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Sample records for psoas compartment block

  1. Psoas compartment block.

    PubMed

    Brooks, D M

    2000-05-01

    The psoas compartment acts as a conduit for the nerve roots of the lumbar plexus. Originating at approximately the 12th thoracic vertebrae, this potential compartment continues on caudally, bordered posterolaterally by fascia of the quadratus lumborum and iliacus muscles, medially by the fascia of the psoas major muscle, and anteriorly by the transversalis fascia. This natural "gutter" acts as a repository for local anesthetic agents and provides an excellent method of unilateral anterior lower extremity anesthesia. After elicitation of a motor evoked response in the muscles of the anterior thigh, 30 to 40 milliliters of local anesthetic is incrementally injected into the compartment. Spread of the anesthetic to all roots of the plexus occurs in 15 to 20 minutes. Profound sensory and motor blockade can be achieved providing surgical anesthesia as well as long duration postoperative pain relief.

  2. Psoas compartment block for treatment of motor weakness and pain following herpes zoster

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sae Young; Kim, Dong Gyeong; Park, Yong Min

    2017-01-01

    Reactivation of the latent varicella zoster virus in the sensory ganglion causes herpes zoster (HZ). Its characteristic symptom is a painful rash in the involved dermatome. HZ-induced motor weakness is rare and is usually resolved within one year of the onset, but some patients permanently experience motor dysfunction. Epidural steroid administration, with antiviral therapy, can be effective in treating pain from HZ and preventing postherpetic neuralgia. But an epidural block is contraindicated in patients receiving thromboprophylaxis. A psoas compartment block (PCB) provides equivalent analgesic efficacy with significantly low incidence of complication, compared to an epidural block. A 68 year old male patient recieving thromboprophylaxis presented with motor weakness following painful rash in his left L4 dermatome. Ten days before presentation, herpetic rash occurred on his left leg. We performed PCB with a steroid and local anesthetic, which successfully and safely alleviated the pain and motor weakness from HZ. PMID:28119773

  3. Real-time ultrasound-guided comparison of adductor canal block and psoas compartment block combined with sciatic nerve block in laparoscopic knee surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Messeha, Medhat M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lumbar plexus block, combined with a sciatic nerve block, is an effective locoregional anesthetic technique for analgesia and anesthesia of the lower extremity. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical results outcome of the adductor canal block versus the psoas compartment block combined with sciatic nerve block using real time ultrasound guidance in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic knee surgeries. Patients and Methods: Ninety patients who were undergoing elective laparoscopic knee surgeries were randomly allocated to receive a sciatic nerve block in addition to lumbar plexus block using either an adductor canal block (ACB) or a posterior psoas compartment approach (PCB) using 25 ml of bupivacine 0.5% with adrenaline 1:400,000 injection over 2-3 minutes while observing the distribution of the local anesthetic in real time. Successful nerve block was defined as a complete loss of pinprick sensation in the region that is supplied by the three nerves along with adequate motor block, 30 minutes after injection. The degree of motor block was evaluated 30 minutes after the block procedure. The results of the present study showed that the real time ultrasound guidance of PCB is more effective than ACB approach. Although the sensory blockade of the femoral nerve achieved equally by both techniques, the LFC and OBT nerves were faster and more effectively blocked with PCB technique. Also PCB group showed significant complete sensory block without need for general anesthesia, significant decrease in the post-operative VAS and significant increase time of first analgesic requirement as compared to the ACB group. Result and Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that blockade of lumber plexus by psoas compartment block is more effective in complete sensory block without general anesthesia supplementation in addition to decrease post-operative analgesic requirement than adductor canal block. PMID:27212766

  4. Effect of continuous psoas compartment block and intravenous patient controlled analgesia on postoperative pain control after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Jin; Lee, Mi Kyoung; Lim, Byung Gun; Hur, Wonseok

    2012-01-01

    Background Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) generates severe postoperative pain in 60% of patients and moderate pain in 30% of patients. Because inadequate postoperative pain control can hinder early physiotherapy and rehabilitation, it is the most influential factor dictating a good outcome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of continuous psoas compartment block (PCB) in comparison to intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA) in TKA patients. Methods 40 TKA patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group IVPCA (n = 20) received intravenous patient controlled analgesia (IVPCA) for 48 hours. Group PCB (n = 20) received continuous PCB for 48 hours at the fourth intertransverse process of the lumbar using the C-arm. Pain scores, side effects, satisfaction, the length of hospital stay, rescue antiemetics, and analgesics were recorded. Results Pain scores (VNRS 0-100) were higher in Group IVPCA than in Group PCB. Nausea and sedation occurred more frequently in Group IVPCA than in Group PCB. There were no differences between the groups in the length of the hospital stay, satisfaction scores, and the use of rescue antiemetics and analgesics. Conclusions Continuous PCB seemed to be an appropriate and reliable technique for TKA patients, because it provided better analgesia and fewer side effects such as nausea and sedation when compared to IVPCA. PMID:22323954

  5. Psoas Compartment Blockade in a Laterally Herniated Disc Compressing the Psoas Muscle -A Case Report-

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Young; Park, Jin Woo; Moon, Jee Youn; Shin, Jae Hyuck; Park, Sang Hyun

    2012-01-01

    A psoas compartment block has been used to provide anesthesia for orthopedic surgical procedures and analgesia for post-operative pain. Currently, this block is advocated for relieving pain in the lower extremity and pelvic area resulting from various origins. We report a case of a 69-year-old male patient who had gait abnormality with posterior pelvic and hip pain, which were both aggravated by hip extension. From the magnetic resonance image, the patient was found to have a laterally herniated intervertebral disc at the L2/3 level, which compressed the right psoas muscle. This was thought to be the origin of the pain, so a psoas compartment block was performed using 0.25% chirocaine with triamcinolone 5mg, and the pain in both the pelvis and hip were relieved. PMID:22514781

  6. The Effect of Unilateral Spinal Anaesthesia and Psoas Compartment with Sciatic Block on the Postoperative Pain Management in Total Knee Artroplastic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Dogus; Guzel, Yunus

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. This study was designed to investigate the effects of peripheral nerve block methods, applied through unilateral spinal anaesthesia on elderly patients to undergo total knee arthroplasty, on perioperative hemodynamic parameters and postoperative analgesia period. Materials and Method. 60 patients were randomly divided into two groups in the study. In group USA spinal anaesthesia was performed. In group PCS it was applied on psoas compartment block and sciatic nerve block. Results. Significantly higher intraoperative 60th and 90th minute mean arterial pressure values were ascertained in the PCS group compared to the USA group. The decrease observed in the 5th, 10th, and 20th minute MAP values in the USA group was statistically significant according to the control MAP value. Concerning within group comparisons, the decrease in 5th, 10th, and 20th minute heart rate values in the USA group was statistically significant compared with the control measurement value. The mean beginning time of sensory and motor blocks in the PCS group was found to be at a significantly advanced level compared with that in the USA group. Conclusions. The PCS block technique using bupivacaine hydrochloride ensured a higher haemodynamic efficiency in the perioperative period in high-risk elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03021421. PMID:28255259

  7. [Fascia compartment syndrome of the iliac-psoas compartment].

    PubMed

    Klammer, A

    1983-01-01

    The iliacus compression syndrome has a kind of exceptional position--as to genesis, development and therapy--in comparison with the other compartment-compression syndromes of the limbs. Indeed there exist similar pathophysiological, rules, but the special anatomic facts enlarge the etiological, differential-diagnostic and therapeutic spectrum. Thus, concerning the frequency of causes, not the trauma but the spontaneous bleeding in coagulation disturbances takes the first place, and unusual causes, such as rupturing aortic aneurysms, have to be included in the differential diagnostic discussion. The finest diagnostic sign besides pain is the palsy of the Nervus Femoralis. As to the treatment, operative measures are possible. The exact knowledge of the anatomy is important for the understanding of the specialties mentioned above.

  8. Postoperative Analgesia Using Psoas Sheath Block Versus Three-in-One Block in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    were blocked and two cases where all nerves were blocked. Key Words: Regional Anesthesia; Lumbar Plexus Block, Postoperative Pain Management; Pre...and sciatic(Lumbar4-Sacral3). A "psoas sheath block" and a "three-in-one block" are two techniques used to block the lumbar plexus from which the...nerve blockade Operational definition. A regional anesthetic technique used to block transmission of the nerves of the lumbar plexus including the

  9. Arthroscopic psoas tenotomy.

    PubMed

    Wettstein, Michael; Jung, Jochen; Dienst, Michael

    2006-08-01

    Tenotomy may be indicated for psoas tendinitis or painful snapping if conservative treatment remains unsuccessful. Because of significant complications with open techniques, endoscopic operations have been developed. We present a new arthroscopic technique to access and release the psoas tendon from the hip joint. This procedure can be performed in addition to other arthroscopic procedures of the hip joint or alone. To exclude additional hip disease, a diagnostic round of the joint should be completed. After hip arthroscopy of the central compartment has been performed, traction is released and the 30 degrees arthroscope is placed via the proximal anterolateral portal lying on the anterior femoral neck. The medial synovial fold can be identified. This fold lies slightly medially underneath the anteromedial capsule at the level of the psoas tendon. The arthroscope is turned toward the anterior capsule. Sometimes, the tendon shines through a thin articular capsule, or it may even be accessed directly via a hole connecting the hip joint and the iliopectineal bursa at the level of the anterior head-neck junction. If this cannot be done, an electrothermic probe is introduced via the anterior portal to make a 2-cm transverse capsular incision. The tendon is released with the back side of the electrothermic device turned to the iliacus muscle that lies anterior to the psoas tendon. A complete release is achieved when the tendon stumps can be seen gapping at a distance and the fibers of the iliacus muscle are visible. The first 9 patients who underwent surgery performed according to this technique developed no complications, and their hip flexion strength was restored to normal within 3 months.

  10. Postoperative Analgesia Using PSOAS Sheath Block Versus Three-in-One Block in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In this study, the effects of two regional anesthetic techniques on postoperative pain of patients...TERMS Regional Anesthesia; Lumbar Plexus Block, Postoperative Pain Management; Pre-emptive analgesia 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...violations. v ABSTRACT In this study, the effects of two regional anesthetic techniques on postoperative pain of patients undergoing anterior cruciate

  11. A Pain in the Psoas.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, Charlotte M H; Baker, Robert J

    General medical conditions are an important part of the differential diagnosis in athletes presenting with pain or injury. A psoas abscess is a collection of pus in the iliopsoas muscle compartment and is a rare cause of hip, low back, or groin pain. Psoas abscesses may have significant morbidity and mortality, as 20% progress to septic shock. Presenting symptoms are generally nonspecific and the onset may be subacute. Clinical presentation may have features suggestive of other diagnoses, including septic hip arthritis, iliopsoas bursitis, and retrocecal appendicitis. Proper diagnosis and management is critical to prevent complications of septic shock and death. In this unique case, a 19-year-old Division 1 collegiate football player presented to the emergency department 4 days following injury to his right groin during football practice. He complained of severe right groin pain accompanied by fatigue, fevers, nausea, and diarrhea. He later developed septic shock with multisystem organ dysfunction, requiring advanced life support. Imaging revealed an abscess located in the right iliopsoas compartment. After proper treatment, the athlete eventually made a complete recovery, returning to collegiate football 4 months postinjury. A literature review found no described cases of psoas abscess related to athletes with acute hip flexor strain. This athlete had no known risk factors for psoas abscess. This case highlights the importance of maintaining a broad differential in an athlete presenting with pain after injury. Making the diagnosis of psoas abscess often requires a high degree of suspicion and timely acquisition of imaging studies. In this particular case, imaging was key to making a proper diagnosis and tailoring treatment not only to return him to sport but also to save his life.

  12. Ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block vs continuous fascia iliaca compartment block for hip replacement in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bin; He, Miao; Cai, Guang-Yu; Zou, Tian-Xiao; Zhang, Na

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Continuous femoral nerve block and fascia iliaca compartment block are 2 traditional anesthesia methods in orthopedic surgeries, but it is controversial which method is better. The objective of this study was to compare the practicality, efficacy, and complications of the 2 modalities in hip replacement surgery in the elderly and to assess the utility of a novel cannula-over-needle set. Methods: In this prospective, randomized controlled clinical investigation, 60 elderly patients undergoing hip replacement were randomly assigned to receive either continuous femoral nerve block or continuous fascia iliaca compartment block. After ultrasound-guided nerve block, all patients received general anesthesia for surgery and postoperative analgesia through an indwelling cannula. Single-factor analysis of variance was used to compare the outcome variables between the 2 groups. Results: There was a significant difference between the 2 groups in the mean visual analog scale scores (at rest) at 6 hours after surgery: 1.0 ± 1.3 in the femoral nerve block group vs 0.5 ± 0.8 in the fascia iliaca compartment block group (P < 0.05). The femoral nerve block group had better postoperative analgesia on the medial aspect of the thigh, whereas the fascia iliaca compartment block group had better analgesia on the lateral aspect of the thigh. There were no other significant differences between the groups. Conclusions: Both ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block and fascia iliaca compartment block with the novel cannula-over-needle provide effective anesthesia and postoperative analgesia for elderly hip replacement patients. PMID:27759633

  13. Primary psoas sarcoma causing malignant psoas syndrome: favourable response to radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Thomas A.; Bishop, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Malignant psoas syndrome (MPS) is an uncommon condition first described by Stevens et al. MPS is caused by malignant infiltration of the psoas muscle and adjacent nerves and is characterised by (fixed) flexion deformity of the ipsilateral hip and proximal lumbosacral plexopathy. It has previously been described in relation to metastatic carcinoma, melanoma and liposarcoma, as well as non-Hodgkins lymphoma. We present the case of a 68-year-old woman with a sarcoma arising in the left psoas muscle at the level of L4 who presented with symptoms of MPS. To the authors’ knowledge this is the first case of MPS arising from a primary sarcoma of the iliopsoas compartment. The patient underwent presurgical radiotherapy, with a significant improvement in pain control without an increase in analgesic medications. We discuss the aetiology of MPS and the role of radiotherapy in the treatment of this rare syndrome. PMID:28361070

  14. Designer amphiphilic proteins as building blocks for the intracellular formation of organelle-like compartments.

    PubMed

    Huber, Matthias C; Schreiber, Andreas; von Olshausen, Philipp; Varga, Balázs R; Kretz, Oliver; Joch, Barbara; Barnert, Sabine; Schubert, Rolf; Eimer, Stefan; Kele, Péter; Schiller, Stefan M

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale biological materials formed by the assembly of defined block-domain proteins control the formation of cellular compartments such as organelles. Here, we introduce an approach to intentionally 'program' the de novo synthesis and self-assembly of genetically encoded amphiphilic proteins to form cellular compartments, or organelles, in Escherichia coli. These proteins serve as building blocks for the formation of artificial compartments in vivo in a similar way to lipid-based organelles. We investigated the formation of these organelles using epifluorescence microscopy, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The in vivo modification of these protein-based de novo organelles, by means of site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids, allows the introduction of artificial chemical functionalities. Co-localization of membrane proteins results in the formation of functionalized artificial organelles combining artificial and natural cellular function. Adding these protein structures to the cellular machinery may have consequences in nanobiotechnology, synthetic biology and materials science, including the constitution of artificial cells and bio-based metamaterials.

