for civil defense

    SciTech Connect

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to hypothesized cooling in the northern hemisphere following a nuclear war due to injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the original paper in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. The widespread use of 3-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling; 15 to 25/sup 0/C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought are likely to be direct threats to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures; The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and could present problems to third parties without food reserves; and Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor unexpected threat from nuclear war to the US and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the US due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year. 6 refs.

  1. Winter storms in the central Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, A.; Lang, T.

    2003-04-01

    Based on observations from a hydrometeorological network in the Marsyandi river basin, on the eastern slopes of the Annapurna Range, the summer monsoon (June-September) is responsible for 80-90% of annual precipitation at low elevations (< 2000 m MSL) in central Nepal, with nearly all of it in liquid form even during the winter. However, high elevations (> 3000 m MSL) can receive up to 25-35% of their annual precipitation as snowfall during the winter, with the percentage of the annual total an increasing function of elevation. Major snowstorms are associated with terrain-locked low-pressure systems that form when upper-level disturbances (the so-called Western Disturbances) pass over the notch formed by the Himalayas and Hindu Kush mountains, causing upper-level SW flow over central Nepal and orographically forced precipitation. Notable case studies for three winters (January-March 2000-2002) are reviewed using local precipitation (snow and rain) and other meteorological data, as well as satellite (Meteosat-5 and TRMM) and NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data. A 30-year (1973-2002) climatology of “notch” depressions reveals that winter storms in the central Himalayas are characterized by strong inter-annual variability, which cannot be explained based on known modes of climate variability (e.g., ENSO, NAO, etc). Finally, a cloud-resolving model with realistic topography is used to investigate mechanisms for controlling the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation during typical winter storms. The results indicate that precipitation occurs in the central Himalayas only when the large-scale circulation evolves to a spatial configuration that favors orographic precipitation processes. In addition, westerly-propagating along-barrier precipitation features fed by an easterly barrier jet apparently play an important role in bringing precipitation to lower elevations.

  2. Nuclear Winter: Implications for civil defense

    SciTech Connect

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1988-05-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to the cooling hypothesized to occur in the Northern Hemisphere following a nuclear war as the result of the injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the paper was published in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. Three-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling---15 to 25/degree/C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought is likely to be a direct threat to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures. The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and this could present problems to third parties who are without food reserves. Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor an unexpected threat from nuclear war to the United States and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the United States due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year.

  3. Incorporating Yearly Derived Winter Wheat Maps Into Winter Wheat Yield Forecasting Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skakun, S.; Franch, B.; Roger, J.-C.; Vermote, E.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C.; Santamaría-Artigas, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. Timely and accurate forecast of wheat yield and production at global scale is vital in implementing food security policy. Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) developed a generalized empirical model for forecasting winter wheat production using remote sensing data and official statistics. This model was implemented using static wheat maps. In this paper, we analyze the impact of incorporating yearly wheat masks into the forecasting model. We propose a new approach of producing in season winter wheat maps exploiting satellite data and official statistics on crop area only. Validation on independent data showed that the proposed approach reached 6% to 23% of omission error and 10% to 16% of commission error when mapping winter wheat 2-3 months before harvest. In general, we found a limited impact of using yearly winter wheat masks over a static mask for the study regions.

  4. Early 2016 Winter Storm Melts Arctic Sea Ice

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Arctic sea ice grows during the winter months, reaching its largest extent sometime in March. When something disrupts the cold, dry, winter Arctic atmosphere, sea ice can feel the effects, and thes...

  5. Scientific Library to Hold Annual Winter Video Series | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The Scientific Library is getting ready for its Annual Winter Video Series. Beginning on Monday, January 9 and concluding on Friday, February 17, the Winter Video Series will consist of two different PBS programs, each with three episodes.

  6. Vernalization and epigenetics: how plants remember winter.

    PubMed

    Sung, Sibum; Amasino, Richard M

    2004-02-01

    One of the remarkable aspects of the promotion of flowering by vernalization is that plants have evolved the ability to measure a complete winter season of cold and to 'remember' this prior cold exposure in the spring. Recent work in Arabidopsis demonstrates the molecular basis of this memory of winter: vernalization causes changes in the chromatin structure of a flowering repressor gene, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), that switch this gene into a repressed state that is mitotically stable. A key component of the vernalization pathway, VERNALIZATION INSENSITIVE3 (VIN3), which is a PHD-domain-containing protein, is induced only after a prolonged period of cold. VIN3 is involved in initiating the modification of FLC chromatin structure. The stable silencing of FLC also requires the DNA-binding protein VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) and the polycomb-group protein VRN2.

  7. Salt Lake City, Utah, Winter 2001

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-02-07

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This simulated natural color image presents a snowy, winter view of north central Utah that includes all of the Olympic sites. The image extends from Ogden in the north, to Provo in the south; and includes the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains and the eastern part of the Great Salt Lake. This image was acquired on February 8, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03465

  8. The winter anomaly and sudden stratospheric warmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastovicka, J.

    1984-08-01

    Large-scale stratospheric warmings are examined on the basis of 22-year measurements of radio-wave absorption at the Panska Ves observatory. It is shown that these warmings, accompanied by the reversal of wind direction in the lower thermosphere, lead not to an increase but to a decrease in the radio-wave absorption in the lower ionosphere, i.e., to the disappearance of the winter anomaly. It is concluded that the absorption decrease is connected not only with cooling in the mesopause region but also with a total change in the dynamic conditions of the lower ionosphere. The behavior of the winter anomaly in the 1979-1980 and 1981-1982 periods is examined in detail.

  9. Simulations of two Arctic winter cloud regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, M. A.; Randall, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent analysis of observations from the Surface Heat Budget Experiment (SHEBA) provides evidence that in winter the Arctic exhibits two preferred and persistent states — a radiatively clear and a radiatively opaque state. These distinct regimes are influenced by the phase of the clouds, and affect the surface radiative fluxes. We explore the radiative and microphysical effects of these Arctic clouds in two present-day climate simulations. We compare simulations performed with a global coupled ocean- atmosphere model [the Community Earth System Model], and its superparameterized counterpart (SP-CESM). We find that the SP-CESM is able to better reproduce both of the preferred winter states, compared to CESM. We present an analysis of the mechanisms and processes behind these findings.

  10. Latitudinal variation in population structure of wintering Pacific Black Brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schamber, J.L.; Sedinger, J.S.; Ward, D.H.; Hagmeier, K.R.

    2007-01-01

    Latitudinal variation in population structure during the winter has been reported in many migratory birds, but has been documented in few species of waterfowl. Variation in environmental and social conditions at wintering sites can potentially influence the population dynamics of differential migrants. We examined latitudinal variation in sex and age classes of wintering Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans). Brant are distributed along a wide latitudinal gradient from Alaska to Mexico during the winter. Accordingly, migration distances for brant using different wintering locations are highly variable and winter settlement patterns are likely associated with a spatially variable food resource. We used resightings of brant banded in southwestern Alaska to examine sex and age ratios of birds wintering at Boundary Bay in British Columbia, and at San Quintin Bay, Ojo de Liebre Lagoon, and San Ignacio Lagoon in Baja California from 1998 to 2000. Sex ratios were similar among wintering locations for adults and were consistent with the mating strategy of geese. The distribution of juveniles varied among wintering areas, with greater proportions of juveniles observed at northern (San Quintin Bay and Ojo de Liebre Lagoon) than at southern (San Ignacio Lagoon) locations in Baja California. We suggest that age-related variation in the winter distribution of Pacific Black Brant is mediated by variation in productivity among individuals at different wintering locations and by social interactions among wintering family groups.

  11. 46 CFR 42.30-10 - Southern Winter Seasonal Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-10 Southern Winter Seasonal Zone. (a) The northern boundary of the Southern Winter Seasonal Zone is the rhumb line from the east coast of the American...) Valparaiso is to be considered as being on the boundary line of the Summer and the Winter Seasonal Zones....

  12. 46 CFR 42.30-10 - Southern Winter Seasonal Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-10 Southern Winter Seasonal Zone. (a) The northern boundary of the Southern Winter Seasonal Zone is the rhumb line from the east coast of the American...) Valparaiso is to be considered as being on the boundary line of the Summer and the Winter Seasonal Zones....

  13. Livable Winter Cities--Leisure Attitudes and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Larry; Coles, Roger, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The nine articles included in this feature emphasize how leisure, recreation, health and physical activities make winter cities more livable. Specific topics include techniques for teaching about cold weather safety and cold related injuries, Arctic Winter Games, and results of a study on winter recreation in large North American communities. (IAH)

  14. Timing of site fixation upon the wintering grounds in sparrows

    Treesearch

    C. John Ralph; L. Richard Mewaldt

    1975-01-01

    The winter home of a bird, although vitally important in the study of adaptations, has received little attention as compared to various aspects of breeding. During the fall and winter much mortality occurs and may be the limiting factor in many populations (Mac Arthur 1971). We will explore the process of site fixation onto the winter quarters and its implications to...

  15. Tillage requirements for vegetables following winter annual grazing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Alabama, over 400,000 ac of winter annuals are grazed prior to planting summer row crops. Previous research indicates that cattle grazed on ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) pastures over the winter months in Alabama can be profitable, but winter grazing creates excessive compaction, which advers...

  16. Surgical Risks Associated with Winter Sport Tourism

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Stéphane; Payet, Cécile; Lifante, Jean-Christophe; Polazzi, Stéphanie; Chollet, François; Carty, Matthew J; Duclos, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Background Mass tourism during winter in mountain areas may cause significant clustering of body injuries leading to increasing emergency admissions at hospital. We aimed at assessing if surgical safety and efficiency was maintained in this particular context. Methods We selected all emergency admissions of open surgery performed in French hospitals between 2010 and 2012. After identifying mountain areas with increasing volume of surgical stays during winter, we considered seasonal variations in surgical outcomes using a difference-in-differences study design. We computed multilevel regressions to evaluate whether significant increase in emergency cases had an effect on surgical mortality, complications and length of stay. Clustering effect of patients within hospitals was integrated in analysis and surgical outcomes were adjusted for both patient and hospital characteristics. Results A total of 381 hospitals had 559,052 inpatient stays related to emergency open surgery over 3 years. Compared to other geographical areas, a significant peak of activity was noted during winter in mountainous hospitals (Alps, Pyrenees, Vosges), ranging 6-77% volume increase. Peak was mainly explained by tourists’ influx (+124.5%, 4,351/3,496) and increased need for orthopaedic procedures (+36.8%, 4,731/12,873). After controlling for potential confounders, patients did not experience increased risk for postoperative death (ratio of OR 1.01, 95%CI 0.89-1.14, p = 0.891), thromboembolism (0.95, 0.77-1.17, p = 0.621) or sepsis (0.98, 0.85-1.12, p = 0.748). Length of stay was unaltered (1.00, 0.99-1.02, p = 0.716). Conclusion Surgical outcomes are not compromised during winter in French mountain areas despite a substantial influx of major emergencies. PMID:25970625

  17. Surgical risks associated with winter sport tourism.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Stéphane; Payet, Cécile; Lifante, Jean-Christophe; Polazzi, Stéphanie; Chollet, François; Carty, Matthew J; Duclos, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Mass tourism during winter in mountain areas may cause significant clustering of body injuries leading to increasing emergency admissions at hospital. We aimed at assessing if surgical safety and efficiency was maintained in this particular context. We selected all emergency admissions of open surgery performed in French hospitals between 2010 and 2012. After identifying mountain areas with increasing volume of surgical stays during winter, we considered seasonal variations in surgical outcomes using a difference-in-differences study design. We computed multilevel regressions to evaluate whether significant increase in emergency cases had an effect on surgical mortality, complications and length of stay. Clustering effect of patients within hospitals was integrated in analysis and surgical outcomes were adjusted for both patient and hospital characteristics. A total of 381 hospitals had 559,052 inpatient stays related to emergency open surgery over 3 years. Compared to other geographical areas, a significant peak of activity was noted during winter in mountainous hospitals (Alps, Pyrenees, Vosges), ranging 6-77% volume increase. Peak was mainly explained by tourists' influx (+124.5%, 4,351/3,496) and increased need for orthopaedic procedures (+36.8%, 4,731/12,873). After controlling for potential confounders, patients did not experience increased risk for postoperative death (ratio of OR 1.01, 95%CI 0.89-1.14, p = 0.891), thromboembolism (0.95, 0.77-1.17, p = 0.621) or sepsis (0.98, 0.85-1.12, p = 0.748). Length of stay was unaltered (1.00, 0.99-1.02, p = 0.716). Surgical outcomes are not compromised during winter in French mountain areas despite a substantial influx of major emergencies.

  18. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelson, Lisa

    2006-11-08

    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  19. Feeding ecology of mallards wintering in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorde, Dennis G.; Krapu, G.L.; Crawford, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Food use by mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) wintering on the Platte River in south central Nebraska was determined from mid-December to early March 1978-80. Mallards foraged in river channels, irrigation drainage canals, and agricultural areas. Plant matter formed 97% of the diet (dry weight) and diets did not vary between sexes (P > 0.05). Waste corn was the principal food consumed and formed 46 and 62% of the diets of males and females, respectively. Milo, common duckweed (Lemna minor), smartweed (Polygonum spp.), and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa muricata) composed most of the remaining plant matter ingested. Mallards fed intensively in riparian wetland habitat to obtain invertebrates, but few were consumed because of limited abundance. Dietary protein was lower than reported among mallards wintering in Louisiana. Field feeding occurred primarily in grazed corn stubble and cattle feedlots. The distances traveled to feed, and the duration and timing of feeding varied with snow cover and season phenology. Competition for food was markedly higher during the cold winter of 1979 when heavy snow cover was present.

  20. Winter protein requirements of bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; Bailey, W.W.; Llewellyn, L.M.; Rensberger, M.J.

    1944-01-01

    Three experiments involving 714 bobwhite quail were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, during the winters of 1939-1941 to determine the protein requirement of quail maintained throug'h the winter.....Considering survival, live weights, feed consumption, and subsequent reproduction by the birds, the-9 to 13 per cent levels of crude dietary protein gave as good results as higher levels eggs, which in all cases was over 90 per and in some respects were better.....On the basis of these studies, it is recommended that the winter maintenance diet for bobwhite quail contain . about 11 to 12 per cent of crude protein. The following diet (parts by weight) conforms to these specifications and should be satisfactory:...Ground yellow corn 85.6....Dehvdrated alfalfa leaf meal 5 .O.....Soybean oil meal 7.0.....Special steamed bonemeal 1.2....Salt (or Salt Mixture II,see text) 1.0...Vitamin A and D feeding oil, fortified 0.2.

  1. Dehydration in the Winter Arctic Tropopause Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Jensen, Eric; Podolske, James; Selkirk, Henry; Anderson, Bruce; Avery, Melody; Diskin. Glenn

    2004-01-01

    Recent work has shown that limited amounts of tropospheric air can penetrate as much as 1 km into the middleworld stratosphere during the arctic winter. This, coupled with temperatures that are cold enough to produce saturation mixing ratios of less than 5 ppmv at the tropopause, results in stratospheric cloud formation and upper tropospheric dehydration. Even though these "cold outbreaks" occupy only a small portion of the area in the arctic (1-2%), their importance is magnified by an order of magnitude because of the air flow through them. This is reinforced by evidence of progressive drying through the winter measured during SOLVE-1. The significance of this process lies in its effect on the upper tropospheric water content of the middle and high latitude tropopause region, which plays an important role in regulating the earth's radiative balance. There appears to be significant year-to-year variability in the incidence of the cold outbreaks. This work has two parts. First, we describe case studies of dehydration taken from the SOLVE and SOLVE2 aircraft sampling missions during the Arctic winters of 2000 and 2003 respectively. Trajectory based microphysical modeling is employed to examine the sensitivity of the dehydration to microphysical parameters and the nature of sub-grid scale temperature fluctuations. We then examine the year-to-year variations in potential dehydration using a trajectory climatology.

  2. Flowering time control in European winter wheat

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Simon M.; Longin, C. Friedrich H.; Würschum, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Flowering time is an important trait in wheat breeding as it affects adaptation and yield potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars. To this end a population of 410 winter wheat varieties was evaluated in multi-location field trials and genotyped by a genotyping-by-sequencing approach and candidate gene markers. Our analyses revealed that the photoperiod regulator Ppd-D1 is the major factor affecting flowering time in this germplasm set, explaining 58% of the genotypic variance. Copy number variation at the Ppd-B1 locus was present but explains only 3.2% and thus a comparably small proportion of genotypic variance. By contrast, the plant height loci Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 had no effect on flowering time. The genome-wide scan identified six QTL which each explain only a small proportion of genotypic variance and in addition we identified a number of epistatic QTL, also with small effects. Taken together, our results show that flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars is mainly controlled by Ppd-D1 while the fine tuning to local climatic conditions is achieved through Ppd-B1 copy number variation and a larger number of QTL with small effects. PMID:25346745

  3. Disturbance to wintering western snowy plovers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2001-01-01

    In order to better understand the nature of disturbances to wintering snowy plovers, I observed snowy plovers and activities that might disturb them at a beach near Devereux Slough in Santa Barbara, California, USA. Disturbance (activity that caused plovers to move or fly) to wintering populations of threatened western snowy plovers was 16 times higher at a public beach than at protected beaches. Wintering plovers reacted to disturbance at half the distance (∼40 m) as has been reported for breeding snowy plovers (∼80 m). Humans, dogs, crows and other birds were the main sources of disturbance on the public beach, and each snowy plover was disturbed, on average, once every 27 weekend min and once every 43 weekday min. Dogs off leash were a disproportionate source of disturbance. Plovers were more likely to fly from dogs, horses and crows than from humans and other shorebirds. Plovers were less abundant near trail heads. Over short time scales, plovers did not acclimate to or successfully find refuge from disturbance. Feeding rates declined with increased human activity. I used data from these observations to parameterize a model that predicted rates of disturbance given various management actions. The model found that prohibiting dogs and a 30 m buffer zone surrounding a 400 m stretch of beach provided the most protection for plovers for the least amount of impact to beach recreation.

  4. Have winter fuel payments reduced excess winter mortality in England and Wales?

    PubMed

    Iparraguirre, J

    2015-03-01

    The historical series of excess winter mortality (EWM) in England and Wales presents a negative trend. Winter fuel payments (WFPs) are the most important benefits for people aged 65 or over directly related to Winter Mortality in the UK. This study presents a time series analysis of the direct effect of WFPs on EWM in England and Wales. We find a significant structural break in trend and volatility in the EWM series in England and Wales in 1999-2000. After controlling for a number of covariates, an ARIMA-X model finds that WFPs can account for almost half of the reduction in EWM in England and Wales since 1999/2000. Almost half of the reduction in EWM since 1999/2000 is attributable to WFPs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The effects of phenotypic plasticity on photosynthetic performance in winter rye, winter wheat and Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Dahal, Keshav; Kane, Khalil; Gadapati, Winona; Webb, Elizabeth; Savitch, Leonid V; Singh, Jasbir; Sharma, Pooja; Sarhan, Fathey; Longstaffe, Fred J; Grodzinski, Bernard; Hüner, Norman P A

    2012-02-01

    The contributions of phenotypic plasticity to photosynthetic performance in winter (cv Musketeer, cv Norstar) and spring (cv SR4A, cv Katepwa) rye (Secale cereale) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars grown at either 20°C [non-acclimated (NA)] or 5°C [cold acclimated (CA)] were assessed. The 22-40% increase in light-saturated rates of CO₂ assimilation in CA vs NA winter cereals were accounted for by phenotypic plasticity as indicated by the dwarf phenotype and increased specific leaf weight. However, phenotypic plasticity could not account for (1) the differential temperature sensitivity of CO₂ assimilation and photosynthetic electron transport, (2) the increased efficiency and light-saturated rates of photosynthetic electron transport or (3) the decreased light sensitivity of excitation pressure and non-photochemical quenching between NA and NA winter cultivars. Cold acclimation decreased photosynthetic performance of spring relative to winter cultivars. However, the differences in photosynthetic performances between CA winter and spring cultivars were dependent upon the basis on which photosynthetic performance was expressed. Overexpression of BNCBF17 in Brassica napus generally decreased the low temperature sensitivity (Q₁₀) of CO₂ assimilation and photosynthetic electron transport even though the latter had not been exposed to low temperature. Photosynthetic performance in wild type compared to the BNCBF17-overexpressing transgenic B. napus indicated that CBFs/DREBs regulate not only freezing tolerance but also govern plant architecture, leaf anatomy and photosynthetic performance. The apparent positive and negative effects of cold acclimation on photosynthetic performance are discussed in terms of the apparent costs and benefits of phenotypic plasticity, winter survival and reproductive fitness.

  6. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict?

    PubMed

    Miller, Aubrey D; Vaske, Jerry J; Squires, John R; Olson, Lucretia E; Roberts, Elizabeth K

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation-often by non-motorized and motorized activity-is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists (n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  7. Hatchling turtles survive freezing during winter hibernation.

    PubMed

    Storey, K B; Storey, J M; Brooks, S P; Churchill, T A; Brooks, R J

    1988-11-01

    Hatchlings of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta marginata) are unique as the only reptile and highest vertebrate life form known to tolerate the natural freezing of extracellular body fluids during winter hibernation. Turtles survived frequent exposures to temperatures as low as -6 degrees C to -8 degrees C in their shallow terrestrial nests over the 1987-1988 winter. Hatchlings collected in April 1988 had a mean supercooling point of -3.28 +/- 0.24 degrees C and survived 24 hr of freezing at -4 degrees C with 53.4% +/- 1.98% of total body water as ice. Recovery appeared complete after 20 hr of thawing at 3 degrees C. However, freezing at -10.9 degrees C, resulting in 67% ice, was lethal. A survey of possible cryoprotectants revealed a 2- to 3-fold increase in glucose content of liver and blood and a 3-fold increase in blood glycerol in response to freezing. Although quantitatively low, these responses by spring turtles strongly indicate that these may be the winter-active cryoprotectants. The total amino acid pool of blood also increased 2.25-fold in freezing-exposed turtles, and taurine accounted for 52% of the increase. Most organs accumulated high concentrations of lactate during freezing, a response to the ischemic state imposed by extracellular freezing. Changes in glycogen phosphorylase activity and levels of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate were also consistent with a dependence on anaerobic glycolysis during freezing. Studies of the molecular mechanisms of natural freeze tolerance in these turtles may identify protective strategies that can be used in mammalian organ cryopreservation technology.

  8. Hatchling turtles survive freezing during winter hibernation.

    PubMed Central

    Storey, K B; Storey, J M; Brooks, S P; Churchill, T A; Brooks, R J

    1988-01-01

    Hatchlings of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta marginata) are unique as the only reptile and highest vertebrate life form known to tolerate the natural freezing of extracellular body fluids during winter hibernation. Turtles survived frequent exposures to temperatures as low as -6 degrees C to -8 degrees C in their shallow terrestrial nests over the 1987-1988 winter. Hatchlings collected in April 1988 had a mean supercooling point of -3.28 +/- 0.24 degrees C and survived 24 hr of freezing at -4 degrees C with 53.4% +/- 1.98% of total body water as ice. Recovery appeared complete after 20 hr of thawing at 3 degrees C. However, freezing at -10.9 degrees C, resulting in 67% ice, was lethal. A survey of possible cryoprotectants revealed a 2- to 3-fold increase in glucose content of liver and blood and a 3-fold increase in blood glycerol in response to freezing. Although quantitatively low, these responses by spring turtles strongly indicate that these may be the winter-active cryoprotectants. The total amino acid pool of blood also increased 2.25-fold in freezing-exposed turtles, and taurine accounted for 52% of the increase. Most organs accumulated high concentrations of lactate during freezing, a response to the ischemic state imposed by extracellular freezing. Changes in glycogen phosphorylase activity and levels of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate were also consistent with a dependence on anaerobic glycolysis during freezing. Studies of the molecular mechanisms of natural freeze tolerance in these turtles may identify protective strategies that can be used in mammalian organ cryopreservation technology. PMID:3186730

  9. Spectrum of winter dermatoses in rural Yemen.

    PubMed

    Al-Kamel, Mohamed A

    2016-05-01

    Surveys that have been carried out to determine the prevalence of skin diseases in rural Yemen are scarce or not available. To investigate the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community. A retrospective study was conducted at the dermatology outpatient clinic of the Al-Helal Specialized Hospital (Radaa' district of Al Bayda' Governorate) using data analysis of 700 selected records of patients managed during four months of the 2013-14 winter season. Seven hundred patients with 730 diseases were reported in this study; the major bulk of patients (46.57%) were in the >18-40-year age group, and females outnumbered males. By far, dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders (38.49%) topped the list of the most frequent skin disorders groups, followed by skin infections and infestations (20%) and the pigmentary disorders (13.70%) group. Contact dermatitis (10.68%) was the most prevalent skin disorder, followed by hyperpigmentations (8.77%), acne (8.08%), viral infections (5.75%), atopic dermatitis (5.62%), and parasitic infestations (5.34%). This survey has documented the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community but also reflects the pattern of common dermatoses in the whole country. Dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders, skin infections, and pigmentary disorders are the commonest groups. Contact dermatitis is the most prevalent disorder, and leishmaniasis is the most prevalent skin infectious disease. Climate, occupational, social, and environmental factors are the main contributors. Such statistics can form an important basis for community-based health policies. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  10. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Aubrey D.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Squires, John R.; Olson, Lucretia E.; Roberts, Elizabeth K.

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation—often by non-motorized and motorized activity—is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists ( n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  11. Corpus cavernosum abscess after Winter procedure performance

    PubMed Central

    Paladino, Joao Roberto; Nascimento, Fabio Jose; Gromatsky, Celso; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima

    2014-01-01

    A 23-year-old male patient with sickle-cell disease reported his third episode of priapism complicated by the presence of a corpus cavernosum abscess after the performance of a Winter procedure 20 days prior to his presentation. While in hospital for 11 days, two penile needle aspirations and three surgical drainages were performed with associated antibiotic therapy. He evolved with erectile dysfunction refractory to drug therapy and his infectious condition improved. An early penile prosthesis implantation followed after the use of a vacuum pump in an attempt to decrease the fibrotic process of the corpora cavernosa. Final results were positive. PMID:24515231

  12. USGS Multi-Hazards Winter Storm Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, D. A.; Jones, L. M.; Perry, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    The USGS began an inter-disciplinary effort, the Multi Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP), in 2007 to demonstrate how hazards science can improve a community's resiliency to natural disasters including earthquakes, tsunamis, wildfires, landslides, floods and coastal erosion. The project engages the user community in setting research goals and directs efforts towards research products that can be applied to loss reduction and improved resiliency. The first public product of the MHDP was the ShakeOut Earthquake Scenario published in May 2008. It detailed the realistic outcomes of a hypothetical, but plausible, magnitude 7.8 earthquake on the San Andreas Fault in southern California. Over 300 scientist and experts contributed to designing the earthquake and understanding the impacts of such a disaster, including the geotechnical, engineering, social, cultural, environmental, and economic consequences. The scenario advanced scientific understanding and exposed numerous vulnerabilities related to emergency response and lifeline continuity management. The ShakeOut Scenario was the centerpiece of the Nation's largest-ever emergency response exercise in November 2008, dubbed "The Great Southern California ShakeOut" (www.shakeout.org). USGS Multi-Hazards is now preparing for its next major public project, a Winter Storm Scenario. Like the earthquake scenario, experts will be brought together to examine in detail the possibility, cost and consequences of a winter storm disaster including floods, landslides, coastal erosion and inundation; debris flows; biologic consequences like extirpation of endangered species; physical damages like bridge scour, road closures, dam failure, property loss, and water system collapse. Consideration will be given to the vulnerabilities associated with a catastrophic disruption to the water supply to southern California; the resulting impacts on ground water pumping, seawater intrusion, water supply degradation, and land subsidence; and a

  13. [Direct embryogenesis from protoplast of winter wheat].

    PubMed

    Ge, T M; Zhang, R D; Qin, F L; Yu, Y J; Xie, Y F

    2000-09-01

    Friable embryogenic calli were obtained on a modified N6 medium (NBD medium) from a winter wheat cultivar "Jinghua No. 1" (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Jinghua No. 1) and were transferred to a modified MS liquid medium (MSDL medium) to initiate embryogenic suspension cultures. Protoplasts were isolated from the suspensions and cultured on a modified MS medium (MSDP medium). The somatic embryoids were formed directly from the protoplasts and germinated into entire plants. The development of the somatic embryoids was very similar to that of zygotic embryos of wheat.

  14. Significant warming of the Antarctic winter troposphere.

    PubMed

    Turner, J; Lachlan-Cope, T A; Colwell, S; Marshall, G J; Connolley, W M

    2006-03-31

    We report an undocumented major warming of the Antarctic winter troposphere that is larger than any previously identified regional tropospheric warming on Earth. This result has come to light through an analysis of recently digitized and rigorously quality controlled Antarctic radiosonde observations. The data show that regional midtropospheric temperatures have increased at a statistically significant rate of 0.5 degrees to 0.7 degrees Celsius per decade over the past 30 years. Analysis of the time series of radiosonde temperatures indicates that the data are temporally homogeneous. The available data do not allow us to unambiguously assign a cause to the tropospheric warming at this stage.

  15. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Lesser scaup (wintering)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulholland, Rosemarie

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a model for evaluating wintering habitat quality for the lesser scaup (Aythya affinis). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimal habitat) for Southern Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coastal areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Guidelines for model application and techniques for measuring model variables are provided.

  16. Monitoring water phase dynamics in winter clouds

    DOE PAGES

    Campos, Edwin F.; Ware, Randolph; Joe, Paul; ...

    2014-10-01

    This work presents observations of water phase dynamics that demonstrate the theoretical Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen concepts in mixed-phase winter storms. The work analyzes vertical profiles of air vapor pressure, and equilibrium vapor pressure over liquid water and ice. Based only on the magnitude ranking of these vapor pressures, we identified conditions where liquid droplets and ice particles grow or deplete simultaneously, as well as the conditions where droplets evaporate and ice particles grow by vapor diffusion. The method is applied to ground-based remote-sensing observations during two snowstorms, using two distinct microwave profiling radiometers operating in different climatic regions (North American Central Highmore » Plains and Great Lakes). The results are compared with independent microwave radiometer retrievals of vertically integrated liquid water, cloud-base estimates from a co-located ceilometer, reflectivity factor and Doppler velocity observations by nearby vertically pointing radars, and radiometer estimates of liquid water layers aloft. This work thus makes a positive contribution toward monitoring and now casting the evolution of supercooled droplets in winter clouds.« less

  17. Monitoring water phase dynamics in winter clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Edwin F.; Ware, Randolph; Joe, Paul; Hudak, David

    2014-10-01

    This work presents observations of water phase dynamics that demonstrate the theoretical Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen concepts in mixed-phase winter storms. The work analyzes vertical profiles of air vapor pressure, and equilibrium vapor pressure over liquid water and ice. Based only on the magnitude ranking of these vapor pressures, we identified conditions where liquid droplets and ice particles grow or deplete simultaneously, as well as the conditions where droplets evaporate and ice particles grow by vapor diffusion. The method is applied to ground-based remote-sensing observations during two snowstorms, using two distinct microwave profiling radiometers operating in different climatic regions (North American Central High Plains and Great Lakes). The results are compared with independent microwave radiometer retrievals of vertically integrated liquid water, cloud-base estimates from a co-located ceilometer, reflectivity factor and Doppler velocity observations by nearby vertically pointing radars, and radiometer estimates of liquid water layers aloft. This work thus makes a positive contribution toward monitoring and nowcasting the evolution of supercooled droplets in winter clouds.

