Science.gov

Sample records for psidii winter em

  1. An analysis of the risk of introduction of additional strains of the rust puccinia psidii Winter ('Ohi'a Rust) to Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loope, Lloyd; La Rosa, Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    In April 2005, the rust fungus Puccinia psidii (most widely known as guava rust or eucalyptus rust) was found in Hawai'i. This was the first time this rust had been found outside the Neotropics (broadly-defined, including subtropical Florida, where the rust first established in the 1970s). First detected on a nursery-grown 'ohi'a plant, it became known as ''ohi'a rust'in Hawai'i. The rust spread rapidly and by August 2005 had been found throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. The rust probably reached Hawai'i via the live plant trade or via the foliage trade. In Hawai'i, the rust has infected three native plant species and at least eight non-native species. Effects have been substantial on the endangered endemic plant Eugenia koolauensis and the introduced rose apple, Syzygium jambos. Billions of yellow, asexual urediniospores are produced on rose apple, but a complete life cycle (involving sexual reproduction) has not yet been observed. The rust is autoecious (no alternate host known) on Myrtaceae. The strain introduced into Hawai'i is found sparingly on 'ohi'a (Metrosideros polymorpha), the dominant tree of Hawai'i's forests, with sporadic damage detected to date. The introduction of a rust strain that causes widespread damage to 'ohi'a would be catastrophic for Hawai'i's native biodiversity. Most imports of material potentially contaminated with rust are shipped to Hawai'i from Florida and California (from which P. psidii was reported in late 2005 by Mellano, 2006). Florida is known to have multiple strains. The identity of the strain or strains in California is unclear, but one of them is known to infect myrtle, Myrtus communis, a species commonly imported into Hawai'i. It is important to ecosystem conservation and commercial forestry that additional rust strains or genotypes be prevented from establishing in Hawai'i. The purpose of this analysis of risk is to evaluate the need for an interim rule by the Hawai'i Department of Agriculture to regulate plant

  2. A baseline analysis of the distribution, host-range, and severity of the rust Puccinia Psidii in the Hawaiian islands, 2005-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Puccinia psidii was first described by Winter (1884) on guava (Psidium guajava L.) in Brazil. The rust is still a major pest of native guava in Brazil and is often referred to as “guava rust” internationally. It is unusual among rust fungi because of its broad and ever-expanding host-range within the Myrtaceae plant family (Simpson et al. 2006). The pathogen is regarded as a major threat to Eucalyptus plantations and other Myrtaceae worldwide (Coutinho et al. 1998, Grgurinovic et al. 2006, Glen et al. 2007). Infections of leaves and meristems are particularly severe on susceptible seedlings, cuttings, young trees, and coppice, causing plants to be stunted and multi-branched, inhibiting normal growth and development, and sometimes causing death to young seedlings (Booth et al. 2000, Rayachhetry et al. 2001). The fungus has expanded its host-range in Brazil, affecting both native and introduced Myrtaceae (Coutinho et al. 1998).


    Since its discovery in 1884, P. psidii has continually been discovered to have an expanding host-range within the Myrtaceae, affecting hosts throughout much of South and Central America and the Caribbean. Spreading out originally from Brazil in 1884, the fungus has been reported on hosts in the following countries (first record in parentheses): Paraguay (1884), Uruguay (1889), Ecuador (1891), Colombia (1913), Puerto Rico (1913), Cuba (1926), Dominican Republic (1933), Venezuela (1934), Jamaica (1936), Argentina (1946), Dominica (1948), Trinidad and Tobago (1951), Guatemala (1968), United States (Florida; 1977), Mexico (1981), El Salvador (1987), and Costa Rica (1998) (Simpson et al. 2006). It is possible that P. psidii was present in El Salvador and Costa Rica prior to 1980, but was not reported until 1987 and 1998, respectively.


    Until recently, Puccinia psidii was restricted to the Neotropics, Mexico, and the

  3. Differential response by Melaleuca quinquenervia trees to attack by the rust fungus Puccinia psidii in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca, paperbark tree) is an exotic invasive tree in Florida, Hawaii, and some Caribbean islands. Puccinia psidii (guava rust-fungus) is a Neotropical rust fungus, reported to attack many species in the Myrtaceae and one genus in the Heteropyxidaceae, both members of the...

  4. Label-Free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Puccinia psidii Uredospores Reveals Differences of Fungal Populations Infecting Eucalyptus and Guava

    PubMed Central

    Bini, Andressa Peres; Regiani, Thais; Franceschini, Lívia Maria; Budzinski, Ilara Gabriela Frasson; Marques, Felipe Garbelini; Labate, Mônica Teresa Veneziano; Guidetti-Gonzalez, Simone; Moon, David Henry; Labate, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l.) is the causal agent of eucalyptus and guava rust, but it also attacks a wide range of plant species from the myrtle family, resulting in a significant genetic and physiological variability among populations accessed from different hosts. The uredospores are crucial to P. psidii dissemination in the field. Although they are important for the fungal pathogenesis, their molecular characterization has been poorly studied. In this work, we report the first in-depth proteomic analysis of P. psidii s.l. uredospores from two contrasting populations: guava fruits (PpGuava) and eucalyptus leaves (PpEucalyptus). NanoUPLC-MSE was used to generate peptide spectra that were matched to the UniProt Puccinia genera sequences (UniProt database) resulting in the first proteomic analysis of the phytopathogenic fungus P. psidii. Three hundred and fourty proteins were detected and quantified using Label free proteomics. A significant number of unique proteins were found for each sample, others were significantly more or less abundant, according to the fungal populations. In PpGuava population, many proteins correlated with fungal virulence, such as malate dehydrogenase, proteossomes subunits, enolases and others were increased. On the other hand, PpEucalyptus proteins involved in biogenesis, protein folding and translocation were increased, supporting the physiological variability of the fungal populations according to their protein reservoirs and specific host interaction strategies. PMID:26731728

  5. Rust disease of eucalypts, caused by Puccinia psidii, did not originate via host jump from guava in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Graça, Rodrigo N; Ross-Davis, Amy L; Klopfenstein, Ned B; Kim, Mee-Sook; Peever, Tobin L; Cannon, Phil G; Aun, Cristina P; Mizubuti, Eduardo S G; Alfenas, Acelino C

    2013-12-01

    The rust fungus, Puccinia psidii, is a devastating pathogen of introduced eucalypts (Eucalyptus spp.) in Brazil where it was first observed in 1912. This pathogen is hypothesized to be endemic to South and Central America and to have first infected eucalypts via a host jump from native guava (Psidium guajava). Ten microsatellite markers were used to genotype 148 P. psidii samples from eucalypts and guava plus five additional myrtaceous hosts across a wide geographic range of south-eastern Brazil and Uruguay. Principal coordinates analysis, a Bayesian clustering analysis and a minimum-spanning network revealed two major genetic clusters among the sampled isolates, one associated with guava and another associated with eucalypts and three additional hosts. Multilocus genotypes infecting guava differed by multiple mutational steps at eight loci compared with those infecting eucalypts. Approximate Bayesian computation revealed that evolutionary scenarios involving a coalescence event between guava- and eucalypt-associated pathogen populations within the past 1000 years are highly unlikely. None of the analyses supported the hypothesis that eucalypt-infecting P. psidii in Brazil originated via host jump from guava following the introduction of eucalypts to Brazil approximately 185 years ago. The existence of host-associated biotypes of P. psidii in Brazil indicates that this diversity must be considered when assessing the invasive threat posed by this pathogen to myrtaceous hosts worldwide.

  6. Label-Free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Puccinia psidii Uredospores Reveals Differences of Fungal Populations Infecting Eucalyptus and Guava.

    PubMed

    Quecine, Maria Carolina; Leite, Thiago Falda; Bini, Andressa Peres; Regiani, Thais; Franceschini, Lívia Maria; Budzinski, Ilara Gabriela Frasson; Marques, Felipe Garbelini; Labate, Mônica Teresa Veneziano; Guidetti-Gonzalez, Simone; Moon, David Henry; Labate, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l.) is the causal agent of eucalyptus and guava rust, but it also attacks a wide range of plant species from the myrtle family, resulting in a significant genetic and physiological variability among populations accessed from different hosts. The uredospores are crucial to P. psidii dissemination in the field. Although they are important for the fungal pathogenesis, their molecular characterization has been poorly studied. In this work, we report the first in-depth proteomic analysis of P. psidii s.l. uredospores from two contrasting populations: guava fruits (PpGuava) and eucalyptus leaves (PpEucalyptus). NanoUPLC-MSE was used to generate peptide spectra that were matched to the UniProt Puccinia genera sequences (UniProt database) resulting in the first proteomic analysis of the phytopathogenic fungus P. psidii. Three hundred and fourty proteins were detected and quantified using Label free proteomics. A significant number of unique proteins were found for each sample, others were significantly more or less abundant, according to the fungal populations. In PpGuava population, many proteins correlated with fungal virulence, such as malate dehydrogenase, proteossomes subunits, enolases and others were increased. On the other hand, PpEucalyptus proteins involved in biogenesis, protein folding and translocation were increased, supporting the physiological variability of the fungal populations according to their protein reservoirs and specific host interaction strategies.

  7. Combining a Climatic Niche Model of an Invasive Fungus with Its Host Species Distributions to Identify Risks to Natural Assets: Puccinia psidii Sensu Lato in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Kriticos, Darren J.; Morin, Louise; Leriche, Agathe; Anderson, Robert C.; Caley, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l.) is an invasive rust fungus threatening a wide range of plant species in the family Myrtaceae. Originating from Central and South America, it has invaded mainland USA and Hawai'i, parts of Asia and Australia. We used CLIMEX to develop a semi-mechanistic global climatic niche model based on new data on the distribution and biology of P. psidii s.l. The model was validated using independent distribution data from recently invaded areas in Australia, China and Japan. We combined this model with distribution data of its potential Myrtaceae host plant species present in Australia to identify areas and ecosystems most at risk. Myrtaceaeous species richness, threatened Myrtaceae and eucalypt plantations within the climatically suitable envelope for P. psidii s.l in Australia were mapped. Globally the model identifies climatically suitable areas for P. psidii s.l. throughout the wet tropics and sub-tropics where moist conditions with moderate temperatures prevail, and also into some cool regions with a mild Mediterranean climate. In Australia, the map of species richness of Myrtaceae within the P. psidii s.l. climatic envelope shows areas where epidemics are hypothetically more likely to be frequent and severe. These hotspots for epidemics are along the eastern coast of New South Wales, including the Sydney Basin, in the Brisbane and Cairns areas in Queensland, and in the coastal region from the south of Bunbury to Esperance in Western Australia. This new climatic niche model for P. psidii s.l. indicates a higher degree of cold tolerance; and hence a potential range that extends into higher altitudes and latitudes than has been indicated previously. The methods demonstrated here provide some insight into the impacts an invasive species might have within its climatically suited range, and can help inform biosecurity policies regarding the management of its spread and protection of valued threatened assets. PMID:23704988

  8. Acyl-homoserine lactones from Erwinia psidii R. IBSBF 435T, a guava phytopathogen (Psidium guajava L.).

    PubMed

    Pomini, Armando M; Manfio, Gilson P; Araújo, Welington L; Marsaioli, Anita J

    2005-08-10

    The phytopathogen Erwinia psidii R. IBSBF 435T causes rot in branches, flowers, and fruits of guava (Psidium guajava L.), being responsible for crop losses, and has no effective control. It was demonstrated that this strain produces two compounds [S-(-)-N-hexanoyl and N-heptanoyl-homoserine lactone], both belonging to the class of quorum-sensing signaling substances. A protocol using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection with chiral stationary phase is described for the absolute configuration determination of a natural acyl-homoserine lactone. Biological assays with specific reporter and synthesis of identified substances are also described. This is the first report on the N-heptanoyl-homoserine lactone occurrence in the Erwinia genus.

  9. The challenge of retarding erosion of island biodiversity through phytosanitary measures: An update on the case of Puccinia psidii in Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loope, Lloyd L.; Uchida, Janice Y.

    2012-01-01

    Most rust fungi are highly host specific, but Puccina psidii has an extremely broad host range within Myrtaceae and gained notoriety with a host jump in its native Brazil from common guava (Psidium guajava) to commercial Eucalyptus plantations. When detected in Hawaiʻi in April 2005, the first invasion outside the neotropics/subtropics, there was immediate concern for ʻōhiʻa (Metrosideros polymorpha). ʻŌhiʻa composes 80% of native forest statewide, providing stable watersheds and habitat for most Hawaiian forest birds and plants. Within months, rust spores spread statewide on wind currents, but ʻōhiʻa was found to be only a minor host, showing very light damage. The primary host was nonnative rose apple (Syzygium jambos), severely affected at a landscape scale, but the epiphytotic subsided as rose apple was largely defoliated or killed within several years. The limited and stable host range in Hawaiʻi (versus elsewhere) led the local conservation community to explore possibilities for excluding new genetic strains of P. psidii. Although national/international phytosanitary standards require strong scientific justification for regulations involving an infraspecific taxonomic level, hopes were buoyed when genetic studies showed no apparent genetic variation/evolution in Hawaiʻi's rust strain. A sophisticated genetic study of P. psidii in its home range is near completion; genetic variation is substantial, and host species strongly influences rust population structure. To prevent introduction of new strains, the Hawaiʻi Department of Agriculture is moving ahead with establishing stringent measures that restrict entry of Myrtaceae into Hawaiʻi. Meanwhile, P. psidii poses a major threat to Myrtaceae biodiversity worldwide.

  10. Winter Weeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Lois

    1981-01-01

    Try to learn all you can about a plant in the winter. As the season changes, you can see what the dried seed pod is like in bloom. You are a convert if you notice a spectacular show of summer wildflowers and wonder what sort of winter weed will result. (Author/CM)

  11. (1R,2S,6R)-Papayanal: a new male-specific volatile compound released by the guava weevil Conotrachelus psidii (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Romero-Frías, Alicia; Murata, Yasuhiro; Simões Bento, José Maurício; Osorio, Coralia

    2016-05-01

    The guava weevil, Conotrachelus psidii is an aggressive pest of guava (Psidium guajava L.) that causes irreparable damages inside the fruit. The volatile compounds of male and female insects were separately collected by headspace solid-phase microextraction or with dynamic headspace collection on a polymer sorbent, and comparatively analyzed by GC-MS. (1R,2S,6R)-2-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-dimethyl-3-oxabicyclo[4.2.0]octane (papayanol), and (1R,2S,6R)-2,6-dimethyl-3-oxabicyclo[4.2.0]octane-2-carbaldehyde (papayanal) were identified (ratio of 9:1, respectively) as male-specific guava weevil volatiles. Papayanal structure was confirmed by comparison of spectroscopic (EIMS) and chromatographic (retention time) data with those of the synthetic pure compound. The behavioral response of the above-mentioned compounds was studied in a Y-tube olfactometer bioassay, and their role as aggregation pheromone candidate components was suggested in this species.

  12. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  13. A summary of information on the rust Puccinia psidii Winter (guava rust) with emphasis on means to prevent introduction of additional strains to Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loope, Lloyd

    2010-01-01

    Hawaii Department of Agriculture has a clear mandate to protect Hawaii’s natural environment, forestry and cultivated Myrtaceae. Principles of the World Trade Organization’s Treaty on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures and the International Plant Protection Convention are consistent with the right of Hawaii to take action. The current threat of P. psidiiand the other five serious threats to Myrtaceae are primarily posed by the importation of infected plants from the continental United States; however, that may change in the future. If Hawaii were to decide to take a stand (through State regulation) to protect its native and introduced Myrtaceae, there is a possibility that USDA would consider Federal regulation of Myrtaceae from foreign countries.

  14. Winter Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarbuth, Lawson, Comp.

    Educators may find activities for indoor and outdoor winter programs in the games of the traditional Eskimo. These games are dominated by few-step operations and low level structural organization. For the most part they are quickly organized, begun, terminated, and ready to be recommenced. All types of games can be found, including quiet ones,…

  15. Winter Wonderlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Listening to people complain about the hardships of winter and the dreariness of the nearly constant gray sky prompted the author to help her sixth graders recognize and appreciate the beauty that surrounds them for nearly five months of the year in western New York. The author opines that if students could see things more artistically, the winter…

  16. Winter Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Outdoor Educators of Quebec, Montreal.

    Materials on 11 topics presented at a winter workshop for Quebec outdoor educators have been compiled into this booklet. Action story, instant replay, shoe factory, sound and action, and find an object to fit the description are described and recommended as group dynamic activities. Directions for five games (Superlative Selection; Data…

  17. An economic approach to assessing import policies designed to prevent the arrival of invasive species: the case of Puccinia psidii in Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnett, Kimberly; D'Evelyn, Sean; Loope, Lloyd; Wada, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Since its first documented introduction to Hawai‘i in 2005, the rust fungus Puccinia psidii has already severely damaged Syzygium jambos (Indian rose apple) trees and the federally endangered Eugenia koolauensis (nioi). Fortunately, the particular strain has yet to cause serious damage to Metrosideros polymorpha (‘ōhi‘a), which comprises roughly 80% of the state's native forests and covers 400,000 ha. Although the rust has affected less than 5% of Hawaii's ‘ōhi‘a trees thus far, the introduction of more virulent strains and the genetic evolution of the current strain are still possible. Since the primary pathway of introduction is Myrtaceae plant material imported from outside the state, potential damage to ‘ōhi‘a can be minimized by regulating those high-risk imports. We discuss the economic impact on the state's florist, nursery, landscaping, and forest plantation industries of a proposed rule that would ban the import of non-seed Myrtaceae plant material and require a 1-year quarantine of seeds. Our analysis suggests that the benefits to the forest plantation industry of a complete ban on non-seed material would likely outweigh the costs to other affected sectors, even without considering the reduction in risk to ‘ōhi‘a. Incorporating the value of ‘ōhi‘a protection would further increase the benefit–cost ratio in favor of an import ban.

  18. Economic analysis of the proposed rule to prevent arrival of new genetic strains of the rust fungus Puccinia psidii in Hawai?i.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnett, Kimberly; D'Evelyn, Sean; Loope, Lloyd; Wada, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Since its first documented introduction to Hawai‘i in 2005, the rust fungus P. psidii has already severely damaged Syzygium jambos (Indian rose apple) trees and the federally endangered Eugenia koolauensis (nioi). Fortunately, the particular strain has yet to cause serious damage to ‘ōhi‘a, which comprises roughly 80% of the state’s native forests and covers 400,000 ha. Although the rust has affected less than 5% of Hawaii’s ‘ōhi‘a trees thus far, the introduction of more virulent strains and the genetic evolution of the current strain are still possible. Since the primary pathway of introduction is Myrtaceae plant material imported from outside the state, potential damage to ‘ohi‘a can be minimized by regulating those high-risk imports. We discuss the economic impact on the state’s florist, nursery, landscaping, and forest plantation industries of a proposed rule that would ban the import of non-seed Myrtaceae plant material and require a one-year quarantine of seeds. Our analysis suggests that the benefits to the forest plantation industry of a complete ban on non-seed material would likely outweigh the costs to other affected sectors, even without considering the reduction in risk to ‘ōhi‘a. Incorporating the value of ‘ōhi‘a protection would further increase the benefit-cost ratio in favor of an import ban.

  19. First report of Puccinia psidii caused rust-disease epiphytotic on the invasive shrub Rhodomyrtus tomentosa in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. (downy-rose myrtle, Family: Myrtaceae) of south Asian origin is an invasive shrub that has formed monotypic stands in Florida. During the winter and spring of 2010-2012, a rust disease of epiphytotic proportion was observed on young foliage, stem terminals and i...

  20. A Winter Survival Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Ronald E.

    1979-01-01

    The article is a condensation of materials from the winter survival unit of a Canadian snow ecology course. The unit covers: cold physiology, frostbite, snowblindness, hypothermia, winter campout, and survival strategies. (SB)

  1. Winter Weather Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  2. Winter Art Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokela, Timo

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how the Department of Art Education at the University of Lapland in Finland has developed winter art as a method of environmental and community-based art education. I will focus on the Snow Show Winter Art Education Project, a training project funded by the European Union and the State Provincial Office…

  3. Nutrition for winter sports.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Nanna L; Manore, Melinda M; Helle, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Winter sports are played in cold conditions on ice or snow and often at moderate to high altitude. The most important nutritional challenges for winter sport athletes exposed to environmental extremes include increased energy expenditure, accelerated muscle and liver glycogen utilization, exacerbated fluid loss, and increased iron turnover. Winter sports, however, vary greatly regarding their nutritional requirements due to variable physiological and physique characteristics, energy and substrate demands, and environmental training and competition conditions. What most winter sport athletes have in common is a relatively lean physique and high-intensity training periods, thus they require greater energy and nutrient intakes, along with adequate food and fluid before, during, and after training. Event fuelling is most challenging for cross-country skiers competing in long events, ski jumpers aiming to reduce their body weight, and those winter sport athletes incurring repeated qualification rounds and heats. These athletes need to ensure carbohydrate availability throughout competition. Finally, winter sport athletes may benefit from dietary and sport supplements; however, attention should be paid to safety and efficacy if supplementation is considered.

  4. American woodcock winter distribution and fidelity to wintering areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, D.R.; Derleth, E.L.; Vander Haegen, W.M.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    We examined winter distribution and fidelity to wintering areas for the American Woodcock (Scolopax minor), which exhibits reversed, sexual size dimorphism. Band-recovery data revealed no difference in winter distributions of different age/sex classes for woodcock from the same breeding areas. Similarly, band recoveries from woodcock banded on wintering grounds revealed no difference in fidelity to wintering sites. Males may winter north of a latitude that is optimal for survival based on physiological considerations, but they gain a reproductive advantage if they are among the first to arrive on the breeding grounds. This may explain our results, which indicate males and females have similar distribution patterns during winter.

  5. Titan's Emergence from Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  6. Teaching Ecology in Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents ideas for teaching ecology in the winter. Suggested topic areas or units include snow insulation and density, snowflakes and snow crystals, goldenrod galls, bird behavior, survival techniques, bacteriology and decomposition, trees and keying, biomass and productivity, pollution, and soil organisms. A sample student activity sheet is…

  7. Mammals in Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wapner, Suzanne

    1985-01-01

    Mammals that tolerate the winter cold and stay active all year exploit the harsh northern climate to their advantage. By simple experiments and observation you can better understand their adaptations which include furry bodies, snowshoe feet, extra blubber, light coloration, and strategically distributed food caches. (JHZ)

  8. Influenza, Winter Olympiad, 2002

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Michael A.; Samore, Matthew H.; Lopansri, Bert; Lahey, Timothy; McGuire, Heather L.; Winthrop, Kevin L.; Dunn, James J.; Willick, Stuart E.; Vosters, Randal L.; Waeckerle, Joseph F.; Carroll, Karen C.; Gwaltney, Jack M.; Hayden, Frederick G.; Elstad, Mark R.; Sande, Merle A.

    2006-01-01

    Prospective surveillance for influenza was performed during the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics. Oseltamivir was administered to patients with influenzalike illness and confirmed influenza, while their close contacts were given oseltamivir prophylactically. Influenza A/B was diagnosed in 36 of 188 patients, including 13 athletes. Prompt management limited the spread of this outbreak. PMID:16494733

  9. Winter Playscape Dreaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2006-01-01

    Winter, like all seasons, adds a new sense of mystery and discovery to the world of young children. It is the time when they can study snowflakes, find icicles, or observe the birds that share their yards. This article presents ideas and suggestions on how to plan a playscape. A playscape is a man-made seasonal playground for young children. It…

  10. Titan's Winter Polar Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F.M.; Achterberg, R.K.; Schinder, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Titan's atmosphere has provided an interesting study in contrasts and similarities with Earth's. While both have N$_2$ as the dominant constituent and comparable surface pressures $\\sim1$ bar, Titan's next most abundant molecule is CH$_4$, not O$_2$, and the dissociative breakup of CH$_4$ and N$_2$ by sunlight and electron impact leads to a suite of hydrocarbons and nitriles, and ultimately the photochemical smog that enshrouds the moon. In addition, with a 15.95-day period, Titan is a slow rotator compared to Earth. While the mean zonal terrestrial winds are geostrophic, Titan's are mostly cyclostrophic, whipping around the moon in as little as 1 day. Despite the different dynamical regime, Titan's winter stratosphere exhibits several characteristics that should be familiar to terrestrial meteorologists. The cold winter pole near the 1 -mbar level is circumscribed by strong winds (up to 190 m/s) that act as a barrier to mixing with airmasses at lower latitudes. There is evidence of enhancement of several organic species over the winter pole, indicating subsidence. The adiabatic heating associated with this subsidence gives rise to a warm anomaly at the 0.01-mbar level, raising the stratopause two scale heights above its location at equatorial latitudes. Condensate ices have been detected in Titan's lower stratosphere within the winter polar vortex from infrared spectra. Although not always unambiguously identified, their spatial distribution exhibits a sharp gradient, decreasing precipitously across the vortex away from the winter pole. The interesting question of whether there is important heterogeneous chemistry occurring within the polar vortex, analogous to that occurring in the terrestrial polar stratospheric clouds in the ozone holes, has not been addressed. The breakup of Titan's winter polar vortex has not yet been observed. On Earth, the polar vortex is nonlinearly disrupted by interaction with large-amplitude planetary waves. Large-scale waves have not

  11. Winter Wilderness Travel and Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilchrest, Norman

    Knowledge and skill are needed for safe and enjoyable travel and camping in the wilderness in winter. The beauty of snow and ice, reduced human use, and higher tolerance of animals toward humans make the wilderness attractive during winter. The uniqueness of winter travel presents several challenges that are not present in other seasons. Safety is…

  12. Winter Frost and Fog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This somewhat oblique blue wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 174 km (108 mi) diameter crater, Terby, and its vicinity in December 2004. Located north of Hellas, this region can be covered with seasonal frost and ground-hugging fog, even in the afternoon, despite being north of 30oS. The subtle, wavy pattern is a manifestation of fog.

    Location near: 28oS, 286oW Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  13. Spirit's Winter Work Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This portion of an image acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera shows the Spirit rover's winter campaign site. Spirit was parked on a slope tilted 11 degrees to the north to maximize sunlight during the southern winter season. 'Tyrone' is an area where the rover's wheels disturbed light-toned soils. Remote sensing and in-situ analyses found the light-toned soil at Tyrone to be sulfate rich and hydrated. The original picture is catalogued as PSP_001513_1655_red and was taken on Sept. 29, 2006.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  14. Winter Clouds Over Mie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    12 March 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) red wide angle image shows late winter clouds over the 104 km (65 mi) diameter crater, Mie. Cellular clouds occur in the lower martian atmosphere, surrounding Mie Crater. Their cloudtops are at an altitude that is below the crater rim. Higher than the crater rim occurs a series of lee wave clouds, indicating air circulation moving from west/northwest (left) toward the east/southeast (right). Mie Crater is located in Utopia Planitia, not too far from the Viking 2 landing site, near 48.5 N, 220.4 W. Sunlight illuminates this January 2004 scene from the lower left.

  15. Spirit Scans Winter Haven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand.

    This view is an approximately true-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  16. Winter Survival: A Consumer's Guide to Winter Preparedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This booklet discusses a variety of topics to help consumers prepare for winter. Tips for the home include: winterizing the home, dealing with a loss of heat or power failure, and what you need to have on hand. Another section gives driving tips and what to do in a storm. Health factors include suggestions for keeping warm, signs and treatment for…

  17. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-04

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  18. Metabolic Acclimation to Hypoxia in Winter Cereals 1

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Christopher J.; Pomeroy, M. Keith

    1989-01-01

    Cold hardened seedlings of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) show an hypoxic hardening response: an exposure to low temperature flooding increases the tolerance of plants to a subsequent ice encasement exposure. Seedlings of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) do not show such a response in similar experimental conditions. During ice encasement, there are general declines in adenylate energy charge (AEC), total adenylates and ATP:ADP ratios in the crown tissues of two winter wheat cultivars, and a winter barley, but rates of decline are faster in the barley. When the ice period is preceded by low temperature flooding of the whole plant, levels of the adenylate components are raised significantly in the wheats, and to a lesser extent in the barley. The survival of plants in ice preceded by flooding is related to the increased initial level of adenylates at the onset of the ice encasement stress, and the maintenance of higher levels of adenylates and ATP in the early stages of ice encasement as a result of accelerated rates of glycolysis. Higher survival of both winter wheat and barley plants during ice encasement in the light is also associated with significantly higher levels of AEC and adenylates in the early stages of ice encasement. PMID:16667112

  19. The Challenge of Winter Backpacking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Michael; Mapes, Alan

    1981-01-01

    Tips and techniques for safe and enjoyable winter backpacking are offered. Topics covered include cross county skis, snowshoes, clothing, footwear, shelter, sleeping bags, food, hypothermia prevention, as well as general rules and requirements. (CO)

  20. [Winter sports and shoulder arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Kirchhoff, C; Imhoff, A B; Hinterwimmer, S

    2008-09-01

    Nowadays, a general negative evaluation of sportive activity regarding different kinds of sport following arthroplasty is at present no more scientifically supported. However, at present no valid guidelines regarding sportive activity of patients after implantation of shoulder joint arthroplasty exist. The question regarding the ability of performing winter sports activities of patients treated with shoulder joint endoprothesis has not been answered so far. Therefore the aim of the presented work was to identify winter sports-specific risks for patients treated with shoulder joint endoprothesis as well as to critically discuss the actual literature in refer to winter sport activities. Criteria for the education of patients with shoulder joint endoprothesis as well as consultation regarding winter sport activities will be provided for the orthopaedic surgeon.

  1. Winter Storms and Extreme Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Social Media Contact Us FAQS Publications Emergency Alerts Home Search × Close Search Enter Search Term(s): Languages × ... take when you receive a winter weather storm alert from the National Weather Service for your local ...

  2. Lightning Protection against Winter Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Hitoshi

    Winter lightning, which occurs along the Sea of Japan coast, often damages transmission lines and distribution lines with the conventional lightning protection. These lines in mountainous areas suffer extensive damage from winter lightning. It is very important to investigate the features of lightning outages in detail to improve the lightning protection measures against winter lightning, therefore observations of lightning strokes to transmission lines and distribution lines as well as measurements of lightning surges on these lines have been carried out. And then the lightning performance of various protection methods has studied by experiments and analyses. Taking into account these studies, the effective methods have been adopted. This paper presents the lightning protection of transmission lines and distribution lines against winter lightning.

  3. Winter sports dermatology: a review.

    PubMed

    Englund, Sumedha Lamba; Adams, Brian B

    2009-01-01

    As more individuals choose to maintain their fitness level year-round, they inevitably encounter skin problems. During these athletic pursuits, the skin must endure ongoing insult, serving as the interface between the athlete and environmental factors unique to the sport and season. Therefore, primary care physicians and dermatologists must understand how athletic activity and weather contribute to the development of dermatoses. By appropriately recognizing winter sport dermatoses, the practitioner can best provide tailored effective treatment that enables the patient to quickly return to the winter sport.

  4. Winter Outdoor Education Activities: Snowshoes and Exploring the Winter Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.; And Others

    Designed as a resource base upon which elementary school educators can build outdoor learning experiences, this resource packet contains a basic, multidisciplinary snowshoeing lesson plan, pre- and post-trip suggestions, and suggestions for further winter outdoor study on snowshoes. Specifically, there are narratives and illustrations addressed at…

  5. Xanthophyll cycle pigment and antioxidant profiles of winter-red (anthocyanic) and winter-green (acyanic) angiosperm evergreen species.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Nicole M; Burkey, Kent O; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Smith, William K

    2012-03-01

    Leaves of many angiosperm evergreen species change colour from green to red during winter, corresponding with the synthesis of anthocyanin pigments. The ecophysiological function of winter colour change (if any), and why it occurs in some species and not others, are not yet understood. It was hypothesized that anthocyanins play a compensatory photoprotective role in species with limited capacity for energy dissipation. Seasonal xanthophyll pigment content, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf nitrogen, and low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWA) of five winter-red and five winter-green angiosperm evergreen species were compared. Our results showed no difference in seasonal xanthophyll pigment content (V+A+Z g(-1) leaf dry mass) or LMWA between winter-red and winter-green species, indicating red-leafed species are not deficient in their capacity for non-photochemical energy dissipation via these mechanisms. Winter-red and winter-green species also did not differ in percentage leaf nitrogen, corroborating previous studies showing no difference in seasonal photosynthesis under saturating irradiance. Consistent with a photoprotective function of anthocyanin, winter-red species had significantly lower xanthophyll content per unit chlorophyll and less sustained photoinhibition than winter-green species (i.e. higher pre-dawn F(v)/F(m) and a lower proportion of de-epoxidized xanthophylls retained overnight). Red-leafed species also maintained a higher maximum quantum yield efficiency of PSII at midday (F'(v)/F'(m)) during winter, and showed characteristics of shade acclimation (positive correlation between anthocyanin and chlorophyll content, and negative correlation with chlorophyll a/b). These results suggest that the capacity for photon energy dissipation (photochemical and non-photochemical) is not limited in red-leafed species, and that anthocyanins more likely function as an alternative photoprotective strategy to increased VAZ/Chl during winter.

  6. Winter movement dynamics of Black Brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindberg, Mark S.; Ward, David H.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Roser, John

    2007-01-01

    Although North American geese are managed based on their breeding distributions, the dynamics of those breeding populations may be affected by events that occur during the winter. Birth rates of capital breeding geese may be influenced by wintering conditions, mortality may be influenced by timing of migration and wintering distribution, and immigration and emigration among breeding populations may depend on winter movement and timing of pair formation. We examined factors affecting movements of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) among their primary wintering sites in Mexico and southern California, USA, (Mar 1998-Mar 2000) using capture-recapture models. Although brant exhibited high probability (>0.85) of monthly and annual fidelity to the wintering sites we sampled, we observed movements among all wintering sites. Movement probabilities both within and among winters were negatively related to distance between sites. We observed a higher probability both of southward movement between winters (Mar to Dec) and northward movement between months within winters. Between-winter movements were probably most strongly affected by spatial and temporal variation in habitat quality as we saw movement patterns consistent with contrasting environmental conditions (e.g., La Niña and El Niño southern oscillation cycles). Month-to-month movements were related to migration patterns and may also have been affected by differences in habitat conditions among sites. Patterns of winter movements indicate that a network of wintering sites may be necessary for effective conservation of brant.

  7. Winter movement dynamics of black brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindberg, Mark S.; Ward, David H.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Roser, John

    2007-01-01

    Although North American geese are managed based on their breeding distributions, the dynamics of those breeding populations may be affected by events that occur during the winter. Birth rates of capital breeding geese may be influenced by wintering conditions, mortality may be influenced by timing of migration and wintering distribution, and immigration and emigration among breeding populations may depend on winter movement and timing of pair formation. We examined factors affecting movements of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) among their primary wintering sites in Mexico and southern California, USA, (Mar 1998–Mar 2000) using capture–recapture models. Although brant exhibited high probability (>0.85) of monthly and annual fidelity to the wintering sites we sampled, we observed movements among all wintering sites. Movement probabilities both within and among winters were negatively related to distance between sites. We observed a higher probability both of southward movement between winters (Mar to Dec) and northward movement between months within winters. Between-winter movements were probably most strongly affected by spatial and temporal variation in habitat quality as we saw movement patterns consistent with contrasting environmental conditions (e.g., La Niña and El Niño southern oscillation cycles). Month-to-month movements were related to migration patterns and may also have been affected by differences in habitat conditions among sites. Patterns of winter movements indicate that a network of wintering sites may be necessary for effective conservation of brant.

  8. Wintering ecology of adult North American ospreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Washburn, Brian E.; Martell, Mark S.; Bierregaard, Richard O.; Henny, Charles J.; Dorr, Brian S.; Olexa, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    North American Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) typically migrate long distances to their wintering grounds in the tropics. Beyond the general distribution of their wintering range (i.e., the Caribbean, South America, and Central America), very little is known about the wintering ecology of these birds. We used satellite telemetry to determine the duration of wintering period, to examine the characteristics of wintering areas used by Ospreys, and to quantify space use and activity patterns of wintering Ospreys. Adult Ospreys migrated to wintering sites and exhibited high wintering site fidelity among years. Overall, Ospreys wintered on river systems (50.6%) more than on lakes (19.0%), and use of coastal areas was (30.4%) intermediate. Ospreys remained on their wintering grounds for an average of 154 d for males and 167 d for females. Locations of wintering Ospreys obtained via GPS-capable satellite telemetry suggest these birds move infrequently and their movements are very localized (i.e., 2 and 1.4 km2, respectively. Overall, our findings suggest wintering adult North American Ospreys are very sedentary, demonstrating a pattern of limited daily movements and high fidelity to a few select locations (presumably roosts). We suggest this wintering strategy might be effective for reducing the risk of mortality and maximizing energy conservation.

  9. GOES Satellite Movie of 2014 Winter Storms

    NASA Video Gallery

    This new animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery shows the movement of winter storms from January 1 to March 24 making for a snowier-than-normal winter along the U.S. East coast and Midwest...

  10. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing, tobogganing and similar winter sports are prohibited on Presidio Trust roads and in parking areas open to... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter activities....

  11. 36 CFR 2.19 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing, tobogganing and similar winter sports are prohibited on park roads and in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter activities....

  12. Leadership in American Indian Communities: Winter Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metoyer, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Winter lessons, or stories told in the winter, were one of the ways in which tribal elders instructed and directed young men and women in the proper ways to assume leadership responsibilities. Winter lessons stressed the appropriate relationship between the leader and the community. The intent was to remember the power and purpose of that…

  13. Winter cover crops influence Amaranthus palmeri establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter cover crops were evaluated for their effect on Palmer amaranth (PA) suppression in cotton production. Cover crops examined included rye and four winter legumes: narrow-leaf lupine, crimson clover, Austrian winter pea, and cahaba vetch. Each legume was evaluated alone and in a mixture with rye...

  14. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xia; Yang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years.

  15. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years. PMID:28178351

  16. Research on Winter Lightning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Masaru

    Winter lightning in Japan is known for such characteristics as frequent occurrence of upward lightning and of positive ground flashes. On the engineering side, higher frequencies of troubles at transmission lines or wind turbines in winter due to lightning than those in summer have been experienced in the winter thunderstorm area of Japan, despite the much smaller number of lightning strokes in winter observed by lightning location systems (LLS). Such frequent troubles by lightning in the cold season are unique in Japan, which have promoted intensive research on winter lightning in Japan since 1980s.

  17. Communicating Certainty About Nuclear Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    I have been spending much of my time in the past several years trying to warn the world about the continuing danger of nuclear weapons, and that the solution is a rapid reduction in the nuclear arsenal. I feel that a scientist who discovers dangers to society has an ethical duty to issue a warning, even if the danger is so scary that it is hard for people to deal with. The debate about nuclear winter in the 1980s helped to end the nuclear arms race, but the planet still has enough nuclear weapons, even after reductions planned for 2017 under the New START treaty, to produce nuclear winter, with temperatures plunging below freezing in the summer in major agricultural regions, threatening the food supply for most of the planet. New research by myself, Brian Toon, Mike Mills, and colleagues over the past six years has found that a nuclear war between any two countries, such as India and Pakistan, using 50 atom bombs each of the size dropped on Hiroshima could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history, and a world food crisis because of the agricultural effects. This is much less than 1% of the current global arsenal. Communicating certainty - what we know for sure - has been much more effective than communicating uncertainty. The limited success I have had has come from persistence and serendipity. The first step was to do the science. We have published peer-reviewed articles in major journals, including Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Physics Today, and Climatic Change. But policymakers do not read these journals. Through fairly convoluted circumstances, which will be described in this talk, we were able to get papers published in Scientific American and the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. I have also published several encyclopedia articles on the subject. As a Lead Author of Chapter 8 (Radiative Forcing) of the recently published Fifth Assessment

  18. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Robock, A.; Mao, J.

    1992-01-01

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95 percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  19. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping

    1992-01-01

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95-percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  20. Winter leaf reddening in 'evergreen' species.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Nicole M

    2011-05-01

    Leaf reddening during autumn in senescing, deciduous tree species has received widespread attention from the public and in the scientific literature, whereas leaf reddening in evergreen species during winter remains largely ignored. Winter reddening can be observed in evergreen herbs, shrubs, vines and trees in Mediterranean, temperate, alpine, and arctic regions, and can persist for several months before dissipating with springtime warming. Yet, little is known about the functional significance of this colour change, or why it occurs in some species but not others. Here, the biochemistry, physiology and ecology associated with winter leaf reddening are reviewed, with special focus on its possible adaptive function. Photoprotection is currently the favoured hypothesis for winter reddening, but alternative explanations have scarcely been explored. Intraspecific reddening generally increases with sunlight incidence, and may also accompany photosynthetic inferiority in photosynthetically 'weak' (e.g. low-nitrogen) individuals. Red leaves tend to show symptoms of shade acclimation relative to green, consistent with a photoprotective function. However, winter-red and winter-green species often cohabitate the same high-light environments, and exhibit similar photosynthetic capacities. The factors dictating interspecific winter leaf colouration therefore remain unclear. Additional outstanding questions and future directions are also highlighted, and possible alternative functions of winter reddening discussed.

  1. Xanthophyll cycle pigment and antioxidant profiles of winter-red (anthocyanic) and winter-green (acyanic) angiosperm evergreen species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaves of many angiosperm evergreen species turn red during winter, corresponding with synthesis of anthocyanin pigments. The function of winter color change, and why it occurs in some species and not others, is not yet understood. We hypothesized that anthocyanins play a compensatory photoprotect...

  2. Introducing winter canola to the winter wheat-fallow region of the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growers in the low-rainfall, winter wheat-fallow region of the Pacific Northwest are in need of an alternative crop to diversify their markets, manage pests, and increase wheat yields. Winter canola may be a viable crop option for growers in the region. However, agronomic research for winter canol...

  3. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. (a) Regulated area. The regulated area includes all waters of...

  4. Animals in Winter. Young Discovery Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sairigne, Catherine

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume introduces the habits of a variety of animals during the winter. Topics include: (1) surviving during winter, including concepts such as migration, hibernation, and skin color change; (2) changing…

  5. Stem rust resistance in 'Jagger' winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Jagger" has been utilized widely as a parent to develop hard red winter wheat varieties throughout the U.S. southern Great Plains. Jagger has resistance to stem rust pathogen race TTTTF, which is virulent to many winter wheat cultivars, yet the genetic basis of this resistance remains unknown. Mark...

  6. Nuclear Winter: Scientists in the Political Arena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2001-03-01

    The nuclear winter phenomenon is used to illustrate the many paths by which scientific advice reaches decision makers in the United States government. Because the Reagan administration was hostile to the strategic policy that the scientific discovery seemed to demand, the leading proponent of nuclear winter, Carl Sagan, used his formidable talent for popularization to reach a larger audience.

  7. Does cold winter weather produce depressive symptoms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvey, Michael J.; Goodes, Mike; Furlong, Candy; Tollefson, Gary D.

    1988-06-01

    To examine whether harsh winter weather is associated with depressive symptoms, 45 healthy subjects from Minnesota were compared to 42 subjects from California near the end of the winter season. No differences in the prevalence of depressive symptoms were found between the two groups.

  8. The Winter Environment. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    Winter seems to hold more mysteries than any other season. It changes the behavior of wildlife and also brings about drastic changes in plant life. This unit, designed around the following two ideas: (1) to develop an appreciation and understanding of the winter season and (2) to understand how plants and wildlife are affected by the winter…

  9. Short winters threaten temperate fish populations

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Troy M.; Marschall, Elizabeth A.; Dabrowski, Konrad; Ludsin, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Although climate warming is expected to benefit temperate ectotherms by lengthening the summer growing season, declines in reproductive success following short, warm winters may counter such positive effects. Here we present long-term (1973–2010) field patterns for Lake Erie yellow perch, Perca flavescens, which show that failed annual recruitment events followed short, warm winters. Subsequent laboratory experimentation and field investigations revealed how reduced reproductive success following short, warm winters underlie these observed field patterns. Following short winters, females spawn at warmer temperatures and produce smaller eggs that both hatch at lower rates and produce smaller larvae than females exposed to long winters. Our research suggests that continued climate warming can lead to unanticipated, negative effects on temperate fish populations. PMID:26173734

  10. Short winters threaten temperate fish populations.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Troy M; Marschall, Elizabeth A; Dabrowski, Konrad; Ludsin, Stuart A

    2015-07-15

    Although climate warming is expected to benefit temperate ectotherms by lengthening the summer growing season, declines in reproductive success following short, warm winters may counter such positive effects. Here we present long-term (1973-2010) field patterns for Lake Erie yellow perch, Perca flavescens, which show that failed annual recruitment events followed short, warm winters. Subsequent laboratory experimentation and field investigations revealed how reduced reproductive success following short, warm winters underlie these observed field patterns. Following short winters, females spawn at warmer temperatures and produce smaller eggs that both hatch at lower rates and produce smaller larvae than females exposed to long winters. Our research suggests that continued climate warming can lead to unanticipated, negative effects on temperate fish populations.

  11. Short winters threaten temperate fish populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, Troy M.; Marschall, Elizabeth A.; Dabrowski, Konrad; Ludsin, Stuart A.

    2015-07-01

    Although climate warming is expected to benefit temperate ectotherms by lengthening the summer growing season, declines in reproductive success following short, warm winters may counter such positive effects. Here we present long-term (1973-2010) field patterns for Lake Erie yellow perch, Perca flavescens, which show that failed annual recruitment events followed short, warm winters. Subsequent laboratory experimentation and field investigations revealed how reduced reproductive success following short, warm winters underlie these observed field patterns. Following short winters, females spawn at warmer temperatures and produce smaller eggs that both hatch at lower rates and produce smaller larvae than females exposed to long winters. Our research suggests that continued climate warming can lead to unanticipated, negative effects on temperate fish populations.

  12. [The skin, cold and winter sports].

    PubMed

    Claes, G; Henry, F; Letawe, C; Piérard, G E

    2001-04-01

    Winter sports are responsible for various dermatoses which could be often avoided by simple preventive procedures. Both the severity and duration of cold exposure combined with wind speed, altitude and environmental hygrometric value govern the potential types of cold injuries.

  13. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Robock, A.; Jianping Mao )

    1992-12-24

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95% level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    MedlinePlus

    ... the risk for damage. Both snow and strong wind can wear away sunscreen and reduce its effectiveness, ... protect your skin from the bitter cold, heavy winds and winter sun, follow these important sun protection ...

  15. Physical characteristics of Eurasian winter temperature variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Yul; Son, Seok-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Despite the on-going global warming, recent winters in Eurasian mid-latitudes were much colder than average. In an attempt to better understand the physical characteristics for cold Eurasian winters, major sources of variability in surface air temperature (SAT) are investigated based on cyclostationary EOF analysis. The two leading modes of SAT variability represent the effect of Arctic amplification (AA) and the Arctic oscillation (AO), respectively. These two modes are distinct in terms of the physical characteristics, including surface energy fluxes and tropospheric circulations, and result in significantly different winter SAT patterns over the Eurasian continent. The AA-related SAT anomalies are dipolar with warm Arctic, centered at the Barents-Kara Seas, and cold East Asia. In contrast, the negative AO-related SAT anomalies are characterized by widespread cold anomalies in Northern Eurasia. Relative importance of the AA and the negative AO contributions to cold Eurasian winters is sensitive to the region of interest.

  16. Early Allergies -- Payback for a Mild Winter?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Early Allergies -- Payback for a Mild Winter? Early blooms may start you sneezing and sniffling ahead of ... dormant, Caudle said. Also, trees are starting to bloom in many parts of the United States, in ...

  17. How to Find Insects Weathering the Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Jane

    1979-01-01

    Discusses how and where to find insects and other invertebrates in winter, as well as how to collect samples in order to watch those animals reappear in spring. Includes crickets, honey bees, mosquitoes, house flies, and butterflies and moths. (MA)

  18. Zika Still a Threat During Winter Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162518.html Zika Still a Threat During Winter Months Public health ... doesn't necessarily mean the end of the Zika threat in the United States, a public health ...

  19. ENSO and winter storms in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, D.R.; Bromirski, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of North Pacific winter storms that penetrate the California coast drives the winds, sea level, precipitation and streamflow that are crucial influences on coastal processes. There is considerable variability of these storm characteristics, in large part owing to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO} phenomenon. There is a great contrast of the storm characteristics during the El Nino phase vs. the La Nina phase, with the largest scale, southerly extensive winter storms generated during El Nino.