  15. Designer amphiphilic proteins as building blocks for the intracellular formation of organelle-like compartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Matthias C.; Schreiber, Andreas; von Olshausen, Philipp; Varga, Balázs R.; Kretz, Oliver; Joch, Barbara; Barnert, Sabine; Schubert, Rolf; Eimer, Stefan; Kele, Péter; Schiller, Stefan M.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale biological materials formed by the assembly of defined block-domain proteins control the formation of cellular compartments such as organelles. Here, we introduce an approach to intentionally ‘program’ the de novo synthesis and self-assembly of genetically encoded amphiphilic proteins to form cellular compartments, or organelles, in Escherichia coli. These proteins serve as building blocks for the formation of artificial compartments in vivo in a similar way to lipid-based organelles. We investigated the formation of these organelles using epifluorescence microscopy, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The in vivo modification of these protein-based de novo organelles, by means of site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids, allows the introduction of artificial chemical functionalities. Co-localization of membrane proteins results in the formation of functionalized artificial organelles combining artificial and natural cellular function. Adding these protein structures to the cellular machinery may have consequences in nanobiotechnology, synthetic biology and materials science, including the constitution of artificial cells and bio-based metamaterials.

  16. Efficacy of ultrasound-guided fascia iliaca compartment block after hip hemiarthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Seunguk; Chung, Jihyun; Jeong, Jaejung; Bak, Hahyeon; Kim, Dongju

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB) provides an analgesic effect in patients with femur fractures. However, the postoperative pain after hip surgery is different from that after femur fracture, because of the difference in the degree and location of tissue trauma. Whether FICB provides effective postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty is not well understood. Moreover, there is no prospective randomized study to evaluate FICB as a postoperative analgesia in hemiarthroplasty. Therefore, we performed a randomized and prospective study to determine the effect of FICB after hemiarthroplasty. The objective of this study was to compare the opioid consumption between patients who received intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with and without FICB. Methods: Twenty-two patients aged 70 to 90 years who underwent bipolar hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fracture were recruited and allocated randomly into 2 groups: FICB group (n = 11) and Non-FICB group (n = 11). All patients received spinal anesthesia with 10 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine. After surgery, the FICB was conducted using a modified technique with 0.2% ropivacaine (40 mL) under ultrasonographic guidance, and the intravenous PCA was administered to patients in both groups in the separate block room. The PCA was set up in the only bolus mode with no continuous infusion. The visual analog scale (VAS) and the opioid consumption were noted at 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively. Results: The VAS was similar in both groups. The fentanyl requirement at 4, 8, and 12 hours was low in the FICB group. The total amount of fentanyl required in the first 24 hours was 246.3 μg in the FICB group and 351.4 μg in the Non-FICB group. No patient developed any residual sensory-motor deficit during the postoperative period. Patients in the Non-FICB group had nausea (n = 2), and pruritus (n = 1), and 1 patient had nausea in the FICB group

  17. Primary psoas muscle abscess in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Amy; Lau, Kenneth K; Korman, Tony M; Kornman, Tony; Wallace, Euan M; Polyakov, Alex

    2008-12-01

    Primary iliacus-psoas muscle abscess formation is very uncommon during pregnancy. We present a case of a primary iliacus-psoas muscle abscess in pregnancy causing back pain with delayed diagnosis and treatment. Understanding the clinical presentation of iliacus-psoas muscle abscess helps with considering it in the differential diagnosis of back pain during pregnancy.

  18. Blocking the FGF/FGFR system as a "two-compartment" antiangiogenic/antitumor approach in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Arianna; Chiodelli, Paola; Matarazzo, Sara; Rusnati, Marco; Presta, Marco; Ronca, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a family of pleiotropic factors produced by stromal and parenchymal tumor cells. Even though FGFs have been firstly characterized as angiogenic factors, they exert autocrine and paracrine functions not only on endothelial cells but also on tumor cells and other stromal components. Thus, the FGF/FGF receptor (FGFR) pathway may represent a key player in tumor growth by regulating the complex cross-talk between stromal and tumor compartments. The ligand dependent or independent activation of the FGF/FGFR system by gene upregulation, oncogenic mutation or amplification occurs in a variety of human tumors and is implicated in various key steps of tumor growth and progression. In addition, FGF/FGFR activation has been described as a mechanism of tumor escape in response to antiangiogenic/anti-VEGF therapies. Experimental and clinical evidences provide a compelling biologic rationale for the development of anti-FGF/FGFR targeting agents in cancer therapy. However, the development of drugs specifically targeting the FGF/FGFR pathway proved to be difficult, also due to the high redundancy and pleiotropic effects of FGF and FGFR family members. On the other hand, the possibility to develop "two-compartment" targeting agents endowed with both antiangiogenic and antitumor activities remains promising. Here we will review the preclinical and clinical approaches and potential therapeutics currently available to block the FGF/FGFR system in human cancer.

  19. Effect of adductor canal block on medial compartment knee pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Doo-Hyung; Lee, Michael Y.; Kwack, Kyu-Sung; Yoon, Seung-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a common disease in middle-aged and elderly people. Pain is the chief complaint of symptomatic KOA and a leading cause of chronic disability, which is most often found in medial knees. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of pain relief and functional improvement in KOA patients treated with ultrasound-guided adductor canal block (ACB). This is a 3-month retrospective case-controlled comparative study. Two hundred patients with anteromedial knee pain owing to KOA that was unresponsive to 3-month long conservative treatments. Ninety-two patients received ACB with 9 mL of 1% of lidocaine and 1 mL of 10 mg triamcinolone acetonide (ACB group), and 108 continued conservative treatments (control group). The main outcome measure was visual analog scale (VAS) of the average knee pain level for the past one week. Secondary outcomes were the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the timed up and go test, numbers of analgesic ingestion per day, and opioid consumption per day. During the 3-month follow-up, 86 patients in ACB group and 92 in control group were analyzed. There was no significant difference, with the exception of the duration of symptoms, between the 2 groups in age, sex, body mass index, and Kellgren-Lawrence grade. Repeated-measures analysis of variance and post hoc tests showed improvement of VAS (at month 1), WOMAC (at month 1), and opioid consumption per day (at month 1 and 2) in ACB group. No adverse events were reported. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the efficacy of ACB for patients with KOA. ACB is an effective and safe treatment and can be an option for patients who are either unresponsive or unable to take analgesics. PMID:28328826

  20. Dexamethasone as An Additive to Bupivacaine in Fascia Lliaca Compartment Block: A Prospective, Randomized and Double Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar N, Suresh; N, Kiran; Sebastian, Don; Gowda RM, Punith

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with fracture femur experience severe pain on movement during positioning for spinal anaesthesia. Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block (FICB) has been used effectively for providing analgesia during positioning of the patient for spinal anaesthesia. Aim: To test the hypothesis that, adding dexamethasone would significantly prolong the duration of Bupivacaine in FICB. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients aged 18 to 80 years posted for ORIF (Open Reduction and Internal Fixation) of fracture femur were included to receive FICB. This was a prospective, randomized, double blind study done at tertiary medical college hospital. Thirty patients received 38ml of 0.25 % bupivacaine with 2ml saline and another 30 patients received 38ml of 0.25 % bupivacaine with 2ml dexamethasone (8mg). Thirty minutes after FICB, patient satisfaction during positioning for spinal anesthesia was recorded. In the post-operative period, duration of analgesia and the total doses of rescue analgesics were recorded in both the groups. Results: Patients who received Bupivacaine with dexamethasone had significant prolongation of analgesia and required fewer doses of rescue analgesics as compared to patients who received Bupivacaine alone for FICB. However, the onset of analgesia, VAS scores and patient satisfaction during positioning for spinal anaesthesia were similar in both groups. Conclusion: Our study shows that adding Dexamethasone (8mg) to Bupivacaine for FICB significantly prolonged the duration of block and decreased the requirement of rescue analgesics as compared to patients who received Bupivacaine alone. FICB is relatively easy and safe to perform. In our study we did not encounter any complication while doing the procedures and also by adding dexamethasone. PMID:25302209

  1. [Psoas abscess caused by Staphylococcus lugdunensis].

    PubMed

    Tamargo Delpón, María; Demelo-Rodríguez, Pablo; Cano Ballesteros, Juan Carlos; Vela de la Cruz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase-negative staphylococcus of growing importance and atypical behavior. The infections caused by this microorganism are becoming more frequent, having a broader spectrum. Psoas abscesses caused by this germ are rare, with few cases reported in the literature. In this work, we present a case of a psoas abscess caused by S. lugdunensis in a patient suffering from diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis, which was treated with intravenous cloxacillin with a good outcome.

  2. Rehabilitating Psoas Tendonitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    This case report describes the examination and physical therapy intervention for a woman with anterior hip pain whose medical diagnosis following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was bilateral labral tears and psoas tendinitis. Her physical therapy evaluation revealed findings consistent with psoas tendonitis. Utilizing theories of neuromuscular patterning and knowledge of normal muscle function, the patient was successfully treated in physical therapy following six physical therapy sessions, once a week for 6 weeks. The patient was found to have an overactive psoas muscle, as indicated by hip flexion being the primary mover in her movement patterns, and dysfunctional abdominal and pelvic floor muscles. Functionally based therapeutic exercise and electrical stimulation were used to reeducate the muscles of the abdomen, pelvic floor, and hips in order to create muscular balance and correct muscle dysfunction. PMID:19048347

  3. Psoas major and its controversial rotational action.

    PubMed

    Skyrme, A D; Cahill, D J; Marsh, H P; Ellis, H

    1999-01-01

    The action of psoas major muscle as a primary flexor of the hip joint is undisputed. However it is also variably reported as being a medial and a lateral rotator of the femur at the hip joint. The psoas and iliacus muscles, along with their common insertion, were isolated by dissection in six adult cadaveric specimens. The action of psoas muscle was assessed by pulling the muscle along its long axis and then observing the effects on rotation of the femur, with a visual estimation of the rotation in degrees. The experiment was repeated with the hip joint capsule removed. In the anatomical position, applied traction along the long axis of the muscle produced hip flexion with no rotational component. With the hip in the abducted position, traction produced flexion, adduction, and lateral rotation of the femur at the hip joint. In adduction of the hip, traction on psoas produced only flexion at the hip joint, with no rotation. In maximal flexion, traction also produced adduction. The results were unaffected by the removal of the joint capsule.

  4. Psoas syndrome: a frequently missed diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Tufo, Andrea; Desai, Gautam J; Cox, W Joshua

    2012-08-01

    Psoas syndrome is an easily missed diagnosis. However, it is important to consider this condition as part of the differential diagnosis for patients presenting with low back pain--particularly for osteopathic physicians, because patients may view these practitioners as experts in musculoskeletal conditions. The authors describe the case of a 48-year-old man with a 6-month history of low back pain that had been attributed to "weak core muscles." The diagnosis of psoas syndrome was initially overlooked in this patient. After the correct diagnosis was made, he was treated by an osteopathic physician using osteopathic manipulative treatment, in conjunction with at-home stretches between office treatments. At his 1-month follow-up appointment, he demonstrated continued improvement of symptoms and a desire for further osteopathic manipulative treatment.

  5. Compartment syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... compartment will lead to increased pressure in that area. This raised pressure, presses the muscles, blood vessels, ... Decreased sensation, numbness, tingling, weakness of the affected area Paleness of skin Severe pain that doesn't ...

  6. Compartment syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  7. Malignant Lymphoma in the Psoas Major Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hatori, Takashi; Takase, Aya; Aoki, Jun; Sakurai, Shinji; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2017-01-01

    An 84-year-old Japanese man taking warfarin to prevent cerebral infarction secondary to atrial fibrillation was admitted to our hospital for evaluation of a painless right back mass. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an oval-shaped mass in the right psoas major muscle. The mass showed high intensity on T1-, T2-, and diffusion-weighted imaging and mimicked an acute-phase hematoma. However, it showed no chronological changes typical of a hematoma, and MRI revealed enlargement of the mass 1 week after admission. Histopathological examination of a biopsy specimen revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Although skeletal muscle lymphoma is rare, physicians should be familiar with its MRI characteristics. In addition, determination of the lymphoma subtype has important implications for the treatment of skeletal muscle lymphoma because DLCBL may have an especially poor prognosis. PMID:28316847

  8. [Psoas abscess as a chicken pox complication].

    PubMed

    Larcamon, Jorge E; Juanco, Gabriela; Alvarez, Lionel A; Pebe, Florián V

    2010-06-01

    Chicken pox is the most frequent exantematic illness; usually its course is self-limited and benign. Several bacterial complications are described due to the disruption of the skin as a defensive barrier because of the characteristics of the injuries and the associated inmunodepression. Psoas abscess is a rare illness and it's difficult to diagnose, with a general unspecified clinical presentation. We present the case of a 5-year-old girl, on her fifth day of chicken pox, who consults about a febrile convulsion, from which she recovers without any neurological symptoms, referring to functional impotence of her inferior left limb and pain in the lumbar and gluteal zone, which irradiates to the homolateral hip, making deambulation impossible. The definitive diagnosis was made with a CAT at hospital admission. The germ isolated was community-acquired methricillin-resistant Staphilococcus aureus. Treatment consisted in surgical drainage and endovenous antibiotics.

  9. Psoas abscesses complicating colonic disease: imaging and therapy.

    PubMed

    Lobo, D N; Dunn, W K; Iftikhar, S Y; Scholefield, J H

    1998-11-01

    Most surgeons think of psoas abscesses as a very rare condition related to tuberculosis of the spine, but in contemporary surgical practice they are more usually a complication of gastrointestinal disease. A case note study was undertaken on all patients treated for psoas abscess at two large hospitals in the mid-Trent region over a 2-year period. All seven patients presented with pyrexia, psoas spasm, a tender mass and leucocytosis. The diagnosis was made on abdominal radiographs in one patient, CT scan in three, MRI in two, and ultrasound in one. Aetiological factors included Crohn's disease in three, appendicitis in two, and sigmoid diverticulitis and metastatic colorectal carcinoma in one each. Six patients underwent transabdominal resection of the diseased bowel, retroperitoneal debridement and external drainage of the abscess cavity. Percutaneous drainage was performed in one. Two patients had more than one surgical exploration for complications. There were no deaths and the hospital stay ranged from 8-152 days. Psoas abscess can be a difficult and protracted problem. Bowel resection, thorough debridement, external drainage and concomitant antibiotics are essential for psoas abscesses complicating gastrointestinal disease. Defunctioning stomas may be necessary. However, in some cases a multidisciplinary approach may be required, as psoas abscesses can involve bone and joints.

  10. The ultrasound appearance of the normal psoas muscle.

    PubMed

    King, A D; Hine, A L; McDonald, C; Abrahams, P

    1993-11-01

    One hundred and forty-four psoas muscles in 72 subjects were scanned to study the normal ultrasound appearance. For the purpose of description the psoas was divided into three sections. Ten of the 432 sections could not be adequately seen on ultrasound. The psoas demonstrated hyperechoic striations on a hypoechoic background typical of muscle. In addition the upper section, from the origin of the muscle to the lower pole of the kidney, contained echogenic planes in 15 (10%) and the mid section, from the lower pole of kidney to iliac crest, demonstrated prominent echogenic planes and focal areas of increased and decreased echogenicity in 65 (46%). The lower section, from the iliac crest to fusion with the iliacus, demonstrated a single echogenic plane in 96 (70.5%) which was best seen running obliquely in the transverse plane and in 40 (29.5%) there were more complex echogenic planes or focal areas of increased or decreased echogenicity. The cause of the prominent echogenic plane in the lower section was not apparent in the anatomical literature and therefore cadaveric dissection of nine psoas muscles was performed which demonstrated that the echogenic plane was caused by intramuscular tendon fibres formed from the more cranial origins of the psoas. The psoas minor was not identified as a separate structure.