  18. Pre-wintering conditions and post-winter performance in a solitary bee

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Notwithstanding lowered metabolism, and because diapausing insects have no access to food, diapause has an energetic cost that may affect post-diapause performance. Previous studies on the solitary bee Osmia lignaria have shown that prolonged pre-wintering periods (the time during which individuals ...

  19. Impacts of winter NPO on subsequent winter ENSO: sensitivity to the definition of NPO index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shangfeng; Wu, Renguang

    2017-03-01

    This study investigates the linkage between boreal winter North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) and subsequent winter El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) based on seven different NPO indices. Results show that the influence of winter NPO on the subsequent winter El Niño is sensitive to how the NPO is defined. A significant NPO-El Niño connection is obtained when the NPO-related anomalous cyclone over the subtropical North Pacific extends to near-equatorial regions. The anomalous cyclone induces warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies through modulating surface heat fluxes. These warm SST anomalies are able to maintain into the following spring and summer through an air-sea coupled process and in turn induce significant westerly wind anomalies over the tropical western Pacific. In contrast, the NPO-El Niño relationship is unclear when the NPO-related anomalous cyclone over the subtropical North Pacific is confined to off-equatorial regions and cannot induce significant warm SST anomalies over the subtropical North Pacific. The present study suggests that definitions of NPO should be taken into account when using NPO to predict ENSO. In particular, we recommend defining the NPO index based on the empirical orthogonal function technique over appropriate region that does not extend too far north.

  20. Winter sports injuries. The 2002 Winter Olympics experience and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Crim, Julia R

    2003-05-01

    Injury patterns at the 2002 Winter Olympics were similar to those in recreational winter athletes, although injury rates were higher. The high rates of injury compared with reported rates in recreational athletes reflect the intensity of the competition and the high speeds of the athletes. In addition, rates are artificially elevated because we were not able to count the number of practice runs by each athlete, only the number of races. The highest rates of injuries resulting in positive MR imaging or plain radiographs were in snowboarders (28/1000 races), followed by alpine skiers (20/1000). In all of the winter sports, the most commonly injured joint was the knee (37 injuries), and the most common knee injury was the ACL tear. Injuries to the foot and ankle were second in frequency (15 injuries). It is interesting that three of the ankle injuries were syndesmosis sprains; this may be an underreported injury in winter sports. There were 12 injuries to the upper extremity, all but two to the shoulder. Back complaints were frequent, but only seven patients had significant imaging abnormalities found in the lumbar spine: two stress fractures of the pedicles, one acute pedicle fracture, one spondylolysis, and four disc protrusions.

  1. Forage radish winter cover crop suppresses winter annual weeds in fall and before corn planting

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Forage radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. longipinnatus) is a new winter cover crop in the Mid-Atlantic region. The objective of this project was to characterize the repeatability, amount, and duration of weed suppression during and after a fall-planted forage radish cover crop and to quantify the sub...

  2. [Impact of temperature increment before the over-wintering period on growth and development and grain yield of winter wheat].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-dong; Zhang, De-qi; Wang, Han-fang; Shao, Yun-hui; Fang, Bao-ting; Lyu, Feng-rong; Yue, Jun-qin; Ma, Fu-ju

    2015-03-01

    The effect of temperature increment before the over-wintering period on winter wheat development and grain yield was evaluated in an artificial climate chamber (TPG 1260, Australia) from 2010 to 2011. Winter wheat cultivar 'Zhengmai 7698' was used in this study. Three temperature increment treatments were involved in this study, i.e., temperature increment last 40, 50 and 60 days, respectively, before the over-wintering period. Control was not treated by temperature increment. The results showed that temperature increment before the over-wintering period had no significant effect on earlier phase spike differentiation. But an apparent effect on later phase spike differentiation was observed. High temperature effect on spike differentiation disappeared when the difference of effective accumulated temperature between the temperature increment treatment and the control was lower than 25 °C. However, the foliar age at the jointing stage was enhanced more than 0.8, heading and physiological ripening were advanced 1 day each, when the effective accumulated temperature before the over-wintering period increased 60 °C. Higher effective accumulated temperature before the over-wintering period accelerated winter wheat growth and development, which resulted in a short spike differentiation period. Winter wheat was easy to suffer freeze damage, which lead to floret abortion and spikelet death in spring under this situation. Meanwhile, higher effective accumulated temperature before the over-wintering period also reduced, photosynthetic capacity of flag leaf, shortened the grain filling period, and led to wheat grain yield reduction.

  3. Winter status of White-eyed Vireos in northeastern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Somershoe, S.G.; Twedt, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    In December 2004, February 2005, and June 2005, we recaptured a White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus) that was banded on 19 May 2004 at the same location on the Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, Madison Parish, LA. This is the first documented permanent resident White-eyed Vireo outside of resident populations known from Florida and southern Texas. This individual appears to be resident near the northern limit of the winter range for the species. Although White-eyed Vireos are uncommon in northeastern Louisiana during winter, we detected other White-eyed Vireos during line transect surveys and banding during winters 2003-2004 and 2004-2005. The lack of research and observation of winter birds in northern Louisiana and the secretive and inconspicuous behavior of White-eyed Vireos in winter may have led to an underestimation of abundance at the northern limits of their winter range.

  4. Wintering bald eagle trends in northern Arizona, 1975-2000

    Treesearch

    Teryl G. Grubb

    2003-01-01

    Between 1975 and 2000, 4,525 sightings of wintering bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were recorded at Mormon Lake in northern Arizona. Numbers of wintering eagles fluctuated little in the 20 years from 1975 through 1994 (5.5 ± 3.0 mean sightings per day). However, during the winters of 1995 through 1997 local record highs of 59 to 118 eagles...

  5. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 5, Number 4, Winter 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Policies toward Tehran Strategic Studies Quarterly ♦ Winter 2011 [ 41 ] retool its counterproliferation strategy, which as currently constituted essentially...Studies Quarterly ♦ Winter 2011 Book Reviews [ 144 ] of the Mao era toward support for enterprise and the private economy. During the 1980s, under...W in ter 2011 WINTER 2011 Vol. 5, No. 4 US Policies toward Tehran: Redefining Counterproliferation for the Twenty-First Century Michael Kraig

  6. Can GRACE detect winter snows in Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heki, Kosuke

    2010-05-01

    Current spatial resolution of the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites is 300-400 km, and so its hydrological applications have been limited to continents and large islands. The Japanese Islands have width slightly smaller than this spatial resolution, but are known to show large amplitude seasonal changes in surface masses due mainly to winter snow. Such loads are responsible for seasonal crustal deformation observed with GEONET, a dense array of GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers in Japan (Heki, 2001). There is also a dense network of surface meteorological sensors for, e.g. snow depths, atmospheric pressures, etc. Heki (2004) showed that combined effects of surface loads, i.e. snow (predominant), atmosphere, soil moisture, dam impoundment, can explain seasonal crustal deformation observed by GPS to a large extent. The total weight of the winter snow in the Japanese Islands in its peak season may reach ~50 Gt. This is comparable to the annual loss of mountain glaciers in the Asian high mountains (Matsuo & Heki, 2010), and is above the detection level of GRACE. In this study, I use GRACE Level-2 Release-4 data from CSR, Univ. Texas, up to 2009 November, and evaluated seasonal changes in surface loads in and around the Japanese Islands. After applying a 350 km Gaussian filter and a de-striping filter, the peak-to-peak change of the water depth becomes ~4 cm in northern Japan. The maximum value is achieved in February-March. The region of large winter load spans from Hokkaido, Japan, to northeastern Honshu, which roughly coincides with the region of deep snow in Japan. Next I compiled snow depth data from surface meteorological observations, and converted them to loads using time-dependent snow density due to compaction. By applying the same spatial filter as the GRACE data, its spatial pattern becomes similar to the GRACE results. The present study suggests that GRACE is capable of detecting seasonal mass changes in an island arc not

  7. The History of Winter: teachers as scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, L.; Courville, Z.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Gow, T.; Bender, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The History of Winter (HOW) is a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center-funded teacher enrichment program that was started by Dr. Peter Wasilewski (NASA), Dr. Robert Gabrys (NASA) and Dr. Tony Gow (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, or CRREL) in 2001 and continues with support and involvement of scientists from both the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory and CREEL. The program brings educators mostly from middle and high schools but also from state parks, community colleges and other institutions from across the US to the Northwood School (a small, private boarding school) in Lake Placid, NY for one week to learn about several facets of winter, polar, and snow research, including the science and history of polar ice core research, lake ice formation and structure, snow pack science, winter ecology, and remote sensing including current and future NASA cryospheric missions. The program receives support from the Northwood School staff to facilitate the program. The goal of the program is to create 'teachers as scientists' which is achieved through several hands-on field experiences in which the teachers have the opportunity to work with polar researchers from NASA, CRREL and partner Universities to dig and sample snow pits, make ice thin sections from lake ice, make snow shelters, and observe under-ice lake ecology. The hands-on work allows the teachers to use the same tools and techniques used in polar research while simultaneously introducing science concepts and activities to support their classroom work. The ultimate goal of the program is to provide the classroom teachers with the opportunity to learn about current and timely cryospheric research as well as to engage in real fieldwork experiences. The enthusiasm generated during the week-long program is translated into classroom activities with guidance from scientists, teachers and educational professionals. The opportunity to engage with polar researchers, both young investigators and renowned

  8. Home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games 1976-2014.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Darryl; Ramchandani, Girish

    2017-01-01

    There is a limited amount of home advantage research concerned with winter sports. There is also a distinct lack of studies that investigate home advantage in the context of para sport events. This paper addresses this gap in the knowledge by examining home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games. Using a standardised measure of success, we compared the performances of host nations at home with their own performances away from home between 1976 and 2014. Both country level and individual sport level analysis is conducted for this time period. Comparisons are also drawn with the Winter Olympic Games since 1992, the point from which both the Winter Olympic Games and the Winter Paralympic Games have been hosted by the same nations and in the same years. Clear evidence of a home advantage effect in the Winter Paralympic Games was found at country level. When examining individual sports, only alpine skiing and cross country skiing returned a significant home advantage effect. When comparing home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games with the Winter Olympic Games for the last seven host nations (1992-2014), we found that home advantage was generally more pronounced (although not a statistically significant difference) in the case of the former. The causes of home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games are unclear and should be investigated further.

  9. Physiological processes during winter dormancy and their ecological significance

    SciTech Connect

    Havranek, W.M.; Tranquillini, W.

    1995-07-01

    Lengthy and severe winters require that trees in the forests of boreal and mountain zones undergo winter dormancy. Physiologically, a high resistance to subfreezing temperatures and concomitant dehydration are necessary. To accomplish this dormancy, both physiological and structural changes are needed at the cellular level that require induction by endogenous and photoperiodic control early in autumn. Endogenous rhythmicity promotes cold hardening in early autumn and the persistence of hardiness throughout the winter. Numerous physiological functions are maintained at a reduced level, or become completely inhibited during true winter dormancy. Winter hardiness also includes the capability to minimize water loss effectively when water uptake is severely impeded or impossible. Anatomical features such as tracheids act to minimize xylem embolism during frequent freeze-thaw cycles, and {open_quotes}crown{close_quotes} tissues enable buds to stay in a dehydrated and, thus, more resistant state during winter. Both these structural features are adaptations that contribute to the dominance of conifers in cold climates. Interestingly, deciduous tree species rather than evergreen conifers dominate in the most severe winter climates, although it is not clear whether limitations during winter, during the summer growth period, or during both are most limiting to conifer tree ecology. Additional work that evaluates the importance of winter and summer growth restriction, and their interaction, is needed before a comprehensive understanding of conifer tree ecophysiology will be possible.

  10. Winter Weather Will Make a Wet Thanksgiving

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    A large winter system is moving across the United States and is combining with cold air moving down from Canada, bringing snow to some areas. Major travel impacts are expected along the main highways throughout the eastern U.S. This true color image of the Continental U.S. was taken on November 25, 2013 by the Suomi NPP satellite and shows the system as it moves through the South and Midwest. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  11. Spirit Scans Winter Haven (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand.

    This view is a false-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  12. Landsat Science Team: 2016 winter meeting summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Todd; Loveland, Thomas; Wulder, Michael A.; Irons, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The winter meeting of the joint U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)–NASA Landsat Science Team (LST) was held January 12-14, 2016, at Virginia Tech University in Blacksburg, VA. LST co-chairs Tom Loveland [USGS’s Earth Resources Observation and Science Data Center (EROS)—Senior Scientist] and Jim Irons [NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)—Landsat 8 Project Scientist] welcomed more than 50 participants to the three-day meeting. The main objectives of this meeting focused on identifying priorities and approaches to improve the global moderate-resolution satellite record. Overall, the meeting was geared more towards soliciting team member recommendations on several rapidly evolving issues, than on providing updates on individual research activities. All the presentations given at the meeting are available at landsat.usgs. gov//science_LST_january2016.php.

  13. Zooplankton data report: Winter MIZEX, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.L.; Lane, P.V.Z.; Schwartling, E.M.; Beck, B.

    1988-12-01

    The Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX) was an interdisciplinary, international Arctic research program designed to study the atmospheric, oceanic, and ice interactions in the Fram Strait region of the Greenland Sea. This report focuses on zooplankton data collected during the winter MIZEX program of 1987. The primary objectives of our group during MIZEX 87 were to study the distribution of zooplankton species in relation to the ice-edge, the Polar Front, and the mesoscale eddy field, and to study zooplanktonic physiology just prior to the spring phytoplankton bloom. The data in this report are quantitative analyses of zooplankton samples collected while aboard the research vessel HAKON MOSBY during MIZEX 87. This is the third in a series of data reports on zooplankton collected in the Fram Strait region during the MIZEX project. A complete catalog of the reports generated from the MIZEX program is archived at the National Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colorado, USA. 1 ref., 3 tabs.

  14. Foods of Mountain Plovers wintering in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knopf, F.L.

    1998-01-01

    Prey items were identified from the stomachs of wintering Mountain Plovers (Charadrius montanus) collected in California at the Pixley National Wildlife Refuge and Carrizo Plain Natural Area in 1991, and south of the Salton Sea in 1992. Stomach contents of the 39 birds included 2,092 different food items representing 13 orders and at least 16 families of invertebrates. Diets at each of the three locales differed greatly, with coleopterans and hymenopterans dominating the Carrizo samples, lepidopterans the Pixley samples, and coleopterans and orthopterans the Salton Sea samples. Diets of males and females were similar. These findings counter the current perception that Mountain Plover diets are specialized on coleopterans and orthopterans, and bring the species more in line as a dietary generalist/opportunist as reported for most shorebirds.

  15. Winter weather conditions and myocardial infarctions.

    PubMed

    Ohlson, C G; Bodin, L; Bryngelsson, I L; Helsing, M; Malmberg, L

    1991-03-01

    The daily number of cases of myocardial infarctions admitted to a hospital in middle Sweden over three winter seasons 1984-87 was correlated to the weather conditions on a day-to-day basis. The study encompassed 634 days and all cases younger than 70 years, living within the catchment area, in all 382 subjects. Information on temperature, wind force, precipitation and atmospheric pressure was obtained from the Swedish Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology. A low number of myocardial infarctions was seen on Saturdays and Sundays with a mild wind chill factor and on days with moderate snowfall and high atmospheric pressure. A high number was observed for workdays, especially Mondays, as day of diagnosis. Heterogeneity of the study population and a misclassification of the time relationships between dates of diagnosis and weather changes may have caused an underestimation of the impact of weather conditions. However, weather conditions do not seem to be a major triggering factor of myocardial infarctions in Sweden.

  16. Spirit Scans Winter Haven (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand.

    This view is a false-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  17. Climatology of the winter Red Sea Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Adel M.; Almazroui, Mansour

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a new and objective method for detecting the Red Sea Trough (RST) was developed using mean sea level pressure (SLP) data from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis dataset from the winters of 1956 to 2015 to identify the Sudan Low and its trough. Approximately 96% of the winter RSTs were generated near two main sources, South Sudan and southeastern Sudan, and approximately 85% of these troughs were in four of the most outer areas surrounding the northern Red Sea. Moreover, from west to east of the Red Sea, the RST was affected by the relationships between the Siberian High and Azores High. The RST was oriented to the west when the strength of the Siberian High increased and to the east when the strength of the Azores High increased. Furthermore, the synoptic features of the upper level of the RST emphasize the impacts of subtropical anticyclones at 850 hPa on the orientation of the RST, the impacts of the northern cyclone trough and the maximum wind at a pressure level of 250 hPa. The average static stability between 1000 hPa and 500 hPa demonstrated that the RST followed the northern areas of low static stability. The results from previous studies were confirmed by a detailed case study of the RST that extended to its central outermost area. The results of a detailed case study of the short RST indicated that the trough becomes shorter with increasing static stability and that the Azores and Siberian high-pressure systems influence the northern region of the trough while the maximum upper wind shifts south of the climate position.

  18. Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy

    SciTech Connect

    multiple speakers, presenters listed on link below

    2011-02-12

    The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 12 to February 18, 2011. Ninety-four participants from ten countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, �New Data From the Energy Frontier.� There were 54 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The week�s events included a public lecture (�The Hunt for the Elusive Higgs Boson� given by Ben Kilminster from Ohio State University) and attended by 119 members of the public, and a physics caf� geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists. The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was �Indirect and Direct Detection of Dark Matter.� It was held from February 6 to February 12, 2011. The 70 participants came from 7 countries and attended 53 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists from other institutions and countries or due to incipient collaborations. In addition, Blas Cabrera of Stanford University gave a public lecture titled �What Makes Up Dark Matter.� There were 183 members of the general public in attendance. Before the lecture, 45 people attended the physics caf� to discuss dark matter. This report provides the attendee lists, programs, and announcement posters for each event.

  19. Motor gasolines, winter 1981-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E M

    1982-07-01

    Analytical data for 905 samples of motor gasoline, were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The data were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The samples represent the products of 30 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since winter 1959-1960 survey for the leaded gasolines, and since winter 1979-1980 survey for the unleaded gasolines. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 90.0 and above, leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 93.0, and leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R+M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.4 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.7 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 88.9 for leaded below 93.0. Only one sample was reported as 93.0 for leaded gasolines with an antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above.

  20. Winter climate limits subantarctic low forest growth and establishment.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Melanie A; McGlone, Matt S; Wilmshurst, Janet M

    2014-01-01

    Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52 °S, 169 °E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  =  -5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6 °C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C), dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm). Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally.

  1. Winter precipitation change in South China in recent decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jingning

    2013-04-01

    Precipitation change is one of important climate researches in China, but winter precipitation variation in South China has not been studied so frequently. In China, it is rainy when hot; so summer precipitation is usually one focus in research, esp. in South China. However, winter precipitation and its change influence people profoundly in South China, also. The most recent example is what happened over South China in winter 2008. In this winter, millions of people suffered from the unusual cold and snowy winter. It led to huge loss in economy and traffic as well. Roads closed and railway stations were jammed and crowded with people; many planes were grounded for heavy snow and bad weather. Transmission lines faulted in the mountains. The ommunication signals were affected. Everyday food supply including vegetables and meats had to be delayed or interrupted. In some city even water supply was interrupted. And garbage in the city was piled up. Just in this winter the snow depth and coverage area in many places in South China broke or equaled the historical records. In fact, it isn't the only one unusual winter precipitation event in South China. Since 1950s, several freezing and snowy winters struck the South in China. In this research, winter precipitation change in recent years in South China has been discussed based on the precipitation observations. The associated large scale atmospheric circulation change is also analyzed. It is found that snowy winter in South China hardly comes in most periods of 2000s, but in recent decades this heavy snow in winter has appeared several times as observations shows. This phenomenon could be related to the large scale atmospheric circulation change.

  2. Winter Climate Limits Subantarctic Low Forest Growth and Establishment

    PubMed Central

    Harsch, Melanie A.; McGlone, Matt S.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52°S, 169°E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  = −5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6°C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C), dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm). Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally. PMID:24691026

  3. EMS Student Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogle, Patrick

    This student guide is one of a series of self-contained materials for students enrolled in an emergency medical services (EMS) training program. Discussed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: the purpose and history of EMS professionals; EMS training, certification and examinations (national and state certification and…

  4. The Altar of Patriarchy in John Ehle's "The Winter People."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, M. Katherine

    In John Ehle's "The Winter People," the goddess Persephone is with Hades, and winter is upon the Appalachians in full force. Ehle's novel begins as Wayland Jackson and his daughter, Paula, arrive at the home of Collie Wright and her baby, Jonathan. The Jacksons' truck has broken down on their way from Pennsylvania to Tennessee following…

  5. 33 CFR 401.92 - Wintering and lying-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wintering and lying-up. 401.92 Section 401.92 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.92 Wintering and lying-up...

  6. Future prospects for Nearctic migrants wintering in Carribbean forest

    Treesearch

    Joseph M. Wunderler JR.; Robert B. Waide

    1994-01-01

    Wintering nearctic migrants constitute a high proportion of the birds present in many terrestrial habitats in the Bahamas and greater Antilles, But their proportions decline southward through the Lesser Antilles. many migrants winter on densely populate islands which have been extensively deforested.

  7. Paul Winter, Sun Singer...He Talks about Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslav, Marc

    1984-01-01

    Interviews Paul Winter, well-known musical emissary for the Earth and its wildlife among the environmental community. Incorporating voices of wolves, whales, and other creatures as accompanists to an uncategorizable blend of symphonic, jazz, African and Latin musical traditions, Winter's sound involves listeners in a guided experience of…

  8. Yield and yield components of winter-type safflower

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a minor yet widely grown oil seed crop adapted to semi-arid regions. The nascent development of winter adapted safflower, allowing fall planting,could substantially increase seed production over spring planting. In this study four winter type safflower accessi...

  9. Measurements of Chlorine Partitioning in the Winter Arctic Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stachnik, R.; Salawitch, R.; Engel, A.; Schmidt, U.

    1999-01-01

    Under the extremely cold conditions in the polar winter stratosphere, heterogeneous reactions involving HCl and CIONO(sub 2) on the surfaces of polar stratospheric cloud particles can release large amounts of reactive chlorine from these reservoirs leading to rapid chemical loss of ozone in the Arctic lower stratosphere during late winter and early spring.

  10. Winter Extratropical Cyclogenesis Over The Northern Gulf of Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-21

    Auciello, A. F. Gigi , J. S. Waldstreicher, K. K. Keeter, S. Businger, and L. G. Lee, 1995: Winter weather forecasting throughout the eastern United...Waldstreicher, P. J. Kocin, A. F. Gigi , and R. A. Marine, 1995: Winter weather forecasting throughout the eastern United States. Part I: An overview. Wea

  11. A risk analysis of winter navigation in Finnish sea areas.

    PubMed

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A; Goerlandt, Floris; Montewka, Jakub; Kujala, Pentti

    2015-06-01

    Winter navigation is a complex but common operation in north-European sea areas. In Finnish waters, the smooth flow of maritime traffic and safety of vessel navigation during the winter period are managed through the Finnish-Swedish winter navigation system (FSWNS). This article focuses on accident risks in winter navigation operations, beginning with a brief outline of the FSWNS. The study analyses a hazard identification model of winter navigation and reviews accident data extracted from four winter periods. These are adopted as a basis for visualizing the risks in winter navigation operations. The results reveal that experts consider ship independent navigation in ice conditions the most complex navigational operation, which is confirmed by accident data analysis showing that the operation constitutes the type of navigation with the highest number of accidents reported. The severity of the accidents during winter navigation is mainly categorized as less serious. Collision is the most typical accident in ice navigation and general cargo the type of vessel most frequently involved in these accidents. Consolidated ice, ice ridges and ice thickness between 15 and 40cm represent the most common ice conditions in which accidents occur. Thus, the analysis presented in this article establishes the key elements for identifying the operation types which would benefit most from further safety engineering and safety or risk management development.

  12. 66. Photocopied August 1978. VIEW OF THE WINTER HOUSING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. Photocopied August 1978. VIEW OF THE WINTER HOUSING AT THE MOVABLE DAM (HEADGATES) LOOKING EAST, FEBRUARY 5, 1902. COMPLETE ENCLOSURE OF THE CONSTRUCTION SITE WAS USED AT BOTH THE HEADGATES AND THE COMPENSATING GATES TO ALLOW CONTINUATION OF CONCRETE WORK THROUGH THE WINTER OF 1901-1902. (203) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  13. Management of eastern hemlock for deer wintering areas

    Treesearch

    Russell S. Reay

    2000-01-01

    Hemlock stands provide superior winter cover for white-tailed deer. When a site is suitable for the support of a hemlock community, a decision to undertake active management is appropriate, however the difficulty of securing adequate hemlock regeneration must guide and govern the timber management plan. The need to maintain deer wintering areas creates some limitations...

  14. Measurements of Chlorine Partitioning in the Winter Arctic Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stachnik, R.; Salawitch, R.; Engel, A.; Schmidt, U.

    1999-01-01

    Under the extremely cold conditions in the polar winter stratosphere, heterogeneous reactions involving HCl and CIONO(sub 2) on the surfaces of polar stratospheric cloud particles can release large amounts of reactive chlorine from these reservoirs leading to rapid chemical loss of ozone in the Arctic lower stratosphere during late winter and early spring.

  15. 1. LOOKING DOWNSTREAM (NORTHEAST) ALONG WINTER'S RUN TOWARD THE MITCHELL'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING DOWNSTREAM (NORTHEAST) ALONG WINTER'S RUN TOWARD THE MITCHELL'S MILL BRIDGE, SHOWING THE SETTING OF THE BRIDGE. CARRS MILL ROAD APPROACHES THE BRIDGE FROM THE SOUTH, ON THE RIGHT. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  16. Winter cereal canopy effect on cereal and interseeded legume productivity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Interseeding red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) into winter cereals in the North Central USA can provide forage and a green manure crop. We hypothesize that winter cereal canopy traits such as leaf area index (LAI) and whole plant dry matter (DM) influence interseeded...

  17. Global review of winter manure application regulations and guidelines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Application of animal manure to frozen and snow-covered soils can increase the risk of nutrient losses and impairment of water quality in regions with hardy winters. In conjunction with global distributions of animal densities, we reviewed world-wide regulatory and voluntary guidelines on winter man...

  18. Effects of prescribed burns on wintering cavity-nesting birds

    Treesearch

    Heather L. Bateman; Margaret A. O' Connell

    2006-01-01

    Primary cavity-nesting birds play a critical role in forest ecosystems by excavating cavities later used by other birds and mammals as nesting or roosting sites. Several species of cavity-nesting birds are non-migratory residents and consequently subject to winter conditions. We conducted winter bird counts from 1998 to 2000 to examine the abundance and habitat...

  19. Prevalence of hematozoa infections among breeding and wintering Rusty Blackbirds

    Treesearch

    William H. Barnard; Claudia Mettke-Hofmann; Steven M. Matsuoka

    2010-01-01

    The Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) has declined precipitously over the past several decades,and stressors on both the breeding and wintering grounds are suspected causes. Over 3 years, we collected blood samples from breeding birds in Alaska and Maine and from wintering birds in Mississippi and Arkansas to determine the prevalence of hematozoan infections at...

  20. 33 CFR 401.92 - Wintering and lying-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wintering and lying-up. 401.92 Section 401.92 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.92 Wintering and lying-up...

  1. 33 CFR 401.92 - Wintering and lying-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wintering and lying-up. 401.92 Section 401.92 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.92 Wintering and...

  2. Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    Treesearch

    T. Wang; P. Ciais; S.L. Piao; C. Ottle; P. Brender; F. Maignan; A. Arain; A. Cescatti; D. Gianelle; C. Gough; L Gu; P. Lafleur; T. Laurila; B. Marcolla; H. Margolis; L. Montagnani; E. Moors; N. Saigusa; T. Vesala; G. Wohlfahrt; C. Koven; A. Black; E. Dellwik; A. Don; D. Hollinger; A. Knohl; R. Monson; J. Munger; A. Suyker; A. Varlagin; S. Verma

    2011-01-01

    Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the factors influencing the spatial and temporal...

  3. 26. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION II, LOOKING EAST, WINTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION II, LOOKING EAST, WINTER, 1900. EXCAVATION WORK IN THE EARTH SECTIONS, UNLIKE THE ROCK SECTION, WAS USUALLY CARRIED ON THROUGH THE WINTER. SOME OF THE PILES DRIVEN IN THE FALL OF 1900 IN AN UNSUCESSFUL ATTEMPT TO PREVENT BANK SLIDES APPEAR AT THE LEFT. (47) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  4. 78 FR 73852 - Army Science Board Winter Plenary Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Department of the Army Army Science Board Winter Plenary Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION... committee meeting: Name of Committee: Army Science Board (ASB) Winter Plenary Session. Date: January 15.... Purpose of Meeting: The purpose of the meeting is for the Army Science Board to review the results of the...

  5. Structural and Functional Characterization of a Winter Malting Barley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The development of winter malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties is emerging as a worldwide priority due to the numerous advantages of these varieties over spring types. However, the complexity of both malting quality and winter hardiness phenotypes makes simultaneous improvement a challenge....

  6. Management of Fresh Wheat Residue for Irrigated Winter Canola Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Winter canola is popular with many irrigated growers as it provides excellent disease control benefits for potatoes grown in rotation. There is a belief among irrigated canola growers that fresh wheat residue must be burned and the soil then heavily tilled before winter canola is planted. These grow...

  7. Waterbirds foods in winter-managed ricefields in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manley, S.W.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.; Gerard, P.D.

    2004-01-01

    Ricefields are important foraging habitats for waterfowl and other waterbirds in primary North American wintering regions. We conducted a large-scale experiment to test effects of post-harvest ricefield treatment, winter water management, and temporal factors on availabilities of rice, moist-soil plant seeds, aquatic invertebrates, and green forage in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV), Mississippi, USA, fall-winter 1995-1997. Our results revealed that a large decrease in rice grain occurred between harvest and early winter (79-99%), which, if generally true throughout the MAV, would have critical implications on foraging carrying capacity of ricefields for migrating and wintering waterbirds. During the remainder of winter, food resources generally were similar among treatment combinations. An exception was biomass of aquatic invertebrates, which demonstrated potential to increase by late winter in ricefields that remained flooded. We offer revised calculations of foraging carrying capacity for waterfowl in MAV ricefields and recommend continuing research and management designed to increase availability of residual rice and aquatic invertebrates in winter.