  20. Key areas for wintering North American herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikuska, T.; Kushlan, J.A.; Hartley, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly all North American heron populations are migratory, but details of where they winter are little known. Locations where North American herons winter were identified using banding recovery data. North American herons winter from Canada through northern South America but especially in eastern North America south of New York, Florida, California, Louisiana, Texas, Mexico and Cuba, these areas accounting for 63% of winter recoveries. We identified regions where recoveries for various species clustered as "key areas." These forty-three areas constitute a network of areas that hold sites that likely are important to wintering North American herons. Within each area, we identify specific sites that are potentially important to wintering herons. The relative importance of each area and site within the network must be evaluated by further on the ground inventory. Because of biases inherent in the available data, these hypothesized key areas are indicative rather than exhaustive. As a first cut, this network of areas can serve to inform further inventory activities and can provide an initial basis to begin planning for the year-round conservation of North American heron populations.

  1. Breeding sites and winter site fidelity of Piping Plovers wintering in The Bahamas, a previously unknown major wintering area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gratto-Trevor, Cheri; Haig, Susan M.; Miller, Mark P.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Maddock, Sidney; Roche, Erin A.; Moore, Predensa

    2016-01-01

    Most of the known wintering areas of Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus) are along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States and into Mexico, and in the Caribbean. However, 1066 threatened/endangered Piping Plovers were recently found wintering in The Bahamas, an area not previously known to be important for the species. Although representing about 27% of the birds counted during the 2011 International Piping Plover Winter Census, the location of their breeding site(s) was unknown. Thus, our objectives were to determine the location(s) of their breeding site(s) using molecular markers and by tracking banded individuals, identify spring and fall staging sites, and examine site fidelity and survival. We captured and color-banded 57 birds in January and February 2010 in The Bahamas. Blood samples were also collected for genetic evaluation of the likely subspecies wintering in The Bahamas. Band re-sightings and DNA analysis revealed that at least 95% of the Piping Plovers wintering in The Bahamas originated on the Atlantic coast of the United States and Canada. Re-sightings of birds banded in The Bahamas spanned the breeding distribution of the species along the Atlantic coast from Newfoundland to North Carolina. Site fidelity to breeding and wintering sites was high (88–100%). Spring and fall staging sites were located along the Atlantic coast of the United States, with marked birds concentrating in the Carolinas. Our estimate of true survival for the marked birds was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.61–0.80). Our results indicate that more than one third of the Piping Plover population that breeds along the Atlantic coast winters in The Bahamas. By determining the importance of The Bahamas to the Atlantic subspecies of Piping Plovers, future conservation efforts for these populations can be better focused on where they are most needed.

  2. Prairie Winter Play Patterns: (b) Winter and Play. Research Project 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Charles H.; Borowiecka, Alexandra

    This guidebook provides an empirically-based set of planning and design guidelines for the construction of winter play facilities for Canadian youth residing in locations where outdoor play in winter is curtailed for approximately 4 months of the year. Information used in developing the guidelines was derived from field observations, a literature…

  3. Winter distribution of willow flycatcher subspecies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, E.H.; Unitt, P.; Sogge, M.K.; Whitfield, M.; Keim, P.

    2011-01-01

    Documenting how different regions across a species' breeding and nonbreeding range are linked via migratory movements is the first step in understanding how events in one region can influence events in others and is critical to identifying conservation threats throughout a migratory animal's annual cycle. We combined two studies that evaluated migratory connectivity in the Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii), one using mitochondrial DNA sequences from 172 flycatchers sampled throughout their winter range, and another which examined morphological characteristics of 68 museum specimens collected in the winter range. Our results indicate that the four subspecies occupy distinct but overlapping regions of the winter range. Connectivity between specific breeding and winter grounds appears to be moderate to strong, with distributions that suggest migration patterns of both the chain and leap-frog types connecting the breeding and nonbreeding grounds. The Pacific lowlands of Costa Rica appear to be a key winter location for the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (E. t. extimus), although other countries in Central America may also be important for the subspecies. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  4. Key areas for wintering North American herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikuska, T.; Kushlan, J.A.; Hartley, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly all North American heron populations are migratory, but details of where they winter are little known. Locations where North American herons winter were identified using banding recovery data. North American herons winter from Canada through northern South America but especially in eastern North America south of New York, Florida, California, Louisiana, Texas, Mexico and Cuba, these areas accounting for 63% of winter recoveries. We identified regions where recoveries for various species clustered as 'key areas.' These forty-three areas constitute a network of areas that hold sites that likely are important to wintering herons. The relative importance of each area and site within the network must be evaluated by further on the ground inventory. Because of biases inherent in the available data, these hypothesized key areas are indicative rather than exhaustive. As a first cut, this network of areas can serve to inform further inventory activities and can provide an initial basis to begin planning for the year-round conservation of North American heron populations.

  5. BOREAS HYD-5 Winter Surface Flux Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Richard; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl Fred (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS HYD-5 team collected tower flux, surface meteorological, and surface temperature data on a frozen lake (Namekus Lake) and in a mature jack pine forest in the Beartrap Creek watershed. Both sites were located in the BOREAS SSA. The objective of this study was to characterize the winter energy and water vapor fluxes, as well as related properties (such as snow density, depth, temperature, and melt) for forested and nonforested areas of the boreal forest. Data were collected on Namekus Lake in the winters of 1994 and 1996, and at Beartrap Creek in the winter of 1994 only. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884) or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  6. Risk management model of winter navigation operations.

    PubMed

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A; Goerlandt, Floris; Kuzmin, Vladimir; Kujala, Pentti; Montewka, Jakub

    2016-07-15

    The wintertime maritime traffic operations in the Gulf of Finland are managed through the Finnish-Swedish Winter Navigation System. This establishes the requirements and limitations for the vessels navigating when ice covers this area. During winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland, the largest risk stems from accidental ship collisions which may also trigger oil spills. In this article, a model for managing the risk of winter navigation operations is presented. The model analyses the probability of oil spills derived from collisions involving oil tanker vessels and other vessel types. The model structure is based on the steps provided in the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and adapted into a Bayesian Network model. The results indicate that ship independent navigation and convoys are the operations with higher probability of oil spills. Minor spills are most probable, while major oil spills found very unlikely but possible.

  7. Nuclear winter: the continuing debate. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Nida, A.V.

    1987-03-23

    This essay examines the debate over the climatic consequences of global nuclear war as related in the so-called Nuclear Winter hypothesis. This review examines the major components of the theory and traces development of the scientific knowledge leading to a second phase of the controversy two years after the first hypothesis. The conclusions of the essay are that the original nuclear winter findings have been altered by later scientific study and, therefore, the political conclusions drawn by Carl Sagan in 1983 can no longer be supported by theory or facts. Continued use of the Crutzen-Birks (Ambio, 1982) and TTAPS (Science, December 1983) studies worst-case evidence from NCAR (Foreign Affairs, Summer 86) represents selective science. Arguing for strategic policy changes based on nuclear winter risks constitutes anti-nuclear rhetoric and not scientific reasoning.

  8. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-(that) would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications.

  9. Implanting radio transmitters in wintering canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Dein, F.J.; Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    To conduct telemetry studies of wintering canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) on Chesapeake Bay [Maryland, USA], we needed to devise a suitable method of radio transmitter attachment. We describe as aseptic, intraabdominal surgical technique, using the inhalation anesthetic isoflurane, to implant 20-g radio transmitters in free-ranging canvasbacks. We evaluated the technique over 3 winters (1987-89), when an annual average of 83 female canvasbacks received implant surgery during a 9-day period in mid-December. Of 253 ducks, 248 (98%) were implanted successfully, and 200 (80.65) completed the 70-day study until early March. No mortality or abnormal behavior from surgery was identified post-release.

  10. Distribution of alewives in southeastern Lake Ontario in autumn and winter: a clue to winter mortalities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; O'Gorman, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in the Great Lakes are thought to avoid extreme cold in winter by moving to deep water where the temperature is usually highest because of inverse thermal stratification. Information collected in Lake Ontario during autumn and winter 1981–1984 with an echo sounder and bottom and midwater trawls indicated that many alewives remained at depths above 110 m, regardless of water temperature. Alewives in the Great Lakes that did not descend to greater depths would be exposed to potentially lethal temperatures during cold winters.inters.

  11. Mate loss in winter and mallard reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lercel, Barbara A.; Kaminski, Richard M.; Cox, Robert R.

    1999-01-01

    Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) frequently pair during winter, and duck hunting seasons have been extended until the end of January in several southern states in the Mississippi Flyway. Therefore, we simulated dissolution of pair bonds from natural or hunting mortality by removing mates of wild-strain, captive, yearling female mallards in late January 1996 and early February 1997 to test if mate loss in winter would affect subsequent pair formation and reproductive performance. Most (97%) widowed females paired again. Nesting and incubation frequencies, nest-initiation date, days between first and second nests, and egg mass did not differ (P > 0.126) between widowed and control (i.e., no mate loss experienced) females in 1996 and 1997. In 1997, widowed females laid 1.91 fewer eggs in first nests (P = 0.014) and 3.75 fewer viable eggs in second nests (P = 0.056). Computer simulations with a mallard productivity model (incorporating default parameters [i.e., average environmental conditions]) indicated that the observed decreased clutch size of first nests, fewer viable eggs in second nests, and these factors combined had potential to decrease recruitment rates of yearling female mallards 9%, 12%, and 20%. Our results indicate that winter mate loss could reduce reproductive performance by yearling female mallards in some years. We suggest caution regarding extending duck hunting seasons in winter without concurrent evaluations of harvest and demographics of mallard and other duck populations.

  12. Winter Video Series Coming in January | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The Scientific Library’s annual Summer Video Series was so successful that it will be offering a new Winter Video Series beginning in January. For this inaugural event, the staff is showing the eight-part series from National Geographic titled “American Genius.” 

  13. Cryopreservation of Salix sp. dormant winter buds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cryopreservation, using dormant winter buds (DB) as source plant materials is economically advantageous over tissue culture options (TC). Processing DB does not require aseptic conditions and elaborate cryopreservation procedures. However, the DB approach is only feasible for cryopreserving a sel...

  14. Nuclear winter - Physics and physical mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Ackerman, T. P.; Sagan, C.

    1991-01-01

    The basic physics of the environmental perturbations caused by multiple nuclear detonations is explored, summarizing current knowledge of the possible physical, chemical, and biological impacts of nuclear war. Emphasis is given to the impact of the bomb-generated smoke (soot) particles. General classes of models that have been used to simulate nuclear winter are examined, using specific models as examples.

  15. Dressing Baby for A Safe Winter Drive

    MedlinePlus

    ... of MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine, the National Institutes of Health, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. More Health News on: Child Safety Motor Vehicle Safety Winter Weather Emergencies Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ...

  16. Clouds in the Winter Arctic Tropopause Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry; Anderson, Bruce; Podolske, James; Sachse, Glen; Avery, Melody; Schoeberl, Mark; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Water vapor in the winter arctic tropopause region is important because, after the tropical tropopause region, the winter arctic tropopause has the coldest temperatures in the tropospheric northern hemisphere. This suggests the potential for cloud formation that can remove water vapor from a part of the atmosphere where radiatively active gases (such as water) exert a disproportionate influence on the earth's radiation budget. Previous work by the same authors has shown that this cloud formation extends into the stratosphere, with 20% of the parcels having ozone values of 300-350 ppbv experiencing ice saturation in any given 10 day period period during the late winter. In fact, temperatures are cold enough that 5-10% of the parcels experience saturation even if the water content is below the prevailing stratospheric value of 5 ppmv. This work describes a case study of clouds observed by aircraft near the winter arctic tropopause during the SAGE Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE). This provided a unique opportunity to examine dehydration processes in this region since in situ water, tracer, cloud particle, and meteorological data were all available simultaneously. During this period, temperatures were cold enough at the tropopause to produce saturation mixing ratios of 3-4 ppmv. Thus, clouds were actually observed within the stratosphere. Back trajectories indicate that the air in these clouds came from lower latitudes and altitudes. The study describes the nature of the clouds, the history of the air, and the possible implications for the upper tropospheric water budget.

  17. Winter Secrets: An Instant Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collyer, Cam

    1997-01-01

    Outdoor lesson plan aims to stimulate student interest in animals' adaptations to winter and the various signs and clues to animal behavior. Includes questions for class discussion, tips for guiding the hike, and instructions for two games that illustrate the predator-prey relationship. Notes curriculum connections to the East York (Ontario) Board…

  18. Outing Activities and Winter Sports Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knierim, Helen, Ed.; Hobson, Barbara B., Ed.

    This guide contains articles on outdoor recreational activities and official winter sports rules for girls and women. The articles on outdoor activities include the techniques, teaching, and organization of camping, canoeing, competitive cycling, and riflery. Four pages of references on nature and outdoor activities are presented along with two…

  19. Drag coefficients for winter Antarctic pack ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wamser, Christian; Martinson, Douglas G.

    1993-01-01

    Air-ice and ice-water drag coefficients referenced to 10-m-height winds for winter Antarctic pack ice based on measurements made from R/V Polarstern during the Winter Weddell Sea Project, 1986 (WWSP-86), and from R/V Akademik Fedorov during the Winter Weddell Gyre Study, 1989 (WWGS-89), are presented. The optimal values of the air-ice drag coefficients, made from turbulent flux measurements, are (1.79 +/- 0.06) x 10 exp -3 for WWSP-86 and (1.45 +/- 0.09) x 10 exp -3 for WWGS-89. A single ice-water drag coefficient for both WWSP-86 and WWGS-89, estimated from periods of ice drift throught to represent free-drift conditions, is (1.13 +/- 0.26) x 10 exp -3, and the ice-water turning angle is 18 +/- 18 deg. It is suggested that for a typical Antarctic winter pack ice cover, the ice cover reduces the momentum flux from the atmosphere to the ocean by about 33 percent.

  20. Winterization strategies for bulk storage of pickles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumbers are commercially fermented and stored in bulk in outdoor open top fiberglass tanks. During winter, snow and ice accumulates around and on top of tanks influencing heat transfer in an unpredictable manner, often compromising the fruit quality. This study evaluates the performance of inexpen...

  1. Music Activities for Lemonade in Winter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    "Lemonade in Winter: A Book About Two Kids Counting Money" is a children's book about math; however, when sharing it in the music classroom, street cries and clapping games emerge. Jenkins' and Karas' book provides a springboard to lessons addressing several music elements, including form, tempo, and rhythm, as well as…

  2. Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1982-01-01

    The scientific aims, work plan, and organization of the Middle Atmosphere Program winter in northern Europe (MAP/WINE) are described. Proposed contributions to the MAP/WINE program from various countries are enumerated. Specific atmospheric parameters to be examined are listed along with the corresponding measurement technique.

  3. Registration of ‘Atlantic’ winter barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Atlantic’ (Reg. No. CV-354, PI 665041), a six-row, hulled winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) tested as VA06B-19 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, was released in March 2011. Atlantic was derived from the cross VA97B-176/VA92-44-279 using a modified bulk-breeding method. It was evalua...

  4. Registration of 'Eve' winter hulless barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Eve’ (Reg. No. CV- PI 659067 ), a six-row winter hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed and tested as VA01H-68 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in May 2007. Eve was derived from the cross SC860974 / VA94-42-13. Eve is widely adapted and provides producers with ...

  5. European Society for Clinical Virology - winter meeting.

    PubMed

    Westh, Henrik

    2004-02-01

    The European Society for Clinical Virology annual winter meeting mainly appeals to clinical virologists interested in human disease. Basic and clinical data were presented, highlighting a number of interesting findings. This report briefly describes options in HIV antiviral treatment, and focuses on fusion inhibitors, a new anti-HIV class of drugs. Recent improvements in experimental DNA vaccines are also presented.

  6. Overview of Spirit's Mars Winter Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidson, R.

    2006-12-01

    On sol 805 (April 2006) the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit reached its Low Ridge winter campaign site within Gusev Crater's Columbia Hills. The site, with its 11.5 degree tilt to the north, was chosen to maximize the probability that the rover would receive enough solar energy to be able to continue operations through the martian winter (southern winter solstice occurred in August 2006) and be able to drive away to explore additional terrains during the ensuing spring. Winter campaign experiments were designed to monitor atmospheric and surface (i.e., aeolian) dynamics and to survey the surrounding rocks and soils using the Pancam multispectral (0.44 to 1 micrometer) and Mini-TES hyperspectral (5 to 29 micrometers) capabilities. This included the collection of a Pancam 360 degree 13 filter McMurdo Panorama of the surface and rover deck over a period of several months. Further, a number of long-duration observations were conducted using the Alpha Particle X-Ray and Moessbauer Spectrometers on rock and soil targets within the work volume of the Instrument Deployment Device. Operations associated with the campaign will be updated during the presentation, and selected scientific highlights will be summarized and placed in an overall context for understanding the evolution of Mars and the role of water.

  7. The Winter Olympics--On Ice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Barbara G.

    1998-01-01

    Describes several science activities designed around the upcoming Winter Olympics ice skating events which demonstrate the scientific principles behind the sport. Students learn that increasing the pressure on ice will lead to the ice melting, the principle involved in the spinning swing, and the technology of skates and skating outfits. (PVD)

  8. Appalachia's Winter Secret: Downhill on the Mountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Randy

    1991-01-01

    Describes ski-industry and winter-tourism growth in Appalachia. Sketches ski-resort developments in Maryland, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and West Virginia. Describes economic threats to industry, its economic impact on Appalachian states and region, resorts' general qualities, and ski industry's promotional efforts. (TES)

  9. Nuclear Winter: The implications for civil defense

    SciTech Connect

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to hypothesized cooling in the northern hemisphere following a nuclear war due to injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the original paper in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. The widespread use of 3-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling; 15 to 25/sup 0/C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought are likely to be direct threats to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures; The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and could present problems to third parties without food reserves; and Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor unexpected threat from nuclear war to the US and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the US due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year. 6 refs.

  10. Incorporating Yearly Derived Winter Wheat Maps Into Winter Wheat Yield Forecasting Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skakun, S.; Franch, B.; Roger, J.-C.; Vermote, E.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C.; Santamaría-Artigas, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. Timely and accurate forecast of wheat yield and production at global scale is vital in implementing food security policy. Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) developed a generalized empirical model for forecasting winter wheat production using remote sensing data and official statistics. This model was implemented using static wheat maps. In this paper, we analyze the impact of incorporating yearly wheat masks into the forecasting model. We propose a new approach of producing in season winter wheat maps exploiting satellite data and official statistics on crop area only. Validation on independent data showed that the proposed approach reached 6% to 23% of omission error and 10% to 16% of commission error when mapping winter wheat 2-3 months before harvest. In general, we found a limited impact of using yearly winter wheat masks over a static mask for the study regions.

  11. Comparison of sea-ice thickness measurements under summer and winter conditions in the Arctic using a small electromagnetic induction device

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, C.; Eicken, H.; Miller, H.; Gerland, S.

    1997-05-01

    Drillhole-determined sea-ice thickness was compared with values derived remotely using a portable small-offset loop-loop steady state electromagnetic (EM) induction device during expeditions to Fram Strait and the Siberian Arctic, under typical winter and summer conditions. Simple empirical transformation equations are derived to convert measured apparent conductivity into ice thickness. Despite the extreme seasonal differences in sea-ice properties as revealed by ice core analysis, the transformation equations vary little for winter and summer. Thus, the EM induction technique operated on the ice surface in the horizontal dipole mode yields accurate results within 5 to 10% of the drillhole determined thickness over level ice in both seasons. The robustness of the induction method with respect to seasonal extremes is attributed to the low salinity of brine or meltwater filling the extensive pore space in summer. Thus, the average bulk ice conductivity for summer multiyear sea ice derived according to Archie`s law amounts to 23 mS/m compared to 3 mS/m for winter conditions. These mean conductivities cause only minor differences in the EM response, as is shown by means of 1-D modeling. However, under summer conditions the range of ice conductivities is wider. Along with the widespread occurrence of surface melt ponds and freshwater lenses underneath the ice, this causes greater scatter in the apparent conductivity/ice thickness relation. This can result in higher deviations between EM-derived and drillhole determined thicknesses in summer than in winter.

  12. Early 2016 Winter Storm Melts Arctic Sea Ice

    NASA Video Gallery

    Arctic sea ice grows during the winter months, reaching its largest extent sometime in March. When something disrupts the cold, dry, winter Arctic atmosphere, sea ice can feel the effects, and thes...

  13. Scientific Library to Hold Annual Winter Video Series | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The Scientific Library is getting ready for its Annual Winter Video Series. Beginning on Monday, January 9 and concluding on Friday, February 17, the Winter Video Series will consist of two different PBS programs, each with three episodes.

  14. Vernalization and epigenetics: how plants remember winter.

    PubMed

    Sung, Sibum; Amasino, Richard M

    2004-02-01

    One of the remarkable aspects of the promotion of flowering by vernalization is that plants have evolved the ability to measure a complete winter season of cold and to 'remember' this prior cold exposure in the spring. Recent work in Arabidopsis demonstrates the molecular basis of this memory of winter: vernalization causes changes in the chromatin structure of a flowering repressor gene, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), that switch this gene into a repressed state that is mitotically stable. A key component of the vernalization pathway, VERNALIZATION INSENSITIVE3 (VIN3), which is a PHD-domain-containing protein, is induced only after a prolonged period of cold. VIN3 is involved in initiating the modification of FLC chromatin structure. The stable silencing of FLC also requires the DNA-binding protein VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) and the polycomb-group protein VRN2.

  15. The winter anomaly and sudden stratospheric warmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastovicka, J.

    1984-08-01

    Large-scale stratospheric warmings are examined on the basis of 22-year measurements of radio-wave absorption at the Panska Ves observatory. It is shown that these warmings, accompanied by the reversal of wind direction in the lower thermosphere, lead not to an increase but to a decrease in the radio-wave absorption in the lower ionosphere, i.e., to the disappearance of the winter anomaly. It is concluded that the absorption decrease is connected not only with cooling in the mesopause region but also with a total change in the dynamic conditions of the lower ionosphere. The behavior of the winter anomaly in the 1979-1980 and 1981-1982 periods is examined in detail.

  16. Tillage requirements for vegetables following winter annual grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Alabama, over 400,000 ac of winter annuals are grazed prior to planting summer row crops. Previous research indicates that cattle grazed on ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) pastures over the winter months in Alabama can be profitable, but winter grazing creates excessive compaction, which advers...

  17. Latitudinal variation in population structure of wintering Pacific Black Brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schamber, J.L.; Sedinger, J.S.; Ward, D.H.; Hagmeier, K.R.

    2007-01-01

    Latitudinal variation in population structure during the winter has been reported in many migratory birds, but has been documented in few species of waterfowl. Variation in environmental and social conditions at wintering sites can potentially influence the population dynamics of differential migrants. We examined latitudinal variation in sex and age classes of wintering Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans). Brant are distributed along a wide latitudinal gradient from Alaska to Mexico during the winter. Accordingly, migration distances for brant using different wintering locations are highly variable and winter settlement patterns are likely associated with a spatially variable food resource. We used resightings of brant banded in southwestern Alaska to examine sex and age ratios of birds wintering at Boundary Bay in British Columbia, and at San Quintin Bay, Ojo de Liebre Lagoon, and San Ignacio Lagoon in Baja California from 1998 to 2000. Sex ratios were similar among wintering locations for adults and were consistent with the mating strategy of geese. The distribution of juveniles varied among wintering areas, with greater proportions of juveniles observed at northern (San Quintin Bay and Ojo de Liebre Lagoon) than at southern (San Ignacio Lagoon) locations in Baja California. We suggest that age-related variation in the winter distribution of Pacific Black Brant is mediated by variation in productivity among individuals at different wintering locations and by social interactions among wintering family groups.

  18. Livable Winter Cities--Leisure Attitudes and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Larry; Coles, Roger, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The nine articles included in this feature emphasize how leisure, recreation, health and physical activities make winter cities more livable. Specific topics include techniques for teaching about cold weather safety and cold related injuries, Arctic Winter Games, and results of a study on winter recreation in large North American communities. (IAH)

  19. 46 CFR 42.30-10 - Southern Winter Seasonal Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-10 Southern Winter Seasonal Zone. (a) The northern boundary of the Southern Winter Seasonal Zone is the rhumb line from the east coast of the American...) Valparaiso is to be considered as being on the boundary line of the Summer and the Winter Seasonal Zones....

  20. 46 CFR 42.30-10 - Southern Winter Seasonal Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-10 Southern Winter Seasonal Zone. (a) The northern boundary of the Southern Winter Seasonal Zone is the rhumb line from the east coast of the American...) Valparaiso is to be considered as being on the boundary line of the Summer and the Winter Seasonal Zones....

  1. Surgical Risks Associated with Winter Sport Tourism

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Stéphane; Payet, Cécile; Lifante, Jean-Christophe; Polazzi, Stéphanie; Chollet, François; Carty, Matthew J; Duclos, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Background Mass tourism during winter in mountain areas may cause significant clustering of body injuries leading to increasing emergency admissions at hospital. We aimed at assessing if surgical safety and efficiency was maintained in this particular context. Methods We selected all emergency admissions of open surgery performed in French hospitals between 2010 and 2012. After identifying mountain areas with increasing volume of surgical stays during winter, we considered seasonal variations in surgical outcomes using a difference-in-differences study design. We computed multilevel regressions to evaluate whether significant increase in emergency cases had an effect on surgical mortality, complications and length of stay. Clustering effect of patients within hospitals was integrated in analysis and surgical outcomes were adjusted for both patient and hospital characteristics. Results A total of 381 hospitals had 559,052 inpatient stays related to emergency open surgery over 3 years. Compared to other geographical areas, a significant peak of activity was noted during winter in mountainous hospitals (Alps, Pyrenees, Vosges), ranging 6-77% volume increase. Peak was mainly explained by tourists’ influx (+124.5%, 4,351/3,496) and increased need for orthopaedic procedures (+36.8%, 4,731/12,873). After controlling for potential confounders, patients did not experience increased risk for postoperative death (ratio of OR 1.01, 95%CI 0.89-1.14, p = 0.891), thromboembolism (0.95, 0.77-1.17, p = 0.621) or sepsis (0.98, 0.85-1.12, p = 0.748). Length of stay was unaltered (1.00, 0.99-1.02, p = 0.716). Conclusion Surgical outcomes are not compromised during winter in French mountain areas despite a substantial influx of major emergencies. PMID:25970625

  2. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelson, Lisa

    2006-11-08

    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  3. Dehydration in the Winter Arctic Tropopause Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Jensen, Eric; Podolske, James; Selkirk, Henry; Anderson, Bruce; Avery, Melody; Diskin. Glenn

    2004-01-01

    Recent work has shown that limited amounts of tropospheric air can penetrate as much as 1 km into the middleworld stratosphere during the arctic winter. This, coupled with temperatures that are cold enough to produce saturation mixing ratios of less than 5 ppmv at the tropopause, results in stratospheric cloud formation and upper tropospheric dehydration. Even though these "cold outbreaks" occupy only a small portion of the area in the arctic (1-2%), their importance is magnified by an order of magnitude because of the air flow through them. This is reinforced by evidence of progressive drying through the winter measured during SOLVE-1. The significance of this process lies in its effect on the upper tropospheric water content of the middle and high latitude tropopause region, which plays an important role in regulating the earth's radiative balance. There appears to be significant year-to-year variability in the incidence of the cold outbreaks. This work has two parts. First, we describe case studies of dehydration taken from the SOLVE and SOLVE2 aircraft sampling missions during the Arctic winters of 2000 and 2003 respectively. Trajectory based microphysical modeling is employed to examine the sensitivity of the dehydration to microphysical parameters and the nature of sub-grid scale temperature fluctuations. We then examine the year-to-year variations in potential dehydration using a trajectory climatology.

  4. Feeding ecology of mallards wintering in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorde, D.G.; Krapu, G.L.; Crawford, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Food use by mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) wintering on the Platte River in south central Nebraska was determined from mid-December to early March 1978-80. Mallards foraged in river channels, irrigation drainage canals, and agricultural areas. Plant matter formed 97% of the diet (dry weight) and diets did not vary between sexes (P > 0.05). Waste corn was the principal food consumed and formed 46 and 62% of the diets of males and females, respectively. Milo, common duckweed (Lemna minor), smartweed (Polygonum spp.), and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa muricata) composed most of the remaining plant matter ingested. Mallards fed intensively in riparian wetland habitat to obtain invertebrates, but few were consumed because of limited abundance. Dietary protein was lower than reported among mallards wintering in Louisiana. Field feeding occurred primarily in grazed corn stubble and cattle feedlots. The distances traveled to feed, and the duration and timing of feeding varied with snow cover and season phenology. Competition for food was markedly higher during the cold winter of 1979 when heavy snow cover was present.

  5. Disturbance to wintering western snowy plovers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2001-01-01

    In order to better understand the nature of disturbances to wintering snowy plovers, I observed snowy plovers and activities that might disturb them at a beach near Devereux Slough in Santa Barbara, California, USA. Disturbance (activity that caused plovers to move or fly) to wintering populations of threatened western snowy plovers was 16 times higher at a public beach than at protected beaches. Wintering plovers reacted to disturbance at half the distance (∼40 m) as has been reported for breeding snowy plovers (∼80 m). Humans, dogs, crows and other birds were the main sources of disturbance on the public beach, and each snowy plover was disturbed, on average, once every 27 weekend min and once every 43 weekday min. Dogs off leash were a disproportionate source of disturbance. Plovers were more likely to fly from dogs, horses and crows than from humans and other shorebirds. Plovers were less abundant near trail heads. Over short time scales, plovers did not acclimate to or successfully find refuge from disturbance. Feeding rates declined with increased human activity. I used data from these observations to parameterize a model that predicted rates of disturbance given various management actions. The model found that prohibiting dogs and a 30 m buffer zone surrounding a 400 m stretch of beach provided the most protection for plovers for the least amount of impact to beach recreation.

  6. Winter protein requirements of bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; Bailey, W.W.; Llewellyn, L.M.; Rensberger, M.J.

    1944-01-01

    Three experiments involving 714 bobwhite quail were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, during the winters of 1939-1941 to determine the protein requirement of quail maintained throug'h the winter.....Considering survival, live weights, feed consumption, and subsequent reproduction by the birds, the-9 to 13 per cent levels of crude dietary protein gave as good results as higher levels eggs, which in all cases was over 90 per and in some respects were better.....On the basis of these studies, it is recommended that the winter maintenance diet for bobwhite quail contain . about 11 to 12 per cent of crude protein. The following diet (parts by weight) conforms to these specifications and should be satisfactory:...Ground yellow corn 85.6....Dehvdrated alfalfa leaf meal 5 .O.....Soybean oil meal 7.0.....Special steamed bonemeal 1.2....Salt (or Salt Mixture II,see text) 1.0...Vitamin A and D feeding oil, fortified 0.2.

  7. The effects of phenotypic plasticity on photosynthetic performance in winter rye, winter wheat and Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Dahal, Keshav; Kane, Khalil; Gadapati, Winona; Webb, Elizabeth; Savitch, Leonid V; Singh, Jasbir; Sharma, Pooja; Sarhan, Fathey; Longstaffe, Fred J; Grodzinski, Bernard; Hüner, Norman P A

    2012-02-01

    The contributions of phenotypic plasticity to photosynthetic performance in winter (cv Musketeer, cv Norstar) and spring (cv SR4A, cv Katepwa) rye (Secale cereale) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars grown at either 20°C [non-acclimated (NA)] or 5°C [cold acclimated (CA)] were assessed. The 22-40% increase in light-saturated rates of CO₂ assimilation in CA vs NA winter cereals were accounted for by phenotypic plasticity as indicated by the dwarf phenotype and increased specific leaf weight. However, phenotypic plasticity could not account for (1) the differential temperature sensitivity of CO₂ assimilation and photosynthetic electron transport, (2) the increased efficiency and light-saturated rates of photosynthetic electron transport or (3) the decreased light sensitivity of excitation pressure and non-photochemical quenching between NA and NA winter cultivars. Cold acclimation decreased photosynthetic performance of spring relative to winter cultivars. However, the differences in photosynthetic performances between CA winter and spring cultivars were dependent upon the basis on which photosynthetic performance was expressed. Overexpression of BNCBF17 in Brassica napus generally decreased the low temperature sensitivity (Q₁₀) of CO₂ assimilation and photosynthetic electron transport even though the latter had not been exposed to low temperature. Photosynthetic performance in wild type compared to the BNCBF17-overexpressing transgenic B. napus indicated that CBFs/DREBs regulate not only freezing tolerance but also govern plant architecture, leaf anatomy and photosynthetic performance. The apparent positive and negative effects of cold acclimation on photosynthetic performance are discussed in terms of the apparent costs and benefits of phenotypic plasticity, winter survival and reproductive fitness.

  8. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Aubrey D.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Squires, John R.; Olson, Lucretia E.; Roberts, Elizabeth K.

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation—often by non-motorized and motorized activity—is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists ( n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  9. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict?

    PubMed

    Miller, Aubrey D; Vaske, Jerry J; Squires, John R; Olson, Lucretia E; Roberts, Elizabeth K

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation-often by non-motorized and motorized activity-is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists (n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  10. Corpus cavernosum abscess after Winter procedure performance

    PubMed Central

    Paladino, Joao Roberto; Nascimento, Fabio Jose; Gromatsky, Celso; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima

    2014-01-01

    A 23-year-old male patient with sickle-cell disease reported his third episode of priapism complicated by the presence of a corpus cavernosum abscess after the performance of a Winter procedure 20 days prior to his presentation. While in hospital for 11 days, two penile needle aspirations and three surgical drainages were performed with associated antibiotic therapy. He evolved with erectile dysfunction refractory to drug therapy and his infectious condition improved. An early penile prosthesis implantation followed after the use of a vacuum pump in an attempt to decrease the fibrotic process of the corpora cavernosa. Final results were positive. PMID:24515231

  11. USGS Multi-Hazards Winter Storm Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, D. A.; Jones, L. M.; Perry, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    The USGS began an inter-disciplinary effort, the Multi Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP), in 2007 to demonstrate how hazards science can improve a community's resiliency to natural disasters including earthquakes, tsunamis, wildfires, landslides, floods and coastal erosion. The project engages the user community in setting research goals and directs efforts towards research products that can be applied to loss reduction and improved resiliency. The first public product of the MHDP was the ShakeOut Earthquake Scenario published in May 2008. It detailed the realistic outcomes of a hypothetical, but plausible, magnitude 7.8 earthquake on the San Andreas Fault in southern California. Over 300 scientist and experts contributed to designing the earthquake and understanding the impacts of such a disaster, including the geotechnical, engineering, social, cultural, environmental, and economic consequences. The scenario advanced scientific understanding and exposed numerous vulnerabilities related to emergency response and lifeline continuity management. The ShakeOut Scenario was the centerpiece of the Nation's largest-ever emergency response exercise in November 2008, dubbed "The Great Southern California ShakeOut" (www.shakeout.org). USGS Multi-Hazards is now preparing for its next major public project, a Winter Storm Scenario. Like the earthquake scenario, experts will be brought together to examine in detail the possibility, cost and consequences of a winter storm disaster including floods, landslides, coastal erosion and inundation; debris flows; biologic consequences like extirpation of endangered species; physical damages like bridge scour, road closures, dam failure, property loss, and water system collapse. Consideration will be given to the vulnerabilities associated with a catastrophic disruption to the water supply to southern California; the resulting impacts on ground water pumping, seawater intrusion, water supply degradation, and land subsidence; and a

  12. [Direct embryogenesis from protoplast of winter wheat].

    PubMed

    Ge, T M; Zhang, R D; Qin, F L; Yu, Y J; Xie, Y F

    2000-09-01

    Friable embryogenic calli were obtained on a modified N6 medium (NBD medium) from a winter wheat cultivar "Jinghua No. 1" (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Jinghua No. 1) and were transferred to a modified MS liquid medium (MSDL medium) to initiate embryogenic suspension cultures. Protoplasts were isolated from the suspensions and cultured on a modified MS medium (MSDP medium). The somatic embryoids were formed directly from the protoplasts and germinated into entire plants. The development of the somatic embryoids was very similar to that of zygotic embryos of wheat.

  13. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Lesser scaup (wintering)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulholland, Rosemarie

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a model for evaluating wintering habitat quality for the lesser scaup (Aythya affinis). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimal habitat) for Southern Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coastal areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Guidelines for model application and techniques for measuring model variables are provided.

  14. Significant warming of the Antarctic winter troposphere.

    PubMed

    Turner, J; Lachlan-Cope, T A; Colwell, S; Marshall, G J; Connolley, W M

    2006-03-31

    We report an undocumented major warming of the Antarctic winter troposphere that is larger than any previously identified regional tropospheric warming on Earth. This result has come to light through an analysis of recently digitized and rigorously quality controlled Antarctic radiosonde observations. The data show that regional midtropospheric temperatures have increased at a statistically significant rate of 0.5 degrees to 0.7 degrees Celsius per decade over the past 30 years. Analysis of the time series of radiosonde temperatures indicates that the data are temporally homogeneous. The available data do not allow us to unambiguously assign a cause to the tropospheric warming at this stage.

  15. Pre-wintering conditions and post-winter performance in a solitary bee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Notwithstanding lowered metabolism, and because diapausing insects have no access to food, diapause has an energetic cost that may affect post-diapause performance. Previous studies on the solitary bee Osmia lignaria have shown that prolonged pre-wintering periods (the time during which individuals ...

  16. Impacts of winter NPO on subsequent winter ENSO: sensitivity to the definition of NPO index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shangfeng; Wu, Renguang

    2017-03-01

    This study investigates the linkage between boreal winter North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) and subsequent winter El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) based on seven different NPO indices. Results show that the influence of winter NPO on the subsequent winter El Niño is sensitive to how the NPO is defined. A significant NPO-El Niño connection is obtained when the NPO-related anomalous cyclone over the subtropical North Pacific extends to near-equatorial regions. The anomalous cyclone induces warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies through modulating surface heat fluxes. These warm SST anomalies are able to maintain into the following spring and summer through an air-sea coupled process and in turn induce significant westerly wind anomalies over the tropical western Pacific. In contrast, the NPO-El Niño relationship is unclear when the NPO-related anomalous cyclone over the subtropical North Pacific is confined to off-equatorial regions and cannot induce significant warm SST anomalies over the subtropical North Pacific. The present study suggests that definitions of NPO should be taken into account when using NPO to predict ENSO. In particular, we recommend defining the NPO index based on the empirical orthogonal function technique over appropriate region that does not extend too far north.

  17. Winter sports injuries. The 2002 Winter Olympics experience and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Crim, Julia R

    2003-05-01

    Injury patterns at the 2002 Winter Olympics were similar to those in recreational winter athletes, although injury rates were higher. The high rates of injury compared with reported rates in recreational athletes reflect the intensity of the competition and the high speeds of the athletes. In addition, rates are artificially elevated because we were not able to count the number of practice runs by each athlete, only the number of races. The highest rates of injuries resulting in positive MR imaging or plain radiographs were in snowboarders (28/1000 races), followed by alpine skiers (20/1000). In all of the winter sports, the most commonly injured joint was the knee (37 injuries), and the most common knee injury was the ACL tear. Injuries to the foot and ankle were second in frequency (15 injuries). It is interesting that three of the ankle injuries were syndesmosis sprains; this may be an underreported injury in winter sports. There were 12 injuries to the upper extremity, all but two to the shoulder. Back complaints were frequent, but only seven patients had significant imaging abnormalities found in the lumbar spine: two stress fractures of the pedicles, one acute pedicle fracture, one spondylolysis, and four disc protrusions.

  18. Forage radish winter cover crop suppresses winter annual weeds in fall and before corn planting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. longipinnatus) is a new winter cover crop in the Mid-Atlantic region. The objective of this project was to characterize the repeatability, amount, and duration of weed suppression during and after a fall-planted forage radish cover crop and to quantify the sub...

  19. Monitoring water phase dynamics in winter clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Edwin F.; Ware, Randolph; Joe, Paul; Hudak, David

    2014-10-01

    This work presents observations of water phase dynamics that demonstrate the theoretical Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen concepts in mixed-phase winter storms. The work analyzes vertical profiles of air vapor pressure, and equilibrium vapor pressure over liquid water and ice. Based only on the magnitude ranking of these vapor pressures, we identified conditions where liquid droplets and ice particles grow or deplete simultaneously, as well as the conditions where droplets evaporate and ice particles grow by vapor diffusion. The method is applied to ground-based remote-sensing observations during two snowstorms, using two distinct microwave profiling radiometers operating in different climatic regions (North American Central High Plains and Great Lakes). The results are compared with independent microwave radiometer retrievals of vertically integrated liquid water, cloud-base estimates from a co-located ceilometer, reflectivity factor and Doppler velocity observations by nearby vertically pointing radars, and radiometer estimates of liquid water layers aloft. This work thus makes a positive contribution toward monitoring and nowcasting the evolution of supercooled droplets in winter clouds.

  20. [Impact of temperature increment before the over-wintering period on growth and development and grain yield of winter wheat].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-dong; Zhang, De-qi; Wang, Han-fang; Shao, Yun-hui; Fang, Bao-ting; Lyu, Feng-rong; Yue, Jun-qin; Ma, Fu-ju

    2015-03-01

    The effect of temperature increment before the over-wintering period on winter wheat development and grain yield was evaluated in an artificial climate chamber (TPG 1260, Australia) from 2010 to 2011. Winter wheat cultivar 'Zhengmai 7698' was used in this study. Three temperature increment treatments were involved in this study, i.e., temperature increment last 40, 50 and 60 days, respectively, before the over-wintering period. Control was not treated by temperature increment. The results showed that temperature increment before the over-wintering period had no significant effect on earlier phase spike differentiation. But an apparent effect on later phase spike differentiation was observed. High temperature effect on spike differentiation disappeared when the difference of effective accumulated temperature between the temperature increment treatment and the control was lower than 25 °C. However, the foliar age at the jointing stage was enhanced more than 0.8, heading and physiological ripening were advanced 1 day each, when the effective accumulated temperature before the over-wintering period increased 60 °C. Higher effective accumulated temperature before the over-wintering period accelerated winter wheat growth and development, which resulted in a short spike differentiation period. Winter wheat was easy to suffer freeze damage, which lead to floret abortion and spikelet death in spring under this situation. Meanwhile, higher effective accumulated temperature before the over-wintering period also reduced, photosynthetic capacity of flag leaf, shortened the grain filling period, and led to wheat grain yield reduction.

  1. Winter status of White-eyed Vireos in northeastern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Somershoe, S.G.; Twedt, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    In December 2004, February 2005, and June 2005, we recaptured a White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus) that was banded on 19 May 2004 at the same location on the Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, Madison Parish, LA. This is the first documented permanent resident White-eyed Vireo outside of resident populations known from Florida and southern Texas. This individual appears to be resident near the northern limit of the winter range for the species. Although White-eyed Vireos are uncommon in northeastern Louisiana during winter, we detected other White-eyed Vireos during line transect surveys and banding during winters 2003-2004 and 2004-2005. The lack of research and observation of winter birds in northern Louisiana and the secretive and inconspicuous behavior of White-eyed Vireos in winter may have led to an underestimation of abundance at the northern limits of their winter range.

  2. Can GRACE detect winter snows in Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heki, Kosuke

    2010-05-01

    Current spatial resolution of the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites is 300-400 km, and so its hydrological applications have been limited to continents and large islands. The Japanese Islands have width slightly smaller than this spatial resolution, but are known to show large amplitude seasonal changes in surface masses due mainly to winter snow. Such loads are responsible for seasonal crustal deformation observed with GEONET, a dense array of GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers in Japan (Heki, 2001). There is also a dense network of surface meteorological sensors for, e.g. snow depths, atmospheric pressures, etc. Heki (2004) showed that combined effects of surface loads, i.e. snow (predominant), atmosphere, soil moisture, dam impoundment, can explain seasonal crustal deformation observed by GPS to a large extent. The total weight of the winter snow in the Japanese Islands in its peak season may reach ~50 Gt. This is comparable to the annual loss of mountain glaciers in the Asian high mountains (Matsuo & Heki, 2010), and is above the detection level of GRACE. In this study, I use GRACE Level-2 Release-4 data from CSR, Univ. Texas, up to 2009 November, and evaluated seasonal changes in surface loads in and around the Japanese Islands. After applying a 350 km Gaussian filter and a de-striping filter, the peak-to-peak change of the water depth becomes ~4 cm in northern Japan. The maximum value is achieved in February-March. The region of large winter load spans from Hokkaido, Japan, to northeastern Honshu, which roughly coincides with the region of deep snow in Japan. Next I compiled snow depth data from surface meteorological observations, and converted them to loads using time-dependent snow density due to compaction. By applying the same spatial filter as the GRACE data, its spatial pattern becomes similar to the GRACE results. The present study suggests that GRACE is capable of detecting seasonal mass changes in an island arc not

  3. The History of Winter: teachers as scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, L.; Courville, Z.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Gow, T.; Bender, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The History of Winter (HOW) is a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center-funded teacher enrichment program that was started by Dr. Peter Wasilewski (NASA), Dr. Robert Gabrys (NASA) and Dr. Tony Gow (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, or CRREL) in 2001 and continues with support and involvement of scientists from both the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory and CREEL. The program brings educators mostly from middle and high schools but also from state parks, community colleges and other institutions from across the US to the Northwood School (a small, private boarding school) in Lake Placid, NY for one week to learn about several facets of winter, polar, and snow research, including the science and history of polar ice core research, lake ice formation and structure, snow pack science, winter ecology, and remote sensing including current and future NASA cryospheric missions. The program receives support from the Northwood School staff to facilitate the program. The goal of the program is to create 'teachers as scientists' which is achieved through several hands-on field experiences in which the teachers have the opportunity to work with polar researchers from NASA, CRREL and partner Universities to dig and sample snow pits, make ice thin sections from lake ice, make snow shelters, and observe under-ice lake ecology. The hands-on work allows the teachers to use the same tools and techniques used in polar research while simultaneously introducing science concepts and activities to support their classroom work. The ultimate goal of the program is to provide the classroom teachers with the opportunity to learn about current and timely cryospheric research as well as to engage in real fieldwork experiences. The enthusiasm generated during the week-long program is translated into classroom activities with guidance from scientists, teachers and educational professionals. The opportunity to engage with polar researchers, both young investigators and renowned

  4. Physiological processes during winter dormancy and their ecological significance

    SciTech Connect

    Havranek, W.M.; Tranquillini, W.

    1995-07-01

    Lengthy and severe winters require that trees in the forests of boreal and mountain zones undergo winter dormancy. Physiologically, a high resistance to subfreezing temperatures and concomitant dehydration are necessary. To accomplish this dormancy, both physiological and structural changes are needed at the cellular level that require induction by endogenous and photoperiodic control early in autumn. Endogenous rhythmicity promotes cold hardening in early autumn and the persistence of hardiness throughout the winter. Numerous physiological functions are maintained at a reduced level, or become completely inhibited during true winter dormancy. Winter hardiness also includes the capability to minimize water loss effectively when water uptake is severely impeded or impossible. Anatomical features such as tracheids act to minimize xylem embolism during frequent freeze-thaw cycles, and {open_quotes}crown{close_quotes} tissues enable buds to stay in a dehydrated and, thus, more resistant state during winter. Both these structural features are adaptations that contribute to the dominance of conifers in cold climates. Interestingly, deciduous tree species rather than evergreen conifers dominate in the most severe winter climates, although it is not clear whether limitations during winter, during the summer growth period, or during both are most limiting to conifer tree ecology. Additional work that evaluates the importance of winter and summer growth restriction, and their interaction, is needed before a comprehensive understanding of conifer tree ecophysiology will be possible.

  5. Landsat Science Team: 2016 winter meeting summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Todd; Loveland, Thomas; Wulder, Michael A.; Irons, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The winter meeting of the joint U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)–NASA Landsat Science Team (LST) was held January 12-14, 2016, at Virginia Tech University in Blacksburg, VA. LST co-chairs Tom Loveland [USGS’s Earth Resources Observation and Science Data Center (EROS)—Senior Scientist] and Jim Irons [NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)—Landsat 8 Project Scientist] welcomed more than 50 participants to the three-day meeting. The main objectives of this meeting focused on identifying priorities and approaches to improve the global moderate-resolution satellite record. Overall, the meeting was geared more towards soliciting team member recommendations on several rapidly evolving issues, than on providing updates on individual research activities. All the presentations given at the meeting are available at landsat.usgs. gov//science_LST_january2016.php.

  6. Zooplankton data report: Winter MIZEX, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.L.; Lane, P.V.Z.; Schwartling, E.M.; Beck, B.