  11. Is the psoas a hip flexor in the active straight leg raise?

    PubMed

    Hu, Hai; Meijer, Onno G; van Dieën, Jaap H; Hodges, Paul W; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Strijers, Rob L; Nanayakkara, Prabath W B; van Royen, Barend J; Wu, Wen Hua; Xia, Chun

    2011-05-01

    Psoas function is a topic of considerable relevance in sports and clinical science. However, the literature on psoas function is not sufficiently consistent. Questions are, amongst others, if during hip flexion the psoas always has the same function as the iliacus, and if the psoas affects the hip more than the lumbar spine. In the present study, 17 healthy women, 20-40 years, performed the active straight leg raise (ASLR), with the right or the left leg ("Side"), and without or with weight added above the ankle ("Condition"). Electromyographic (EMG) activity of psoas and iliacus were recorded with fine-wire electrodes, and of rectus femoris and adductor longus with surface electrodes, all on the right side. Movements of the leg were recorded with active markers and a camera system. During ASLR, the iliacus, rectus femoris, adductor longus and psoas were active ipsilaterally, but psoas was also active contralaterally. All muscles started to contract before movement onset, the iliacus, rectus femoris, and adductor longus largely at the same time, before the psoas. There was no significant difference between the amplitude or time of onset of ipsilateral and contralateral psoas EMG activity, nor was there a significant interaction between Side and Condition for the psoas. Although ipsilateral psoas activity is consistent with the psoas being a hip flexor, contralateral activity is not. The most simplest explanation of the pattern found is that the psoas is bilaterally recruited to stabilize the lumbar spine, probably in the frontal plane.

  12. Psoas impingement syndrome in hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Luigi; Jennifer, Yanow; Pappagallo, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The degenerative processes underlying osteoarthritis of the hip produce both anatomical and biomechanical changes in and around the involved joint. A good understanding of hip anatomy and the forces crossing the hip joint is essential to understand both hip pathology and current treatment techniques. Total hip arthroplasty (THA) has become a mainstay of treatment for advanced osteoarthritis of the hip. Several factors contribute to post-operative hip pain in THA patients. Iliopsoas impingement on the prosthetic cup after total hip replacement is one of the causes of pain following hip surgery, often due to an anterior overlap of the implant with respect to the acetabulum. The anatomic shape of the anterior acetabular ridge, which may be straight or curved, influences this overlap. In this paper we present a case illustrating a psoas impingement-like syndrome in a patient with severe hip osteoarthritis who has not undergone hip replacement surgery. We discuss the compensatory strategies employed by the patient to reduce pain and prevent falls, and show CT scan images depicting the underlying anatomic pathology.

  13. Psoas abscess caused by actinomycete together with Escherichia coli infection: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qian; Ding, Wenyuan; Yang, Dalong

    2014-01-01

    Psoas abscesses are classified into primary or secondary according to infectious etiology. However, the psoas abscess caused by actinomycete together with Escherichia coli infection is very rare. Here we report a case of psoas abscess caused by actinomycete together with Escherichia coli infection in a young woman. The disease was treated successfully. A literature review of psoas abscess in relation to its etiology, identification, and difficulties in the treatment is also presented. PMID:25356161

  14. Solitary Psoas Muscle Metastasis of Gastroesphageal Junction Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Azadeh, Payam; Yaghobi Joybari, Ali; Sarbaz, Samaneh; Ghiasi, Hosein Ali; Farasatinasab, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis of gastroesphageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma in skeletal muscle is rare and primary sites for skeletal muscle metastases are usually lung, renal and colorectal cancer. We have encountered with the first case report of solitary psoas muscle metastasis of GEJ adenocarcinoma. Here we describe a 65 years old man was diagnosed with GEJ adenocarcinoma in Gastroenterology Department, Imam Hussein Hospital, Tehran, Iran in February 2014. We were not able to use PET techniques due to lack of access. Staging CT scans demonstrated a small mass lateral to right psoas muscle. A CT-guided core needle biopsy of right psoas muscle was performed that supported a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma consistent with primary adenocarcinoma of the GEJ. Distant metastasis to skeletal muscle rarely occurs in patients with GEJ adenocarcinoma, but heightened awareness to these soft tissue lesions is warranted. CT or MR imaging could show findings suggestive of metastatic disease, although PET is preferable modality. PMID:26870148

  15. Psoas abscess associated with infected total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Buttaro, M; González Della Valle, A; Piccaluga, F

    2002-02-01

    A 65-year-old man with a left uncemented total hip arthroplasty performed 11 years previously was admitted with a history of progressive low back pain, left hip pain, and sepsis that had begun 6 months earlier. On physical examination, a gross, fluctuant mass was palpated in the left thigh. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a 6.5 x 3 cm left retrofascial psoas abscess communicating with the hip joint. The patient underwent irrigation and débridement of the hip with removal of the components. The psoas abscess was drained through the iliopsoas bursa. A residual psoas abscess was drained percutaneously under CT guidance. Cultures isolated Escherichia coli, and the patient responded to 6 months of ciprofloxacin therapy. After 1 year, the patient had no evidence of infection. Pathways of infection spread, diagnosis, and treatment of a patient with this rare association are discussed with a review of the literature.

  16. [Retrospective evaluation of 15 cases with psoas abscesses].

    PubMed

    Turunç, Tahsin; Turunç, Tuba; Demiroğlu, Y Ziya; Colakoğlu, Sule

    2009-01-01

    Psoas abscesses are suppurative collections within the fascia surrounding the psoas and iliacus muscles. In this retrospective study it was aimed to evaluate the demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings and treatment outcomes of 15 psoas abscess cases admitted to Baskent University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey during June 2003-January 2008 period. The mean age of the patients was 55.8 years (range 18 to 70 years) with a female to male ratio of 5/10. Thirteen of the cases (86.5%) were admitted with the complaints of fever and back pain. Thirteen of the cases were diagnosed by abdominal computerized tomography while the other two by abdominal ultrasonography. One of the 15 patients was considered as primary psoas abscess, while the remaining 14 as secondary psoas abscess. The most common accompanying disease was diabetes mellitus (66.6%). Fourteen patients with secondary psoas abscess had vertebral osteomyelitis which was due to tuberculosis in five cases, to urinary tract infection in five cases, to pneumoniae in two cases, to surgical infection in one case and to brucellosis in one case. The cultivation of the abscess material from the 14 secondary psoas abscess cases revealed growth of bacteria in 11 of them (5 Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 1 Escherichia coli, 1 methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, 1 methicilin-resistant S. aureus, 1 Acinetobacter baumannii, 1 Brucella melitensis, 1 Serratia marcescens). The biochemical parameters of the cases (mean leukocyte counts: 14.500 cell/mm3; mean erythrocyte sedimentation rates: 78 mm/hour; mean C-reactive protein levels: 108 mg/dl) were also high. Thirteen patients underwent percutaneous drainage and received appropriate antibiotic treatment and the other two patients were treated with open surgical debridement. The duration of antimicrobial treatment was one year for M. tuberculosis cases and about 4-6 weeks in the others. One of the cases died due to complicating meningitis and sepsis. It is

  17. The psoas muscle as cause of low back pain in infantile cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Camoriano, R.; Valle, M.; Boero, S.

    2008-01-01

    Psoas muscle spasticity is hypothesised as a rare cause of low back pain in patients with infantile cerebral palsy. The authors describe a new manoeuvre for the study of psoas tenderness and ultrasound (US)-guided transabdominal botulinum toxin injection technique. A possible causal relationship between psoas tension and low back pain was found incidentally in two examined cases. In subsequent patients, botulinum toxin was injected and, in cases of disappearance of symptoms, the psoas tendon was sectioned at the pelvic brim with definitive disappearance of pain. The relationship between psoas tension and low back pain in patients with infantile cerebral palsy seems likely, given the result in the four patients. PMID:19384481

  18. Laparoscopic drainage of a recurrent psoas abscess.

    PubMed

    Neola, Benedetto; D'Ambra, Michele; Capasso, Stefano; Russo, Milena; Ferulano, Giuseppe Paolo

    2014-03-28

    Negli ultimi anni, gli ascessi del muscolo ileopsoas sono stati riportati in letteratura con crescente frequenza, probabilmente a causa del largo impiego della TC nella diagnostica differenziale delle algie lombari. Qui presentiamo il caso di una paziente che ha sviluppato un ascesso dell’ileopsoas post-traumatico. Una donna di 43 anni riferiva febbre da 4 settimane, anoressia, dolore al fianco destro e alla regione lombare e difficoltà alla deambulazione. Tale sintomatologia, insorta per la prima volta 20 anni prima in seguito ad una caduta da cavallo, si ripresentava ciclicamente. Per il controllo della febbre e del dolore, la paziente assumeva una terapia antibiotica empirica. Al momento del ricovero gli esami ematochimici mostravano una moderata leucocitosi. La TC dell’addome evidenziava un grosso ascesso multiloculato dello psoas destro ed una lesione ipodensa del sesto segmento epatico. Considerando la lunga storia di infezioni ricorrenti e l’indicazione ad investigare ulteriormente la lesione epatica, si optava per il drenaggio laparoscopico della lesione: aperta completamente la parete dell’ascesso, venivano drenati 550ml di liquido purulento la cui coltura evidenziava la presenza di Stafilococco aureo. Una ecografia del fegato intraoperatoria con sonda laparoscopica escludeva la presenza di una lesione resecabile del sesto segmento epatico e ne confermava la natura infiammatoria. La paziente veniva dimessa in terza giornata operatoria con terapia antibiotica mirata sull’antibiogramma. Nè febbre, nè dolore sono stati più riferiti ai successivi controlli a 1, 6, 12 e 24 mesi dall’intervento. Molti Autori ritengono che gli ascessi dell’ileopsoas possano essere controllati con terapia antibiotica ed eventualmente attraverso il drenaggio percutaneo, riservando il drenaggio chirurgico ai casi complessi o recidivanti. Tuttavia la letteratura non chiarisce se sia da preferire il drenaggio chirurgico con accesso open o laparoscopico. Nella nostra

  19. Psoas abscess complicating Crohn's disease: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Ogihara, M; Masaki, T; Watanabe, T; Hatano, K; Matsuda, K; Yahagi, N; Ichinose, M; Seichi, A; Muto, T

    2000-01-01

    We describe herein the case of a psoas abscess complicating Crohn's disease, and present a review of the literature on this unusual disease entity. A 22-year-old Japanese man with a 5-year history of Crohn's ileocolitis presented with right lower abdominal and hip pain, and a diagnosis of right psoas abscess was subsequently made by abdominal computed tomography (CT). Following the administration of antibiotics and CT-guided percutaneous drainage of the abscess, the patient's symptoms temporarily improved; however, 2 weeks later, the abscess cavity was found to have extended around the periarticular tissue of the right hip joint. To prevent the development of septic arthritis of the hip joint, surgical drainage of the abscess cavity and ileocecal resection were immediately performed, after which the patient's condition greatly improved. The resected specimen showed Crohn's ileocolitis with an external fistula in the terminal ileum which was considered to have caused the psoas abscess. Since psoas abscess in Crohn's disease can result in serious complications such as septic arthritis of the hip joint if left untreated, aggressive treatment should be initiated without delay.

  20. Disseminated nocardiosis with psoas abscess in a patient with AIDS: first reported case.

    PubMed

    Corti, Marcelo; Solari, Rubén; De Carolis, Luis; Cangelos, Diana; Bianchi, Mario; Negroni, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Psoas muscle abscess is an uncommon infection that have been diagnosed increasingly in the last years. We present a case of a patient with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection who developed a disseminated infection due to Nocardia asteroides sensu stricto type VI with psoas abscess. To our knowledge no other cases of Nocardia psoas abscess in the setting of HIV infection have been reported in the literature.

  1. Psoas abscess related to spontaneous abortion, intra-uterine contraceptive device and curettage.

    PubMed

    Scheepers, N J; van Bommel, P F; Bleker, O P

    1993-04-01

    This case report presents a patient with a psoas abscess related to a dilatation and (aspiration) curettage for an incomplete abortion with an IUD. Psoas abscess is extremely rare in obstetrics and gynecology and a life threatening condition. It is important to recognize the clinical presentation. Psoas abscess should be suspected in patients presenting with fever, pain in the leg, thigh, or low back region. Whether antibiotic prophylaxis in abortion curettage may prevent this and other complications is discussed.

  2. [Psoas abscess and lumbar spine osteomyelitis: case report].

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana M; Schmalbach, Lauwence A

    2016-10-01

    Psoas abscess is a common disease in children. It can have a nonspecific clinical presentation, insidious onset and sometimes fever. The most common type in children is the primary one; however, it can sometimes be of secondary origin and associated with severe infections such as osteomyelitis so a high index of suspicion is required to detect and treat it promptly. We present an unusual case of psoas abscess with infiltration of the vertebral body of L2 in a 14 year old male patient previously healthy with no history of trauma or fever on admission. X-ray and ultrasound were performed but the diagnosis was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. With positive blood cultures for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus he completed 2 weeks of intravenous antibiotic therapy and 4 weeks of oral antibiotic therapy with blood cultures negativization and resolution of symptoms.

  3. Psoas and adductor release in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Spruit, M; Fabry, G

    1997-06-01

    In a retrospective study of 12 cerebral palsy patients with 17 hips treated for subluxation, clinical and radiographic results of psoas and adductor releases were reviewed. With an average follow-up of 4.05 years, the functional ability was improved in 3 spastic quadriplegics and 3 diplegics and maintained in 6 other patients. The CE-angle and femoral head coverage did not change significantly. The AC-index improved significantly (p = 0.01).

  4. [Psoas abscess as a differential diagnosis in emergency department].

    PubMed

    Vicente-Ruiz, María; Candel-Arenas, María de la Fe; Ruiz-Marín, Miguel; Peña-Ros, Emilio; Sánchez-Cifuentes, Angela; Albarracín Marín-Blázquez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el absceso del psoas es una colección de pus que se localiza en el músculo psoas iliaco. Se produce por continuidad desde estructuras adyacentes o por diseminación hematógena; su etiología es diversa. Objetivo: describir la atención ofrecida a los pacientes con absceso de psoas ingresados en un servicio de cirugía general. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de pacientes ingresados al servicio de Cirugía General y del Aparato Digestivo del Hospital General Reina Sofía, Murcia, España, entre enero de 2006 y febrero de 2012 con diagnóstico compatible con absceso de psoas. Resultados: se reunieron 5 casos: 4 varones (80%) y 1 mujer (20%) con una media de edad de 51.6 años (límites: 35 y 75). Todos ingresaron al servicio de Cirugía General desde Urgencias. La clínica fue: dolor lumbar, fiebre y enrojecimiento de partes blandas en 3 pacientes. Dos iniciaron con choque séptico. A todos los pacientes se les realizó tomografía computada abdominal que confirmó el diagnóstico. Las causas del absceso fueron: 1 neoplasia de sigma perforada; 2 osteomielitis de cadera izquierda; 1 enfermedad de Crohn, y 1 absceso primario. El tratamiento fue el drenaje quirúrgico en 3 casos, y colocación de pig tail bajo control radiológico en 2 pacientes. Dos necesitaron atención en la unidad de cuidados intensivos, donde fallecieron. Conclusión: el retraso en el tratamiento suele desembocar en choque séptico con resultado de muerte en todos los casos. Es importante tener en mente esta posibilidad diagnóstica para poder establecer el diagnóstico diferencial en urgencias y tratarla lo más temprano posible.