  8. Sex-specific differences in winter distribution patterns of canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Haramis, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Winter band recovery distributions of North American Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) suggested that males and females exhibit comparable degrees of fidelity to general wintering areas. Of birds banded during the winter, the proportion of males was found to be higher in northern than in southern areas. Winter band recovery distributions of birds banded in particular areas during the summer were found to differ significantly between sexes, with females being recovered farther south. Factors that may have affected the evolution of sex-specific wintering distributions include: (1) possible reproductive benefits derived by males who winter in the north and thus reach northerly breeding areas early; (2) sexual dimorphism in body size, which may render the smaller females especially susceptible to periods of inclement weather and food shortages; and (3) interactions between sexes in which males may control food supply when food is scarce. Two lines of evidence from field data on Canvasbacks in the Chesapeake Bay suggest the existence of competition between males and females. First, Canvasbacks trapped during winter in smaller bodies of water tended to have higher proportions of females and weigh less than birds trapped in large open bodies of water. Second, analysis of aerial photographs of wintering rafts of Canvasbacks showed patterns of intersexual segregation, with females being found more frequently on peripheral areas of rafts.

  9. Paul Winter, Sun Singer...He Talks about Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslav, Marc

    1984-01-01

    Interviews Paul Winter, well-known musical emissary for the Earth and its wildlife among the environmental community. Incorporating voices of wolves, whales, and other creatures as accompanists to an uncategorizable blend of symphonic, jazz, African and Latin musical traditions, Winter's sound involves listeners in a guided experience of…

  10. Increasing frequency and duration of Arctic winter warming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Robert M.; Cohen, Lana; Petty, Alek A.; Boisvert, Linette N.; Rinke, Annette; Hudson, Stephen R.; Nicolaus, Marcel; Granskog, Mats A.