    1988-12-01

    The Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX) was an interdisciplinary, international Arctic research program designed to study the atmospheric, oceanic, and ice interactions in the Fram Strait region of the Greenland Sea. This report focuses on zooplankton data collected during the winter MIZEX program of 1987. The primary objectives of our group during MIZEX 87 were to study the distribution of zooplankton species in relation to the ice-edge, the Polar Front, and the mesoscale eddy field, and to study zooplanktonic physiology just prior to the spring phytoplankton bloom. The data in this report are quantitative analyses of zooplankton samples collected while aboard the research vessel HAKON MOSBY during MIZEX 87. This is the third in a series of data reports on zooplankton collected in the Fram Strait region during the MIZEX project. A complete catalog of the reports generated from the MIZEX program is archived at the National Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colorado, USA. 1 ref., 3 tabs.

  7. Spirit Scans Winter Haven (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand.

    This view is a false-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  8. Climatology of the winter Red Sea Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Adel M.; Almazroui, Mansour

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a new and objective method for detecting the Red Sea Trough (RST) was developed using mean sea level pressure (SLP) data from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis dataset from the winters of 1956 to 2015 to identify the Sudan Low and its trough. Approximately 96% of the winter RSTs were generated near two main sources, South Sudan and southeastern Sudan, and approximately 85% of these troughs were in four of the most outer areas surrounding the northern Red Sea. Moreover, from west to east of the Red Sea, the RST was affected by the relationships between the Siberian High and Azores High. The RST was oriented to the west when the strength of the Siberian High increased and to the east when the strength of the Azores High increased. Furthermore, the synoptic features of the upper level of the RST emphasize the impacts of subtropical anticyclones at 850 hPa on the orientation of the RST, the impacts of the northern cyclone trough and the maximum wind at a pressure level of 250 hPa. The average static stability between 1000 hPa and 500 hPa demonstrated that the RST followed the northern areas of low static stability. The results from previous studies were confirmed by a detailed case study of the RST that extended to its central outermost area. The results of a detailed case study of the short RST indicated that the trough becomes shorter with increasing static stability and that the Azores and Siberian high-pressure systems influence the northern region of the trough while the maximum upper wind shifts south of the climate position.

  9. Motor gasolines, winter 1981-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E M

    1982-07-01

    Analytical data for 905 samples of motor gasoline, were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The data were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The samples represent the products of 30 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since winter 1959-1960 survey for the leaded gasolines, and since winter 1979-1980 survey for the unleaded gasolines. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 90.0 and above, leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 93.0, and leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R+M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.4 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.7 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 88.9 for leaded below 93.0. Only one sample was reported as 93.0 for leaded gasolines with an antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above.

  10. Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy

    SciTech Connect

    multiple speakers, presenters listed on link below

    2011-02-12

    The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 12 to February 18, 2011. Ninety-four participants from ten countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, �New Data From the Energy Frontier.� There were 54 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The week�s events included a public lecture (�The Hunt for the Elusive Higgs Boson� given by Ben Kilminster from Ohio State University) and attended by 119 members of the public, and a physics caf� geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists. The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was �Indirect and Direct Detection of Dark Matter.� It was held from February 6 to February 12, 2011. The 70 participants came from 7 countries and attended 53 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists from other institutions and countries or due to incipient collaborations. In addition, Blas Cabrera of Stanford University gave a public lecture titled �What Makes Up Dark Matter.� There were 183 members of the general public in attendance. Before the lecture, 45 people attended the physics caf� to discuss dark matter. This report provides the attendee lists, programs, and announcement posters for each event.

  11. Winter precipitation change in South China in recent decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jingning

    2013-04-01

    Precipitation change is one of important climate researches in China, but winter precipitation variation in South China has not been studied so frequently. In China, it is rainy when hot; so summer precipitation is usually one focus in research, esp. in South China. However, winter precipitation and its change influence people profoundly in South China, also. The most recent example is what happened over South China in winter 2008. In this winter, millions of people suffered from the unusual cold and snowy winter. It led to huge loss in economy and traffic as well. Roads closed and railway stations were jammed and crowded with people; many planes were grounded for heavy snow and bad weather. Transmission lines faulted in the mountains. The ommunication signals were affected. Everyday food supply including vegetables and meats had to be delayed or interrupted. In some city even water supply was interrupted. And garbage in the city was piled up. Just in this winter the snow depth and coverage area in many places in South China broke or equaled the historical records. In fact, it isn't the only one unusual winter precipitation event in South China. Since 1950s, several freezing and snowy winters struck the South in China. In this research, winter precipitation change in recent years in South China has been discussed based on the precipitation observations. The associated large scale atmospheric circulation change is also analyzed. It is found that snowy winter in South China hardly comes in most periods of 2000s, but in recent decades this heavy snow in winter has appeared several times as observations shows. This phenomenon could be related to the large scale atmospheric circulation change.

  12. Winter climate limits subantarctic low forest growth and establishment.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Melanie A; McGlone, Matt S; Wilmshurst, Janet M

    2014-01-01

    Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52 °S, 169 °E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  =  -5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6 °C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C), dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm). Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally.

  13. Winter Climate Limits Subantarctic Low Forest Growth and Establishment

    PubMed Central

    Harsch, Melanie A.; McGlone, Matt S.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52°S, 169°E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  = −5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6°C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C), dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm). Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally. PMID:24691026

  14. Measurements of Chlorine Partitioning in the Winter Arctic Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stachnik, R.; Salawitch, R.; Engel, A.; Schmidt, U.

    1999-01-01

    Under the extremely cold conditions in the polar winter stratosphere, heterogeneous reactions involving HCl and CIONO(sub 2) on the surfaces of polar stratospheric cloud particles can release large amounts of reactive chlorine from these reservoirs leading to rapid chemical loss of ozone in the Arctic lower stratosphere during late winter and early spring.

  15. Winter Extratropical Cyclogenesis Over The Northern Gulf of Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-21

    Auciello, A. F. Gigi , J. S. Waldstreicher, K. K. Keeter, S. Businger, and L. G. Lee, 1995: Winter weather forecasting throughout the eastern United...Waldstreicher, P. J. Kocin, A. F. Gigi , and R. A. Marine, 1995: Winter weather forecasting throughout the eastern United States. Part I: An overview. Wea

  16. 33 CFR 401.92 - Wintering and lying-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wintering and lying-up. 401.92 Section 401.92 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.92 Wintering and...

  17. 33 CFR 401.92 - Wintering and lying-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wintering and lying-up. 401.92 Section 401.92 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.92 Wintering and...

  18. 33 CFR 401.92 - Wintering and lying-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wintering and lying-up. 401.92 Section 401.92 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.92 Wintering and...

  19. The Altar of Patriarchy in John Ehle's "The Winter People."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, M. Katherine

    In John Ehle's "The Winter People," the goddess Persephone is with Hades, and winter is upon the Appalachians in full force. Ehle's novel begins as Wayland Jackson and his daughter, Paula, arrive at the home of Collie Wright and her baby, Jonathan. The Jacksons' truck has broken down on their way from Pennsylvania to Tennessee following…

  20. Yield and yield components of winter-type safflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a minor yet widely grown oil seed crop adapted to semi-arid regions. The nascent development of winter adapted safflower, allowing fall planting,could substantially increase seed production over spring planting. In this study four winter type safflower accessi...

  1. 66. Photocopied August 1978. VIEW OF THE WINTER HOUSING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. Photocopied August 1978. VIEW OF THE WINTER HOUSING AT THE MOVABLE DAM (HEADGATES) LOOKING EAST, FEBRUARY 5, 1902. COMPLETE ENCLOSURE OF THE CONSTRUCTION SITE WAS USED AT BOTH THE HEADGATES AND THE COMPENSATING GATES TO ALLOW CONTINUATION OF CONCRETE WORK THROUGH THE WINTER OF 1901-1902. (203) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  2. Sex-specific differences in winter distribution patterns of canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Haramis, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Winter band recovery distributions of North American Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) suggested that males and females exhibit comparable degrees of fidelity to general wintering areas. Of birds banded during the winter, the proportion of males was found to be higher in northern than in southern areas. Winter band recovery distributions of birds banded in particular areas during the summer were found to differ significantly between sexes, with females being recovered farther south. Factors that may have affected the evolution of sex-specific wintering distributions include: (1) possible reproductive benefits derived by males who winter in the north and thus reach northerly breeding areas early; (2) sexual dimorphism in body size, which may render the smaller females especially susceptible to periods of inclement weather and food shortages; and (3) interactions between sexes in which males may control food supply when food is scarce. Two lines of evidence from field data on Canvasbacks in the Chesapeake Bay suggest the existence of competition between males and females. First, Canvasbacks trapped during winter in smaller bodies of water tended to have higher proportions of females and weigh less than birds trapped in large open bodies of water. Second, analysis of aerial photographs of wintering rafts of Canvasbacks showed patterns of intersexual segregation, with females being found more frequently on peripheral areas of rafts.

  3. Waterbirds foods in winter-managed ricefields in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manley, S.W.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.; Gerard, P.D.

    2004-01-01

    Ricefields are important foraging habitats for waterfowl and other waterbirds in primary North American wintering regions. We conducted a large-scale experiment to test effects of post-harvest ricefield treatment, winter water management, and temporal factors on availabilities of rice, moist-soil plant seeds, aquatic invertebrates, and green forage in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV), Mississippi, USA, fall-winter 1995-1997. Our results revealed that a large decrease in rice grain occurred between harvest and early winter (79-99%), which, if generally true throughout the MAV, would have critical implications on foraging carrying capacity of ricefields for migrating and wintering waterbirds. During the remainder of winter, food resources generally were similar among treatment combinations. An exception was biomass of aquatic invertebrates, which demonstrated potential to increase by late winter in ricefields that remained flooded. We offer revised calculations of foraging carrying capacity for waterfowl in MAV ricefields and recommend continuing research and management designed to increase availability of residual rice and aquatic invertebrates in winter.

  4. Management of Fresh Wheat Residue for Irrigated Winter Canola Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter canola is popular with many irrigated growers as it provides excellent disease control benefits for potatoes grown in rotation. There is a belief among irrigated canola growers that fresh wheat residue must be burned and the soil then heavily tilled before winter canola is planted. These grow...

  5. A risk analysis of winter navigation in Finnish sea areas.

    PubMed

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A; Goerlandt, Floris; Montewka, Jakub; Kujala, Pentti

    2015-06-01

    Winter navigation is a complex but common operation in north-European sea areas. In Finnish waters, the smooth flow of maritime traffic and safety of vessel navigation during the winter period are managed through the Finnish-Swedish winter navigation system (FSWNS). This article focuses on accident risks in winter navigation operations, beginning with a brief outline of the FSWNS. The study analyses a hazard identification model of winter navigation and reviews accident data extracted from four winter periods. These are adopted as a basis for visualizing the risks in winter navigation operations. The results reveal that experts consider ship independent navigation in ice conditions the most complex navigational operation, which is confirmed by accident data analysis showing that the operation constitutes the type of navigation with the highest number of accidents reported. The severity of the accidents during winter navigation is mainly categorized as less serious. Collision is the most typical accident in ice navigation and general cargo the type of vessel most frequently involved in these accidents. Consolidated ice, ice ridges and ice thickness between 15 and 40cm represent the most common ice conditions in which accidents occur. Thus, the analysis presented in this article establishes the key elements for identifying the operation types which would benefit most from further safety engineering and safety or risk management development.

  6. Structural and Functional Characterization of a Winter Malting Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of winter malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties is emerging as a worldwide priority due to the numerous advantages of these varieties over spring types. However, the complexity of both malting quality and winter hardiness phenotypes makes simultaneous improvement a challenge....

  7. Paul Winter, Sun Singer...He Talks about Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslav, Marc

    1984-01-01

    Interviews Paul Winter, well-known musical emissary for the Earth and its wildlife among the environmental community. Incorporating voices of wolves, whales, and other creatures as accompanists to an uncategorizable blend of symphonic, jazz, African and Latin musical traditions, Winter's sound involves listeners in a guided experience of…

  8. Factors Contributing to Extremely Wet Winters in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jong, B. T.; Ting, M.; Seager, R.

    2015-12-01

    As California continues to battle the severe drought conditions, it becomes increasingly important to understand the atmospheric and oceanic conditions that may possible break this ongoing drought. Is a strong El Niño, such as the 2015/16 event, enough to break the drought? We examine in this study the possible factors that lead to extremely wet winters (the wettest 15%) in both Northern and Southern CA. The relationships between CA winter precipitation and sea surface temperature conditions in the Pacific, as well as atmospheric circulation are determined by using observational and reanalysis data from 1901 to 2010. One of the key features of the atmospheric circulation is the location of the low pressure anomaly, whether caused by El Niño or other factors. If the anomaly locates right off the US west coast, CA tends to be wet, and vice versa. Furthermore, the duration of the circulation anomaly seems to be crucial. During wet El Niño winters, the peak of the circulation anomaly is in the late winter, whereas, during non-wet El Niño winters, the peak of the anomaly is in the early winter. Thus, an El Niño that can last to late winter is more likely to cause an extremely wet winter in the state. The intensity of El Niño is another critical factor. In the wettest tercile late winter, a strong El Niño can bring about 200% of climatological precipitation to CA, while a weak El Niño can bring only less than 150% of climatology. In combination, only a strong El Niño that can last to late winter may make extremely wet winters very likely in CA. To explore the other factors, composites of circulation anomaly during wet & non-El Niño winters were also analyzed. The results show that a zonally propagating wave train, originating from western North Pacific, contributes to low pressure center and wet winter conditions in the state. Thus, coastal low pressure anomaly is a consistent feature for an extremely wet winters in California, but the origin of forcing can

  9. Winter climate changes over East Asian region under RCP scenarios using East Asian winter monsoon indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ja-Young; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Jhun, Jong-Ghap

    2017-01-01

    The changes in the winter climatology and variability of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) for the late 21st century (2070-2099) under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are projected in terms of EAWM indices (EAWMIs). Firstly, the capability of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating the boreal winter climatology and the interannual variability of the EAWM for the late 20th century (1971-2000) is examined. Nine of twenty-three climate models are selected based on the pattern correlations with observation and a multi-model ensemble is applied to the nine model data. Three of twelve EAWMIs that show the most significant temporal correlations between the observation and CMIP5 surface air temperatures are utilized. The ensemble CMIP5 is capable of reproducing the overall features of the EAWM in spite of some biases in the region. The negative correlations between the EAWMIs and boreal winter temperature are well reproduced and 3-5 years of the major interannual variation observed in this region are also well simulated according to power spectral analyses of the simulated indices. The fields regressed onto the indices that resemble the composite strong winter monsoon pattern are simulated more or less weakly in CMIP5 compared to the observation. However, the regressed fields of sea level pressure, surface air temperature, 500-hPa geopotential height, and 300-hPa zonal wind are well established with pattern correlations above 0.83 between CMIP5 and observation data. The differences between RCPs and Historical indicate strong warming, which increases with latitude, ranging from 1 to 5 °C under RCP4.5 and from 3 to 7 °C under RCP8.5 in the East Asian region. The anomalous southerly winds generally become stronger, implying weaker EAWMs in both scenarios. These features are also identified with fields regressed onto the indices in RCPs. The future projections reveal

  10. Solar aquaculture: A wintering technique for parent prawns

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Jin Long

    1994-09-01

    A new method of providing the warm water needed for parent prawn wintering using solar energy is described. Using solar energy for prawn wintering involves heat collection, heat storage and temperature maintenance. The system designed provides sufficient energy for the safe wintering of prawns with suitable water temperatures. The temperature control facilities consist of three parts: a salt gradient solar pond, a shallow solar pond and a plastic house. The technique involves use of a shallow solar pond for collection and storage of heat. The average temperature in the wintering pond plastic house was 11 degrees C and the minimum temperature in January was 5.4 degrees C. This system allowed the wintering process to be conducted using solar energy alone and may extend aquaculture to higher latitudes. The ratio of net profit with the solar energy system over investment is 1.5 which makes it economically viable.

  11. Anti-correlation of summer/winter monsoons?

    PubMed

    Zhang, De'er; Lu, Longhua

    2007-11-15

    On the basis of the anti-correlation of their palaeoclimatic proxy for the strength of the East Asian winter monsoon from Lake Huguang Maar, China, with stalagmite records of the strength of the summer monsoon, Yancheva et al. claim that the strengths of the summer and winter monsoons are anti-correlated on a decadal timescale. They argue that the summer rainfall deficit during ad 700-900 that they infer from their evidence of a stronger winter monsoon, in conjunction with a Tanros battle, led to the collapse of the Tang dynasty (ad 618-907). Using historical climate records, we show here that most cold winters during ad 700-900 were associated with relatively wet summers, indicating that the strengths of the winter and summer monsoons were not negatively correlated during this period.

  12. Salt Lake City, Utah, Winter 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This simulated natural color image presents a snowy, winter view of north central Utah that includes all of the Olympic sites. The image extends from Ogden in the north, to Provo in the south; and includes the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains and the eastern part of the Great Salt Lake.

    This image was acquired on February 8, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal

  13. Registration of four winter-hardy faba bean germplasm lines for use in winter pulse and cover crop development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a versatile crop grown for food, feed, vegetable, or cover crop purposes in many countries. In response to the growing demand for winter annual legumes for cover crop development in the United States, we developed four winter-hardy faba bean germplasm lines, WH-1 (Reg. N...

  14. Comparison of East Asian winter monsoon indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Gao

    2007-04-01

    Four East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) indices are compared in this paper. In the research periods, all the indices show similar interannual and decadal-interdecadal variations, with predominant periods centering in 3-4 years, 6.5 years and 9-15 years, respectively. Besides, all the indices show remarkable weakening trends since the 1980s. The correlation coefficient of each two indices is positive with a significance level of 99%. Both the correlation analyses and the composites indicate that in stronger EAWM years, the Siberian high and the higher-level subtropical westerly jet are stronger, and the Aleutian low and the East Asia trough are deeper. This circulation pattern is favorable for much stronger northwesterly wind and lower air temperature in the subtropical regions of East Asia, while it is on the opposite in weaker EAWM years. Besides, EAWM can also exert a remarkable leading effect on the summer monsoon. After stronger (weaker) EAWM, less (more) summer precipitation is seen over the regions from the Yangtze River valley of China to southern Japan, while more (less) from South China Sea to the tropical western Pacific.

  15. Winter Snowfall Turns an Emerald White

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Ireland's climate is normally mild due to the nearby Gulf Stream, but the waning days of 2000 saw the Emerald Isle's green fields swathed in an uncommon blanket of white. The contrast between summer and winter is apparent in this pair of images of southwestern Ireland acquired by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on August 23, 2000 (left) and December 29, 2000 (right). The corresponding Terra orbit numbers are 3628 and 5492, respectively.

    The year 2000 brought record-breaking weather to the British Isles. England and Wales experienced the wettest spring and autumn months since 1766. Despite being one of the warmest years in recent history, a cold snap arrived between Christmas and New Year's Day. According to the UK Meteorological Office, the 18 centimeters (7 inches) of snow recorded at Aldergrove, Northern Ireland, on December 27-28 was the deepest daily fall since 1930.

    Prominent geographical features visible in the MISR images include Galway Bay near the top left. Further south, the mouth of the River Shannon, the largest river in the British Isles, meets the Atlantic Ocean. In the lower portions of the images are the counties of Limerick, Kerry and Cork.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology

  16. View Northward from Spirit's Winter Roost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    One part of the research program that NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit is conducting while sitting at a favorable location for wintertime solar energy is the most detailed panorama yet taken on the surface of Mars. This view is a partial preliminary product from the continuing work on the full image, which will be called the 'McMurdo Panorama.'

    Spirit's panoramic camera (Pancam) began taking exposures for the McMurdo Panorama on the rover's 814th Martian day (April 18, 2006). The rover has accumulated more than 900 exposures for this panorama so far, through all of the Pancam mineralogy filters and using little or no image compression. Even with a tilt toward the winter sun, the amount of energy available daily is small, so the job will still take one to two more months to complete.

    This portion of the work in progress looks toward the north. 'Husband Hill,' which Spirit was climbing a year ago, is on the horizon near the center. 'Home Plate' is a between that hill and the rover's current position. Wheel tracks imprinted when Spirit drove south from Home Plate can be seen crossing the middle distance of the image from the center to the right.

    This is an approximate true-color rendering combining exposures taken through three of the panoramic camera's filters. The filters used are centered on wavelengths of 750 nanometers, 530 nanometers and 430 nanometers.

  17. Winter weather and cardiovascular mortality in Minneapolis-St. Paul.

    PubMed Central

    Baker-Blocker, A

    1982-01-01

    A study of vital statistics data from five Minneapolis-St. Paul winters indicates cardiovascular mortality is influenced by winter temperatures and snow. Although air temperature was not statistically implicated in triggering cardiovascular mortality in four of the five study winters, during the winter of 1976-77, about 15 per cent of the variance in daily cardiovascular mortality could be attributed to fluctuations in the daily minimum air temperature. Snow influenced mortality on the day of occurrence as well as the two days following a snowfall. There appear to be some differences in the ability of winter weather to influence mortality from acute myocardial infarction (ICD 410) and old myocardial infarction (ICD 412). The variance in daily ICD 410 mortality attributable to the influence of snow is somewhat less than that in daily ICD 412 mortality. The greatest variance in daily ICD 412 mortality that could be ascribed to snow occurred during the winter of 1974-75, and was 13 per cent. It is likely that rain intermixed with snow may also trigger increased mortality from cardiovascular disease. A combination of rain and snow can produce dramatic increased in mortality from ICD 410. Study of mortality data from five winters indicates that snow is somewhat more important in triggering deaths from heart disease than is air temperature. PMID:7058966

  18. Lemming winter habitat choice: a snow-fencing experiment.

    PubMed

    Reid, Donald G; Bilodeau, Frédéric; Krebs, Charles J; Gauthier, Gilles; Kenney, Alice J; Gilbert, B Scott; Leung, Maria C-Y; Duchesne, David; Hofer, Elizabeth

    2012-04-01

    The insulative value of early and deep winter snow is thought to enhance winter reproduction and survival by arctic lemmings (Lemmus and Dicrostonyx spp). This leads to the general hypothesis that landscapes with persistently low lemming population densities, or low amplitude population fluctuations, have a low proportion of the land base with deep snow. We experimentally tested a component of this hypothesis, that snow depth influences habitat choice, at three Canadian Arctic sites: Bylot Island, Nunavut; Herschel Island, Yukon; Komakuk Beach, Yukon. We used snow fencing to enhance snow depth on 9-ha tundra habitats, and measured the intensity of winter use of these and control areas by counting rodent winter nests in spring. At all three sites, the density of winter nests increased in treated areas compared to control areas after the treatment, and remained higher on treated areas during the treatment. The treatment was relaxed at one site, and winter nest density returned to pre-treatment levels. The rodents' proportional use of treated areas compared to adjacent control areas increased and remained higher during the treatment. At two of three sites, lemmings and voles showed significant attraction to the areas of deepest snow accumulation closest to the fences. The strength of the treatment effect appeared to depend on how quickly the ground level temperature regime became stable in autumn, coincident with snow depths near the hiemal threshold. Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that snow depth is a primary determinant of winter habitat choice by tundra lemmings and voles.

  19. Interannual variability of Winter Precipitation in Southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling; Fraedrich, Klaus; zhu, Xiuhua; Sielmann, Frank

    2014-05-01

    The observed winter (DJF) precipitation in Southeast China (1961-2010) is characterized by a monopole pattern of the three-monthly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI-3) whose interannual variability is related to the anomalies of East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) systems. Dynamic composites and linear regression analysis indicate that the intensity of EAWM and Siberia High (SH), the position of East Asian Trough (EAT), El Niño events and SST anomalies over South China Sea (SCS) influence different regions of anomalous Southeast China winter precipitation on interannual scales. The circulation indices (EAWM, SH and EAT) mainly affect the winter precipitation in the eastern part of Southeast China. El Niño events affect the South China winter precipitation due to the anticyclone anomalies over Philippines. The effect of SCS SST anomalies on the winter precipitation is mainly in the south part of Yangtze River. And the contributions from all the impact factors do not counteract with one another to generate the Southeast China winter precipitation variability. Thus, a set of circulation regimes, represented by a handful indices, provide the basis for modeling precipitation anomalies or extremes in future climate projections.

  20. Winter Season Mortality: Will Climate Warming Bring Benefits?

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Patrick L.; Schwartz, Joel; Pascal, Mathilde; Petkova, Elisaveta; Tertre, Alain Le; Medina, Sylvia; Vautard, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Extreme heat events are associated with spikes in mortality, yet death rates are on average highest during the coldest months of the year. Under the assumption that most winter excess mortality is due to cold temperature, many previous studies have concluded that winter mortality will substantially decline in a warming climate. We analyzed whether and to what extent cold temperatures are associated with excess winter mortality across multiple cities and over multiple years within individual cities, using daily temperature and mortality data from 36 US cities (1985-2006) and 3 French cities (1971-2007). Comparing across cities, we found that excess winter mortality did not depend on seasonal temperature range, and was no lower in warmer vs. colder cities, suggesting that temperature is not a key driver of winter excess mortality. Using regression models within monthly strata, we found that variability in daily mortality within cities was not strongly influenced by winter temperature. Finally we found that inadequate control for seasonality in analyses of the effects of cold temperatures led to spuriously large assumed cold effects, and erroneous attribution of winter mortality to cold temperatures. Our findings suggest that reductions in cold-related mortality under warming climate may be much smaller than some have assumed. This should be of interest to researchers and policy makers concerned with projecting future health effects of climate change and developing relevant adaptation strategies. PMID:26495037

  1. Winter season mortality: will climate warming bring benefits?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney, Patrick L.; Schwartz, Joel; Pascal, Mathilde; Petkova, Elisaveta; Le Tertre, Alain; Medina, Sylvia; Vautard, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Extreme heat events are associated with spikes in mortality, yet death rates are on average highest during the coldest months of the year. Under the assumption that most winter excess mortality is due to cold temperature, many previous studies have concluded that winter mortality will substantially decline in a warming climate. We analyzed whether and to what extent cold temperatures are associated with excess winter mortality across multiple cities and over multiple years within individual cities, using daily temperature and mortality data from 36 US cities (1985-2006) and 3 French cities (1971-2007). Comparing across cities, we found that excess winter mortality did not depend on seasonal temperature range, and was no lower in warmer vs. colder cities, suggesting that temperature is not a key driver of winter excess mortality. Using regression models within monthly strata, we found that variability in daily mortality within cities was not strongly influenced by winter temperature. Finally we found that inadequate control for seasonality in analyses of the effects of cold temperatures led to spuriously large assumed cold effects, and erroneous attribution of winter mortality to cold temperatures. Our findings suggest that reductions in cold-related mortality under warming climate may be much smaller than some have assumed. This should be of interest to researchers and policy makers concerned with projecting future health effects of climate change and developing relevant adaptation strategies.

  2. The Unusual Southern Hemisphere Stratosphere Winter of 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.

    2003-01-01

    The southern hemisphere stratospheric winter of 2002 was the most unusual winter yet observed in the southern hemisphere climate record. Temperatures near the edge of the Antarctic polar vortex were considerably warmer than normal over the entire course of the winter. The polar night jet was considerably weaker than normal, and was displaced more poleward than has been observed in previous winters. These record high temperatures and weak jet resulted from a series of wave events that took place over the course of the winter. The first large event occurred on 15 May, and the final warming occurred on 25 October. The propagation of these wave events from the troposphere is diagnosed from time series of Eliassen-Palm flux vectors. The wave events tended to occur irregularly over the course of the winter, and pre-conditioned the polar night jet for the extremely large wave event of 22 September. This large wave event resulted in the first ever observed major stratospheric warming in the southern hemisphere. This wave event split the Antarctic ozone hole. The combined effect of the wave events of the 2002 winter resulted in the smallest ozone hole observed since 1988.

  3. Sage-grouse habitat selection during winter in Alberta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.; Aldridge, C.; Boyce, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) for food and shelter during winter, yet few studies have assessed winter habitat selection, particularly at scales applicable to conservation planning. Small changes to availability of winter habitats have caused drastic reductions in some sage-grouse populations. We modeled winter habitat selection by sage-grouse in Alberta, Canada, by using a resource selection function. Our purpose was to 1) generate a robust winter habitat-selection model for Alberta sage-grouse; 2) spatially depict habitat suitability in a Geographic Information System to identify areas with a high probability of selection and thus, conservation importance; and 3) assess the relative influence of human development, including oil and gas wells, in landscape models of winter habitat selection. Terrain and vegetation characteristics, sagebrush cover, anthropogenic landscape features, and energy development were important in top Akaike's Information Criterionselected models. During winter, sage-grouse selected dense sagebrush cover and homogenous less rugged areas, and avoided energy development and 2-track truck trails. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development highlights the need for comprehensive management strategies that maintain suitable habitats across all seasons. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  4. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  5. Impact of declining Arctic sea ice on winter snowfall.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiping; Curry, Judith A; Wang, Huijun; Song, Mirong; Horton, Radley M

    2012-03-13

    While the Arctic region has been warming strongly in recent decades, anomalously large snowfall in recent winters has affected large parts of North America, Europe, and east Asia. Here we demonstrate that the decrease in autumn Arctic sea ice area is linked to changes in the winter Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation that have some resemblance to the negative phase of the winter Arctic oscillation. However, the atmospheric circulation change linked to the reduction of sea ice shows much broader meridional meanders in midlatitudes and clearly different interannual variability than the classical Arctic oscillation. This circulation change results in more frequent episodes of blocking patterns that lead to increased cold surges over large parts of northern continents. Moreover, the increase in atmospheric water vapor content in the Arctic region during late autumn and winter driven locally by the reduction of sea ice provides enhanced moisture sources, supporting increased heavy snowfall in Europe during early winter and the northeastern and midwestern United States during winter. We conclude that the recent decline of Arctic sea ice has played a critical role in recent cold and snowy winters.

  6. An optimal index for measuring the effect of East Asian winter monsoon on China winter temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chundi; Yang, Song; Wu, Qigang

    2015-11-01

    Extreme cold events occur frequently in China. The authors define a representative yet simple index to reveal the monthly changes in China winter temperature associated with the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), which is represented by both the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode and the country-mean temperature index of Chinese 160 gauge stations. A combined technique of correlation and multivariate EOF (Corr-MVEOF) analyses is applied to capture the dominant coupled patterns of EAWM circulation system. Based on the atmospheric circulation features captured by the leading Corr-MVEOF mode, a new EAWM index referred to as CNWMI is derived by using a stepwise regression analysis. The CNWMI highlights the importance of (1) the Mongolia-Siberian High (MSH) and its southward expansion and (2) the Asia-wide meridional dipole anomaly of 500 hPa geopotential height. Compared with the 27 existing EAWM indices, the CNWMI not only best represents the leading modes of both EAWM circulation system and China winter temperature, but also reasonably tracks the intraseasonal-to-interdecadal variations of EAWM so that the monthly intensity of EAWM can be monitored conveniently. In particular, the Aleutian low (AL) is not strongly related to the MSH and may not be responsible for the variability of EAWM/MSH. Moreover, the indices that are highly correlated with the temperature over southern East Asia do not show significant relationships with the AL, which is different from the conventional concept that a strong EAWM/MSH is linked to a deepened AL. In contrast, the anomalous Australia-Maritime Continent low is in good agreement with the variation of EAWM/MSH.

  7. Greater sage-grouse winter habitat selection and energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, K.E.; Naugle, D.E.; Walker, B.L.; Graham, J.M.

    2008-01-15

    Recent energy development has resulted in rapid and large-scale changes to western shrub-steppe ecosystems without a complete understanding of its potential impacts on wildlife populations. We modeled winter habitat use by female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana, USA, to 1) identify landscape features that influenced sage-grouse habitat selection, 2) assess the scale at which selection occurred, 3) spatially depict winter habitat quality in a Geographic Information System, and 4) assess the effect of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) development on winter habitat selection. We developed a model of winter habitat selection based on 435 aerial relocations of 200 radiomarked female sage-grouse obtained during the winters of 2005 and 2006. Percent sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) cover on the landscape was an important predictor of use by sage-grouse in winter. Sage-grouse were 1.3 times more likely to occupy sagebrush habitats that lacked CBNG wells within a 4-km{sup 2} area, compared to those that had the maximum density of 12.3 wells per 4 km{sup 2} allowed on federal lands. We validated the model with 74 locations from 74 radiomarked individuals obtained during the winters of 2004 and 2007. This winter habitat model based on vegetation, topography, and CBNG avoidance was highly predictive (validation R{sup 2} = 0.984). Our spatially explicit model can be used to identify areas that provide the best remaining habitat for wintering sage-grouse in the PRB to mitigate impacts of energy development.

  8. Quantifying Subsidence in the 1999-2000 Arctic Winter Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Jost, Hans-juerg; Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, James R.; Bui, T. Paul; Elkins, James W.; Moore, Fred L.; Ray, Eric A.; Sen, Bhaswar; Margitan, James J.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Quantifying the subsidence of the polar winter stratospheric vortex is essential to the analysis of ozone depletion, as chemical destruction often occurs against a large, altitude-dependent background ozone concentration. Using N2O measurements made during SOLVE on a variety of platforms (ER-2, in-situ balloon and remote balloon), the 1999-2000 Arctic winter subsidence is determined from N2O-potential temperature correlations along several N2O isopleths. The subsidence rates are compared to those determined in other winters, and comparison is also made with results from the SLIMCAT stratospheric chemical transport model.

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer August 1931, EXTERIOR VIEW OF KILN, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Apple Drying Kiln, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  10. Kleptoparasitism by bald eagles wintering in south-central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorde, D.G.; Lingle, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Kleptoparasitism on other raptors was one means by which Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) secured food along the North Platte and Platte rivers during the winters of 1978-1980. Species kelptoparasitized were Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Red-tailed Hawk (B. jamaicensis), Rough-legged Hawk (B. lagopus), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), and Bald Eagle. Stealing of prey occurred more often during the severe winter of 1978-1979 when ice cover restricted eagles from feeding on fish than during the milder winter of 1979-1980. Kleptoparasitism occurred principally in agricultural habitats where large numbers of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were foraging. Subadults watched adults steal food and participated in food-stealing with adults, which indicated interspecific kleptoparasitism may be a learned behavior. We suggest factors that may favor interspecific kleptoparasitism as a foraging strategy of Bald Eagles in obtaining waterfowl during severe winters.

  11. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, April 1925, INTERIOR VIEW WITH HERB PRESS, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family, Herb House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  12. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, September 1926, VIEW FROM NORTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family, Herb House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  13. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer 1920's, EXTRACTING ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Centre Family Medicine Factory, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  14. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer June 1931, NORTH AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Centre Family Medicine Factory, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  15. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer August 1931, BOTTLING AND PACKING ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Centre Family Medicine Factory, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  16. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer 1920's, ATTIC, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  17. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer Summer 1931, EAST SIDE, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker North Family Barn, State Route 22 & U.S. Route 20, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  18. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, Late 1920's or 1930's, KITCHEN, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Dwelling House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  19. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer 1920's, VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Tannery, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  20. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer August 1931, VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  1. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer Summer 1930, ENTRANCE HALL, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  2. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer Summer 1931, IRONING STOVE IN LAUNDRY ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  3. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer 1920's, ATTIC, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  4. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer May 1930, LAUNDRY ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  5. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer Summer 1930, VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  6. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer 1920's, VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Seed House, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  7. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer Summer 1930, SOUTH WINGS, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker North Family Barn, State Route 22 & U.S. Route 20, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  8. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer 1920's, IRONING ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  9. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer Summer 1931, IRONING STOVE IN LAUNDRY ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  10. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer 1920's, ATTIC, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  11. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer August 1931, SOUTH SIDES, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker North Family Barn, State Route 22 & U.S. Route 20, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  12. 22. Greenhouse, south elevation. This winter 2002 view was taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Greenhouse, south elevation. This winter 2002 view was taken by Joseph Elliot while conducting photographic documentation of the landscape. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 9. TROJAN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM NORTHWEST, c. 191828. WINTER SNOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. TROJAN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM NORTHWEST, c. 1918-28. WINTER SNOW SHOWS LINE OF CRUDE ORE BIN STAIR. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  14. National FCEV Learning Demonstration: Winter 2011 Composite Data Products

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes the composite data products produced in Winter 2011 as part of the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration.

  15. Survival of female northern pintails wintering in southwestern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, R.R.; Afton, A.D.; Pace, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    The North American breeding population of northern pintails (Anas acuta) has reached previously unprecedented low numbers 4 times since 1983. Because pintails show high fidelity to wintering areas, regional survival estimates and identification of factors influencing survival are needed to guide management of wintering pintails. We used raidiotelemetry to estimate survival rates of female pintails wintering in southwestern Lousiaina. We tested for variation in survival and hunting mortality rates in realtiaon to age (immature or adult), winter (1990-91, 1991-92, 1992-93), time period (prehunting season, first hunting season, time between split hunting seasons, second hunting season, posthunting season), body condition (body mass when released, adjusted for body size), and region (southwestern Louisiana or elsewhere on the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast or Mississippi Alluvial Valley).

  16. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, April 1925, NORTHWEST CORNER OF MEETING ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Meetinghouse (second), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  17. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, April 1925, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Brethren's Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  18. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, September 1926, VIEW FROM WEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Washhouse & Canning Factory, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  19. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, 1920's, VIEW FROM NORTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Brethren's Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  20. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, April 1925, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  1. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, September 1926, SOUTHERN ELEVATIONS, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Washhouse & Canning Factory, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  2. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, 1920's SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Washhouse & Canning Factory, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  3. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, April 1926, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Brethren's Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  4. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, 1920's, EAST ELEVATION, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  5. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, April 1925, VISITORS' GALLERY, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Meetinghouse (second), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  6. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, April 1925, NORTH ELEVATION, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Meetinghouse (second), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  7. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, September 1926, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Seed House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, September 1926, DETAIL OF SOUTH ELEVATION, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Meetinghouse (second), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  9. Satellite Movie Sees Major Winter Storm Nearing Mid-Atlantic

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery from Jan. 20 to 22 shows the movement of the system that is expected to bring a powerful winter storm to the U.S. Mid-Atlantic region. Credit: NASA...

  10. Estimated winter wheat yield from crop growth predicted by LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T.

    1977-01-01

    An evapotranspiration and growth model for winter wheat is reported. The inputs are daily solar radiation, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, precipitation/irrigation and leaf area index. The meteorological data were obtained from National Weather Service while LAI was obtained from LANDSAT multispectral scanner. The output provides daily estimates of potential evapotranspiration, transpiration, evaporation, soil moisture (50 cm depth), percentage depletion, net photosynthesis and dry matter production. Winter wheat yields are correlated with transpiration and dry matter accumulation.

  11. Naval War College Review. Volume 62, Number 1, Winter 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    under consideration elsewhere. Permissions Reproduction and reprinting are subject to the Copyright Act of 1976 and appli- cable treaties of the United... hypnotic religious fervor with 1 5 4 N A V A L W A R C O L L E G E R E V I E W T:\\Academic\\NWC Review\\Winter 2009\\NWCR Winter 09\\NWCR W09.vp Thursday

  12. Use of habitats by female mallards wintering in Southwestern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, P.T.; Afton, A.D.; Cox, R.R.; Davis, B.E.

    2011-01-01

    Habitat use by wintering Mallards (Anas platyrhychos) on the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain (GCCP) has received little study and quantitative data is needed for management of GCCP waterfowl. Radio-telemetry techniques were used to record habitats used by 135 female Mallards during winters 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 in south-western Louisiana. Habitat use was quantitatively estimated for areas open and closed to hunting, by general habitat types (i.e., marsh, rice, idle, pasture, or other), and for specific marsh types (i.e., freshwater, intermediate, brackish, or salt). Variation in these estimates was subsequently examined in relation to individual female, female age (adult or immature), winter (2004-2005 or 2005-2006), and hunt periods within winter (second hunting season [SHUNT] or post hunting season [POST]). Diurnal use of areas closed to hunting was greater during hunted time periods in winter 2005-2006 than in winter 2004-2005. Nocturnal use of areas closed to hunting was 3.1 times greater during SHUNT than during POST, and immatures used areas closed to hunting more than adults. Diurnal use of marsh was 3.3 times greater than that of any other habitat during both winters. Nocturnal use of marsh, rice, idle, and pasture were similar during both winters. Females used freshwater marsh habitats extensively (64.699.8% proportional use), whereas brackish and salt marsh combined was used less frequently (035.8% proportional use). These results suggest that freshwater marsh is important to Mallards and a high priority for restoration and management efforts.

  13. Confounded winter and spring phenoclimatology on large herbivore ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christianson, David; Klaver, Robert W.; Middleton, Arthur; Kauffman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Annual variation in winter severity and growing season vegetation dynamics appear to influence the demography of temperate herbivores but parsing winter from spring effects requires independent metrics of environmental conditions specific to each season. We tested for independence in annual variation amongst four common metrics used to describe winter severity and early growing season vegetation dynamics across the entire spatial distribution of elk (Cervus elaphus) in Wyoming from 1989 to 2006. Winter conditions and early growing season dynamics were correlated in a specific way. Winters with snow cover that ended early tended to be followed by early, but slow, rises in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), while long winters with extended periods of snow cover were often followed by late and rapid rises in NDVI. Across the 35 elk ranges, 0.4–86.8 % of the variation in the rate of increase in NDVI’s in spring was explained by the date snow cover disappeared from SNOTEL stations. Because phenoclimatological metrics are correlated across seasons and shifting due to climate change, identifying environmental constraints on herbivore fitness, particularly migratory species, is more difficult than previously recognized.

  14. EMS Student Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogle, Patrick

    This student guide is one of a series of self-contained materials for students enrolled in an emergency medical services (EMS) training program. Discussed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: the purpose and history of EMS professionals; EMS training, certification and examinations (national and state certification and…

  15. Population ecology of the mallard VIII: Winter distribution patterns and survival rates of winter-banded mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, James D.; Hines, James E.

    1987-01-01

    In the present report we address questions about winter distribution patterns and survival rates of North American mallards Anas platyrhynchos. Inferences are based on analyses of banding and recovery data from both winter and preseason banding period. The primary wintering range of the mallard was dividded into 45 minor reference areas and 15 major reference areas which were used to summarize winter banding data. Descriptive tables and figures on the recovery distributions of winter-banded mallards are presented. Using winter recoveries of preseason-banded mallards, we found apparent differences between recovery distribution of young versus adult birds from the same breeding ground reference areas. However, we found no sex-specific differences in winter recovery distribution patterns. Winter recovery distributions of preseason-banded birds also provided evidence that mallards exhibited some degree of year-to-year variation in wintering ground location. The age- and sex-specificity of such variation was tested using winter recoveries of winter-banded birds, and results indicated that subadult (first year) birds were less likely to return to the same wintering grounds the following year than adults. Winter recovery distributions of preseason-banded mallards during 1950-58 differed from distributions in 1966-76. These differences could have resulted from either true distributional shifts or geographic changes in hunting pressure. Survival and recovery rates were estimated from winter banding data. We found no evidence of differences in survival or recovery rates between subadult and adult mallards. Thus, the substantial difference between survival rates of preseason-banded young and adult mallards must result almost entirely from higher mortality of young birds during the approximate period, August-January. Male mallards showed higher survival than females, corroborating inferences based on preseason data. Tests with winter banding and band recovery data indicated

  16. EM International. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  17. Strong Costs and Benefits of Winter Acclimatization in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Schou, Mads Fristrup; Loeschcke, Volker; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard

    2015-01-01

    Studies on thermal acclimation in insects are often performed on animals acclimated in the laboratory under conditions that are not ecologically relevant. Costs and benefits of acclimation responses under such conditions may not reflect costs and benefits in natural populations subjected to daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations. Here we estimated costs and benefits in thermal tolerance limits in relation to winter acclimatization of Drosophila melanogaster. We sampled flies from a natural habitat during winter in Denmark (field flies) and compared heat and cold tolerance of these to that of flies collected from the same natural population, but acclimated to 25 °C or 13 °C in the laboratory (laboratory flies). We further obtained thermal performance curves for egg-to-adult viability of field and laboratory (25 °C) flies, to estimate possible cross-generational effects of acclimation. We found much higher cold tolerance and a lowered heat tolerance in field flies compared to laboratory flies reared at 25 °C. Flies reared in the laboratory at 13 °C exhibited the same thermal cost-benefit relations as the winter acclimatized flies. We also found a cost of winter acclimatization in terms of decreased egg-to-adult viability at high temperatures of eggs laid by winter acclimatized flies. Based on our findings we suggest that winter acclimatization in nature can induce strong benefits in terms of increased cold tolerance. These benefits can be reproduced in the laboratory under ecologically relevant rearing and testing conditions, and should be incorporated in species distribution modelling. Winter acclimatization also leads to decreased heat tolerance. This may create a mismatch between acclimation responses and the thermal environment, e.g. if temperatures suddenly increase during spring, under current and expected more variable future climatic conditions.

  18. 75 FR 76405 - Winter Bee, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... COMMISSION Winter Bee, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order AGENCY: Consumer... Agreement with Winter Bee, Inc., containing a civil penalty of $200,000.00, to be suspended except for $40.... Settlement Agreement 1. In accordance with 16 CFR 1118.20, Winter Bee, Inc. (``Winter Bee'') and the...

  19. Quantitative Trait Loci and Epistasis for Oat Winter Hardiness Component Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter hardiness is a complex trait and poor winter hardiness limits commercial production of winter oat (Avena species). The objective of this study was to identify Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for five winter hardiness component traits in a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross ...

  20. Daily movements of female mallards wintering in Southwestern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, P.T.; Afton, A.D.; Cox, R.R.; Davis, B.E.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding daily movements of waterfowl is crucial to management of winter habitats, especially along the Gulf Coast where hunting pressure is high. Radio-telemetry was used to investigate movements of female Mallards (Anas platyrchychos) wintering in southwestern Louisiana. Movement distances were analyzed from 2,455 paired locations (diurnal and nocturnal) of 126 Mallards during winters 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 to assess effects of winter, female age, areas closed (Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge [LAC], Cameron Prairie National Wildlife Refuge [CAM], Amoco Pool [AMOCO] or open to hunting [OPEN]), and habitat type, including all interactions. Movement distances from the various land management categories were not consistent by age, date, or by winter. Flight distances from LAC increased with date, whereas those from CAM and OPEN did not vary significantly by date. Female Mallards moved short distances between diurnal and nocturnal sites (ranging from 3.1 to 15.0 km by land management category), suggesting that they are able to meet their daily energy requirements within a smaller area than Northern Pintails (Anas acuta, hereafter Pintails), and thus minimize transit energy costs.

  1. Winter ecology of spectacled eiders: Environmental characteristics and population change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.R.; Douglas, D.C.

    2004-01-01

    We described characteristics of the wintering area used by Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri) in the Bering Sea, Alaska, and evaluated these characteristics in relation to long-term population trends. Remoteness, limited daylight, and extreme weather conditions precluded direct observations, so we derived the location of the wintering area from satellite telemetry, ice conditions from remotely sensed data, weather conditions from archived data sets, and benthic communities from the literature. Based on analyses of two indices spanning 1957-2002 and 1988-2002, we identified no single environmental parameter that explained the precipitous decline in nesting populations in western Alaska. In general, we found that the number of days with extreme sea ice in winter, extreme winds, and winds in spring explained the greatest variability in annual indices. These analyses support the conclusion that annual population estimates on the breeding grounds can be negatively impacted by extended periods of dense sea-ice concentration and weather during the previous winter. Examination of population indices did not support the hypothesis that changes in benthic community on the wintering grounds have contributed to the decline or inhibited the recovery of the Spectacled Eider breeding population in western Alaska.

  2. Seasonal Forecasts for Northern Hemisphere Winter 2015/16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ineson, Sarah; Scaife, Adam; Comer, Ruth; Dunstone, Nick; Fereday, David; Folland, Chris; Gordon, Margaret; Karpechko, Alexey; Knight, Jeff; MacLachlan, Craig; Smith, Doug; Walker, Brent

    2016-04-01

    The northern winter of 2015/16 gave rise to the strongest El Niño event since 1997/8. Central and eastern Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies exceeded three degrees and closely resembled the strong El Niño in winter of 1982/3. A second feature of this winter was a strong westerly phase of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation and very strong winds in the stratospheric polar night jet. At the surface, intense extratropical circulation anomalies occurred in both the North Pacific and North Atlantic that were consistent with known teleconnections to the observed phases of ENSO and the QBO. The North Atlantic Oscillation was very positive in the early winter period (Nov-Dec) and was more blocked in the late winter. Initialised climate predictions were able to capture these signals at seasonal lead times. This case study adds to the evidence that north Atlantic circulation exhibits predictability on seasonal timescales, and in this case we show that even aspects of the detailed pattern and sub-seasonal evolution were predicted, providing warning of increased risk of extreme events such as the intense rainfall which caused extreme flooding in the UK in December.