  5. Positive psoas sign in presentation of retroperitoneal malignant triton tumour

    PubMed Central

    Winterbottom, Christopher Toby

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a case of a rare malignant neoplasm presenting to the emergency department with common symptomatology and its subsequent identification using a simple physical examination technique. Discussion includes a description of this rare soft tissue sarcoma and a consideration of the value of the psoas sign as a part of the routine abdominal exam to detect intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal pathology. In conclusion, this article acts as a reminder to all clinicians that uncommon and significant pathology may present to the emergency department masquerading as a common, seemingly benign, complaint, but can be clinically identified using simple techniques available to all and rapidly investigated using appropriate special investigations. PMID:22479296

  6. Total Psoas Area Predicts Complications following Radical Cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Timothy D.; Farber, Nicholas J.; Chen, Leo C.; Fuller, Thomas W.; Davies, Benjamin J.; Gingrich, Jeffrey R.; Hrebinko, Ronald L.; Maranchie, Jodi K.; Taylor, Jennifer M.; Tarin, Tatum V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether total psoas area (TPA), a simple estimate of muscle mass, is associated with complications after radical cystectomy. Materials and Methods. Patients who underwent radical cystectomy at our institution from 2011 to 2012 were retrospectively identified. Total psoas area was measured on preoperative CT scans and normalized for patient height. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether TPA was a predictor of 90-day postoperative complications. Overall survival was compared between TPA quartiles. Results. 135 patients were identified for analysis. Median follow-up was 24 months (IQR: 6–37 months). Overall 90-day complication rate was 56% (75/135). TPA was significantly lower for patients who experienced any complication (7.8 cm2/m2 versus 8.8 cm2/m2, P = 0.023) and an infectious complication (7.0 cm2/m2 versus 8.7 cm2/m2, P = 0.032) than those who did not. On multivariable analysis, TPA (adjusted OR 0.70 (95% CI 0.56–0.89), P = 0.003) and Charlson comorbidity index (adjusted OR 1.34 (95% CI 1.01–1.79), P = 0.045) were independently associated with 90-day complications. TPA was not a predictor of overall survival. Conclusions. Low TPA is associated with infectious complications and is an independent predictor of experiencing a postoperative complication following radical cystectomy. PMID:26798336

  7. A model based method for recognizing psoas major muscles in torso CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, Naoki; Zhou, Xiangrong; Chen, Huayue; Hara, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    In aging societies, it is important to analyze age-related hypokinesia. A psoas major muscle has many important functional capabilities such as capacity of balance and posture control. These functions can be measured by its cross sectional area (CSA), volume, and thickness. However, these values are calculated manually in the clinical situation. The purpose of our study is to propose an automated recognition method of psoas major muscles in X-ray torso CT images. The proposed recognition process involves three steps: 1) determination of anatomical points such as the origin and insertion of the psoas major muscle, 2) generation of a shape model for the psoas major muscle, and 3) recognition of the psoas major muscles by use of the shape model. The model was built using quadratic function, and was fit to the anatomical center line of psoas major muscle. The shape model was generated using 20 CT cases and tested by 20 other CT cases. The applied database consisted of 12 male and 8 female cases from the ages of 40's to 80's. The average value of Jaccard similarity coefficient (JSC) values employed in the evaluation was 0.7. Our experimental results indicated that the proposed method was effective for a volumetric analysis and could be possible to be used for a quantitative measurement of psoas major muscles in CT images.

  8. Unusual Presentation of Recurrent Pyogenic Bilateral Psoas Abscess Causing Bilateral Pulmonary Embolism by Iliac Vein Compression

    PubMed Central

    Ijaz, Mohsin; Sakam, Sailaja; Ashraf, Umair; Marquez, Jose Gomez

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 47 Final Diagnosis: Bilateral psoas abscess • acute lower extremity deep vein thrombosis • bilateral pulmonary embolism Symptoms: Progressive left leg swelling • productive cough with whitish sputum • right flank pain Medication: Antibiotics and anticoagulation Clinical Procedure: CT-guided percutaneous drain placement Specialty: Internal Medicine/Critical Care Objective: Unusual presentation Background: Psoas abscesses are a known cause of back pain, but they have not been reported as a cause of acute lower extremity thromboses and bilateral pulmonary emboli. We report a patient with bilateral psoas abscesses causing extensive pulmonary emboli through compression of the iliac vein. Case Report: A 47-year-old man presented with bilateral leg swelling over 4 weeks. Physical examination revealed a thin male with bilateral leg swelling, extending to the thigh on his left side. He had hemoglobin of 10.5 g/dl, leukocytosis of 16 000/ml, and an elevated D-dimer. A computed tomography (CT) angiogram of his chest showed extensive bilateral pulmonary emboli and infarcts. He remained febrile with vague flank pain, prompting a CT of his abdomen and pelvis that showed large, multiloculated, septated, bilateral psoas abscesses with compression of the left femoral vein by the left psoas abscess and a thrombus distal to the occlusion. Two liters of pus was drained from the left psoas abscess by CT-guidance, and although the Gram staining showed Gram-positive cocci in clusters, cultures from the abscess and blood were negative. A repeat CT showed resolution of the abscesses, and the drain was removed. He was discharged to a nursing home to complete a course of intravenous antibiotics and anticoagulation. Conclusions: Although the infectious complications of psoas abscesses have been described in the literature, the mechanical complications of bilateral psoas abscesses are lacking. It is important to assess for complete resolution of psoas abscesses through

  9. Compartmented electrode structure

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi; Gay, Eddie C.; Martino, Fredric J.

    1977-06-14

    Electrodes for secondary electrochemical cells are provided with compartments for containing particles of the electrode reactant. The compartments are defined by partitions that are generally impenetrable to the particles of reactant and, in some instances, to the liquid electrolyte used in the cell. During cycling of the cell, reactant material initially loaded into a particular compartment is prevented from migrating and concentrating within the lower portion of the electrode or those portions of the electrode that exhibit reduced electrical resistance.

  10. Multiple psoas abscess formation after pharmacopuncture -a case report-.

    PubMed

    Koo, Eun Hye; Choi, Sang Sik; Chung, Dong Hun; Lee, Il Ok; Kim, Nan Sook; Lim, Sang Ho

    2010-12-01

    Acupuncture has been widely used in alternative medicine for pain relief but may have many complications due to lack of appropriate cares. Pharmacopuncture is a sort of acupuncture that injects a herbal ingredient through a thin tube for the purpose of combining the effects of the herb and acupuncture and it has many pitfalls. The agents used in pharmacopuncture are not refined for a desired effect and not produced by sterile standard processes under strict medical surveillance. We report a case of a 44-yr-old male patient who had multiple abscesses in the psoas region with fever, right low back and hip pain that began after the pharmacopuncture treatment. This case shows that although pharmacopuncture has been practiced widely, it is important that the appropriate aseptic technique should be used to prevent severe infections and other complications.

  11. Psoas abscess and severe fasciitis due to a caecal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Nigel Yong Boon; Twoon, Mark; Thomson, Suzanne E

    2015-01-01

    A man in his mid-50s presented with a painful and swollen right thigh and buttock. This was accompanied by a month long history of flank pain, back pain, vague abdominal pain, limp, fever and weight loss. On examination, there was extensive erythaema, heat, tenderness, oedema and crepitus over his right buttock and thigh. The patient was referred to plastic surgery to exclude necrotising fasciitis of the gluteal and thigh region. After CT imaging, a psoas abscess (PA) and caecal mass were identified. Subsequent right hemicolectomy, PA drainage and debridement of his right thigh were performed. This case reminds clinicians of the many non-specific ways a PA can present and that a high level of suspicion assists in making a timely diagnosis. PMID:25631760

  12. Retroperitoneoscopic drainage of bilateral psoas abscesses under intraoperative laparoscopic ultrasound guidance.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Koichi; Takase, Yasukazu; Motoi, Isamu; Mizuno, Hideki; Goshima, Kenichi; Sawaguchi, Takeshi

    2014-05-01

    Despite improved diagnostic modalities for psoas abscesses, the optimum management strategy is not uniform. A 67-year-old man presented with bilateral psoas abscesses secondary to L1-L2 pyogenic discitis. On contrast-enhanced CT, the largest of these abscesses measured 13 × 14 × 33 mm on the right. The patient developed sepsis caused by Klebsiella pneumonia. There were no signs of improvement after 3 weeks of systematic antibiotic administration. We performed surgical drainage of bilateral psoas abscesses by retroperitoneoscopy. Intraoperative laparoscopic ultrasound was useful to determine abscess location in the muscles prior to drainage and confirm no residual abscesses after drainage. The patient was afebrile 3 days later, and his clinical symptoms resolved. Retroperitoneoscopic drainage may represent a feasible minimally invasive therapeutic option for psoas abscess, and intraoperative laparoscopic ultrasound has the potential to increase the safety and efficacy of this surgical procedure.

  13. Water compartments in cells.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Gary D; Cameron, Ivan L

    2007-01-01

    Human experience in the macrobiological world leads scientists to visualize water compartments in cells analogous to the bladder in the human pelvis or ventricles in the brain. While such water-filled cellular compartments likely exist, the volume contributions are insignificant relative to those of biomolecular hydration compartments. The purpose of this chapter is to identify and categorize the molecular water compartments caused by proteins, the primary macromolecular components of cells. The categorical changes in free energy of water molecules on proteins cause these compartments to play dominant roles in osmoregulation and provide important adjuncts to fundamental understanding of osmosensing and osmosignaling mechanisms. Water compartments possess differences in molecular motion, enthalpy, entropy, freezing point depression, and other properties because of electrostatic interaction of polar water molecules with electric fields generated by covalently bound pairs of opposite charge caused by electronegative oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the protein. Macromolecules, including polypeptides, polynucleotides, and polysaccharides, are stiff molecular chains with restricted folding capacities due to inclusion of rigid ring structures or double amide bonds in the backbone sequence. This creates "irreducible spatial charge separation" between positive and negative partial charges, causing elevated electrostatic energy. In the fully hydrated in vivo state of living cells the high dielectric coefficient of water reduces protein electrostatic free energy by providing polar "water bridge networks" between charges, thereby creating four measurably different compartments of bound water with distinct free energy differences.

  14. Single compartment drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Cima, Michael J.; Lee, Heejin; Daniel, Karen; Tanenbaum, Laura M.; Mantzavinou, Aikaterini; Spencer, Kevin C.; Ong, Qunya; Sy, Jay C.; Santini, John; Schoellhammer, Carl M.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Drug design is built on the concept that key molecular targets of disease are isolated in the diseased tissue. Systemic drug administration would be sufficient for targeting in such a case. It is, however, common for enzymes or receptors that are integral to disease to be structurally similar or identical to those that play important biological roles in normal tissues of the body. Additionally, systemic administration may not lead to local drug concentrations high enough to yield disease modification because of rapid systemic metabolism or lack of sufficient partitioning into the diseased tissue compartment. This review focuses on drug delivery methods that physically target drugs to individual compartments of the body. Compartments such as the bladder, peritoneum, brain, eye and skin are often sites of disease and can sometimes be viewed as “privileged,” since they intrinsically hinder partitioning of systemically administered agents. These compartments have become the focus of a wide array of procedures and devices for direct administration of drugs. We discuss the rationale behind single compartment drug delivery for each of these compartments, and give an overview of examples at different development stages, from the lab bench to phase III clinical trials to clinical practice. We approach single compartment drug delivery from both a translational and a technological perspective. PMID:24798478

  15. DNA Virus Replication Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Melanie; Speiseder, Thomas; Dobner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Viruses employ a variety of strategies to usurp and control cellular activities through the orchestrated recruitment of macromolecules to specific cytoplasmic or nuclear compartments. Formation of such specialized virus-induced cellular microenvironments, which have been termed viroplasms, virus factories, or virus replication centers, complexes, or compartments, depends on molecular interactions between viral and cellular factors that participate in viral genome expression and replication and are in some cases associated with sites of virion assembly. These virus-induced compartments function not only to recruit and concentrate factors required for essential steps of the viral replication cycle but also to control the cellular mechanisms of antiviral defense. In this review, we summarize characteristic features of viral replication compartments from different virus families and discuss similarities in the viral and cellular activities that are associated with their assembly and the functions they facilitate for viral replication. PMID:24257611

  16. Bilateral prosthetic hip joint infections associated with a Psoas abscess. A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gunaratne, G D Rajitha; Khan, Riaz J K; Tan, Cynthia; Golledge, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Psoas abscess is a recognized but under-diagnosed complication of prosthetic hip joint infections. Case report: We report a case of a 68-year-old man with right and left hip arthroplasties performed 22 and 14 years ago, respectively, who presented with non-specific symptoms and was subsequently diagnosed with left psoas abscess on CT scan. Drainage of the psoas abscess was complicated by the formation of a discharging sinus connected to the left hip. He then developed an infected right thigh haematoma, which also formed a discharging sinus connecting to the right hip post-drainage. He was treated with bilateral two-stage revision total hip arthroplasties and multiple courses of prolonged antibacterial therapy. Both abscesses and hip joints cultured the same species of multi-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. The causal link between the psoas abscess and the prosthetic hip infections is discussed, as well as the investigation and management. Conclusion: We recommend routine exploration of the iliopsoas bursa when revision of an infected total hip arthroplasty is performed to rule out intrapelvic spread of the infection [3]. There should be high index of suspicion of prosthetic hip infection in patients presenting with Psoas abscess and vice versa. A CT scan might be warranted to rule out concomitant infection in both these patients. PMID:28116254

  17. Toxicological evaluation of peroxy sulfonated oleic acid (PSOA) in subacute and developmental toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Pechacek, Nathan; Laidlaw, Karen; Clubb, Stephanie; Aulmann, Walter; Osorio, Magdalena; Caudill, Jeff

    2013-12-01

    Peroxy sulfonated oleic acid (PSOA) is a new coupler used in sanitizing solutions primarily for the food and beverage industry. The toxicity of PSOA was evaluated in a 28-day repeat dose study according to OECD 407 guidelines with a 14-day recovery period and a developmental toxicity study according to OECD 414 guidelines. In both studies, PSOA was administered once daily via gavage at 0, 5, 15 and 50 mg/kg/day to Sprague-Dawley rats. Due to its corrosive properties, the highest test concentration was restricted to 0.5%. No findings related to PSOA administration were observed for the 28-day repeat-dose study and the NOEL is 50 mg/kg/day. Additionally, no impairment of the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract was observed up to 0.5%, which is considered the NOEC in terms of local toxicity. For the developmental study, an embryo-fetal NOEL of 50 mg/kg/day was identified and the maternal NOEL is considered to be 15 mg/kg/day, based on slight reductions in maternal body weight and food consumption, as well as a modest increase in the incidence of clinical observations at the high dose. These findings demonstrate that PSOA appears to have minimal potential to induce toxicity associated with repeat-dose or developmental exposures.

  18. Enlarged psoas muscle and iliopsoas bursitis associated with a rapidly destructive hip in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takumi; Juji, Takuo; Mori, Tosihito

    2006-01-01

    A 39-year-old man with rheumatoid arthritis developed femoral neuropathy secondary to iliopsoas bursitis. The adjacent hip joint was severely damaged. Magnetic resonance imaging showed enlargement and inflammation of the psoas muscle at the same side of iliopsoas bursitis. Iliopsoas bursitis and abnormal findings of the psoas muscle disappeared while the symptoms improved.