    2017-07-01

    Near-surface air temperatures close to 0°C were observed in situ over sea ice in the central Arctic during the last three winter seasons. Here we use in situ winter (December-March) temperature observations, such as those from Soviet North Pole drifting stations and ocean buoys, to determine how common Arctic winter warming events are. Observations of winter warming events exist over most of the Arctic Basin. Temperatures exceeding -5°C were observed during >30% of winters from 1954 to 2010 by North Pole drifting stations or ocean buoys. Using the ERA-Interim record (1979-2016), we show that the North Pole (NP) region typically experiences 10 warming events (T2m > -10°C) per winter, compared with only five in the Pacific Central Arctic (PCA). There is a positive trend in the overall duration of winter warming events for both the NP region (4.25 days/decade) and PCA (1.16 days/decade), due to an increased number of events of longer duration.Plain Language SummaryDuring the last three <span class="hlt">winter</span> seasons, extreme warming events were observed over sea ice in the central Arctic Ocean. Each of these warming events were associated with temperatures close to or above 0°C, which lasted for between 1 and 3 days. Typically temperatures in the Arctic at this time of year are below -30°C. Here we study past temperature observations in the Arctic to investigate how common <span class="hlt">winter</span> warming events are. We use time temperature observations from expeditions such as Fram (1893-1896) and manned Soviet North Pole drifting ice stations from 1937 to 1991. These historic temperature records show that <span class="hlt">winter</span> warming events have been observed over most of the Arctic Ocean. Despite a thin network of observation sites, <span class="hlt">winter</span> time temperatures above -5°C were directly observed approximately once every 3 years in the central Arctic Ocean between 1954 and 2010. <span class="hlt">Winter</span> warming events are associated with storm systems originating in either the Atlantic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC41A1065J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC41A1065J"><span>Factors Contributing to Extremely Wet <span class="hlt">Winters</span> in California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jong, B. T.; Ting, M.; Seager, R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>As California continues to battle the severe drought conditions, it becomes increasingly important to understand the atmospheric and oceanic conditions that may possible break this ongoing drought. Is a strong El Niño, such as the 2015/16 event, enough to break the drought? We examine in this study the possible factors that lead to extremely wet <span class="hlt">winters</span> (the wettest 15%) in both Northern and Southern CA. The relationships between CA <span class="hlt">winter</span> precipitation and sea surface temperature conditions in the Pacific, as well as atmospheric circulation are determined by using observational and reanalysis data from 1901 to 2010. One of the key features of the atmospheric circulation is the location of the low pressure anomaly, whether caused by El Niño or other factors. If the anomaly locates right off the US west coast, CA tends to be wet, and vice versa. Furthermore, the duration of the circulation anomaly seems to be crucial. During wet El Niño <span class="hlt">winters</span>, the peak of the circulation anomaly is in the late <span class="hlt">winter</span>, whereas, during non-wet El Niño <span class="hlt">winters</span>, the peak of the anomaly is in the early <span class="hlt">winter</span>. Thus, an El Niño that can last to late <span class="hlt">winter</span> is more likely to cause an extremely wet <span class="hlt">winter</span> in the state. The intensity of El Niño is another critical factor. In the wettest tercile late <span class="hlt">winter</span>, a strong El Niño can bring about 200% of climatological precipitation to CA, while a weak El Niño can bring only less than 150% of climatology. In combination, only a strong El Niño that can last to late <span class="hlt">winter</span> may make extremely wet <span class="hlt">winters</span> very likely in CA. To explore the other factors, composites of circulation anomaly during wet & non-El Niño <span class="hlt">winters</span> were also analyzed. The results show that a zonally propagating wave train, originating from western North Pacific, contributes to low pressure center and wet <span class="hlt">winter</span> conditions in the state. Thus, coastal low pressure anomaly is a consistent feature for an extremely wet <span class="hlt">winters</span> in California, but the origin of forcing can</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGC21D1124D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGC21D1124D"><span>Lake Stability and <span class="hlt">Winter</span>-Spring Transitions: Decoupled Ice Duration and <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Stratification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Daly, J.; Dana, S.; Neal, B.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Ice-out is an important historical record demonstrating the impact of warmer air temperatures on lake ice. To better understand regional differences in ice-out trends, to characterize the thermal dynamics of smaller mountain lakes, and to develop baseline data for Maine's high elevations landscapes, sub-hourly water temperatures have been collected in over a dozen of Maine's mountain lakes since 2010. Both surface water and hypolimnion temperature data are recorded year-round, facilitating the determination of ice-in, ice-out, and the duration of <span class="hlt">winter</span> stratification. The multi-year record from sites across as 250 km transect allows us to compare spatial variability related to lake morphometry and location with inter-annual variability related to local weather. All of the study lakes are large enough to stratify during the summer and mix extensively during the fall. Most years, our data show that the onset of <span class="hlt">winter</span> stratification is nearly synchronous across the study area and is associated with cold air temperatures. <span class="hlt">Winter</span> stratification can begin days to weeks before ice-in; the timing of ice-in shows more variability, with both elevation and basin aspect influencing the timing. Ice-out shows both the anticipated spatial and interannual variability; some years there is strong coherence between locations while other years show high variability, possibly a function of differences in snowpack. Ice-out is not always immediately followed by the end of <span class="hlt">winter</span> stratification, there is sometimes a lag of days to weeks before the lakes mix. If the warm temperatures that lead to ice-out are followed by calm days without significant wind, the surface of some lakes begins to warm quickly maintaining the density difference and prolonging <span class="hlt">winter</span> stratification. The longer the lag time, the stronger the density difference becomes which may also result in a very brief period of mixing in the spring prior to set-up of summer stratification. This year's El Niño event resulted</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy...48..577H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy...48..577H"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> climate changes over East Asian region under RCP scenarios using East Asian <span class="hlt">winter</span> monsoon indices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hong, Ja-Young; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Jhun, Jong-Ghap</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The changes in the <span class="hlt">winter</span> climatology and variability of the East Asian <span class="hlt">winter</span> monsoon (EAWM) for the late 21st century (2070-2099) under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are projected in terms of EAWM indices (EAWMIs). Firstly, the capability of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating the boreal <span class="hlt">winter</span> climatology and the interannual variability of the EAWM for the late 20th century (1971-2000) is examined. Nine of twenty-three climate models are selected based on the pattern correlations with observation and a multi-model ensemble is applied to the nine model data. Three of twelve EAWMIs that show the most significant temporal correlations between the observation and CMIP5 surface air temperatures are utilized. The ensemble CMIP5 is capable of reproducing the overall features of the EAWM in spite of some biases in the region. The negative correlations between the EAWMIs and boreal <span class="hlt">winter</span> temperature are well reproduced and 3-5 years of the major interannual variation observed in this region are also well simulated according to power spectral analyses of the simulated indices. The fields regressed onto the indices that resemble the composite strong <span class="hlt">winter</span> monsoon pattern are simulated more or less weakly in CMIP5 compared to the observation. However, the regressed fields of sea level pressure, surface air temperature, 500-hPa geopotential height, and 300-hPa zonal wind are well established with pattern correlations above 0.83 between CMIP5 and observation data. The differences between RCPs and Historical indicate strong warming, which increases with latitude, ranging from 1 to 5 °C under RCP4.5 and from 3 to 7 °C under RCP8.5 in the East Asian region. The anomalous southerly winds generally become stronger, implying weaker EAWMs in both scenarios. These features are also identified with fields regressed onto the indices in RCPs. The future projections reveal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/5220440','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/5220440"><span>Lack of association among duck broodmates during migration and <span class="hlt">wintering</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Martinson, R.K.; Hawkins, A.S.</p> <p>1968-01-01</p> <p>Male (Lensink, 1964: 19) and female ducks tend to return to the area where they last bred or were raised (Sowles, 1955). Band recovery data show a similar tendency for ducks to return to <span class="hlt">wintering</span> areas (Stewart et al., 1958; Martinson, 1966). <span class="hlt">Wintering</span> British Columbia Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) populations may be definite associations of birds that breed in the same general locality, migrate together, and use the same <span class="hlt">wintering</span> area (Munro, 1943). On the other hand Gollop (1965: 36-37) showed that Mallards reared in Saskatchewan or breeding there re- turned in subsequent years, but "neither migrated nor <span class="hlt">wintered</span> as definite associations." He based his conclusions on recovery data from groups of Mallards banded on the same slough and from broodmates. His data showed, by date or area of recovery, that the birds migrated independently and sometimes to different <span class="hlt">wintering</span> localities. This paper presents additional data suggesting that ducks banded as brood- mates may migrate independently.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18244951','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18244951"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">winter</span> temperatures on two birch (Betula) species.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miller-Rushing, Abraham J; Primack, Richard B</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>In Massachusetts, low <span class="hlt">winter</span> temperatures delay the onset of flowering in black birch (Betula lenta L.), but not in gray birch (B. populifolia Marsh.). During the <span class="hlt">winter</span> of 2006, male inflorescences and twigs of black birch had higher water contents than those of gray birch, and the inflorescences of black birch experienced greater frost kill than those of gray birch. Vessels diameters were greater in black than in gray birch, a difference associated with a higher incidence of <span class="hlt">winter</span> xylem embolism, as indicated by reduced xylem hydraulic conductance. In both species, recovery of hydraulic conductance in twigs that survived the <span class="hlt">winter</span> coincided with the development of root pressure. Frost kill to male inflorescences or associated damage to plant tissues may account for the difference between species in the effect of <span class="hlt">winter</span> temperature on the time of first flowering. In a comparison of 24 birch species, sensitivity of the first flowering date to temperature was also correlated with water content in male inflorescences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/41805','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/41805"><span>Solar aquaculture: A <span class="hlt">wintering</span> technique for parent prawns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cao Jin Long</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>A new method of providing the warm water needed for parent prawn <span class="hlt">wintering</span> using solar energy is described. Using solar energy for prawn <span class="hlt">wintering</span> involves heat collection, heat storage and temperature maintenance. The system designed provides sufficient energy for the safe <span class="hlt">wintering</span> of prawns with suitable water temperatures. The temperature control facilities consist of three parts: a salt gradient solar pond, a shallow solar pond and a plastic house. The technique involves use of a shallow solar pond for collection and storage of heat. The average temperature in the <span class="hlt">wintering</span> pond plastic house was 11 degrees C and the minimum temperature in January was 5.4 degrees C. This system allowed the <span class="hlt">wintering</span> process to be conducted using solar energy alone and may extend aquaculture to higher latitudes. The ratio of net profit with the solar energy system over investment is 1.5 which makes it economically viable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18004320','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18004320"><span>Anti-correlation of summer/<span class="hlt">winter</span> monsoons?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, De'er; Lu, Longhua</p> <p>2007-11-15</p> <p>On the basis of the anti-correlation of their palaeoclimatic proxy for the strength of the East Asian <span class="hlt">winter</span> monsoon from Lake Huguang Maar, China, with stalagmite records of the strength of the summer monsoon, Yancheva et al. claim that the strengths of the summer and <span class="hlt">winter</span> monsoons are anti-correlated on a decadal timescale. They argue that the summer rainfall deficit during ad 700-900 that they infer from their evidence of a stronger <span class="hlt">winter</span> monsoon, in conjunction with a Tanros battle, led to the collapse of the Tang dynasty (ad 618-907). Using historical climate records, we show here that most cold <span class="hlt">winters</span> during ad 700-900 were associated with relatively wet summers, indicating that the strengths of the <span class="hlt">winter</span> and summer monsoons were not negatively correlated during this period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10189386','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10189386"><span><span class="hlt">EM</span> International. Volume 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>It is the intent of <span class="hlt">EM</span> International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (<span class="hlt">EM`s</span>) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on <span class="hlt">EM</span> programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and <span class="hlt">EM</span> activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03465&hterms=lake+pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dlake%2Bpollution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03465&hterms=lake+pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dlake%2Bpollution"><span>Salt Lake City, Utah, <span class="hlt">Winter</span> 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The 2002 <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This simulated natural color image presents a snowy, <span class="hlt">winter</span> view of north central Utah that includes all of the Olympic sites. The image extends from Ogden in the north, to Provo in the south; and includes the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains and the eastern part of the Great Salt Lake.<p/>This image was acquired on February 8, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.<p/>ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.<p/>The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03465&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03465&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage"><span>Salt Lake City, Utah, <span class="hlt">Winter</span> 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The 2002 <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This simulated natural color image presents a snowy, <span class="hlt">winter</span> view of north central Utah that includes all of the Olympic sites. The image extends from Ogden in the north, to Provo in the south; and includes the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains and the eastern part of the Great Salt Lake.<p/>This image was acquired on February 8, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.<p/>ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.<p/>The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..306T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..306T"><span>Variability of <span class="hlt">winter</span> and summer precipitation in Serbia and Montenegro</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tosic, Ivana; Unkasevic, Miroslava</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The main characteristics of the spatial and temporal variability of <span class="hlt">winter</span> and summer precipitation observed at 30 stations in Serbia and Montenegro were analyzed for the period 1951-2000. The rainfall series were examined spatially by means of Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) and temporally by means of the Mann-Kendall test and wavelet analysis. One of the main purposes of EOF is to reduce the number of variables to be studied whilst retaining most of the information contained in the original set of variables in order to understand and interpret the structure of the data. The temporal variability of the time series associated with the main EOF configurations (the Principal Components, PCs) are examined. The EOF analysis gave three <span class="hlt">winter</span> and summer dominant modes of variations, which explained 89.7% and 70.4% of the variance, respectively. The time series (PC1) associated with the first pattern showed a decreasing trend in <span class="hlt">winter</span> precipitation. The first <span class="hlt">winter</span> and summer patterns indicated that the large-scale atmospheric circulation could be responsible for the <span class="hlt">winter</span> and summer precipitation variability. Strong correlation between the <span class="hlt">winter</span> PC1 and the NAO index indicated that the NAO could be responsible for the <span class="hlt">winter</span> precipitation variability. The second <span class="hlt">winter</span> and summer EOF patterns showed an opposite sign of climate variability between areas with Mediterranean and continental climates, which highlighted the influence of relief and the Adriatic Sea on the precipitation regime. Also, the third EOF pattern showed a dipolar structure that suggested an orographic influence. Wavelet analysis showed that a quasi-cycle of 8 and 16 years was found in the <span class="hlt">winter</span> PC1 and a quasi-triennial oscillation in the summer PC1, while a quasi-cycle of about 7 years was found in the <span class="hlt">winter</span> PC2. The quasi-periodic oscillations found over Serbia and Montenegro are consistent with the quasi-periodic oscillations reported in other studies on fluctuations of European</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=320733','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=320733"><span>Registration of four <span class="hlt">winter</span>-hardy faba bean germplasm lines for use in <span class="hlt">winter</span> pulse and cover crop development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a versatile crop grown for food, feed, vegetable, or cover crop purposes in many countries. In response to the growing demand for <span class="hlt">winter</span> annual legumes for cover crop development in the United States, we developed four <span class="hlt">winter</span>-hardy faba bean germplasm lines, WH-1 (Reg. N...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA08527&hterms=spirit&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dspirit','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA08527&hterms=spirit&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dspirit"><span>View Northward from Spirit's <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Roost</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><p/> One part of the research program that NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit is conducting while sitting at a favorable location for wintertime solar energy is the most detailed panorama yet taken on the surface of Mars. This view is a partial preliminary product from the continuing work on the full image, which will be called the 'McMurdo Panorama.' <p/> Spirit's panoramic camera (Pancam) began taking exposures for the McMurdo Panorama on the rover's 814th Martian day (April 18, 2006). The rover has accumulated more than 900 exposures for this panorama so far, through all of the Pancam mineralogy filters and using little or no image compression. Even with a tilt toward the <span class="hlt">winter</span> sun, the amount of energy available daily is small, so the job will still take one to two more months to complete. <p/> This portion of the work in progress looks toward the north. 'Husband Hill,' which Spirit was climbing a year ago, is on the horizon near the center. 'Home Plate' is a between that hill and the rover's current position. Wheel tracks imprinted when Spirit drove south from Home Plate can be seen crossing the middle distance of the image from the center to the right. <p/> This is an approximate true-color rendering combining exposures taken through three of the panoramic camera's filters. The filters used are centered on wavelengths of 750 nanometers, 530 nanometers and 430 nanometers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02641&hterms=Emeralds&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DEmeralds','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02641&hterms=Emeralds&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DEmeralds"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> Snowfall Turns an Emerald White</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p><p/>Ireland's climate is normally mild due to the nearby Gulf Stream, but the waning days of 2000 saw the Emerald Isle's green fields swathed in an uncommon blanket of white. The contrast between summer and <span class="hlt">winter</span> is apparent in this pair of images of southwestern Ireland acquired by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on August 23, 2000 (left) and December 29, 2000 (right). The corresponding Terra orbit numbers are 3628 and 5492, respectively.<p/>The year 2000 brought record-breaking weather to the British Isles. England and Wales experienced the wettest spring and autumn months since 1766. Despite being one of the warmest years in recent history, a cold snap arrived between Christmas and New Year's Day. According to the UK Meteorological Office, the 18 centimeters (7 inches) of snow recorded at Aldergrove, Northern Ireland, on December 27-28 was the deepest daily fall since 1930.<p/>Prominent geographical features visible in the MISR images include Galway Bay near the top left. Further south, the mouth of the River Shannon, the largest river in the British Isles, meets the Atlantic Ocean. In the lower portions of the images are the counties of Limerick, Kerry and Cork.<p/>MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890005164','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890005164"><span>Heterogeneous physicochemistry of the <span class="hlt">winter</span> polar stratosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Present chemical theories of the Antarctic ozone hole assume that heterogeneous reactions involving polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are the precursor of springtime ozone depletions. However, none of the theories quantify the rates of proposed heterogeneous processed, and none utilize the extensive data base on PSC's. Thus, all of the theories must be considered incomplete until the heterogeneous mechanisms are properly defined. A unified treatment developed of the cloud related processes, both physical and chemical, and the importance of these processes using observation data is calibrated. The rates are compared competitive heterogeneous processes to place reasonable limits on critical mechanisms such as the denitrification and dechlorination of the polar <span class="hlt">winter</span> stratosphere. Among the subjects addressed here are the physical/chemical properties of PSC's including their relevant microphysical, optical and compositional characteristics, mass transfer rates of gaseous constituents to cloud particles, adsorption, accommodation and sticking coefficients on cloud particles, time constants for condensation, absorption and other microphysical processes, effects of solubility and vapor pressure on cloud composition, the statistics of cloud processing of chemically active condensible species, rate limiting steps in heterogeneous chemical reactions, and the nonlinear dependence of ozone loss on physical and chemical parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AdG....10...31H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AdG....10...31H"><span>Comparison of East Asian <span class="hlt">winter</span> monsoon indices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hui, Gao</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>Four East Asian <span class="hlt">winter</span> monsoon (EAWM) indices are compared in this paper. In the research periods, all the indices show similar interannual and decadal-interdecadal variations, with predominant periods centering in 3-4 years, 6.5 years and 9-15 years, respectively. Besides, all the indices show remarkable weakening trends since the 1980s. The correlation coefficient of each two indices is positive with a significance level of 99%. Both the correlation analyses and the composites indicate that in stronger EAWM years, the Siberian high and the higher-level subtropical westerly jet are stronger, and the Aleutian low and the East Asia trough are deeper. This circulation pattern is favorable for much stronger northwesterly wind and lower air temperature in the subtropical regions of East Asia, while it is on the opposite in weaker EAWM years. Besides, EAWM can also exert a remarkable leading effect on the summer monsoon. After stronger (weaker) EAWM, less (more) summer precipitation is seen over the regions from the Yangtze River valley of China to southern Japan, while more (less) from South China Sea to the tropical western Pacific.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037626','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037626"><span>Sage-grouse habitat selection during <span class="hlt">winter</span> in Alberta</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Carpenter, J.; Aldridge, C.; Boyce, M.S.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) for food and shelter during <span class="hlt">winter</span>, yet few studies have assessed <span class="hlt">winter</span> habitat selection, particularly at scales applicable to conservation planning. Small changes to availability of <span class="hlt">winter</span> habitats have caused drastic reductions in some sage-grouse populations. We modeled <span class="hlt">winter</span> habitat selection by sage-grouse in Alberta, Canada, by using a resource selection function. Our purpose was to 1) generate a robust <span class="hlt">winter</span> habitat-selection model for Alberta sage-grouse; 2) spatially depict habitat suitability in a Geographic Information System to identify areas with a high probability of selection and thus, conservation importance; and 3) assess the relative influence of human development, including oil and gas wells, in landscape models of <span class="hlt">winter</span> habitat selection. Terrain and vegetation characteristics, sagebrush cover, anthropogenic landscape features, and energy development were important in top Akaike's Information Criterionselected models. During <span class="hlt">winter</span>, sage-grouse selected dense sagebrush cover and homogenous less rugged areas, and avoided energy development and 2-track truck trails. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development highlights the need for comprehensive management strategies that maintain suitable habitats across all seasons. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.jstor.org/stable/5072','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.jstor.org/stable/5072"><span>Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous <span class="hlt">winters</span>' snow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>(1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive <span class="hlt">winters</span> with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual <span class="hlt">winters</span> and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three <span class="hlt">winters</span>. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between <span class="hlt">winter</span> vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, <span class="hlt">winters</span>, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that <span class="hlt">winter</span> influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to <span class="hlt">winter</span> weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611254Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611254Z"><span>Interannual variability of <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Precipitation in Southeast China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Ling; Fraedrich, Klaus; zhu, Xiuhua; Sielmann, Frank</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The observed <span class="hlt">winter</span> (DJF) precipitation in Southeast China (1961-2010) is characterized by a monopole pattern of the three-monthly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI-3) whose interannual variability is related to the anomalies of East Asian <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Monsoon (EAWM) systems. Dynamic composites and linear regression analysis indicate that the intensity of EAWM and Siberia High (SH), the position of East Asian Trough (EAT), El Niño events and SST anomalies over South China Sea (SCS) influence different regions of anomalous Southeast China <span class="hlt">winter</span> precipitation on interannual scales. The circulation indices (EAWM, SH and EAT) mainly affect the <span class="hlt">winter</span> precipitation in the eastern part of Southeast China. El Niño events affect the South China <span class="hlt">winter</span> precipitation due to the anticyclone anomalies over Philippines. The effect of SCS SST anomalies on the <span class="hlt">winter</span> precipitation is mainly in the south part of Yangtze River. And the contributions from all the impact factors do not counteract with one another to generate the Southeast China <span class="hlt">winter</span> precipitation variability. Thus, a set of circulation regimes, represented by a handful indices, provide the basis for modeling precipitation anomalies or extremes in future climate projections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4610409','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4610409"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> Season Mortality: Will Climate Warming Bring Benefits?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kinney, Patrick L.; Schwartz, Joel; Pascal, Mathilde; Petkova, Elisaveta; Tertre, Alain Le; Medina, Sylvia; Vautard, Robert</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Extreme heat events are associated with spikes in mortality, yet death rates are on average highest during the coldest months of the year. Under the assumption that most <span class="hlt">winter</span> excess mortality is due to cold temperature, many previous studies have concluded that <span class="hlt">winter</span> mortality will substantially decline in a warming climate. We analyzed whether and to what extent cold temperatures are associated with excess <span class="hlt">winter</span> mortality across multiple cities and over multiple years within individual cities, using daily temperature and mortality data from 36 US cities (1985-2006) and 3 French cities (1971-2007). Comparing across cities, we found that excess <span class="hlt">winter</span> mortality did not depend on seasonal temperature range, and was no lower in warmer vs. colder cities, suggesting that temperature is not a key driver of <span class="hlt">winter</span> excess mortality. Using regression models within monthly strata, we found that variability in daily mortality within cities was not strongly influenced by <span class="hlt">winter</span> temperature. Finally we found that inadequate control for seasonality in analyses of the effects of cold temperatures led to spuriously large assumed cold effects, and erroneous attribution of <span class="hlt">winter</span> mortality to cold temperatures. Our findings suggest that reductions in cold-related mortality under warming climate may be much smaller than some have assumed. This should be of interest to researchers and policy makers concerned with projecting future health effects of climate change and developing relevant adaptation strategies. PMID:26495037</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10f4016K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10f4016K"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> season mortality: will climate warming bring benefits?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kinney, Patrick L.; Schwartz, Joel; Pascal, Mathilde; Petkova, Elisaveta; Le Tertre, Alain; Medina, Sylvia; Vautard, Robert</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Extreme heat events are associated with spikes in mortality, yet death rates are on average highest during the coldest months of the year. Under the assumption that most <span class="hlt">winter</span> excess mortality is due to cold temperature, many previous studies have concluded that <span class="hlt">winter</span> mortality will substantially decline in a warming climate. We analyzed whether and to what extent cold temperatures are associated with excess <span class="hlt">winter</span> mortality across multiple cities and over multiple years within individual cities, using daily temperature and mortality data from 36 US cities (1985-2006) and 3 French cities (1971-2007). Comparing across cities, we found that excess <span class="hlt">winter</span> mortality did not depend on seasonal temperature range, and was no lower in warmer vs. colder cities, suggesting that temperature is not a key driver of <span class="hlt">winter</span> excess mortality. Using regression models within monthly strata, we found that variability in daily mortality within cities was not strongly influenced by <span class="hlt">winter</span> temperature. Finally we found that inadequate control for seasonality in analyses of the effects of cold temperatures led to spuriously large assumed cold effects, and erroneous attribution of <span class="hlt">winter</span> mortality to cold temperatures. Our findings suggest that reductions in cold-related mortality under warming climate may be much smaller than some have assumed. This should be of interest to researchers and policy makers concerned with projecting future health effects of climate change and developing relevant adaptation strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030053448','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030053448"><span>The Unusual Southern Hemisphere Stratosphere <span class="hlt">Winter</span> of 2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The southern hemisphere stratospheric <span class="hlt">winter</span> of 2002 was the most unusual <span class="hlt">winter</span> yet observed in the southern hemisphere climate record. Temperatures near the edge of the Antarctic polar vortex were considerably warmer than normal over the entire course of the <span class="hlt">winter</span>. The polar night jet was considerably weaker than normal, and was displaced more poleward than has been observed in previous <span class="hlt">winters</span>. These record high temperatures and weak jet resulted from a series of wave events that took place over the course of the <span class="hlt">winter</span>. The first large event occurred on 15 May, and the final warming occurred on 25 October. The propagation of these wave events from the troposphere is diagnosed from time series of Eliassen-Palm flux vectors. The wave events tended to occur irregularly over the course of the <span class="hlt">winter</span>, and pre-conditioned the polar night jet for the extremely large wave event of 22 September. This large wave event resulted in the first ever observed major stratospheric warming in the southern hemisphere. This wave event split the Antarctic ozone hole. The combined effect of the wave events of the 2002 <span class="hlt">winter</span> resulted in the smallest ozone hole observed since 1988.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22042523','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22042523"><span>Lemming <span class="hlt">winter</span> habitat choice: a snow-fencing experiment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reid, Donald G; Bilodeau, Frédéric; Krebs, Charles J; Gauthier, Gilles; Kenney, Alice J; Gilbert, B Scott; Leung, Maria C-Y; Duchesne, David; Hofer, Elizabeth</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The insulative value of early and deep <span class="hlt">winter</span> snow is thought to enhance <span class="hlt">winter</span> reproduction and survival by arctic lemmings (Lemmus and Dicrostonyx spp). This leads to the general hypothesis that landscapes with persistently low lemming population densities, or low amplitude population fluctuations, have a low proportion of the land base with deep snow. We experimentally tested a component of this hypothesis, that snow depth influences habitat choice, at three Canadian Arctic sites: Bylot Island, Nunavut; Herschel Island, Yukon; Komakuk Beach, Yukon. We used snow fencing to enhance snow depth on 9-ha tundra habitats, and measured the intensity of <span class="hlt">winter</span> use of these and control areas by counting rodent <span class="hlt">winter</span> nests in spring. At all three sites, the density of <span class="hlt">winter</span> nests increased in treated areas compared to control areas after the treatment, and remained higher on treated areas during the treatment. The treatment was relaxed at one site, and <span class="hlt">winter</span> nest density returned to pre-treatment levels. The rodents' proportional use of treated areas compared to adjacent control areas increased and remained higher during the treatment. At two of three sites, lemmings and voles showed significant attraction to the areas of deepest snow accumulation closest to the fences. The strength of the treatment effect appeared to depend on how quickly the ground level temperature regime became stable in autumn, coincident with snow depths near the hiemal threshold. Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that snow depth is a primary determinant of <span class="hlt">winter</span> habitat choice by tundra lemmings and voles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1649794','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1649794"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> weather and cardiovascular mortality in Minneapolis-St. Paul.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Baker-Blocker, A</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A study of vital statistics data from five Minneapolis-St. Paul <span class="hlt">winters</span> indicates cardiovascular mortality is influenced by <span class="hlt">winter</span> temperatures and snow. Although air temperature was not statistically implicated in triggering cardiovascular mortality in four of the five study <span class="hlt">winters</span>, during the <span class="hlt">winter</span> of 1976-77, about 15 per cent of the variance in daily cardiovascular mortality could be attributed to fluctuations in the daily minimum air temperature. Snow influenced mortality on the day of occurrence as well as the two days following a snowfall. There appear to be some differences in the ability of <span class="hlt">winter</span> weather to influence mortality from acute myocardial infarction (ICD 410) and old myocardial infarction (ICD 412). The variance in daily ICD 410 mortality attributable to the influence of snow is somewhat less than that in daily ICD 412 mortality. The greatest variance in daily ICD 412 mortality that could be ascribed to snow occurred during the <span class="hlt">winter</span> of 1974-75, and was 13 per cent. It is likely that rain intermixed with snow may also trigger increased mortality from cardiovascular disease. A combination of rain and snow can produce dramatic increased in mortality from ICD 410. Study of mortality data from five <span class="hlt">winters</span> indicates that snow is somewhat more important in triggering deaths from heart disease than is air temperature. PMID:7058966</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26986796','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26986796"><span>Novel psychrotolerant picocyanobacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay in the <span class="hlt">winter</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Yongle; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Picocyanobacteria are major primary producers in the ocean, especially in the tropical or subtropical oceans or during warm seasons. Many "warm" picocyanobacterial species have been isolated and characterized. However, picocyanobacteria in cold environments or cold seasons are much less studied. In general, little is known about the taxonomy and ecophysiology of picocyanobacteria living in the <span class="hlt">winter</span>. In this study, 17 strains of picocyanobacteria were isolated from Chesapeake Bay, a temperate estuarine ecosystem, during the <span class="hlt">winter</span> months. These <span class="hlt">winter</span> isolates belong to five distinct phylogenetic lineages, and are distinct from the picocyanobacteria previously isolated from the warm seasons. The vast majority of the <span class="hlt">winter</span> isolates were closely related to picocyanobacteria isolated from other cold environments like Arctic or subalpine waters. The <span class="hlt">winter</span> picocyanobacterial isolates were able to maintain slow growth or prolonged dormancy at 4°C. Interestingly, the phycoerythrin-rich strains outperformed the phycocyanin-rich strains at cold temperature. In addition, <span class="hlt">winter</span> picocyanobacteria changed their morphology when cultivated at 4°C. The close phylogenetic relationship between the <span class="hlt">winter</span> picocyanobacteria and the picocyanobacteria living in high latitude cold regions indicates that low temperature locations select specific ecotypes of picocyanobacteria. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22371563','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22371563"><span>Impact of declining Arctic sea ice on <span class="hlt">winter</span> snowfall.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Jiping; Curry, Judith A; Wang, Huijun; Song, Mirong; Horton, Radley M</p> <p>2012-03-13</p> <p>While the Arctic region has been warming strongly in recent decades, anomalously large snowfall in recent <span class="hlt">winters</span> has affected large parts of North America, Europe, and east Asia. Here we demonstrate that the decrease in autumn Arctic sea ice area is linked to changes in the <span class="hlt">winter</span> Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation that have some resemblance to the negative phase of the <span class="hlt">winter</span> Arctic oscillation. However, the atmospheric circulation change linked to the reduction of sea ice shows much broader meridional meanders in midlatitudes and clearly different interannual variability than the classical Arctic oscillation. This circulation change results in more frequent episodes of blocking patterns that lead to increased cold surges over large parts of northern continents. Moreover, the increase in atmospheric water vapor content in the Arctic region during late autumn and <span class="hlt">winter</span> driven locally by the reduction of sea ice provides enhanced moisture sources, supporting increased heavy snowfall in Europe during early <span class="hlt">winter</span> and the northeastern and midwestern United States during <span class="hlt">winter</span>. We conclude that the recent decline of Arctic sea ice has played a critical role in recent cold and snowy <span class="hlt">winters</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...45.2571H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...45.2571H"><span>An optimal index for measuring the effect of East Asian <span class="hlt">winter</span> monsoon on China <span class="hlt">winter</span> temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Chundi; Yang, Song; Wu, Qigang</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Extreme cold events occur frequently in China. The authors define a representative yet simple index to reveal the monthly changes in China <span class="hlt">winter</span> temperature associated with the East Asian <span class="hlt">winter</span> monsoon (EAWM), which is represented by both the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode and the country-mean temperature index of Chinese 160 gauge stations. A combined technique of correlation and multivariate EOF (Corr-MVEOF) analyses is applied to capture the dominant coupled patterns of EAWM circulation system. Based on the atmospheric circulation features captured by the leading Corr-MVEOF mode, a new EAWM index referred to as CNWMI is derived by using a stepwise regression analysis. The CNWMI highlights the importance of (1) the Mongolia-Siberian High (MSH) and its southward expansion and (2) the Asia-wide meridional dipole anomaly of 500 hPa geopotential height. Compared with the 27 existing EAWM indices, the CNWMI not only best represents the leading modes of both EAWM circulation system and China <span class="hlt">winter</span> temperature, but also reasonably tracks the intraseasonal-to-interdecadal variations of EAWM so that the monthly intensity of EAWM can be monitored conveniently. In particular, the Aleutian low (AL) is not strongly related to the MSH and may not be responsible for the variability of EAWM/MSH. Moreover, the indices that are highly correlated with the temperature over southern East Asia do not show significant relationships with the AL, which is different from the conventional concept that a strong EAWM/MSH is linked to a deepened AL. In contrast, the anomalous Australia-Maritime Continent low is in good agreement with the variation of EAWM/MSH.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21004998','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21004998"><span>Greater sage-grouse <span class="hlt">winter</span> habitat selection and energy development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Doherty, K.E.; Naugle, D.E.; Walker, B.L.; Graham, J.M.</p> <p>2008-01-15</p> <p>Recent energy development has resulted in rapid and large-scale changes to western shrub-steppe ecosystems without a complete understanding of its potential impacts on wildlife populations. We modeled <span class="hlt">winter</span> habitat use by female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana, USA, to 1) identify landscape features that influenced sage-grouse habitat selection, 2) assess the scale at which selection occurred, 3) spatially depict <span class="hlt">winter</span> habitat quality in a Geographic Information System, and 4) assess the effect of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) development on <span class="hlt">winter</span> habitat selection. We developed a model of <span class="hlt">winter</span> habitat selection based on 435 aerial relocations of 200 radiomarked female sage-grouse obtained during the <span class="hlt">winters</span> of 2005 and 2006. Percent sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) cover on the landscape was an important predictor of use by sage-grouse in <span class="hlt">winter</span>. Sage-grouse were 1.3 times more likely to occupy sagebrush habitats that lacked CBNG wells within a 4-km{sup 2} area, compared to those that had the maximum density of 12.3 wells per 4 km{sup 2} allowed on federal lands. We validated the model with 74 locations from 74 radiomarked individuals obtained during the <span class="hlt">winters</span> of 2004 and 2007. This <span class="hlt">winter</span> habitat model based on vegetation, topography, and CBNG avoidance was highly predictive (validation R{sup 2} = 0.984). Our spatially explicit model can be used to identify areas that provide the best remaining habitat for <span class="hlt">wintering</span> sage-grouse in the PRB to mitigate impacts of energy development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA619228','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA619228"><span>Naval War College Review. Volume 64, Number 1, <span class="hlt">Winter</span> 2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>the ocean rise.16 P R E S I D E N T ’ S F O R U M 2 5 NWCR_<span class="hlt">Winter</span>2011.ps \\\\data1\\john.lanzieri.ctr$\\msdata\\Desktop\\NavalWarCollege\\NWC_Review_<span class="hlt">Winter</span>2011... N A V A L W A R C O L L E G E R E V IE W W in ter 2011 NAVAL WAR COLLEGE REVIEW <span class="hlt">Winter</span> 2011 Volume 64, Number 1 5716_Cover.indd 1 11/23/2010 8:19...Chinese Navy’s Emerging Support Network in the Indian Ocean . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Daniel J. Kostecka It is clear that China is not</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/5224834','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/5224834"><span>Notes on <span class="hlt">winter</span> feeding behavior and molt in Wilson's phalaropes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Burger, J.; Howe, M.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Wilson's Phalaropes, Steganopus tricolor, migrate in late summer from the prairie regions of North America to their <span class="hlt">wintering</span> grounds in the highlands of Peru and the inland and coastal waters of Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina (Holmes 1939, Meyer de Schauensee 1970). Reports on these birds from their <span class="hlt">wintering</span> habitat are few. This paper describes numbers, feeding behavior, and molt of Wilson's Phalaropes <span class="hlt">wintering</span> in a freshwater marsh in central Argentina. Fieldwork in Argentina was conducted by the senior author. The junior author analyzed molt patterns of birds collected there and added data he collected in North Dakota in 1968 and 1969.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010007245&hterms=subsidence&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsubsidence','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010007245&hterms=subsidence&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsubsidence"><span>Quantifying Subsidence in the 1999-2000 Arctic <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Vortex</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Jost, Hans-juerg; Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, James R.; Bui, T. Paul; Elkins, James W.; Moore, Fred L.; Ray, Eric A.; Sen, Bhaswar; Margitan, James J.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Quantifying the subsidence of the polar <span class="hlt">winter</span> stratospheric vortex is essential to the analysis of ozone depletion, as chemical destruction often occurs against a large, altitude-dependent background ozone concentration. Using N2O measurements made during SOLVE on a variety of platforms (ER-2, in-situ balloon and remote balloon), the 1999-2000 Arctic <span class="hlt">winter</span> subsidence is determined from N2O-potential temperature correlations along several N2O isopleths. The subsidence rates are compared to those determined in other <span class="hlt">winters</span>, and comparison is also made with results from the SLIMCAT stratospheric chemical transport model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19737038','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19737038"><span>Risk assessment in <span class="hlt">winter</span> backcountry travel.