  3. Physiological responses of Yellowstone bison to winter nutritional deprivation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, Glenn D.; Singer, Francis J.; Seal, Ulysses S.; Bowser, Gillian

    1994-01-01

    Because nutrition is critically related to other aspects of bison (Bison bison) ecology, and the winter ranges inhabited by bison in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are ecologically diverse, it was important to determine if nutritional deprivation differences occurred among winter ranges. We used chemistry profiles of urine suspended in snow to compare nutritional deprivation of bison from January to April 1988 on 4 sampling areas of 3 winter ranges in YNP. Declining (P < 0.001) trends of urinary potassium: creatinine ratios in bison on all 4 sampling areas indicated progressive nutritional deprivation through late March. Concurrent increases (P ≤ 0.001) in mean urea nitrogen: creatinine ratios from late February through late march in 3 of 4 areas suggested that increased net catabolism was occurring. Diminished creatinine ratios of sodium and phosphorus reflected low dietary intake of these minerals throughout winter. Mean values and trends of urinary characteristics indicated nutritional deprivation varied among 3 winter ranges in YNP. Continued physiological monitoring of nutritional deprivation, along with detailed examination of other aspects of the bison's ecology, will provide greater insight into the role of ungulate nutrition in the dynamics of such a complex system and improve management.

  4. Spirit Nears North-Tilting Site for Winter Haven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit made daily progress in early December 2007 toward the northern edge of a low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The rover's operators selected an area with north-facing slope there (indicated by the blue-outlined rectangle) as a destination where Spirit would have its best chance of surviving low-solar-energy conditions of oncoming Martian winter.

    As indicated by the yellow line tracing the path Spirit has driven, the rover was near the western edge of the plateau on Sol (Martian day) 1,390 of the mission (Nov. 30, 2007), but nearing the northern edge by Sol 1,397 (Dec. 8, 2007).

    A north-facing slope helps Spirit maximizes electric output from its solar panels during winter months because Spirit is in the southern hemisphere of Mars, so the sun appears only in the northern sky during winter. For the third winter, which will reach its minimum solar-energy days in early June 2008, Spirit faces the challenge of having more dust on its solar panels than it had during its second winter.

    The base image for this map is a portion of a color image taken on Jan. 9, 2007, by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  5. Winter Lake Breezes near the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosman, Erik T.; Horel, John D.

    2016-05-01

    Case studies of lake breezes during wintertime cold air pools in Utah's Salt Lake Valley are examined. While summer breezes originating from the Great Salt Lake are typically deeper, of longer duration, and have higher wind speeds than winter breezes, the rate of inland penetration and cross-frontal temperature differences can be higher during the winter. The characteristics of winter breezes and the forcing mechanisms controlling them (e.g., snow cover, background flow, vertical stability profile, clouds, lake temperature, lake sheltering, and drainage pooling) are more complex and variable than those evident in summer. During the afternoon in the Salt Lake Valley, these lake breezes can lead to elevated pollution levels due to the transport of fine particle pollutants from over the Great Salt Lake, decreased vertical mixing depth, and increased vertical stability.

  6. Late winter survival of female mallards in Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dugger, B.D.; Reinecke, K.J.; Fredrickson, L.H.

    1994-01-01

    Determining factors that limit winter survival of waterfowl is necessary to develop effective management plans. We radiomarked immature and adult female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) after the 1988 and 1989 hunting seasons in eastcentral Arkansas to test whether natural mortality sources and habitat conditions during late winter limit seasonal survival. We used data from 92 females to calculate survival estimates. We observed no mortalities during 2,510 exposure days, despite differences in habitat conditions between years. We used the binomial distribution to calculate daily and 30-day survival estimates plus 95% confidence intervals of 0.9988 ltoreq 0.9997 ltoreq 1.00 and 0.9648 ltoreq 0.9925 ltoreq 1.00, respectively. Our data indirectly support the hypothesis that hunting mortality and habitat conditions during the hunting season are the major determinants of winter survival for female mallards in Arkansas.

  7. The Impact of Winter Heating on Air Pollution in China

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qingyang; Ma, Zongwei; Li, Shenshen; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Fossil-fuel combustion related winter heating has become a major air quality and public health concern in northern China recently. We analyzed the impact of winter heating on aerosol loadings over China using the MODIS-Aqua Collection 6 aerosol product from 2004–2012. Absolute humidity (AH) and planetary boundary layer height (PBL) -adjusted aerosol optical depth (AOD*) was constructed to reflect ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. GIS analysis, standard statistical tests, and statistical modeling indicate that winter heating is an important factor causing increased PM2.5 levels in more than three-quarters of central and eastern China. The heating season AOD* was more than five times higher as the non-heating season AOD*, and the increase in AOD* in the heating areas was greater than in the non-heating areas. Finally, central heating tend to contribute less to air pollution relative to other means of household heating. PMID:25629878

  8. Collecting winter data on U.S. Coast Guard icebreakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyserman, Ben O.; Woityra, William C.; Bullerjahn, George S.; Beall, Benjamin F. N.; McKay, Robert Michael L.

    2012-03-01

    Winter research and monitoring of icebound rivers, lakes, and coastal seas to date has usually involved seagoing civilian scientists leading survey efforts. However, because of poor weather conditions and a lack of safe research platforms, scientists collecting data during winter face some difficult and often insurmountable problems. To solve these problems and to further research and environmental monitoring goals, new partnerships can be formed through integrating efforts of the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) with citizen science initiatives. USCG and a research group at Ohio's Bowling Green State University are entering the third year of such a partnership, in which icebreaking operations in Lake Erie using USCG Cutter Neah Bay support volunteer data collection. With two additional USCG vessels joining the program this winter season, the partnership serves as a timely and useful model for worldwide environmental research and monitoring through citizen science and government collaboration.

  9. Physiologic response of elk to differences in winter range quality

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, B.J.; Wolfe, M.L.; White, G.C.; Rowland, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of differences in winter range quality on elk body condition and reproductive rates. The study area was in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico. An area of Bandelier National Monument burned by the June 1977 La Mesa wildfire was selected as one study site (BURN). An unburned winter range (BACA) at an elevation of about 3000 m, 20 km northwest of the BURN site, was selected for comparative purposes. Comparisons of elk weights from the two areas yielded higher values for elk from the BURN. Despite differences in the condition indices, all adult female elk captured were pregnant. Results from this study suggest that differences in winter range quality have an important role in determining elk condition. 26 references, 3 tables.

  10. Winter rain and summer ozone: a predictive relationship.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, J S; Basso, M J; Okin, B A

    1978-06-02

    Insights from dendrochronology have provided a new seasonal predictor for air pollution meteorology. In the San Francisco Bay Area summer ozone excesses over the federal ozone standard are correlated (correlation coefficient r = .87) with precipitation for the two preceding winters, a factor related to tree-ring width in a precipitation-stressed climate. The hypothesis that reactive hydrocarbon emissions from vegetative biomass affects these ozone excesses was supported by a similar correlation between summer hydrocarbon average maximums and the two-winter precipitation factor, reaching r = .88 at suburban stations. A weak tendency for hot summers to follow wet winters (in 16 years of California data) explains only a minor part of the ozone-rain relationship in multiple correlations.

  11. The impact of winter heating on air pollution in China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qingyang; Ma, Zongwei; Li, Shenshen; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Fossil-fuel combustion related winter heating has become a major air quality and public health concern in northern China recently. We analyzed the impact of winter heating on aerosol loadings over China using the MODIS-Aqua Collection 6 aerosol product from 2004-2012. Absolute humidity (AH) and planetary boundary layer height (PBL) -adjusted aerosol optical depth (AOD*) was constructed to reflect ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. GIS analysis, standard statistical tests, and statistical modeling indicate that winter heating is an important factor causing increased PM2.5 levels in more than three-quarters of central and eastern China. The heating season AOD* was more than five times higher as the non-heating season AOD*, and the increase in AOD* in the heating areas was greater than in the non-heating areas. Finally, central heating tend to contribute less to air pollution relative to other means of household heating.

  12. Winter temperatures limit population growth rate of a migratory songbird

    PubMed Central

    Woodworth, Bradley K.; Wheelwright, Nathaniel T.; Newman, Amy E.; Schaub, Michael; Norris, D. Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the factors that limit and regulate wildlife populations requires insight into demographic and environmental processes acting throughout the annual cycle. Here, we combine multi-year tracking data of individual birds with a 26-year demographic study of a migratory songbird to evaluate the relative effects of density and weather at the breeding and wintering grounds on population growth rate. Our results reveal clear support for opposing forces of winter temperature and breeding density driving population dynamics. Above-average temperatures at the wintering grounds lead to higher population growth, primarily through their strong positive effects on survival. However, population growth is regulated over the long term by strong negative effects of breeding density on both fecundity and adult male survival. Such knowledge of how year-round factors influence population growth, and the demographic mechanisms through which they act, will vastly improve our ability to predict species responses to environmental change and develop effective conservation strategies for migratory animals. PMID:28317843

  13. Black brant from Alaska staging and wintering in Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derksen, Dirk V.; Bollinger, K.S.; Ward, David H.; Sedinger, J.S.; Miyabayashi, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) nest in colonies in arctic Canada, Alaska, and Russia (Derksen and Ward 1993, Sedinger et al. 1993). Virtually the entire population stages in fall at Izembek Lagoon near the tip of the Alaska Peninsula (Bellrose 1976) before southward migration (Dau 1992) to winter habitats in British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California, and Baja California (Subcommittee on Black Brant 1992). A small number of black brant winter in Japan, Korea, and China (Owen 1980). In Japan 3,000–5,000 brant of unknown origin stop over in fall, and a declining population (<1,000) of birds winter here, primarily in the northern islands (Brazil 1991, Miyabayashi et al. 1994). Here, we report sightings of brant in Japan that were marked in Alaska and propose a migration route based on historical and recent observations and weather patterns.

  14. Sustainable winter cities: Future directions for planning, policy and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressman, Norman E. P.

    Attempts to generate a "climate-responsive" northern urban form are part of a relatively recent phenomenon and field of investigation. In conjunction with the international "winter cities" movement, the need has been established for explicit, systematic inquiry directed toward national and local action to improve the comfort and lifestyles of all northern inhabitants. It is important to recognize that winter-induced discomforts exist and that they must be acknowledged in planning theory and practice. For northern cities to function more satisfactorily, the negative impacts of winter must be reduced while its beneficial characteristics are enhanced. While not all summer activities can or should be abandoned during winter, proper micro-climatic control is essential if human life is to be retained outside. The outdoor season should be extended since so much indoor isolation occurs. The main principles to be incorporated in exemplary "winter city" design should be contact with nature, year-round usability, user participation, cultural continuity, and the creation of comfortable micro-climatic conditions throughout much of the city's open spaces. All valuable sources of inspiration must be harnessed in the attempt to mediate between organic regionalism and internationalism, on the one hand, and romanticism and pragmatic realism, on the other. Creating optimum conditions for human well-being, habitation, work and intellectual development in each of the four seasons is vital under harsh environments. Adopting a climate-sensitive approach to planning policy and urban design can render everyday life less stressful, especially during the lengthy winter periods found in many northern latitude and high altitude settings.

  15. Habitat Suitability Index Models: American black duck (wintering)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, James C.; Garrison, Russell L.

    1984-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The American black duck, commonly known as the black duck, is migratory and has a wide geographic range. American black ducks breed from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, west to the Mississippi River and north through the eastern Canadian boreal forest (Bellrose 1976). The winter range extends from the Rio Grande River on the Texas coast, northeast to Lake Michigan, east to Nova Scotia, south to Florida, and west to Texas (Wright 1954). American black ducks arrive on their wintering habitats between September and early December and remain there until February to April (Bellrose 1976). Their preferred habitat varies considerably through the wintering range. Habitat use appears related to food availability, freedom from disturbance, weather, and often upon the presence of large bodies of open water. These interrelated elements are essential for meeting the energy demands and other nutritional requirements of black ducks in response to the rigors of cold weather and migration. In the Atlantic Flyway, winter populations of American black ducks concentrate in marine and estuarine wetlands (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1979). They use salt marshes and small tidal bays for feeding and loafing areas. In wintering areas north of Chesapeake Bay, American black ducks frequently feed on tidal flats and rest in emergent wetlands or on ice-free bays, rivers, and coastal reservoirs. In the Chesapeake bay area, migrant and wintering American black ducks occupy a wide variety of habitats (Stewart 1962). They strongly favor brackish bays with extensive adjacent agricultural lands. Estuarine bays, coastal salt marshes, tidal fresh marshes, and adjacent impoundments receive high usage. American black ducks also concentrate in forested wetlands in and adjacent to estuaries in the South Atlantic Flyway, especially in Virginia and North Carolina.

  16. Predictable interregional movements by female northern pintails during winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, R.R.; Afton, A.D.

    2000-01-01

    Factors influencing initiation of regional and interregional movements by nonbreeding ducks are poorly understood, especially during winter. During winters 1990-1991 through 1992-1993, we radiotagged 347 female Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) in southwestern Louisiana and monitored their movements to three regions: (1) the Gulf Coast Region of Louisiana and Texas (outside of southwestern Louisiana), (2) the Rice Prairie Region of Texas, and (3) the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. We found that adult females were 1.9 times more likely than were immatures to emigrate from southwestern Louisiana during winter. During winters 1990-1991 and 1991-1992, females were more likely to emigrate during stormy than during fair weather, whereas they were more likely to emigrate during fair weather in 1992-1993. Females were more likely to emigrate during duck-hunting seasons than during nonhunting seasons, regardless of weather. Daily emigration probabilities did not differ in relation to body condition when released (body mass adjusted for body size) or to number of previous emigration events. Each winter, large numbers of females consistently moved from the Gulf Coast Region to areas with abundant rice (Oryza sativa) agriculture within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. We conclude that destination of interregional movements by this population of Northern Pintails is highly predictable, and that initiation of such movements is influenced by female age and long-term winter precipitation patterns in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Furthermore, timing of these movements is predictable, based not on calendar date, but rather on duck-hunting seasons and, usually, the environmental cues to habitat availability provided by stormy weather.

  17. The importance of agricultural lands for Himalayan birds in winter.

    PubMed

    Elsen, Paul R; Kalyanaraman, Ramnarayan; Ramesh, Krishnamurthy; Wilcove, David S

    2017-04-01

    The impacts of land-use change on biodiversity in the Himalayas are poorly known, notwithstanding widespread deforestation and agricultural intensification in this highly biodiverse region. Although intact primary forests harbor many Himalayan birds during breeding, a large number of bird species use agricultural lands during winter. We assessed how Himalayan bird species richness, abundance, and composition during winter are affected by forest loss stemming from agriculture and grazing. Bird surveys along 12 elevational transects within primary forest, low-intensity agriculture, mixed subsistence agriculture, and intensively grazed pastures in winter revealed that bird species richness and abundance were greatest in low-intensity and mixed agriculture, intermediate in grazed pastures, and lowest in primary forest at both local and landscape scales; over twice as many species and individuals were recorded in low-intensity agriculture than in primary forest. Bird communities in primary forests were distinct from those in all other land-use classes, but only 4 species were unique to primary forests. Low-, medium-, and high-intensity agriculture harbored 32 unique species. Of the species observed in primary forest, 80% had equal or greater abundance in low-intensity agricultural lands, underscoring the value of these lands in retaining diverse community assemblages at high densities in winter. Among disturbed landscapes, bird species richness and abundance declined as land-use intensity increased, especially in high-intensity pastures. Our results suggest that agricultural landscapes are important for most Himalayan bird species in winter. But agricultural intensification-especially increased grazing-will likely result in biodiversity losses. Given that forest reserves alone may inadequately conserve Himalayan birds in winter, comprehensive conservation strategies in the region must go beyond protecting intact primary forests and ensure that low-intensity agricultural

  18. Forest tree seedlings may suffer from predicted future winters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domisch, Timo; Repo, Tapani; Martz, Françoise; Rautio, Pasi

    2016-04-01

    Future climate scenarios predict increased precipitation and air temperatures, particularly at high latitudes, and especially so during winter, spring and autumn. However, soil temperatures are more difficult to predict, since they depend strongly on the insulating snow cover. Warm periods during winter can lead to thaw-freeze cycles and flooding, which again can result in the formation of ice layers, affecting soil properties, soil gas concentrations and the survival of tree seedlings. We conducted two laboratory experiments of 20 weeks duration each, simulating winter, spring and early summer, and imposed Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) or downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) seedlings to four different winter scenarios: (1) ambient snow cover, (2) compressed snow and ice encasement, (3) frozen flood and (4) no snow. We estimated the stress that the seedlings experienced by means of gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and determining above- and belowground biomass and carbohydrate contents, as well as measuring soil oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations. The seedlings in the snow and compressed snow treatments survived until the end of the experiments, although only those covered with an ambient snow cover showed normal height growth and typical carbohydrate contents. The seedlings in the other treatments showed symptoms of dieback already during early spring and had almost completely died at the end of the experiment. Our results suggest the crucial significance of the protective snow cover, and that a missing soil cover or soil hypoxia and anoxia during winter can be lethal for seedlings, and that respiratory losses and winter desiccation of aboveground organs can further lead to the death of tree seedlings.

  19. Helminths in migrating and wintering birds recorded in Poland.

    PubMed

    Okulewicz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Among 544 species of helminths recorded in birds on the territory of Poland, probably some (17 species of Digenea, 21 Cestoda, 13 Nematoda and 5 Acanthocephala) do not belong to the native fauna. These are helminths obtained in mature stage from birds shortly after their arrival from wintering grounds, or from foreign populations wintering with us, or being in the course of spring or autumn migration through the area of our country. In general, these helminth species have been recorded sporadically in the examined birds.

  20. Winter is coming: Seasonality and the acoustic startle reflex.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, Diana; Brocke, Burkhard; Strobel, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Circannual rhythms and seasonality have long been in the interest of research. In humans, seasonal changes in mood have been extensively investigated since a substantial part of the population experiences worsening of mood during winter. Questions remain regarding accompanying physiological phenomena. We report seasonal effects on the acoustic startle response in a cross-sectional (n=124) and a longitudinal sample (n=23). Startle magnitudes were larger in winter (sample 1: p=0.026; sample 2: p=0.010) compared to summer months. Although the findings need to be replicated they may have implications regarding the timing of startle experiments.

  1. Winter wheat: A model for the simulation of growth and yield in winter wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. N.; Smika, D. E.; Black, A. L.; Willis, W. O.; Bauer, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The basic ideas and constructs for a general physical/physiological process level winter wheat simulation model are documented. It is a materials balance model which calculates daily increments of photosynthate production and respiratory losses in the crop canopy. The partitioning of the resulting dry matter to the active growing tissues in the plant each day, transpiration and the uptake of nitrogen from the soil profile are simulated. It incorporates the RHIZOS model which simulates, in two dimensions, the movement of water, roots, and soluble nutrients through the soil profile. It records the time of initiation of each of the plant organs. These phenological events are calculated from temperature functions with delays resulting from physiological stress. Stress is defined mathematically as an imbalance in the metabolite supply; demand ratio. Physiological stress is also the basis for the calculation of rates of tiller and floret abortion. Thus, tillering and head differentiation are modeled as the resulants of the two processes, morphogenesis and abortion, which may be occurring simulaneously.

  2. Leveraging EMS and VPP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Elements of EMS  International Standards Organization ( ISO ) 14001 , Environmental Management Systems  The Key Elements of EMS: - Policy - Planning...wingman-- ON and OFF duty Fully Conforming vs. Fully Implemented  “Fully Conforming”  Meets standards established in ISO 14001  ESOH council...e n c e Every airman looking out for his wingman-- ON and OFF duty EMS & VPP Commonalities Environmental Management System ISO 14001 : 2004 Voluntary

  3. Winter in Northern Europe (WINE). The project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE): Introduction and outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1989-01-01

    The project Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) of the international Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) comprised a multinational study of the structure, dynamics and composition of the middle atmosphere in winter at high latitudes. Coordinated field measurements were performed during the winter 1983 to 1984 by a large number of ground-based, air-borne, rocket-borne and satellite-borne instruments. Many of the individual experiments were performed in the European sector of the high latitude and polar atmosphere. Studies of the stratosphere, were, in addition, expanded to hemispheric scales by the use of data obtained from remotely sensing satellites. Beyond its direct scientific results, which are reviewed, MAP/WINE has stimulated quite a number of follow-on experiments and projects which address the aeronomy of the middle atmosphere at high and polar latitudes.

  4. Regulatory control of carotenoid accumulation in winter squash during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest storage of fruits and vegetables is often required and frequently results in nutritional quality change. In this study, we investigated carotenoid storage plastids, carotenoid content, and its regulation during 3-month storage of winter squash butternut fruits. We showed that storage imp...

  5. Making better decisions: 2014 Colorado winter wheat variety performance trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers need timely reports of varietal performance for making informed variety selection for their farms each year. The objective of this document is to provide a yield and performance summary of the last three years of winter wheat variety trials run at multiple locations in eastern Colorado. Fort...

  6. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HABITAT QUALITY AND DENSITY OF JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a digital video camera mounted to a 1-m beam trawl together with an attached continuous recording YSI sonde and GPS unit to quantify juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) densities and fish habitat. The YSI sonde measured temperature, salinity, dissolve...

  7. Registration of ‘Joe’ hard white winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Joe’, a hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at the Agricultural Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2015. Joe was selected from a two-way cross of KS04HW101-3/KS04HW119-3 made in 2005 at Hays, KS. The ...

  8. Overseas Varietal Analysis 2010 Crop Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2010 U.S. Wheat Associates Overseas Varietal Analysis project evaluated ten soft red winter wheat varieties: Jamestown, Merl and Shirley from Virginia; Coker 9553 and Oakes from North Carolina; Baldwin from Georgia; Renegade and DK 9577 from Arkansas; USG 3555 from Tennessee; and, Malabar from O...

  9. Overseas Varietal Analysis: 2008 Crop Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2008 U.S. Wheat Associates Overseas Varietal Analysis evaluated ten soft red winter wheat varieties DK 9577, USG 3665, and USG 3350 from Arkansas, Jamestown, Tribute, and USG 3555 from Virginia, Branson, Magnolia, and Coker 9553 from North Carolina, and Bess from Missouri. Samples were evaluate...

  10. Overseas Varietal Analysis 2011 Crop Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2011 U.S. Wheat Associates Overseas Varietal Analysis project evaluated ten soft red winter wheat varieties: Malabar and AGI 303 from Ohio, Terral TV 8861 from Louisiana, SY 9978 and Coker 9804 from North Carolina, Merl and Shirley from Virginia, AGS 2060 from Arkansas, and USG 3201 and USG 3251...

  11. KPI Graduate Executive Summary Report, Summer 2000-Winter 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan Coll. (Ontario).

    Summarizes findings from the Key Performance Indicator Satisfaction Survey administered by Sheridan College in the summer 2000, fall 2000, and winter 2001 terms. This survey was administered in compliance with the Ontario government's efforts to increase the accountability of the Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology through the measurement of…

  12. Involving Students in Assessing Their Reading: The Winter Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afflerbach, Peter; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes a program intended to help students reflect on, discuss, and evaluate their reading and their accomplishments related to reading. Notes that the program uses a set of materials and procedures based on a Native American winter count (an animal hide or cloth on which the Yankton Sioux recorded important events). (SR)

  13. HABITAT RELATIONS OF WATERFOWL WINTERING IN NARRAGANSETT BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a project investigating the effect of changes in habitat quality brought about by habitat loss or impairment on resident wildlife in coastal ecosystems, we conducted periodic surveys of wintering waterfowl in Narragansett Bay. A total of 17 species of waterfowl were i...

  14. Registration of ‘Sprinter’ hard red winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High grain protein concentration and stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Eriks.) resistance are important traits for hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars produced in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. The objective of this research wa...

  15. Winter Streams: The Web of Life Goes On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokora, Daniel L.

    1981-01-01

    Describes scope and significance of a high school water monitoring project and discusses problems and solutions related to water testing in general and winter water testing in particular. Discussions of stream velocity, stream flow, biotic index, and coliform bacteria tests are included. (DC)

  16. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, 1920's or 1930's GENERAL VIEW OF WATERVLIET SHAKERS SOUTH FAMILY, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family, General Views, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  17. Registration of “Pritchett” soft white winter club wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soft white club winter wheat (Triticium aestivum L. ssp. compactum) is a unique component of the wheat production in the PNW, comprising 6-10% of the wheat crop. It is valued for milling and baking functionality and marketed for export in a 20-30% blend with soft white wheat as Western White. Our g...

  18. How to Stay on Your Feet During Slippery Winter Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... of MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine, the National Institutes of Health, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. More Health News on: Safety Winter Weather Emergencies Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ...

  19. Winter habitat associations of diurnal raptors in Californias Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pandolrno, E.R.; Herzog, M.P.; Hooper, S.L.; Smith, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The wintering raptors of California's Central Valley are abundant and diverse. Despite this, little information exists on the habitats used by these birds in winter. We recorded diurnal raptors along 19 roadside survey routes throughout the Central Valley for three consecutive winters between 2007 and 2010. We obtained data sufficient to determine significant positive and negative habitat associations for the White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus), Bald Eagle {Haliaeetus leucocephalus), Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), and Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus). The Prairie Falcon and Ferruginous and Rough-legged hawks showed expected strong positive associations with grasslands. The Bald Eagle and Northern Harrier were positively associated not only with wetlands but also with rice. The strongest positive association for the White-tailed Kite was with wetlands. The Red-tailed Hawk was positively associated with a variety of habitat types but most strongly with wetlands and rice. The American Kestrel, Northern Harrier, and White-tailed Kite were positively associated with alfalfa. Nearly all species were negatively associated with urbanized landscapes, orchards, and other intensive forms of agriculture. The White-tailed Kite, Northern Harrier, Redtailed Hawk, Ferruginous Hawk, and American Kestrel showed significant negative associations with oak savanna. Given the rapid conversion of the Central Valley to urban and intensive agricultural uses over the past few decades, these results have important implications for conservation of these wintering raptors in this region.

  20. Genetic Potential of Winter Wheat Grain Quality in Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abugaliyeva, Aigul I.; Morgounov, Alexey I.

    2016-01-01

    The grain quality of winter wheat varies significantly by cultivars and growing region, not previously differentiated by end-use (baking, confectionery, etc.) in the national breeding programs. In these conditions it is advisable to determine the genetic potential and analyze the actual grain quality. Determining the genetic potential requires the…

  1. Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2017 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Volume 8, Issue 1 Dear Colleague, The winter issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases gut permeability and calcium supplementation, potential chemopreventive effects of dietary DHM for lung tumorigenesis, and the role of the MCP-1 chemokine on adiposity and inflammation. Learn about our spotlight investigator, Dr. Gregory Lesinski, and his research on dietary interventions to inhibit carcinogenesis, upcoming announcements and more. |

  2. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Photographer, Summer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Photographer, Summer 1930, DWELLING ROOM OF SISTER ANNA CASE, SECOND FLOOR, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Dwelling House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  3. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer July 1931, GENERAL VIEW FROM WEST, INCLUDING TAN BARN OF CHURCH FAMILY (RIGHT), Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker North Family (General Views), Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  4. Winter cereals as a pasture-hay system in Montana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006-2008 ‘Willow Creek’ winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and ‘Trical 102’ triticale (X Triticosecale Wttn.) were evaluated, under dryland conditions, for biomass production and forage quality under grazing and haying systems. Grazing enclosures were constructed in uniform sites of the fields....

  5. Winter cover crops impact on corn production in semiarid regions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops have been proposed as a technique to increase soil health. This study examined the impact of winter brassica cover crop cocktails grown after wheat (Triticum aestivum) on corn yields; corn yield losses due to water and N stress; soil bacteria to fungi ratios; mycorrhizal markers; and ge...

  6. Use of seeded exotic grasslands by wintering birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Andrew D.; O'Connell, Timothy J.; Hickman, Karen R.; Leslie,, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite widespread population declines of North American grassland birds, effects of anthropogenic disturbance of wintering habitat of this guild remain poorly understood. We compared avian abundance and habitat structure in fields planted by the exotic grass Old World bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum; OWB) to that in native mixed-grass prairie. During winters of 2007-2008 and 2008-2009, we conducted bird and vegetation surveys in six native grass and six OWB fields in Garfield, Grant, and Alfalfa counties, Oklahoma. We recorded 24 species of wintering birds in native fields and 14 species in OWB monocultures. While vegetation structure was similar between field types, abundance of short-eared owls (Asio flammeus), northern harriers (Circus cyaneus) and Smith's longspurs (Calcarius pictus) was higher in OWB fields during at least one year. The use of OWB fields by multiple species occupying different trophic positions suggested that vegetation structure of OWB can meet habitat requirements of some wintering birds, but there is insufficient evidence to determine if it provides superior conditions to native grasses.

  7. Winter safflower, a potential alternative crop for the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dryland cropping system in the Pacific Northwest is dominated by a winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system that occupies more than 90% of the dryland hectares. Success in finding a viable alternative crop has been limited because the annual precipitation in this region varies from less than 1...

  8. Distillate Fuel Oil Assessment for Winter 1996-1997

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    This article describes findings of an analysis of the current low level of distillate stocks which are available to help meet the demand for heating fuel this winter, and presents a summary of the Energy Information Administration's distillate fuel oil outlook for the current heating season under two weather scenarios.

  9. EVALUATION OF SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMATION IN WINTER. (R823514)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three different methods are used to predict secondary organic aerosol (SOA)
    concentrations in the San Joaquin Valley of California during the winter of 1995-1996 [Integrated
    Monitoring Study, (IMS95)]. The first of these methods estimates SOA by using elemental carbon as

  10. OIT Times-- Winter 2002, Vol. 5, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    Winter 2002 edition of the OIT Times newsletter, a 12-page quarterly publication produced by the Office of Industrial Technologies. This issue covers the newest round of industrial R&D projects undertaken by the Industries of the Future and the Financial Assistance programs. The editorial explains the new role of states in the NICE3 solicitation process.

  11. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer Summer 1931, ATTIC WITH JOINING CHIMNEYS, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker North Family Dwelling House (second), State Route 22 & U.S. Route 20, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  12. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer June 1931, SOUTH (LEFT) AND EAST SIDES, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker North Family Dwelling House (second), State Route 22 & U.S. Route 20, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  13. Antarctic winter mercury and ozone depletion events over sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerentorp Mastromonaco, M.; Gårdfeldt, K.; Jourdain, B.; Abrahamsson, K.; Granfors, A.; Ahnoff, M.; Dommergue, A.; Méjean, G.; Jacobi, H.-W.

    2016-03-01

    During atmospheric mercury and ozone depletion events in the springtime in polar regions gaseous elemental mercury and ozone undergo rapid declines. Mercury is quickly transformed into oxidation products, which are subsequently removed by deposition. Here we show that such events also occur during Antarctic winter over sea ice areas, leading to additional deposition of mercury. Over four months in the Weddell Sea we measured gaseous elemental, oxidized, and particulate-bound mercury, as well as ozone in the troposphere and total and elemental mercury concentrations in snow, demonstrating a series of depletion and deposition events between July and September. The winter depletions in July were characterized by stronger correlations between mercury and ozone and larger formation of particulate-bound mercury in air compared to later spring events. It appears that light at large solar zenith angles is sufficient to initiate the photolytic formation of halogen radicals. We also propose a dark mechanism that could explain observed events in air masses coming from dark regions. Br2 that could be the main actor in dark conditions was possibly formed in high concentrations in the marine boundary layer in the dark. These high concentrations may also have caused the formation of high concentrations of CHBr3 and CH2I2 in the top layers of the Antarctic sea ice observed during winter. These new findings show that the extent of depletion events is larger than previously believed and that winter depletions result in additional deposition of mercury that could be transferred to marine and terrestrial ecosystems.

  14. Fertilizer effects on a winter cereal cover crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Benefits associated with conservation tillage in the Southeast are improved by using a winter cereal cover crop. In general, cover crop benefits increase as biomass production is increased, but the infertile soils typically require additional N (inorganic or organic). Currently, limited informatio...

  15. Wintering ovenbird from Belize recovered on Pennsylvania breeding ground

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowell, B.A.; Robbins, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    A first-winter Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus) banded in a cacao plantation in central Belize on 8 February 1989 was found dead on the deck of a home on its breeding ground in northwestern Pennsylvania on 28 June 1997, tying the 9-year age record for the species.

  16. Wintering bird response to fall mowing of herbaceous buffers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blank, P.J.; Parks, J.R.; Dively, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    Herbaceous buffers are strips of herbaceous vegetation planted between working agricultural land and streams or wetlands. Mowing is a common maintenance practice to control woody plants and noxious weeds in herbaceous buffers. Buffers enrolled in Maryland's Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) cannot be mowed during the primary bird nesting season between 15 April and 15 August. Most mowing of buffers in Maryland occurs in late summer or fall, leaving the vegetation short until the following spring. We studied the response of wintering birds to fall mowing of buffers. We mowed one section to 10-15 cm in 13 buffers and kept another section unmowed. Ninety-two percent of birds detected in buffers were grassland or scrub-shrub species, and 98% of all birds detected were in unmowed buffers. Total bird abundance, species richness, and total avian conservation value were significantly greater in unmowed buffers, and Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis), Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia), and White-throated Sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) were significantly more abundant in unmowed buffers. Wintering bird use of mowed buffers was less than in unmowed buffers. Leaving herbaceous buffers unmowed through winter will likely provide better habitat for wintering birds. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  17. Abrupt Decline in the Arctic Winter Sea Ice Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2007-01-01

    Maximum ice extents in the Arctic in 2005 and 2006 have been observed to be significantly lower (by about 6%) than the average of those of previous years starting in 1979. Since the winter maxima had been relatively stable with the trend being only about -1.5% per decade (compared to about -10% per decade for the perennial ice area), this is a significant development since signals from greenhouse warming are expected to be most prominent in winter. Negative ice anomalies are shown to be dominant in 2005 and 2006 especially in the Arctic basin and correlated with winds and surface temperature anomalies during the same period. Progressively increasing winter temperatures in the central Arctic starting in 1997 is observed with significantly higher rates of increase in 2005 and 2006. The Atlantic Oscillation (AO) indices correlate weakly with the sea ice and surface temperature anomaly data but may explain the recent shift in the perennial ice cover towards the western region. Results suggest that the trend in winter ice is finally in the process of catching up with that of the summer ice cover.

  18. Stable fly control in cattle winter feeding sites with Novaluron

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mixture of wasted feed with manure and urine residues at livestock winter feeding sites provides an excellent substrate for the development of immature stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Such sites are primary sources of early summer stable flies in the central United States and limited opt...

  19. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, 1920's. GENERAL VIEW OF INNER 'YARD' LOOKING NORTH - CLOSE-UP, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family (General Views), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  20. Effects of climate on mid-winter ice jams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltaos, Spyros

    2002-03-01

    The breakup of ice in Canadian rivers and the ensuing ice jams have a multitude of socio-economic impacts. Equally important, but not as well understood, is the strong relationship between the breakup event and the aquatic ecosystem in terms of both habitat and life cycle. Because breakup processes are highly sensitive to weather conditions, there is concern over the potential effects of changing climatic patterns on the ice-jam regime and thus on the stream ecology and local economy. Though breakup commonly occurs in the spring, it is occasionally triggered by mid-winter thaws, which are typical of the more temperate regions of Canada. Mid-winter jams can be more destructive than spring ones and may also have repercussions on the spring event. Current knowledge suggests that small perturbations in winter temperature can produce major changes in the incidence of breakup and ice jams, by altering snowstorms into rainfall events. This expectation is confirmed by a hydroclimatic analysis of field observations and historical data on the upper reach of the Saint John River, which forms the boundary between New Brunswick, Canada and Maine, USA. A slight warming in the past 80 years has been accompanied by a considerable increase in the occurrence of mild winter days, thus contributing to increasing rainfall amounts. This results in augmented flows during the winter, which are lately becoming capable of effecting breakup of the river-ice cover. Implications for future trends in the ice regime of the Saint John River and of other Canadian rivers are discussed.

  1. Herbivory on shoalgrass by wintering redheads in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, C.A.; Custer, T.W.; Zwank, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    An estimated 80% of redheads (Aythya americana) winter on the Laguna Madre of south Texas and Mexico and feed almost exclusively on shoalgrass (Halodule wrightii) rhizomes. Shoalgrass abundance has decreased by 60% over the past 30 years, and because the effects of shoalgrass loss on wintering redheads are unknown, we initiated a study to define habitat selection criteria and document the effect of wintering redheads on shoalgrass in the lower Laguna Madre, Texas. Redheads consumed an average of 75% of shoalgrass rhizome biomass at collection sites each winter. When rhizome biomass was grazed to a mean biomass of ltoreq 0.18 g dry mass/core (approximately 10 g dry mass/ml), shoalgrass did not recover to its previous level the following growing season. Thirty-three percent of the sites (10) were grazed below 0.18 g dry mass/core during both years of the study, while 64% (19) were grazed below 0.18 g during 1 or the other of the 2 winters. Ramet number was positively correlated (P lt 0.001, r-2 = 0.54) with rhizome biomass; however, this relationship was influenced by grazing intensity. Heavy grazing reduced the amount of rhizome attached to each ramet compared with ungrazed ramets. Grazing had no effect on root biomass (P = 0.388), rhizome moisture content (P = 0.553), or soil magnesium, phosphorous, and potassium (P = 0.102, 0.499, 0.162, respectively). Redhead presence increased (P = 0.042) soil nitrogen levels. Foraging areas selected by redheads within the lower Laguna Madre had lower (P = 0.026) salinities (24 ppt) than areas not selected (35 ppt). Redheads did not select foraging areas in relation to crude protein levels in rhizomes. Shoalgrass habitat in the Laguna Madre should be protected from further losses and enhanced where possible.

  2. Isotopic evidence for nitrification in the Antarctic winter mixed layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, Sandi M.; Fawcett, Sarah E.; Thomalla, Sandy J.; Weigand, Mira A.; Reason, Chris J. C.; Sigman, Daniel M.

    2015-04-01

    We report wintertime nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios (δ15N and δ18O) of seawater nitrate in the Southern Ocean south of Africa. Depth profile and underway surface samples collected in July 2012 extend from the subtropics to just beyond the Antarctic winter sea ice edge. We focus here on the Antarctic region (south of 50.3°S), where application of the Rayleigh model to depth profile δ15N data yields estimates for the isotope effect (the degree of isotope discrimination) of nitrate assimilation (1.6-3.3‰) that are significantly lower than commonly observed in the summertime Antarctic (5-8‰). The δ18O data from the same depth profiles and lateral δ15N variations within the mixed layer, however, imply O and N isotope effects that are more similar to those suggested by summertime data. These findings point to active nitrification (i.e., regeneration of organic matter to nitrate) within the Antarctic winter mixed layer. Nitrite removal from samples reveals a low δ15N for nitrite in the winter mixed layer (-40‰ to -20‰), consistent with nitrification, but does not remove the observation of an anomalously low δ15N for nitrate. The winter data, and the nitrification they reveal, explain the previous observation of an anomalously low δ15N for nitrate in the temperature minimum layer (remnant winter mixed layer) of summertime depth profiles. At the same time, the wintertime data require a low δ15N for the combined organic N and ammonium in the autumn mixed layer that is available for wintertime nitrification, pointing to intense N recycling as a pervasive condition of the Antarctic in late summer.

  3. Diagnostics of Winter Precipitation Over the Western Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimri, A. P.; Yasunari, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Indian subcontinent is surrounded by the mighty Himalayas in the north. It is characterized by heterogeneous topography and landuse variability from west to east. Apart from these, due to seasonal changes western, central and eastern Himalayas are having different precipitation patterns. In the present study winter (Dec, Jan, Feb - DJF) precipitation over the western Himalayas (WH) is analyzed. The WH receives almost one third of annual precipitation due to eastward moving cyclonic storms, Western Disturbance, during winter. Wet and dry winter precipitation years' composites show strengthening of westerly at 200 and 500 hPa and southerly at 850hPa during wet winters. Also, at 200hPa higher westerly with significant region from Saudi Arabia to Indian subcontinent and at 850hPa higher southerly with significant region from Afghanistan and adjoining Pakistan is discernible. Large scale wind field shows existence of wavelike pattern during wet years. Higher water vapor flux and outgoing longwave radiation corroborate with wet winter conditions. Further analysis based on composite years' daily pentad climatology illustrates spells of higher precipitation in wet year than that in dry year. Analysis of some individual composite peak precipitation days show formation of cyclonic flow west of 80oE at 500hPa in large scale westerly than that in the seasonal average. In addition distinct lower geopotential field difference between 500 to 925hPa is seen over Saudi Arabia to north of India. Increased convergence of water vapor flux over Arabian Sea is observed during wet precipitation years. Such changes in large scale fields suggest that during wet period flow patterns become conducive for higher precipitation over the WH. The mechanism responsible for these circulation patterns for wet (or dry) spells and years will also be discussed at the session.

  4. Selenium accumulation in sea ducks wintering at Lake Ontario.

    PubMed

    Schummer, Michael L; Badzinski, Shannon S; Petrie, Scott A; Chen, Yu-Wei; Belzile, Nelson

    2010-04-01

    Numbers of wintering sea ducks, including buffleheads (Bucephala albeola; BUFF), common goldeneyes (Bucephala clangula; COGO), and long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis; LTDU), increased substantially at Lake Ontario after Dreissenid mussels (Dreissena bugensis and D. polymorpha) colonized the Great Lakes. Invertebrates, including Dreissenid mussels, are major diving duck prey items that can transfer some trace elements, such as selenium (Se) to higher trophic levels. Se can be problematic for waterfowl and it often has been detected at elevated levels in organisms using the Great Lakes. There are, however, few data on hepatic Se concentrations in sea ducks, particularly during the winter at Lake Ontario. In this study, we evaluated interspecific differences and temporal trends in hepatic Se concentrations among BUFF (n = 77), COGO (n = 77), and LTDU (n = 79) wintering at Lake Ontario. All three species accumulated Se throughout winter, but COGO did so at a higher rate than did BUFF and LTDU. Overall, Se concentrations were higher in LTDU [mean = 22.7; 95% CI = 20.8-24.8 microg/g dry weight (dw)] than in BUFF ([mean = 12.3; 95% CI = 11.6-13.1 microg/g dw) and COGO ([mean = 12.0; 95% CI = 10.7-3.5 microg/g dw) throughout the winter. Se concentrations were deemed elevated (>33 microg/g dw) in 0%, 5%, and 19% of BUFF, COGO, and LTDU, respectively. Presently there are no data on Se toxicity end points for these species, so it is unclear how acquiring concentrations of these magnitudes affect their short- and long-term health or reproduction.

  5. Periphyton dynamics in a subalpine mountain stream during winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gustina, G.W.; Hoffmann, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    We conducted two experiments to determine the activity of and factors which control periphyton during winter in Stevensville Brook, Vermont. The first experiment during winter/spring 1994 examined the effect of a 300 to 450% difference in light and doubling of flow (low and high light, slow and fast flow) on periphyton chlorophyll a (chl a) and ash-free dry mass (AFDM) from stream rocks and artificial substrata. A second experiment was performed to determine whether periphyton was nitrogen or phosphorus limited. In addition, stream water was sampled during fall/winter 1994/95 for nitrate (NO3), ammonia (NH4), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), and total phosphorus (TP) to determine the availability of nutrients in Stevensville Brook. Increases of up to 250% for AFDM and 600% for chl a during the first study indicated robust activity throughout the winter despite low temperatures and light. Flow had a negative effect and sampling date was found to have a significant effect on periphyton biomass (chl a and AFDM) while light was found to influence increases in AFDM on clay tiles only. Water analyses showed that SRP was less than 0.001 mg L-1, NH4 and TP were low and often undetectable, and NO3 remained at about 0.20 mg L-1. Results from the nutrient enrichment experiment showed a significant response of chl a to P but not N and no response of AFDM to enrichment with either N or P. In Stevensville Brook during winter, the algal community, as represented by the chl a concentration, is predominantly controlled by phosphorus concentrations and is influenced to a lesser extent by flow; the periphyton community as a whole, represented by AFDM, is controlled mostly by stream flow and light.

  6. Travel distance and mass gain in wintering blackbirds.

    PubMed

    Cresswell

    1999-11-01

    Birds that range over a large area will have a greater mass-dependent risk of predation than more sedentary birds. Birds that travel more may then reduce winter mass gain to compensate for the increased predation risk that greater travelling entails. I tested whether European blackbirds, Turdus merula, that travelled more in winter had a lower mass than more sedentary birds, independently of any confounding effects of food supply on both ranging behaviour and mass gain. I measured change in winter mass and amount of food eaten in conjunction with the distance that blackbirds travelled to a randomly sited mobile feeder. Blackbirds that travelled shorter distances (per trip and in total) and less often to the feeder had the highest mass midwinter relative to their spring mass. Blackbirds with a higher mean mass midwinter also travelled, on average, shorter distances to the feeder. The distance an individual blackbird travelled to the feeder at any one time was probably independent of the state of its daily energy reserves (how much of its daily total mass gain it had achieved at that point). The relationship between distance travelled and mass was probably independent of food supply because distances actually increased at the end of the winter and the amount of food eaten per individual changed little. More mobile blackbirds were therefore likely to have compensated for any increases in predation risk associated with their greater ranges by decreasing winter mass gain, but will have had an increased risk of starvation because of their lower mass. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  7. Cold truths: how winter drives responses of terrestrial organisms to climate change.

    PubMed

    Williams, Caroline M; Henry, Hugh A L; Sinclair, Brent J

    2015-02-01

    Winter is a key driver of individual performance, community composition, and ecological interactions in terrestrial habitats. Although climate change research tends to focus on performance in the growing season, climate change is also modifying winter conditions rapidly. Changes to winter temperatures, the variability of winter conditions, and winter snow cover can interact to induce cold injury, alter energy and water balance, advance or retard phenology, and modify community interactions. Species vary in their susceptibility to these winter drivers, hampering efforts to predict biological responses to climate change. Existing frameworks for predicting the impacts of climate change do not incorporate the complexity of organismal responses to winter. Here, we synthesise organismal responses to winter climate change, and use this synthesis to build a framework to predict exposure and sensitivity to negative impacts. This framework can be used to estimate the vulnerability of species to winter climate change. We describe the importance of relationships between winter conditions and performance during the growing season in determining fitness, and demonstrate how summer and winter processes are linked. Incorporating winter into current models will require concerted effort from theoreticians and empiricists, and the expansion of current growing-season studies to incorporate winter.

  8. Validity and timeliness of syndromic influenza surveillance during the autumn/winter wave of A (H1N1) influenza 2009: results of emergency medical dispatch, ambulance and emergency department data from three European regions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Emergency medical service (EMS) data, particularly from the emergency department (ED), is a common source of information for syndromic surveillance. However, the entire EMS chain, consists of both out-of-hospital and in-hospital services. Differences in validity and timeliness across these data sources so far have not been studied. Neither have the differences in validity and timeliness of this data from different European countries. In this paper we examine the validity and timeliness of the entire chain of EMS data sources from three European regions for common syndromic influenza surveillance during the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic in 2009. Methods We gathered local, regional, or national information on influenza-like illness (ILI) or respiratory syndrome from an Austrian Emergency Medical Dispatch Service (EMD-AT), an Austrian and Belgian ambulance services (EP-AT, EP-BE) and from a Belgian and Spanish emergency department (ED-BE, ED-ES). We examined the timeliness of the EMS data in identifying the beginning of the autumn/winter wave of pandemic A(H1N1) influenza as compared to the reference data. Additionally, we determined the sensitivity and specificity of an aberration detection algorithm (Poisson CUSUM) in EMS data sources for detecting the autumn/winter wave of the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic. Results The ED-ES data demonstrated the most favourable validity, followed by the ED-BE data. The beginning of the autumn/winter wave of pandemic A(H1N1) influenza was identified eight days in advance in ED-BE data. The EP data performed stronger in data sets for large catchment areas (EP-BE) and identified the beginning of the autumn/winter wave almost at the same time as the reference data (time lag +2 days). EMD data exhibited timely identification of the autumn/winter wave of A(H1N1) but demonstrated weak validity measures. Conclusions In this study ED data exhibited the most favourable performance in terms of validity and timeliness for syndromic

  9. Influence of Honey Bee Genotype and Wintering Method on Wintering Performance of Varroa destructor (Parasitiformes: Varroidae)-Infected Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies in a Northern Climate.