  19. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae bacteremia without endocarditis associated with psoas abscess: the first case report in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Upapan, Prasit; Chayakulkeeree, Methee

    2014-03-01

    The authors report a patient with a rare manifestation of invasive septic Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection without endocardial involvement. Our patient presented with progressive paraparesis and subacute fever for ten days. He had underlying diabetes mellitus and alcoholic cirrhosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbosacral spine showed a psoas abscess with vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis at level of L23 of the lumbar spine. His blood culture grew E. rhusiopathiae. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated normal endocardium. Surgical drainage and debridement with concomitant intravenous antibiotics administration resulted in clinical improvement, including neurological status. MRI showed resolution of the psoas abscess and osteomyelitis. Erysipelothrix infection should be considered as a causative pathogen of musculoskeletal infection in immunocompromised patients. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of psoas abscess caused by E. rhusiopathiae in Thailand.

  20. An unusual presentation of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis: psoas abscess with reno-colic fistula

    PubMed Central

    Ghoz, Hassan M.; Williams, Martin; Perepletchikov, Aleksandr; James, Nicholas; Babeir, Abdulrahman A.

    2016-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is a rare histological subset of pyelonephritis characterized by being a chronic destructive granulomatous inflammation of the renal parenchyma. XGP is classified according to the extent of disease into two entities: within the renal cortex (focal or segmental XGP) or diffuse spread with pelvic communication (diffuse XGP). Although rare, XGP can have fatal complications including perinephric, psoas abscess, nephro-cutaneous fistula and reno-colic fistula. Only few studies have reported XGP complicated with psaos abcess and reno-colic fistula. Our aim is to add to the literature and share our experience with a case of extensive XGP eroding into the psoas muscle and ascending colon leading to severe sepsis that was successfully managed. We report a 56-year-old woman who was found to have XGP complicated by psoas abscess and reno-colic fistula managed by antibiotics, nephrostomy, and subsequent nephrectomy and partial colectomy. PMID:27471599

  1. Psoas Major: a case report and review of its anatomy, biomechanics, and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Sajko, Sandy; Stuber, Kent

    2009-01-01

    A 25-year-old male professional hockey player with right sided hip pain was diagnosed with myofascopathy of the right psoas major and rectus femoris. The patient maintained a conservative treatment regimen and was prescribed a four week active strengthening program. The program progressed from resisted concentric exercise to eccentric abduction/adduction exercises along with balance training, core stabilizing and endurance exercises in the first two weeks. In the final two weeks the program progressed to include sport specific exercises. At three weeks the patient was able to participate in non-contact practice and was clear for full contact at five weeks. The anatomy, biomechanics, and function of the psoas major muscle are discussed as is its influence on lumbar spine stability. Evidence-based evaluation and management strategies for psoas dysfunction are presented. PMID:20037696

  2. [Psoas major abscess by heroin addictive patients--a case report].

    PubMed

    Bumbasirević, Marko Z; Zagorac, Slavisa G; Lesić, Aleksandar R; Bumbasirevic, Vesna; Durasić, Ljubomir M

    2011-01-01

    Drug abuse is related to many medical complications, which depend on the drug type, dose injected, the method of delivery and site of injection. We report a case of psoas abscess in young heroin addict, HIV negative, who was admitted in Emergency Center of Clinical Center in Belgrade because of fever, anaemia, prostration and right groin pain. Clinical and radiological examination were performed. CT showed large abscess of the right psoas muscle, 12 x 4 cm large. Treatment included percutaneous drainage and administration of iv antibiotics. There is regression of inflamation. At discharge patient was in good condition without signs of infection.

  3. Seronegative brucellosis of the spine: A case of psoas abscess secondary to brucellar spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Bozbaş, Gülnur Taşcı; Ünübol, Ayşe İyiyapıcı; Gürer, Gülcan

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is an infectious disease that affects many organ systems. Osteoarticular involvement, especially spondylitis, is the most common complication of brucellosis, but psoas abscess is very rare. Serological tests at diagnosis of the disease are very valuable and most widely used. Herein, we report a case of psoas abscess secondary to brucellar spondylitis. In this case, interestingly, the serological test results were negative, and the diagnosis could be made by abscess culture. In patients, particularly those who live in areas endemic for brucellosis, as in our case, it should be kept in mind that a negative serological test result should not exclude the diagnosis of brucellosis. PMID:28149665

  4. The Effects of Psoas Major and Lumbar Lordosis on Hip Flexion and Sprint Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copaver, Karine; Hertogh, Claude; Hue, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the correlations between hip flexion power, sprint performance, lumbar lordosis (LL) and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the psoas muscle (PM). Ten young adults performed two sprint tests and isokinetic tests to determine hip flexion power. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine LL and PM CSA. There were…

  5. Fate of the psoas muscle after open reduction for developmental dislocation of the hip (DDH).

    PubMed

    Bassett, G S; Engsberg, J R; McAlister, W H; Gordon, J E; Schoenecker, P L

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the anatomic and functional consequences of psoas lengthening during operative intervention for developmental dislocation of the hip (DDH). Possible anatomic changes were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and functional assessment included strength determination by an isokinetic dynamometer and gait analysis. Six girls and one boy, ranging in age from 15 to 20 months, had operative reduction of a unilateral DDH. One closed and six open reductions (three anteromedial and three anterolateral approaches) were performed. Follow-up ranged from 4 years 0 months to 9 years 2 months. The cross-sectional area determined by MRI of the lengthened psoas muscles was markedly reduced for all of the six open-reduction patients (three moderate and three severe). Atrophy of the iliacus muscle also was apparent by MRI in five of the six open-reduction patients. Maximum flexion torque, as determined by the isokinetic dynamometer, was diminished on the DDH side for the three patients whose hips were reduced open through the anteromedial approach. Average hip-flexion torque over the entire range of motion was decreased for both anteromedial and anterolateral groups on the operated-on side. Lengthening of the psoas tendon during open reduction of a DDH is associated with considerable atrophy of the psoas muscle.

  6. Is there a relationship between psoas impingement and increased trochanteric retroversion?

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Hoyos, Juan; Schröder, Ricardo; Reddy, Manoj; Palmer, Ian J.; Khoury, Anthony; Martin, Hal David

    2015-01-01

    The concept of psoas impingement secondary to a tight or inflamed iliopsoas tendon causing impingement of the anterior labrum during hip extension has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between the lesser trochanteric version (LTV) in symptomatic patients with psoas impingement as compared with asymptomatic hips. The femoral neck version (FNV) and LTV were evaluated on axial magnetic resonance imaging, as well as the angle between LTV and FNV. Data from 12 symptomatic patients and 250 asymptomatic patients were analysed. The mean, range and standard deviations were calculated. Independent t-tests were used to determine differences between groups. The lesser trochanteric retroversion was significantly increased in patients with psoas impingement as compared with asymptomatic hips (−31.1° SD ± 6.5 versus −24.2° ± 11.5, P < 0.05). The FNV (9° ± 8.8 versus 14.1° ± 10.7, P > 0.05) and the angle between FNV and LTV (40.2° ± 9.7 versus 38.3° ± 9.6, P > 0.05) were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, the lesser trochanteric retroversion is significantly increased in patients with psoas impingement as compared with asymptomatic hips. PMID:27011834

  7. Phenol block for hip flexor muscle spasticity under ultrasonic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Koyama, H; Murakami, K; Suzuki, T; Suzaki, K

    1992-11-01

    Hip flexor spasticity, which is often associated with central nervous system (CNS) diseases, is a major impediment in rehabilitation. In order to cope with this problem, lumbar nerve blocking techniques developed by Meelhuysen and major and minor psoas muscle blocking techniques developed by Awad have been used in combination with physical therapies. Based on these techniques, we conducted major and minor psoas muscle phenol block (motor point block or intramuscular nerve block) under ultrasonic monitoring. Phenol block was conducted in nine patients with cerebral infarction (13 blocking procedures) and three with spinal cord injuries (six blocking procedures) while keeping them in a lateral position with the operation side upside. The beginning of the femoral nerves and part of the lumbar artery were visualized by ultrasound in some patients. As a result of the improvement of hip flexor spasticity, the range of hip joint motion (determined by the Mundale technique, prone hip extension and Thomas test) improved shortly after blocking. When physical therapy was conducted after blocking, improvement of skin care management was observed in eight cases, ability to keep in a stable sitting position in nine, improvement of a standing posture in three, increases in the ability to walk in two and alleviation of pain in three. Although nerve block is reported to result in hematoma, decreases in muscle force, pain, cystic/rectal disorders and hypogonadism, we have observed no such complication in our patients.

  8. Contamination control of the space shuttle Orbiter crew compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartelson, Donald W.

    1986-01-01

    Effective contamination control as applied to manned space flight environments is a discipline characterized and controlled by many parameters. An introduction is given to issues involving Orbiter crew compartment contamination control. An effective ground processing contamination control program is an essential building block to a successful shuttle mission. Personnel are required to don cleanroom-grade clothing ensembles before entering the crew compartment and follow cleanroom rules and regulations. Prior to crew compartment entry, materials and equipment must be checked by an orbiter integrity clerk stationed outside the white-room entrance for compliance to program requirements. Analysis and source identification of crew compartment debris studies have been going on for two years. The objective of these studies is to determine and identify particulate generating materials and activities in the crew compartment. Results show a wide spectrum of many different types of materials. When source identification is made, corrective action is implemented to minimize or curtail further contaminate generation.

  9. Neonatal compartment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Martin, B; Treharne, L

    2016-01-01

    A term neonate was born with a grossly swollen and discoloured left hand and forearm. He was transferred from the local hospital to the plastic surgical unit, where a diagnosis of compartment syndrome was made and he underwent emergency forearm fasciotomies at six hours of age. Following serial debridements of necrotic tissue, he underwent split-thickness skin grafting of the resultant defects of his forearm, hand and digits. At the clinic follow-up appointment two months after the procedure, he was found to have developed severe flexion contractures despite regular outpatient hand therapy and splintage. He has had further reconstruction with contracture release, use of artificial dermal matrix, and K-wire fixation of the thumb and wrist. Despite this, the long term outcome is likely to be an arm with poor function. The key learning point from this case is that despite prompt transfer, diagnosis and appropriate surgical management, the outcome for neonatal compartment syndrome may still be poor. PMID:27138850

  10. Late complication of a renal calculus: fistulisation to the psoas muscle, skin and bronchi

    PubMed Central

    Snoj, Ziga; Savic, Nenad; Regvat, Jaka

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kidney disease presenting with cutaneous fistula is a rare condition. We present a case of a 90-year-old woman with dementia who had no prior urological problems and had a cutaneous fistula in the left lumbar region. A fistulogram and computer tomography examination revealed a large staghorn calculus with signs of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in the left kidney and renal fistulisation to the psoas muscle, skin and bronchi. To our knowledge this is the first report in the literature of coexisting renal fistulisation to the psoas major muscle, skin and bronchi. This report illustrates how computed tomography in combination with fistulography can resolve the diagnostic dilemma that pertains to the complex spread of the disease in cases involving nephrocutaneous fistula. Furthermore, the report shows how a renal calculus, even asymptomatic, can cause a serious medical condition, and highlights the importance of early medical intervention. PMID:26401876

  11. Late complication of a renal calculus: fistulisation to the psoas muscle, skin and bronchi.

    PubMed

    Snoj, Ziga; Savic, Nenad; Regvat, Jaka

    2015-01-01

    Kidney disease presenting with cutaneous fistula is a rare condition. We present a case of a 90-year-old woman with dementia who had no prior urological problems and had a cutaneous fistula in the left lumbar region. A fistulogram and computer tomography examination revealed a large staghorn calculus with signs of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in the left kidney and renal fistulisation to the psoas muscle, skin and bronchi. To our knowledge this is the first report in the literature of coexisting renal fistulisation to the psoas major muscle, skin and bronchi. This report illustrates how computed tomography in combination with fistulography can resolve the diagnostic dilemma that pertains to the complex spread of the disease in cases involving nephrocutaneous fistula. Furthermore, the report shows how a renal calculus, even asymptomatic, can cause a serious medical condition, and highlights the importance of early medical intervention.

  12. Effects of physiological and toxic metals on the contraction of glycerinated rabbit psoas muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Both, A.B.; Wofford, H.W.

    1995-07-01

    The effects of three physiological metals (Fe, Zn, and Cu) and three toxic metals (Pb, Cd, and Hg) on the contraction of glycerinated psoas muscle of rabbit were examined. Four different dilutions of each metal solution were added to glycerinated psoas muscle fibers of rabbit. A solution containing 0.25 % ATP plus 0.05 M KCl plus 0.001 M M{sub g}Cl{sub 2} was applied. The lengths of the muscle fibers before and after the addition of the ATP and salt solution were measured. All six metals inhibited muscle contraction in a dose-dependent manner, regardless of whether they were considered physiological or toxic. A possible explanation for the results involving a metal-ATP complex is given.

  13. A Late-onset Psoas Abscess Formation Associated with Previous Appendectomy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Moslemi, Sam; Tahamtan, Maryam; Hosseini, Seyed Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Psoas abscesses could originate from an adjacent source of infection in the abdominopelvic cavity known as a secondary complication of acute appendicitis. However, it is considered as a very rare event when occurring late after the presentation of appendicitis. Whether it is the source or complication of acute appendicitis following appendectomy remains unclear. A 25-year-old man was admitted to our center with fever and abdominal pain. His past medical history was unremarkable except for having an acute appendicitis and complicated appendectomy 4 years before presenting illness. On admission, the patient was febrile with right lower quadrant abdominal tenderness and moderate leukocytosis. The Abdominopelvic CT- scan revealed a large right psoas muscle than the opposite site, that contained a hypodense mass measuring 6 cm in diameter with extension into right iliacus and internal oblique muscles..The patient underwent subsequent percutaneous abscess drainage under image guide and concurrent broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy.

  14. Kyste hydatique du muscle psoas: à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Alaoui, Imane; Hjoui, Fatimazahra; Doumbia, Meriem; Aoufi, Sarra; Lyagoubi, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Le muscle psoas est une localisation exceptionnelle du kyste hydatique. Le but de cette lettre est de rapporter l'observation d'un kyste hydatique localisé au niveau du muscle psoas gauche chez un patient âgé de 32 ans. L'échographie, la tomodensitométrie ainsi qu'une sérologie hydatique positive ont contribué au diagnostic préopératoire. Le patient a été opéré par incision para rectale gauche type Jalaguier. L'examen microscopique du culot de centrifugation du liquide hydatique a mis en évidence des scolex et de nombreux crochets confirmant ainsi le diagnostic. L'évolution était bonne sans récidive après le traitement chirurgical. PMID:28154657

  15. Compartment Syndrome of the Hand.

    PubMed

    Oak, Nikhil R; Abrams, Reid A

    2016-07-01

    Hand compartment syndrome has many etiologies; untreated, it has dire functional consequences. Intracompartmental pressure exceeding capillary filling pressure causes decreased tissue perfusion resulting in progressive ischemic death of compartment contents. Clinical findings can evolve. Serial physical examinations are recommended and, if equivocal, interstitial pressure monitoring is indicated. Definitive management is emergent fasciotomies with incisions designed to decompress the involved hand compartments, which could include the thenar, hypothenar, and interosseous compartments, and the carpal tunnel. Careful wound care, edema management, splinting, and hand therapy are critical. Therapy should start early postoperatively, possibly before wound closure.