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Silverton, Natalie A; McIntosh, Scott E; Kim, Han S</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Risk assessment is an important part of safe backcountry travel in avalanche terrain. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the ability of backcountry travelers to accurately estimate the avalanche danger for their destination and time of travel. We surveyed 353 <span class="hlt">winter</span> backcountry users, asking them to rate the avalanche danger for their destination that day. We then compared this estimation to the Utah Avalanche Center daily advisory for that specific location, aspect, and elevation. Tendency to underestimate the avalanche danger was then compared across 6 different sports (backcountry skiing, backcountry snowboarding, snowshoeing, snowmobiling, out-of-bounds skiing, and out-of-bounds snowboarding) as well as across age, gender, and subject participation in an avalanche safety course. A comparison across different sports, adjusted for age and gender, showed that snowshoers were 7.11 times more likely than skiers to underestimate the avalanche danger (95% CI, 2.95, 17.11). This difference was maintained after adjusting for past education in an avalanche safety course (odds ratio, 5.74; 95% CI, 2.28, 14.46). Snowmobilers were also significantly more likely to underestimate the avalanche danger when compared to skiers (odds ratio, 3.11; 95% CI, 1.12, 8.24), but these differences ceased to be significant when the data were adjusted for avalanche safety course (odds ratio, 2.39; 95% CI, 0.84, 6.74). While there was a trend for women and older age groups to underestimate the avalanche danger when compared to men, these trends were not significant. Snowshoers and snowmobilers are groups that tend to underestimate avalanche danger when traveling in the backcountry. These groups may be unknowingly assuming a higher risk and should be targeted for avalanche education and awareness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.9467S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.9467S"><span>Urban emissions of water vapor in <span class="hlt">winter</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salmon, Olivia E.; Shepson, Paul B.; Ren, Xinrong; Marquardt Collow, Allison B.; Miller, Mark A.; Carlton, Annmarie G.; Cambaliza, Maria O. L.; Heimburger, Alexie; Morgan, Kristan L.; Fuentes, Jose D.; Stirm, Brian H.; Grundman, Robert; Dickerson, Russell R.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Elevated water vapor (H2Ov) mole fractions were occasionally observed downwind of Indianapolis, IN, and the Washington, D.C.-Baltimore, MD, area during airborne mass balance experiments conducted during <span class="hlt">winter</span> months between 2012 and 2015. On days when an urban H2Ov excess signal was observed, H2Ov emission estimates range between 1.6 × 104 and 1.7 × 105 kg s-1 and account for up to 8.4% of the total (background + urban excess) advected flow of atmospheric boundary layer H2Ov from the urban study sites. Estimates of H2Ov emissions from combustion sources and electricity generation facility cooling towers are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the urban H2Ov emission rates estimated from observations. Instances of urban H2Ov enhancement could be a result of differences in snowmelt and evaporation rates within the urban area, due in part to larger wintertime anthropogenic heat flux and land cover differences, relative to surrounding rural areas. More study is needed to understand why the urban H2Ov excess signal is observed on some days, and not others. Radiative transfer modeling indicates that the observed urban enhancements in H2Ov and other greenhouse gas mole fractions contribute only 0.1°C d-1 to the urban heat island at the surface. This integrated warming through the boundary layer is offset by longwave cooling by H2Ov at the top of the boundary layer. While the radiative impacts of urban H2Ov emissions do not meaningfully influence urban heat island intensity, urban H2Ov emissions may have the potential to alter downwind aerosol and cloud properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990077338&hterms=Vortex+motion&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DVortex%2Bmotion','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990077338&hterms=Vortex+motion&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DVortex%2Bmotion"><span>The Yearly Variation in Fall-<span class="hlt">Winter</span> Arctic <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Vortex Descent</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schoeberl, Mark R.; Newman, Paul A.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Using the change in HALOE methane profiles from early September to late March, we have estimated the minimum amount of diabatic descent within the polar which takes place during Arctic <span class="hlt">winter</span>. The year to year variations are a result in the year to year variations in stratospheric wave activity which (1) modify the temperature of the vortex and thus the cooling rate; (2) reduce the apparent descent by mixing high amounts of methane into the vortex. The peak descent amounts from HALOE methane vary from l0km -14km near the arrival altitude of 25 km. Using a diabatic trajectory calculation, we compare forward and backward trajectories over the course of the <span class="hlt">winter</span> using UKMO assimilated stratospheric data. The forward calculation agrees fairly well with the observed descent. The backward calculation appears to be unable to produce the observed amount of descent, but this is only an apparent effect due to the density decrease in parcels with altitude. Finally we show the results for unmixed descent experiments - where the parcels are fixed in latitude and longitude and allowed to descend based on the local cooling rate. Unmixed descent is found to always exceed mixed descent, because when normal parcel motion is included, the path average cooling is always less than the cooling at a fixed polar point.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA635392','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA635392"><span>Leveraging <span class="hlt">EMS</span> and VPP</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Elements of <span class="hlt">EMS</span>  International Standards Organization ( ISO ) 14001 , Environmental Management Systems  The Key Elements of <span class="hlt">EMS</span>: - Policy - Planning...wingman-- ON and OFF duty Fully Conforming vs. Fully Implemented  “Fully Conforming”  Meets standards established in ISO 14001  ESOH council...e n c e Every airman looking out for his wingman-- ON and OFF duty <span class="hlt">EMS</span> & VPP Commonalities Environmental Management System ISO 14001 : 2004 Voluntary</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..3823803L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..3823803L"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> floods in Britain are connected to atmospheric rivers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lavers, David A.; Allan, Richard P.; Wood, Eric F.; Villarini, Gabriele; Brayshaw, David J.; Wade, Andrew J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Damage from flooding in the <span class="hlt">winter</span> and fall seasons has been widespread in the United Kingdom (UK) and Western Europe over recent decades. Here we show that <span class="hlt">winter</span> flood events in the UK are connected to Atmospheric Rivers (ARs), narrow ribbons along which a large flux of moisture is transported from the subtropics to the mid-latitudes. Combining river flow records with rainfall measurements, satellite data and model simulations, we demonstrate that ARs occur simultaneously with the 10 largest <span class="hlt">winter</span> flood events since 1970 in a range of British river basins, suggesting that ARs are persistently critical in explaining extreme <span class="hlt">winter</span> flooding in the UK. Understanding the physical processes that determine the persistence of AR events will be of importance in assessing the risk of future flooding over north-western Europe and other mid-latitude regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0285.photos.117271p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0285.photos.117271p/"><span>2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer <span class="hlt">Winter</span> 1968 ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer <span class="hlt">Winter</span> 1968 (2 1/4' x 2 3/4' negative), GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST SHOWING SOCIAL HALL. - First Presbyterian Church, 101 Plymouth Avenue South, Rochester, Monroe County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=awVjB2VQxdU','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=awVjB2VQxdU"><span>Satellite Movie Sees Major <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Storm Nearing Mid-Atlantic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This animation NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery from Jan. 20 to 22 shows the movement of the system that is expected to bring a powerful <span class="hlt">winter</span> storm to the U.S. Mid-Atlantic region. Credit: NASA...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ma0100.photos.077546p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ma0100.photos.077546p/"><span>35. Historic American Buildings Survey William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>35. Historic American Buildings Survey William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer 1931 INTERIOR SHOWING TYPICAL SHAKER FURNITURE AND HEATING STOVE - Shaker Church Family Main Dwelling House, U.S. Route 20, Hancock, Berkshire County, MA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0520.photos.115513p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0520.photos.115513p/"><span>1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer 1920's, GENERAL VIEW FROM WEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Centre Family (General View), Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2405329','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2405329"><span>The naturally occurring rhythm of blues: <span class="hlt">winter</span> depression.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dilsaver, S C; Jaeckle, R S</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Winter</span> depression, a form of seasonal affective disorder, is a common condition that increases in prevalence in northern areas and in regions with a high proportion of overcast fall and <span class="hlt">winter</span> days. Parts of Ohio are high-risk areas given the high percentage of overcast days. <span class="hlt">Winter</span> depression is marked by the onset of recurrent episodes of major depression each fall or <span class="hlt">winter</span> which spontaneously remit in the spring. The depressive syndrome is often characterized by sadness, anxiety, decreased involvement in work and social activities, increased appetite, carbohydrate craving, weight gain, hypersomnia and psychomotor retardation. This syndrome often responds to treatment with two to six hours per day of full-spectrum bright artificial light. The efficacy of drugs in the treatment of this condition is now being studied at The Ohio State University. A monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA17637.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA17637.html"><span>Diffuse <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Lighting of the Chasma Boreale Scarp</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-08-08</p> <p>Sunlight was just starting to reach the high Northern latitudes in late <span class="hlt">winter</span> when NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter HiRISE camera captured this image of part of the steep scarps around portions of the North Polar layered deposits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0104.photos.115340p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0104.photos.115340p/"><span>7. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>7. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer 1920's, ATTIC, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0107.photos.115485p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0107.photos.115485p/"><span>1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer Summer 1931, EAST SIDE, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker North Family Barn, State Route 22 & U.S. Route 20, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0073.photos.114536p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0073.photos.114536p/"><span>4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, Late 1920's or 1930's, KITCHEN, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Dwelling House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0105.photos.115570p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0105.photos.115570p/"><span>2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer 1920's, VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Tannery, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0104.photos.115335p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0104.photos.115335p/"><span>2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer August 1931, VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0104.photos.115341p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0104.photos.115341p/"><span>8. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>8. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer Summer 1930, ENTRANCE HALL, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0104.photos.115342p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0104.photos.115342p/"><span>9. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>9. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer Summer 1931, IRONING STOVE IN LAUNDRY ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0104.photos.115338p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0104.photos.115338p/"><span>5. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>5. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer 1920's, ATTIC, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0104.photos.115336p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0104.photos.115336p/"><span>3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer May 1930, LAUNDRY ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0104.photos.115334p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0104.photos.115334p/"><span>1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer Summer 1930, VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0107.photos.115488p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0107.photos.115488p/"><span>4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer Summer 1930, SOUTH WINGS, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker North Family Barn, State Route 22 & U.S. Route 20, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0104.photos.115337p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0104.photos.115337p/"><span>4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer 1920's, IRONING ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0104.photos.115343p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0104.photos.115343p/"><span>10. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>10. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer Summer 1931, IRONING STOVE IN LAUNDRY ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0104.photos.115339p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0104.photos.115339p/"><span>6. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>6. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer 1920's, ATTIC, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0107.photos.115487p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0107.photos.115487p/"><span>3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer August 1931, SOUTH SIDES, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker North Family Barn, State Route 22 & U.S. Route 20, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ma0108.photos.077468p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ma0108.photos.077468p/"><span>22. Historic American Buildings Survey William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>22. Historic American Buildings Survey William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer 1931 LATHE, THIRD FLOOR, NORTHEAST CORNER - Shaker Church Family Washhouse & Machine Shop, U.S. Route 20, Hancock, Berkshire County, MA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/sd0019.photos.189329p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/sd0019.photos.189329p/"><span>9. TROJAN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM NORTHWEST, c. 191828. <span class="hlt">WINTER</span> SNOW ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>9. TROJAN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM NORTHWEST, c. 1918-28. <span class="hlt">WINTER</span> SNOW SHOWS LINE OF CRUDE ORE BIN STAIR. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/pa0444.photos.133679p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/pa0444.photos.133679p/"><span>14. 1862 LITHOGRAPH SHOWING ST. DAVID'S CHURCH IN <span class="hlt">WINTER</span> SCENE. ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>14. 1862 LITHOGRAPH SHOWING ST. DAVID'S CHURCH IN <span class="hlt">WINTER</span> SCENE. Photocopied from George Smith's book, History of Delaware County, Penna., 1862 - St. David's Church (Episcopal), Valley Forge Road (Newtown Township), Wayne, Delaware County, PA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=335099','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=335099"><span>Projected climate change impacts on <span class="hlt">winter</span> recreation in the ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A physically-based water and energy balance model is used to simulate natural snow accumulation at 247 <span class="hlt">winter</span> recreation locations across the continental United States. We combine this model with projections of snowmaking conditions to determine downhill skiing, cross-country skiing, and snowmobiling season lengths under baseline and future climates, using data from five climate models and two emissions scenarios. The present-day simulations from the snow model without snowmaking are validated with observations of snow-water-equivalent from snow monitoring sites. Projected season lengths are combined with baseline estimates of <span class="hlt">winter</span> recreation activity to monetize impacts to the selected <span class="hlt">winter</span> recreation activity categories for the years 2050 and 2090. Estimate the physical and economic impact of climate change on <span class="hlt">winter</span> recreation in the contiguous U.S.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0116.photos.115398p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0116.photos.115398p/"><span>1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer Summer 1930, NORTH ELEVATION, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Chair Factory, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0521.photos.115532p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0521.photos.115532p/"><span>2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer 1920's, EXTRACTING ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Centre Family Medicine Factory, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0521.photos.115531p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0521.photos.115531p/"><span>1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer June 1931, NORTH AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Centre Family Medicine Factory, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0521.photos.115533p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0521.photos.115533p/"><span>3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer August 1931, BOTTLING AND PACKING ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Centre Family Medicine Factory, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.jstor.org/stable/3802018','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.jstor.org/stable/3802018"><span>Survival of female northern pintails <span class="hlt">wintering</span> in southwestern Louisiana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cox, R.R.; Afton, A.D.; Pace, R. M.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The North American breeding population of northern pintails (Anas acuta) has reached previously unprecedented low numbers 4 times since 1983. Because pintails show high fidelity to <span class="hlt">wintering</span> areas, regional survival estimates and identification of factors influencing survival are needed to guide management of <span class="hlt">wintering</span> pintails. We used raidiotelemetry to estimate survival rates of female pintails <span class="hlt">wintering</span> in southwestern Lousiaina. We tested for variation in survival and hunting mortality rates in realtiaon to age (immature or adult), <span class="hlt">winter</span> (1990-91, 1991-92, 1992-93), time period (prehunting season, first hunting season, time between split hunting seasons, second hunting season, posthunting season), body condition (body mass when released, adjusted for body size), and region (southwestern Louisiana or elsewhere on the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast or Mississippi Alluvial Valley).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1001515','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1001515"><span>Kleptoparasitism by bald eagles <span class="hlt">wintering</span> in south-central Nebraska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Jorde, D.G.; Lingle, G.R.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Kleptoparasitism on other raptors was one means by which Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) secured food along the North Platte and Platte rivers during the <span class="hlt">winters</span> of 1978-1980. Species kelptoparasitized were Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Red-tailed Hawk (B. jamaicensis), Rough-legged Hawk (B. lagopus), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), and Bald Eagle. Stealing of prey occurred more often during the severe <span class="hlt">winter</span> of 1978-1979 when ice cover restricted eagles from feeding on fish than during the milder <span class="hlt">winter</span> of 1979-1980. Kleptoparasitism occurred principally in agricultural habitats where large numbers of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were foraging. Subadults watched adults steal food and participated in food-stealing with adults, which indicated interspecific kleptoparasitism may be a learned behavior. We suggest factors that may favor interspecific kleptoparasitism as a foraging strategy of Bald Eagles in obtaining waterfowl during severe <span class="hlt">winters</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0271.photos.117189p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0271.photos.117189p/"><span>5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer <span class="hlt">Winter</span> 1968, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer <span class="hlt">Winter</span> 1968, (2 1/4' x 2 3/4' negative) FIRST FLOOR: ENTRANCE HALL. - Bates-Ryder House, 1399 East Avenue, Rochester, Monroe County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0110.photos.115412p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0110.photos.115412p/"><span>2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer 1920's, EAST (FRONT) AND NORTH SIDES, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker North Family, Dwelling House, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0049.photos.114597p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0049.photos.114597p/"><span>4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, April 1925, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Brethren's Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0049.photos.114594p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0049.photos.114594p/"><span>1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, 1920's, VIEW FROM NORTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Brethren's Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0123.photos.115557p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0123.photos.115557p/"><span>1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer Spring 1931, GENERAL VIEW - SHOPS, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Upper Canaan Family, Shop Buildings, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0102.photos.114604p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0102.photos.114604p/"><span>3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, September 1926, VIEW FROM NORTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family, Herb House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0049.photos.114596p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0049.photos.114596p/"><span>3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, April 1926, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Brethren's Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0110.photos.115414p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0110.photos.115414p/"><span>4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer Summer 1930, WEST (REAR) AND NORTH SIDES, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker North Family, Dwelling House, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0102.photos.114605p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0102.photos.114605p/"><span>4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, April 1925, INTERIOR VIEW WITH HERB PRESS, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family, Herb House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0110.photos.115413p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0110.photos.115413p/"><span>3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer Summer 1931, EAST (FRONT) SIDE, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker North Family, Dwelling House, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0525.photos.115346p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0525.photos.115346p/"><span>1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer August 1931, EXTERIOR VIEW OF KILN, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Apple Drying Kiln, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1036036','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1036036"><span>National FCEV Learning Demonstration: <span class="hlt">Winter</span> 2011 Composite Data Products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes the composite data products produced in <span class="hlt">Winter</span> 2011 as part of the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/pa3952.photos.200955p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/pa3952.photos.200955p/"><span>22. Greenhouse, south elevation. This <span class="hlt">winter</span> 2002 view was taken ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>22. Greenhouse, south elevation. This <span class="hlt">winter</span> 2002 view was taken by Joseph Elliot while conducting photographic documentation of the landscape. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0060.photos.114625p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0060.photos.114625p/"><span>1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, September 1926, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Seed House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0103.photos.115560p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0103.photos.115560p/"><span>1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer 1920's, VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Seed House, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0056.photos.114587p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0056.photos.114587p/"><span>5. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>5. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, April 1925, NORTHWEST CORNER OF MEETING ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Meetinghouse (second), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0052.photos.114578p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0052.photos.114578p/"><span>2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, September 1926, VIEW FROM WEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Washhouse & Canning Factory, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0061.photos.114592p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0061.photos.114592p/"><span>3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, April 1925, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0052.photos.114580p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0052.photos.114580p/"><span>4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, September 1926, SOUTHERN ELEVATIONS, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Washhouse & Canning Factory, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0052.photos.114577p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0052.photos.114577p/"><span>1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, 1920's SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Washhouse & Canning Factory, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0061.photos.114591p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0061.photos.114591p/"><span>2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, 1920's, EAST ELEVATION, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0056.photos.114588p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0056.photos.114588p/"><span>6. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>6. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, April 1925, VISITORS' GALLERY, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Meetinghouse (second), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0056.photos.114584p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0056.photos.114584p/"><span>2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, April 1925, NORTH ELEVATION, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Meetinghouse (second), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0056.photos.114585p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0056.photos.114585p/"><span>3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, September 1926, DETAIL OF SOUTH ELEVATION, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Meetinghouse (second), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770019636','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770019636"><span>Estimated <span class="hlt">winter</span> wheat yield from crop growth predicted by LANDSAT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kanemasu, E. T.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>An evapotranspiration and growth model for <span class="hlt">winter</span> wheat is reported. The inputs are daily solar radiation, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, precipitation/irrigation and leaf area index. The meteorological data were obtained from National Weather Service while LAI was obtained from LANDSAT multispectral scanner. The output provides daily estimates of potential evapotranspiration, transpiration, evaporation, soil moisture (50 cm depth), percentage depletion, net photosynthesis and dry matter production. <span class="hlt">Winter</span> wheat yields are correlated with transpiration and dry matter accumulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035656','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035656"><span>Use of habitats by female mallards <span class="hlt">wintering</span> in Southwestern Louisiana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Link, P.T.; Afton, A.D.; Cox, R.R.; Davis, B.E.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Habitat use by <span class="hlt">wintering</span> Mallards (Anas platyrhychos) on the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain (GCCP) has received little study and quantitative data is needed for management of GCCP waterfowl. Radio-telemetry techniques were used to record habitats used by 135 female Mallards during <span class="hlt">winters</span> 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 in south-western Louisiana. Habitat use was quantitatively estimated for areas open and closed to hunting, by general habitat types (i.e., marsh, rice, idle, pasture, or other), and for specific marsh types (i.e., freshwater, intermediate, brackish, or salt). Variation in these estimates was subsequently examined in relation to individual female, female age (adult or immature), <span class="hlt">winter</span> (2004-2005 or 2005-2006), and hunt periods within <span class="hlt">winter</span> (second hunting season [SHUNT] or post hunting season [POST]). Diurnal use of areas closed to hunting was greater during hunted time periods in <span class="hlt">winter</span> 2005-2006 than in <span class="hlt">winter</span> 2004-2005. Nocturnal use of areas closed to hunting was 3.1 times greater during SHUNT than during POST, and immatures used areas closed to hunting more than adults. Diurnal use of marsh was 3.3 times greater than that of any other habitat during both <span class="hlt">winters</span>. Nocturnal use of marsh, rice, idle, and pasture were similar during both <span class="hlt">winters</span>. Females used freshwater marsh habitats extensively (64.699.8% proportional use), whereas brackish and salt marsh combined was used less frequently (035.8% proportional use). These results suggest that freshwater marsh is important to Mallards and a high priority for restoration and management efforts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA618349','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA618349"><span>Naval War College Review. Volume 62, Number 1, <span class="hlt">Winter</span> 2009</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>under consideration elsewhere. Permissions Reproduction and reprinting are subject to the Copyright Act of 1976 and appli- cable treaties of the United... hypnotic religious fervor with 1 5 4 N A V A L W A R C O L L E G E R E V I E W T:\\Academic\\NWC Review\\<span class="hlt">Winter</span> 2009\\NWCR <span class="hlt">Winter</span> 09\\NWCR W09.vp Thursday</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ERL.....5b4001L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ERL.....5b4001L"><span>Are cold <span class="hlt">winters</span> in Europe associated with low solar activity?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lockwood, M.; Harrison, R. G.; Woollings, T.; Solanki, S. K.</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Solar activity during the current sunspot minimum has fallen to levels unknown since the start of the 20th century. The Maunder minimum (about 1650-1700) was a prolonged episode of low solar activity which coincided with more severe <span class="hlt">winters</span> in the United Kingdom and continental Europe. Motivated by recent relatively cold <span class="hlt">winters</span> in the UK, we investigate the possible connection with solar activity. We identify regionally anomalous cold <span class="hlt">winters</span> by detrending the Central England temperature (CET) record using reconstructions of the northern hemisphere mean temperature. We show that cold <span class="hlt">winter</span> excursions from the hemispheric trend occur more commonly in the UK during low solar activity, consistent with the solar influence on the occurrence of persistent blocking events in the eastern Atlantic. We stress that this is a regional and seasonal effect relating to European <span class="hlt">winters</span> and not a global effect. Average solar activity has declined rapidly since 1985 and cosmogenic isotopes suggest an 8% chance of a return to Maunder minimum conditions within the next 50 years (Lockwood 2010 Proc. R. Soc. A 466 303-29): the results presented here indicate that, despite hemispheric warming, the UK and Europe could experience more cold <span class="hlt">winters</span> than during recent decades.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045160','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045160"><span>Confounded <span class="hlt">winter</span> and spring phenoclimatology on large herbivore ranges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Christianson, David; Klaver, Robert W.; Middleton, Arthur; Kauffman, Matthew</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Annual variation in <span class="hlt">winter</span> severity and growing season vegetation dynamics appear to influence the demography of temperate herbivores but parsing <span class="hlt">winter</span> from spring effects requires independent metrics of environmental conditions specific to each season. We tested for independence in annual variation amongst four common metrics used to describe <span class="hlt">winter</span> severity and early growing season vegetation dynamics across the entire spatial distribution of elk (Cervus elaphus) in Wyoming from 1989 to 2006. <span class="hlt">Winter</span> conditions and early growing season dynamics were correlated in a specific way. <span class="hlt">Winters</span> with snow cover that ended early tended to be followed by early, but slow, rises in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), while long <span class="hlt">winters</span> with extended periods of snow cover were often followed by late and rapid rises in NDVI. Across the 35 elk ranges, 0.4–86.8 % of the variation in the rate of increase in NDVI’s in spring was explained by the date snow cover disappeared from SNOTEL stations. Because phenoclimatological metrics are correlated across seasons and shifting due to climate change, identifying environmental constraints on herbivore fitness, particularly migratory species, is more difficult than previously recognized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.jstor.org/stable/4087122+','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.jstor.org/stable/4087122+"><span>The relationship between body mass and survival of <span class="hlt">wintering</span> canvasbacks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Haramis, G.M.; Nichols, J.D.; Pollock, K.H.; Hines, J.E.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Mass and recapture histories of 6,000 Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) banded in upper Chesapeake Bay were used to test two hypotheses: (1) early-<span class="hlt">winter</span> body mass is associated with the probability of surviving the <span class="hlt">winter</span>, and (2) early-<span class="hlt">winter</span> body mass is associated with annual survival probability. Data were analyzed by a binary regression method that treated mass as a continuous variable and estimated parameters to describe a general relationship between body mass and survival probability. Results for adult males, which provided our largest data sets, presented strong evidence that birds with high relative early-<span class="hlt">winter</span> masses had both greater overwinter and annual survival probabilities. Results of overwinter analyses necessarily are qualified by the alternative explanation of mass-dependent emigration, i.e. the possibility that lighter birds move south in response to cold weather and leave only heavy birds for recapture. Such a phenomenon remains to be documented. Results concerning annual survival probabilities are not vulnerable to this alternative explanation because of the strong fidelity of Canvasbacks at the banding site. Because of small sample size, data were inadequate to permit mass/survival inferences for adult females. Sample sizes were adequate for young Canvasbacks, but the results were less consistent than for adult males. Although early-<span class="hlt">winter</span> body mass was associated positively with overwinter as well as annual survival for young Canvasbacks in some years, we suspect that the lack of established <span class="hlt">wintering</span> patterns among these birds may underlie the less consistent result.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/unnumbered/5230162/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/unnumbered/5230162/report.pdf"><span>Population ecology of the mallard VIII: <span class="hlt">Winter</span> distribution patterns and survival rates of <span class="hlt">winter</span>-banded mallards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Nichols, James D.; Hines, James E.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>In the present report we address questions about <span class="hlt">winter</span> distribution patterns and survival rates of North American mallards Anas platyrhynchos. Inferences are based on analyses of banding and recovery data from both <span class="hlt">winter</span> and preseason banding period. The primary <span class="hlt">wintering</span> range of the mallard was dividded into 45 minor reference areas and 15 major reference areas which were used to summarize <span class="hlt">winter</span> banding data. Descriptive tables and figures on the recovery distributions of <span class="hlt">winter</span>-banded mallards are presented. Using <span class="hlt">winter</span> recoveries of preseason-banded mallards, we found apparent differences between recovery distribution of young versus adult birds from the same breeding ground reference areas. However, we found no sex-specific differences in <span class="hlt">winter</span> recovery distribution patterns. <span class="hlt">Winter</span> recovery distributions of preseason-banded birds also provided evidence that mallards exhibited some degree of year-to-year variation in <span class="hlt">wintering</span> ground location. The age- and sex-specificity of such variation was tested using <span class="hlt">winter</span> recoveries of <span class="hlt">winter</span>-banded birds, and results indicated that subadult (first year) birds were less likely to return to the same <span class="hlt">wintering</span> grounds the following year than adults. <span class="hlt">Winter</span> recovery distributions of preseason-banded mallards during 1950-58 differed from distributions in 1966-76. These differences could have resulted from either true distributional shifts or geographic changes in hunting pressure. Survival and recovery rates were estimated from <span class="hlt">winter</span> banding data. We found no evidence of differences in survival or recovery rates between subadult and adult mallards. Thus, the substantial difference between survival rates of preseason-banded young and adult mallards must result almost entirely from higher mortality of young birds during the approximate period, August-January. Male mallards showed higher survival than females, corroborating inferences based on preseason data. Tests with <span class="hlt">winter</span> banding and band recovery data indicated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5474568','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5474568"><span>Impact of a simulated nuclear <span class="hlt">winter</span> environment on growth development and productivity of potatoes, <span class="hlt">winter</span> wheat, pines and soybeans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Palta, J.P.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Several recent studies predict strong land surface cooling and reduction in solar irradiance following nuclear explosions (Turco et al., 1983; Covey et al., 1984; Thompson et al., 1984). Although there is disagreement among scientists on the extent and the duration of temperature and irradiation decrease, there is a general agreement on the nuclear <span class="hlt">winter</span>'' hypothesis following nuclear war (Covey, 1985). Agreements between the timing of excessive frost events and volcanic eruptions supports such nuclear <span class="hlt">winter</span> scenarios (La Marche Jr. and Hirschboek, 1984). More recently Robock (1988) recorded a drop in surface temperatures following the entrapment of smoke from a forest fire in northern California. These measurements also support the nuclear <span class="hlt">winter</span> hypothesis. The present study was conducted to investigate the impact of a simulated nuclear <span class="hlt">winter</span> environment on productivity of four plant species. 20 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPhCS..58.....M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPhCS..58.....M"><span>Dedication to Professor Hannspeter <span class="hlt">Winter</span> (1941 2006): Dedication to Professor Hannspeter <span class="hlt">Winter</span> (1941 2006)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCullough, Bob</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Professor H <span class="hlt">Winter</span>. It was with great sadness that we learnt of the death of colleague and friend Professor Hannspeter <span class="hlt">Winter</span> in Vienna on the 8 November 2006. In memory of him and the contribution he made both to our conference and to the field of the physics of highly charged ions we dedicate these proceedings. Hannspeter was one of our distinguished invited speakers at HCI2006 and gave a talk on the status of the ITER programme. His invited paper on the subject is included in these proceedings. Hannspeter will be particularly remembered for his pioneering work on ion-surface interactions that, together with his colleagues at the Vienna University of Technology (TUW), has stimulated a worldwide experimental and theoretical interest in this field. He was appointed Director of the Institut fuer Allgemeine Physik at TUW in 1987 and using both his scientific and management skills has made it one of the leading university physics laboratories in the world. His research publications, of which there are 270, have inspired many others to work in the field of atomic and plasma physics. He was also a great European playing a major role in the EURATOM fusion programme, the European Physical Society and the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics and was an evaluator and advisory board member for many national and international institutions. Hannspeter was also an interesting and friendly social companion with interests in current affairs, music and fine wines and will be greatly missed both on a scientific and social level. Our condolences go to his wife Renate, son Dorian and his relatives. R W McCullough Co-chair HCI2006</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1912916A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1912916A"><span>Winds of <span class="hlt">winter</span>: How solar wind driven particle precipitation can affect northern <span class="hlt">winters</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Asikainen, Timo; Maliniemi, Ville; Mursula, Kalevi</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Solar wind drives the variability in the near Earth space. Coupling of solar wind and the magnetosphere feeds energetic particles into the inner magnetosphere through reconnection in the magnetotail. During the declining phase of the solar cycle long-lived high-speed solar wind streams are more commonly observed at Earth's orbit. These accelerate particles to higher energies and in the process lead to enhanced particle precipitation into the atmosphere. Electrons from tens to hundreds of keV precipitate down to the mesosphere and upper stratosphere, where they can create nitrogen and hydrogen oxides. During <span class="hlt">winter</span>, nitrogen oxides have enhanced lifetime in the polar night. They can descend down to the mid-stratosphere and destroy ozone, which leads to cooling of the high-latitude stratosphere. This enhances the meridional temperature gradient and westerly winds under the thermal-wind balance, thus accelerating the polar vortex. This mechanism is successfully modeled by chemistry-climate models. Dynamical changes in the stratosphere can descend down to the troposphere. During strong polar vortex, the northern annular mode (NAM) is anomalously positive. Positive NAM encloses the cold arctic air into the polar region and enhances the westerly winds at mid-latitudes. Enhancement of westerlies bring warm and moist air from Atlantic to the Northern Eurasia causing positive temperature anomalies. At the same time negative temperature anomalies are observed in the Northern Canada and Greenland. Our recent observations show that the positive relation between precipitating electron fluxes/geomagnetic activity and NAM exists during <span class="hlt">winter</span>. Positive NAM pattern is observed during the declining phase of the solar cycle at least since the late 19th century. We also find that the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of equatorial winds strongly modulate this relation at high latitudes. These results give additional evidence that not only solar electromagnetic radiation but also the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70191346','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70191346"><span>Ice duration drives <span class="hlt">winter</span> nitrate accumulation in north temperate lakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Powers, Steven M; Labou, Stephanie G.; Baulch, Helen M.; Hunt, Randall J.; Lottig, Noah R.; Hampton, Stephanie E.; Stanley, Emily H.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The duration of <span class="hlt">winter</span> ice cover on lakes varies substantially with climate variability, and has decreased over the last several decades in many temperate lakes. However, little is known of how changes in seasonal ice cover may affect biogeochemical processes under ice. We examined <span class="hlt">winter</span> nitrogen (N) dynamics under ice using a 30+ yr dataset from five oligotrophic/mesotrophic north temperate lakes to determine how changes in inorganic N species varied with ice duration. Nitrate accumulated during <span class="hlt">winter</span> and was strongly related to the number of days since ice-on. Exogenous inputs accounted for less than 3% of nitrate accumulation in four of the five lakes, suggesting a paramount role of nitrification in regulating N transformation and the timing of chemical conditions under ice. <span class="hlt">Winter</span> nitrate accumulation rates ranged from 0.15 μg N L−1 d−1 to 2.7 μg N L−1 d−1 (0.011–0.19 μM d−1), and the mean for intermediate depths was 0.94 μg N L−1 d−1(0.067 μM d−1). Given that <span class="hlt">winters</span> with shorter ice duration (< 120 d) have become more frequent in these lakes since the late 1990s, peak <span class="hlt">winter</span> nitrate concentrations and cumulative nitrate production under ice may be declining. As ice extent and duration change, the physical and chemical conditions supporting life will shift. This research suggests we may expect changes in the form and amount of inorganic N, and altered dissolved nitrogen : phosphorus ratios, in lakes during <span class="hlt">winters</span> with shorter ice duration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4468168','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4468168"><span>Strong Costs and Benefits of <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Acclimatization in Drosophila melanogaster</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schou, Mads Fristrup; Loeschcke, Volker; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Studies on thermal acclimation in insects are often performed on animals acclimated in the laboratory under conditions that are not ecologically relevant. Costs and benefits of acclimation responses under such conditions may not reflect costs and benefits in natural populations subjected to daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations. Here we estimated costs and benefits in thermal tolerance limits in relation to <span class="hlt">winter</span> acclimatization of Drosophila melanogaster. We sampled flies from a natural habitat during <span class="hlt">winter</span> in Denmark (field flies) and compared heat and cold tolerance of these to that of flies collected from the same natural population, but acclimated to 25 °C or 13 °C in the laboratory (laboratory flies). We further obtained thermal performance curves for egg-to-adult viability of field and laboratory (25 °C) flies, to estimate possible cross-generational effects of acclimation. We found much higher cold tolerance and a lowered heat tolerance in field flies compared to laboratory flies reared at 25 °C. Flies reared in the laboratory at 13 °C exhibited the same thermal cost-benefit relations as the <span class="hlt">winter</span> acclimatized flies. We also found a cost of <span class="hlt">winter</span> acclimatization in terms of decreased egg-to-adult viability at high temperatures of eggs laid by <span class="hlt">winter</span> acclimatized flies. Based on our findings we suggest that <span class="hlt">winter</span> acclimatization in nature can induce strong benefits in terms of increased cold tolerance. These benefits can be reproduced in the laboratory under ecologically relevant rearing and testing conditions, and should be incorporated in species distribution modelling. <span class="hlt">Winter</span> acclimatization also leads to decreased heat tolerance. This may create a mismatch between acclimation responses and the thermal environment, e.g. if temperatures suddenly increase during spring, under current and expected more variable future climatic conditions. PMID:26075607</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26075607','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26075607"><span>Strong Costs and Benefits of <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Acclimatization in Drosophila melanogaster.