    PubMed

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a cooperative breeding program designed to enhance winter survival of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) when exposed to high levels of varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) in outdoor-wintered and indoor-wintered colonies. Half of the colonies from selected and unselected stocks were randomly assigned to be treated with late autumn oxalic acid treatment or to be left untreated. Colonies were then randomly assigned to be wintered either indoors (n = 37) or outdoors (n = 40). Late autumn treatment with oxalic acid did not improve wintering performance. However, genotype of bees affected colony survival and the proportion of commercially viable colonies in spring, as indicated by greater rates of colony survival and commercially viable colonies for selected stock (43% survived and 33% were viable) in comparison to unselected stock (19% survived and 9% were viable) across all treatment groups. Indoor wintering improved spring bee population score, proportion of colonies surviving, and proportion of commercially viable colonies relative to outdoor wintering (73% of selected stock and 41% of unselected stock survived during indoor wintering). Selected stock showed better "tolerance" to varroa as the selected stock also maintained higher bee populations relative to unselected stock. However, there was no evidence of "resistance" in selected colonies (reduced mite densities). Collectively, this experiment showed that breeding can improve tolerance to varroa and this can help minimize colony loss through winter and improve colony wintering performance. Overall, colony wintering success of both genotypes of bees was better when colonies were wintered indoors than when colonies were wintered outdoors.

  10. Thermoregulation in pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana, Ord) in winter.

    PubMed

    Hébert, J; Lust, A; Fuller, A; Maloney, S K; Mitchell, D; Mitchell, G

    2008-03-01

    Conservation of energy is a prerequisite thermoregulatory strategy for survival in northern hemisphere winters. We have used thermistor/data logger assemblies to measure temperatures in the brain, carotid artery, jugular vein and abdominal cavity, in pronghorn antelope to determine their winter body temperature and to investigate whether the carotid rete has a survival role. Over the study period mean black globe and air temperature were -0.5+/-3.2 degrees C and -2.0+/-3.4 degrees C, respectively, and mean daytime solar radiation was approximately 186 W m(-2). Brain temperature (T(brain), 39.3+/-0.3 degrees C) was higher than carotid blood temperature (T(carotid), 38.5+/-0.4 degrees C), and higher than jugular temperature (T(jugular), 37.9+/-0.7 degrees C). Minimum T(brain) (38.5+/-0.4 degrees C) and T(carotid) (37.8+/-0.2 degrees C) in winter were higher than the minimum T(brain) (37.7+/-0.5 degrees C) and T(carotid) (36.4+/-0.8 degrees C) in summer that we have reported previously. Compared with summer, winter body temperature patterns were characterized by an absence of selective brain cooling (SBC), a higher range of T(brain), a range of T(carotid) that was significantly narrower (1.8 degrees C) than in summer (3.1 degrees C), and changes in T(carotid) and T(brain) that were more highly correlated (r=0.99 in winter vs r=0.83 in summer). These findings suggest that in winter the effects of the carotid rete are reduced, which eliminates SBC and prevents independent regulation of T(brain), thus coupling T(brain) to T(carotid). The net effect is that T(carotid) varies little. A possible consequence is depression of metabolism, with the survival advantage of conservation of energy. These findings also suggest that the carotid rete has wider thermoregulatory effects than its traditional SBC function.

  11. Variability of Winter Air Temperature in Mid-Latitude Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Ardizzone, J.; Atlas, R.; Bungato, D.; Cierniewski, J.; Jusem, J. C.; Przybylak, R.; Schubert, S.; Starr, D.; Walczewski, J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report extreme winter/early-spring air temperature (hereinafter temperature) anomalies in mid-latitude Europe, and to discuss the underlying forcing to these interannual fluctuations. Warm advection from the North Atlantic in late winter controls the surface-air temperature, as indicated by the substantial correlation between the speed of the surface southwesterlies over the eastern North Atlantic (quantified by a specific Index Ina) and the 2-meter level air temperatures (hereinafter Ts) over Europe, 45-60 deg N, in winter. In mid-March and subsequently, the correlation drops drastically (quite often it is negative). This change in the relationship between Ts and Ina marks a transition in the control of the surface-air temperature: absorption of insolation replaces the warm advection as the dominant control. This forcing by maritime-air advection in winter was demonstrated in a previous publication, and is re-examined here in conjunction with extreme fluctuations of temperatures in Europe. We analyze here the interannual variability at its extreme by comparing warm-winter/early-spring of 1989/90 with the opposite scenario in 1995/96. For these two December-to-March periods the differences in the monthly mean temperature in Warsaw and Torun, Poland, range above 10 C. Short-term (shorter than a month) fluctuations of the temperature are likewise very strong. We conduct pentad-by-pentad analysis of the surface-maximum air temperature (hereinafter Tmax), in a selected location, examining the dependence on Ina. The increased cloudiness and higher amounts of total precipitable water, corollary effects to the warm low-level advection. in the 1989/90 winter, enhance the positive temperature anomalies. The analysis of the ocean surface winds is based on the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) dataset; ascent rates, and over land wind data are from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF); maps of 2-m temperature, cloud

  12. 77 FR 53908 - Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... 2012 Supplemental Winter Use Plan EIS), and at Yellowstone National Park headquarters, Mammoth Hot... Building, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Comments will not be accepted by fax... National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement,...

  13. FACTORS AFFECTING TIME-ACTIVITY BUDGETS OF BUFFLEHEAD WINTERING IN NARRAGANSETT, BAY, RI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Daily activities of wintering waterfowl can be influenced by the physical environment and by habitat factors such as prey abundance and availability. We examined variability in diurnal activity budgets of Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola) wintering at seven locations within Narragan...

  14. 77 FR 38824 - Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability of the Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park....

  15. 46 CFR 42.30-5 - Northern Winter Seasonal Zones and area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Excluded from this zone are the North Atlantic Winter Seasonal Zone I and the Baltic Sea bounded by the... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-5 Northern Winter Seasonal Zones...

  16. 46 CFR 42.30-5 - Northern Winter Seasonal Zones and area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Excluded from this zone are the North Atlantic Winter Seasonal Zone I and the Baltic Sea bounded by the... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-5 Northern Winter Seasonal Zones...

  17. 46 CFR 42.30-5 - Northern Winter Seasonal Zones and area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Excluded from this zone are the North Atlantic Winter Seasonal Zone I and the Baltic Sea bounded by the... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-5 Northern Winter Seasonal Zones...

  18. EMS in the pueblos.

    PubMed

    Vigil, M A

    1994-02-01

    Imagine creating a movie by excerpting scenes from "Dances With Wolves," splicing it with footage from "Code 3" or "Emergency Response" and then flavoring the script with the mystery of a Tony Hillerman novel. A film producer would probably find it quite difficult to choreograph a finished product from such a compilation of material. To hundreds of Native American EMS providers, however, such a movie is played out every day in Indian country. And with this movie come some real-life problems, including trauma, which is the number-one cause of premature death among Native Americans. But a high trauma rate is just one of the challenges facing tribal EMS responders. There's also prolonged response and transport, the problems involved in maintaining the unique culture and standard of care, the challenges of tribal EMS administration and EMS education of Native American students, and the unsure future of Native American EMS. Beyond that, there's the fact that EMS is a s unique to each Indian reservation as are the cultures of the native peoples who reside on these lands. Yet while no two systems are alike, most tribal EMS providers face similar challenges.

  19. Recrystallization and damage of ice in winter sports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour-Pierce, Alexandra; Lishman, Ben; Sammonds, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Ice samples, after sliding against a steel runner, show evidence of recrystallization and microcracking under the runner, as well as macroscopic cracking throughout the ice. The experiments that produced these ice samples are designed to be analogous to sliding in the winter sport of skeleton. Changes in the ice fabric are shown using thick and thin sections under both diffuse and polarized light. Ice drag is estimated as 40-50% of total energy dissipation in a skeleton run. The experimental results are compared with visual inspections of skeleton tracks, and to similar behaviour in rocks during sliding on earthquake faults. The results presented may be useful to athletes and designers of winter sports equipment. This article is part of the themed issue 'Microdynamics of ice'.

  20. Sting jets in intense winter North-Atlantic windstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Alvarado, Oscar; Gray, Suzanne L.; Catto, Jennifer L.; Clark, Peter A.

    2012-06-01

    Extratropical cyclones dominate autumn and winter weather over western Europe. The strongest cyclones, often termed windstorms, have a large socio-economic impact due to the strong surface winds and associated storm surges in coastal areas. Here we show that sting jets are a common feature of windstorms; up to a third of the 100 most intense North-Atlantic winter windstorms over the last two decades satisfy conditions for sting jets. The sting jet is a mesoscale descending airstream that can cause strong near-surface winds in the dry slot of the cyclone, a region not usually associated with strong winds. Despite their localized transient nature, these sting jets can cause significant damage, a prominent example being the storm that devastated southeast England on 16 October 1987. We present the first regional climatology of windstorms with sting jets. Previously analysed sting-jet cases appear to have been exceptional in their track over northwest Europe rather than in their strength.

  1. Polarization Lidar Liquid Cloud Detection Algorithm for Winter Mountain Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Zhao, Hongjie

    1992-01-01

    We have collected an extensive polarization lidar dataset from elevated sites in the Tushar Mountains of Utah in support of winter storm cloud seeding research and experiments. Our truck-mounted ruby lidar collected zenith, dual-polarization lidar data through a roof window equipped with a wiper system to prevent snowfall accumulation. Lidar returns were collected at a rate of one shot every 1 to 5 min during declared storm periods over the 1985 and 1987 mid-Jan. to mid-Mar. Field seasons. The mid-barrier remote sensor field site was located at 2.57 km MSL. Of chief interest to weather modification efforts are the heights of supercooled liquid water (SLW) clouds, which must be known to assess their 'seedability' (i.e., temperature and height suitability for artificially increasing snowfall). We are currently re-examining out entire dataset to determine the climatological properties of SLW clouds in winter storms using an autonomous computer algorithm.

  2. A successful forecast of an El Nino winter

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1992-01-24

    This year, for the first time, weather forecasters used signs of a warming in the tropical Pacific as the basis for a long-range prediction of winter weather patterns across the United States. Now forecasters are talking about the next step: stretching the lead time for such forecasts by a year or more. That seems feasible because although this Pacific warming was unmistakable by the time forecasters at the National Weather Service's Climate Analysis Center (CAC) in Camp Springs, Maryland, issued their winter forecast, the El Nino itself had been predicted almost 2 years in advance by a computer model. Next time around, the CAC may well be listening to the modelers and predicting El Nino-related patterns of warmth and flooding seasons in advance.

  3. Recrystallization and damage of ice in winter sports.

    PubMed

    Seymour-Pierce, Alexandra; Lishman, Ben; Sammonds, Peter

    2017-02-13

    Ice samples, after sliding against a steel runner, show evidence of recrystallization and microcracking under the runner, as well as macroscopic cracking throughout the ice. The experiments that produced these ice samples are designed to be analogous to sliding in the winter sport of skeleton. Changes in the ice fabric are shown using thick and thin sections under both diffuse and polarized light. Ice drag is estimated as 40-50% of total energy dissipation in a skeleton run. The experimental results are compared with visual inspections of skeleton tracks, and to similar behaviour in rocks during sliding on earthquake faults. The results presented may be useful to athletes and designers of winter sports equipment.This article is part of the themed issue 'Microdynamics of ice'.

  4. Do wintering Harlequin Ducks forage nocturnally at high latitudes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rizzolo, D.J.; Esler, Daniel; Roby, D.D.; Jarvis, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    We monitored radio-tagged Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to determine whether nocturnal feeding was part of their foraging strategy during winter in south-central Alaska. Despite attributes of our study site (low ambient temperatures, harsh weather, short day length) and study species (small body size, high daytime foraging rates) that would be expected to favor nocturnal foraging, we found no evidence of nocturnal dive-feeding. Signals from eight radio-tagged Harlequin Ducks never exhibited signal loss due to diving during a total of 780 minutes of nocturnal monitoring. In contrast, the same eight birds exhibited signal loss during 62 ± 7% (SE) of 5-minute diurnal monitoring periods (total of 365 minutes of monitoring). Our results suggest that Harlequin Ducks in south-central Alaska face a stringent time constraint on daytime foraging during midwinter. Harlequin Ducks wintering at high latitudes, therefore, may be particularly sensitive to factors that increase foraging requirements or decrease foraging efficiency.

  5. Seasonal affective disorder, winter type: current insights and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Meesters, Ybe; Gordijn, Marijke CM

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), winter type, is a seasonal pattern of recurrent major depressive episodes most commonly occurring in autumn or winter and remitting in spring/summer. The syndrome has been well-known for more than three decades, with light treatment being the treatment of first choice. In this paper, an overview is presented of the present insights in SAD. Description of the syndrome, etiology, and treatment options are mentioned. Apart from light treatment, medication and psychotherapy are other treatment options. The predictable, repetitive nature of the syndrome makes it possible to discuss preventive treatment options. Furthermore, critical views on the concept of SAD as a distinct diagnosis are discussed. PMID:27942239

  6. Anthropogenic effects on winter behavior of ferruginous hawks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumpton, D.L.; Andersen, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    Little information is known about the ecology of ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) in winter versus the breeding season and less about how the species adapts to fragmented grassland habitats. Accordingly, we studied the behavior of 38 radiotagged ferruginous hawks during 3 winters from 1992 to 1995. We used 2 adjacent sites in Colorado that were characterized by low and high levels of anthropogenic influence and habitat fragmentation: the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMANWR; low-level influence), and several adjacent Denver suburbs (high-level influence). Relative abundance of ferruginous hawks differed by treatment area and year (P 0.05) at RMANWR and suburban sites. Ferruginous hawks appear to modify their behavior in fragmented, largely human-altered habitats, provided some foraging habitats with adequate populations of suitable prey species are present.

  7. [Morphophysiological and Behavioral Adaptations of Elk to Wintering].

    PubMed

    Glushkov, V M; Kuznetsov, G V

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies morphometric parameters (body weight, weight of internal organs, body size, etc.) in 170 elk of various sex and age obtained in the Vyatka taiga area in winter. A number of physiological parameters (specific metabolism and thermal conductivity, heat loss rate, etc.) characterizing the metabolic rate and energy balance in the body were calculated for model animals (calf, male, and female). It is noted that in the transition from the first to the second half of winter the specific metabolism in model animals decreased from 20.6, 16.9, and 15.9 to 18.7, 15.4, and 14.5 kcal/(kg day), respectively. It is shown that changes in the rhythm of motor activity of elk are synchronized with the daily air temperature and the maximum flight distance depends on the amount of energy received by the body with food.

  8. Winter Cover Crops and Nitrous Oxide Emissions in Early Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, C. K.; Walter, M. T.; Reiss, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    Winter cover crops mixtures can be used to manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during critical periods such as spring thaw. Legumes are added to cover crops mixtures to increase crop productivity, but it is unknown if this effect decreases N2O emissions. In this project we investigate the relationship between biodiversity, productivity and GHG fluxes in cover crops varieties typically grown for soil heath in agricultural systems. Surface GHG emissions were measured with closed chambers beginning during snowmelt events and continuing until crops were tilled into the soil in early summer. We found that nitrous oxide emissions were reduced in cover cropped plots during the early spring thaw period when compared to bare soil. GHG emission reductions in agriculture can be achieved with proper selection of winter hardy cover crops.

  9. Proceedings of the 2013 Rheumatology Winter Clinical Symposia.

    PubMed

    Kavanaugh, Arthur; Fleischmann, Roy; Bergman, Martin Jan; Ruderman, Eric; Troum, Orrin; Wells, Alvin F; Martin, George; Calabrese, Leonard H; Gibofsky, Allan; Strand, Vibeke; Cush, John J

    2013-06-01

    Advances in rheumatology occur at a rapid pace and staying abreast of important changes is a challenge for all. Both novel drug development and enhanced understanding of conventional or historic therapies have molded current day rheumatologic practice. Rheumatology has led the way in the use of outcome measures and imaging modalities in common disorders like rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and gout. The expertise of the rheumatologist has widened such that knowledge of economics, legal issues, related disorders and extraarticular disease is essential. In February 2013, the 6th annual Rheumatology Winter Clinical Symposium was held. At this meeting, faculty and participants held discussions and exchanged knowledge about new scientific data and how it may impact the care of rheumatology patients. Excerpts from some of the lectures from the Rheumatology Winter Clinical Symposium 2013 are included in this review. These and other presentations can be viewed in their entirety at http://www.r-w-c-s.com.

  10. Does organic farming benefit farmland birds in winter?

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, D E; Joys, A; Johnson, P J; Norton, L; Feber, R E; Fuller, R J

    2010-02-23

    The generally higher biodiversity on organic farms may be influenced by management features such as no synthetic pesticide and fertilizer inputs and/or by differences in uncropped habitat at the site and landscape scale. We analysed bird and habitat data collected on 48 paired organic and conventional farms over two winters to determine the extent to which broad-scale habitat differences between systems could explain overall differences in farmland bird abundance. Density was significantly higher on organic farms for six out of 16 species, and none on conventional. Total abundance of all species combined was higher on organic farms in both years. Analyses using an information-theoretic approach suggested that both habitat extent and farm type were important predictors only for starling and greenfinch. Organic farming as currently practised may not provide significant benefits to those bird species that are limited by winter food resources, in particular, several declining granivores.

  11. Survival rates of American woodcock wintering along the Atlantic coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Seginak, J.T.; Smith, D.R.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    Because American woodcock (Scolopax minor) populations have been declining, we attached radio transmitters to woodcock at coastal plain sites to determine if survival during winter was involved in the decline. Sites were in Georgia (1982-84, 1989-92), South Carolina (1988-89), and Virginia (1991-92). Survival rates were not different between age or sex classes. Survival rates differed (P = 0.003) among years. Daily survival rates were lowest (P = 0.030, S = 0.987) during 1982-83 in Georgia and highest (P = 0.004, S = 0.999) during 1990-91 in Georgia than in the other years and locations combined (S = 0.996). We attributed all mortality to raptors and mammals. Compared with other periods of the year, winter was a time of low survival for woodcock. Lower survival rates were possibly a cause of population decline.

  12. Seed deterioration in flooded agricultural fields during winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelms, C.O.; Twedt, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    We determined rate of seed deterioration for 3 crops (corn, rice, and soybean) and 8 weeds commonly found in agricultural fields and moist-soil management units in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). The weeds were broadleaf signalgrass (Brachiaria platyphylla), junglerice barnyardgrass (Echinochloa colonum), morningglory (Ipomoea sp.), panic grass (Panicum sp.), bull paspalum (Paspalum boscianum), red rice (Oryza sativa), hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata), and bristlegrass (Setaria sp.). Weed seeds, except morningglory, deteriorated slower than corn and soybean, whereas rice decomposed slower than all weed seeds except red rice and bull paspalum. For land managers desiring to provide plant food for wintering waterfowl, rice is clearly the most persistent small grain crop in the MAV. Persistence of weed seeds under flooded conditions throughout winter makes them a cost-effective alternative to traditional crops on land managed for waterfowl.

  13. [Winter distribution of birds in the West Siberian Plain].

    PubMed

    Vartepov, L G; Livanov, S G; Tsybulin, S M; Evsiukov, A K

    2005-01-01

    Long-term studies on the winter population of birds in the West Siberian Plain on a landscape basis allowed us to reveal the regional and seasonal patterns of their distribution. The highest proportion of species demonstrated forest-steppe and forest preference, while the lowest proportion demonstrated aquatic-semiaquatic and tundra-forest-tundra preference. The preference zones did not change or extend in the winter period relative to summer postnesting period only in a small fraction of species; while the preference zones of most species were reduced or shifted. Commonly, the zonal borders of preferred habitats shifted southward to better climatic, feeding, and safety conditions. Only rare species with seasonally changing and specialized feeding demonstrated a northward shift of these borders.

  14. The chronobiology and neurobiology of winter seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Levitan, Robert D

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes research on the chronobiology and neurobiology of winter seasonal affective disorder (SAD), a recurrent subtype of depression characterized by a predictable onset in the fall/winter months and spontaneous remission in the spring/summer period. Chronobiological mechanisms related to circadian rhythms, melatonin, and photoperiodism play a significant role in many cases of SAD, and treatment of SAD can be optimized by considering individual differences in key chronobiological markers. Converging evidence also points to a role for the major monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine in one or more aspects of SAD. Ultimately, as with other psychiatric illnesses, SAD is best considered as a complex disorder resulting from the interaction of several vulnerability factors acting at different levels, the various genetic mechanisms that underlie them, and the physical environment. Models of SAD that emphasize its potential role in human evolution will also be discussed.

  15. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Lesser snow goose (wintering)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leslie, John C.; Zwank, Phillip J.

    1985-01-01

    The lesser snow goose may have the largest population of any goose in the world (Cooch 1958; Kerbes 1975; Ogilvie 1978). Its arctic breeding range has greatly expanded since the mid-1950's (Bellrose 1976). In the United States, it normally ranks behind only the Canada goose (Branta canadensis) in population size (Bellrose 1976; Owen 1980) and in harvest (Carney et al. 1981, 1982). Because up to 70% of the geese harvested annually by hunters in Texas and Louisiana are lesser snow geese (Carney et al , 1981), its importance as a waterfowl species of the Gulf of Mexico coast cannot be overemphasized. Surveys taken in the Central and Mississippi Flyways from 1955 to 1975 have shown an upward trend in the number of wintering snow geese (Bellrose 1976). On the wintering grounds snow geese tend to remain in large, very conspicuous flocks that please both hunters and non-consumptive viewers of wildlife.

  16. Pattern recognition analysis of polar clouds during summer and winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebert, Elizabeth E.

    1992-01-01

    A pattern recognition algorithm is demonstrated which classifies eighteen surface and cloud types in high-latitude AVHRR imagery based on several spectral and textural features, then estimates the cloud properties (fractional coverage, albedo, and brightness temperature) using a hybrid histogram and spatial coherence technique. The summertime version of the algorithm uses both visible and infrared data (AVHRR channels 1-4), while the wintertime version uses only infrared data (AVHRR channels 3-5). Three days of low-resolution AVHRR imagery from the Arctic and Antarctic during January and July 1984 were analyzed for cloud type and fractional coverage. The analysis showed significant amounts of high cloudiness in the Arctic during one day in winter. The Antarctic summer scene was characterized by heavy cloud cover in the southern ocean and relatively clear conditions in the continental interior. A large region of extremely low brightness temperatures in East Antarctica during winter suggests the presence of polar stratospheric cloud.

  17. Waterfowl and their wintering grounds in Mexico, 1937-64

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saunders, George B.; Saunders, Dorothy Chapman

    1981-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has been interested in migratory birds, especially waterfowl, in Mexico for many years, An early period of cooperation in waterfowl administration was culminated in 1937 with the final ratification of the Convention Between the United States and the United Mexican States for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals, usually referred to as the Migratory Bird Treat.Management of waterfowl on this continent is primarily carried out by hunting regulations. Current information on the status of each species must be obtained each year to serve as a basis for any needed modifications in the regulations. In the United States and Canada, wildlife biologists of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Canadian Wildlife Service annually make the surveys to obtain this basic information. But the Government of Mexico has made no comparable surveys. Mexicans are not interested in hunting waterfowl to the extent that citizens of the United States and Canada are. As a consequence, Mexico's Department of Game emphasizes activities other than waterfowl management.Waterfowl, especially ducks, winter in or migrate through Mexico in large numbers, so it is obvious that and continental surveys of the winter population should include Mexico. Some general investigations of waterfowl distribution there were made in 1926 and earlier by E. A. Goldman. He was familiar with much of Mexico because he and E. W. Nelson studied mammals and biota there for many years. In the 1930's, because of the greater emphasis on waterfowl conservation and management, more detailed surveys were made of the continental breeding and wintering populations. One of these activities was designated as the midwinter, or January, inventory.In the early 1940's the senior author, who had been the Central Flyaway Biologist since 1937, recommended that the waterfowl wintering grounds in Mexico be included in the coverage of the midwinter waterfowl inventory. This was arranged in

  18. Feral rye (Secale cereal) control in winter canola in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) feral rye is a predominant winter annual grass weed in the low-rainfall region where a winter wheat-tillage fallow rotation has been practiced for more than 130 yrs and winter canola has been introduced recently. A 3-yr study was conducted in Washington to determine th...

  19. A Downturn of the Strong Winter-Warming Trend In Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, Joseph; Atlas, Robert; Bungato, Dennis; Koslowsky, Dirk; Wos, Alojzy; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Surface-air temperatures measured in winter at 3 meteorological stations in central Europe rise substantially for most of the second-half of the 20th century. This means shorter winter, and longer growing season, which has positive implications for regional agriculture. However, these positive trends stopped in winter of 1996, and for the recent 7 years no further climatic amelioration is reported.

  20. Growth, survival, and fatty acid composition of coppernose bluegill offered different winter feeding regimes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter fish losses are routinely reported by Arkansas sportfish producers in the spring. Juvenile centrarchid species (less than 7.6 cm) are quite susceptible to harsh winter conditions. While some of these winter fish losses can be attributed to predation by fish eating birds and water quality fact...

  1. Nutritional condition of Pacific Black Brant wintering at the extremes of their range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, D.D.; Barboza, P.S.; Ward, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Endogenous stores of energy allow birds to survive periods of severe weather and food shortage during winter. We documented changes in lipid, protein, moisture, and ash in body tissues of adult female Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) and modeled the energetic costs of wintering. Birds were collected at the extremes of their winter range, in Alaska and Baja California, Mexico. Body lipids decreased over winter for birds in Alaska but increased for those in Baja California. Conversely, body protein increased over winter for Brant in Alaska and remained stable for birds in Baja California. Lipid stores likely fuel migration for Brant wintering in Baja California and ensure winter survival for those in Alaska. Increases in body protein may support earlier reproduction for Brant in Alaska. Predicted energy demands were similar between sites during late winter but avenues of expenditure were different. Birds in Baja California spent more energy on lipid synthesis while those in Alaska incurred higher thermoregulatory costs. Estimated daily intake rates of eelgrass were similar between sites in early winter; however, feeding time was more constrained in Alaska because of high tides and short photoperiods. Despite differences in energetic costs and foraging time, Brant wintering at both sites appeared to be in good condition. We suggest that wintering in Alaska may be more advantageous than long-distance migration if winter survival is similar between sites and constraints on foraging time do not impair body condition. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  2. Production of ethanol from newly developed and improved winter barley cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter barley has attracted strong interest as a potential feedstock for fuel ethanol production in regions with mild winter climates such as the mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States. Ten recently developed and improved winter barley cultivars and breeding lines, including five hulled and fiv...

  3. Some Assistance with Winter Activities and Resources for the Outdoors. 3rd Edition, 1973-74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, B. Wayne

    The booklet discusses winter outdoor education in Canada. The first section explains how to use snowshoes, followed by the use of the thematic approach with winter and snow. The thematic approach to snowmobiling gives both the pros and cons, and the outward spiraling effect of the popular sport. In discussing a winter field trip, activities are…

  4. 76 FR 68503 - Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park, Idaho, Montana...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park... the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park. SUMMARY... availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone...

  5. 46 CFR 42.30-5 - Northern Winter Seasonal Zones and area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-5 Northern Winter Seasonal Zones and.... Excluded from this zone are the North Atlantic Winter Seasonal Zone I and the Baltic Sea bounded by the.... Summer: April 1 to October 31. (b) North Atlantic Winter Seasonal Area. (1) The boundary of the...

  6. 46 CFR 42.30-5 - Northern Winter Seasonal Zones and area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-5 Northern Winter Seasonal Zones and.... Excluded from this zone are the North Atlantic Winter Seasonal Zone I and the Baltic Sea bounded by the.... Summer: April 1 to October 31. (b) North Atlantic Winter Seasonal Area. (1) The boundary of the...

  7. Mapping wintering waterfowl distributions using weather surveillance radar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buler, Jeffrey J.; Randall, Lori A.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Bogart, Tianna; Kluver, Daria

    2012-01-01

    The current network of weather surveillance radars within the United States readily detects flying birds and has proven to be a useful remote-sensing tool for ornithological study. Radar reflectivity measures serve as an index to bird density and have been used to quantitatively map landbird distributions during migratory stopover by sampling birds aloft at the onset of nocturnal migratory flights. Our objective was to further develop and validate a similar approach for mapping wintering waterfowl distributions using weather surveillance radar observations at the onset of evening flights. We evaluated data from the Sacramento, CA radar (KDAX) during winters 1998–1999 and 1999–2000. We determined an optimal sampling time by evaluating the accuracy and precision of radar observations at different times during the onset of evening flight relative to observed diurnal distributions of radio-marked birds on the ground. The mean time of evening flight initiation occurred 23 min after sunset with the strongest correlations between reflectivity and waterfowl density on the ground occurring almost immediately after flight initiation. Radar measures became more spatially homogeneous as evening flight progressed because birds dispersed from their departure locations. Radars effectively detected birds to a mean maximum range of 83 km during the first 20 min of evening flight. Using a sun elevation angle of -5° (28 min after sunset) as our optimal sampling time, we validated our approach using KDAX data and additional data from the Beale Air Force Base, CA (KBBX) radar during winter 1998–1999. Bias-adjusted radar reflectivity of waterfowl aloft was positively related to the observed diurnal density of radio-marked waterfowl locations on the ground. Thus, weather radars provide accurate measures of relative wintering waterfowl density that can be used to comprehensively map their distributions over large spatial extents.

  8. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration proposes funding the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project in cooperation with the Colville Convederated Tribes and Bureau of Indian Affairs. This Preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. The Propose action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wild life habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  9. Mapping wintering waterfowl distributions using weather surveillance radar.

    PubMed

    Buler, Jeffrey J; Randall, Lori A; Fleskes, Joseph P; Barrow, Wylie C; Bogart, Tianna; Kluver, Daria

    2012-01-01

    The current network of weather surveillance radars within the United States readily detects flying birds and has proven to be a useful remote-sensing tool for ornithological study. Radar reflectivity measures serve as an index to bird density and have been used to quantitatively map landbird distributions during migratory stopover by sampling birds aloft at the onset of nocturnal migratory flights. Our objective was to further develop and validate a similar approach for mapping wintering waterfowl distributions using weather surveillance radar observations at the onset of evening flights. We evaluated data from the Sacramento, CA radar (KDAX) during winters 1998-1999 and 1999-2000. We determined an optimal sampling time by evaluating the accuracy and precision of radar observations at different times during the onset of evening flight relative to observed diurnal distributions of radio-marked birds on the ground. The mean time of evening flight initiation occurred 23 min after sunset with the strongest correlations between reflectivity and waterfowl density on the ground occurring almost immediately after flight initiation. Radar measures became more spatially homogeneous as evening flight progressed because birds dispersed from their departure locations. Radars effectively detected birds to a mean maximum range of 83 km during the first 20 min of evening flight. Using a sun elevation angle of -5° (28 min after sunset) as our optimal sampling time, we validated our approach using KDAX data and additional data from the Beale Air Force Base, CA (KBBX) radar during winter 1998-1999. Bias-adjusted radar reflectivity of waterfowl aloft was positively related to the observed diurnal density of radio-marked waterfowl locations on the ground. Thus, weather radars provide accurate measures of relative wintering waterfowl density that can be used to comprehensively map their distributions over large spatial extents.

  10. Ice-dependent winter survival of juvenile Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Hedger, R D; Næsje, T F; Fiske, P; Ugedal, O; Finstad, A G; Thorstad, E B

    2013-03-01

    Changes in snow and ice conditions are some of the most distinctive impacts of global warming in cold temperate and Arctic regions, altering the environment during a critical period for survival for most animals. Laboratories studies have suggested that reduced ice cover may reduce the survival of stream dwelling fishes in Northern environments. This, however, has not been empirically investigated in natural populations in large rivers. Here, we examine how the winter survival of juvenile Atlantic salmon in a large natural river, the River Alta (Norway, 70°N), is affected by the presence or absence of surface ice. Apparent survival rates for size classes corresponding to parr and presmolts were estimated using capture-mark-recapture and Cormack-Jolly-Seber models for an ice-covered and an ice-free site. Apparent survival (Φ) in the ice-covered site was greater than in the ice-free site, but did not depend on size class (0.64 for both parr and presmolt). In contrast, apparent survival in the ice-free site was lower for larger individuals (0.33) than smaller individuals (0.45). The over-winter decline in storage energy was greater for the ice-free site than the ice-covered site, suggesting that environmental conditions in the ice-free site caused a strong depletion in energy reserves likely affecting survival. Our findings highlight the importance of surface ice for the winter survival of juvenile fish, thus, underpinning that climate change, by reducing ice cover, may have a negative effect on the survival of fish adapted to ice-covered habitats during winter.

  11. Sea birds wintering off Maryland shores, 1972-73

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowlett, R.A.

    1973-01-01

    During the winter of 1972-73, studies were conducted to determine the status and distribution of pelagic species of birds occurring at sea as far as 38 miles east of Ocean City, Md. The wintering off-shore avifauna was found to be impressively rich in variety of species and numbers of individuals. Sightings included Fulmar and Skua, both first sight records for Maryland. Large alcids, especially Razorbills, were observed in unprecedented numbers and on five of the seven trips undertaken. Thick-billed Murre was sighted once and Dovekie, once. A Pomarine Jaeger was a mid-winter first for Maryland. Black-legged Kittiwakes were sighted on all seven trips, with age ratios consistently averaging about three adults to one immature. Likewise, Gannets were observed on all seven trips, 7.5 adults to one immature. Iceland Gulls were seen twice and Black-headed Gulls on three trips. Evidence of a definite migration was noted on Nov. 19, as Gannets were observed flying south in a narrow band, four miles wide, five to nine miles east of Ocean City, and Black-legged Kittiwakes, likewise, were heading south in a steady stream no closer than 14 miles east of Ocean City. Data accumulated from December through March suggest most pelagics occurring in Maryland waters during this period were truly wintering and not transients. This report is concerned primarily with the true pelagics normally found well away from the sight of land and does not dwell on those 'sea birds' commonly seen in immediate coastal waters.

  12. Mapping Wintering Waterfowl Distributions Using Weather Surveillance Radar

    PubMed Central

    Buler, Jeffrey J.; Randall, Lori A.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Bogart, Tianna; Kluver, Daria

    2012-01-01

    The current network of weather surveillance radars within the United States readily detects flying birds and has proven to be a useful remote-sensing tool for ornithological study. Radar reflectivity measures serve as an index to bird density and have been used to quantitatively map landbird distributions during migratory stopover by sampling birds aloft at the onset of nocturnal migratory flights. Our objective was to further develop and validate a similar approach for mapping wintering waterfowl distributions using weather surveillance radar observations at the onset of evening flights. We evaluated data from the Sacramento, CA radar (KDAX) during winters 1998–1999 and 1999–2000. We determined an optimal sampling time by evaluating the accuracy and precision of radar observations at different times during the onset of evening flight relative to observed diurnal distributions of radio-marked birds on the ground. The mean time of evening flight initiation occurred 23 min after sunset with the strongest correlations between reflectivity and waterfowl density on the ground occurring almost immediately after flight initiation. Radar measures became more spatially homogeneous as evening flight progressed because birds dispersed from their departure locations. Radars effectively detected birds to a mean maximum range of 83 km during the first 20 min of evening flight. Using a sun elevation angle of −5° (28 min after sunset) as our optimal sampling time, we validated our approach using KDAX data and additional data from the Beale Air Force Base, CA (KBBX) radar during winter 1998–1999. Bias-adjusted radar reflectivity of waterfowl aloft was positively related to the observed diurnal density of radio-marked waterfowl locations on the ground. Thus, weather radars provide accurate measures of relative wintering waterfowl density that can be used to comprehensively map their distributions over large spatial extents. PMID:22911816

  13. Farmers’ Market Expands to Offer Products in Winter | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer The 2013 National Cancer Institute (NCI) at Frederick Farmers’ Market regular season may have closed, but that doesn’t mean customers who want fresh produce, handmade crafts, and other homemade goodies from local vendors are out of luck. Winter Markets, which began Jan. 7, will be held every other Tuesday, from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m., in front of Building 549 or in the Café Room, depending on the weather.

  14. Winter and summer simulations with the GLAS climate model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukla, J.; Straus, D.; Randall, D.; Sud, Y.; Marx, L.

    1981-01-01

    The GLAS climate model is a general circulation model based on the primitive equations in sigma coordinates on a global domain in the presence of orography. The model incorporates parameterizations of the effects of radiation, convection, large scale latent heat release, turbulent and boundary layer fluxes, and ground hydrology. Winter and summer simulations were carried out with this model, and the resulting data are compared to observations.

  15. Directional scattering properties of a winter deciduous hardwood canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, Daniel S.; Newcomb, W. Wayne

    1987-01-01

    The unique directional scattering properties of a deciduous hardwood forest without leaves during the winter period was measured in a visible and near-infrared band. A radiative transfer model was used to explore the scattering properties of such a forest. The reflectance distributions look similar to sparse homogeneous vegetation canopies. The overall reflectance distribution is a combination of the extreme azimuthal scattering behavior of tree limbs and the more typical scattering behavior of understory litter.

  16. Wintering birds in riverine tree communities: Yakima River flood plain

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, W.H.

    1982-04-01

    For 20 years there has been little change in wintering bird species composition or their relative abundance in a Yakima River riverine tree community. Clandestine tree cutting has opened the community to the point where it is not acceptable as a daytime roost for the Great Horned Owl. In 1981-1982 the Robin was the most abundant bird observed. It was not observed in surveys conducted 10 and 20 years ago. 4 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Salt Lake City, situated near the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake, is host to the 2002 Winter Olympic Games, which open Friday, February 8. Venues for five of the scheduled events are at city (indoor) locations, and five in mountain (outdoor) facilities. All ten can be found within the area contained in these images. Some of the outdoor events take place at Ogden, situated north of Salt Lake City and at Park City, located to the east. Salt Lake City is surrounded by mountains including the Wasatch Range to the east, and the temperature difference between the Great Salt Lake and the overlying atmosphere enhances the moisture content of winter storms. These factors, in combination with natural cloud seeding by salt crystals from the lake, are believed to result in greater snowfall in neighboring areas compared to more distant locales. In addition to the obvious difference in snow cover between the winter and summer views, water color changes in parts of the Great Salt Lake are apparent in these images. The distinctly different coloration between the northern and southern arms of the Great Salt Lake is the result of a rock-filled causeway built in 1953 to support a permanent railroad. The causeway has resulted in decreased circulation between the two arms and higher salinity on the northern side. The southern part of the lake includes the large Antelope Island, and at full resolution a bridge connecting it to the mainland can be discerned. These images are natural color views acquired on February 8, 2001 and June 16, 2001, respectively. Each image represents an area of about 220 kilometers x 285 kilometers. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

  18. Wintering localities of Cooper's hawks nesting in northeastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    The life span of the Cooper's Hawks banded between 1974 and 1979 is now believed completed. The band recoveries provide the first information on the migratory characteristics of the species in the Pacific Northwest. Cooper's Hawks nesting in northeastern Oregon winter in western Mexico. The second-year female shot near Zihuatanejo, Guerrero, Mexico on November, 12, 1977, is one of the southernmost records for the species.

  19. Isotopic composition of winter precipitation in Altai foothills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malygina, N. S.; Eirich, A. N.; Papina, T. S.

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, some general circulation models have been improved by using stable water isotopologues, such as HDO (δD) and H2 18O (δ18O). In this paper, the results of a study of the isotopic composition of precipitation sampled in the winter seasons of 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 in Altai foothills are presented. The isotopic composition varied greatly: from -17.4 ‰ to -30.63 ‰ for δ18O and from -132.1 ‰ to -235.0 ‰ for δD in 2014-2015; from -15.9 %„ to -26.8 ‰ for δ18D and from -118.5 ‰ to -207.7 ‰ for δD in 2015-2016. The weighted average values of δ18O and δD for both seasons were close to each other (-21.2 ‰ and -160.1 ‰ for the first season and -20.4 ‰ and -157.5 ‰ for the second season), while the values of dexc differed significantly. A trajectory analysis (by the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory - (HYSPLIT) model) has shown that the difference in the isotopic composition of the precipitation is largely associated with the change of the main source regions of atmospheric moisture, namely, the change of the North Atlantic waters (the 2014-2015 winter season) for the inland waters (the 2015-2016 winter season). A comparison of the results of an isotopic analysis has shown good agreement with data of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) interpolated for 1960-2010. Thus, with a proper interpretation the data of the isotopic composition of the winter precipitation in Altai foothills can be used for this territory as an alternative source of the GNIP network data.

  20. OIT Times Newsletter: Volume 3, Number 1, Winter 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Sousa, L.

    1999-12-16

    The Winter 2000 edition of the OIT Times newsletter, a quarterly publication produced by the Office of Industrial Technologies, highlights the 1999 start-up projects, announces the OIT solicitation schedule for FY2000, and features the success of the Ohio diecasting showcase. One of the quarterly highlights was Secretary Richardson's presentation of a Certificate of Partnership to Malden Mills CEO Aaron Feuerstein at the dedication of the plant's new, advanced cogeneration system.

  1. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Northern pintail (gulf coast wintering)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Kantrud, Harold A.

    1986-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a model for evaluating wintering habitat quality for northern pintail (Anas acuta) along the Gulf of Mexico coast. The model is scaled to produce an index between unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimal habitat). Habitat suitability index models are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for model application and techniques for measuring model variables are provided.

  2. Wet Winters in the Eastern Siberian Arctic during the Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, B.; Jahren, H.; Davydov, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    Eastern Siberia (a 7.3 million km2 area, similar to Australia in size) features numerous plant fossil localities, many with spectacularly preserved Neogene fossils (e.g., Baekovo and Nekkeiveem; Khapchan-Timmerdekh; Mamontova Gora). Although these sites have been described in full using classical methods (e.g., Baranova and Grinenko, 1989; Baranova et al., 1970; Biske, 1970; Dorofeev, 1969; Grinenko et al., 1989; Nikitin, 2006, 2007), geochemical proxy techniques have not yet been applied. Here we report the first stable isotope analyses of fossil wood from northeastern Siberia: 512 high-resolution intra-ring analyses of carbon isotopes (IRA-δ13C) in 6 specimens of Miocene wood from the Finish Creek site, located near Cherskiy, Sakha Republic, Russia. Using our model for reconstructing the ratio of summer to winter precipitation (Ps/Pw) from IRA-δ13C (Schubert and Jahren, 2011, GCA), we quantified the seasonal precipitation in far northeastern Siberia (~69 oN) during the Miocene. Although the median value for Ps/Pw during the Miocene was similar to today (Ps/Pw = ~2), we observed much greater variability in Ps/Pw during the Miocene than today. Specifically, years with Ps/Pw < 1/2 occurred ~4 times more frequently during the Miocene than today. When taken with independent estimates of mean annual precipitation based on nearest living relatives (581 to 1206 mm; Popova et al., 2012), our Miocene values for Ps/Pw suggest at least 2.8 times greater winter precipitation during the Miocene relative to today, and at least 5.5 times greater winter precipitation than today in ~10% of years sampled (6-month winter precipitation averages ~70 mm/yr today). Our result differentiates the Siberian Arctic Miocene from the Canadian Arctic Eocene which featured wet summers in the Eocene Arctic of Canada using similar methods, highlighting spatial and temporal variability in the Arctic paleoclimate record of the middle Cenozoic.

  3. The use of fields at night by wintering American woodcock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berdeen, James; Krementz, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    Because limited information is available regarding preferences for nocturnal habitat during winter, we studied use of nocturnal habitats by American woodcock (Scolopax minor) wintering in the Georgia Piedmont (1994-95). During the evening crepuscular period, woodcock on the wintering grounds move from forested to field habitats, presumably to feed, conduct courtship displays, roost, and avoid predators. We conducted crepuscular flight surveys and tracked radiomarked woodcock to compare the use of fields of different sizes (40.0 ha) and types (seed tree-clearcuts, fallow-old fields, hayfields, pastures). Fields ???5.5 ha were used more frequently than fields <5.5 ha (P < 0.001). Seed tree-clearcuts and fallow-old fields were more frequently used than pastures (P = 0.003), Woodcock also most frequently used fields with greater foliage volume at 0.8-2.0 m in height and a high percentage of bare soil (P < 0.001). Nocturnal use of fields or forests by radiomarked woodcock did not differ among age or sex classes. However, females moved an average of 230 ?? 32.1 m (x?? ?? SE) between diurnal and nocturnal locations, while males moved 525 ?? 53.1 m (P = 0.085). Movements differed among moon phases (P < 0.003), ranging from 579 ?? 79.6 m during the new moon to 213 ?? 50.5 m during the full moon. To manage habitat on the wintering grounds, seed tree-clearcuts and fallow-old fields should be created or maintained near preferred diurnal habitats.

  4. Photoheterotrophic microbes in the Arctic Ocean in summer and winter.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Matthew T; Kirchman, David L

    2009-08-01

    Photoheterotrophic microbes, which are capable of utilizing dissolved organic materials and harvesting light energy, include coccoid cyanobacteria (Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus), aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria, and proteorhodopsin (PR)-containing bacteria. Our knowledge of photoheterotrophic microbes is largely incomplete, especially for high-latitude waters such as the Arctic Ocean, where photoheterotrophs may have special ecological relationships and distinct biogeochemical impacts due to extremes in day length and seasonal ice cover. These microbes were examined by epifluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays for PR and a gene diagnostic of AAP bacteria (pufM). The abundance of AAP bacteria and PR-containing bacteria decreased from summer to winter, in parallel with a threefold decrease in the total prokaryotic community. In contrast, the abundance of Synechococcus organisms did not decrease in winter, suggesting that their growth was supported by organic substrates. Results from QPCR assays revealed no substantial shifts in the community structure of AAP bacteria and PR-containing bacteria. However, Arctic PR genes were different from those found at lower latitudes, and surprisingly, they were not similar to those in Antarctic coastal waters. Photoheterotrophic microbes appear to compete successfully with strict heterotrophs during winter darkness below the ice, but AAP bacteria and PR-containing bacteria do not behave as superior competitors during the summer.

  5. Fatty acid composition of fat depots in wintering Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    I determined the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, abdominal, visceral, and leg saddle depots in adult female Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) wintering in north-central Missouri during October 1984-March 1985. Mean levels of C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3 generally were highest in the subcutaneous and abdominal depots. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fats was highest in the leg saddle depot and lowest in the abdominal depot. I also assessed the differences among sexes, seasons, and years in fatty acid composition of abdominal fat depots in adult geese collected during October-March, 1985-1987. Adult females had consistently higher levels of C14:0 in abdominal depots than males. Fatty acid composition of the abdominal depot differed among years but not by season. In the abdominal depot, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, and C18:1 were higher in 1986-1987 compared with the previous two years, whereas C18:3 was highest in 1984-1985. Differences among years reflected changes in winter diet. Fatty acids of wintering geese were similar to those previously found in breeding Canada Geese.

  6. Diet of western Burrowing Owls wintering in southern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Littles, C.J.; Williford, D.; Skoruppa, M.K.; Woodin, M.C.; Hickman, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    Winter diets of the western Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) are little known. We determined the diet of western Burrowing Owls wintering in southern Texas by analyzing the contents of 182 pellets collected over four winters (1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2002-2003, and 2003-2004) in three habitat types (agricultural, mainland grassland, and barrier island). Remains of a total of 7476 prey items were recovered, 98% of which were arthropods. Gryllidae (crickets) formed the largest component (50%) of the prey, followed by lepidopteran larvae (13%), beetles (8%), spiders (7%), and earwigs (6%). Although vertebrates, primarily small mammals and birds, represented only 2% of prey items by number, they represented most (71%) of the biomass. Northern pygmy mice (Baiomys taylori) and fulvous harvest mice (Reithrodontomys fulveccens) were the two most frequently consumed vertebrate species. In all habitats, arthropods, especially orthopterans, were the primary prey item by number, whereas vertebrates, primarily small mammals, were the most important by biomass. Greater consumption of arthropods by Burrowing Owls in agricultural areas may be a factor contributing to owl use of these highly altered environments. ?? 2007 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  7. Nuclear winter: implications for US and Soviet nuclear strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, P.J.

    1984-12-01

    In November 1983 Dr. Carl Sagan and his colleagues reported to press on the results of their study of the atmospheric consequences of nuclear war. The TTAPS study found that for a wide range of possible U.S. -Soviet nuclear exchanges, including relatively small ones, the fires from nuclear detonations would inject into the stratosphere quantities of dust and soot that would obscure sunlight for months. Under the cloud, which would spread over most of the Northern Hemisphere, temperatures might drop scores of degrees, well below the freezing point of water; thus, nuclear winter. The TTAPS team's findings suggested that the consequences of a nuclear war might be even more gruesome than previously supposed, and the long-term climatic and biological results might be nearly as severe for a war of 100 megatons as for 5,000. From the point of view of informing policymakers and the public concerning the consequences of wars involving nuclear weapons, the politicization of the nuclear winter issue is unfortunate. We can hope that in the next few years the criticism and defense of the initial TTAPS work will give rise to significant additional analyses, to illuminate the question. Realistically, further study will probably include both confirmations and contradictions of the original findings, without necessarily resolving the issue. Sadly, the surrounding political atmosphere may obstruct sober consideration of the policy implications of the possibility of nuclear winter.