  16. A rare cause of lower abdominal and pelvic mass, primary tuberculous psoas abscess: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculous psoas abscess was usually associated to complicate Pott's disease, but it can also be secondary to direct extension from other adjacent structures or haematogenous spread from an occult source. However, the occurrence of this entity as the presenting manifestation of tuberculosis, without evidence of active infection elsewhere, has been seldom reported. Case Presentation We report a clinical case of a 64-year-old immunocompetent female that presented with left lower abdominal pain and a soft tissue mass over the left iliac fossa and inguinal regions due to a primary tuberculous psoas abscess. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with percutaneous drainage guided by ultrasound along with antituberculous drugs, lead to a satisfactory outcome. Conclusion The purpose of this case report is to point out attention to the diagnostic challenge of tuberculous psoas abscess in the absence of tuberculosis in other organs or a predisposing condition. A brief review of the literature about its epidemiology, etiology, clinical features and management is discussed over the text. PMID:19946492

  17. COMPARTMENTED REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Cain, F.M. Jr.

    1962-09-11

    A method of making a nuclear reactor fuel element of the elongated red type is given wherein the fissionable fuel material is enclosed within a tubular metal cladding. The method comprises coating the metal cladding tube on its inside wall with a brazing alloy, inserting groups of cylindrical pellets of fissionable fuel material into the tube with spacing members between adjacent groups of pellets, sealing the ends of the tubes to leave a void space therewithin, heating the tube and its contents to an elevated temperature to melt the brazing alloy and to expand the pellets to their maximum dimensions under predetermined operating conditions thereby automatically positioning the spacing members along the tube, and finally cooling the tube to room temperature whereby the spacing disks become permanently fixed at their edges in the brazing alloy and define a hermetically sealed compartment for each fl group of fuel pellets. Upon cooling, the pellets contract thus leaving a space to accommodate thermal expansion of the pellets when in use in a reactor. The spacing members also provide lateral support for the tubular cladding to prevent collapse thereof when subjected to a reactor environment. (AEC)

  18. Nalidixic Acid-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi Presenting as a Primary Psoas Abscess: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Shakespeare, William A.; Davie, Daniel; Tonnerre, Claude; Rubin, Michael A.; Strong, Michael; Petti, Cathy A.

    2005-01-01

    We report an unusual case of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi presenting as a primary psoas abscess. The isolate tested susceptible to ciprofloxacin but resistant to nalidixic acid in vitro, a pattern associated with fluoroquinolone therapeutic failures. We review the literature for serovar Typhi psoas abscess in the absence of bacteremia and discuss the importance of identifying isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. PMID:15695728

  19. Bilateral psoas abscess caused by Janibacter terrae, an unusual condition and organism resulting in laboratory and management conundrums.

    PubMed

    Wan, Wei Yee; Mughal, Ahsan; Ward, Kelly

    2016-10-19

    Psoas abscess is commonly regarded as an unusual cause for back pains and usually associated with significant risk factors or co-morbidities. We describe the clinical presentation and findings of a young male Caucasian with bilateral psoas abscesses caused by an unusual organism, Janibacter terrae (an environmental organism) not previously described in literature and the challenges faced in managing this infection. There are very few case reports of this organism causing opportunistic infections, all reported bacteraemia mainly in patients with significant co-morbidities. This case highlights the importance of psoas abscess as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with back pain and the potential for this organism to cause abscesses in healthy individuals which was difficult to identify using conventional laboratory methods. Management of this infection was challenging and there is limited experience with antimicrobial treatment for this organism.

  20. Just another abdominal pain? Psoas abscess-like metastasis in large cell lung cancer with adrenal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Bernardino, Vera; Val-Flores, Luis Silva; Dias, João Lopes; Bento, Luís

    2015-06-10

    The authors report the case of a 69-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and previous pulmonary tuberculosis, who presented to the emergency department with abdominal and low back pain, anorexia and weight loss, rapidly evolving into shock. An initial CT scan revealed pulmonary condensation with associated cavitation and an iliopsoas mass suggestive of a psoas abscess. He was admitted in an intensive care unit unit; after a careful examination and laboratory assessment, the aetiology was yet undisclosed. MRI showed multiple retroperitoneal lymphadenopathies, bulky nodular adrenal lesions and bilateral iliac lytic lesions. Hypocortisolism was detected and treated with steroids. A CT-guided biopsy to the psoas mass and lytic lesions identified infiltration of non-small lung carcinoma. The patient died within days. Psoas metastases and adrenal insufficiency as initial manifestations of malignancy are rare and can be misdiagnosed, particularly in the absence of a known primary tumour.

  1. Variant slips of psoas and iliacus muscles, with splitting of the femoral nerve.

    PubMed

    Spratt, J D; Logan, B M; Abrahams, P H

    1996-01-01

    In bilateral dissections of 68 cadavers, four examples were found unilaterally of variant slips of iliacus and psoas major muscles. In three of them the femoral nerve was pierced by the variant slip. One of these variants was a previously undocumented accessory slip of iliacus, originating from the iliolumbar ligament, passing inferiorly anterior to iliacus, and traversing the femoral nerve; its tendon split to be attached proximally to the lesser trochanter of the femur and distally to an unknown insertion. Such anomalies might cause tension on the femoral nerve resulting in referred pain to the hip and knee joints and to the lumbar dermatomes L2,3 and 4.

  2. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.; Boyle, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for an improvement over current NASA Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology. The technology must allow the capacity for quicker, more efficient egress/ingress, allow for shirtsleeve suit maintenance, be compact in transport, and be applicable to environments ranging from planetary surface (partial-g) to orbital or deep space zero-g environments. The technology must also be resistant to dust and other foreign contaminants that may be present on or around a planetary surface. The technology should be portable, and be capable of docking with a variety of habitats, ports, stations, vehicles, and other pressurized modules. The Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock (DCIS) consists of three hard inline bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The Inner Bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The Inner Bulkhead and Center Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Inner Compartment, which during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The Inner Compartment contains donning/doffing fixtures and inner suit-port hatches. The Center Bulkhead has two integrated suit-ports along with a maintenance hatch. The Center Bulkhead and Outer Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Outer Compartment, which stays at vacuum during normal operations. This allows the crewmember to quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the Outer Compartment to depressurize. The Outer Compartment can be pressurized infrequently for both nominal and off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance/repair of the environmental suits. The Outer Bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed during EVA operations, but can

  3. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Scott; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.

    2012-01-01

    A paper discusses a dual-compartment inflatable suitlock (DCIS) for Extra - vehicular Activity (EVA) that will allow for dust control, suit maintenance, and efficient EVA egress/ingress. The expandable (inflatable technologies) aspect of the design will allow the unit to stow in a compact package for transport. The DCIS consists of three hard, in line bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The inner bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the common berthing mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The inner bulkhead and center bulkhead function as the end walls of the inner compartment, which, during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The suited crewmember can quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the compartment to depressurize. The outer compartment can be pressurized infrequently, when a long dwell time is expected prior to the next EVA, or during off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance of the space suits. The outer bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed routinely, but can be closed for suit maintenance and pressurization as needed.

  4. Anatomical differences in the psoas muscles in young black and white men

    PubMed Central

    HANSON, PATRICK; MAGNUSSON, S. PETER; SORENSEN, HENRIK; SIMONSEN, ERIK B.

    1999-01-01

    The anatomy of the psoas major muscle (PMA) in young black and white men was studied during routine autopsies. The forensic autopsies included 44 fresh male cadavers (21 black, 23 white) with an age span of 14 to 25 y. The range for weight was 66–76 kg and for height 169–182 cm. The PMA was initially measured in its entire length before measuring the diameter and circumference at each segmental level (L1–S1). At each segmental level, the calculated anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) was more than 3 times greater in the black group compared with the white (P<0.001). The psoas minor muscle (PMI) was absent in 91% of the black subjects, but only in 13% of the white subjects. These data show that the PMA is markedly larger in black than white subjects. The marked race specific difference in the size of the PMA may have implications for hip flexor strength, spine function and race specific incidence in low back pathology, and warrants further investigation. PMID:10337963

  5. Unexpected motor weakness following quadratus lumborum block for gynaecological laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Wikner, M

    2017-02-01

    Quadratus lumborum block has recently been described as an effective and long-lasting analgesic strategy for various abdominal operations, including gynaecological laparoscopy. Despite evidence that the analgesic effect is mediated by indirect paravertebral block and that local anaesthetic spreads to the lumbar paravertebral space, there have been no reports to date of lower limb motor weakness. We present a patient with unilateral hip flexion and knee extension weakness leading to unplanned overnight admission following lateral quadratus lumborum block with 20 ml levobupivacaine 0.25%. The L2 dermatomal sensory loss and hip flexion weakness suggested spread to either the L2 paravertebral space or to the lumbar plexus, causing weakness of the psoas and iliacus muscles and possibly the quadriceps. The duration of motor block was approximately 18 h. This complication should be considered when performing the block, especially in the setting of day-case surgery.

  6. Fulminating gas-forming psoas muscle abscess due to Klebsiella pneumoniae following a deep neck infection.

    PubMed

    Jang, T N; Juang, G D; Fung, C P

    1997-02-01

    Psoas muscle abscess due to Klebsiella pneumoniae infection is rare. We report a 55-year-old diabetic man who presented with progressive back pain of 1 month's duration. The patient had undergone surgical drainage for a deep neck infection with K. pneumoniae 43 days previously. On the present admission, physical examination revealed tenderness over the anterior upper aspect of both thighs, and computed tomography showed pneumoretroperitoneum dissecting the bilateral iliopsoas muscles. Parenteral administration of antibiotics was started immediately. Due to the patient's poor health status, we opted for repeated computed tomographic and sonographic-guided percutaneous drainage rather than surgical drainage. Blood and pus cultures revealed only K. pneumoniae. The patient recovered without significant sequelae. This report stresses the risk of metastatic infections caused by K. pneumoniae, especially in diabetic patients. Our experience suggests that repeated percutaneous drainage is feasible in cases of severe iliopsoas abscess, especially when risks associated with surgery are high.

  7. Method and apparatus to assess compartment syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatile components on at least one compartment dimension. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring excess pressure in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the reflected imparted ultrasonic waves, and converting them to electrical signals, a pulsed phase-locked loop device for assessing a body compartment configuration and producing an output signal, and means for mathematically manipulating the output signal to thereby categorize pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  8. Orbiter Crew Compartment Integration-Stowage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, L. Gary

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the Orbiter Crew Compartment Integration (CCI) stowage. The evolution of orbiter crew compartment stowage volume is also described, along with photographs presented of the on-orbit volume stowage capacity.

  9. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be... controls, call buttons, electrical outlets, etc.) shall be mounted no more than 48 inches, and no less...

  10. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be... controls, call buttons, electrical outlets, etc.) shall be mounted no more than 48 inches, and no less...

  11. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to...

  12. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  13. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  14. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to...

  15. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  16. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to...

  17. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  18. [The "3-in-1" block: myth or reality?].

    PubMed

    Cauhèpe, C; Oliver, M; Colombani, R; Railhac, N

    1989-01-01

    The technique described by Winnie in 1973 is supposed to provide a regional block of the femoral, femoral cutaneous, and obturator nerves by a single injection within the femoral nerve sheath. This study aimed to assess the diffusion spaces for the local anaesthetic solution used in this technique. The anatomical study included the dissection of 2 adult and 1 foetal cadavers. It was associated with a radiographic study in adult volunteers. About 20 to 60 ml of an isotonic radiographic contrast (iopamidol 150) were injected into the femoral nerve sheath located with the help of a nerve stimulator. Standard pelvic radiographs and computerised tomographic scans were carried out at the time of injection, and 30 min later. Two different unpredictable distributions were found; which were independent of the injected volume. One type consisted in an internal diffusion towards the psoas major muscle, the liquid thus reaching the three nerves. The other type was an external diffusion, in front of the iliacus muscle, the liquid never reaching the internal side of the psoas major muscle, and therefore the obturator nerve. The "3 in 1" block would therefore seem to be useful for those surgical acts requiring only a block of the femoral and femoral cutaneous nerves, i.e. those involving the anterior aspect of the thigh and knee, the femoral shaft, and the patella. On the other hand, its usefulness for surgery of the hip (dislocation, fractured neck of femur) is rather uncertain.

  19. [The role of the psoas muscle: apropos of the dissection of the muscles from 10 adults and 10 newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Le Floch-Prigent, P

    1983-06-01

    The action of the iliopsoas muscle (Musculus iliopsoas) on movements of the hip is studied by direct traction on fresh cadavers (10 still-born and 10 adults). The psoas muscle is a powerful flexor of the hip but also an external rotator. The action of external rotation is moderate but obvious in every position of the femur (Os femoris) and more important if previously in abduction and internal rotation.

  20. The role of the psoas and iliacus muscles for stability and movement of the lumbar spine, pelvis and hip.

    PubMed

    Andersson, E; Oddsson, L; Grundström, H; Thorstensson, A

    1995-02-01

    The activation patterns of the psoas and iliacus muscles were investigated in 7 healthy adult subjects (4 men and 3 women) during a variety of motor tasks in standing, sitting and lying. Myoelectric activity was recorded simultaneously from the 2 muscles using thin wire electrodes inserted under guidance of high-resolution ultrasound. In general, both muscles were coactivated, albeit to different relative levels, particularly when hip flexor torque was required. Selective activation of the iliacus could, however, be seen to stabilize the pelvis in contralateral hip extension during standing. Psoas was found to be selectively involved in sitting with a straight back and in contralateral loading situations requiring stabilization of the spine in the frontal plane. During training exercises from a supine position, such as sit-ups, the contribution of the psoas and iliacus muscles could be varied by changing the range of motion as well as the position and support for the legs. Thus, the 2 anatomically different muscles of the iliopsoas complex were shown to have individual and task-specific activation patterns depending on the particular demands for stability and movement at the lumbar spine, pelvis and hip.

  1. Urinary Obstruction of Transplanted Kidney Caused by Uterine Adenomyosis and 2-Year Posthysterectomy Psoas Abscess in Conjunction with Transplanted Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Takezawa, Yuta; Nohara, Takahiro; Mizokami, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Urinary obstruction of the transplanted kidney caused by uterine leiomyoma is an extremely rare condition. To the best of our knowledge, there are only two reports in English literature. Psoas abscess secondary to renal graft pyelonephritis is also uncommon. We present this unusual case and its treatment course. A 43-year-old female presented with renal dysfunction. She was started on peritoneal dialysis from the age of 26 years and received kidney transplantation from her mother (living donor) at the age of 27 years. Computed tomography (CT) revealed right hydronephrosis and a large uterine mass compressing the distal ureter of the transplanted kidney. After a simple total hysterectomy, her renal function improved. Two years following the hysterectomy, she experienced painful urination, fever, right abdominal pain, and right lower limb pain. CT and T2-weighed magnetic resonance imaging of her pelvis demonstrated right psoas abscess in conjunction with transplanted kidney. She was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics alone, which resulted in a good response. Urinary obstruction of the transplanted kidney caused by uterine leiomyoma is an extremely rare condition. Psoas abscess secondary to transplanted kidney pyelonephritis is also rare. We should keep these rare diseases in mind when treating such cases. PMID:28097036

  2. Ultrasound-Guided Quadratus Lumborum Block: An Updated Review of Anatomy and Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Otake, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review. Since the original publication on the quadratus lumborum (QL) block, the technique has evolved significantly during the last decade. This review highlights recent advances in various approaches for administering the QL block and proposes directions for future research. Recent Findings. The QL block findings continue to become clearer. We now understand that the QL block has several approach methods (anterior, lateral, posterior, and intramuscular) and the spread of local anesthetic varies with each approach. In particular, dye injected using the anterior QL block approach spread to the L1, L2, and L3 nerve roots and within psoas major and QL muscles. Summary. The QL block is an effective analgesic tool for abdominal surgery. However, the best approach is yet to be determined. Therefore, the anesthetic spread of the several QL blocks must be made clear. PMID:28154824

  3. Ultrasound-Guided Quadratus Lumborum Block: An Updated Review of Anatomy and Techniques.

    PubMed

    Ueshima, Hironobu; Otake, Hiroshi; Lin, Jui-An

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review. Since the original publication on the quadratus lumborum (QL) block, the technique has evolved significantly during the last decade. This review highlights recent advances in various approaches for administering the QL block and proposes directions for future research. Recent Findings. The QL block findings continue to become clearer. We now understand that the QL block has several approach methods (anterior, lateral, posterior, and intramuscular) and the spread of local anesthetic varies with each approach. In particular, dye injected using the anterior QL block approach spread to the L1, L2, and L3 nerve roots and within psoas major and QL muscles. Summary. The QL block is an effective analgesic tool for abdominal surgery. However, the best approach is yet to be determined. Therefore, the anesthetic spread of the several QL blocks must be made clear.