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schou, Mads Fristrup; Loeschcke, Volker; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Studies on thermal acclimation in insects are often performed on animals acclimated in the laboratory under conditions that are not ecologically relevant. Costs and benefits of acclimation responses under such conditions may not reflect costs and benefits in natural populations subjected to daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations. Here we estimated costs and benefits in thermal tolerance limits in relation to <span class="hlt">winter</span> acclimatization of Drosophila melanogaster. We sampled flies from a natural habitat during <span class="hlt">winter</span> in Denmark (field flies) and compared heat and cold tolerance of these to that of flies collected from the same natural population, but acclimated to 25 °C or 13 °C in the laboratory (laboratory flies). We further obtained thermal performance curves for egg-to-adult viability of field and laboratory (25 °C) flies, to estimate possible cross-generational effects of acclimation. We found much higher cold tolerance and a lowered heat tolerance in field flies compared to laboratory flies reared at 25 °C. Flies reared in the laboratory at 13 °C exhibited the same thermal cost-benefit relations as the <span class="hlt">winter</span> acclimatized flies. We also found a cost of <span class="hlt">winter</span> acclimatization in terms of decreased egg-to-adult viability at high temperatures of eggs laid by <span class="hlt">winter</span> acclimatized flies. Based on our findings we suggest that <span class="hlt">winter</span> acclimatization in nature can induce strong benefits in terms of increased cold tolerance. These benefits can be reproduced in the laboratory under ecologically relevant rearing and testing conditions, and should be incorporated in species distribution modelling. <span class="hlt">Winter</span> acclimatization also leads to decreased heat tolerance. This may create a mismatch between acclimation responses and the thermal environment, e.g. if temperatures suddenly increase during spring, under current and expected more variable future climatic conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-12-08/pdf/2010-30834.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-12-08/pdf/2010-30834.pdf"><span>75 FR 76405 - <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Bee, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-12-08</p> <p>... COMMISSION <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Bee, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order AGENCY: Consumer... Agreement with <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Bee, Inc., containing a civil penalty of $200,000.00, to be suspended except for $40.... Settlement Agreement 1. In accordance with 16 CFR 1118.20, <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Bee, Inc. (``<span class="hlt">Winter</span> Bee'') and the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=234095','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=234095"><span>Quantitative Trait Loci and Epistasis for Oat <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Hardiness Component Traits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Winter</span> hardiness is a complex trait and poor <span class="hlt">winter</span> hardiness limits commercial production of <span class="hlt">winter</span> oat (Avena species). The objective of this study was to identify Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for five <span class="hlt">winter</span> hardiness component traits in a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A33J0392T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A33J0392T"><span>Long Term Decline in Eastern US <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Temperature Extremes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trenary, L. L.; DelSole, T. M.; Tippett, M. K.; Doty, B.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>States along the US eastern seaboard have experienced successively harsh <span class="hlt">winter</span> conditions in recent years. This has prompted speculation that climate change is leading to more extreme <span class="hlt">winter</span> conditions. In this study we quantify changes in the observed <span class="hlt">winter</span> extremes over the period 1950-2015, by examining year-to-year differences in intensity, frequency and likelihood of daily cold temperature extremes in the north, mid, and south Atlantic states along the US east coast. Analyzing station data for these three regions, we find that while the north and mid-Atlantic regions experienced record-breaking cold temperatures in 2015, there is no long-term increase in the intensity of cold extremes anywhere along the eastern seaboard. Likewise, despite the record number of cold days in these two regions during 2014 and 2015, there is no systematic increase in the frequency of cold extremes. To determine whether the observed changes are natural or human-forced, we repeat our analysis using a suite of climate simulations, with and without external forcing. Generally, model simulations suggest that human-induced forcing does not significantly influence the range of daily <span class="hlt">winter</span> temperature. Combining this result with the fact that the observed <span class="hlt">winter</span> temperatures are becoming warmer and less variable, we conclude that the recent intensification of eastern US cold extremes is only temporary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA10129&hterms=spirit&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dspirit','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA10129&hterms=spirit&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dspirit"><span>Spirit Nears North-Tilting Site for <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Haven</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><p/> NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit made daily progress in early December 2007 toward the northern edge of a low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The rover's operators selected an area with north-facing slope there (indicated by the blue-outlined rectangle) as a destination where Spirit would have its best chance of surviving low-solar-energy conditions of oncoming Martian <span class="hlt">winter</span>. <p/> As indicated by the yellow line tracing the path Spirit has driven, the rover was near the western edge of the plateau on Sol (Martian day) 1,390 of the mission (Nov. 30, 2007), but nearing the northern edge by Sol 1,397 (Dec. 8, 2007). <p/> A north-facing slope helps Spirit maximizes electric output from its solar panels during <span class="hlt">winter</span> months because Spirit is in the southern hemisphere of Mars, so the sun appears only in the northern sky during <span class="hlt">winter</span>. For the third <span class="hlt">winter</span>, which will reach its minimum solar-energy days in early June 2008, Spirit faces the challenge of having more dust on its solar panels than it had during its second <span class="hlt">winter</span>. <p/> The base image for this map is a portion of a color image taken on Jan. 9, 2007, by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70129574','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70129574"><span>Physiological responses of Yellowstone bison to <span class="hlt">winter</span> nutritional deprivation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>DelGiudice, Glenn D.; Singer, Francis J.; Seal, Ulysses S.; Bowser, Gillian</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Because nutrition is critically related to other aspects of bison (Bison bison) ecology, and the <span class="hlt">winter</span> ranges inhabited by bison in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are ecologically diverse, it was important to determine if nutritional deprivation differences occurred among <span class="hlt">winter</span> ranges. We used chemistry profiles of urine suspended in snow to compare nutritional deprivation of bison from January to April 1988 on 4 sampling areas of 3 <span class="hlt">winter</span> ranges in YNP. Declining (P < 0.001) trends of urinary potassium: creatinine ratios in bison on all 4 sampling areas indicated progressive nutritional deprivation through late March. Concurrent increases (P ≤ 0.001) in mean urea nitrogen: creatinine ratios from late February through late march in 3 of 4 areas suggested that increased net catabolism was occurring. Diminished creatinine ratios of sodium and phosphorus reflected low dietary intake of these minerals throughout <span class="hlt">winter</span>. Mean values and trends of urinary characteristics indicated nutritional deprivation varied among 3 <span class="hlt">winter</span> ranges in YNP. Continued physiological monitoring of nutritional deprivation, along with detailed examination of other aspects of the bison's ecology, will provide greater insight into the role of ungulate nutrition in the dynamics of such a complex system and improve management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20715613','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20715613"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> climate change: a critical factor for temperate vegetation performance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kreyling, Juergen</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Winter</span> ecological processes are important drivers of vegetation and ecosystem functioning in temperate ecosystems. There, <span class="hlt">winter</span> conditions are subject to rapid climate change. The potential loss of a longer-lasting snow cover with implications to other plant-related climate parameters and overwintering strategies make the temperate zone particularly vulnerable to <span class="hlt">winter</span> climate change. A formalized literature search in the ISI Web of Science shows that plant related research on the effects of <span class="hlt">winter</span> climate change is generally underrepresented. Temperate regions in particular are rarely studied in this respect, although the few existing studies imply strong effects of <span class="hlt">winter</span> climate change on species ranges, species compositions, phenology, or frost injury. The generally positive effect of warming on plant survival and production may be counteracted by effects such as an increased frost injury of roots and shoots, an increased insect pest risk, or a disrupted synchrony between plants and pollinators. Based on the literature study, gaps in current knowledge are discussed. Understanding the relative effects of interacting climate parameters, as well as a stronger consideration of shortterm events and variability of climatic conditions is urgent. With respect to plant response, it would be particularly worthwhile to account for hidden players such as pathogens, pollinators, herbivores, or fungal partners in mycorrhization.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027100','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027100"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> ecology of spectacled eiders: Environmental characteristics and population change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Petersen, M.R.; Douglas, D.C.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>We described characteristics of the <span class="hlt">wintering</span> area used by Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri) in the Bering Sea, Alaska, and evaluated these characteristics in relation to long-term population trends. Remoteness, limited daylight, and extreme weather conditions precluded direct observations, so we derived the location of the <span class="hlt">wintering</span> area from satellite telemetry, ice conditions from remotely sensed data, weather conditions from archived data sets, and benthic communities from the literature. Based on analyses of two indices spanning 1957-2002 and 1988-2002, we identified no single environmental parameter that explained the precipitous decline in nesting populations in western Alaska. In general, we found that the number of days with extreme sea ice in <span class="hlt">winter</span>, extreme winds, and winds in spring explained the greatest variability in annual indices. These analyses support the conclusion that annual population estimates on the breeding grounds can be negatively impacted by extended periods of dense sea-ice concentration and weather during the previous <span class="hlt">winter</span>. Examination of population indices did not support the hypothesis that changes in benthic community on the <span class="hlt">wintering</span> grounds have contributed to the decline or inhibited the recovery of the Spectacled Eider breeding population in western Alaska.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.H62C0874L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.H62C0874L"><span>Observations and Modeling of <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Storms in the Himalayas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lang, T. J.; Barros, A. P.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Based on observations from a hydrometeorological network on the eastern slopes of the Annapurna Range, the summer monsoon (June-September) is responsible for 80-90% of annual precipitation at low elevations (< 2000 m MSL) in Nepal, with nearly all of it in liquid form even during the <span class="hlt">winter</span>. However, high elevations can receive up to 25% of their annual precipitation as snowfall during the <span class="hlt">winter</span>, with the percentage of the annual total an increasing function of elevation. Significant snowstorms often are associated with terrain-locked low-pressure systems that form when an upper-level disturbance passes over the notch formed by the Himalayas and Hindu Kush mountains. These systems cause deep upslope flow over central Nepal, resulting in orographic precipitation. Notable case studies for three <span class="hlt">winters</span> (January-March 2000-2002) are reviewed using local precipitation (snow and rain) and other meteorological data, as well as satellite (Meteosat-5 and TRMM) and NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data. Based on these results, a 15-year (1988-2002) climatology is developed and interannual variability of <span class="hlt">winter</span> storms is diagnosed. Finally, a cloud-resolving model with realistic topography is used to investigate mechanisms for controlling the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation during <span class="hlt">winter</span> storms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032482','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032482"><span>Daily movements of female mallards <span class="hlt">wintering</span> in Southwestern Louisiana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Link, P.T.; Afton, A.D.; Cox, R.R.; Davis, B.E.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Understanding daily movements of waterfowl is crucial to management of <span class="hlt">winter</span> habitats, especially along the Gulf Coast where hunting pressure is high. Radio-telemetry was used to investigate movements of female Mallards (Anas platyrchychos) <span class="hlt">wintering</span> in southwestern Louisiana. Movement distances were analyzed from 2,455 paired locations (diurnal and nocturnal) of 126 Mallards during <span class="hlt">winters</span> 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 to assess effects of <span class="hlt">winter</span>, female age, areas closed (Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge [LAC], Cameron Prairie National Wildlife Refuge [CAM], Amoco Pool [AMOCO] or open to hunting [OPEN]), and habitat type, including all interactions. Movement distances from the various land management categories were not consistent by age, date, or by <span class="hlt">winter</span>. Flight distances from LAC increased with date, whereas those from CAM and OPEN did not vary significantly by date. Female Mallards moved short distances between diurnal and nocturnal sites (ranging from 3.1 to 15.0 km by land management category), suggesting that they are able to meet their daily energy requirements within a smaller area than Northern Pintails (Anas acuta, hereafter Pintails), and thus minimize transit energy costs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915785W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915785W"><span>Potential Seasonal Predictability for <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Storms over Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wild, Simon; Befort, Daniel J.; Leckebusch, Gregor C.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Reliable seasonal forecasts of strong extra-tropical cyclones and windstorms would have great social and economical benefits, as these events are the most costly natural hazards over Europe. In a previous study we have shown good agreement of spatial climatological distributions of extra-tropical cyclones and wind storms in state-of-the-art multi-member seasonal prediction systems with reanalysis. We also found significant seasonal prediction skill of extra-tropical cyclones and windstorms affecting numerous European countries. We continue this research by investigating the mechanisms and precursor conditions (primarily over the North Atlantic) on a seasonal time scale leading to enhanced extra-tropical cyclone activity and <span class="hlt">winter</span> storm frequency over Europe. Our results regarding mechanisms show that an increased surface temperature gradient at the western edge of the North Atlantic can be related to enhanced <span class="hlt">winter</span> storm frequency further downstream causing for example a greater number of storms over the British Isles, as observed in <span class="hlt">winter</span> 2013-14.The so-called "Horseshoe Index", a SST tripole anomaly pattern over the North Atlantic in the summer months can also cause a higher number of <span class="hlt">winter</span> storms over Europe in the subsequent <span class="hlt">winter</span>. We will show results of AMIP-type sensitivity experiments using an AGCM (ECHAM5), supporting this hypothesis. Finally we will analyse whether existing seasonal forecast systems are able to capture these identified mechanisms and precursor conditions affecting the models' seasonal prediction skill.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10131740','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10131740"><span><span class="hlt">EMS</span> in the pueblos.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vigil, M A</p> <p>1994-02-01</p> <p>Imagine creating a movie by excerpting scenes from "Dances With Wolves," splicing it with footage from "Code 3" or "Emergency Response" and then flavoring the script with the mystery of a Tony Hillerman novel. A film producer would probably find it quite difficult to choreograph a finished product from such a compilation of material. To hundreds of Native American <span class="hlt">EMS</span> providers, however, such a movie is played out every day in Indian country. And with this movie come some real-life problems, including trauma, which is the number-one cause of premature death among Native Americans. But a high trauma rate is just one of the challenges facing tribal <span class="hlt">EMS</span> responders. There's also prolonged response and transport, the problems involved in maintaining the unique culture and standard of care, the challenges of tribal <span class="hlt">EMS</span> administration and <span class="hlt">EMS</span> education of Native American students, and the unsure future of Native American <span class="hlt">EMS</span>. Beyond that, there's the fact that <span class="hlt">EMS</span> is a s unique to each Indian reservation as are the cultures of the native peoples who reside on these lands. Yet while no two systems are alike, most tribal <span class="hlt">EMS</span> providers face similar challenges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/819758','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/819758"><span>Echo Meadows Project <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Artificial Recharge.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ziari, Fred</p> <p>2002-12-19</p> <p>This report discusses the findings of the Echo Meadows Project (BPA Project 2001-015-00). The main purpose of this project is to artificially recharge an alluvial aquifer, WITH water from Umatilla River during the <span class="hlt">winter</span> high flow period. In turn, this recharged aquifer will discharge an increased flow of cool groundwater back to the river, thereby improving Umatilla River water quality and temperature. A considerable side benefit is that the Umatilla River should improve as a habitat for migration, spanning, and rearing of anadromous and resident fish. The scope of this project is to provide critical baseline information about the Echo Meadows and the associated reach of the Umatilla River. Key elements of information that has been gathered include: (1) Annual and seasonal groundwater levels in the aquifer with an emphasis on the irrigation season, (2) Groundwater hydraulic properties, particularly hydraulic conductivity and specific yield, and (3) Groundwater and Umatilla River water quality including temperature, nutrients and other indicator parameters. One of the major purposes of this data gathering was to develop input to a groundwater model of the area. The purpose of the model is to estimate our ability to recharge this aquifer using water that is only available outside of the irrigation season (December through the end of February) and to estimate the timing of groundwater return flow back to the river. We have found through the data collection and modeling efforts that this reach of the river had historically returned as much as 45 cubic feet per second (cfs) of water to the Umatilla River during the summer and early fall. However, this return flow was reduced to as low as 10 cfs primarily due to reduced quantities of irrigation application, gain in irrigation efficiencies and increased groundwater pumping. Our modeling indicated that it is possible to restore these critical return flows using applied water outside of the irrigation season. We further</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5364383','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5364383"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> temperatures limit population growth rate of a migratory songbird</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Woodworth, Bradley K.; Wheelwright, Nathaniel T.; Newman, Amy E.; Schaub, Michael; Norris, D. Ryan</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Understanding the factors that limit and regulate wildlife populations requires insight into demographic and environmental processes acting throughout the annual cycle. Here, we combine multi-year tracking data of individual birds with a 26-year demographic study of a migratory songbird to evaluate the relative effects of density and weather at the breeding and <span class="hlt">wintering</span> grounds on population growth rate. Our results reveal clear support for opposing forces of <span class="hlt">winter</span> temperature and breeding density driving population dynamics. Above-average temperatures at the <span class="hlt">wintering</span> grounds lead to higher population growth, primarily through their strong positive effects on survival. However, population growth is regulated over the long term by strong negative effects of breeding density on both fecundity and adult male survival. Such knowledge of how year-round factors influence population growth, and the demographic mechanisms through which they act, will vastly improve our ability to predict species responses to environmental change and develop effective conservation strategies for migratory animals. PMID:28317843</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10190932','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10190932"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> fuels report. Week ending, October 21, 1994</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zitomer, M.; Griffith, A.; Zyren, J.</p> <p>1994-10-01</p> <p>Demand for distillate fuel oil is expected to show a slight decline this <span class="hlt">winter</span> (October 1, 1994-March 31, 1995) from last, according to the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) 4th Quarter 1994 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. EIA projects <span class="hlt">winter</span> demand to decline one percent to 3.3 million barrels per day, assuming normal weather conditions. The effects of expected moderate growth in the economy and industrial production will likely be offset by much warmer temperatures than those a year ago. EIA projects prices for both residential heating oil and diesel fuel to be moderately higher than prices last <span class="hlt">winter</span>. Increases are likely, primarily because crude oil prices are expected to be higher than they were a year earlier (Table FE5).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6002813','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6002813"><span>Physiologic response of elk to differences in <span class="hlt">winter</span> range quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Weber, B.J.; Wolfe, M.L.; White, G.C.; Rowland, M.M.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of differences in <span class="hlt">winter</span> range quality on elk body condition and reproductive rates. The study area was in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico. An area of Bandelier National Monument burned by the June 1977 La Mesa wildfire was selected as one study site (BURN). An unburned <span class="hlt">winter</span> range (BACA) at an elevation of about 3000 m, 20 km northwest of the BURN site, was selected for comparative purposes. Comparisons of elk weights from the two areas yielded higher values for elk from the BURN. Despite differences in the condition indices, all adult female elk captured were pregnant. Results from this study suggest that differences in <span class="hlt">winter</span> range quality have an important role in determining elk condition. 26 references, 3 tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BoLMe.159..439C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BoLMe.159..439C"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> Lake Breezes near the Great Salt Lake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crosman, Erik T.; Horel, John D.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Case studies of lake breezes during wintertime cold air pools in Utah's Salt Lake Valley are examined. While summer breezes originating from the Great Salt Lake are typically deeper, of longer duration, and have higher wind speeds than <span class="hlt">winter</span> breezes, the rate of inland penetration and cross-frontal temperature differences can be higher during the <span class="hlt">winter</span>. The characteristics of <span class="hlt">winter</span> breezes and the forcing mechanisms controlling them (e.g., snow cover, background flow, vertical stability profile, clouds, lake temperature, lake sheltering, and drainage pooling) are more complex and variable than those evident in summer. During the afternoon in the Salt Lake Valley, these lake breezes can lead to elevated pollution levels due to the transport of fine particle pollutants from over the Great Salt Lake, decreased vertical mixing depth, and increased vertical stability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70006981','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70006981"><span>Black brant from Alaska staging and <span class="hlt">wintering</span> in Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Derksen, Dirk V.; Bollinger, K.S.; Ward, David H.; Sedinger, J.S.; Miyabayashi, Y.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) nest in colonies in arctic Canada, Alaska, and Russia (Derksen and Ward 1993, Sedinger et al. 1993). Virtually the entire population stages in fall at Izembek Lagoon near the tip of the Alaska Peninsula (Bellrose 1976) before southward migration (Dau 1992) to <span class="hlt">winter</span> habitats in British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California, and Baja California (Subcommittee on Black Brant 1992). A small number of black brant <span class="hlt">winter</span> in Japan, Korea, and China (Owen 1980). In Japan 3,000–5,000 brant of unknown origin stop over in fall, and a declining population (<1,000) of birds <span class="hlt">winter</span> here, primarily in the northern islands (Brazil 1991, Miyabayashi et al. 1994). Here, we report sightings of brant in Japan that were marked in Alaska and propose a migration route based on historical and recent observations and weather patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760050454&hterms=kayser&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dkayser','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760050454&hterms=kayser&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dkayser"><span>A direct measurement of the <span class="hlt">winter</span> helium bulge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mauersberger, K.; Potter, W. E.; Kayser, D. C.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>In late December 1975, the orbital configuration of the Atmosphere Explorer-D satellite made possible the measurement of the <span class="hlt">winter</span> helium bulge within a single perigee pass. Shortly after the <span class="hlt">winter</span> solstice, the perigee of the polar-orbiting AE-D satellite crossed the equator, at which time descending and ascending portions of the orbit stretched symmetrically over the Southern and Northern Hemispheres. The open-source neutral mass spectrometer (OSS) on board AE-D measured helium densities between the perigee (about 150 km) and altitudes of 650 km. During the time the perigee was at the equator, altitudes above approximately 550 km were located north and south at latitudes greater than 50-deg. Helium showed, in the <span class="hlt">winter</span> hemisphere, densities that were a factor of 20 higher than at corresponding altitudes and latitudes in the Southern (summer) Hemisphere. Absolute densities of helium agree well with previous measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93..105O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93..105O"><span>Collecting <span class="hlt">winter</span> data on U.S. Coast Guard icebreakers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oyserman, Ben O.; Woityra, William C.; Bullerjahn, George S.; Beall, Benjamin F. N.; McKay, Robert Michael L.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Winter</span> research and monitoring of icebound rivers, lakes, and coastal seas to date has usually involved seagoing civilian scientists leading survey efforts. However, because of poor weather conditions and a lack of safe research platforms, scientists collecting data during <span class="hlt">winter</span> face some difficult and often insurmountable problems. To solve these problems and to further research and environmental monitoring goals, new partnerships can be formed through integrating efforts of the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) with citizen science initiatives. USCG and a research group at Ohio's Bowling Green State University are entering the third year of such a partnership, in which icebreaking operations in Lake Erie using USCG Cutter Neah Bay support volunteer data collection. With two additional USCG vessels joining the program this <span class="hlt">winter</span> season, the partnership serves as a timely and useful model for worldwide environmental research and monitoring through citizen science and government collaboration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25629878','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25629878"><span>The impact of <span class="hlt">winter</span> heating on air pollution in China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xiao, Qingyang; Ma, Zongwei; Li, Shenshen; Liu, Yang</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Fossil-fuel combustion related <span class="hlt">winter</span> heating has become a major air quality and public health concern in northern China recently. We analyzed the impact of <span class="hlt">winter</span> heating on aerosol loadings over China using the MODIS-Aqua Collection 6 aerosol product from 2004-2012. Absolute humidity (AH) and planetary boundary layer height (PBL) -adjusted aerosol optical depth (AOD*) was constructed to reflect ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. GIS analysis, standard statistical tests, and statistical modeling indicate that <span class="hlt">winter</span> heating is an important factor causing increased PM2.5 levels in more than three-quarters of central and eastern China. The heating season AOD* was more than five times higher as the non-heating season AOD*, and the increase in AOD* in the heating areas was greater than in the non-heating areas. Finally, central heating tend to contribute less to air pollution relative to other means of household heating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900041435&hterms=turco&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dturco','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900041435&hterms=turco&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dturco"><span>Aerosol nucleation in the <span class="hlt">winter</span> Arctic and Antarctic stratospheres</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hamill, Patrick; Toon, O. B.; Turco, R. P.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The formation rate of sulfuric-acid-water aerosol particles is calculated as a function of altitude for the conditions of the <span class="hlt">winter</span> Arctic and Antarctic stratospheres. The theoretical results indicate that sulfate particle formation can occur in the polar <span class="hlt">winter</span> stratosphere. Conditions for new particle formation are increasingly favorable as the altitude increases between 20 and 30 km because of the decrease in surface area of preexisting particles and increasing sulfuric-acid vapor supply. The theoretical predictions are consistent with observations of a high-altitude CN layer over Antarctica in the spring. Available vapor-pressure data indicate that ternary particles composed of sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and water are not thermodynamically stable under <span class="hlt">winter</span> stratospheric conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4309400','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4309400"><span>The Impact of <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Heating on Air Pollution in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xiao, Qingyang; Ma, Zongwei; Li, Shenshen; Liu, Yang</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Fossil-fuel combustion related <span class="hlt">winter</span> heating has become a major air quality and public health concern in northern China recently. We analyzed the impact of <span class="hlt">winter</span> heating on aerosol loadings over China using the MODIS-Aqua Collection 6 aerosol product from 2004–2012. Absolute humidity (AH) and planetary boundary layer height (PBL) -adjusted aerosol optical depth (AOD*) was constructed to reflect ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. GIS analysis, standard statistical tests, and statistical modeling indicate that <span class="hlt">winter</span> heating is an important factor causing increased PM2.5 levels in more than three-quarters of central and eastern China. The heating season AOD* was more than five times higher as the non-heating season AOD*, and the increase in AOD* in the heating areas was greater than in the non-heating areas. Finally, central heating tend to contribute less to air pollution relative to other means of household heating. PMID:25629878</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70120846','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70120846"><span>Responses of <span class="hlt">wintering</span> bald eagles to boating activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Knight, Richard L.; Knight, Susan K.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wintering</span> populations of bald eagles show a close association with open water (Spencer 1976, Steenhof 1978). With the dramatic increase in the use of waterways for recreational activity in recent decades (Brockman and Merriam 1973, Jensen 1973), concern has arisen regarding the effects of boating activity on <span class="hlt">wintering</span> eagles (Stalmaster 1980). Boating activity can be detrimental because it disrupts feeding activity and affects large areas in short periods of time (Skagen 1980, Stalmaster 1980). Disturbance may result in increased energy expenditures due to avoidance flights and decreased energy intake due to interference with feeding activity (Stalmaster 1980). In this paper we examine flushing responses and flight distances of <span class="hlt">wintering</span> bald eagles to a canoe of two adjacent rivers with widely disparate levels of boating activity. We examine individual and interactive effects of eagle age, behavior, and social grouping.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.jstor.org/stable/3809554','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.jstor.org/stable/3809554"><span>Late <span class="hlt">winter</span> survival of female mallards in Arkansas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dugger, B.D.; Reinecke, K.J.; Fredrickson, L.H.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Determining factors that limit <span class="hlt">winter</span> survival of waterfowl is necessary to develop effective management plans. We radiomarked immature and adult female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) after the 1988 and 1989 hunting seasons in eastcentral Arkansas to test whether natural mortality sources and habitat conditions during late <span class="hlt">winter</span> limit seasonal survival. We used data from 92 females to calculate survival estimates. We observed no mortalities during 2,510 exposure days, despite differences in habitat conditions between years. We used the binomial distribution to calculate daily and 30-day survival estimates plus 95% confidence intervals of 0.9988 ltoreq 0.9997 ltoreq 1.00 and 0.9648 ltoreq 0.9925 ltoreq 1.00, respectively. Our data indirectly support the hypothesis that hunting mortality and habitat conditions during the hunting season are the major determinants of <span class="hlt">winter</span> survival for female mallards in Arkansas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17740697','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17740697"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> rain and summer ozone: a predictive relationship.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sandberg, J S; Basso, M J; Okin, B A</p> <p>1978-06-02</p> <p>Insights from dendrochronology have provided a new seasonal predictor for air pollution meteorology. In the San Francisco Bay Area summer ozone excesses over the federal ozone standard are correlated (correlation coefficient r = .87) with precipitation for the two preceding <span class="hlt">winters</span>, a factor related to tree-ring width in a precipitation-stressed climate. The hypothesis that reactive hydrocarbon emissions from vegetative biomass affects these ozone excesses was supported by a similar correlation between summer hydrocarbon average maximums and the two-<span class="hlt">winter</span> precipitation factor, reaching r = .88 at suburban stations. A weak tendency for hot summers to follow wet <span class="hlt">winters</span> (in 16 years of California data) explains only a minor part of the ozone-rain relationship in multiple correlations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://archive.usgs.gov/archive/sites/www.nwrc.usgs.gov/wdb/pub/hsi/hsi-068.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://archive.usgs.gov/archive/sites/www.nwrc.usgs.gov/wdb/pub/hsi/hsi-068.pdf"><span>Habitat Suitability Index Models: American black duck (<span class="hlt">wintering</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lewis, James C.; Garrison, Russell L.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>INTRODUCTION The American black duck, commonly known as the black duck, is migratory and has a wide geographic range. American black ducks breed from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, west to the Mississippi River and north through the eastern Canadian boreal forest (Bellrose 1976). The <span class="hlt">winter</span> range extends from the Rio Grande River on the Texas coast, northeast to Lake Michigan, east to Nova Scotia, south to Florida, and west to Texas (Wright 1954). American black ducks arrive on their <span class="hlt">wintering</span> habitats between September and early December and remain there until February to April (Bellrose 1976). Their preferred habitat varies considerably through the <span class="hlt">wintering</span> range. Habitat use appears related to food availability, freedom from disturbance, weather, and often upon the presence of large bodies of open water. These interrelated elements are essential for meeting the energy demands and other nutritional requirements of black ducks in response to the rigors of cold weather and migration. In the Atlantic Flyway, <span class="hlt">winter</span> populations of American black ducks concentrate in marine and estuarine wetlands (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1979). They use salt marshes and small tidal bays for feeding and loafing areas. In <span class="hlt">wintering</span> areas north of Chesapeake Bay, American black ducks frequently feed on tidal flats and rest in emergent wetlands or on ice-free bays, rivers, and coastal reservoirs. In the Chesapeake bay area, migrant and <span class="hlt">wintering</span> American black ducks occupy a wide variety of habitats (Stewart 1962). They strongly favor brackish bays with extensive adjacent agricultural lands. Estuarine bays, coastal salt marshes, tidal fresh marshes, and adjacent impoundments receive high usage. American black ducks also concentrate in forested wetlands in and adjacent to estuaries in the South Atlantic Flyway, especially in Virginia and North Carolina.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25272542','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25272542"><span>Vancouver <span class="hlt">winters</span>: environmental influences on inpatient adult orthopaedic trauma demographics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Noordin, Shahryar; Masri, Bassam A</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>To compare the pattern of adult inpatient orthopaedic injuries admitted at three Vancouver hospitals following one of the worst <span class="hlt">winter</span> snowstorms in the region with the preceding control <span class="hlt">winter</span> period. The surveillance study was conducted at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, 2007 to 2010. Inpatient adult admissions for orthopaedic injuries at three hospitals were recorded, including age, gender, anatomic location of injury, type of fracture (open or closed), fixation method (internal versus external fixation), and length of acute care hospital stay. Comparisons between admissions during this weather pattern and admission during a previous <span class="hlt">winter</span> with minimal snow were made. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 511 patients admitted under Orthopaedic trauma service during the significant <span class="hlt">winter</span> snowstorms of December 2008-January 2009, 100 (19.6%) (Cl: 16.2%-23.2%) were due to ice and snow, whereas in the preceding mild <span class="hlt">winter</span> only 18 of 415 (4.3%) (CI: 2.5%-6.8%) cases were related to snow (p < 0.05). Ankle and wrist fractures were the most frequent injuries during the index snow storm period (p < 0.05). At all the three institutions, 97 (96.5%) fractures were closed during the snowstorm as opposed to 17 (95%) during the control <span class="hlt">winter</span> period. Internal fixation in 06 (89%) fractures as opposed to external fixation in 12 (11%) patients was the predominant mode of fixation across the board during both time periods. The study demonstrated a significantly higher inpatient orthopaedic trauma volume during the snowstorm. More rigorous prospective studies need to be designed to gain further insight to solving these problems from a public health perspective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811432D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811432D"><span>Forest tree seedlings may suffer from predicted future <span class="hlt">winters</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Domisch, Timo; Repo, Tapani; Martz, Françoise; Rautio, Pasi</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Future climate scenarios predict increased precipitation and air temperatures, particularly at high latitudes, and especially so during <span class="hlt">winter</span>, spring and autumn. However, soil temperatures are more difficult to predict, since they depend strongly on the insulating snow cover. Warm periods during <span class="hlt">winter</span> can lead to thaw-freeze cycles and flooding, which again can result in the formation of ice layers, affecting soil properties, soil gas concentrations and the survival of tree seedlings. We conducted two laboratory experiments of 20 weeks duration each, simulating <span class="hlt">winter</span>, spring and early summer, and imposed Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) or downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) seedlings to four different <span class="hlt">winter</span> scenarios: (1) ambient snow cover, (2) compressed snow and ice encasement, (3) frozen flood and (4) no snow. We estimated the stress that the seedlings experienced by means of gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and determining above- and belowground biomass and carbohydrate contents, as well as measuring soil oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations. The seedlings in the snow and compressed snow treatments survived until the end of the experiments, although only those covered with an ambient snow cover showed normal height growth and typical carbohydrate contents. The seedlings in the other treatments showed symptoms of dieback already during early spring and had almost completely died at the end of the experiment. Our results suggest the crucial significance of the protective snow cover, and that a missing soil cover or soil hypoxia and anoxia during <span class="hlt">winter</span> can be lethal for seedlings, and that respiratory losses and <span class="hlt">winter</span> desiccation of aboveground organs can further lead to the death of tree seedlings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996AtmEn..30..521P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996AtmEn..30..521P"><span>Sustainable <span class="hlt">winter</span> cities: Future directions for planning, policy and design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pressman, Norman E. P.</p> <p></p> <p>Attempts to generate a "climate-responsive" northern urban form are part of a relatively recent phenomenon and field of investigation. In conjunction with the international "<span class="hlt">winter</span> cities" movement, the need has been established for explicit, systematic inquiry directed toward national and local action to improve the comfort and lifestyles of all northern inhabitants. It is important to recognize that <span class="hlt">winter</span>-induced discomforts exist and that they must be acknowledged in planning theory and practice. For northern cities to function more satisfactorily, the negative impacts of <span class="hlt">winter</span> must be reduced while its beneficial characteristics are enhanced. While not all summer activities can or should be abandoned during <span class="hlt">winter</span>, proper micro-climatic control is essential if human life is to be retained outside. The outdoor season should be extended since so much indoor isolation occurs. The main principles to be incorporated in exemplary "<span class="hlt">winter</span> city" design should be contact with nature, year-round usability, user participation, cultural continuity, and the creation of comfortable micro-climatic conditions throughout much of the city's open spaces. All valuable sources of inspiration must be harnessed in the attempt to mediate between organic regionalism and internationalism, on the one hand, and romanticism and pragmatic realism, on the other. Creating optimum conditions for human well-being, habitation, work and intellectual development in each of the four seasons is vital under harsh environments. Adopting a climate-sensitive approach to planning policy and urban design can render everyday life less stressful, especially during the lengthy <span class="hlt">winter</span> periods found in many northern latitude and high altitude settings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1001783','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1001783"><span>Predictable interregional movements by female northern pintails during <span class="hlt">winter</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cox, R.R.; Afton, A.D.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Factors influencing initiation of regional and interregional movements by nonbreeding ducks are poorly understood, especially during <span class="hlt">winter</span>. During <span class="hlt">winters</span> 1990-1991 through 1992-1993, we radiotagged 347 female Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) in southwestern Louisiana and monitored their movements to three regions: (1) the Gulf Coast Region of Louisiana and Texas (outside of southwestern Louisiana), (2) the Rice Prairie Region of Texas, and (3) the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. We found that adult females were 1.9 times more likely than were immatures to emigrate from southwestern Louisiana during <span class="hlt">winter</span>. During <span class="hlt">winters</span> 1990-1991 and 1991-1992, females were more likely to emigrate during stormy than during fair weather, whereas they were more likely to emigrate during fair weather in 1992-1993. Females were more likely to emigrate during duck-hunting seasons than during nonhunting seasons, regardless of weather. Daily emigration probabilities did not differ in relation to body condition when released (body mass adjusted for body size) or to number of previous emigration events. Each <span class="hlt">winter</span>, large numbers of females consistently moved from the Gulf Coast Region to areas with abundant rice (Oryza sativa) agriculture within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. We conclude that destination of interregional movements by this population of Northern Pintails is highly predictable, and that initiation of such movements is influenced by female age and long-term <span class="hlt">winter</span> precipitation patterns in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Furthermore, timing of these movements is predictable, based not on calendar date, but rather on duck-hunting seasons and, usually, the environmental cues to habitat availability provided by stormy weather.