  8. Models of warm and cold regimes of the winter stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guryanov, Vladimir

    Research of fields of geopotential height, temperature, zonal and meridional wind in stratosphere was carried out using the Met Office data for winter seasons from 1991/1992 to 2006-2007. The above analyzes shows that change within season thermodynamic values at high latitudes during the winter is higher than seasonal or longitudinal change. Hence the average models of the cold periods of high latitudes and average monthly values have a limited applicability. In 1982 International Standard Organization (ISO) also acknowledged the necessity for creating of special models for "warm" and "cold" regimes of the high latitude winter stratosphere. Warm and cold stratosphere states were distinguished by the presence or absence of stratospheric warmings of variable intensity exceeding 10 hPa. Special maps and latitude-longitude cuts of mean values and mean square deviations of the geopotential height, temperature, zonal and meridional wind have been created for these regimes. Models of "warm" and "cold" regimes also included zonal harmonics with wave numbers 1 and 2 for all observed meteorological fields

  9. Decreased winter severity increases viability of a montane frog population

    PubMed Central

    McCaffery, Rebecca M.; Maxell, Bryce A.

    2010-01-01

    Many proximate causes of global amphibian declines have been well documented, but the role that climate change has played and will play in this crisis remains ambiguous for many species. Breeding phenology and disease outbreaks have been associated with warming temperatures, but, to date, few studies have evaluated effects of climate change on individual vital rates and subsequent population dynamics of amphibians. We evaluated relationships among local climate variables, annual survival and fecundity, and population growth rates from a 9-year demographic study of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) in the Bitterroot Mountains of Montana. We documented an increase in survival and breeding probability as severity of winter decreased. Therefore, a warming climate with less severe winters is likely to promote population viability in this montane frog population. More generally, amphibians and other ectotherms inhabiting alpine or boreal habitats at or near their thermal ecological limits may benefit from the milder winters provided by a warming climate as long as suitable habitats remain intact. A more thorough understanding of how climate change is expected to benefit or harm amphibian populations at different latitudes and elevations is essential for determining the best strategies to conserve viable populations and allow for gene flow and shifts in geographic range. PMID:20421473

  10. Thermal balance of cattle grazing winter range: model application.

    PubMed

    Keren, E N; Olson, B E

    2006-05-01

    Beef cattle grazing semiarid foothill rangeland of the Northern Rockies during winter may be exposed to cold temperatures and high winds while grazing pastures with low nutritional value. Cattle can physiologically and behaviorally respond to the changing environment to lower their metabolic requirements and reduce the effects of cold exposure. Requirements of grazing cattle may be overpredicted with models developed in controlled settings that do not account for energy-conserving behaviors. We refined a simple thermal balance equation to model heat exchange of free-ranging cattle. We accounted for the complex interactions between animal behavior and the changing natural environment by applying the insulation characteristics of the cattle's tissue and coat to a simple geometric shape of an asymmetric ellipsoid at different orientations to the sun and wind. We compared the model predictions with heat production measured in 3 studies, and in all cases the model predictions were similar to those reported. Model simulations indicate behaviors, such as lying and orientation to the sun, mitigated the effects of extreme weather. For many combinations of winter weather variables, metabolic requirements increased only slightly due to cold exposure of mature beef cattle in a near-maintenance state. The results indicate that solar radiation contributes strongly to the thermal balance of a cow. Thus, previous models that do not account for the irradiative environment may overestimate metabolic requirements of cattle acclimated to grazing winter range.

  11. Sleep and Mood During A Winter in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Houseal, Matt; Miller, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Seasonal variations in sleep characteristics and their association with changes in mood were examined in 91 American men and women also who spent the 1991 austral winter at three different research stations in Antarctica. Measures of total hours of sleep over a 24-hr period, duration of longest (i.e.,"nighttime") sleep event, number of sleep events, time of sleep onset, and quality of sleep remained unchanged over the course of the austral winter (March through October). However, exposure to total darkness based on station latitude was significantly associated with total hours of sleep, duration of are longest sleep event, time of sleep onset, and quality of sleep. Reported vigor the previous month was a significant independent predictor of changes in all five sleep measures; previous month's measures of all six POMS subscales were significant independent predictors of sleep quality. Sleep characteristics were significant independent predictors of vigor and confusion the following month; total sleep, longest sleep event, sleep onset and sleep quality were significant independent predictors of tension-anxiety and depression. Changes in mood during the austral winter are preceded by changes in sleep characteristics, but prolonged exposure to the photoperiodicity characteristic of the high latitudes appears to be associated with improved sleep. In turn, mood changes appear to affect certain sleep characteristics, especially sleep quality.

  12. [Spatial distribution characteristics of NMHCs during winter haze in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Duan, Jing-Chun; Peng, Yan-Chun; Tan, Ji-Hua; Hao, Ji-Ming; Chai, Fa-He

    2013-12-01

    NMHCs and NOx samples were simultaneously collected and analyzed in six urban and suburban representative sampling sites (Sihuan, Tian'anmen, Pinguoyuan, Fatou, Beijing Airport and Miyun) during a typical haze period in winter 2005, Beijing. The concentrations of NMHCs during the sampling period in descending order were: Sihuan (1101.29 microg x m(-3)) > Fatou (692.40 microg x m(-3)) >Tian'anmen (653.28 microg x m(-3)) >Pinguoyuan (370.27 microg x m(-3)) > Beijing Airport (350.36 microg x m(-3)) > Miyun (199.97 microg x m(-3)). Atmospheric benzene pollution in Beijing was rather serious. The ratio of NMHCs/NOx ranged from 2.1 to 6.3, indicating that the peak ozone concentrations in urban Beijing were controlled by VOCs during the sampling period. Analysis of propylene equivalent concentration and ozone formation potential showed that the NMHCs reactivity descended in the order of Sihuan > Fatou > Tian'anmen > Pinguoyuan > Beijing Airport > Miyun. B/T values (0.52 to 0.76) indicated that besides motor vehicle emission, coal combustion and other emission sources were also the sources of NHMCs in Beijing in winter. The spatial variations of isoprene in Beijing indicated that the contribution of anthropogenic sources to isoprene increased and the emissions by biogenic sources decreased in winter. The spatial variations of propane and butane indicated that LPG emissions existed in the urban region of Beijing.

  13. Winter survival of Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola in central Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aradis, A.; Miller, M.W.; Landucci, G.; Ruda, P.; Taddei, S.; Spina, F.

    2008-01-01

    The Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola is a popular game bird in much of Europe. However, little is known about its population dynamics. We estimated winter survival of woodcock in a protected area with no hunting in central Italy. We radio-tagged 68 woodcocks with battery-powered radio-transmitters during 2001-2005. Woodcocks were captured in fields at night from November through February and fitted with radios. Birds were classified on capture as juveniles or adults using plumage characteristics. Woodcocks were relocated daily through March of each year or until they died, disappeared from the study area, or until their radio failed. We constructed a set of eight competing models of daily survival for the period 1 December - 28 February. Estimates of survival were obtained using the program SURVIV and Akaike's Information Criteria. The best model suggested daily survival was a constant 0.9985 (95% CI = 0.9972-0.9998), corresponding to a survival rate of 0.88 (SE = 0.05) for the 90-day winter study period. Our estimate of juvenile survival is higher than previously reported, and may reflect the protected status of the study area. Our estimates of winter survival may be helpful in managing harvested woodcock populations as well as in conserving populations in an increasingly urbanised environment. ?? Wildlife Biology (2008).

  14. Winter severity determines functional trait composition of phytoplankton in seasonally ice-covered lakes.

    PubMed

    Özkundakci, Deniz; Gsell, Alena S; Hintze, Thomas; Täuscher, Helgard; Adrian, Rita

    2016-01-01

    How climate change will affect the community dynamics and functionality of lake ecosystems during winter is still little understood. This is also true for phytoplankton in seasonally ice-covered temperate lakes which are particularly vulnerable to the presence or absence of ice. We examined changes in pelagic phytoplankton winter community structure in a north temperate lake (Müggelsee, Germany), covering 18 winters between 1995 and 2013. We tested how phytoplankton taxa composition varied along a winter-severity gradient and to what extent winter severity shaped the functional trait composition of overwintering phytoplankton communities using multivariate statistical analyses and a functional trait-based approach. We hypothesized that overwintering phytoplankton communities are dominated by taxa with trait combinations corresponding to the prevailing winter water column conditions, using ice thickness measurements as a winter-severity indicator. Winter severity had little effect on univariate diversity indicators (taxon richness and evenness), but a strong relationship was found between the phytoplankton community structure and winter severity when taxon trait identity was taken into account. Species responses to winter severity were mediated by the key functional traits: motility, nutritional mode, and the ability to form resting stages. Accordingly, one or the other of two functional groups dominated the phytoplankton biomass during mild winters (i.e., thin or no ice cover; phototrophic taxa) or severe winters (i.e., thick ice cover; exclusively motile taxa). Based on predicted milder winters for temperate regions and a reduction in ice-cover durations, phytoplankton communities during winter can be expected to comprise taxa that have a relative advantage when the water column is well mixed (i.e., need not be motile) and light is less limiting (i.e., need not be mixotrophic). A potential implication of this result is that winter severity promotes different

  15. [Catering for client groups during the XXII Olympic winter games and XI Paralympic winter games of 2014 in Sochi].

    PubMed

    Popova, A Yu; Gus'kov, A S; Ivanov, G E; Chikina, L V; Klindukhov, V P; Nikolaevich, P N; Grechanaya, T V; Balaeva, M I; Vechernyaya, L S; Vechernyaya, E A; Bozhko, I I; Parkhomenko, V V; Kulichenko, O A; Tushina, O V; Manin, E A; Taran, T V

    2016-01-01

    The problems of catering control various client groups during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi is one of the priorities of the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population during mass events. The data on the order of nutrition of guests and participants of the games, control of food items, sanitary and microbiological monitoring of drinking water, food raw materials and products are presented. It is noted that the ongoing supervisory activities contributed to the sanitary and epidemiological well-being during the Games. The purpose of this study was to lighting modern achievements in the field of nutrition and food microbiology in the period of the Olympic Games and the determination of their value to the further improvement and use at when conducting mass gatherings.

  16. Interdecadal and Interannual Variability of Winter Precipitation in Southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Fraedrich, K.; Zhu, X.; Sielmann, F.

    2013-12-01

    Interdecadal variability of observed winter (DJF) precipitation in Southeast China (1961 to 2010) is characterized by the first EOF of the three-monthly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) subjected to a 9-year running mean, while the differences from the original describe the interannual fluctuations. For interdecadal time scales the dominating spatial modes represent monopole features over Southeast China involving the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over western Pacific. Dynamic composite analysis (based on NCEP/NCAR and ERA-40 reanalyzes) reveals the following results: (i) Interdecadal SPI-variations show a trend from a dryer state in the 1970s via an increase during the 1980s towards stabilization of wetter conditions commencing with the 1990s. (ii) In mid-to-high latitudes the weakened southward flow of polar airmasses induces low-level warming over Eurasia due to stronger Arctic Oscillation (AO) by warmer zonal temperature advection. This indicates that the precipitation increase in Southeast is attributed circulation anomalies over mid-to-high latitudes which are related to AO. (iii) The abnormal moisture flux along the southwestern boundary of the abnormal anticyclone over south Japan (and its anomalous south-easterlies) is modulated by the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over Western Pacific; a positive (negative) SST anomaly will strengthen (weaken) the warm and moist air flow, leading to abundant (less) precipitation in Southeast China. This demonstrates the collaborative effect of AO and SST anomalies in determining the nonlinear trend observed in winter precipitation over Southeast China. For interannual time scales the dominating spatial pattern also represents monopole patterns. Composite analysis (with resampling test) of the associated circulation anomalies reveals the following results: (i) The wet (dry) winter is a result of the strengthened (weakened) northward warm moist air over east coast of

  17. The Remarkable 2003-2004 Winter and Other Recent Warm Winters in the Arctic Stratosphere Since the Late 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, Gloria L.; Krueger, Kirstin; Sabutis, Joseph L.; Sena, Sara Amina; Pawson, Steven

    2004-01-01

    The 2003-2004 Arctic winter was remarkable in the 40-year record of meteorological analyses. A major warming beginning in early January 2004 led to nearly two months of vortex disruption with high-latitude easterlies in the middle to lower stratosphere. The upper stratospheric vortex broke up in late December, but began to recover by early January, and in February and March was the strongest since regular observations began in 1979. The lower stratospheric vortex broke up in late January. Comparison with two previous years, 1984-1985 and 1986-1987, with prolonged mid-winter warming periods shows unique characteristics of the 2003-2004 warming period: The length of the vortex disruption, the strong and rapid recovery in the upper stratosphere, and the slow progression of the warming from upper to lower stratosphere. January 2004 zonal mean winds in the middle and lower stratosphere were over two standard deviations below average. Examination of past variability shows that the recent frequency of major stratospheric warmings (seven in the past six years) is unprecedented. Lower stratospheric temperatures were unusually high during six of the past seven years, with five having much lower than usual potential for PSC formation and ozone loss (nearly none in 1998-1999, 2001-2002 and 2003-2004, and very little in 1997-1998 and 2000-2001). Middle and upper stratospheric temperatures, however, were unusually low during and after February. The pattern of five of the last seven years with very low PSC potential would be expected to occur randomly once every approximately 850 years. This cluster of warm winters, immediately following a period of unusually cold winters, may have important implications for possible changes in interannual variability and for determination and attribution of trends in stratospheric temperatures and ozone.

  18. Comparison of snowpack and winter wet-deposition chemistry in the Rocky Mountains, USA: Implications for winter dry deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clow, David W.; Ingersoll, George P.; Mast, M. Alisa; Turk, John T.; Campbell, Donald H.

    2002-01-01

    Depth-integrated snowpack chemistry was measured just prior to maximum snowpack depth during the winters of 1992-1999 at 12 sites co-located with National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trend Network (NADP/NTN) sites in the central and southern Rocky Mountains, USA. Winter volume-weighted mean wet-deposition concentrations were calculated for the NADP/NTN sites, and the data were compared to snowpack concentrations using the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. No statistically significant differences were indicated in concentrations of SO42- or NO3- (p>0.1). Small, but statistically significant differences (p???0.03) were indicated for all other solutes analyzed. Differences were largest for Ca2+ concentrations, which on average were 2.3??eql-1 (43%) higher in the snowpack than in winter NADP/NTN samples. Eolian carbonate dust appeared to influence snowpack chemistry through both wet and dry deposition, and the effect increased from north to south. Dry deposition of eolian carbonates was estimated to have neutralized an average of 6.9??eql-1 and a maximum of 12??eql-1 of snowpack acidity at the southernmost sites. The good agreement between snowpack and winter NADP/NTN SO42- and NO3- concentrations indicates that for those solutes the two data sets can be combined to increase data density in high-elevation areas, where few NADP/NTN sites exist. This combination of data sets will allow for better estimates of atmospheric deposition of SO42- and NO3- across the Rocky Mountain region.

  19. Effects of winter burning and structural marsh management on vegetation and winter bird abundance in the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gabrey, S.W.; Afton, A.D.; Wilson, B.C.

    1999-01-01

    Marshes in the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain provide important winter habitats for many species of birds. Many of these marshes are managed intensively through a combination of fall/winter burning and construction of impoundments to improve wintering waterfowl habitat, reduce wetland loss, and create emergent wetlands. Little information is available on effects of this management on wintering birds, particularly passerines. We conducted experimental burns in impounded and unimpounded marshes on Rockefeller State Wildlife Refuge in southwest Louisiana and recorded species composition and abundance of birds during the 1996 and 1997 winters. We found that burning and impoundment influenced vegetation structure, which in turn influenced bird abundance and species composition. Blackbirds (Icteridae) preferred recently burned plots. Sparrows (Emberizidae) and wrens (Troglodytidae) avoided recently burned plots but recolonized these plots after one year of vegetation recovery. Sparrows and wrens present in burned plots during the first winter following burning generally were observed in scattered patches of unburned vegetation. Suitability of Chenier Plain marshes as winter habitat for several bird species was reduced during the winter in which burning was conducted, particularly if a high proportion of the plot was burned. We recommend that patchy burns be used, at both the landscape level and within specific burned areas, to achieve management objectives and still provide suitable winter habitat for non-target species. Although many groups of birds depend on Chenier Plain marshes for winter habitat, these groups differ in their specific habitat requirements. We recommend that a diverse wetland complex (e.g., impoundments managed for waterfowl foraging habitat interpersed with those managed for passerine winter cover) be maintained.

  20. Do we have to correct winter precipitation for nowcast applications?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfricht, Kay; Koch, Roland; Olefs, Marc

    2016-04-01

    In mountain regions like the Alps, a significant fraction of the annual precipitation falls as snow. There is an increasing demand for high-quality analysis, nowcast and short-range forecasts of snowfall. Operational services, such as traffic maintenance, real-time flood-warning systems of hydrological services and avalanche warning products, but also hydropower companies and ski resorts need reliable information on precipitation, snow depth and the corresponding snow water equivalent. However, producing accurate precipitation maps in complex terrain using only remote sensing techniques and uncorrected rain gauge data is a difficult task. In cold and windy conditions, conventional rain gauge measurements are prone to large errors when snow passes the rain gauge and sublimation occurs at heated devices. Empirical correction formulas are given by the WMO to compensate the potential undercatch (Goodison, 2008). The project pluSnow aims to combine snow depth measurements and precipitation data to minimize the error of gauge undercatch on the basis of snow depth data from 63 automatic weather stations (TAWES), operated by the Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG). These TAWES are equipped with SHM30 laser sensors to measure snow depth with high accuracy and temporal resolution of 0.01 m and 10 minutes, respectively. The pluSnow project will contribute to existing research efforts around the globe which focus on improving the precision of solid precipitation measurements. Here we present a first study based on the original TAWES data between 2006 and 2015. The fraction of solid precipitation to total winter precipitation between November and April (NDJFMA) and the potential undercatch of measured precipitation following Goodison (2008) for all TAWES sorted by altitude are analysed. Examples of the TAWES data in the original high temporal resolution of 10 min are given. The two main parameters used for the correction of precipitation

  1. Population size and winter distribution of eastern American oystercatchers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, S.C.; Schulte, Shiloh A.; Harrington, B.; Winn, Brad; Bart, J.; Howe, M.

    2005-01-01

    Conservation of the eastern subspecies of the American oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus palliatus) is a high priority in the U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plan, but previous population estimates were unreliable, information on distribution and habitat associations during winter was incomplete, and methods for long-term monitoring had not been developed prior to this survey. We completed the aerial survey proposed in the U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plan to determine population size, winter distribution, and habitat associations. We conducted coastal aerial surveys from New Jersey to Texas during November 2002 to February 2003. This area comprised the entire wintering range of the eastern American oystercatcher within the United States. Surveys covered all suitable habitat in the United States for the subspecies, partitioned into 3 survey strata: known roost sites, high-use habitat, and inter-coastal tidal habitat. We determined known roost sites from extensive consultation with biologists and local experts in each state. High-use habitat included sand islands, sand spits at inlets, shell rakes, and oyster reefs. Partner organizations conducted ground counts in most states. We used high resolution still photography to determine detection rates for estimates of the number of birds in particular flocks, and we used ground counts to determine detection rates of flocks. Using a combination of ground and aerial counts, we estimated the population of eastern American oystercatchers to be 10,971 +/- 298. Aerial surveys can serve an important management function for shorebirds and possibly other coastal waterbirds by providing population status and trend information across a wide geographic scale.

  2. Depletions in winter total ozone values over southern England

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapworth, A.

    1994-01-01

    A study has been made of the recently re-evaluated time series of daily total ozone values for the period 1979 to 1992 for southern England. The series consists of measurements made at two stations, Bracknell and Camborne. The series shows a steady decline in ozone values in the spring months over the period, and this is consistent with data from an earlier decade that has been published but not re-evaluated. Of exceptional note is the monthly mean for January 1992 which was very significantly reduced from the normal value, and was the lowest so far measured for this month. This winter was also noteworthy for a prolonged period during which a blocking anticyclone dominated the region, and the possibility existed that this was related to the ozone anomaly. It was possible to determine whether the origin of the low ozone value lay in ascending stratospheric motions. A linear regression analysis of ozone value deviation against 100hPa temperature deviations was used to reduce ozone values to those expected in the absence of high pressure. The assumption was made that the normal regression relation was not affected by atmospheric anomalies during the winter. This showed that vertical motions in the stratosphere only accounted for part of the ozone anomaly and that the main cause of the ozone deficit lay either in a reduced stratospheric circulation to which the anticyclone may be related or in chemical effects in the reduced stratospheric temperatures above the high pressure area. A study of the ozone time series adjusted to remove variations correlated with meteorological quantities, showed that during the period since 1979, one other winter, that of 1982/3, showed a similar although less well defined deficit in total ozone values.

  3. Recent amplification of the North American winter temperature dipole

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Daniel L.; Mankin, Justin S.; Horton, Daniel E.; Thomas, Leif N.; Rajaratnam, Bala; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract During the winters of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, anomalously warm temperatures in western North America and anomalously cool temperatures in eastern North America resulted in substantial human and environmental impacts. Motivated by the impacts of these concurrent temperature extremes and the intrinsic atmospheric linkage between weather conditions in the western and eastern United States, we investigate the occurrence of concurrent “warm‐West/cool‐East” surface temperature anomalies, which we call the “North American winter temperature dipole.” We find that, historically, warm‐West/cool‐East dipole conditions have been associated with anomalous mid‐tropospheric ridging over western North America and downstream troughing over eastern North America. We also find that the occurrence and severity of warm‐West/cool‐East events have increased significantly between 1980 and 2015, driven largely by an increase in the frequency with which high‐amplitude “ridge‐trough” wave patterns result in simultaneous severe temperature conditions in both the West and East. Using a large single‐model ensemble of climate simulations, we show that the observed positive trend in the warm‐West/cool‐East events is attributable to historical anthropogenic emissions including greenhouse gases, but that the co‐occurrence of extreme western warmth and eastern cold will likely decrease in the future as winter temperatures warm dramatically across the continent, thereby reducing the occurrence of severely cold conditions in the East. Although our analysis is focused on one particular region, our analysis framework is generally transferable to the physical conditions shaping different types of extreme events around the globe. PMID:27840780

  4. Increased body mass of ducks wintering in California's Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yee, Julie L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Loughman, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack the information needed to fully evaluate the biological effects of their habitat conservation programs. We studied body condition of dabbling ducks shot by hunters at public hunting areas throughout the Central Valley of California during 2006–2008 compared with condition of ducks from 1979 to 1993. These time periods coincide with habitat increases due to Central Valley Joint Venture conservation programs and changing agricultural practices; we modeled to ascertain whether body condition differed among waterfowl during these periods. Three dataset comparisons indicate that dabbling duck body mass was greater in 2006–2008 than earlier years and the increase was greater in the Sacramento Valley and Suisun Marsh than in the San Joaquin Valley, differed among species (mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], northern pintail [Anas acuta], America wigeon [Anas americana], green-winged teal [Anas crecca], and northern shoveler [Anas clypeata]), and was greater in ducks harvested late in the season. Change in body mass also varied by age–sex cohort and month for all 5 species and by September–January rainfall for all except green-winged teal. The random effect of year nested in period, and sometimes interacting with other factors, improved models in many cases. Results indicate that improved habitat conditions in the Central Valley have resulted in increased winter body mass of dabbling ducks, especially those that feed primarily on seeds, and this increase was greater in regions where area of post-harvest flooding of rice and other crops, and wetland area, has increased. Conservation programs that continue to promote post-harvest flooding and other agricultural practices that benefit wintering waterfowl and continue to restore and conserve wetlands would likely help maintain body condition of wintering dabbling ducks in the Central Valley of California.

  5. Decadal modulation of East China winter precipitation by ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Hui; Lu, Er; Kumar, Arun

    2016-11-01

    The decadal modulation of East China winter precipitation by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is examined using both observational data and coupled global climate model simulations. The co-variability between 68-year (1948-2015) observed East China precipitation and tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) is quantified by the singular value decomposition (SVD) method. The first SVD mode relates Southeast China winter pluvial (drought) to the tropical Pacific El Niño (La Niña) SST. A comparison between two 480-year model simulations with and without ENSO suggests that ENSO can modulate both the intensity and frequency of East China winter precipitation. In the presence of ENSO, maximum precipitation anomalies over Southeast China can be increased by 50% and largely on the interannual timescale (3-6 years). It is also demonstrated that there is an asymmetry in the precipitation and circulation responses to warm and cold phases of ENSO. The responses are sensitive to the intensity of SST anomalies during El Niño, but less sensitive to SSTs during La Niña. This sensitivity, together with the decadal variations of ENSO, helps understand the observed decadal changes in the strength of the association between wintertime tropical Pacific SST and East China precipitation. The association is relatively weak during 1948-1977 when La Niña occurred more frequently, but strong during 1978-1999 when El Niño occurred more frequently. In the last 16 years (2000-2015) the association is weakest, likely due to the weakened variability of tropical Pacific SST since 2000.

  6. Impacts of chronic sublethal exposure to clothianidin on winter honeybees.

    PubMed

    Alkassab, Abdulrahim T; Kirchner, Wolfgang H

    2016-07-01

    A wide application of systemic pesticides and detection of their residues in bee-collected pollen and nectar at sublethal concentrations led to the emergence of concerns about bees' chronic exposure and possible sublethal effects on insect pollinators. Therefore, special attention was given to reducing unintentional intoxications under field conditions. The sensitivity of winter bees throughout their long lifespan to residual exposure of pesticides is not well known, since most previous studies only looked at the effects on summer bees. Here, we performed various laboratory bioassays to assess the effects of clothianidin on the survival and behavior of winter bees. Oral lethal and sublethal doses were administered throughout 12-day. The obtained LD50 values at 48, 72, 96 h and 10 days were 26.9, 18.0, 15.1 and 9.5 ng/bee, respectively. Concentrations <20 µg/kg were found to be sublethal. Oral exposure to sublethal doses was carried out for 12-day and, the behavioral functions were tested on the respective 13th day. Although slight reductions in the responses at the concentrations 10 and 15 µg/kg were observed, all tested sublethal concentrations had showed non-significant effects on the sucrose responsiveness, habitation of the proboscis extension reflex and olfactory learning performance. Nevertheless, chronic exposure to 15 µg/kg affected the specificity of the early long-term memory (24 h). Since the tested concentrations were in the range of field-relevant concentrations, our results strongly suggest that related-effects on winter and summer bees' sensitivity should also be studied under realistic conditions.

  7. Simulating Observed Ozone Loss in the Northern Hemisphere Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, S. R.; Douglass, A. R.; Lait, L. R.; Considine, D. B.; Anderson, J. G.; Baumgardner, D.; Elkins, J. W.; Fahey, D. W.; Richard, E. C.; Jost, H.; Rex, M.; Toon, G. C.; Webster, C. R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Ozone amounts observed at high Northern latitudes in late winter and early spring have been relatively very low in four of the last six years. On the face of it, this decline appears similar to that observed in the Antarctic in the mid-1980s in spite of the fact that the abundance of stratospheric chlorine is currently steady or decreasing. In order to predict the extent to which this change represents a trend, and to understand what combination of factors produces the low ozone, we need to accurately simulate these observations with models. In this presentation, we focus on the winter of 1999-2000, which exhibited some of the lowest ozone ever recorded in the Northern hemisphere. It also contained the largest-ever assembled set of atmospheric measurements and modeling activities in the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment/Third European Stratospheric Experiment on Ozone (SOLVE/THESEO). We use SOLVE/THESEO observations in comparison with the Goddard 3-D global model of stratospheric chemistry and transport to explore the model's capability to simulate the evolution of ozone and other species through the winter. We will discuss advective transport and mixing, chlorine activation, and denitrification, which are key processes to accurately simulating wintertime ozone. Preliminary results show that, although the model tracer transport and chlorine activation compare relatively well with observations, the magnitude of observed ozone loss is difficult to achieve in the model. Calculated ozone loss is sensitive to denitrification, which presents a major challenge to parameterization in a global model. Simulation requirements and uncertainties will be evaluated.

  8. Recent amplification of the North American winter temperature dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Deepti; Swain, Daniel L.; Mankin, Justin S.; Horton, Daniel E.; Thomas, Leif N.; Rajaratnam, Bala; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.

    2016-09-01

    During the winters of 2013-2014 and 2014-2015, anomalously warm temperatures in western North America and anomalously cool temperatures in eastern North America resulted in substantial human and environmental impacts. Motivated by the impacts of these concurrent temperature extremes and the intrinsic atmospheric linkage between weather conditions in the western and eastern United States, we investigate the occurrence of concurrent "warm-West/cool-East" surface temperature anomalies, which we call the "North American winter temperature dipole." We find that, historically, warm-West/cool-East dipole conditions have been associated with anomalous mid-tropospheric ridging over western North America and downstream troughing over eastern North America. We also find that the occurrence and severity of warm-West/cool-East events have increased significantly between 1980 and 2015, driven largely by an increase in the frequency with which high-amplitude "ridge-trough" wave patterns result in simultaneous severe temperature conditions in both the West and East. Using a large single-model ensemble of climate simulations, we show that the observed positive trend in the warm-West/cool-East events is attributable to historical anthropogenic emissions including greenhouse gases, but that the co-occurrence of extreme western warmth and eastern cold will likely decrease in the future as winter temperatures warm dramatically across the continent, thereby reducing the occurrence of severely cold conditions in the East. Although our analysis is focused on one particular region, our analysis framework is generally transferable to the physical conditions shaping different types of extreme events around the globe.

  9. Effects of winter road grooming on bison in YNP

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bjornlie, Daniel D; Garrott, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of winter recreation—specifically snowmobiling—on wildlife in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) have become high-profile management issues. The road grooming needed to support oversnow travel in YNP is also being examined for its effects on bison (Bison bison) ecology. Data were collected from November 1997 through May 1998 and from December 1998 through May 1999 on the effects of road grooming on bison in Madison–Gibbon–Firehole (MGF) area of YNP Peak bison numbers occurred during late March—early April and were strongly correlated with the snow water equivalent measurements in the Hayden Valley area (1997–1998: r* = 0.62, p:0.001: 1998–1999: r2 = 0.64, P-0.001). Data from an infrared trail monitor on the Mary Mountain trail between the Hayden and Firehole valleys suggest that this trail is the sole corridor for major bison distributional shifts between these locations. Of the 28,293 observations of individual bison made during the study, 8% were traveling and 69% were foraging. These percentages were nearly identical during the period of winter road grooming (7% and 68%, respectively). During this period, 77% of bison foraging activity and 12% of bison traveling activity involved displacing snow. Most travel took place off roads (P<0.001), Bison utilized geothermal features, a network of trails they established, and river and stream banks for travel. Bison road use was negatively correlated with road grooming, with peak use in April and lowest use during the road-grooming period. Bison in the MGF area of YNF neither seek out nor avoid groomed roads. The minimal use of roads compared to off-road areas, the short distances traveled on the roads, the decreased use of roads during the over snow vehicle (OSV) season, and the increased costs of negative interactions with OSVs suggest that grooming roads during winter does not have a major influence on bison ecology.

  10. Ice Nucleating Particles and their Role in California Winter Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMott, P. J.; Prather, K. A.; Hill, T. C. J.; McCluskey, C. S.; Levin, E. J.; Suski, K. J.; Creamean, J.; Collins, D. B.; Martin, A.; Cornwell, G.; Al-Mashat, H.; Rosenfeld, D.; Leung, L. R.; Comstock, J. M.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Petters, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Field studies are providing the opportunity to characterize ice nucleating particle (INP) number concentrations, their varied sources, and to examine their influence on ice formation and precipitation processes in winter clouds in California. Aerosol sources that may influence orographic cloud properties in California include pollution, marine aerosols, and transported dusts. Vertical stratification affects the role of different aerosol types. Boundary layer dust and pollution in Central Valley locations may influence cloud properties at times, but may be decoupled from cloud layers at other times or be restricted in affecting clouds by the Sierra barrier jet phenomenon. Marine layers may sometimes be lifted over topography to influence clouds. Finally, long range transported dust/biological particles may directly enter upper cloud levels to act as the trigger for ice initiation. We present analyses of INP number concentrations, INP chemical composition, and related data collected from flights on the DOE G-1 aircraft during the CalWater 1 field study in winter 2011. Sampling of mostly marine boundary layer INP during the surface-based BBACPAX (Bodega Bay Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation in Atmospheric rivers eXperiment) study in 2014 included first sampling with an online method for measuring the mass spectral composition of INP, and new immersion freezing INP measurements extending to the warm temperature limit of heterogeneous ice formation. Studies reveal the strong influence of long range transported aerosols on INP populations and typically lower INP concentrations in marine air layers. Plans for new studies including G-1 aircraft flights during the ACAPEX (ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment) study, overlapping with ground-based measurements in the CalWater-2 campaign in winter 2015 will be introduced. Analyses are being applied toward numerical modeling studies of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions in California, presented separately in this session.

  11. Terra Data Confirm Warm, Dry U.S. Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    New maps of land surface temperature and snow cover produced by NASA's Terra satellite show this year's winter was warmer than last year's, and the snow line stayed farther north than normal. The observations confirm earlier National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration reports that the United States was unusually warm and dry this past winter. (Click to read the NASA press release and to access higher-resolution images.) For the last two years, a new sensor aboard Terra has been collecting the most detailed global measurements ever made of our world's land surface temperatures and snow cover. The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is already giving scientists new insights into our changing planet. Average temperatures during December 2001 through February 2002 for the contiguous United States appear to have been unseasonably warm from the Rockies eastward. In the top image the coldest temperatures appear black, while dark green, blue, red, yellow, and white indicate progressively warmer temperatures. MODIS observes both land surface temperature and emissivity, which indicates how efficiently a surface absorbs and emits thermal radiation. Compared to the winter of 2000-01, temperatures throughout much of the U.S. were warmer in 2001-02. The bottom image depicts the differences on a scale from dark blue (colder this year than last) to red (warmer this year than last). A large region of warm temperatures dominated the northern Great Plains, while the area around the Great Salt Lake was a cold spot. Images courtesy Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based upon data courtesy Zhengming Wan, MODIS Land Science Team member at the University of California, Santa Barbara's Institute for Computational Earth System Science

  12. Differential recruitment of bivalve species in the northern Wadden Sea after the severe winter of 1995/96 and of subsequent milder winters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, Matthias; Hertlein, Andrea; Reise, Karsten

    2001-08-01

    High recruitment of the bivalves Cerastoderma edule, Mytilus edulis, Macoma balthica and Mya arenaria in summer after severe winters is an often reported phenomenon in the Wadden Sea. After the severe winter of 1995/96 however, only Cerastoderma and Mytilus followed this pattern in the Sylt-Rømø Bight. Repeated sampling of Cerastoderma, Macoma and Mya following a severe (1995/96), a moderate (1996/97), and a mild winter (1997/98) revealed that early recruitment was highest after the mild winter. In Cerastoderma the eventual high recruitment at the end of summer 1996 was caused by reduced benthic mortality. Low recruitment of Macoma and Mya after the severe winter may have been caused by a higher susceptibility to epibenthic predation and/or a higher susceptibility to passive re-suspension than in Cerastoderma and Mytilus. In all cases, post-settlement processes were decisive for reproductive success.

  13. The Joint Winter Runway Friction Measurement Program: NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1996-01-01

    Some background information is given together with the scope and objectives of the 5-year, Joint National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA)/Transport Canada (TC)/Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Winter Runway Friction Measurement Program. The range of the test equipment, the selected test sites and a tentative test program schedule are described. NASA considers the success of this program critical in terms of insuring adequate ground handling performance capability in adverse weather conditions for future aircraft being designed and developed as well as improving the safety of current aircraft ground operations.

  14. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crilley, Leigh; Bloss, William; Yin, Jianxin; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy; Zotter, Peter; Prevot, Andre; Green, David

    2014-05-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke in large urban centres such as London is becoming increasingly important with the changing nature of domestic heating partly due to the installation of biomass burning heaters to meet renewable energy targets imposed by the EU and also a rise in so-called recreational burning for aesthetic reasons (Fuller et al., 2013). Recent work in large urban centres (London, Paris and Berlin) has demonstrated an increase in the contribution of wood smoke to ambient particles during winter that can at times exceed traffic emissions. In Europe, biomass burning has been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits during winter (Fuller et al., 2013). In light of the changing nature of emissions in urban areas there is a need for on-going measurements to assess the impact of biomass burning in cities like London. Therefore we aimed to determine quantitatively the contribution of biomass burning in London and surrounding rural areas. We also aimed to determine whether local emissions or regional sources were the main source of biomass burning in London. Sources of wood smoke during winter in London were investigated at an urban background site (North Kensington) and two surrounding rural sites (Harwell and Detling) by analysing selected wood smoke chemical tracers. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated, indicating a similar source of these species at the three sites. Based on the conversion factor for levoglucosan, mean wood smoke mass at Detling, North Kensington and Harwell was 0.78, 0.87 and 1.0 µg m-3, respectively. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest source of OC and EC found to be secondary organic aerosols and traffic emissions, respectively. Peaks in levoglucosan concentrations at the sites were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, suggesting domestic heating as

  15. Anthracite coal supply for the 1981-1982 winter. [USA

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-18

    This report focuses on some of the problems affecting the anthracite industry and consumers in the northeastern States, State and industry actions since the 1980-81 shortage, and the outlook for the winter of 1981-82. It also includes information on anthracite exports to foreign countries and the Department of Defense (DOD) facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany, Federal research and development efforts to use anthracite in industrial boilers, and the actions the State of Pennsylvania has taken to encourage the use of anthracite in municipal buildings.

  16. Development of a winter wheat adjustable crop calendar model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. After parameter estimation, tests were conducted with variances from the fits, and on independent data. From these tests, it was generally concluded that exponential functions have little advantage over polynomials. Precipitation was not found to significantly affect the fits. The Robertson's triquadratic form, in general use for spring wheat, was found to show promise for winter wheat, but special techniques and care were required for its use. In most instances, equations with nonlinear effects were found to yield erratic results when utilized with daily environmental values as independent variables.

  17. Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Salt Lake City, situated near the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake, is host to the 2002 Winter Olympic Games, which open Friday, February 8. Venues for five of the scheduled events are at city (indoor) locations, and five in mountain (outdoor) facilities. All ten can be found within the area contained in these images. Some of the outdoor events take place at Ogden, situated north of Salt Lake City and at Park City, located to the east.

    Salt Lake City is surrounded by mountains including the Wasatch Range to the east, and the temperature difference between the Great Salt Lake and the overlying atmosphere enhances the moisture content of winter storms. These factors, in combination with natural cloud seeding by salt crystals from the lake, are believed to result in greater snowfall in neighboring areas compared to more distant locales.

    In addition to the obvious difference in snow cover between the winter and summer views, water color changes in parts of the Great Salt Lake are apparent in these images. The distinctly different coloration between the northern and southern arms of the Great Salt Lake is the result of a rock-filled causeway built in 1953 to support a permanent railroad. The causeway has resulted in decreased circulation between the two arms and higher salinity on the northern side. The southern part of the lake includes the large Antelope Island, and at full resolution a bridge connecting it to the mainland can be discerned.

    These images are natural color views acquired on February 8, 2001 and June 16, 2001, during Terra orbits 6093 and 7957, respectively. Each image represents an area of about 220 kilometers x 285 kilometers.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth

  18. Climate and smoke - An appraisal of nuclear winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Ackerman, T. P.; Sagan, C.

    1990-01-01

    A reevaluation is presented of the 'nuclear winter' scenario of Turco et al. (1983). New pertinent data have emerged from laboratory studies, field experiments, and numerical models on the smoke-plume, mesoscale, and global scales. A full-scale nuclear exchange's probable soot injections lead, in three-dimensional climate simulations, to midsummer land temperature decreases averaging 10-20 C in northern midlatitudes, with local cooling of as much as 35 C. Anomalous circulation patterns due to solar heating of the soot could stabilize the upper atmosphere against overturning, thereby prolonging the soot's residence time in the atmosphere. Monsoon disruptions and severe ozone layer depletion are also foreseen.

  19. Thermal measurements in the nuclear winter fire test

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.E.; Keltner, N.R.; Kent, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    In March, 1987, a large open pool fire test was performed to provide test measurements to help define the thermal characteristics of large open pool fires and estimates of the smoke source term for the nuclear winter (global effects) scenario. This report will present the results of the thermal measurements as well as comparisons with previous test results. These measurements included flame temperatures, heat fluxes to a variety of calorimeters, and gas velocities in the lower flame regions. 13 refs., 76 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. North Siberian Permafrost reveals Holocene Arctic Winter Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, H.; Opel, T.; Laepple, T.; Alexander, D.; Hoffmann, K.; Werner, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic climate has experienced a major warming over the past decades, which is unprecedented in the last 2000 yrs. There are, however, still major uncertainties about the temperature evolution during the Holocene. Most proxy reconstructions suggest a cooling in mid-and late Holocene (e.g. Wanner, 2008), whereas climate model simulations show only weak changes or even a moderate warming (e.g. Lohmann et al., 2013). In this study, we used ice wedges as promising permafrost climate archive studied by stable water isotope methods. Ice wedges may be identified by vertically oriented foliations, and they form by the repeated filling of winter thermal contraction cracks by snow melt water in spring. Therefore, the isotopic composition of wedge ice may be attributed to the climate conditions of the cold season (i.e. winter and spring). 42 samples of organic material enclosed in ice wedges have been directly dated by Radiocarbon methods. Here, we present the first terrestrial stable oxygen isotope record of Holocene winter temperatures in up to centennial-scale resolution based on permafrost ice wedges (Lena River Delta; Siberian Arctic). The Lena ice-wedge record shows that the recent isotopic temperatures are the highest of the past 7000 years. Despite similarities to Arctic temperature reconstructions of the last two millennia (Kaufman et al., 2009), it suggests a winter warming throughout the mid and late Holocene, opposite to most existing other proxy records (Wanner, 2008). This apparent contradiction can be explained by the seasonality of the ice-wedge genesis in combination with orbital and greenhouse gas forcing and is consistent with climate model simulations. We conclude that the present model-data mismatch might be an artefact of the summer bias of the existing proxy records and thus, our record helps to reconcile the understanding of the northern hemisphere Holocene temperature evolution. This is particular true for the Russian Arctic significantly

  1. EMS in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Ramalanjaona, Georges; Brogan, Gerald X

    2009-02-01

    Mauritius lies in the southwest Indian Ocean about 1250 miles from the African coast and 500 miles from Madagascar. Mauritius (estimated population 1,230,602) became independent from the United Kingdom in 1968 and has one of the highest GDP per capita in Africa. Within Mauritius there is a well established EMS system with a single 999 national dispatch system. Ambulances are either publicly or privately owned. Public ambulances are run by the Government (SAMU). Megacare is a private subscriber only ambulance service. The Government has recently invested in new technology such as telemedicine to further enhance the role of EMS on the island. This article describes the current state of EMS in Mauritius and depicts its development in the context of Government effort to decentralise and modernise the healthcare system.

  2. Beyond arctic and alpine: the influence of winter climate on temperate ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ladwig, Laura M; Ratajczak, Zak R; Ocheltree, Troy W; Hafich, Katya A; Churchill, Amber C; Frey, Sarah J K; Fuss, Colin B; Kazanski, Clare E; Muñoz, Juan D; Petrie, Matthew D; Reinmann, Andrew B; Smith, Jane G

    2016-02-01

    Winter climate is expected to change under future climate scenarios, yet the majority of winter ecology research is focused in cold-climate ecosystems. In many temperate systems, it is unclear how winter climate relates to biotic responses during the growing season. The objective of this study was to examine how winter weather relates to plant and animal communities in a variety of terrestrial ecosystems ranging from warm deserts to alpine tundra. Specifically, we examined the association between winter weather and plant phenology, plant species richness, consumer abundance, and consumer richness in 11 terrestrial ecosystems associated with the U.S. Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network. To varying degrees, winter precipitation and temperature were correlated with all biotic response variables. Bud break was tightly aligned with end of winter temperatures. For half the sites, winter weather was a better predictor of plant species richness than growing season weather. Warmer winters were correlated with lower consumer abundances in both temperate and alpine systems. Our findings suggest winter weather may have a strong influence on biotic activity during the growing season and should be considered in future studies investigating the effects of climate change on both alpine and temperate systems.

  3. Using an algorithmic model to reveal individually variable movement decisions in a wintering sea duck.

    PubMed

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N; Dickson, D Lynne

    2009-05-01

    1. Many migratory birds are assumed to remain fairly stationary during winter. However, recent research indicates that mid-winter movements are evident in a variety of bird species, and the factors causing individuals to move are poorly understood. 2. We examined the winter movements of 95 individual king eiders (Somateria spectabilis, L.) tracked with satellite transmitters in the Bering Sea between 2002 and 2006 to explore whether environmental factors such as day length, location, sea ice, and habitat quality could explain the occurrence of winter movements longer than 50 km. 3. We used a novel algorithmic random forest model to assess the importance of variables predicting whether a bird remained or departed from a wintering site. 4. We found extremely high individual variability in winter movement decisions by king eiders, and the individual bird was the most important variable followed by location, date, and sea ice concentration. 5. We conclude that individual strategies exist that interact with environmental conditions to form multiple movement patterns. 6. While a minor proportion of winter movements may be forced by environmental conditions, we propose that many winter movements may be of an exploratory nature where individuals aim to acquire information about alternative wintering sites that may enhance their survival probability at some point in time when environmental fluctuation renders their preferred wintering site unsuitable.

  4. Effect of winter cold duration on spring phenology of the orange tip butterfly, Anthocharis cardamines.

    PubMed

    Stålhandske, Sandra; Lehmann, Philipp; Pruisscher, Peter; Leimar, Olof

    2015-12-01

    The effect of spring temperature on spring phenology is well understood in a wide range of taxa. However, studies on how winter conditions may affect spring phenology are underrepresented. Previous work on Anthocharis cardamines (orange tip butterfly) has shown population-specific reaction norms of spring development in relation to spring temperature and a speeding up of post-winter development with longer winter durations. In this experiment, we examined the effects of a greater and ecologically relevant range of winter durations on post-winter pupal development of A. cardamines of two populations from the United Kingdom and two from Sweden. By analyzing pupal weight loss and metabolic rate, we were able to separate the overall post-winter pupal development into diapause duration and post-diapause development. We found differences in the duration of cold needed to break diapause among populations, with the southern UK population requiring a shorter duration than the other populations. We also found that the overall post-winter pupal development time, following removal from winter cold, was negatively related to cold duration, through a combined effect of cold duration on diapause duration and on post-diapause development time. Longer cold durations also lead to higher population synchrony in hatching. For current winter durations in the field, the A. cardamines population of southern UK could have a reduced development rate and lower synchrony in emergence because of short winters. With future climate change, this might become an issue also for other populations. Differences in winter conditions in the field among these four populations are large enough to have driven local adaptation of characteristics controlling spring phenology in response to winter duration. The observed phenology of these populations depends on a combination of winter and spring temperatures; thus, both must be taken into account for accurate predictions of phenology.

  5. Duration of prepupal summer dormancy regulates synchronization of adult diapause with winter temperatures in bees of the genus Osmia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osmia (Osmia) bees are strictly univoltine and winter as diapausing adults. In these species, the timing of adult eclosion with the onset of wintering conditions is critical, because adults exposed to long pre-wintering periods show increased lipid loss and winter mortality. Populations from warm ar...

  6. The Remarkable 2003--2004 Winter and Other Recent Warm Winters in the Arctic Stratosphere Since the Late 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, Gloria L.; Kruger, Kirstin; Sabutis, Joseph L.; Sena, Sara Amina; Pawson, Steven

    2005-01-01

    The 2003-2004 Arctic winter was remarkable in the approximately 50-year record of meteorological analyses. A major warming beginning in early January 2004 led to nearly 2 months of vortex disruption with high-latitude easterlies in the middle to lower stratosphere. The upper stratospheric vortex broke up in late December, but began to recover by early January, and in February and March was the strongest since regular observations began in 1979. The lower stratospheric vortex broke up in late January. Comparison with 2 previous years, 1984-1985 and 1986-1987, with prolonged midwinter warming periods shows unique characteristics of the 2003-2004 warming period: The length of the vortex disruption, the strong and rapid recovery in the upper stratosphere, and the slow progression of the warming from upper to lower stratosphere. January 2004 zonal mean winds in the middle and lower stratosphere were over 2 standard deviations below average. Examination of past variability shows that the recent frequency of major stratospheric warmings (7 in the past 6 years) is unprecedented. Lower stratospheric temperatures were unusually high during 6 of the past 7 years, with 5 having much lower than usual potential for polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation and ozone loss (nearly none in 1998-1999, 2001-2002, and 2003-2004, and very little in 1997-1998 and 2000-2001). Middle and upper stratospheric temperatures, however, were unusually low during and after February. The pattern of 5 of the last 7 years with very low PSC potential would be expected to occur randomly once every 850 years. This cluster of warm winters, immediately following a period of unusually cold winters, may have important implications for possible changes in interannual variability and for determination and attribution of trends in stratospheric temperatures and ozone.