  4. Differential activity of regions of the psoas major and quadratus lumborum during submaximal isometric trunk efforts.

    PubMed

    Park, Rachel J; Tsao, Henry; Cresswell, Andrew G; Hodges, Paul W

    2012-02-01

    Controversy exists regarding the function of psoas major (PM) and quadratus lumborum (QL) at the lumbar spine. The functions of discrete regions of PM and QL were studied during trunk loading tasks. Twelve healthy participants performed isometric trunk loading tasks in various directions in upright sitting. Fine-wire electromyography (EMG) electrodes were inserted under ultrasound guidance into PM fascicles arising from the transverse process (PM-t) and vertebral body (PM-v) and the anterior (QL-a) and posterior (QL-p) layers of QL on the right side. Although right PM-t and PM-v were both active during right lateral-flexion trunk efforts, their activity was opposite in the sagittal plane, with greater PM-t towards extension and PM-v towards flexion. QL-a and QL-p were similarly active, though QL-p was active to a greater percentage of MVC during right trunk lateral-flexion efforts. Activity of QL-p was modulated with respiratory phase during the loading tasks with trunk efforts towards the right lateral-flexion/flexion and right lateral-flexion directions. These findings provide novel understanding of the unique activation of discrete regions of PM and QL. These differences must be considered in future EMG studies to better understand the function of these deeply situated trunk muscles in the control of the lumbar spine.

  5. Effect of dietary linseed oil and α-tocopherol on pork tenderloin (Psoas major) muscle.

    PubMed

    Hoz, L; Lopez-Bote, C J; Cambero, M I; D'Arrigo, M; Pin, C; Santos, C; Ordóñez, J A

    2003-11-01

    The effect of linseed oil and α-tocopheryl acetate on the fatty acid composition and the susceptibility to oxidation of lipid fraction from pork tenderloin (Psoas major) muscle has been studied. Muscles were obtained from animals fed on diets with the same ingredients excepting the oil source [sunflower (C), linseed (L) and linseed and olive (1/1, w/w) (LO)] and α-tocopherol [20 (C, L and LO) or 200 (LOE and LE) mg/kg diet]. The n-6/n-3 ratio in pork tenderloin was markedly modified by dietary linseed oil administration, which was due to the increase in the C18:3n-3 (and total n-3 fatty acids) and the decrease in the C18:2n-6 (and total n-6 fatty acids) contents (P<0.05). The α-tocopherol content of tenderloin from batches LE and LOE was about 2.8 mg/kg of muscle, significantly greater (P<0.05) than about 0.7 mg/kg muscle found in tenderloin from pigs receiving C, L and LO. Dietary supplementation with α-tocopheryl acetate markedly reduced tenderloin lipid oxidation from animals fed diets enriched in n-3 fatty acids (L or LO vs LE or LOE).

  6. Color attributes and oxidative stability of longissimus lumborum and psoas major muscles from Nellore bulls.

    PubMed

    Canto, Anna C V C S; Costa-Lima, Bruno R C; Suman, Surendranath P; Monteiro, Maria Lucia G; Viana, Fernanda M; Salim, Ana Paula A A; Nair, Mahesh N; Silva, Teofilo J P; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2016-11-01

    The influence of muscle source on color stability of fresh beef from purebred Bos indicus cattle was investigated. Longissimus lumborum (LL) and psoas major (PM) muscles obtained from twelve (n=12) Nellore bull carcasses (24h post-mortem) were fabricated into 2.54-cm steaks, aerobically packaged, and stored at 4°C for nine days. Steaks were analyzed on day 0 for proximate composition and myoglobin concentration, whereas pH, instrumental color, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), lipid oxidation, and protein oxidation were evaluated on days 0, 3, 6, and 9. LL steaks exhibited greater (P<0.05) redness, color stability, and MRA than PM counterparts. On the other hand, PM steaks demonstrated greater (P<0.05) myoglobin content, lipid oxidation, and protein oxidation than LL steaks. These results indicated the critical influence of muscle source on discoloration of fresh beef from Bos indicus animals and suggested the necessity to engineer muscle-specific strategies to improve color stability and marketability of beef from Bos indicus cattle.

  7. Independent Active Contraction of Extraocular Muscle Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Andrew; Yoo, Lawrence; Demer, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Intramuscular innervation of horizontal rectus extraocular muscle (EOMs) is segregated into superior and inferior (transverse) compartments, whereas all EOMs are also divided into global (GL) and orbital (OL) layers with scleral and pulley insertions, respectively. Mechanical independence between both types of compartments has been demonstrated during passive tensile loading. We examined coupling between EOM compartments during active, ex vivo contraction. Methods. Fresh bovine EOMs were removed, and one compartment of each was coated with hydrophobic petrolatum. Contraction of the uncoated compartment was induced by immersion in a solution of 50 mM CaCl2 at 38°C labeled with sodium fluorescein dye, whereas tensions in both compartments were monitored by strain gauges. Control experiments omitted petrolatum so that the entire EOM contracted. After physiological experiments, EOMs were sectioned transversely to demonstrate specificity of CaCl2 permeation by yellow fluorescence dye excited by blue light. Results. In control experiments without petrolatum, both transverse and GL and OL compartments contracted similarly. Selective compartmental omission of petrolatum caused markedly independent compartmental contraction whether measured at the GL or the OL insertions or for transverse compartments at the scleral insertion. Although some CaCl2 spread occurred, mean (±SD) tension in the coated compartments averaged only 10.5 ± 3.3% and 6.0 ± 1.5% in GL/OL and transverse compartments, respectively relative to uncoated compartments. Fluorescein penetration confirmed selective CaCl2 permeation. Conclusions. These data confirm passive tensile findings of mechanical independence of EOM compartments and extend results to active contraction. EOMs behave actively as if composed of mechanically independent parallel fiber bundles having different insertional targets, consistent with the active pulley and transverse compartmental hypotheses. PMID:25503460

  8. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After Hip Arthroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    K. Intra- abdominal compartment syndrome as a complication of ruptured abdomi- nal aortic aneurysm repair. Am Surg 1989;55:396-402. 6. Sugrue M...00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After Hip Arthroscopy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Author’s personal copy Case Report Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After

  9. Compartment syndrome after tibial plateau fracture.

    PubMed

    Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão; Dos Santos, Thays Fernanda Avelino; Dos Santos, Fernanda Thaysa Avelino; da Costa Filho, Edelson Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are relatively rare, representing around 1.2% of all fractures. The tibia, due to its subcutaneous location and poor muscle coverage, is exposed and suffers large numbers of traumas, not only fractures, but also crush injuries and severe bruising, among others, which at any given moment, could lead compartment syndrome in the patient. The case is reported of a 58-year-old patient who, following a tibial plateau fracture, presented compartment syndrome of the leg and was submitted to decompressive fasciotomy of the four right compartments. After osteosynthesis with internal fixation of the tibial plateau using an L-plate, the patient again developed compartment syndrome.

  10. The lumbar cord location of the motoneurons innervating psoas and iliacus muscles: a single and double labeling study in the female Syrian golden hamster.

    PubMed

    Gerrits, P O; Boers, J; Holstege, G

    1997-11-21

    The spinal cord location of the motoneurons innervating the psoas and iliacus muscles was determined in the golden hamster. The results of single and double labeling studies, using the retrograde tracers horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB), showed that both psoas and iliacus motoneurons were present ventrolaterally in the ventral horn in the caudal L1 to rostral L5 lumbar spinal segments with their motoneurons intermingled in one cell group. Further retrograde tracing studies demonstrated abdominal muscle motoneurons ventrolaterally in the ventral horn of the L1 and upper L2 segments. Double labeling experiments revealed that at these levels (caudal L1 and rostral L2), the abdominal muscle motoneurons were located dorsomedial to the psoas and iliacus motoneurons.

  11. Compartmented mode workstation (CMW) comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Tolliver, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    As the Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) market has matured, several vendors have released new versions of their CMW operating systems. These include a new version from SecureWare (CMW + Version 2.4), and Sun`s CMW 1.1 (also known as Trusted Solaris 1.1). EC is now shipping MLS+ 3.0 for DEC Alpha platforms. Relatively new entries in the market include Loral B1/CMW for IBM RS/6000 platforms and a SecureWare-based CMW for HP platforms (HP-UX 10.09). With all these choices it is time for a comparative analysis of the features offered by the various vendors. The authors have three of the above five CMW systems plus HP-UX BLS 9.09, which is a multilevel secure operating system (OS) targeted at the B1 level but not a CMW. Each is unique in sometimes obvious, sometimes subtle ways, a situation that requires knowing and keeping straight a variety of commands to do the same thing on each system. Some vendors offer extensive GUI tools for system administration; some require entering command-line commands for certain system administration tasks. They examine the differences in system installation, system administration, and system operating among the systems. They look at trusted networking among the various systems and differences in the network databases and label encodings files. They examine the user interface on the various systems from logging in to logging out.

  12. Appropriately placed surface EMG electrodes reflect deep muscle activity (psoas, quadratus lumborum, abdominal wall) in the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    McGill, S; Juker, D; Kropf, P

    1996-11-01

    This study tested the possibility of obtaining the activity of deeper muscles in the torso-specifically psoas, quadratus lumborum, external oblique, internal oblique and transverse abdominis, using surface myoelectric electrodes. It was hypothesized that: (1) surface electrodes adequately represent the amplitude of deep muscles (specifically psoas, quadratus lumborum, external oblique, internal oblique, transverse abdominis); (2) a single surface electrode location would best represent the activation profiles of each deep muscle over a broad variety of tasks. We assumed that prediction of activation within 10% of maximum voluntary contraction (RMS difference between the surface and intramuscular channels), over the time history of the signal, was reasonable and acceptable to assist clinical interpretation of muscle activation amplitude, and ultimately for modeled estimates of muscle force. Surface electrodes were applied and intramuscular electrodes were inserted on the left side of the body in five men and three women who then performed a wide variety of flexor tasks (bent knee and straight leg situps and leg raises, curl ups), extensor tasks (including lifting barbells up to 70 kg), lateral bending tasks (standing lateral bend and horizontal lying side support), twisting tasks (standing and sitting), and internal/external hip rotation. Using the criteria of RMS difference and the coefficient of determination (R2) to compare surface with intramuscular myoelectric signals, the results indicated that selected surface electrodes adequately represent the amplitude of deep muscles-always within 15% RMS difference, or less with the exception of psoas where differences up to 20% were observed but only in certain maximum voluntary contraction efforts. It appears reasonable for spine modelers, and particularly clinicians, to assume well selected surface electrode locations provide a representation of these deeper muscles-as long as they recognize the magnitude of error for

  13. Anatomy of the psoas muscle and lumbar plexus with respect to the surgical approach for lateral transpsoas interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Bogner, Eric A; Herzog, Richard J; Huang, Russel C

    2011-04-01

    Lateral transpsoas interbody fusion (LTIF) is a minimally invasive technique that permits interbody fusion utilizing cages placed via a direct lateral retroperitoneal approach. We sought to describe the locations of relevant neurovascular structures based on MRI with respect to this novel surgical approach. We retrospectively reviewed consecutive lumbosacral spine MRI scans in 43 skeletally mature adults. MRI scans were independently reviewed by two readers to identify the location of the psoas muscle, lumbar plexus, femoral nerve, inferior vena cava and right iliac vein. Structures potentially at risk for injury were identified by: a distance from the anterior aspect of the adjacent vertebral bodies of <20 mm, representing the minimum retraction necessary for cage placement, and extension of vascular structures posterior to the anterior vertebral body, requiring anterior retraction. The percentage of patients with neurovascular structures at risk for left-sided approaches was 2.3% at L1-2, 7.0% at L2-3, 4.7% at L3-4 and 20.9% at L4-5. For right-sided approaches, this rose to 7.0% at L1-2, 7.0% at L2-3, 9.3% at L3-4 and 44.2% at L4-5, largely because of the relatively posterior right-sided vasculature. A relationship between the position of psoas muscle and lumbar plexus is described which allows use of the psoas position as a proxy for lumbar plexus position to identify patients who may be at risk, particularly at the L4-5 level. Further study will establish the clinical relevance of these measurements and the ability of neurovascular structures to be retracted without significant injury.

  14. Cross-sectional area of psoas major muscle and hip flexion strength in youth soccer players.

    PubMed

    Hoshikawa, Yoshihiro; Iida, Tomomi; Ii, Nozomi; Muramatsu, Masataka; Nakajima, Yoshiharu; Chumank, Kentaro; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to clarify the differences in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the psoas major (PM) muscle and hip flexion force (HFF) of the right (dominant) side between adolescent male soccer players and age-matched non-athletes. PM CSA at L4–L5 and HFF at 1.05 rad/s were determined in 22 early (12.8–13.6 years) and 27 late (16.1–17.9 years) adolescent soccer players and 11 early (12.6–13.5 years) and 20 late (16.0–17.7 years) adolescent non-athletes. Fat-free mass (FFM) was greater in late adolescent soccer players than in late adolescent non-athletes, but was similar between the two early adolescent groups. Without the effect of age, PM CSA and HFF were greater in soccer players than in non-athletes. PM CSA and HFF were significantly correlated to FFM (soccer players, r = 0.860, P < 0.0001; non-athletes, r = 0.709, P < 0.0001) and PM CSA (soccer players, r = 0.760, P < 0.0001; non-athletes, r = 0.777, P < 0.0001), respectively. The difference between soccer players and non-athletes in PM CSA was still significant even when PM CSA was covaried for FFM. On the other hand, HFF covaried for PM CSA was similar between the two groups. The current results indicate that, as compared to age-matched non-athletes: (1) not only late, but also early adolescent soccer players have a greater PM CSA even when the difference in FFM was adjusted, and (2) their superiority in hip flexion force can be attributed to the difference in PM CSA.

  15. The mechanical behavior of individual sarcomeres of myofibrils isolated from rabbit psoas muscle.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Ivan; Novinger, Rowan; Rassier, Dilson E

    2009-11-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a system to experiment with sarcomeres mechanically isolated from skeletal muscles. Single myofibrils from rabbit psoas were transferred into a temperature-controlled (22 degrees C or 15 degrees C) experimental chamber, and sarcomeres were isolated using precalibrated glass microneedles that were pierced externally, adjacent to the Z-lines. The force produced during activation was measured by tracking the displacement of the microneedles, and the sarcomere and half-sarcomere changes were measured by continuously tracking the Z-lines and A-bands position during the experiments. Sarcomeres produced a stress (force/cross-sectional area) of 112.75 +/- 4.96 nN/microm(2) (15 degrees C) and 128.47 +/- 5.58 nN/microm(2) (22 degrees C) at lengths between 2.0 microm and 2.4 microm. The descending limb was fitted with linear regression for length between 2.4 microm and 3.5 microm, which provided an abscissa extrapolating to 3.87 microm. The force-length relation was remarkably similar to a theoretical curve based on the degree of filament overlap. During sarcomere activation, we tracked the distance between the center of the A-band and the Z-lines. At lengths below 1.6 microm, movements of A-band were not detected. A-band movements increased with length to achieve a maximum displacement of 59.40 +/- 10.1 nm from the center at 2.0 microm-2.4 microm. A-band displacement decreased linearly in sarcomere lengths between 2.6 microm and 3.6 microm. A technique for monitoring force and length in single sarcomeres isolated from myofibrils represents a reliable technique to evaluate contractile mechanisms at the most basic, intact level of muscle organization, opening the possibility to clarify long-standing issues in the field of muscle contraction.