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27558794','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27558794"><span>The importance of agricultural lands for Himalayan birds in <span class="hlt">winter</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Elsen, Paul R; Kalyanaraman, Ramnarayan; Ramesh, Krishnamurthy; Wilcove, David S</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The impacts of land-use change on biodiversity in the Himalayas are poorly known, notwithstanding widespread deforestation and agricultural intensification in this highly biodiverse region. Although intact primary forests harbor many Himalayan birds during breeding, a large number of bird species use agricultural lands during <span class="hlt">winter</span>. We assessed how Himalayan bird species richness, abundance, and composition during <span class="hlt">winter</span> are affected by forest loss stemming from agriculture and grazing. Bird surveys along 12 elevational transects within primary forest, low-intensity agriculture, mixed subsistence agriculture, and intensively grazed pastures in <span class="hlt">winter</span> revealed that bird species richness and abundance were greatest in low-intensity and mixed agriculture, intermediate in grazed pastures, and lowest in primary forest at both local and landscape scales; over twice as many species and individuals were recorded in low-intensity agriculture than in primary forest. Bird communities in primary forests were distinct from those in all other land-use classes, but only 4 species were unique to primary forests. Low-, medium-, and high-intensity agriculture harbored 32 unique species. Of the species observed in primary forest, 80% had equal or greater abundance in low-intensity agricultural lands, underscoring the value of these lands in retaining diverse community assemblages at high densities in <span class="hlt">winter</span>. Among disturbed landscapes, bird species richness and abundance declined as land-use intensity increased, especially in high-intensity pastures. Our results suggest that agricultural landscapes are important for most Himalayan bird species in <span class="hlt">winter</span>. But agricultural intensification-especially increased grazing-will likely result in biodiversity losses. Given that forest reserves alone may inadequately conserve Himalayan birds in <span class="hlt">winter</span>, comprehensive conservation strategies in the region must go beyond protecting intact primary forests and ensure that low-intensity agricultural</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820024913','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820024913"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> wheat: A model for the simulation of growth and yield in <span class="hlt">winter</span> wheat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Baker, D. N.; Smika, D. E.; Black, A. L.; Willis, W. O.; Bauer, A. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The basic ideas and constructs for a general physical/physiological process level <span class="hlt">winter</span> wheat simulation model are documented. It is a materials balance model which calculates daily increments of photosynthate production and respiratory losses in the crop canopy. The partitioning of the resulting dry matter to the active growing tissues in the plant each day, transpiration and the uptake of nitrogen from the soil profile are simulated. It incorporates the RHIZOS model which simulates, in two dimensions, the movement of water, roots, and soluble nutrients through the soil profile. It records the time of initiation of each of the plant organs. These phenological events are calculated from temperature functions with delays resulting from physiological stress. Stress is defined mathematically as an imbalance in the metabolite supply; demand ratio. Physiological stress is also the basis for the calculation of rates of tiller and floret abortion. Thus, tillering and head differentiation are modeled as the resulants of the two processes, morphogenesis and abortion, which may be occurring simulaneously.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27940142','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27940142"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> is coming: Seasonality and the acoustic startle reflex.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Armbruster, Diana; Brocke, Burkhard; Strobel, Alexander</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Circannual rhythms and seasonality have long been in the interest of research. In humans, seasonal changes in mood have been extensively investigated since a substantial part of the population experiences worsening of mood during <span class="hlt">winter</span>. Questions remain regarding accompanying physiological phenomena. We report seasonal effects on the acoustic startle response in a cross-sectional (n=124) and a longitudinal sample (n=23). Startle magnitudes were larger in <span class="hlt">winter</span> (sample 1: p=0.026; sample 2: p=0.010) compared to summer months. Although the findings need to be replicated they may have implications regarding the timing of startle experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27942239','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27942239"><span>Seasonal affective disorder, <span class="hlt">winter</span> type: current insights and treatment options.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meesters, Ybe; Gordijn, Marijke Cm</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), <span class="hlt">winter</span> type, is a seasonal pattern of recurrent major depressive episodes most commonly occurring in autumn or <span class="hlt">winter</span> and remitting in spring/summer. The syndrome has been well-known for more than three decades, with light treatment being the treatment of first choice. In this paper, an overview is presented of the present insights in SAD. Description of the syndrome, etiology, and treatment options are mentioned. Apart from light treatment, medication and psychotherapy are other treatment options. The predictable, repetitive nature of the syndrome makes it possible to discuss preventive treatment options. Furthermore, critical views on the concept of SAD as a distinct diagnosis are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850067482&hterms=nuclear+winter&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dnuclear%2Bwinter','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850067482&hterms=nuclear+winter&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dnuclear%2Bwinter"><span>Ozone, dust, smoke and humidity in nuclear <span class="hlt">winter</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Ackerman, T. P.; Pollack, J. B.; Sagan, C.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Recent correspondence on nuclear <span class="hlt">winter</span> is commented on. Reasons are given for why the Tunguska meteor explosion may not be useful in calibrating the effects of a major nuclear exchange. The relationship between the optical depth of an aerosol cloud, the composition of the cloud, and its effect on sunlight intensity and climate are clarified. The significance of the Tambora eruption of 1815 and of historical fires for the nuclear <span class="hlt">winter</span> theory are briefly discussed. The dispersion of smoke plumes from large fires is addressed, and water condensation and smoke scavenging are considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24930242','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24930242"><span>Helminths in migrating and <span class="hlt">wintering</span> birds recorded in Poland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Okulewicz, Anna</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Among 544 species of helminths recorded in birds on the territory of Poland, probably some (17 species of Digenea, 21 Cestoda, 13 Nematoda and 5 Acanthocephala) do not belong to the native fauna. These are helminths obtained in mature stage from birds shortly after their arrival from <span class="hlt">wintering</span> grounds, or from foreign populations <span class="hlt">wintering</span> with us, or being in the course of spring or autumn migration through the area of our country. In general, these helminth species have been recorded sporadically in the examined birds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H53E1570L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H53E1570L"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> stream temperature in the rain-on-snow zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leach, J. A.; Moore, R. D.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Stream temperature is a principal determinant of aquatic ecosystem composition and productivity. There are increasing concerns that changes in land cover and climatic conditions could produce changes in stream thermal regimes that would be deleterious to existing aquatic communities. Most stream temperature research has focused on summer periods and few studies have examined <span class="hlt">winter</span> periods despite the growing recognition of its biological importance. The <span class="hlt">winter</span> thermal regimes of Pacific Northwest headwater streams, which provide vital <span class="hlt">winter</span> habitat for salmonids and their food sources, may be particularly sensitive to changes in climate because they can remain ice-free throughout the year and are often located in rain-on-snow zones. This study examined <span class="hlt">winter</span> stream temperature patterns and controls in small headwater catchments within the rain-on-snow zone at the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest, near Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Two working hypotheses were addressed by this study: (1) <span class="hlt">winter</span> stream temperatures are primarily controlled by advective fluxes associated with runoff processes and (2) stream temperatures should be depressed during rain-on-snow events, compared to rain on bare ground, due to the cooling effect of rain passing through the snowpack prior to infiltrating the soil or being delivered to the stream as saturation-excess overland flow. These hypotheses were tested statistically using historical stream temperature data and modelled snowpack dynamics for a forested headwater catchment. When snow was not present, daily stream temperature during <span class="hlt">winter</span> rain events tended to increase with increasing air temperature. However, when snow was present, stream temperature was capped at about 5 °C, regardless of air temperature. This historical analysis was complemented with detailed field data collected during the <span class="hlt">winter</span> of 2011-2012 from an ongoing field study in a partially logged catchment. Stream temperature response to a large rain</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890020516','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890020516"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> in Northern Europe (WINE). The project <span class="hlt">Winter</span> in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE): Introduction and outlook</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vonzahn, U.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The project <span class="hlt">Winter</span> in Northern Europe (WINE) of the international Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) comprised a multinational study of the structure, dynamics and composition of the middle atmosphere in <span class="hlt">winter</span> at high latitudes. Coordinated field measurements were performed during the <span class="hlt">winter</span> 1983 to 1984 by a large number of ground-based, air-borne, rocket-borne and satellite-borne instruments. Many of the individual experiments were performed in the European sector of the high latitude and polar atmosphere. Studies of the stratosphere, were, in addition, expanded to hemispheric scales by the use of data obtained from remotely sensing satellites. Beyond its direct scientific results, which are reviewed, MAP/WINE has stimulated quite a number of follow-on experiments and projects which address the aeronomy of the middle atmosphere at high and polar latitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED475094.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED475094.pdf"><span>KPI Graduate Executive Summary Report, Summer 2000-<span class="hlt">Winter</span> 2001.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sheridan Coll. (Ontario).</p> <p></p> <p>Summarizes findings from the Key Performance Indicator Satisfaction Survey administered by Sheridan College in the summer 2000, fall 2000, and <span class="hlt">winter</span> 2001 terms. This survey was administered in compliance with the Ontario government's efforts to increase the accountability of the Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology through the measurement of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=adirondacks&id=EJ591892','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=adirondacks&id=EJ591892"><span>Conquering Confidence: Reflections on a Women's <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Expedition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dudley, Catherine; Ferren, Sue; Glackmeyer, Heidi</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Three women undertook a four-day <span class="hlt">winter</span> camping trip in the Adirondacks as their practicum in an outdoor and experiential-education course. Their description of the confidence gained and the balance between self-doubt and overconfidence is compared to walking in snowshoes. (TD)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=340544','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=340544"><span>Registration of ‘Tatanka’ Hard Red <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Wheat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>‘Tatanka’ hard red <span class="hlt">winter</span> wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at the Agricultural Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2016. Tatanka was selected from a single cross of KS07HW81/T151 made in 2006 at Hays, KS. The objectiv...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/49289','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/49289"><span>Geolocator reveals migratory and <span class="hlt">winter</span> movements of a Prothonotary Warbler</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Jared D. Wolfe; Erik I. Johnson</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Prothonotary Warblers (Protonotaria citrea) are Nearctic-Neotropic migrants that have experienced declining populations over the past 50 yr. Determining their migration routes and <span class="hlt">wintering</span> areas are critical steps in identifying habitats used by species and populations of conservation concern. We captured a male Prothonotary Warbler on its...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/29286','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/29286"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> prey caching by northern hawk owls in Minnesota</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Richard R. Schaefer; D. Craig Rudolph; Jesse F. Fagan</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Northern Hawk Owls (Surnia ulula) have been reported to cache prey during the breeding season for later consumption, but detailed reports of prey caching during the non-breeding season are comparatively rare. We provided prey to four individual Northern Hawk Owls in <span class="hlt">wintering</span> areas in northeastern Minnesota during 2001 and 2005 and observed their...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=307956','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=307956"><span>Regulatory control of carotenoid accumulation in <span class="hlt">winter</span> squash during storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Postharvest storage of fruits and vegetables is often required and frequently results in nutritional quality change. In this study, we investigated carotenoid storage plastids, carotenoid content, and its regulation during 3-month storage of <span class="hlt">winter</span> squash butternut fruits. We showed that storage imp...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://prevention.cancer.gov/news-and-events/news/nutrition-frontiers-winter-0','NCI'); return false;" href="https://prevention.cancer.gov/news-and-events/news/nutrition-frontiers-winter-0"><span>Nutrition Frontiers - <span class="hlt">Winter</span> 2017 | Division of Cancer Prevention</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.cancer.gov">Cancer.gov</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Volume 8, Issue 1 Dear Colleague, The <span class="hlt">winter</span> issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases gut permeability and calcium supplementation, potential chemopreventive effects of dietary DHM for lung tumorigenesis, and the role of the MCP-1 chemokine on adiposity and inflammation. Learn about our spotlight investigator, Dr. Gregory Lesinski, and his research on dietary interventions to inhibit carcinogenesis, upcoming announcements and more. |</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/40196','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/40196"><span>Mortality of aspen on the Gros Ventre elk <span class="hlt">winter</span> range</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Richard G. Krebill</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Stands of aspen on the Gros Ventre elk <span class="hlt">winter</span> range of northwestern Wyoming are suffering high mortality and are not regenerating satisfactorily. If the 1970 mortality rate (3.6 percent) continues, about a two-thirds reduction in the numbers of tree-sized aspen can be expected by year 2000. Collected evidence suggests that the mortality rate is unusually high because...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-11-29/pdf/2011-30533.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-11-29/pdf/2011-30533.pdf"><span>76 FR 73503 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; <span class="hlt">Winters</span>, TX</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-11-29</p> <p>... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; <span class="hlt">Winters</span>, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace for..., Federal Aviation Administration, Southwest Region, 2601 Meacham Blvd., Fort Worth, TX 76137; telephone...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/24030','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/24030"><span>Food habits of bald eagles <span class="hlt">wintering</span> in northern Arizona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Teryl G. Grubb; Roy G. Lopez</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>We used pellets collected from roosts to supplement incidental foraging observations to identify prey species of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucoughalus) and to evaluate spatial and temporal trends in their food habits while <span class="hlt">wintering</span> in northern Arizona between 1994-96. We analyzed 1057 pellets collected from 14 roosts, and identified five mammal and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=75630&keyword=ducks&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=75630&keyword=ducks&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>HABITAT RELATIONS OF WATERFOWL <span class="hlt">WINTERING</span> IN NARRAGANSETT BAY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>As part of a project investigating the effect of changes in habitat quality brought about by habitat loss or impairment on resident wildlife in coastal ecosystems, we conducted periodic surveys of <span class="hlt">wintering</span> waterfowl in Narragansett Bay. A total of 17 species of waterfowl were i...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=298545','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=298545"><span>Stable fly control in cattle <span class="hlt">winter</span> feeding sites with Novaluron</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The mixture of wasted feed with manure and urine residues at livestock <span class="hlt">winter</span> feeding sites provides an excellent substrate for the development of immature stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Such sites are primary sources of early summer stable flies in the central United States and limited opt...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/21446','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/21446"><span>Sagebrush-ungulate relationships on the Northern Yellowstone <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Range</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Carl L. Wambolt</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Sagebrush (Artemisia) taxa have historically been the landscape dominants over much of the Northern Yellowstone <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Range (NYWR). Their importance to the unnaturally large ungulate populations on the NYWR throughout the twentieth century has been recognized since the 1920s. Sagebrush-herbivore ecology has been the focus of research on the NYWR for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/NABB/v023n04/p0109-p0109.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/NABB/v023n04/p0109-p0109.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Wintering</span> ovenbird from Belize recovered on Pennsylvania breeding ground</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dowell, B.A.; Robbins, C.S.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A first-<span class="hlt">winter</span> Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus) banded in a cacao plantation in central Belize on 8 February 1989 was found dead on the deck of a home on its breeding ground in northwestern Pennsylvania on 28 June 1997, tying the 9-year age record for the species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA12457.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA12457.html"><span>Spirit Rear View After Parking for Fourth <span class="hlt">Winter</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-02-12</p> <p>NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit recorded this fisheye view after completing a drive during on Mars on Feb. 8, 2010. The drive left Spirit in the position where the rover will stay parked during the upcoming Mars southern-hemisphere <span class="hlt">winter</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036411','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036411"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> habitat associations of diurnal raptors in Californias Central Valley</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Pandolrno, E.R.; Herzog, M.P.; Hooper, S.L.; Smith, Z.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">wintering</span> raptors of California's Central Valley are abundant and diverse. Despite this, little information exists on the habitats used by these birds in <span class="hlt">winter</span>. We recorded diurnal raptors along 19 roadside survey routes throughout the Central Valley for three consecutive <span class="hlt">winters</span> between 2007 and 2010. We obtained data sufficient to determine significant positive and negative habitat associations for the White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus), Bald Eagle {Haliaeetus leucocephalus), Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), and Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus). The Prairie Falcon and Ferruginous and Rough-legged hawks showed expected strong positive associations with grasslands. The Bald Eagle and Northern Harrier were positively associated not only with wetlands but also with rice. The strongest positive association for the White-tailed Kite was with wetlands. The Red-tailed Hawk was positively associated with a variety of habitat types but most strongly with wetlands and rice. The American Kestrel, Northern Harrier, and White-tailed Kite were positively associated with alfalfa. Nearly all species were negatively associated with urbanized landscapes, orchards, and other intensive forms of agriculture. The White-tailed Kite, Northern Harrier, Redtailed Hawk, Ferruginous Hawk, and American Kestrel showed significant negative associations with oak savanna. Given the rapid conversion of the Central Valley to urban and intensive agricultural uses over the past few decades, these results have important implications for conservation of these <span class="hlt">wintering</span> raptors in this region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/14606','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/14606"><span>Poleward shifts in <span class="hlt">winter</span> ranges of North American birds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Frank A. La Sorte; Frank R., III Thompson</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Climate change is thought to promote the poleward movement of geographic ranges; however, the spatial dynamics, mechanisms, and regional anthropogenic drivers associated with these trends have not been fully explored. We estimated changes in latitude of northern range boundaries, center of occurrence, and center of abundance for 254 species of <span class="hlt">winter</span> avifauna in North...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.129..125N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.129..125N"><span>Antarctic <span class="hlt">winter</span> mercury and ozone depletion events over sea ice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nerentorp Mastromonaco, M.; Gårdfeldt, K.; Jourdain, B.; Abrahamsson, K.; Granfors, A.; Ahnoff, M.; Dommergue, A.; Méjean, G.; Jacobi, H.-W.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>During atmospheric mercury and ozone depletion events in the springtime in polar regions gaseous elemental mercury and ozone undergo rapid declines. Mercury is quickly transformed into oxidation products, which are subsequently removed by deposition. Here we show that such events also occur during Antarctic <span class="hlt">winter</span> over sea ice areas, leading to additional deposition of mercury. Over four months in the Weddell Sea we measured gaseous elemental, oxidized, and particulate-bound mercury, as well as ozone in the troposphere and total and elemental mercury concentrations in snow, demonstrating a series of depletion and deposition events between July and September. The <span class="hlt">winter</span> depletions in July were characterized by stronger correlations between mercury and ozone and larger formation of particulate-bound mercury in air compared to later spring events. It appears that light at large solar zenith angles is sufficient to initiate the photolytic formation of halogen radicals. We also propose a dark mechanism that could explain observed events in air masses coming from dark regions. Br2 that could be the main actor in dark conditions was possibly formed in high concentrations in the marine boundary layer in the dark. These high concentrations may also have caused the formation of high concentrations of CHBr3 and CH2I2 in the top layers of the Antarctic sea ice observed during <span class="hlt">winter</span>. These new findings show that the extent of depletion events is larger than previously believed and that <span class="hlt">winter</span> depletions result in additional deposition of mercury that could be transferred to marine and terrestrial ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=278104','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=278104"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> safflower, a potential alternative crop for the Pacific Northwest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The dryland cropping system in the Pacific Northwest is dominated by a <span class="hlt">winter</span> wheat-summer fallow cropping system that occupies more than 90% of the dryland hectares. Success in finding a viable alternative crop has been limited because the annual precipitation in this region varies from less than 1...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=241763','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=241763"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> cereals as a pasture-hay system in Montana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In 2006-2008 ‘Willow Creek’ <span class="hlt">winter</span> wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and ‘Trical 102’ triticale (X Triticosecale Wttn.) were evaluated, under dryland conditions, for biomass production and forage quality under grazing and haying systems. Grazing enclosures were constructed in uniform sites of the fields....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=324396','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=324396"><span>Registration of “Pritchett” soft white <span class="hlt">winter</span> club wheat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Soft white club <span class="hlt">winter</span> wheat (Triticium aestivum L. ssp. compactum) is a unique component of the wheat production in the PNW, comprising 6-10% of the wheat crop. It is valued for milling and baking functionality and marketed for export in a 20-30% blend with soft white wheat as Western White. Our g...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036072','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036072"><span><span class="hlt">Wintering</span> bird response to fall mowing of herbaceous buffers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Blank, P.J.; Parks, J.R.; Dively, G.P.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Herbaceous buffers are strips of herbaceous vegetation planted between working agricultural land and streams or wetlands. Mowing is a common maintenance practice to control woody plants and noxious weeds in herbaceous buffers. Buffers enrolled in Maryland's Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) cannot be mowed during the primary bird nesting season between 15 April and 15 August. Most mowing of buffers in Maryland occurs in late summer or fall, leaving the vegetation short until the following spring. We studied the response of <span class="hlt">wintering</span> birds to fall mowing of buffers. We mowed one section to 10-15 cm in 13 buffers and kept another section unmowed. Ninety-two percent of birds detected in buffers were grassland or scrub-shrub species, and 98% of all birds detected were in unmowed buffers. Total bird abundance, species richness, and total avian conservation value were significantly greater in unmowed buffers, and Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis), Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia), and White-throated Sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) were significantly more abundant in unmowed buffers. <span class="hlt">Wintering</span> bird use of mowed buffers was less than in unmowed buffers. Leaving herbaceous buffers unmowed through <span class="hlt">winter</span> will likely provide better habitat for <span class="hlt">wintering</span> birds. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=music+AND+event+AND+history&pg=5&id=ED239713','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=music+AND+event+AND+history&pg=5&id=ED239713"><span>Let's Celebrate <span class="hlt">Winter</span>: Activities for Grades 4-8.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, Ca. Div. of Instructional Services.</p> <p></p> <p>One of a series of activity guides, this publication offers a variety of learning activities and resource materials to enhance student recognition of American history, citizenship, and famous Americans through the observance of special days and events in the <span class="hlt">winter</span> months. Lesson plans are provided to develop communications skills. The guide…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0073.photos.114538p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0073.photos.114538p/"><span>6. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Photographer, Summer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>6. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Photographer, Summer 1930, DWELLING ROOM OF SISTER ANNA CASE, SECOND FLOOR, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Dwelling House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0536.photos.115404p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0536.photos.115404p/"><span>1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer July 1931, GENERAL VIEW FROM WEST, INCLUDING TAN BARN OF CHURCH FAMILY (RIGHT), Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker North Family (General Views), Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/6100','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/6100"><span>Forest management strategy, spatial heterogeneity, and <span class="hlt">winter</span> birds in Washington.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>B. Haveri; A.B. Carey</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Ecological management of second-growth forest holds great promise for conservation of biodiversity, yet little experimental evidence exists to compare alternative management approaches. <span class="hlt">Wintering</span> birds are one of several groups of species most likely to be influenced by forest management activities. We compared species richness and proportion of stand area used over...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=68864&keyword=fog&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90707005&CFTOKEN=38580297','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=68864&keyword=fog&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90707005&CFTOKEN=38580297"><span>EVALUATION OF SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMATION IN <span class="hlt">WINTER</span>. (R823514)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Three different methods are used to predict secondary organic aerosol (SOA)<br>concentrations in the San Joaquin Valley of California during the <span class="hlt">winter</span> of 1995-1996 [Integrated<br>Monitoring Study, (IMS95)]. The first of these methods estimates SOA by using elemental carbon as<br...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=315872','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=315872"><span>N response of no-till dryland <span class="hlt">winter</span> triticale forage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Triticale’s forage-yield response to fertilizer nitrogen (N) is impressive on soils testing low in available N. Our objective is to quantify the forage yield response of dryland <span class="hlt">winter</span> triticale to applied N and to residual NO3-N. A second objective is to fit the yield data to a regression equation ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/11089','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/11089"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> Thaws Can Raise Ground Water Levels in Driftless Area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Richard S. Sartz</p> <p>1967-01-01</p> <p>Springflow and ground water levels both rose with <span class="hlt">winter</span> thaws, even when the ground was frozen. A high soil water content suggests that water moved to the water table through a continuous column of soil water rather than as a wetting front</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163553.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163553.html"><span>How to Stay on Your Feet During Slippery <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... of MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine, the National Institutes of Health, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. More Health News on: Safety <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Weather Emergencies Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=320882','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=320882"><span>Making better decisions: 2014 Colorado <span class="hlt">winter</span> wheat variety performance trials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Farmers need timely reports of varietal performance for making informed variety selection for their farms each year. The objective of this document is to provide a yield and performance summary of the last three years of <span class="hlt">winter</span> wheat variety trials run at multiple locations in eastern Colorado. Fort...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=115966&keyword=Rap&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89678901&CFTOKEN=80938166','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=115966&keyword=Rap&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89678901&CFTOKEN=80938166"><span>RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HABITAT QUALITY AND DENSITY OF JUVENILE <span class="hlt">WINTER</span> FLOUNDER</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We used a digital video camera mounted to a 1-m beam trawl together with an attached continuous recording YSI sonde and GPS unit to quantify juvenile <span class="hlt">winter</span> flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) densities and fish habitat. The YSI sonde measured temperature, salinity, dissolve...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bacteria+AND+water+AND+streams&id=EJ251594','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bacteria+AND+water+AND+streams&id=EJ251594"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> Streams: The Web of Life Goes On.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pokora, Daniel L.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Describes scope and significance of a high school water monitoring project and discusses problems and solutions related to water testing in general and <span class="hlt">winter</span> water testing in particular. Discussions of stream velocity, stream flow, biotic index, and coliform bacteria tests are included. (DC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=330455','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=330455"><span>Registration of ‘Joe’ hard white <span class="hlt">winter</span> wheat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>‘Joe’, a hard white <span class="hlt">winter</span> wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at the Agricultural Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2015. Joe was selected from a two-way cross of KS04HW101-3/KS04HW119-3 made in 2005 at Hays, KS. The ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=221077','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=221077"><span>Protecting Blackberries for <span class="hlt">Winter</span>: A No Tunnel Alternative</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We evaluated the combination of primocane training and cane positioning techniques using a rotatable cross-arm (RCA) trellis system and covering plants in <span class="hlt">winter</span> to protect buds and canes from freezing temperatures in 'Apache', 'Boysenberry', 'Siskiyou', and 'Triple Crown' blackberry. After tying p...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.B51D0442R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.B51D0442R"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> fluxes from Eastern Arkansas Rice-Waterfowl Habitats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reba, M. L.; Fong, B.; Runkle, B.; Suvocarev, K.; Adviento-Borbe, A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Seasonal flooding of rice fields in the mid-South for migratory birds during the <span class="hlt">winter</span> months (December- January) has occurred for years. This practice can impact total annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fluxes during the production season (June-August). Over 75% of US rice production occurs in the mid-South, but limited research has analyzed the <span class="hlt">winter</span> fluxes of methane and carbon dioxide in this rice-waterfowl habitat. Usually rice fields are flooded from June to August for the production season, and again December to January for migratory birds. In addition to hunting revenue, added benefits of <span class="hlt">winter</span> flooding include weed control and prevention of soil oxidation and subsidence. Eddy covariance systems measuring carbon dioxide, water vapor and methane fluxes were installed at two sites in northeastern and east central Arkansas. Each site had two systems on neighboring fields with one flooded and the other not flooded. Seasonal variability in fluxes were compared and contrasted during the 2015-2016 <span class="hlt">winter</span>. Both carbon dioxide and methane fluxes were positively related to temperatures. These findings will improve the understanding of seasonal greenhouse gas emissions at a field scale under typical mid-South rice production practices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=266717','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=266717"><span>Range Cattle <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Water Consumption in Northern Great Plains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Water consumption and DMI has been found to be positively correlated and may interact to alter range cow productivity. Environmental conditions can have a significant influence on water consumption during the <span class="hlt">winter</span>. The objective of this study was to determine influences of water and air temperatur...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/37588','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/37588"><span>Identification of a nucleopolyhedrovirus in <span class="hlt">winter</span> moth populations from Massachusetts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>John P. Burand; Anna Welch; Woojin Kim; Vince D' Amico; Joseph S. Elkinton</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">winter</span> moth, Operophtera brumata, originally from Europe, has recently invaded eastern Massachusetts. This insect has caused widespread defoliation of many deciduous tree species and severely damaged a variety of crop plants in the infested area including apple, strawberry, and especially blueberry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=CLOTH&pg=7&id=EJ489328','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=CLOTH&pg=7&id=EJ489328"><span>Involving Students in Assessing Their Reading: The <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Count.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Afflerbach, Peter; And Others</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Describes a program intended to help students reflect on, discuss, and evaluate their reading and their accomplishments related to reading. Notes that the program uses a set of materials and procedures based on a Native American <span class="hlt">winter</span> count (an animal hide or cloth on which the Yankton Sioux recorded important events). (SR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0108.photos.115459p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0108.photos.115459p/"><span>9. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>9. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer Summer 1931, ATTIC WITH JOINING CHIMNEYS, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker North Family Dwelling House (second), State Route 22 & U.S. Route 20, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0108.photos.115452p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0108.photos.115452p/"><span>2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer June 1931, SOUTH (LEFT) AND EAST SIDES, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker North Family Dwelling House (second), State Route 22 & U.S. Route 20, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=75630&keyword=visual+AND+impairment&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89564648&CFTOKEN=84902319','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=75630&keyword=visual+AND+impairment&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89564648&CFTOKEN=84902319"><span>HABITAT RELATIONS OF WATERFOWL <span class="hlt">WINTERING</span> IN NARRAGANSETT BAY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>As part of a project investigating the effect of changes in habitat quality brought about by habitat loss or impairment on resident wildlife in coastal ecosystems, we conducted periodic surveys of <span class="hlt">wintering</span> waterfowl in Narragansett Bay. A total of 17 species of waterfowl were i...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1114941.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1114941.pdf"><span>Genetic Potential of <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Wheat Grain Quality in Central Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Abugaliyeva, Aigul I.; Morgounov, Alexey I.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The grain quality of <span class="hlt">winter</span> wheat varies significantly by cultivars and growing region, not previously differentiated by end-use (baking, confectionery, etc.) in the national breeding programs. In these conditions it is advisable to determine the genetic potential and analyze the actual grain quality. Determining the genetic potential requires the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=301085','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=301085"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> cover crops impact on corn production in semiarid regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cover crops have been proposed as a technique to increase soil health. This study examined the impact of <span class="hlt">winter</span> brassica cover crop cocktails grown after wheat (Triticum aestivum) on corn yields; corn yield losses due to water and N stress; soil bacteria to fungi ratios; mycorrhizal markers; and ge...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=68864&keyword=Acceleration&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=68864&keyword=Acceleration&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>EVALUATION OF SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMATION IN <span class="hlt">WINTER</span>. (R823514)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Three different methods are used to predict secondary organic aerosol (SOA)<br>concentrations in the San Joaquin Valley of California during the <span class="hlt">winter</span> of 1995-1996 [Integrated<br>Monitoring Study, (IMS95)]. The first of these methods estimates SOA by using elemental carbon as<br...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/37600','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/37600"><span>Development of an artificial diet for <span class="hlt">winter</span> moth, Operophtera brumata</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Emily Hibbard; Joseph Elkinton; George. Boettner</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">winter</span> moth, Operophtera brumata, is an invasive pest that was introduced to North America in the 1930s. First identified in Nova Scotia, this small geometrid native to Europe has spread to New England. It has caused extensive defoliation of deciduous trees and shrubs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/29021','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/29021"><span>Feeding habits of songbirds in East Texas clearcuts during <span class="hlt">winter</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Donald W. Worthington; R. Montague Jr. Whiting; James G. Dickson</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This east Texas study was undertaken to determine the importance of seeds of forbs, grasses, and woody shrubs to songbirds <span class="hlt">wintering</span> in young pine plantations which had been established utilizing the clearcut regeneration system. The feeding habits and preferences of four species of songbirds, northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), song sparrows...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=308734','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=308734"><span>Registration of 'TAM 305' hard red <span class="hlt">winter</span> Wheat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Leaf and stripe rusts (cause by Puccinia triticina Erikss. and Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikss., respectively) are major disease problems in South Texas, Rolling Plains, and the Blacklands area of the state where hard red <span class="hlt">winter</span> wheat (HRW; Triticum aestivum L.) is a major crop a...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=115966&keyword=mud+AND+density&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=115966&keyword=mud+AND+density&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HABITAT QUALITY AND DENSITY OF JUVENILE <span class="hlt">WINTER</span> FLOUNDER</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We used a digital video camera mounted to a 1-m beam trawl together with an attached continuous recording YSI sonde and GPS unit to quantify juvenile <span class="hlt">winter</span> flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) densities and fish habitat. The YSI sonde measured temperature, salinity, dissolve...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=279323','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=279323"><span>Overseas Varietal Analysis 2010 Crop Soft Red <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Wheat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The 2010 U.S. Wheat Associates Overseas Varietal Analysis project evaluated ten soft red <span class="hlt">winter</span> wheat varieties: Jamestown, Merl and Shirley from Virginia; Coker 9553 and Oakes from North Carolina; Baldwin from Georgia; Renegade and DK 9577 from Arkansas; USG 3555 from Tennessee; and, Malabar from O...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=260334','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=260334"><span>Overseas Varietal Analysis: 2008 Crop Soft Red <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Wheat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The 2008 U.S. Wheat Associates Overseas Varietal Analysis evaluated ten soft red <span class="hlt">winter</span> wheat varieties DK 9577, USG 3665, and USG 3350 from Arkansas, Jamestown, Tribute, and USG 3555 from Virginia, Branson, Magnolia, and Coker 9553 from North Carolina, and Bess from Missouri. Samples were evaluate...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=295451','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=295451"><span>Overseas Varietal Analysis 2011 Crop Soft Red <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Wheat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The 2011 U.S. Wheat Associates Overseas Varietal Analysis project evaluated ten soft red <span class="hlt">winter</span> wheat varieties: Malabar and AGI 303 from Ohio, Terral TV 8861 from Louisiana, SY 9978 and Coker 9804 from North Carolina, Merl and Shirley from Virginia, AGS 2060 from Arkansas, and USG 3201 and USG 3251...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=252369','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=252369"><span>Registration of ‘Snowglenn’ <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Durum Wheat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Snowglenn’ (Reg. No. CV-#####, PI ######) <span class="hlt">winter</span> durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) developed and tested as VA05WD-40 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in March 2008. Snowglenn was derived from the three-way cross N1291-86 / N1439-83 // ‘Alidur’. Snowglenn is a f...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=248180','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=248180"><span>Association Analysis of FHB Resistance in Soft <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Wheat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) has been identified in soft <span class="hlt">winter</span> wheat (SWW) cultivars from the Eastern United States, although little information has been available about the genetic basis of resistance. Recently, QTL mapping has been done in bi-parental crosses involving SWW sources of ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.eia.gov/petroleum/archive/cranston.pdf','EIAPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.eia.gov/petroleum/archive/cranston.pdf"><span>Distillate Fuel Oil Assessment for <span class="hlt">Winter</span> 1996-1997</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eia.doe.gov/reports/">EIA Publications</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>This article describes findings of an analysis of the current low level of distillate stocks which are available to help meet the demand for heating fuel this <span class="hlt">winter</span>, and presents a summary of the Energy Information Administration's distillate fuel oil outlook for the current heating season under two weather scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/52735','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/52735"><span><span class="hlt">Wintering</span> Golden Eagles on the coastal plain of South Carolina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Mark Vukovich; K.L. Turner; T.E. Grazia; T. Mims; J.C. Beasley; John Kilgo</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are rare <span class="hlt">winter</span> residents in eastern North America, with most found along the Appalachian Mountains and few reported on the coastal plain of the Carolinas. We used remote cameras baited with wild pig (Sus scrofa) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses to detect, age, and individually identify Golden Eagles on the U.S...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=253414','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=253414"><span>Dual aphid resistance in hulless <span class="hlt">winter</span> barley for ethanol production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Hulless barley is viable feedstock alternative to corn for ethanol production in areas where small grains are produced. The first barley-based ethanol plant in the US is currently under construction by Osage BioEnergy LLC in Hopewell, VA. New hulless <span class="hlt">winter</span> barley varieties developed by Virginia T...