  7. Effect of Spring and Winter Temperatures on Winter Moth (Geometridae: Lepidoptera) Larval Eclosion in the Northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, Emily L; Elkinton, Joseph S

    2015-06-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to elucidate various factors influencing the temperature-dependent larval eclosion of winter moth, Operophtera brumata L, in New England. We found no difference in duration of the embryonic stage of eggs reared from larvae collected in Massachusetts (MA) and on Vancouver Island, British Columbia (BC), where winter temperatures are rarely below freezing. The number of growing degree days (GDD) required for larval eclosion declined with the number of days chilled in the laboratory and number of days below freezing in the field, confirming the findings of previous studies. Thus, eggs hatched with fewer GDD, when the spring came later than usual. Date of oviposition had no effect on date of hatch. Eggs laid by naturally occurring (feral) females hatched sooner, with lower GDD, than eggs from laboratory-reared females from MA and BC held on the same trees over the winter. South-facing eggs on the stems of trees hatched on average 1.6 days sooner than north-facing eggs. GDD calculated from bihourly measures of temperature were 15% greater than GDD estimates based on the average of daily maximum and minimum temperatures, as used by many GDD estimates made for online sources. Over two years, the mean GDD in °C for hatch of feral eggs was 176.53 ± 6.35 SE based on bihourly temperature measurements, a 1 January start date, and a 3.9°C developmental threshold. This value varied markedly, however, between the two years.

  8. Links between solar wind variations, the global electric circuit, and winter cyclone vorticity, and possibly to cold winters in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinsley, B. A.

    2011-12-01

    There are a number of inputs to the atmosphere and the climate system that are modulated by solar activity that have their only common feature the modulation of the ionosphere-earth current density (Jz) in the global electric circuit, and to which it has now been shown there are small atmospheric responses in winter storm vorticity, surface pressure, and cloud cover. Similar responses are found to internal atmospheric inputs that modulate Jz. An inductive mechanism for initial storm electrification is described that responds to Jz and provides space charge for aerosol particles and droplets throughout the updraft region. The charge on droplets and aerosol particles, by the process of charge modulation of aerosol scavenging (CMAS), increases condensation nuclei concentrations and shifts their distributions to smaller average sizes. This produces smaller and more numerous droplets, and as shown by Rosenfeld et al (2008), delays initial precipitation and increases ice production and the vigor of the storm updraft. For baroclinic storms the additional latent heat release and updraft velocity increases storm vorticity. The result depends on both aerosol characteristics and the Jz variation. The cumulative effect of winter storm intensification, for example in the Icelandic Low cyclogenesis region, responding to Jz changes, is to increase blocking in the Atlantic Ocean. Such blocking reduces the flow of relatively warm moist ocean air onto Europe, while increasing the incidence of outbreaks of cold, dry, Arctic air. The possibility is examined that increases in cosmic ray flux and in Jz, at times of decadal and longer minima in solar activity, contributes to the changes in atmospheric circulation and the resulting unusually severe winters in the UK and Europe such as have occurred during extended solar minima in the late 17th century and early 21st century.

  9. Management of winter weeds affects Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) dispersal.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, A L P; Kennedy, G G

    2012-04-01

    Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) naturally disperses from winter weeds to crops in spring, causing direct and indirect damage. Field preparation before planting includes use of herbicides or cultivation to kill unwanted vegetation, which adversely affects F. fusca host plants and potentially influences F. fusca dispersal. Common chickweed, Stellaria media (L.), infested with F. fusca, was used as a model to study effects of timing and type of vegetation management on adult dispersal. Infested weeds were caged and F. fusca weekly dispersal was monitored using sticky traps. Weed management treatments performed at an early (14 April-11 May) or late (2 wk after early treatment) date consisted of glyphosate, paraquat, disking, hoeing, or untreated control. Late glyphosate and hoeing treatments resulted in cumulative dispersal statistically similar to or greater than from control plots. Compared with the control, significantly more F. fusca dispersed from the glyphosate and hoeing plots during the 3 wk after treatment. More thrips dispersed from the late paraquat treatment 1 wk post-application than from the control. Dispersal from the disked treatment and early paraquat treatment was similar to that of the control 1- to 3-wk post-treatment. Early treatments resulted in significantly smaller cumulative dispersal than the control in all but one instance. Late disking and paraquat treatments resulted in cumulative F. fusca captures that were statistically similar or less than that in the control. Winter weed management type and timing affect F. fusca dispersal magnitude and duration.

  10. Blue Creek Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs; Spokane Tribe of the Spokane Reservation, Washington

    1994-11-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund that portion of the Washington Wildlife Agreement pertaining to the Blue Creek Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Spokane Tribe, Upper Columbia United Tribes, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). If fully implemented, the proposed action would allow the sponsors to protect and enhance 2,631 habitat units of big game winter range and riparian shrub habitat on 2,185 hectares (5,400 acres) of Spokane Tribal trust lands, and to conduct long term wildlife management activities within the Spokane Indian Reservation project area. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of securing land and conducting wildlife habitat enhancement and long term management activities within the boundaries of the Spokane Indian Reservation. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its reservoir.

  11. [Attitudes of winter sport participants toward ski helmet mandatory].

    PubMed

    Ruedl, G; Kopp, M; Hotter, B; Ledochowski, L; Burtscher, M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine attitudes of winter sport participants toward a ski helmet mandatory. In total, 959 persons who had to estimate statements regarding ski helmet and helmet mandatory with the aid of a five level Likert scale were interviewed. About 85 % of interviewed persons totally agreed that a ski helmet reduces head injury risk although only 64 % are wearing a ski helmet. Significant more helmet wearers and females compared to non-wearers and males totally agreed that all winter sport participants should wear ski helmets on slopes as well as that all children on slopes should wear a ski helmet. Also, significant more helmet wearers and females compared to non-wearers and males totally agreed that a ski helmet mandatory for all people has to be recommended as well as that a ski helmet mandatory for children under 16 years has to be recommended. However, the acceptance for a helmet mandatory for all people as well as for children was significantly lower compared to recommendations for helmet use irrespective of helmet use or gender. Therefore, we conclude that preventive helmet campaigns possibly attain a higher acceptance leading to a higher helmet use compared to a helmet mandatory.

  12. Warming Arctic, weakening polar vortex and winter cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, Vladimir; Esau, Igor; Outten, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Spatiotemporal patterns of air temperature trends (1958-2012) are evaluated using reanalysis datasets and radiosonde data. Our analysis demonstrates large discrepancies between the reanalysis datasets, possibly due to differences in the data assimilation procedures as well as sparseness and inhomogeneity of high-latitude observations. A change of sign in the winter temperature trend from negative to positive in the mid- to late 1980s is documented in the upper troposphere/ lower stratosphere with a maximum over the Canadian Arctic. This change from cooling to warming tendency is associated with weakening of the stratospheric polar vortex and shift of its center toward the Siberian coast and possibly can be explained by the changes in the dynamics of the Arctic Oscillation. This pattern is likely linked to the observed multi-decadal variability in the Arctic with implications for recently observed winter cooling in Siberia and continental United States. Possible dynamical mechanisms linking the weakening of the polar vortex and weather in mid-latitudes are demonstrated in a number of model frameworks.

  13. Vertebrate diet decreases winter torpor use in a desert marsupial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavey, Chris R.; Burwell, Chris J.; Körtner, Gerhard; Geiser, Fritz

    2009-06-01

    One of the energetic benefits of daily torpor over prolonged hibernation is that it enables animals to regularly forage and, therefore, replenish food reserves between bouts of torpor. However, little is known about the diet of predators undergoing torpor or whether differences in prey composition among individuals influence torpor characteristics. Here, we test the hypothesis that prey composition affects winter torpor use and patterns of a population of carnivorous marsupial, the brush-tailed mulgara ( Dasycercus blythi), in the Great Sandy Desert, Australia. Mulgaras in the study population captured a wide range of prey including vertebrates (mammals, reptiles, birds), seven insect orders, spiders and centipedes. The proportion of vertebrates in the diet was negatively correlated with both frequency of torpor use and maximum bout duration. This variation in torpor use with diet can be explained by the higher energetic content of vertebrates as well as their larger size. Even assuming uniform intake of prey biomass among individuals, those that subsisted on an invertebrate-dominated diet during winter apparently suffered energetic shortages as a result of the scarcity of invertebrate taxa with high energy content (such as insect larvae). Our study is the first to demonstrate a link between diet composition and daily torpor use in a free-ranging mammal.

  14. Monitor key parameters of winter wheat using Crop model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jibo, Yue; Haikuan, Feng; Xiudong, Qi

    2016-11-01

    Estimation of biomass, canopy cover and yield is very important to agricultural decision Precision Farming. During the winter wheat growing season of 2013/2014, field measurements were conducted at Yangling District, Shaanxi Province at the jointing stage, heading stage and filling stage. AquaCrop model and Particle swarm optimization algorithm was used to find the global optimal simulation when the intermediate variable was the biomass. Through the simulation for each of the experimental data, biomass, canopy coverage and soil moisture were verification by ground measurements. Based on 8 sets of data, the simulation accuracy was calculated. The RMSE, nRMSE, MAE and R2 between simulation and measured biomass were 1.06 ton/ha, 11.92%, 0.90 ton/ha and 0.92. The RMSE, nRMSE, MAE and R2 between simulation and measured canopy cover were 8.92%, 9.84%, 7.84% and 0.66, respectively. The simulation results show that the AquaCrop model can help the decision making of winter wheat field in arid areas.

  15. Projecting Future Change in Growing Degree Days of Winter Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Castillo, N.; Gaitan Ospina, C. F.; Mcpherson, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Southwest Oklahoma is one of the most productive regions in the Great Plains where winter wheat is produced. To assess the effect of climate change on the growing degree days (GDD) available for winter wheat production, we selected from the CMIP5 archive, two of the best performing Global Climate Models (GCMs) for the region (MIROC5 and CCSM4) to project the future change in GDD under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 —a "business as usual" future trajectory for greenhouse gas concentrations. Two quantile mapping downscaling methods were applied to both GCMs to obtain local scale projections. The downscaled outputs were applied to a GDD formula to show the GDD changes between the historical period (1961-2004) and the future period (2006-2098) in terms of mean differences. The results show that at the end of the 2098 growing season, the increase in GDD is expected to be between -2.0 and 6. Depending on the GCM used, Southwest Oklahoma is expected to see an increase in future GDD under the CCSM4 GCM and a mix of increase, no change and decrease under the MIROC5 GCM.

  16. Probabilistic forecasts of winter thunderstorms around Amsterdam Airport Schiphol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slangen, A. B. A.; Schmeits, M. J.

    2009-04-01

    The development and verification of a probabilistic forecast system for winter thunderstorms around Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is described. We have used Model Output Statistics (MOS) to develop the probabilistic forecast equations. The MOS system consists of 32 logistic regression equations, i.e. for two forecast periods (0-6 h and 6-12 h), four 90×80 km2 regions around Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, and four 6-h time periods. For the predictand quality-controlled Surveillance et Alerte Foudre par Interférométrie Radioélectrique (SAFIR) total lightning data were used. The potential predictors were calculated from postprocessed output of two numerical weather prediction (NWP) models - i.e. the High-Resolution Limited-Area Model (HIRLAM) and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model - and from an ensemble of advected lightning and radar data (0-6 h projections only). The predictors that are selected most often are the HIRLAM Boyden index, the square root of the ECMWF 3-h and 6-h convective precipitation sum, the HIRLAM convective available potential energy (CAPE) and two radar advection predictors. An objective verification was done, from which it can be concluded that the MOS system is skilful. The forecast system runs at the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) on an experimental basis, with the primary objective to warn aircraft pilots for potential aircraft induced lightning (AIL) risk during winter.

  17. Changes in hematological profiles during winter field operations

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.; Reed, L.; D'Alesandro, M. )

    1991-03-11

    The authors have previously shown that there are changes in hematological profiles during experimental cold acclimation. They now report on hematological changes in 9 military volunteers during a 12 week winter field operation and show results similar to those observed during experimental cold acclimation. Blood was collected before and after completion of winter field operations and analyzed in a paired fashion. Hematocrit (HCT) and erythrocyte counts (RBC) were decreased; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and plasma volume (PV), which was calculated from hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and HCT, were increased. In addition, the reticulocyte count was increased from 1.37 {plus minus} 0.10% to 2.62 {plus minus} 0.24% after completion of field operations. There was a statistically significant inverse correlation between HCT and reticulocyte count, indicating the need for an enhanced rate of red cell production. Hemoglobin concentration, leukocyte count, and mean corpuscular volume were unchanged. The RBC population, to remain at steady state during periods of chronic cold exposure, shows alterations in the number of circulating cells, Hb concentration per cell and possibly cell turnover.

  18. Winter Eurasian Climate Variability: Role of Cyclone and Anticyclone Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, C.; Zhang, X.; Guan, Z.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigates variability of extratropical Eurasian cyclone and anticyclone activity by using a modified automated cyclone and anticyclone identification and tracking algorithm. The cyclone and anticyclone activities are quantified by their regionally integrated intensity (CI and ACI) during 1978/79-2011/2012 winter seasons. We found that the time evolutions of the CI and ACI exhibit a general negative correlation of -0.7 between them at a significant level of 99.99%. This anticyclone (cyclone) variability contributes to the substantially large-scale sea level pressure variability over extratropical Eurasian continent, and explains the interannual fluctuation of surface air temperature over mid latitude Eurasia as well as the adjacent continents. The ACI swings from one phase to another, also producing large changes in snow cover extend, snow equivalent water as well as frequency of extreme cold events over the Eurasian continent. The strengthening of anticyclone intensity is preceded by retreated of the October sea-ice extent over Barents-Kara Sea, which associates tightly with an increasing stability at lower troposphere around the Ural Mountains and induces strengthening Eurasian anticyclones activity in the subsequent winter.

  19. Climate Curriculum Modules on Volcanic Eruptions, Geoengineering, and Nuclear Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, A.

    2014-12-01

    To support a climate dynamics multidisciplinary curriculum for graduate and senior university students, I will describe on-line modules on volcanic eruptions and climate, geoengineering, and nuclear winter. Each of these topics involves aerosols in the stratosphere and the response of the climate system, but each is distinct, and each is evolving as more research becomes available. As reported for the first time in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, volcanic eruptions are a natural analog for the climate impacts of potential anthropogenic aerosol injections into the stratosphere, either sulfates from potential attempts to cool the climate to counteract global warming, or smoke that would be produced from fires in cities and industrial targets in a nuclear war. The volcanic eruptions module would stand alone, and would also serve as a prerequisite for each of the other two modules, which could be taught independently of each other. Each module includes consideration of the physical climate system as well as impacts of the resulting climate change. Geoengineering includes both solar radiation management and carbon dioxide reduction. The geoengineering and nuclear winter modules also include consideration of policy and governance issues. Each module includes a slide set for use in lecturing, links to related resources, and student exercises. The modules will be regularly updated.

  20. Habitat associations of birds in the Georgia piedmont during winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Kepler, C.B.; Hatfield, J.S.; Sykes, P.W.; Seginak, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    During three winter seasons (1991-1994), we studied the distribution and abundance of birds in three habitat types of the Georgia Piedmont. Bird densities were calculated using data from 2160 variable circular-plot counts, 720 each in the interiors of the three habitats. Habitat variables were measured in 135 0.04-ha circles, 45 in each of the three habitats. The objective was to compare bird densities during winter in the Piedmont?s fragmented mature (60+ yr) pine forests and upland hardwood forests with those in planted pine plantations, a major replacement type. A total of 49 species was detected: 44 in mature pines, 42 in mature upland hardwoods, and 32 in 20-30-yr old pine plantations. Twenty-nine species occurred across all habitats. Overall, density estimates were low and variability among counts was high; consequently, significant (P <0.05) habitat preferences were found for only about 25% of the species. Species richness (S) and diversity (H ) were greatest (P <0.05) in mature pines and lowest (P <0.05) in planted pine plantations. Also, species evenness (E) was higher (P <0.05) in mature pines and upland hardwoods than in planted pine plantations.

  1. Irreverent Soils: Nitrogen Dynamics In Taiga Forests During Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kielland, K.

    2003-12-01

    We measured annual net nitrogen mineralization, nitrification, and amino acid production in situ across a primary successional sequence in interior Alaska, USA. Net N mineralization rates during the growing season from green-up (late May) through freeze-up (late September) accounted for approximately 60% of the annual inorganic N flux, whereas the remaining N was released during the apparent dormant season. Nitrogen release during winter occurred primarily during October-January with only negligible N mineralization during early spring in stands of willow, alder, balsam poplar and white spruce. By contrast, black spruce stands also exhibited substantial mineralization after snow melt during early spring. The high rates of N mineralization in late autumn through early winter coincides with high turnover of fine root biomass in these stands, suggesting that labile substrate production, rather than temperature, is a major controlling factor over N release in these ecosystems. The results are consistent with the low temperature sensitivity of N mineralization previously documented for taiga soils, and demonstrate that measurements of soil processes restricted to the growing season may greatly underestimate annual flux rates of inorganic nitrogen in high-latitude ecosystems.

  2. Processes Controlling Water Vapor in the Winter Arctic Tropopause Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry B.; Jensen, Eric J.; Podolske, James; Sachse, Glen; Avery, Melody; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Hipskino, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This work describes transport and thermodynamic processes that control water vapor near the tropopause during the SAGE Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE), held during the Arctic 1999-2000 winter season. Aircraft based water vapor, carbon monoxide, and ozone measurements are analyzed so as to establish how deeply tropospheric air mixes into the arctic lower-most stratosphere, and what the implications are for cloud formation and water vapor removal in this region of the atmosphere. There are three major findings. First, troposphere-to- stratosphere exchange extends into the arctic stratosphere to about 13 km. Penetration is to similar levels throughout the winter, however, because ozone increases idly in the early spring, tropospheric air mixes with the highest values of ozone in that season. The effect of this upward mixing is to elevate water vapor mixing ratios significantly above their prevailing stratospheric values of about 5 ppmv. Second, the potential for cloud formation in the stratosphere is highest during early spring, with about 20\\% of the parcels which have ozone values of 300-350ppbv experiencing ice saturation in a given 10 day period. Third, during early Spring temperatures at the tropopause are cold enough so that 5-10\\% of parcels experience relative humidities above 100\\%, even if the water content is as low as 5 ppmv. The implication is that during, this period the arctic tropopause can play an important role in maintaining a very dry upper troposphere during early Spring.

  3. Processes Controlling Water Vapor in the Winter Arctic Tropopause Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry B.; Jensen, Eric J.; Padolske, James; Sachse, Glen; Avery, Melody; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Mahoney, Michael J.; Richard, Erik

    2002-01-01

    This work describes transport and thermodynamic processes that control water vapor near the tropopause during the SAGE III-Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE), held during the Arctic 1999/2000 winter season. Aircraft-based water vapor, carbon monoxide, and ozone measurements were analyzed so as to establish how deeply tropospheric air mixes into the Arctic lowermost stratosphere and what the implications are for cloud formation and water vapor removal in this region of the atmosphere. There are three major findings. First, troposphere-to-stratosphere exchange extends into the Arctic stratosphere to about 13 km. Penetration is to similar levels throughout the winter, however, because ozone increases with altitude most rapidly in the early spring, tropospheric air mixes with the highest values of ozone in that season. The effect of this upward mixing is to elevate water vapor mixing ratios significantly above their prevailing stratospheric values of above 5ppmv. Second, the potential for cloud formation in the stratosphere is highest during early spring, with about 20% of the parcels which have ozone values of 300-350 ppbv experiencing ice saturation in a given 10 day period. Third, during early spring, temperatures at the troposphere are cold enough so that 5-10% of parcels experience relative humidities above 100%, even if the water content is as low as 5 ppmv. The implication is that during this period, dynamical processes near the Arctic tropopause can dehydrate air and keep the Arctic tropopause region very dry during early spring.

  4. Electrification in winter storms and the analysis of thunderstorm overflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brook, Marx

    1991-01-01

    The emergence of 24 hr operational lightning detection networks has led to the finding that positive lightning strokes, although still much fewer in number than the normal negative strokes, are present in summer and winter storms. Recent papers address the importance of understanding the meteorological conditions which lead to a dominance of one polarity of stroke over another; the appearance of positive strokes at the end of a storm appeared to presage the end-of-storm downdraft and subsidence leading to downburst activity. It is beginning to appear that positive strokes may be important meteorological indicators. Significant research accomplishments on the following topics are addressed: (1) a study to verify that the black boxes used in the lightning networks to detect both negative and positive strokes to ground were accurate; (2) the use of slow tails to determine the polarity of distant lightning; (3) lightning initiation in winter vs. summer storms; (4) the upgrade of sensors for the measurement of electric field signals associated with lightning; (5) the analysis of lightning flash records from storms between 40 and 125 km from the sensor; and (6) an interesting aspect of the initiation process which involves the physical processes driving the stepped leader. The focus of current research and future research plans are presented.

  5. PREFACE: 30th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics (WWND2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellwied, Rene; Geurts, Frank; Timmins, Anthony

    2014-09-01

    These are the proceedings of the 30th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics, which was held in Galveston, Texas, in April 2014. As in previous years, the unique character of this conference series has allowed us to bring together nuclear scientists with very different interests to discuss recent progress and scientific achievements. Out of the 67 contributions at WWND 2014 we have selected these 34 manuscripts. The topics capture the range of theoretical and experimental advances in our field. On the experimental side we saw very exciting results from the RHIC beam energy scan program and the p-p, p-Pb and Pb-Pb runs at the highest collision energies at the LHC. On the theory side the system size dependence of the experimental measurements led to a detailed evaluation of the initial conditions and plasma propagation using a wide variety of phenomenological approaches. These results were complemented by the most recent continuum extrapolated data from lattice in order to model the complete evolution of the relativistic heavy ion system. These proceedings of the 30th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics again provide a snapshot of the status of the field. The articles, many of which were written by some of the most promising young scientists in the field, are documenting the excitement and achievements that are characteristic for modern day nuclear science. Rene Bellwied (University of Houston) Frank Geurts (Rice University) Anthony Timmins (University of Houston)

  6. Impact of future warming on winter chilling in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, Rebecca; Webb, Leanne; Goodwin, Ian; Barlow, E. W. R.

    2013-05-01

    Increases in temperature as a result of anthropogenically generated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are likely to impact key aspects of horticultural production. The potential effect of higher temperatures on fruit and nut trees' ability to break winter dormancy, which requires exposure to winter chilling temperatures, was considered. Three chill models (the 0-7.2°C, Modified Utah, and Dynamic models) were used to investigate changes in chill accumulation at 13 sites across Australia according to localised temperature change related to 1, 2 and 3°C increases in global average temperatures. This methodology avoids reliance on outcomes of future GHG emission pathways, which vary and are likely to change. Regional impacts and rates of decline in chilling differ among the chill models, with the 0-7.2°C model indicating the greatest reduction and the Dynamic model the slowest rate of decline. Elevated and high latitude eastern Australian sites were the least affected while the three more maritime, less elevated Western Australian locations were shown to bear the greatest impact from future warming.

  7. The ability of winter grazing to reduce wildfire size, intensity ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A recent study by Davies et al. sought to test whether winter grazing could reduce wildfire size, fire behavior metrics, and fire-induced plant mortality in shrub-grasslands. The authors concluded that ungrazed rangelands may experience more fire-induced mortality of native perennial bunchgrasses. The authors also presented several statements regarding the benefits of winter grazing on post-fire plant community responses. However, this commentary will show that the study by Davies et al. has underlying methodological flaws, lacks data necessary to support their conclusions, and does not provide an accurate discussion on the effect of grazing on rangeland ecosystems. Importantly, Davies et al. presented no data on the post-fire mortality of the perennial bunchgrasses or on the changes in plant community composition following their experimental fires. Rather, Davies et al. inferred these conclusions based off their observed fire behavior metrics of maximum temperature and a term described as the “heat load”. However, neither metric is appropriate for elucidating the heat flux impacts on plants. This lack of post-fire data, several methodological flaws, and the use of inadequate metrics describing heat cast doubts on the authors’ ability to support their stated conclusions. This article is a commentary highlights the scientific shortcomings in a forthcoming paper by Davies et al. in the International Journal of Wildland Fire. The study has methodological flaw

  8. Climate and smoke: an appraisal of nuclear winter.

    PubMed

    Turco, R P; Toon, O B; Ackerman, T P; Pollack, J B; Sagan, C

    1990-01-12

    The latest understanding of nuclear winter is reviewed. Considerable progress has been made in quantifying the production and injection of soot by large-scale fires, the regional and global atmospheric dispersion of the soot, and the resulting physical, environmental, and climatic perturbations. New information has been obtained from laboratory studies, field experiments, and numerical modeling on a variety of scales (plume, mesoscale, and global). For the most likely soot injections from a full-scale nuclear exchange, three-dimensional climate simulations yield midsummer land temperature decreases that average 10 degrees to 20 degrees C in northern mid-latitudes, with local cooling as large as 35 degrees C, and subfreezing summer temperatures in some regions. Anomalous atmospheric circulations caused by solar heating of soot is found to stabilize the upper atmosphere against overturning, thus increasing the soot lifetime, and to accelerate interhemispheric transport, leading to persistent effects in the Southern Hemisphere. Serious new environmental problems associated with soot injection have been identified, including disruption of monsoon precipitation and severe depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer in the Northern Hemisphere. The basic physics of nuclear winter has been reaffirmed through several authoritative international technical assessments and numerous individual scientific investigations. Remaining areas of uncertainty and research priorities are discussed in view of the latest findings.

  9. Winter habitat occurrence patterns of temperate migrant birds in Belize

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, D.K.; Robbins, C.S.; Sauer, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    We used mist nets and point counts to sample bird populations in 61 sites in Belize during January-March of 1987-1991. Sites were classified as forest, second growth, woody agricultural crops (citrus, mango, cacao, and cashew), or non-woody agricultural crops (rice and sugar cane). We evaluated patterns of occurence of wintering temperate migrant bird species in these habitats. Mist net captures of 22 of 31 migrant species differed significantly among habitats. Of these, 13 species were captured more frequently in the agricultural habitats. American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia), and Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia) were among the species captured most frequently in woody agricultural habitats; captures of Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Northern (lcterus galbula) and Orchard orioles (I. spur/anus) were highest in the non-woody agricultural sites. We relate these occurrence patterns to trends in breeding populations in North America. While count data provide a wide picture of winter habitat distribution of migrants, more intensive work is necessary to assess temporal and geographic variation of migrant bird use of agricultural habitats.

  10. Environmental contaminants in redheads wintering in coastal Louisiana and Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michot, T.C.; Custer, T.W.; Nault, A.J.; Mitchell, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Whole body and liver analyses indicated that wintering redheads (Aythya americana; n = 70) in coastal Louisiana (one site) and Texas (two sites) were relatively free of contamination with common trace elements, organochlorines, and hydrocarbons. Most trace elements, including As, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were within background concentrations in livers; levels of B, Cd, Cu, and Fe were elevated in some specimens. Only one organochlorine, DDE, was detected in redhead carcasses, but its concentration was below reported toxic levels in waterfowl. Body burdens of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were generally low, but levels of pristane, total hydrocarbons, and the ratios of phytane:n-octadecane and pristane:n-heptadecane were indicative of possible chronic exposure to petroleum. Based on brain cholinesterase assays, redheads were not recently exposed to organophosphorous or carbamate pesticides. Of 30 elements or compounds tested for seasonal differences, only Se increased from early to late winter at one of the three sites. Eight of 57 contaminants differed among the three sites; no sex or age differences were found.

  11. Pinatubo eruption winter climate effects: Model versus observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, HANS-F.; Kirchner, Ingo; Schult, Ingrid; Robock, Alan

    1992-01-01

    Large volcanic eruptions, in addition to the well-known effect of producing global cooling for a year or two, have been observed to produce shorter-term responses in the climate system involving non-linear dynamical processes. In this paper, we use the ECHAM2 general circulation model forced with stratospheric aerosols to test some of these ideas. Run in a perpetual-January mode, with tropical stratospheric heating from the volcanic aerosols typical of the 1982 El Chichon eruption or the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, we find a dynamical response with an increased polar night jet in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and stronger zonal winds which extended down into the troposphere. The Azores High shifts northward with increased tropospheric westerlies at 60N and increased easterlies at 30N. Surface temperatures are higher both in northern Eurasia and North America, in agreement with observations for the NH winters or 1982-83 and 1991-92 as well as the winters following the other 10 largest volcanic eruptions since 1883.

  12. Scattered UV beneath public shade structures during winters.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, D J; Parisi, A V; Sabburg, J

    2003-08-01

    Broadband field measurements were conducted beneath three different-sized public shade structures, small, medium and large, during winter in the Southern Hemisphere. These measurements were compared with the diffuse UV to quantify the relationship of the UV under and around the shade structures to the diffuse UV. For the shade structures, a relationship between the diffuse UV and the UV in the shade has been provided for clear skies and solar zenith angles (SZA) of 49-76 degrees. This allows the prediction of the UV in the shade of these structures if the diffuse UV is known. The ultraviolet protection factors for the three shade structures ranged from 1.5 to 5.4 for decreasing SZA. For the greater SZA of 70-76 degrees, the erythemal UV in the shade was 65%, 59% and 51% of that in full sun for the small, medium and large structures, respectively. For the smaller SZA of 50-53 degrees the erythemal UV in the shade was 35%, 41% and 18% for the small, medium and large shade structures, respectively. From this research it can be concluded that the UV radiation levels in the shade in winter could cause erythema and other sun-related disorders.

  13. Impact of future warming on winter chilling in Australia.

    PubMed

    Darbyshire, Rebecca; Webb, Leanne; Goodwin, Ian; Barlow, E W R

    2013-05-01

    Increases in temperature as a result of anthropogenically generated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are likely to impact key aspects of horticultural production. The potential effect of higher temperatures on fruit and nut trees' ability to break winter dormancy, which requires exposure to winter chilling temperatures, was considered. Three chill models (the 0-7.2°C, Modified Utah, and Dynamic models) were used to investigate changes in chill accumulation at 13 sites across Australia according to localised temperature change related to 1, 2 and 3°C increases in global average temperatures. This methodology avoids reliance on outcomes of future GHG emission pathways, which vary and are likely to change. Regional impacts and rates of decline in chilling differ among the chill models, with the 0-7.2°C model indicating the greatest reduction and the Dynamic model the slowest rate of decline. Elevated and high latitude eastern Australian sites were the least affected while the three more maritime, less elevated Western Australian locations were shown to bear the greatest impact from future warming.

  14. Techniques for trapping, aging, and banding wintering canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Derleth, E.L.; McAuley, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques used to trap, band, and determine age of Canvasbacks during winter on Chesapeake Bay are presented. Canvasbacks were captured with welded-wire traps baited with corn. Two trap designs were used and traps and trapping techniques are described. Ducks were dipnetted from traps and held in modified poultry crates that provided seclusion and ventilation and allowed birds to dry unsoiled. Carney's (1964) wing plumage methodology was found most efficient in determining age of Canvasbacks during large-scale bandings. This technique was rapid and was easily taught to inexperienced personnel. In contrast, the cloacal technique could be performed efficiently only by experienced and skillful banders. Band wear was observed to vary widely on individual birds and rounding of bands was recognized as an important technique in extending band life. Bands were placed upside down on the tarsus so that wear along the upper edge would be less likely to destroy band numbers. In 5 winter seasons, over 17,000 Canvasbacks were captured. Mortality rate for the program was .3%.

  15. Winter fog is decreasing in the fruit growing region of the Central Valley of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldocchi, Dennis; Waller, Eric

    2014-05-01

    The Central Valley of California is home to a variety of fruit and nut trees. These trees account for 95% of the U.S. production, but they need a sufficient amount of winter chill to achieve rest and quiescence for the next season's buds and flowers. In prior work, we reported that the accumulation of winter chill is declining in the Central Valley. We hypothesize that a reduction in winter fog is cooccurring and is contributing to the reduction in winter chill. We examined a 33 year record of satellite remote sensing to develop a fog climatology for the Central Valley. We find that the number of winter fog events, integrated spatially, decreased 46%, on average, over 32 winters, with much year to year variability. Less fog means warmer air and an increase in the energy balance on buds, which amplifies their warming, reducing their chill accumulation more.

  16. Current range of the eastern population of Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris). Part II: Winter range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W.; Holzman, S.; Iñigo-Elias, Eduardo E.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of wintering areas for Neotropical migrants is well established. The wintering range of the eastern population of Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris) is described in detail and presented in maps. The paper also discusses extralimital records from islands in the Caribbean Basin as well as scattered wintering individuals outside the winter range. The possibility of eastern birds wintering on the Yucatan Peninsula and adjacent Central America is considered. An extensive treatment of the protected areas of Peninsular Florida, the northern Bahamas, and Cuba describes the importance of upland habitats within these protected areas for wintering buntings. This information should be useful to land management agencies, conservation organizations, and private landholders for the welfare of the bunting and biodiversity in general and may also be of interest to ornithologists, other biological disciplines, naturalists, and birders.

  17. Effects of Invasive Winter Moth Defoliation on Tree Radial Growth in Eastern Massachusetts, USA

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Michael J.; Lee, Thomas D.; Ducey, Mark J.; Elkinton, Joseph S.; Boettner, George H.; Dodds, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), has been defoliating hardwood trees in eastern Massachusetts since the 1990s. Native to Europe, winter moth has also been detected in Rhode Island, Connecticut, eastern Long Island (NY), New Hampshire, and Maine. Individual tree impacts of winter moth defoliation in New England are currently unknown. Using dendroecological techniques, this study related annual radial growth of individual host (Quercus spp. and Acer spp.) trees to detailed defoliation estimates. Winter moth defoliation was associated with up to a 47% reduction in annual radial growth of Quercus trees. Latewood production of Quercus was reduced by up to 67% in the same year as defoliation, while earlywood production was reduced by up to 24% in the year following defoliation. Winter moth defoliation was not a strong predictor of radial growth in Acer species. This study is the first to document impacts of novel invasions of winter moth into New England. PMID:26462685

  18. Is the OJIP Test a Reliable Indicator of Winter Hardiness and Freezing Tolerance of Common Wheat and Triticale under Variable Winter Environments?

    PubMed Central

    Rapacz, Marcin; Sasal, Monika; Kalaji, Hazem M.; Kościelniak, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    OJIP analysis, which explores changes in photosystem II (PSII) photochemical performance, has been used as a measure of plant susceptibility to stress. However, in the case of freezing tolerance and winter hardiness, which are highly environmentally variable, the use of this method can give ambiguous results depending on the species as well as the sampling year and time. To clarify this issue, we performed chlorophyll fluorescence measurements over three subsequent winters (2010/11, 2011/12 and 2012/13) on 220 accessions of common winter wheat and 139 accessions of winter triticale. After freezing, leaves were collected from cold-acclimated plants in the laboratory and field-grown plants. Observations of field survival in seven locations across Poland and measurements of freezing tolerance of the studied plants were also recorded. Our results confirm that the OJIP test is a reliable indicator of winter hardiness and freezing tolerance of common wheat and triticale under unstable winter environments. Regardless of species, the testing conditions giving the most reliable results were identical, and the reliability of the test could be easily checked by analysis of some relationships between OJIP-test parameters. We also found that triticale is more winter hardy and freezing tolerant than wheat. In addition, the two species were characterized by different patterns of photosynthetic apparatus acclimation to cold. PMID:26230839

  19. [Effects of irrigation time on the growth and water- and fertilizer use efficiencies of winter wheat].

    PubMed

    Dang, Jian-You; Pei, Xue-Xia; Wang, Jiao-Ai; Zhang, Jing; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Ding-Yi

    2012-10-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of irrigation time before wintering (November 10th, November 25th, and December 10th) and in spring (March 5th, re-greening stage; and April 5th, jointing stage) on the growth, dry matter translocation, water use efficiency (WUE), and fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) of winter wheat after returning corn straw into soil. The irrigation time before wintering mainly affected the wheat population size before wintering and at jointing stage, whereas the irrigation time in spring mainly affected the spike number, grain yield, dry matter translocation, WUE, and FUE. The effects of irrigation time before wintering to the yield formation of winter wheat were closely related to the irrigation time in spring. When the irrigation time in spring was at re-greening stage, the earlier the irrigation time before wintering, the larger the spike number and the higher the grain yield; when the irrigation time in spring was at jointing stage, the delay of the irrigation time before wintering made the spike number and grain yield decreased after an initial increase, the kernel number per plant increased, while the 1000-kernel mass was less affected. The WUE, nutrition uptake, and FUE all decreased with the delay of the irrigation time before wintering, but increased with the delay of the irrigation time in spring. Therefore, under the conditions of returning corn straw into soil and sowing when the soil had enough moisture, to properly advance the irrigation time before wintering could make the soil more compacted, promote the tillering and increase the population size before winter, and in combining the increased irrigation at jointing stage, could control the invalid tillering in early spring, increase the spiking rate, obtain stable kernel mass, and thus, increase the WUE and FUE, realizing water-saving and high efficiency for winter wheat cultivation.

  20. Change in abundance of pacific brant wintering in alaska: evidence of a climate warming effect?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David H.; Dau, Christian P.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Sedinger, James S.; Anderson, Betty A.; Hines, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Winter distribution of Pacific Flyway brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) has shifted northward from lowtemperate areas to sub-Arctic areas over the last 42 years. We assessed the winter abundance and distribution of brant in Alaska to evaluate whether climate warming may be contributing to positive trends in the most northern of the wintering populations. Mean surface air temperatures during winter at the end of the Alaska Peninsula increased about 1??C between 1963 and 2004, resulting in a 23% reduction in freezing degree days and a 34% decline in the number of days when ice cover prevents birds from accessing food resources. Trends in the wintering population fluctuated with states of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, increasing during positive (warm) phases and decreasing during negative (cold) phases, and this correlation provides support for the hypothesis that growth in the wintering population of brant in Alaska is linked to climate warming. The size of the wintering population was negatively correlated with the number of days of strong northwesterly winds in November, which suggests that the occurrence of tailwinds favorable for migration before the onset of winter was a key factor in whether brant migrated from Alaska or remained there during winter. Winter distribution of brant on the Alaska Peninsula was highly variable and influenced by ice cover, particularly at the heavily used Izembek Lagoon. Observations of previously marked brant indicated that the Alaska wintering population was composed primarily of birds originating from Arctic breeding colonies that appear to be growing. Numbers of brant in Alaska during winter will likely increase as temperatures rise and ice cover decreases at high latitudes in response to climate warming. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

  1. Head injuries in winter sports: downhill skiing, snowboarding, sledding, snowmobiling, ice skating and ice hockey.

    PubMed

    Chaze, Brian; McDonald, Patrick

    2009-02-01

    Winter sports are often associated with high speed, which carries with it the potential for collision. As such, head injuries are among the more commonly encountered injuries in winter-related sporting activities. This article focuses on popular winter sports such as downhill skiing and snowboarding, sledding, snowmobiling, ice skating, and hockey. In virtually all of these activities, the incidence and severity of head injuries can be reduced by the use of appropriate protective headgear.

  2. Head injuries in winter sports: downhill skiing, snowboarding, sledding, snowmobiling, ice skating and ice hockey.

    PubMed

    Chaze, Brian; McDonald, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    Winter sports are often associated with high speed, which carries with it the potential for collision. As such, head injuries are among the more commonly encountered injuries in winter-related sporting activities. This article focuses on popular winter sports such as downhill skiing and snowboarding, sledding, snowmobiling, ice skating, and hockey. In virtually all of these activities, the incidence and severity of head injuries can be reduced by the use of appropriate protective headgear.

  3. Winter Habitats of Atlantic Salmon, Brook Trout, Brown Trout and Rainbow Trout: A Literature Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Ice conditions Trout River ice Winter habitat Salmon 19...did only 6 cm of water depth was required for travel, not observe trout hiding in the substrate in the winter in the Credit River , although this has...10°C, as measured in Maine rivers using the on the winter habitat of brown trout fry in the standard technique dsecribed by Terhune (1958) Credit

  4. Over-winter ecology of Oncorhynchus nerka in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhart, G.B.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.

    1996-05-01

    Included in this section of the report on limnology of Lakes in the Snake River Plain are descriptions of winter limnological conditions and kokanee growth characteristics from 1993 to 1995. The winter is usually a very harsh period for animals, and little is know about the over-winter ecology os sockeye salmon. They are active a temperatures below 4 F. The chapter discusses methods and results. 14 figs, 4 tabs.

  5. Clustering of European winter storms: A multi-model perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renggli, Dominik; Buettner, Annemarie; Scherb, Anke; Straub, Daniel; Zimmerli, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The storm series over Europe in 1990 (Daria, Vivian, Wiebke, Herta) and 1999 (Anatol, Lothar, Martin) are very well known. Such clusters of severe events strongly affect the seasonally accumulated damage statistics. The (re)insurance industry has quantified clustering by using distribution assumptions deduced from the historical storm activity of the last 30 to 40 years. The use of storm series simulated by climate models has only started recently. Climate model runs can potentially represent 100s to 1000s of years, allowing a more detailed quantification of clustering than the history of the last few decades. However, it is unknown how sensitive the representation of clustering is to systematic biases. Using a multi-model ensemble allows quantifying that uncertainty. This work uses CMIP5 decadal ensemble hindcasts to study clustering of European winter storms from a multi-model perspective. An objective identification algorithm extracts winter storms (September to April) in the gridded 6-hourly wind data. Since the skill of European storm predictions is very limited on the decadal scale, the different hindcast runs are interpreted as independent realizations. As a consequence, the available hindcast ensemble represents several 1000 simulated storm seasons. The seasonal clustering of winter storms is quantified using the dispersion coefficient. The benchmark for the decadal prediction models is the 20th Century Reanalysis. The decadal prediction models are able to reproduce typical features of the clustering characteristics observed in the reanalysis data. Clustering occurs in all analyzed models over the North Atlantic and European region, in particular over Great Britain and Scandinavia as well as over Iberia (i.e. the exit regions of the North Atlantic storm track). Clustering is generally weaker in the models compared to reanalysis, although the differences between different models are substantial. In contrast to existing studies, clustering is driven by weak

  6. Titan's Stratospheric Condensibles at High Northern Latitudes During Northern Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, R.; Achterberg, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument on board Voyager 1 caught the first glimpse of an unidentified particulate feature in Titan's stratosphere that spectrally peaks at 221 per centimeter. Until recently, this feature that we have termed 'the haystack,' has been seen persistently at high northern latitudes with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument onboard Cassini, The strength of the haystack emission feature diminishes rapidly with season, becoming drastically reduced at high northern latitudes, as Titan transitions from northern winter into spring, In contrast to IRIS whose shortest wavenumber was 200 per centimeter, CIRS extends down to 10 per centimeter, thus revealing an entirely unexplored spectral region in which nitrile ices have numerous broad lattice vibration features, Unlike the haystack, which is only found at high northern latitudes during northern winter/early northern spring, this geometrically thin nitrile cloud pervades Titan's lower stratosphere, spectrally peaking at 160 per centimeter, and is almost global in extent spanning latitudes 85 N to 600 S, The inference of nitrile ices are consistent with the highly restricted altitude ranges over which these features are observed, and appear to be dominated by a mixture of HCN and HC3N, The narrow range in altitude over which the nitrile ices extend is unlike the haystack, whose vertical distribution is significantly broader, spanning roughly 70 kilometers in altitude in Titan's lower stratosphere, The nitrile clouds that CIRS observes are located in a dynamically stable region of Titan's atmosphere, whereas CH4 clouds, which ordinarily form in the troposphere, form in a more dynamically unstable region, where convective cloud systems tend to occur. In the unusual situation where Titan's tropopause cools significantly from the HASI 70.5K temperature minimum, CH4 should condense in Titan's lower stratosphere, just like the aforementioned nitrile clouds, although

  7. Titan's stratospheric condensibles at high northern latitudes during northern winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C.; Samuelson, R.; Achterberg, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument on board Voyager 1 caught the first glimpse of an unidentified particulate feature in Titan’s stratosphere that spectrally peaks at 221 cm-1. Until recently, this feature that we have termed ‘the haystack,’ has been seen persistently at high northern latitudes with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument onboard Cassini. The strength of the haystack emission feature diminishes rapidly with season, becoming drastically reduced at high northern latitudes, as Titan transitions from northern winter into spring. In contrast to IRIS whose shortest wavenumber was 200 cm-1, CIRS extends down to 10 cm-1, thus revealing an entirely unexplored spectral region in which nitrile ices have numerous broad lattice vibration features. Unlike the haystack, which is only found at high northern latitudes during northern winter/early northern spring, this geometrically thin nitrile cloud pervades Titan’s lower stratosphere, spectrally peaking at 160 cm-1, and is almost global in extent spanning latitudes 85°N to 60°S. The inference of nitrile ices are consistent with the highly restricted altitude ranges over which these features are observed, and appear to be dominated by a mixture of HCN and HC3N. The narrow range in altitude over which the nitrile ices extend is unlike the haystack, whose vertical distribution is significantly broader, spanning roughly 70 km in altitude in Titan’s lower stratosphere. The nitrile clouds that CIRS observes are located in a dynamically stable region of Titan’s atmosphere, whereas CH4 clouds, which ordinarily form in the troposphere, form in a more dynamically unstable region, where convective cloud systems tend to occur. In the unusual situation where Titan’s tropopause cools significantly from the HASI 70.5K temperature minimum, CH4 should condense in Titan’s lower stratosphere, just like the aforementioned nitrile clouds, although in significantly larger

  8. Winter ice processes and pool habitat associated with two types of constructed instream structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrineau, C.E.; Hubert, W.A.; Dey, P.D.; Annear, T.C.

    2005-01-01

    There is little information on the winter features of salmonid habitats associated with constructed instream structures to provide guidance when planning habitat improvement projects. We assessed winter habitat features for trout of the genera Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus in pools associated with two types of instream structures constructed on a low-gradient reach of a mountain stream in western Wyoming with a mean wetted width of 6.4 m. Pool habitat was affected by temporal variability in ice formations from fall into winter. As surface ice and snow accumulated with the progression of winter, variation in ice formations was less frequent and winter habitat conditions became more stable. However, groundwater inflow that maintained water temperatures at 0.2-0.6??C in a portion of the study reach appeared to contribute to incomplete surface ice cover and variation in ice formations in pools through most of the winter. Hanging dams and anchor ice dams were the primary ice features that affected winter habitat in pools associated with constructed instream structures. Trout were observed in these pools in the fall but tended to abandon pools with variation in ice formations as winter progressed. The potential impacts of groundwater inflow and winter ice processes on trout habitat in pools associated with instream structures should be considered when planning habitat improvement projects. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  9. The value of agricultural wetlands as invertebrate resources for wintering shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taft, Oriane W.; Haig, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural landscapes have received little recognition for the food resources they provide to wintering waterbirds. In the Willamette Valley of Oregon, modest yet significant populations of wintering shorebirds (Charadriiformes) regularly use hundreds of dispersed wetlands on agricultural lands. Benthic invertebrates are a critical resource for the survival of overwintering shorebirds, yet the abundance of invertebrate resources in agricultural wetlands such as these has not been quantified. To evaluate the importance of agricultural wetlands to a population of wintering shorebirds, the density, biomass, and general community composition of invertebrates available to birds were quantified at a sample of Willamette Valley sites during a wet (1999–2000) and a dry winter (2000–2001). Invertebrate densities ranged among wetlands from 173 to 1925 (mean ± S.E.: 936 ± 106) individuals/m2 in the wet winter, and from 214 to 3484 (1028 ± 155) individuals/m2 in the dry winter. Total invertebrate estimated biomass among wetlands ranged from 35 to 652 (mean ± S.E.: 364 ± 35) mg/m2 in the wet winter, and from 85 to 1405 (437 ± 62) mg/m2 in the dry winter. These estimates for food abundance were comparable to that observed in some other important freshwater wintering regions in North America.

  10. Winter soil respiration in a humid temperate forest: The roles of moisture, temperature, and snowpack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contosta, Alexandra R.; Burakowski, Elizabeth A.; Varner, Ruth K.; Frey, Serita D.

    2016-12-01

    Winter soil respiration at midlatitudes can comprise a substantial portion of annual ecosystem carbon loss. However, winter soil carbon dynamics in these areas, which are often characterized by shallow snow cover, are poorly understood due to infrequent sampling at the soil surface. Our objectives were to continuously measure winter CO2 flux from soils and the overlying snowpack while also monitoring drivers of winter soil respiration in a humid temperate forest. We show that the relative roles of soil temperature and moisture in driving winter CO2 flux differed within a single soil-to-snow profile. Surface soil temperatures had a strong, positive influence on CO2 flux from the snowpack, while soil moisture exerted a negative control on soil CO2 flux within the soil profile. Rapid fluctuations in snow depth throughout the winter likely created the dynamic soil temperature and moisture conditions that drove divergent patterns in soil respiration at different depths. Such dynamic conditions differ from many previous studies of winter soil microclimate and respiration, where soil temperature and moisture are relatively stable until snowmelt. The differential response of soil respiration to temperature and moisture across depths was also a unique finding as previous work has not simultaneously quantified CO2 flux from soils and the snowpack. The complex interplay we observed among snow depth, soil temperature, soil moisture, and CO2 flux suggests that winter soil respiration in areas with shallow seasonal snow cover is more variable than previously understood and may fluctuate considerably in the future given winter climate change.

  11. Deacclimation may be crucial for winter survival of cereals under warming climate.

    PubMed

    Rapacz, Marcin; Jurczyk, Barbara; Sasal, Monika

    2017-03-01

    Climate warming can change the winter weather patterns. Warmer temperatures during winter result in a lower risk of extreme freezing events. On the other hand the predicted warm gaps during winter will decrease their freezing tolerance. Both contradict effects will affect winter survival but their resultant effect is unclear. In this paper, we demonstrate that climate warming may result in a decrease in winter survival of plants. A field study of winterhardiness of common wheat and triticale was established at 11 locations and repeated during three subsequent winters. The freezing tolerance of the plants was studied after controlled cold acclimation and de-acclimation using both plant survival analysis and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. Cold deacclimation resistance was shown to be independent from cold acclimation ability. Further, cold deacclimation resistance appeared to be crucial for overwintering when deacclimation conditions occurred in the field. The shortening of uninterrupted cold acclimation may increase cold deacclimation efficiency, which could threaten plant survival during warmer winters. Measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence transient showed some differences triggered by freezing before and after deacclimation. We conclude that cold deacclimation resistance should be considered in the breeding of winter cereals and in future models of winter damage risk.

  12. Assessing solar energy and water use efficiencies in winter wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asrar, G.; Hipps, L. E.; Kanemasu, E. T.

    1982-01-01

    The water use and solar energy conversion efficiencies of two cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., vars, Centurk and Newton) planted at three densities, were examined during a growing season. Water use, based on soil moisture depletion, was the lowest under the light, and the highest under the heavy planting densities of both cultivars. Water use efficiency of medium and heavy planting densities were greater than the light planting densities in both cultivars. The canopy radiation extinction coefficients of both cultivars increased with increases in planting density. Efficiency of operation interception of photosynthetically active radiation by both cultivars improved from the time of jointing until anthesis, and then decreased during senescence. The efficiency of the conversion of intercepted radiation to dry matter (biochemical efficiency) decreased throughout the growing season both cultivars. The interception, biochemical, and photosynthetic efficiencies improved as planting density increased.

  13. Influence of circulation indices upon winter temperature variability in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmallah, E. S.; Elsharkawy, S. G.

    2011-03-01

    Trends of winter surface air temperature anomalies, WSATA, are investigated using data obtained from 13 monitoring stations. The analysis is performed in two steps; one deals with separate stations independently and the other deals with stations' groups. Groups' anomalies are correlated to circulation indices showing negative correlation between temperature with North Atlantic Oscillations and positive one with Mediterranean Oscillation Index. Both power analysis and frequency distribution analysis are applied. The results show existence of Schwabe, Hale and Gleissberg cycles and declare that there are no critical thermal changes of climate in Egypt. It is concluded that the temperature changes during the past three decades are not only because of the human activity but the extraterrestrial impacts as well.

  14. Winter fuels report, week ending December 1, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-07

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s; as well as selected National average prices. Residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6--10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  15. Analysis of the Warmest Arctic Winter, 2015-2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullather, Richard I.; Lim, Young-Kwon; Boisvert, Linette N.; Brucker, Ludovic; Lee, Jae N.; Nowicki, Sophie M. J.

    2016-01-01

    December through February 2015-2016 defines the warmest winter season over the Arctic in the observational record. Positive 2m temperature anomalies were focused over regions of reduced sea ice cover in the Kara and Barents Seas and southwestern Alaska. A third region is found over the ice-covered central Arctic Ocean. The period is marked by a strong synoptic pattern which produced melting temperatures in close proximity to the North Pole in late December and anomalous high pressure near the Taymyr Peninsula. Atmospheric teleconnections from the Atlantic contributed to warming over Eurasian high-latitude land surfaces, and El Niño-related teleconnections explain warming over southwestern Alaska and British Columbia, while warm anomalies over the central Arctic are associated with physical processes including the presence of enhanced atmospheric water vapor and an increased downwelling longwave radiative flux. Preconditioning of sea ice conditions by warm temperatures affected the ensuing spring extent.

  16. UAV Observations of an Antarctic Polynya During Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassano, J.; Maslanik, J. A.; Knuth, S.

    2009-12-01

    Aerosonde unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) will be used during September 2009 to observe the atmosphere and ocean / sea ice surface state in the vicinity of the Terra Nova Bay polynya, Antarctica. The flights will take place at the end of the Antarctic winter, in an environment characterized by strong katabatic winds and strong air-sea fluxes. Flights of up to 20 hours duration are planned. This mission will be the second deployment of UAVs in the Antarctic, and the first deployment funded by the United States National Science Foundation. Results from this UAV deployment and lessons learned during the deployment will be presented. Visible satellite image of Terra Nova Bay polynya (6 Oct 2007).

  17. Feeding ecology of waterfowl wintering on evaporation ponds in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euliss, N.H.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the feeding ecology of Northern Pintails (Anas acuta), Northern Shovelers (A. clypeata), and Ruddy Ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) wintering on drainwater evaporation ponds in California from 1982 through 1984. Pintails primarily consumed midges (Chironomidae) (39.3%) and widegeongrass (Ruppia maritima) nutlets (34.6%). Shovelers and Ruddy Ducks consumed 92.5% and 90.1% animal matter, respectively. Water boatmen (Corixidae) (51.6%), rotifers (Rotatoria) (20.4%), and copepods (Copepoda) (15.2%) were the most important Shoveler foods, and midges (49.7%) and water boatmen (36.0%) were the most important foods of Ruddy Ducks. All three species were opportunistic foragers, shifting their diets seasonally to the most abundant foods given their behavioral and morphological attributes.

  18. Fatal winter dysentery with severe anemia in an adult cow.

    PubMed

    Natsuaki, Sumiko; Goto, Keiichi; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Yamada, Manabu; Ueo, Hiroshi; Komori, Toshihiro; Shirakawa, Hitomi; Uchinuno, Yukinori

    2007-09-01

    An adult dairy cow fatally affected with winter dysentery was investigated pathologically and virologically. The cow had severe anemia and diarrhea with massive blood. Pathologically, the loss of surface epithelial cells and necrosis of crypt epithelial cells in the large intestine were observed. Bovine coronavirus (BCV) antigen was observed in necrotic crypt epithelial cells of the large intestine. Virus particles were found in the necrotic epithelial cells of the large intestine. Virologically, BCV was isolated from the feces of the dead cow. The dead cow had no serum antibody against BCV although the co-habitants did. These suggest that severe infection of BCV in the cow without the BCV antibody accompanied by severe hemorrhagic anemia resulted in the cow's death.

  19. Anthracite coal supply for the 1981-1982 winter

    SciTech Connect

    Peach, J.D.

    1981-09-18

    This report contains a letter addressed to the Chairman of the Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources in which findings on the potential for anthracite to become an effective component in meeting US energy needs are presented. Some of the problems facing the anthracite industry and consumers in the northeastern states, state and industry actions since the 1980 shortage, and the outlook for the winter of 1982 are addressed. Information was obtained on anthracite exports to foreign countries and to the DOD facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany. Development efforts to use anthracite in industrial boilers and the actions that the state of Pennsylvania has taken to encourage the use of anthracite in municipal buildings are also discussed. (DMC)

  20. Influence of ingested lead on body mass of wintering canvasbacks

    SciTech Connect

    Hohman, W.L.; Pritchert, R.D.; Pace, R.M. III; Woolington, D.W. ); Helm, R. )

    1990-04-01

    The authors determined the prevalence of lead shotgun pellets in gizzards of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) collected at Catahoula Lake and the Mississippi River Delta, Louisiana, during winter 1987-88 to assess the influence of ingested lead shot on canvasback body mass. The prevalence of ingested lead shot was significantly higher at Catahoula Lake (27%) than at the Mississippi River Delta (4%). Canvasbacks collected at Catahoula Lake showed significant differences in prevalence of ingested lead shot by age and month. The authors attributed age-related and seasonal variations to differences in foraging effort and exposure time. Body mass of canvasbacks at Catahoula Lake, after accounting for age, monthly variation, and body size, was significantly reduced (120 g or 10%) in birds that had lead shot in their gizzards.

  1. Photonics applications and web engineering: WILGA Winter 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2015-09-01

    XXXVth periodic Symposium WILGA (winter edition) on Design, Construction and Application of Advanced Electronic and Photonic Systems was held at the end of January 2015. It is an established, periodic meeting of young researchers, M.Sc. and Ph.D. students and their supervisors. The meeting is organized by the PERG/ELHEP Laboratories of Institute of Electronic Systems - WUT since two decades. Sessions of the 2015 January meeting were: development of the architecture of digital electronics, embedded systems, design of system functionality, analog electronics and photonics, hardware - software integration, complex system reliability and dependability working in harsh environments, applications of electronic and photonic systems in space and satellite engineering and large research experiments. Summer edition of WILGA Symposium is organized on 25-31 May 2015 [wilga.ise.pw.edu.pl].

  2. Winter fuels report, week ending October 6, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-06

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topcs: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s, I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s; as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Informatoin Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  3. Winter fuels report, week ending October 12, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-18

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city.

  4. Winter fuels report, week ending October 29, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-04

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s; as well as selected National average prices. Residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6--10 Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  5. Passive microwave in situ observations of winter Weddell Sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, J. C.; Grenfell, T. C.; Bell, D. L.; Lange, M. A.; Ackley, S. F.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented on the microwave radiative characteristics of Antarctic sea ice measured during the 1986 Winter Weddell Sea Project with a set of portable radiometers. Radiometer measurements at 6, 10, 18, 37, and 90 GHz in vertical and horizontal polarizations were supplemented by near-simultaneous measurements of the ice physical characteristics (including ice thickness, salinity, temperature, snow cover, and density) made during two cruises, lasting 3 months each. Measurements were obtained on various types of sea ice over a large portion of the Weddell-Sea ice cover, including four transects across the entire ice pack. Data analysis shows a large variability in the multispectral microwave emissivities of different ice types, especially at 90 GHz, demonstrating a strong potential of the use of the 90-GHz channel, in combination with lower-frequency channels, for detailed characterizations of the ice cover.

  6. Dustfall Heavy Metal Pollution During Winter in North China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qiu-lin; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Shu, Tong-tong; Chen, Fan-tao; Zheng, Xiao-xia; Gong, Zhao-ning

    2015-10-01

    In order to study heavy metal pollution in dustfall during Winter in North China, forty-four dustfall samples were collected in North China Region from November 2013 to March 2014. Then forty trace elements content were measured for each sample by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Finally, the contamination characteristics of the main heavy metals were studied through a multi-method analysis, including variability analysis, Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis. Results showed that the relative contents of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), bismuth (Bi), lead (Pb) exceeded the standards stipulated in Chinese soil elements background values by amazing 4.9 times. In this study, conclusions were drawn that dustfall heavy metal pollution in the region was mainly caused by transport pollution, metallurgy industrial pollution, coal pollution and steel industrial pollution.

  7. Analysis of the warmest Arctic winter, 2015-2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullather, Richard I.; Lim, Young-Kwon; Boisvert, Linette N.; Brucker, Ludovic; Lee, Jae N.; Nowicki, Sophie M. J.

    2016-10-01

    December through February 2015-2016 defines the warmest winter season over the Arctic in the observational record. Positive 2 m temperature anomalies were focused over regions of reduced sea ice cover in the Kara and Barents Seas and southwestern Alaska. A third region is found over the ice-covered central Arctic Ocean. The period is marked by a strong synoptic pattern which produced melting temperatures in close proximity to the North Pole in late December and anomalous high pressure near the Taymyr Peninsula. Atmospheric teleconnections from the Atlantic contributed to warming over Eurasian high-latitude land surfaces, and El Niño-related teleconnections explain warming over southwestern Alaska and British Columbia, while warm anomalies over the central Arctic are associated with physical processes including the presence of enhanced atmospheric water vapor and an increased downwelling longwave radiative flux. Preconditioning of sea ice conditions by warm temperatures affected the ensuing spring extent.

  8. Solar and air lumber drying during winter in Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    de S. Oliveira, L.C.; Skaar, C.; Wengert, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    A greenhouse-type solar lumber dryer with a transparent south wall and transparent 45 degrees sloped roof was used to dry 4/4 oak lumber in the winter in Virginia. A pile of end-matched samples was also air-dried during the same time period. The solar-dried lumber reached 20 percent moisture content (MC) in 80 days and 6 percent MC in 125 days; the air-dried pile reached 20 percent MC in 105 days and 14 percent MC in 162 days. Solar-dried lumber at 6 percent MC was without end checks and free of casehardening stresses. In order to permit comparisons of this dryer with other dryers or after modification of the existing dryer, a method of calculating an efficiency factor using standard meteorological data is explained. (Refs. 17).

  9. Aircraft and Ground Vehicle Winter Runway Friction Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1999-01-01

    Some background information is given together with the scope and objectives of a 5-year, Joint Winter Runway Friction Measurement Program between the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA), Transport Canada (TC), and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The primary objective of this effort is to perform instrumented aircraft and ground vehicle tests aimed at identifying a common number that all the different ground vehicle devices would report. This number, denoted the International Runway Friction Index (IRFI), will be related to all types of aircraft stopping performance. The range of test equipment, the test sites, test results and accomplishments, the extent of the substantial friction database compiled, and future test plans will be described. Several related studies have also been implemented including the effects of contaminant type on aircraft impingement drag, and the effectiveness of various runway and aircraft de-icing chemical types, and application rates.

  10. Nitric oxide measurements in the Arctic winter stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, D. W.; Kawa, S. R.; Chan, K. R.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of NO from five flights of the NASA ER-2 aircraft during the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition are presented. The NO values and vertical gradient near 60 deg N latitude are similar to previous measurements near 50 deg N in winter (Ridley et al., 1984, 1987). The NO latitudinal gradient is distinctly negative outside of the polar vortex, approaching zero at the boundary of the vortex, and remaining below the 20 pptv detection limit inside the vortex. Steady state NO2 and NO(x) (NO + NO2) are calculated from measured NO, O3, and ClO, and modeled photodissociation rates. NO(x) outside the vortex shows a negative dependence on latitude and solar zenith angle. Low NO(x) and NO(x)/NO(y), inside and near the vortex boundary may be indications of heterogeneous removal of ClONO2 and N2O5.

  11. Winter fuels reports, week ending: November 24, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-30

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s; as well as selected National average prices. Residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  12. Phenological Differences Promote Coexistence in Sonoran Desert Winter Annuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, S.; Angert, A.; Huxman, T.; Venable, L.

    2008-12-01

    Identifying trait differences is an important step toward understanding differential demographic responses to the same environmental fluctuations. In the Sonoran Desert, winter annual plants exhibit high demographic variability due to variation in precipitation, and patterns of demographic variability are related to species position along a tradeoff axis between relative growth rate (RGR) and water-use efficiency (WUE). Prior investigation revealed that species with high RGR and low WUE have greater inter-annual variability than species with low RGR and high WUE. In this study, we use long-term census data, climate records, and plot data to investigate timing of germination, reproduction, and senescence of several winter annual species in multiple years to test whether phenology relates to demographic variability and position along the tradeoff axis. We also use climate records to describe germination niches of the species and make predictions regarding future community composition. We hypothesized that seasonal phenology would differ such that demographically 'buffered' species (low RGR-high WUE) would germinate, flower, and senesce earlier in the season due to an ability to utilize small amounts of rain and photosynthesize at low temperatures. In contrast, we hypothesized that the demographically 'variable' species (high RGR-low WUE) would germinate later in the season, only after enough rain had fallen to break seed dormancy. Consistent with our hypothesis, buffered species did germinate and reproduce earlier in the season than variable species. Contrary to our hypothesis, buffered species also survived later into the season. Variable species germinated later, reproduced quickly, and senesced earlier in the season. These results show that phenology promotes coexistence by partitioning resource use. Germination niches and climate data suggest that buffered species may increase in abundance through time.

  13. Processes Controlling Water Vapor in the Winter Arctic Stratospheric Middleworld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry B.; Jensen, Eric J.; Podolske, James; Sachse, Glen; Avery, Melody; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Abstract: Water vapor in the winter arctic stratospheric middleworld (that part of the stratosphere with potential temperatures lower than the tropical tropopause) is important for two reasons: (1) the arctic middleworld is a source of air for the upper troposphere because of the generally downward motion, and thus its water vapor content helps determine upper tropospheric water, a critical part of the earth's radiation budget; and (2) under appropriate conditions, relative humidities will be large even to the point of stratospheric cirrus cloud formation, leading to the production of active chlorine species that could destroy ozone. On a number of occasions during SOLVE, clouds were observed in the stratospheric middleworld by the DC-8 aircraft. The relationship between ozone and CO from aircraft measurements taken during the early, middle and late part of the winter of 1999-2000 show that recent mixing with tropospheric air extends up to ozone values of about 350-450 ppbv. Above that level, the relationship suggests stratospheric air with minimal tropospheric influence. The transition is quite abrupt, particularly in early spring. Trajectory analyses are consistent with these relationships, with a significant drop-off in the percentage of trajectories with tropospheric PV values in their 10-day history as in-situ ozone increases above 400 ppbv. The water distribution is affected by these mixing characteristics, and by cloud formation. Significant cloud formation along trajectories occurs up to ozone values of about 400 ppbv during the early spring, with small, but nonzero probabilities extending to 550 ppbv. Cloud formation in the stratospheric middleworld is minimal during early and midwinter. Also important is the fact that, during early spring 30% of the trajectories near the tropopause (ozone values less than 200 ppbv) have minimum saturation mixing ratios less than 5 ppmv. Such parcels can mix out into the troposphere and could lead to very dry conditions in

  14. European Winter Storms in the ECMWF Ensemble Prediction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, Robert; Lorenz, Philip; Kruschke, Tim; Leckebusch, Gregor C.; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    As European winter storms can provoke very large damages, estimations of the probability of occurrence are of economical and sociological importance. The estimations of return periods for the strongest events underlie large uncertainties, which arise from the limited available data, available from historical meteorological records or reanalysis data. A gain of information can be obtained from ensemble forecasts. In this work the Ensemble Prediction System (EPS) from the European Center of Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) is analyzed for its suitability to improve the estimates of return periods of very rare and severe events. The EPS dataset contains up to 51 ensemble members, starting twice a day and each integrated over 10 days. The storm systems are identified and characterized using a wind field tracking algorithm developed by Leckebusch et al. (2008). Exceedances of the local 98th percentile of 10m wind speed are used, and calculating the cube of these exceedances, accumulated spatially and temporally, an objective storm severity measure (SSI) is determined. Taking the distribution of values into account, the measure of storm severity relates to storm damages. Using ERA-Interim as a reference dataset, it is shown that the general distributions of storm properties in the EPS are realistic. The EPS representations of a single ERA-Interim storm show a wide range of variability in terms of size, duration and severity. Hence better estimations of return periods of winter storms are possible using the EPS, as well as studies of general aspects of storms, like the correlation between intensification and storm duration. Nevertheless for an estimation of return periods, it must be taken into account, that the simulated events in the EPS are not independent of each other.

  15. Evolution of polar stratospheric clouds during the Antarctic winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaswamy, V.

    1988-01-01

    The occurrence of Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs), initially inferred from satellite measurements of solar extinction, have now also been noted by the recent scientific expeditions in the Antarctic. The presence of such clouds in the Antarctic has been postulated to play a significant role in the depletion of ozone during the transition from winter to spring. The mechanisms suggested involve both dynamical and chemical processes which, explicity or implicitly, are associated with the ice particles constituting the PSCs. It is, thus, both timely and necessary to investigate the evolution of these clouds and ascertain the nature and magnitude of their influences on the state of the Antarctic stratosphere. To achieve these objectives, a detailed microphysical model of the processes governing the growth and sublimation of ice particles in the polar stratosphere was developed, based on the investigations of Ramaswamy and Detwiler. The present studies focus on the physical processes that occur at temperatures below those required for the onset of ice deposition from the vapor phase. Once these low temperatures are attained, the deposition of water vapor onto nucleation particles becomes extremely significant. First, the factors governing the magnitude of growth and the growth rate of ice particles at various altitudes are examined. Second, the ice phase mechanisms are examined in the context of a column model with altitudes ranging from 100 to 5 mb pressure levels. The column microphysical model was used to perform simulations of the cloud evolution, using the observed daily temperatures. The effect due to the growth of the particles on the radiation fields are also investigated using a one dimensional radiative transfer model. Specifically, the perturbations in the longwave cooling and that in the shortwave heating for the late winter/early spring time period are analyzed.

  16. Volcanos and El Nino: Signal separation in northern hemisphere winter

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchner, I.; Graf, H.F.

    1995-08-01

    The frequent coincidence of volcanic forcing with El Nino events disables the clear assignment of climate anomalies to either volcanic or El Nino forcing. In order to select the signals, a set of four different perpetual January GCM experiments was performed (control, volcano case, El Nino case and combined volcano/El Nino case) and studied with advanced statistical methods for the Northern Hemisphere winter. The results were compared with observations. The signals for the different forcings are discussed for three variables (temperature, zonal wind and geopotential height) and five levels (surface, 850 hPa. 500 hPa, 200 hPa and 50 hPa). The global El Nino signal can be selected more clearly in the troposphere than in the stratosphere. In contrast, the global volcano signal is strongest in the stratospheric temperature field. The amplitude of the perturbation for the volcano case is largest in the Atlantic region. The observed effect of local cooling due to the volcanic reduction of short-wave radiation over large land areas (like Asia) in sub-tropical regions, the observed advective warming over Eurasia and the advective cooling over Greenland are well simulated in the model. The radiative cooling near the surface is important for the volcano signal in the subtropics, but it is weak in high latitudes during winter. A statistically significant tropospheric signal of El Nino forcing occurs in the subtropics and in the mid-latitudes of the North Pacific. The local anomalies in the El Nino forcing region in the tropics, and the warming over North America in middle and high latitudes are simulated as observed. The combined signal is different from a simple linear combination of the separate signals. It leads to a climate perturbation stronger than for forcing with El Nino or stratospheric aerosol alone and to a somewhat modified pattern. 73 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Parental thunderclouds of sprites and elves in winter Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Adachi, T.; Miyasato, R.; Hiraki, Y.; Fukunishi, H.

    2001-12-01

    We have conducted the observation campaign of sprites/elves in winter since December 1998. We use two observation sites with distance of ~300 km to make triangulation: Optical instruments and VLF wave receivers have been installed both at two observation sites. During the campaigns we succeeded in measuring sprites and elves with image-intensified CCD cameras, photometers and VLF receivers. Totally, 21, 2, and 11 sprites were recorded in each campaign, respectively. The elves were detected more frequently than sprites. During 2000/2001 campaign 26 elves appeared on single night. This might be due to large emission extent of elves in horizontal and the fact that elves could be caused by not only positive discharge but also negative one. The number of event is strongly dependent on the parental thundercloud activity and weather conditions above the observation site. In 1998/1999 campaign, we observed the sprites when the cold front was approaching to and collided with the west coast of Japan. The location of sprites determined by triangulation is just above the cloud in the cold front. The height of the cloud top is estimated to be 4-6 km and the width of the cloud is only 30 km. On the other hand, in the 20002001 campaign, sprites were observed above the Pacific Ocean ~500 km apart from the coast. Some of them are also associated with clouds at the cold front while some events appeared over the clouds detached from the cold front by >400km. The height of the cloud top are 5-7 km. Differences in dimensions and structures of sprites between in summer and in winter will be discussed in the point of view of the relationship to the characteristics of the parental cloud and discharges.

  18. Interdecadal variability of winter precipitation in Southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling; Zhu, Xiuhua; Fraedrich, Klaus; Sielmann, Frank; Zhi, Xiefei

    2014-10-01

    Interdecadal variability of observed winter precipitation in Southeast China (1961-2010) is characterized by the first empirical orthogonal function of the three-monthly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) subjected to a 9-year running mean. For interdecadal time scales the dominating spatial modes represent monopole features involving the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. Dynamic composite analysis (based on NCEP/NCAR reanalyzes) reveals the following results: (1) Interdecadal SPI-variations show a trend from a dryer state in the 1970s via an increase during the 1980s towards stabilization on wetter conditions commencing with the 1990s. (2) Increasing wetness in Southeast China is attributed to an abnormal anticyclone over south Japan, with northward transport of warm and humid air from the tropical Pacific to South China. (3) In mid-to-high latitudes the weakened southward flow of polar airmasses induces low-level warming over Eurasia due to stronger AO by warmer zonal temperature advection. This indicates that AO is attributed to the Southeast China precipitation increase influenced by circulation anomalies over the mid-to-high latitudes. (4) The abnormal moisture transport along the southwestern boundary of the abnormal anticyclone over south Japan is related to anomalous south-easterlies modulated by the SST anomalies over Western Pacific Ocean; a positive (negative) SST anomaly will strengthen (weaken) warm and humid air transport, leading to abundant (reduced) precipitation in Southeast China. That is both AO and SST anomalies determine the nonlinear trend observed in winter precipitation over Southeast China.

  19. Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, Tiina M.; Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Jokelainen, Jari; Rintamäki, Hannu; Ruuhela, Reija; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

    2006-09-01

    The extent of outdoor exposure during winter and factors affecting it were examined in a cross-sectional population study in Finland. Men and women aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK 2002 sub-study ( n=6,591) were queried about their average weekly occupational, leisure-time and total cold exposure during the past winter. The effects of gender, age, area of residence, occupation, ambient temperature, self-rated health, physical activity and education on cold exposure were analysed. The self-reported median total cold exposure time was 7 h/week (8 h men, 6 h women),<1 h/week (2 h men, 0 h women) at work, 4 h/week (5 h men, 4 h women) during leisure time and 1 h/week (1 h men, 1.5 h women) while commuting to work. Factors associated with increased occupational cold exposure among men were: being employed in agriculture, forestry and industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being less educated and being aged 55-64 years. Factors associated with increased leisure-time cold exposure among men were: employment in industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being a pensioner or unemployed, reporting at least average health, being physically active and having college or vocational education. Among women, being a housewife, pensioner or unemployed and engaged in physical activity increased leisure-time cold exposure, and young women were more exposed than older ones. Self-rated health was positively associated with leisure time cold exposure in men and only to a minor extent in women. In conclusion, the subjects reported spending 4% of their total time under cold exposure, most of it (71%) during leisure time. Both occupational and leisure-time cold exposure is greater among men than women.

  20. Processes Controlling Water Vapor in the Winter Arctic Stratospheric Middleworld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry; Jensen, Eric; Sachse, Glenn; Podolske, James; Schoeberl, Mark; Browell, Edward; Ismail, Syed; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Water vapor in the winter arctic stratospheric middleworld is import-an: for two reasons: (1) the arctic middleworld is a source of air for the upper Troposphere because of the generally downward motion, and thus its water vapor content helps determine upper tropospheric water, a critical part of the earth's radiation budget; and (2) under appropriate conditions, relative humidities will be large, even to the point of stratospheric cirrus cloud formation, leading to the production of active chlorine species that could destroy ozone. On a number of occasions during SOLVE, clouds were observed in the stratospheric middleworld by the DC-8 aircraft. These tended to coincide with regions of low temperatures, though some cases suggest water vapor enhancements due to troposphere-to-stratosphere transport. The goal of this work is to understand the importance of processes in and at the edge of the arctic stratospheric middleworld in determining water vapor at these levels. Specifically, is water vapor at these levels determined largely by the descent of air from above, or are clouds both within and at the edge of the stratospheric middleworld potentially important? How important is troposphere-to-stratosphere transport of air in determining stratospheric middleworld water vapor content? To this end, we will first examine the minimum saturation mixing ratios along theta/EPV tubes during the SOLVE winter and compare these with DC-8 water vapor observations. This will be a rough indicator of how high relative humidities can get, and the likelihood of cirrus cloud formation in various parts of the stratospheric middleworld. We will then examine saturation mixing ratios along both diabatic and adiabatic trajectories, comparing these values with actual aircraft water vapor observations, both in situ and remote. Finally, we will attempt to actually predict water vapor using minimum saturation mixing ratios along trajectories, cloud injection (derived from satellite imagery) along

  1. Winter climate impacts of historical deforestation in New England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkakowski, Elizabeth Ann

    Deforestation in the New England region of the United States peaked around 1850, with almost 50% of the total land area cleared for pasture, lumber and timber, agriculture, and home heating. Farmland abandonment in the late-1800's led to reforestation and today New England is the most forested region in the US. This dissertation explores the hypothesis that mid-1800's deforestation led to cooler winters for two reasons: (1) increased surface albedo, a measure of surface reflectivity, and (2) decreased surface roughness length. Three chapters detail: a scaling approach to assess accuracy of albedo over forested and deforested landscapes in New Hampshire (Chapter I); the establishment of a volunteer albedo observer network to characterize albedo over deforested landscapes (Chapter II); and the validation of a regional climate model to simulate historical climate responses to deforestation (Chapter III). The results from Chapter I and II provide essential validation data for the regional climate model in Chapter III. The scaling approach shows that albedo over deforested lands is underestimated at wavelengths less than 450 nm and that tower-, airborne-, and satellite-based albedo over forests are relatively consistent across spatial scales. The regional climate model overestimates the albedo of snow-covered deciduous broadleaf forests, which may be a strong contributor to cold biases in November through January maximum temperature (TMAX) identified in the climate model. The modeling approach suggests that mid-1800's deforestation resulted in daytime cooling in the New England region. The impact on nighttime temperatures remains unclear because the model was not able to capture observed nighttime cooling patterns associated with surface roughness and atmospheric stability over open lands. 1 conclude that mid-1800's deforestation in New England contributed to cooler winters, however the magnitude of cooling at night requires improvements to snow-surface coupling in the

  2. Winter sky brightness & cloud cover over Dome A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi; Moore, A. M.; Fu, J.; Ashley, M.; Cui, X.; Feng, L.; Gong, X.; Hu, Z.; Laurence, J.; LuongVan, D.; Riddle, R. L.; Shang, Z.; Sims, G.; Storey, J.; Tothill, N.; Travouillon, T.; Wang, L.; Yang, H.; Yang, J.; Zhou, X.; Zhu, Z.; Burton, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    At the summit of the Antarctic plateau, Dome A offers an intriguing location for future large scale optical astronomical Observatories. The Gattini DomeA project was created to measure the optical sky brightness and large area cloud cover of the winter-time sky above this high altitude Antarctic site. The wide field camera and multi-filter system was installed on the PLATO instrument module as part of the Chinese-led traverse to Dome A in January 2008. This automated wide field camera consists of an Apogee U4000 interline CCD coupled to a Nikon fish-eye lens enclosed in a heated container with glass window. The system contains a filter mechanism providing a suite of standard astronomical photometric filters (Bessell B, V, R), however, the absence of tracking systems, together with the ultra large field of view 85 degrees) and strong distortion have driven us to seek a unique way to build our data reduction pipeline. We present here the first measurements of sky brightness in the photometric B, V, and R band, cloud cover statistics measured during the 2009 winter season and an estimate of the transparency. In addition, we present example light curves for bright targets to emphasize the unprecedented observational window function available from this ground-based location. A ~0.2 magnitude agreement of our simultaneous test at Palomar Observatory with NSBM(National Sky Brightness Monitor), as well as an 0.04 magnitude photometric accuracy for typical 6th magnitude stars limited by the instrument design, indicating we obtained reasonable results based on our ~7mm effective aperture fish-eye lens.

  3. Length of winter coat in horses depending on husbandry conditions.

    PubMed

    Bocian, Krzysztof; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Janczarek, Iwona; Jabłecki, Zygmunt; Kolstrung, Ryszard

    2017-02-01

    This paper analyzes changes in the length of coat on selected body areas in horses and ponies kept under different husbandry (stable) conditions during the winter-spring period. The study included 12 Małpolski geldings and 12 geldings of Felin ponies aged 10-15 years. Horses were kept in two stables (six horses and six ponies in each stable). The type of performance, husbandry conditions and feeding of the studied animals were comparable. As of December 1, samples of hair coat from the scapula, sternum, back and abdomen areas of both body sides were collected seven times. The lengths of 20 randomly selected hair fibers were measured. Daily measurements of air temperature in the stables were also taken. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed using the following factors: the body part from where the coat was sampled, the subsequent examination and the stable as well as the interaction between these factors. The significance of differences between means was determined with a t-Tukey test. The relations between air temperature in the stable and hair length were calculated using Pearson's correlation. It was found that air temperature in the stable impacts the length of winter coat in horses and ponies. The effect of this factor is more pronounced in ponies; as in the stables with lower temperatures it produces a longer hair coat which is more evenly distributed over the body in comparison with horses. Keeping horses and ponies in stables with a low air temperature accelerates coat shedding by approximately 25 days. Coat shedding begins from the scapula area.

  4. Vitamin D Supplementation and Immune Response to Antarctic Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, S. R.; Mehta, S. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Bourbeau, Y.; Locke, J. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining vitamin D status without sunlight exposure is difficult without supplementation. This study was designed to better understand interrelationships between periodic cholecalciferol(vitamin D3) supplementation and immune function in Antarctic workers. The effect of 2 oral dosing regimens of vitamin D3 supplementation on vitamin D status and markers of immune function were evaluated in people in Antarctica with no ultraviolet light exposure for 6 mo. Participants were given a 2,000-IU (50 g) daily (n=15) or 10,000-IU (250 g) weekly (n=14) vitamin D3 supplement for 6 mo during a winter in Antarctica. Biological samples were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 mo. Vitamin D intake, markers of vitamin D and bone metabolism, and latent virus reactivation were determined. After 6 mo the mean (SD) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration increased from 56 plus or minus 17 to 79 plus or minus 16 nmol/L and 52 plus or minus 10 to 69 plus or minus 9 nmol/L in the 2,000-IU/d and 10,000-IU/wk groups (main effect over time P less than 0.001). Participants with a greater BMI (participant BMI range = 19-43 grams per square meter) had a smaller increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 after 6 mo supplementation (P less than 0.05). Participants with high serum cortisoland higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were less likely to shed Epstein-Barr virus in saliva (P less than 0.05). The doses given raised vitamin D status in participants not exposed to sunlight for 6 mo, and the efficacy was influenced by baseline vitamin D status and BMI. The data also provide evidence that vitamin D, interacting with stress, can reduce risk of latent virus reactivation during the winter in Antarctica.

  5. Some aspects of temporal structure of leading winter extratropical modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, M. A.; Doblas-Reyes, F. J.; Casado, M. J.

    2003-04-01

    SOME ASPECTS OF TEMPORAL STRUCTURE OF LEADING WINTER EXTRATROPICAL MODES M.A.Pastor (1), F. J. Doblas-Reyes (2), M. J. Casado (1) (1) I Instituto Nacional de Meteorología, c/Leonardo Prieto Castro,8,28071 ,Madrid,Spain, a.pastor@inm.es (2) ECMWF, Shinfield Park,RG2 9AX, Reading, UK, f.doblas-reyes@ecmwf.int As a first step in the evaluation of the capability of seasonal ensemble predictions to reproduce the leading modes which dominate the extratropical northern circulation and to explore the ensemble predictability, we examine the power spectra and timescale properties of the dominant atmospheric teleconnection patterns like the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Pacific-North America (PNA) patterns, etc. using the National Centres for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) re-analyses spanning the winters of 1948-2000 over the Northern Hemisphere poleward of 20ºN. The teleconnection patterns are identified by applying a rotated principal component analysis (RPCA) to the daily unfiltered 500-hPa geopotential height field. The election of the RPCA methodology is motivated by the fact that identifies simple and unique patterns of spatial dataset variability. The temporal evolution of the selected patterns can be understood as a stochastic processes with an e-folding timescale less than 10 days. The shortness of this timescale indicates that the excitation of these teleconnection patterns is limited to a period of time limited to a few days. Then, this study shows that the selected patterns evolve on timescales less than 2 weeks in agreement with very recent published works. It is emphasized the use of daily data in order to improve our understanding of the growth and decay mechanisms of teleconnection patterns, since using monthly or seasonal data, can produce a misleading picture of the underlying dynamics of the anomalies with time scales much shorter than 2 months.

  6. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  7. A Pan-arctic Survey about the Meaning of Winter Respiration in Northern High Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selbmann, A. K.; Natali, S.

    2015-12-01

    The arctic is warming at twice the rate of the rest of the planet, with the greatest warming occurring during the winter months. Despite the cold temperatures during the winter, microbial activity continues and leads to a release of soil carbon during a criticial period when plant uptake has ceased. Due to the warming climate, huge pools of carbon stored in permafrost soils are expected to be released to the atmosphere. To identify the annual carbon balance of arctic ecosystems and potential impacts caused by a rise in temperatures, understanding the magnitude of winter respiration is essential. In order to refine current and future estimates of carbon loss from permafrost ecosystems, we conducted a pan-arctic synthesis of winter respiration from northern high latitude regions. We examined differences in cumulative winter respiration among permafrost zones, biomes, ecosystem types, and effects of measurement method on winter respiration estimates. We also examined effect of air temperature and precipitation (Worldclim database) on rates of winter respiration. The database contained 169 measurement points from 46 study sites located throughout the permafrost zones. We found that 21.6 % of annual respiration is happening during non-growing season, which can shift ecosystems from annual sinks during the growing season to net sources of carbon on an annual basis. Across studies, the average carbon loss during the winter was 66 g CO2-C. There was a strong relationship between mean annual air temperature and winter respiration, and lower respiration in continuous compared to discontinuous permafrost zones and northern areas without permafrost. The present results clarify the contribution of winter respiration to annual carbon balance and show the sensitivity of carbon release to rising temperatures in northern high latitudes. These results suggest that permafrost degradation and increased temperature will lead to a higher release of carbon from the Arctic in wintertime

  8. Individual Winter Movement Strategies in Two Species of Murre (Uria spp.) in the Northwest Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane Tranquilla, Laura A.; Montevecchi, William A.; Fifield, David A.; Hedd, April; Gaston, Anthony J.; Robertson, Gregory J.; Phillips, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Individual wintering strategies and patterns of winter site fidelity in successive years are highly variable among seabird species. Yet, an understanding of consistency in timing of movements and the degree of site fidelity is essential for assessing how seabird populations might be influenced by, and respond to, changing conditions on wintering grounds. To explore annual variation in migratory movements and wintering areas, we applied bird-borne geolocators on Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia, n = 19) and Common Murres (U. aalge, n = 20) from 5 colonies in the Northwest Atlantic for 2–4 consecutive years. Thick-billed Murres ranged widely and among-individual wintering strategies were highly variable, whereas most Common Murres wintered relatively near their colonies, with among-individual variation represented more by the relative use of inshore vs. offshore habitat. Within individuals, some aspects of the wintering strategy were more repeatable than others: colony arrival and departure dates were more consistent by individual Common than Thick-billed Murres, while the sizes of home ranges (95% utilization distributions) and distances travelled to wintering area were more repeatable for both species. In consecutive years, individual home ranges overlapped from 0–64% (Thick-billed Murres) and 0–95% (Common Murres); and the winter centroids were just 239 km and 169 km apart (respectively). Over the 3–4 year timescale of our study, individuals employed either fixed or flexible wintering strategies; although most birds showed high winter site fidelity, some shifted core ranges after 2 or 3 years. The capacity among seabird species for a combination of fidelity and flexibility, in which individuals may choose from a range of alternative strategies, deserves further, longer term attention. PMID:24694734

  9. Does Wyoming's Core Area Policy Protect Winter Habitats for Greater Sage-Grouse?

    PubMed

    Smith, Kurt T; Beck, Jeffrey L; Pratt, Aaron C

    2016-10-01

    Conservation reserves established to protect important habitat for wildlife species are used world-wide as a wildlife conservation measure. Effective reserves must adequately protect year-round habitats to maintain wildlife populations. Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Area policy was established to protect breeding habitats for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). Protecting only one important seasonal habitat could result in loss or degradation of other important habitats and potential declines in local populations. The purpose of our study was to identify the timing of winter habitat use, the extent which individuals breeding in Core Areas used winter habitats, and develop resource selection functions to assess effectiveness of Core Areas in conserving sage-grouse winter habitats in portions of 5 Core Areas in central and north-central Wyoming during winters 2011-2015. We found that use of winter habitats occured over a longer period than current Core Area winter timing stipulations and a substantial amount of winter habitat outside of Core Areas was used by individuals that bred in Core Areas, particularly in smaller Core Areas. Resource selection functions for each study area indicated that sage-grouse were selecting habitats in response to landscapes dominated by big sagebrush and flatter topography similar to other research on sage-grouse winter habitat selection. The substantial portion of sage-grouse locations and predicted probability of selection during winter outside small Core Areas illustrate that winter requirements for sage-grouse are not adequately met by existing Core Areas. Consequently, further considerations for identifying and managing important winter sage-grouse habitats under Wyoming's Core Area Policy are warranted.

  10. Does Wyoming's Core Area Policy Protect Winter Habitats for Greater Sage-Grouse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kurt T.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Pratt, Aaron C.

    2016-10-01

    Conservation reserves established to protect important habitat for wildlife species are used world-wide as a wildlife conservation measure. Effective reserves must adequately protect year-round habitats to maintain wildlife populations. Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Area policy was established to protect breeding habitats for greater sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus). Protecting only one important seasonal habitat could result in loss or degradation of other important habitats and potential declines in local populations. The purpose of our study was to identify the timing of winter habitat use, the extent which individuals breeding in Core Areas used winter habitats, and develop resource selection functions to assess effectiveness of Core Areas in conserving sage-grouse winter habitats in portions of 5 Core Areas in central and north-central Wyoming during winters 2011-2015. We found that use of winter habitats occured over a longer period than current Core Area winter timing stipulations and a substantial amount of winter habitat outside of Core Areas was used by individuals that bred in Core Areas, particularly in smaller Core Areas. Resource selection functions for each study area indicated that sage-grouse were selecting habitats in response to landscapes dominated by big sagebrush and flatter topography similar to other research on sage-grouse winter habitat selection. The substantial portion of sage-grouse locations and predicted probability of selection during winter outside small Core Areas illustrate that winter requirements for sage-grouse are not adequately met by existing Core Areas. Consequently, further considerations for identifying and managing important winter sage-grouse habitats under Wyoming's Core Area Policy are warranted.

  11. Climatic patterns in the establishment of wintering areas by North American migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Moreno, Heidi; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Soberón Mainero, Jorge; Rojas-Soto, Octavio

    2016-04-01

    Long-distance migration in birds is relatively well studied in nature; however, one aspect of this phenomenon that remains poorly understood is the pattern of distribution presented by species during arrival to and establishment of wintering areas. Some studies suggest that the selection of areas in winter is somehow determined by climate, given its influence on both the distribution of bird species and their resources. We analyzed whether different migrant passerine species of North America present climatic preferences during arrival to and departure from their wintering areas. We used ecological niche modeling to generate monthly potential climatic distributions for 13 migratory bird species during the winter season by combining the locations recorded per month with four environmental layers. We calculated monthly coefficients of climate variation and then compared two GLM (generalized linear models), evaluated with the AIC (Akaike information criterion), to describe how these coefficients varied over the course of the season, as a measure of the patterns of establishment in the wintering areas. For 11 species, the sites show nonlinear patterns of variation in climatic preferences, with low coefficients of variation at the beginning and end of the season and higher values found in the intermediate months. The remaining two species analyzed showed a different climatic pattern of selective establishment of wintering areas, probably due to taxonomic discrepancy, which would affect their modeled winter distribution. Patterns of establishment of wintering areas in the species showed a climatic preference at the macroscale, suggesting that individuals of several species actively select wintering areas that meet specific climatic conditions. This probably gives them an advantage over the winter and during the return to breeding areas. As these areas become full of migrants, alternative suboptimal sites are occupied. Nonrandom winter area selection may also have

  12. RNA-seq-mediated transcriptome analysis of actively growing and winter dormant shoots identifies non-deciduous habit of evergreen tree tea during winters.

    PubMed

    Paul, Asosii; Jha, Ashwani; Bhardwaj, Shruti; Singh, Sewa; Shankar, Ravi; Kumar, Sanjay

    2014-08-04

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is a perennial tree which undergoes winter dormancy and unlike deciduous trees, the species does not shed its leaves during winters. The present work dissected the molecular processes operating in the leaves during the period of active growth and winter dormancy through transcriptome analysis to understand a long-standing question: why should tea be a non-deciduous species? Analyses of 24,700 unigenes obtained from 57,767 primarily assembled transcripts showed (i) operation of mechanisms of winter tolerance, (ii) down-regulation of genes involved in growth, development, protein synthesis and cell division, and (iii) inhibition of leaf abscission due to modulation of senescence related processes during winter dormancy in tea. These senescence related processes exhibited modulation to favour leaf abscission (i) in deciduous Populus tremula during winters, and (ii) also in tea but under osmotic stress during which leaves also abscise. These results validated the relevance of the identified senescence related processes for leaf abscission and suggested their operation when in need in tea.

  13. EMS & the DEA.

    PubMed

    Beeson, Jeff; Ayres, Chris

    2010-01-01

    It's clear that EMS medical directors and management staff must be vigilant in their oversight of implementation, administration and monitoring of controlled substances within their agencies to best serve the public and avoid running afoul of investigation and incurring significant penalties. Those potentially affected by the need for individual registrations of both emergency vehicles and central inventory systems should carefully monitor upcoming developments in the interpretation od DEA regulations.

  14. Status and Distribution of Wintering Waterfowl in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, 2005-2014

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries on the east coast of the U.S. provide habitats used by a number of waterfowl species in winter. Aerial surveys of many of these wintering areas have been conducted over the past 50 plus years, but data from larger-scale surveys may not adequately capture local fluctuat...

  15. Genetics and mapping of stem rust resistance in MV Zelma winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedling screening of winter wheat varieties identified Hungarian winter wheat cultivar MV Zelma as resistant to wheat stem rust after infection by P. graminis f. sp. tritici races TTKSK (Ug99), TTKST, TTTSK, and nine races from the United States. Though previous data suggest MV Zelma possessed stem...

  16. Evaluation of pheromone-baited traps for Winter Moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested different pheromone-baited traps for surveying winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. populations in eastern North America. We compared male catch at Pherocon® 1C sticky traps with various large capacity traps and showed that Universal moth traps with white bottoms caught more winter moths th...

  17. Characterization and decomposition of residue from winter and spring canola cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The residue characteristics and decomposition of spring and winter canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars currently grown in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) was investigated. Above- and below-ground residue was collected post-harvest in 2011 and 2012 from Univ. of Idaho Canola Winter Variety Trials at Od...

  18. NOAA's winter outlook favors weak El Niño, lower-than-average precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-10-01

    Water shortages due to severe drought will continue to persist in California even if the state receives an average amount of precipitation this winter, said Kevin Werner, western regional climate services director at the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Association (NOAA). This prediction came during NOAA's winter 2014-2015 outlook for U.S. precipitation and temperature, released on 16 October.

  19. After School Centers Project. Final Reports. Winter 1968-1969; Summer 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    Two final reports, winter 1968-1969 and summer 1969, respectively describe the sixth and seventh sessions of the Cambridge School Department's After School Center Program and involving six elementary schools. Both the winter and the summer programs were designed to give disadvantaged children remedial instruction in reading and mathematics along…

  20. Membrane stability of winter wheat plants exposed to subzero temperatures for variable lengths of time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to survive episodes of subfreezing temperature is essential to winter wheat. Fully cold-acclimated plants of six lines of winter wheat were exposed to -12, -14, -16 or -18° C, four 1-5 hours. Electrolyte leakage and plant survival were used to assess damage to the plants. Plants exposed ...