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/15559','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/15559"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> photosynthesis of red spruce from three Vermont seed sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>P.G. Schaberg; R.C. Wilkinson; J.B. Shane; J.R. Donnelly; P.F. Cali</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>We evaluated <span class="hlt">winter</span> (January through March) carbon assimilation of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) from three Vermont seed sources grown in a common garden in northwestern Vermont. Although CO2 exchange rates were generally low, net photosynthetic rates increased during two prolonged thaws. Significant correlations between CO...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bacteria+AND+river+AND+water&id=EJ251594','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bacteria+AND+river+AND+water&id=EJ251594"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> Streams: The Web of Life Goes On.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pokora, Daniel L.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Describes scope and significance of a high school water monitoring project and discusses problems and solutions related to water testing in general and <span class="hlt">winter</span> water testing in particular. Discussions of stream velocity, stream flow, biotic index, and coliform bacteria tests are included. (DC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0051.photos.114571p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0051.photos.114571p/"><span>3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, 1920's. GENERAL VIEW OF INNER 'YARD' LOOKING NORTH - CLOSE-UP, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family (General Views), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0074.photos.114523p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny0074.photos.114523p/"><span>1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>, Jr., Photographer, 1920's or 1930's GENERAL VIEW OF WATERVLIET SHAKERS SOUTH FAMILY, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family, General Views, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=337476','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=337476"><span>Fertilizer effects on a <span class="hlt">winter</span> cereal cover crop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Benefits associated with conservation tillage in the Southeast are improved by using a <span class="hlt">winter</span> cereal cover crop. In general, cover crop benefits increase as biomass production is increased, but the infertile soils typically require additional N (inorganic or organic). Currently, limited informatio...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=317381','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=317381"><span>Registration of ‘Sprinter’ hard red <span class="hlt">winter</span> wheat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>High grain protein concentration and stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Eriks.) resistance are important traits for hard red <span class="hlt">winter</span> wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars produced in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. The objective of this research wa...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=CARNIVAL&pg=4&id=EJ522980','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=CARNIVAL&pg=4&id=EJ522980"><span>Teaching Culture in a North American Context: Quebec's <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Carnival.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mollica, Anthony</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Describes Quebec's annual <span class="hlt">winter</span> celebrations. The article discusses the Bonhomme Carnival and how it reflects the character and tastes of modern-day participants and includes many of Quebec's most famous traditions, such as the International Canoe Race, the International Snow Sculpture, the selection of the Carnival queen, and the fund-raising…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046042','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046042"><span>Use of seeded exotic grasslands by <span class="hlt">wintering</span> birds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>George, Andrew D.; O'Connell, Timothy J.; Hickman, Karen R.; Leslie,, David M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Despite widespread population declines of North American grassland birds, effects of anthropogenic disturbance of <span class="hlt">wintering</span> habitat of this guild remain poorly understood. We compared avian abundance and habitat structure in fields planted by the exotic grass Old World bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum; OWB) to that in native mixed-grass prairie. During <span class="hlt">winters</span> of 2007-2008 and 2008-2009, we conducted bird and vegetation surveys in six native grass and six OWB fields in Garfield, Grant, and Alfalfa counties, Oklahoma. We recorded 24 species of <span class="hlt">wintering</span> birds in native fields and 14 species in OWB monocultures. While vegetation structure was similar between field types, abundance of short-eared owls (Asio flammeus), northern harriers (Circus cyaneus) and Smith's longspurs (Calcarius pictus) was higher in OWB fields during at least one year. The use of OWB fields by multiple species occupying different trophic positions suggested that vegetation structure of OWB can meet habitat requirements of some <span class="hlt">wintering</span> birds, but there is insufficient evidence to determine if it provides superior conditions to native grasses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....14706J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....14706J"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> primary production supported by convection beats production in summer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Janout, M. A.; Backhaus, J. O.; Wehde, H.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Winter</span> observations in the northern North-Atlantic (Backhaus et al. 2000) have shown the existence of living phytoplankton, though in low concentrations (~ 0.1 mg/m**3), within the entire convective mixed layer (CML) which covered depths in the order of several hundreds of meters. It was concluded that orbital motions of convection allows plankton from all depth within the CML to return to the euphotic zone which implies that all plankta in the CML have the same chance for production. This concept was implemented in a coupled differential primary production mixed-layer model. In the new model all plankta in the CML receive the same (low) amount of light in contrast to a conventional primary production model where light is only available in the euphotic layer. Data from both models were compared with observations from OWS M. The conventional model underestimated <span class="hlt">winter</span> production. Surprisingly the integrated <span class="hlt">winter</span> biomass in the new model, which agreed well with the observations at OWS M, was higher than values observed during spring and summer which suggests the conclusion that present conventional primary production models are missing out a substantial biomass which is produced by a convective incubator in <span class="hlt">winter</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/54592','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/54592"><span><span class="hlt">Winter</span> bait stations as a multispecies survey tool</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Lacy Robinson; Samuel A. Cushman; Michael K. Lucid</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Winter</span> bait stations are becoming a commonly used technique for multispecies inventory and monitoring but a technical evaluation of their effectiveness is lacking. Bait stations have three components: carcass attractant, remote camera, and hair snare. Our 22,975 km2 mountainous study area was stratified with a 5 × 5 km sampling grid centered on northern Idaho and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/8991','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/8991"><span>Behavior of mule deer on the Keating <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Range.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>W.B. Fowler; J.E. Dealy</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Observations are presented from 4 years of record, 1976 to 1979, on behavior of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in relation to site variables on the Keating <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Range in northeastern Oregon. Analyses of animal use per unit area showed that the preferential selection of cells was related primarily to static site variables and secondarily to...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070017895','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070017895"><span>Abrupt Decline in the Arctic <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Sea Ice Cover</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Comiso, Josefino C.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Maximum ice extents in the Arctic in 2005 and 2006 have been observed to be significantly lower (by about 6%) than the average of those of previous years starting in 1979. Since the <span class="hlt">winter</span> maxima had been relatively stable with the trend being only about -1.5% per decade (compared to about -10% per decade for the perennial ice area), this is a significant development since signals from greenhouse warming are expected to be most prominent in <span class="hlt">winter</span>. Negative ice anomalies are shown to be dominant in 2005 and 2006 especially in the Arctic basin and correlated with winds and surface temperature anomalies during the same period. Progressively increasing <span class="hlt">winter</span> temperatures in the central Arctic starting in 1997 is observed with significantly higher rates of increase in 2005 and 2006. The Atlantic Oscillation (AO) indices correlate weakly with the sea ice and surface temperature anomaly data but may explain the recent shift in the perennial ice cover towards the western region. Results suggest that the trend in <span class="hlt">winter</span> ice is finally in the process of catching up with that of the summer ice cover.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=233159','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=233159"><span>Diseases of <span class="hlt">winter</span> and Spring wheat in Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Analysis of damage in the disease complex of <span class="hlt">winter</span> and spring wheat showed that crop losses for the period 2001-2005 were 8-19%. A principal cause of the losses was intensive development of diseases. Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina), Septoria leaf lotch (Septoria tritici, S. nodorum), powdery mildew...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9729V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9729V"><span>Changes in <span class="hlt">winter</span> warming events in the Nordic Arctic Region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vikhamar-Schuler, Dagrun; Isaksen, Ketil; Haugen, Jan Erik; Bjerke, Jarle Werner; Tømmervik, Hans</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In recent years <span class="hlt">winter</span> warming events are frequently reported from Arctic areas. Extraordinarily warm weather episodes, occasionally combined with intense rainfall, cause severe ecological disturbance and great challenges for Arctic infrastructure. For example, the formation of ground ice due to <span class="hlt">winter</span> rain or melting prevents reindeer from grazing, leads to vegetation browning, and impacts soil temperatures. The infrastructure may be affected by avalanches and floods resulting from intense snowmelt. The aim of our analysis is to study changes in warm spells during <span class="hlt">winter</span> in the Nordic Arctic Region, here defined as the regions in Norway, Sweden and Finland north of the Arctic circle (66.5°N), including the Arctic islands Svalbard and Jan Mayen. Within this study area we have selected the longest available high quality observation series with daily temperature and precipitation. For studying future climate we use available regionally downscaled scenarios. We analyse three time periods: 1) the past 50-100 years, 2) the present (last 15 years, 2000-2014) and 3) the future (next 50-100 years). We define an extended <span class="hlt">winter</span> season (October-April) and further divide it into three subseasons: 1) Early <span class="hlt">winter</span> (October and November), 2) Mid-<span class="hlt">winter</span> (December, January and February) and 3) Late-<span class="hlt">winter</span> (March and April). We identify warm spells using two different classification criteria: a) days with temperature above 0°C (the melting temperature); and b) days with temperature in excess of the 90th percentile of the 1985-2014 temperature for each subseason. Both wet and dry warm spells are analysed. We compare the results for the mainland stations (maritime and inland stations) with the Arctic islands. All stations have very high frequency of warm weather events in the period 1930-1940s and for the last 15 years (2000-2014). For the most recent period the largest increase in number of warm spells are observed at the northernmost stations. We also find a continuation of this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70189556','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70189556"><span>Mangrove species' responses to <span class="hlt">winter</span> air temperature extremes in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Chen, Luzhen; Wang, Wenqing; Li, Qingshun Q.; Zhang, Yihui; Yang, Shengchang; Osland, Michael J.; Huang, Jinliang; Peng, Congjiao</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The global distribution and diversity of mangrove forests is greatly influenced by the frequency and intensity of <span class="hlt">winter</span> air temperature extremes. However, our understanding of how different mangrove species respond to <span class="hlt">winter</span> temperature extremes has been lacking because extreme freezing and chilling events are, by definition, relatively uncommon and also difficult to replicate experimentally. In this study, we investigated species-specific variation in mangrove responses to <span class="hlt">winter</span> temperature extremes in China. In 10 sites that span a latitudinal gradient, we quantified species-specific damage and recovery following a chilling event, for mangrove species within and outside of their natural range (i.e., native and non-native species, respectively). To characterize plant stress, we measured tree defoliation and chlorophyll fluorescence approximately one month following the chilling event. To quantify recovery, we measured chlorophyll fluorescence approximately nine months after the chilling event. Our results show high variation in the geographic- and species-specific responses of mangroves to <span class="hlt">winter</span> temperature extremes. While many species were sensitive to the chilling temperatures (e.g., Bruguiera sexangula and species in the Sonneratia and Rhizophora genera), the temperatures during this event were not cold enough to affect certain species (e.g., Kandelia obovata, Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia marina, and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza). As expected, non-native species were less tolerant of <span class="hlt">winter</span> temperature extremes than native species. Interestingly, tidal inundation modulated the effects of chilling. In comparison with other temperature-controlled mangrove range limits across the world, the mangrove range limit in China is unique due to the combination of the following three factors: (1) Mangrove species diversity is comparatively high; (2) <span class="hlt">winter</span> air temperature extremes, rather than means, are particularly intense and play an important ecological</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3852468','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3852468"><span>Validity and timeliness of syndromic influenza surveillance during the autumn/<span class="hlt">winter</span> wave of A (H1N1) influenza 2009: results of emergency medical dispatch, ambulance and emergency department data from three European regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Emergency medical service (<span class="hlt">EMS</span>) data, particularly from the emergency department (ED), is a common source of information for syndromic surveillance. However, the entire <span class="hlt">EMS</span> chain, consists of both out-of-hospital and in-hospital services. Differences in validity and timeliness across these data sources so far have not been studied. Neither have the differences in validity and timeliness of this data from different European countries. In this paper we examine the validity and timeliness of the entire chain of <span class="hlt">EMS</span> data sources from three European regions for common syndromic influenza surveillance during the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic in 2009. Methods We gathered local, regional, or national information on influenza-like illness (ILI) or respiratory syndrome from an Austrian Emergency Medical Dispatch Service (EMD-AT), an Austrian and Belgian ambulance services (EP-AT, EP-BE) and from a Belgian and Spanish emergency department (ED-BE, ED-ES). We examined the timeliness of the <span class="hlt">EMS</span> data in identifying the beginning of the autumn/<span class="hlt">winter</span> wave of pandemic A(H1N1) influenza as compared to the reference data. Additionally, we determined the sensitivity and specificity of an aberration detection algorithm (Poisson CUSUM) in <span class="hlt">EMS</span> data sources for detecting the autumn/<span class="hlt">winter</span> wave of the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic. Results The ED-ES data demonstrated the most favourable validity, followed by the ED-BE data. The beginning of the autumn/<span class="hlt">winter</span> wave of pandemic A(H1N1) influenza was identified eight days in advance in ED-BE data. The EP data performed stronger in data sets for large catchment areas (EP-BE) and identified the beginning of the autumn/<span class="hlt">winter</span> wave almost at the same time as the reference data (time lag +2 days). EMD data exhibited timely identification of the autumn/<span class="hlt">winter</span> wave of A(H1N1) but demonstrated weak validity measures. Conclusions In this study ED data exhibited the most favourable performance in terms of validity and timeliness for syndromic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24083852','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24083852"><span>Validity and timeliness of syndromic influenza surveillance during the autumn/<span class="hlt">winter</span> wave of A (H1N1) influenza 2009: results of emergency medical dispatch, ambulance and emergency department data from three European regions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rosenkötter, Nicole; Ziemann, Alexandra; Riesgo, Luis Garcia-Castrillo; Gillet, Jean Bernard; Vergeiner, Gernot; Krafft, Thomas; Brand, Helmut</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Emergency medical service (<span class="hlt">EMS</span>) data, particularly from the emergency department (ED), is a common source of information for syndromic surveillance. However, the entire <span class="hlt">EMS</span> chain, consists of both out-of-hospital and in-hospital services. Differences in validity and timeliness across these data sources so far have not been studied. Neither have the differences in validity and timeliness of this data from different European countries. In this paper we examine the validity and timeliness of the entire chain of <span class="hlt">EMS</span> data sources from three European regions for common syndromic influenza surveillance during the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic in 2009. We gathered local, regional, or national information on influenza-like illness (ILI) or respiratory syndrome from an Austrian Emergency Medical Dispatch Service (EMD-AT), an Austrian and Belgian ambulance services (EP-AT, EP-BE) and from a Belgian and Spanish emergency department (ED-BE, ED-ES). We examined the timeliness of the <span class="hlt">EMS</span> data in identifying the beginning of the autumn/<span class="hlt">winter</span> wave of pandemic A(H1N1) influenza as compared to the reference data. Additionally, we determined the sensitivity and specificity of an aberration detection algorithm (Poisson CUSUM) in <span class="hlt">EMS</span> data sources for detecting the autumn/<span class="hlt">winter</span> wave of the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic. The ED-ES data demonstrated the most favourable validity, followed by the ED-BE data. The beginning of the autumn/<span class="hlt">winter</span> wave of pandemic A(H1N1) influenza was identified eight days in advance in ED-BE data. The EP data performed stronger in data sets for large catchment areas (EP-BE) and identified the beginning of the autumn/<span class="hlt">winter</span> wave almost at the same time as the reference data (time lag +2 days). EMD data exhibited timely identification of the autumn/<span class="hlt">winter</span> wave of A(H1N1) but demonstrated weak validity measures. In this study ED data exhibited the most favourable performance in terms of validity and timeliness for syndromic influenza surveillance, along with EP data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.jstor.org/stable/3809559','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.jstor.org/stable/3809559"><span>Herbivory on shoalgrass by <span class="hlt">wintering</span> redheads in Texas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Mitchell, C.A.; Custer, T.W.; Zwank, P.J.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>An estimated 80% of redheads (Aythya americana) <span class="hlt">winter</span> on the Laguna Madre of south Texas and Mexico and feed almost exclusively on shoalgrass (Halodule wrightii) rhizomes. Shoalgrass abundance has decreased by 60% over the past 30 years, and because the effects of shoalgrass loss on <span class="hlt">wintering</span> redheads are unknown, we initiated a study to define habitat selection criteria and document the effect of <span class="hlt">wintering</span> redheads on shoalgrass in the lower Laguna Madre, Texas. Redheads consumed an average of 75% of shoalgrass rhizome biomass at collection sites each <span class="hlt">winter</span>. When rhizome biomass was grazed to a mean biomass of ltoreq 0.18 g dry mass/core (approximately 10 g dry mass/ml), shoalgrass did not recover to its previous level the following growing season. Thirty-three percent of the sites (10) were grazed below 0.18 g dry mass/core during both years of the study, while 64% (19) were grazed below 0.18 g during 1 or the other of the 2 <span class="hlt">winters</span>. Ramet number was positively correlated (P lt 0.001, r-2 = 0.54) with rhizome biomass; however, this relationship was influenced by grazing intensity. Heavy grazing reduced the amount of rhizome attached to each ramet compared with ungrazed ramets. Grazing had no effect on root biomass (P = 0.388), rhizome moisture content (P = 0.553), or soil magnesium, phosphorous, and potassium (P = 0.102, 0.499, 0.162, respectively). Redhead presence increased (P = 0.042) soil nitrogen levels. Foraging areas selected by redheads within the lower Laguna Madre had lower (P = 0.026) salinities (24 ppt) than areas not selected (35 ppt). Redheads did not select foraging areas in relation to crude protein levels in rhizomes. Shoalgrass habitat in the Laguna Madre should be protected from further losses and enhanced where possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3032277','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3032277"><span>Comparison of camel tear proteins between summer and <span class="hlt">winter</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Ziyan; Shamsi, Farrukh A.; Li, Kaijun; Huang, Qiang; Al-Rajhi, Ali A.; Chaudhry, Imtiaz A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Purpose Proteins in the tear fluid have positive effects on maintaining the integrity and stabilization of the tear film, which is affected by several environmental factors. The aim of this study is to investigate seasonal variation of protein patterns in camel tears collected during the summer and <span class="hlt">winter</span> season. Methods Tears from both eyes of 50 clinically normal camels (Camelus dromedarius) were collected in the summer (June – July) and in the <span class="hlt">winter</span> (December – January) respectively. Pooled tear protein samples from two seasons were separated by SDS–PAGE and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Protein spots of differential expression in two season gels were excised and subjected to in-gel digestion and identification by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight/time of flight-mass spectrum (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS) analysis. Two differentially expressed proteins, lactoferrin (LF) and vitelline membrane outer layer protein 1 homolog (VMO1 homolog), were validated by western blotting. Results Thirteen well resolved bands were detected in SDS–PAGE gels of both summer and <span class="hlt">winter</span> camel tears. By band densitometry, significantly higher intensities of band 6, 7, 11, and lower intensity of band 13 were observed in the summer group compared to the <span class="hlt">winter</span> group. In 2-DE profiles of camel tears, four protein spots were found expressed differentially in two seasons. Further protein identification by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and confirmation by western blotting indicated that there was a significant decrease in LF (p=0.002) and an increase in VMO1 homolog (p=0.042) in tears in the summer compared to the <span class="hlt">winter</span>. Conclusions The seasonal variation of camel tear fluids has been found in the composition of proteins, including LF and VMO1 homolog. This result will expand our knowledge of physiologic characteristics of tear fluids and establish a foundation for the mechanistic studies and clinical practices on ocular surface disorders. PMID:21293736</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21293736','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21293736"><span>Comparison of camel tear proteins between summer and <span class="hlt">winter</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Ziyan; Shamsi, Farrukh A; Li, Kaijun; Huang, Qiang; Al-Rajhi, Ali A; Chaudhry, Imtiaz A; Wu, Kaili</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Proteins in the tear fluid have positive effects on maintaining the integrity and stabilization of the tear film, which is affected by several environmental factors. The aim of this study is to investigate seasonal variation of protein patterns in camel tears collected during the summer and <span class="hlt">winter</span> season. Tears from both eyes of 50 clinically normal camels (Camelus dromedarius) were collected in the summer (June-July) and in the <span class="hlt">winter</span> (December-January) respectively. Pooled tear protein samples from two seasons were separated by SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Protein spots of differential expression in two season gels were excised and subjected to in-gel digestion and identification by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight/time of flight-mass spectrum (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS) analysis. Two differentially expressed proteins, lactoferrin (LF) and vitelline membrane outer layer protein 1 homolog (VMO1 homolog), were validated by western blotting. Thirteen well resolved bands were detected in SDS-PAGE gels of both summer and <span class="hlt">winter</span> camel tears. By band densitometry, significantly higher intensities of band 6, 7, 11, and lower intensity of band 13 were observed in the summer group compared to the <span class="hlt">winter</span> group. In 2-DE profiles of camel tears, four protein spots were found expressed differentially in two seasons. Further protein identification by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and confirmation by western blotting indicated that there was a significant decrease in LF (p=0.002) and an increase in VMO1 homolog (p=0.042) in tears in the summer compared to the <span class="hlt">winter</span>. The seasonal variation of camel tear fluids has been found in the composition of proteins, including LF and VMO1 homolog. This result will expand our knowledge of physiologic characteristics of tear fluids and establish a foundation for the mechanistic studies and clinical practices on ocular surface disorders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19653029','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19653029"><span>Selenium accumulation in sea ducks <span class="hlt">wintering</span> at Lake Ontario.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schummer, Michael L; Badzinski, Shannon S; Petrie, Scott A; Chen, Yu-Wei; Belzile, Nelson</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Numbers of <span class="hlt">wintering</span> sea ducks, including buffleheads (Bucephala albeola; BUFF), common goldeneyes (Bucephala clangula; COGO), and long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis; LTDU), increased substantially at Lake Ontario after Dreissenid mussels (Dreissena bugensis and D. polymorpha) colonized the Great Lakes. Invertebrates, including Dreissenid mussels, are major diving duck prey items that can transfer some trace elements, such as selenium (Se) to higher trophic levels. Se can be problematic for waterfowl and it often has been detected at elevated levels in organisms using the Great Lakes. There are, however, few data on hepatic Se concentrations in sea ducks, particularly during the <span class="hlt">winter</span> at Lake Ontario. In this study, we evaluated interspecific differences and temporal trends in hepatic Se concentrations among BUFF (n = 77), COGO (n = 77), and LTDU (n = 79) <span class="hlt">wintering</span> at Lake Ontario. All three species accumulated Se throughout <span class="hlt">winter</span>, but COGO did so at a higher rate than did BUFF and LTDU. Overall, Se concentrations were higher in LTDU [mean = 22.7; 95% CI = 20.8-24.8 microg/g dry weight (dw)] than in BUFF ([mean = 12.3; 95% CI = 11.6-13.1 microg/g dw) and COGO ([mean = 12.0; 95% CI = 10.7-3.5 microg/g dw) throughout the <span class="hlt">winter</span>. Se concentrations were deemed elevated (>33 microg/g dw) in 0%, 5%, and 19% of BUFF, COGO, and LTDU, respectively. Presently there are no data on Se toxicity end points for these species, so it is unclear how acquiring concentrations of these magnitudes affect their short- and long-term health or reproduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022210','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022210"><span>Periphyton dynamics in a subalpine mountain stream during <span class="hlt">winter</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gustina, G.W.; Hoffmann, J.P.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>We conducted two experiments to determine the activity of and factors which control periphyton during <span class="hlt">winter</span> in Stevensville Brook, Vermont. The first experiment during <span class="hlt">winter</span>/spring 1994 examined the effect of a 300 to 450% difference in light and doubling of flow (low and high light, slow and fast flow) on periphyton chlorophyll a (chl a) and ash-free dry mass (AFDM) from stream rocks and artificial substrata. A second experiment was performed to determine whether periphyton was nitrogen or phosphorus limited. In addition, stream water was sampled during fall/<span class="hlt">winter</span> 1994/95 for nitrate (NO3), ammonia (NH4), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), and total phosphorus (TP) to determine the availability of nutrients in Stevensville Brook. Increases of up to 250% for AFDM and 600% for chl a during the first study indicated robust activity throughout the <span class="hlt">winter</span> despite low temperatures and light. Flow had a negative effect and sampling date was found to have a significant effect on periphyton biomass (chl a and AFDM) while light was found to influence increases in AFDM on clay tiles only. Water analyses showed that SRP was less than 0.001 mg L-1, NH4 and TP were low and often undetectable, and NO3 remained at about 0.20 mg L-1. Results from the nutrient enrichment experiment showed a significant response of chl a to P but not N and no response of AFDM to enrichment with either N or P. In Stevensville Brook during <span class="hlt">winter</span>, the algal community, as represented by the chl a concentration, is predominantly controlled by phosphorus concentrations and is influenced to a lesser extent by flow; the periphyton community as a whole, represented by AFDM, is controlled mostly by stream flow and light.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GBioC..29..427S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GBioC..29..427S"><span>Isotopic evidence for nitrification in the Antarctic <span class="hlt">winter</span> mixed layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smart, Sandi M.; Fawcett, Sarah E.; Thomalla, Sandy J.; Weigand, Mira A.; Reason, Chris J. C.; Sigman, Daniel M.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We report wintertime nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios (δ15N and δ18O) of seawater nitrate in the Southern Ocean south of Africa. Depth profile and underway surface samples collected in July 2012 extend from the subtropics to just beyond the Antarctic <span class="hlt">winter</span> sea ice edge. We focus here on the Antarctic region (south of 50.3°S), where application of the Rayleigh model to depth profile δ15N data yields estimates for the isotope effect (the degree of isotope discrimination) of nitrate assimilation (1.6-3.3‰) that are significantly lower than commonly observed in the summertime Antarctic (5-8‰). The δ18O data from the same depth profiles and lateral δ15N variations within the mixed layer, however, imply O and N isotope effects that are more similar to those suggested by summertime data. These findings point to active nitrification (i.e., regeneration of organic matter to nitrate) within the Antarctic <span class="hlt">winter</span> mixed layer. Nitrite removal from samples reveals a low δ15N for nitrite in the <span class="hlt">winter</span> mixed layer (-40‰ to -20‰), consistent with nitrification, but does not remove the observation of an anomalously low δ15N for nitrate. The <span class="hlt">winter</span> data, and the nitrification they reveal, explain the previous observation of an anomalously low δ15N for nitrate in the temperature minimum layer (remnant <span class="hlt">winter</span> mixed layer) of summertime depth profiles. At the same time, the wintertime data require a low δ15N for the combined organic N and ammonium in the autumn mixed layer that is available for wintertime nitrification, pointing to intense N recycling as a pervasive condition of the Antarctic in late summer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A53B0353D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A53B0353D"><span>Diagnostics of <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Precipitation Over the Western Himalayas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dimri, A. P.; Yasunari, T.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Indian subcontinent is surrounded by the mighty Himalayas in the north. It is characterized by heterogeneous topography and landuse variability from west to east. Apart from these, due to seasonal changes western, central and eastern Himalayas are having different precipitation patterns. In the present study <span class="hlt">winter</span> (Dec, Jan, Feb - DJF) precipitation over the western Himalayas (WH) is analyzed. The WH receives almost one third of annual precipitation due to eastward moving cyclonic storms, Western Disturbance, during <span class="hlt">winter</span>. Wet and dry <span class="hlt">winter</span> precipitation years' composites show strengthening of westerly at 200 and 500 hPa and southerly at 850hPa during wet <span class="hlt">winters</span>. Also, at 200hPa higher westerly with significant region from Saudi Arabia to Indian subcontinent and at 850hPa higher southerly with significant region from Afghanistan and adjoining Pakistan is discernible. Large scale wind field shows existence of wavelike pattern during wet years. Higher water vapor flux and outgoing longwave radiation corroborate with wet <span class="hlt">winter</span> conditions. Further analysis based on composite years' daily pentad climatology illustrates spells of higher precipitation in wet year than that in dry year. Analysis of some individual composite peak precipitation days show formation of cyclonic flow west of 80oE at 500hPa in large scale westerly than that in the seasonal average. In addition distinct lower geopotential field difference between 500 to 925hPa is seen over Saudi Arabia to north of India. Increased convergence of water vapor flux over Arabian Sea is observed during wet precipitation years. Such changes in large scale fields suggest that during wet period flow patterns become conducive for higher precipitation over the WH. The mechanism responsible for these circulation patterns for wet (or dry) spells and years will also be discussed at the session.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.2394Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.2394Q"><span>Effect of cold wave on <span class="hlt">winter</span> visibility over eastern China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qu, Wenjun; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaoye; Yang, Zhifeng; Gao, Shanhong</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Considerable concern has been raised on the severe wintertime haze episodes over eastern China (ECN) where visibility (Vis) decline in <span class="hlt">winter</span> is identified from 1973 to 2012 (-0.68 km per 10 years or -26% in 40 years). Based upon the analysis of daily Vis and weather records, cold wave (CW) originating from high latitudes is found to increase Vis by 2.7 km on average because of its relatively stronger wind and drier, cleaner air mass compared with the typical, stable midlatitude air over ECN in <span class="hlt">winter</span>. However, the lessening frequency of CW occurrence and cold air activity in recent years and the accompanied decrease of surface wind speed (-0.15 m/s per 10 years or -18% in the 40 years) may have amplified the effect of increased anthropogenic emissions on Vis and consequently resulted in more substantial Vis decline. A comparison of Vis trends on the "normal wind" days and on all days in <span class="hlt">winter</span> implies that the emission increase has contributed to about 79% of the declining Vis trend, while the meteorology change contributed 21%. Furthermore, the diurnal cycle of the boundary layer height is found to have weakened or in some cases disappeared in the <span class="hlt">winters</span> with less CW, which probably contributed to the long-lasting characteristic of the wintertime low Vis events in this region. Hence, the effect of climate change, such as the decrease of CW occurrence, should be accounted as part of the interpretation for the steady decrease of <span class="hlt">winter</span> Vis over ECN in the past four decades.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002QJRMS.128.2563S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002QJRMS.128.2563S"><span>Is the Gulf Stream responsible for Europe's mild <span class="hlt">winters</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seager, R.; Battisti, D. S.; Yin, J.; Gordon, N.; Naik, N.; Clement, A. C.; Cane, M. A.</p> <p>2002-10-01</p> <p>Is the transport of heat northward by the Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Drift, and its subsequent release into the midlatitude westerlies, the reason why Europe's <span class="hlt">winters</span> are so much milder than those of eastern North America and other places at the same latitude? Here, it is shown that the principal cause of this temperature difference is advection by the mean winds. South-westerlies bring warm maritime air into Europe and north-westerlies bring frigid continental air into north-eastern North America. Further, analysis of the ocean surface heat budget shows that the majority of the heat released during <span class="hlt">winter</span> from the ocean to the atmosphere is accounted for by the seasonal release of heat previously absorbed and not by ocean heat-flux convergence. Therefore, the existence of the <span class="hlt">winter</span> temperature contrast between western Europe and eastern North America does not require a dynamical ocean. Two experiments with an atmospheric general-circulation model coupled to an ocean mixed layer confirm this conclusion. The difference in <span class="hlt">winter</span> temperatures across the North Atlantic, and the difference between western Europe and western North America, is essentially the same in these models whether or not the movement of heat by the ocean is accounted for. In an additional experiment with no mountains, the flow across the ocean is more zonal, western Europe is cooled, the trough east of the Rockies is weakened and the cold of north-eastern North America is ameliorated. In all experiments the west coast of Europe is warmer than the west coast of North America at the same latitude whether or not ocean heat transport is accounted for. In summary the deviations from zonal symmetry of <span class="hlt">winter</span> temperatures in the northern hemisphere are fundamentally caused by the atmospheric circulation interacting with the oceanic mixed layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002HyPr...16..789B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002HyPr...16..789B"><span>Effects of climate on mid-<span class="hlt">winter</span> ice jams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beltaos, Spyros</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>The breakup of ice in Canadian rivers and the ensuing ice jams have a multitude of socio-economic impacts. Equally important, but not as well understood, is the strong relationship between the breakup event and the aquatic ecosystem in terms of both habitat and life cycle. Because breakup processes are highly sensitive to weather conditions, there is concern over the potential effects of changing climatic patterns on the ice-jam regime and thus on the stream ecology and local economy. Though breakup commonly occurs in the spring, it is occasionally triggered by mid-<span class="hlt">winter</span> thaws, which are typical of the more temperate regions of Canada. Mid-<span class="hlt">winter</span> jams can be more destructive than spring ones and may also have repercussions on the spring event. Current knowledge suggests that small perturbations in <span class="hlt">winter</span> temperature can produce major changes in the incidence of breakup and ice jams, by altering snowstorms into rainfall events. This expectation is confirmed by a hydroclimatic analysis of field observations and historical data on the upper reach of the Saint John River, which forms the boundary between New Brunswick, Canada and Maine, USA. A slight warming in the past 80 years has been accompanied by a considerable increase in the occurrence of mild <span class="hlt">winter</span> days, thus contributing to increasing rainfall amounts. This results in augmented flows during the <span class="hlt">winter</span>, which are lately becoming capable of effecting breakup of the river-ice cover. Implications for future trends in the ice regime of the Saint John River and of other Canadian rivers are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10564614','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10564614"><span>Travel distance and mass gain in <span class="hlt">wintering</span> blackbirds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cresswell</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>Birds that range over a large area will have a greater mass-dependent risk of predation than more sedentary birds. Birds that travel more may then reduce <span class="hlt">winter</span> mass gain to compensate for the increased predation risk that greater travelling entails. I tested whether European blackbirds, Turdus merula, that travelled more in <span class="hlt">winter</span> had a lower mass than more sedentary birds, independently of any confounding effects of food supply on both ranging behaviour and mass gain. I measured change in <span class="hlt">winter</span> mass and amount of food eaten in conjunction with the distance that blackbirds travelled to a randomly sited mobile feeder. Blackbirds that travelled shorter distances (per trip and in total) and less often to the feeder had the highest mass midwinter relative to their spring mass. Blackbirds with a higher mean mass midwinter also travelled, on average, shorter distances to the feeder. The distance an individual blackbird travelled to the feeder at any one time was probably independent of the state of its daily energy reserves (how much of its daily total mass gain it had achieved at that point). The relationship between distance travelled and mass was probably independent of food supply because distances actually increased at the end of the <span class="hlt">winter</span> and the amount of food eaten per individual changed little. More mobile blackbirds were therefore likely to have compensated for any increases in predation risk associated with their greater ranges by decreasing <span class="hlt">winter</span> mass gain, but will have had an increased risk of starvation because of their lower mass. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24720862','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24720862"><span>Cold truths: how <span class="hlt">winter</span> drives responses of terrestrial organisms to climate change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Williams, Caroline M; Henry, Hugh A L; Sinclair, Brent J</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Winter</span> is a key driver of individual performance, community composition, and ecological interactions in terrestrial habitats. Although climate change research tends to focus on performance in the growing season, climate change is also modifying <span class="hlt">winter</span> conditions rapidly. Changes to <span class="hlt">winter</span> temperatures, the variability of <span class="hlt">winter</span> conditions, and <span class="hlt">winter</span> snow cover can interact to induce cold injury, alter energy and water balance, advance or retard phenology, and modify community interactions. Species vary in their susceptibility to these <span class="hlt">winter</span> drivers, hampering efforts to predict biological responses to climate change. Existing frameworks for predicting the impacts of climate change do not incorporate the complexity of organismal responses to <span class="hlt">winter</span>. Here, we synthesise organismal responses to <span class="hlt">winter</span> climate change, and use this synthesis to build a framework to predict exposure and sensitivity to negative impacts. This framework can be used to estimate the vulnerability of species to <span class="hlt">winter</span> climate change. We describe the importance of relationships between <span class="hlt">winter</span> conditions and performance during the growing season in determining fitness, and demonstrate how summer and <span class="hlt">winter</span> processes are linked. Incorporating <span class="hlt">winter</span> into current models will require concerted effort from theoreticians and empiricists, and the expansion of current growing-season studies to incorporate <span class="hlt">winter</span>. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18560857','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18560857"><span>Planning of traumatological hospital resources for a major <span class="hlt">winter</span> sporting event as illustrated by the 2005 <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Universiad.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oberladstaetter, J; Kamelger, F S; Rosenberger, R; Dallapozza, Ch; Struve, P; Luger, T; Fink, Ch; Attal, R</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>The 22nd Student World <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Games took place in January 2005 in Innsbruck and Seefeld, Austria. Exactly 1,500 athletes of 50 nationalities competed in 69 events in ten <span class="hlt">winter</span> sports. A total number of 750 functionaries, 800 volunteers and 85,000 spectators participated in the second largest <span class="hlt">winter</span> sports event behind the Olympic <span class="hlt">winter</span> games. The aim of this study was to evaluate the needed resources to ensure traumatological care for an event of that size. At the medical "call-center" all consultations, as well as patient data, diagnosis, and medical treatment were recorded using a preset protocol. Further, all patients treated in the University Hospital Innsbruck were registered with an emphasis on trauma patients. Forty-eight of 65 patients transported to the hospital as a result of the Universiade were trauma patients, 37 of whom were athletes. The gender distribution was 34:14 (m:f). Ice hockey players had the highest rate of injury (25% of all injured athletes), followed by alpine skiers (20.8% of injured athletes). The highest ISS was nine. Forty-three patients got ambulatory treatment, five were admitted to the hospital and surgical treatment was conducted in three cases. Mean patient number was 4.8 per day. No additional personnel, structural, or technical hospital resources were needed to accommodate a large <span class="hlt">winter</span> sports event like the Universiad. Thus, a level-B trauma center with an emergency room and independent traumatological department with around the clock surgical capability seems to be sufficient to provide traumatological care for an event of this size if the possibility of patient transport to a larger facility exists in the case of catastrophic events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26470288','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26470288"><span>Influence of Honey Bee Genotype and <span class="hlt">Wintering</span> Method on <span class="hlt">Wintering</span> Performance of Varroa destructor (Parasitiformes: Varroidae)-Infected Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies in a Northern Climate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a cooperative breeding program designed to enhance <span class="hlt">winter</span> survival of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) when exposed to high levels of varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) in outdoor-<span class="hlt">wintered</span> and indoor-<span class="hlt">wintered</span> colonies. Half of the colonies from selected and unselected stocks were randomly assigned to be treated with late autumn oxalic acid treatment or to be left untreated. Colonies were then randomly assigned to be <span class="hlt">wintered</span> either indoors (n = 37) or outdoors (n = 40). Late autumn treatment with oxalic acid did not improve <span class="hlt">wintering</span> performance. However, genotype of bees affected colony survival and the proportion of commercially viable colonies in spring, as indicated by greater rates of colony survival and commercially viable colonies for selected stock (43% survived and 33% were viable) in comparison to unselected stock (19% survived and 9% were viable) across all treatment groups. Indoor <span class="hlt">wintering</span> improved spring bee population score, proportion of colonies surviving, and proportion of commercially viable colonies relative to outdoor <span class="hlt">wintering</span> (73% of selected stock and 41% of unselected stock survived during indoor <span class="hlt">wintering</span>). Selected stock showed better "tolerance" to varroa as the selected stock also maintained higher bee populations relative to unselected stock. However, there was no evidence of "resistance" in selected colonies (reduced mite densities). Collectively, this experiment showed that breeding can improve tolerance to varroa and this can help minimize colony loss through <span class="hlt">winter</span> and improve colony <span class="hlt">wintering</span> performance. Overall, colony <span class="hlt">wintering</span> success of both genotypes of bees was better when colonies were <span class="hlt">wintered</span> indoors than when colonies were <span class="hlt">wintered</span> outdoors.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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