  16. Sarcomere overextension reduces stretch-induced tension loss in myofibrils of rabbit psoas.

    PubMed

    Panchangam, Appaji; Herzog, Walter

    2011-07-28

    Stretch-induced damage to skeletal muscles results in loss of isometric tension. Although there is no direct evidence, loss of tension has been implicitly assumed to be the consequence of permanent loss of myofilament overlap in some sarcomeres ('sarcomere overextension'). Using isolated myofibrils of rabbit psoas muscle (n=38; 6 control and 32 test specimens) at 12-15°C, we directly tested the idea that loss of tension following stretch is caused by sarcomere overextension. Experimental myofibrils were maximally activated at the edge of the descending limb (sarcomere length ∼ 2.9 μm) of the sarcomere length-tension relationship and then stretched by 1 μm sarcomere(-1) at a constant speed of 0.1 μms(-1)sarcomere(-1) to result in an average strain of 33.6 ± 0.9% (mean ± 1 SE). Myofibrils were immediately returned to the original lengths and relaxed. Isometric tension measured in a subsequent re-activation 3-5 min later was reduced by 24.6 ± 1.5% from its original value. In 22 out of the 32 test specimens, all sarcomeres maintained myofilament overlap, while in 10 myofibrils one or two sarcomeres were stretched permanently beyond myofilament overlap (>4.0 μm), and thus exhibited overextended sarcomeres. Loss of tension following stretch was significantly smaller in myofibrils with overextended sarcomeres compared to myofibrils with no overextended sarcomeres (19.5 ± 2.3% and 27.1 ± 1.8%, respectively; p=0.017). Combined, these results suggest that the loss of tension associated with stretch-induced damage can occur in the absence of sarcomere overextension and that sarcomere overextension limits rather than causes stretch-induced tension loss.

  17. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Concurrent Spontaneous Hematomas of the Rectus Sheath and Psoas Muscle in Patients Undergoing Anticoagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, Antonio; Medina, Jose Garcia; Mundo, Elena; Medina, Vicente Garcia; Leal, Rafael

    2004-11-15

    We report a case of concurrent rectus sheath and psoas hematomas in a patient undergoing anticoagulant therapy, treated by transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) of inferior epigastric and lumbar arteries. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated signs of active bleeding in two hematomas of the anterior and posterior abdominal walls. Transfemoral arteriogram confirmed the extravasation of contrast from the right inferior epigastric artery (RIEA). Indirect signs of bleeding were also found in a right lumbar artery (RLA). We successfully performed TAE of the feeding arteries. There have been few reports in the literature of such spontaneous hemorrhages in patients undergoing anticoagulation, successfully treated by TAE.

  18. Perinephric stranding and bulky psoas mimicking pyelonephritis in a case of non-Hodgkin lymphoma of kidney.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shrawan Kumar; Sharma, Aditya Prakash; Mittal, Ankur; Lal, Anupam

    2015-05-01

    A 68-year-old male patient presented with fever and right groin pain. He had leukocytosis with azotemia. Computed tomography revealed enlarged right kidney with thickening and enhancement of walls of pelvicalyceal system and perinephric fat stranding, suggestive of pyelonephritis. Multiple enlarged lymph nodes encased right renal vessels and were present in the retrocaval region. The right psoas muscle was bulky. Fine-needle aspiration cytology and biopsy from the lesions showed features of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse, large, B-cell lymphoma. We emphasize lymphoma in differential diagnosis of atypical renal imaging suggestive of pyelonephritis and perinephritis.

  19. [Superficial femoral vein thrombosis due to large psoas bursitis secondary to particle disease in total hip arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Lax-Pérez, R; Salinas-Gilabert, J E; Lajara-Marco, F; Lax-Pérez, A; Corraliza-Zamorano, A; García-Gálvez, A; Izquierdo-Plazas, L

    2012-01-01

    Male, 76 year-old patient with a history of total hip arthroplasty who presents with a mass in the iliac fossa with swelling of the thigh and hip pain upon flexion and extension. Complementary ultrasound and computed tomography scan studies show a giant lobulated cystic mass in the left iliac fossa, 7 cm in diameter, near the prosthesis. Cyst formation caused by polyethylene disease after total hip arthroplasty is infrequent. We present a case of large psoas bursitis secondary to the release of polyethylene particles which caused superficial femoral vein compression and thrombosis.

  20. [Thrombosis of the superficial femoral vein due to psoas bursitis secondary to particle disease in total hip arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Lax-Pérez, R; Salinas-Gilabert, J E; Lajara-Marco, F; Lax-Pérez, A; Corraliza-Zamorano, A; García-Gálvez, A; Izquierdo-Plazas, L

    2011-01-01

    The case of a male 76 year-old patient with a history of total hip replacement surgery is presented herein. The patient had tumors in the iliac fossa with swelling of the thigh and pain upon hip flexion and extension. The complementary ultrasound and computed tomography show a large lobed cystic tumor in the left iliac fossa, 7 cm in diameter, close to the prosthesis. The diagnosis was psoas bursitis secondary to the release of polyethylene particles that caused compression and thrombosis of the superficial femoral vein. Cyst formation caused by polyethylene disease after total hip arthroplasty is infrequent.

  1. Compartment syndrome after total knee arthroplasty: regarding a clinical case☆

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Ana Alexandra da Costa; Marques, Pedro Miguel Dantas Costa; Sá, Pedro Miguel Gomes; Oliveira, Carolina Fernandes; da Silva, Bruno Pombo Ferreira; de Sousa, Cristina Maria Varino

    2015-01-01

    Although compartment syndrome is a rare complication of total knee arthroplasty, it is one of the most devastating complications. It is defined as a situation of increased pressure within a closed osteofascial space that impairs the circulation and the functioning of the tissues inside this space, thereby leading to ischemia and tissue dysfunction. Here, a clinical case of a patient who was followed up in orthopedic outpatient consultations due to right gonarthrosis is presented. The patient had a history of arthroscopic meniscectomy and presented knee flexion of 10° before the operation, which consisted of total arthroplasty of the right knee. The operation seemed to be free from intercurrences, but the patient evolved with compartment syndrome of the ipsilateral leg after the operation. Since compartment syndrome is a true surgical emergency, early recognition and treatment of this condition through fasciotomy is crucial in order to avoid amputation, limb dysfunction, kidney failure and death. However, it may be difficult to make the diagnosis and cases may not be recognized if the cause of compartment syndrome is unusual or if the patient is under epidural analgesia and/or peripheral nerve block, which thus camouflages the main warning sign, i.e. disproportional pain. In addition, edema of the limb that underwent the intervention is common after total knee arthroplasty operations. This study presents a review of the literature and signals that the possible rarity of cases is probably due to failure to recognize this condition in a timely manner and to placing these patients in other diagnostic groups that are less likely, such as neuropraxia caused by using a tourniquet or peripheral nerve injury. PMID:26401507

  2. Compartment syndrome after total knee arthroplasty: regarding a clinical case.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Ana Alexandra da Costa; Marques, Pedro Miguel Dantas Costa; Sá, Pedro Miguel Gomes; Oliveira, Carolina Fernandes; da Silva, Bruno Pombo Ferreira; de Sousa, Cristina Maria Varino

    2015-01-01

    Although compartment syndrome is a rare complication of total knee arthroplasty, it is one of the most devastating complications. It is defined as a situation of increased pressure within a closed osteofascial space that impairs the circulation and the functioning of the tissues inside this space, thereby leading to ischemia and tissue dysfunction. Here, a clinical case of a patient who was followed up in orthopedic outpatient consultations due to right gonarthrosis is presented. The patient had a history of arthroscopic meniscectomy and presented knee flexion of 10° before the operation, which consisted of total arthroplasty of the right knee. The operation seemed to be free from intercurrences, but the patient evolved with compartment syndrome of the ipsilateral leg after the operation. Since compartment syndrome is a true surgical emergency, early recognition and treatment of this condition through fasciotomy is crucial in order to avoid amputation, limb dysfunction, kidney failure and death. However, it may be difficult to make the diagnosis and cases may not be recognized if the cause of compartment syndrome is unusual or if the patient is under epidural analgesia and/or peripheral nerve block, which thus camouflages the main warning sign, i.e. disproportional pain. In addition, edema of the limb that underwent the intervention is common after total knee arthroplasty operations. This study presents a review of the literature and signals that the possible rarity of cases is probably due to failure to recognize this condition in a timely manner and to placing these patients in other diagnostic groups that are less likely, such as neuropraxia caused by using a tourniquet or peripheral nerve injury.

  3. Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... not used to treat first-degree heart block. All types of heart block may increase your risk for other arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation (A-tre-al fih-brih-LA-shun). Talk with your doctor ...

  4. Population Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  5. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a...., heating and air conditioning controls, lighting controls, call buttons, electrical outlets, etc.) shall...

  6. Compartment syndrome after tibial plateau fracture☆

    PubMed Central

    Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão; dos Santos, Thays Fernanda Avelino; dos Santos, Fernanda Thaysa Avelino; da Costa Filho, Edelson Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are relatively rare, representing around 1.2% of all fractures. The tibia, due to its subcutaneous location and poor muscle coverage, is exposed and suffers large numbers of traumas, not only fractures, but also crush injuries and severe bruising, among others, which at any given moment, could lead compartment syndrome in the patient. The case is reported of a 58-year-old patient who, following a tibial plateau fracture, presented compartment syndrome of the leg and was submitted to decompressive fasciotomy of the four right compartments. After osteosynthesis with internal fixation of the tibial plateau using an L-plate, the patient again developed compartment syndrome. PMID:26229779

  7. Transient tension changes initiated by laser temperature jumps in rabbit psoas muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Y E; McCray, J A; Ranatunga, K W

    1987-01-01

    1. A technique was developed to generate 2-8 degrees C step temperature perturbations (T-jumps) in single muscle fibres to study the thermodynamics of muscle contraction. A solid-state pulsed holmium laser emitting at 2.065 microns heated the fibre and surrounding solution in approximately 150 mus. The signal from a 100 microns thermocouple fed back to a heating wire maintained the elevated temperature after the laser pulse. 2. Tension of glycerol-extracted muscle fibres from rabbit psoas muscle did not change significantly following T-jumps when the fibre was relaxed. 3. In rigor, tension decreased abruptly on heating indicating normal (not rubber-like) thermoelasticity. The thermoelastic coefficient (negative ratio of relative length change to relative temperature change) of the fibre was estimated to be -0.021 at sarcomere lengths of 2.5-2.8 microns. Rigor tension was constant after the temperature step and returned to the original value on recooling. 4. In maximal Ca2+ activation, tension transients initiated by T-jumps had several phases. An immediate tension decrease suggests that thermoelasticity during contraction is similar to that in rigor. Active tension then recovered to the value before the T-jump with an apparent rate constant of approximately 400 s-1 (at 10-20 degrees C). This rate constant did not have an appreciable dependence on the final temperature. Finally, tension increased exponentially to a new higher level with a rate constant of approximately 20 s-1 at 20 degrees C. This rate constant increased with temperature with a Q10 of 1.4. 5. At submaximal Ca2+ activation the tension rise was followed by a decay to below the value before the T-jump. This decline was expected from the temperature dependence of steady pCa-tension curves. The final tension decline occurred on the 1-5 s time scale. 6. The value and amplitude dependence of the rate constant for the quick recovery following T-jumps were similar to those of the quick recovery following

  8. Aircraft Cargo Compartment Fire Test Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumke, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the test was to assess fire containment and fire extinguishment in the cargo by reducing the ventilation through the cargo compartment. Parameters which were measured included ignition time, burnthrough time, and physical damage to the cargo liner, composition of selected combustible gases, temperature-time histories, heat flux, and detector response. The ignitor load was made of a typical cargo consisting of filled cardboard cartons occupying 50% of the compartment volume.

  9. Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections in the Psoas Muscle of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Muscle Atrophy after Motor End Plate-Targeted Injections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Campenhout, Anja; Verhaegen, Ann; Pans, Steven; Molenaers, Guy

    2013-01-01

    MEP targeting during BoNT-A injections has been demonstrated to improve outcome. Two injection techniques of the psoas muscle--proximal MEP targeting versus a widely used more distal injection technique--are compared using muscle volume assessment by digital MRI segmentation as outcome measure. Method: 7 spastic diplegic children received…

  10. Anterior to psoas (ATP) fusion of the lumbar spine: evolution of a technique facilitated by changes in equipment

    PubMed Central

    Seex, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Background Lateral interbody cages have been proven useful in spinal fusions. Spanning both lateral cortical rims while sparing the Anterior Longitudinal Ligament, the lateral interbody cages restore and maintain disc height while adding stability prior to supplemental fixation. The standard approach for their insertion is by a 90-degree lateral transpsoas method. This is relatively bloodless compared to other techniques although has its limitations, requiring neuro-monitoring and being, at times, very difficult at L4/5 due to iliac crest obstruction or an anterior plexus position. An oblique approach, with the patient in lateral decubitus, passes anterior to the iliac crest, retroperitoneal, and being anterior to psoas, eliminates the need for neuro-monitoring. Methods Twenty-one consecutive patients underwent surgery for a total of 32 levels instrumented with the ATP technique. Mean age at the time of surgery was 62.4±7.4 years. There was a 6 months minimum clinical follow up, with imaging to assess fusion, at 6 and 12 months. Indications included symptomatic degenerative lumbar spondylosis +/− spondylolisthesis, leg and back pain. All patients were assessed with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Visual Analog Scale 100 mm for back pain (VASb) and for leg pain (VASl) preoperatively, at 3, 6 and 12 months. Last follow-up was at 12 months for 9 patients and the rest had 6 months follow up. Results Statistical analysis showed significance for the results in ODI, VASb and VASl with improvement in all components except for one patient with worsening VASl. Eight patients had complications related to surgery which were still present at last follow-up including moderate weakness of hip flexion and EHL weakness. Lateral cutaneous nerve (LCN) palsy on the side of the approach was also seen as well as sympathectomy effect related to the mobilization of the sympathetic trunk. One patient, who also suffered from multiple sclerosis, experienced psoas abscess 3 months

  11. Anatomic Landmarks for the First Dorsal Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Hazani, Ron; Engineer, Nitin J.; Cooney, Damon; Wilhelmi, Bradon J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Knowledge of anatomic landmarks for the first dorsal compartment can assist clinicians with management of de Quervain's disease. The radial styloid, the scaphoid tubercle, and Lister's tubercle can be used as superficial landmarks for the first dorsal compartment. Methods: Thirty-two cadaveric wrists were dissected, and measurements were taken from the predetermined landmarks to the extensor retinaculum. The compartments were also inspected for variability of the abductor pollicis longus tendon and intracompartmental septations. Results: The average length of the extensor retinaculum from its proximal to distal extent measured approximately 2.2 cm. The distal aspect of the radial styloid was 0.3 cm distal to the distal aspect of the extensor retinaculum, and the distance between the distal aspect of the extensor retinaculum and the APL-Lister's-Scaphoid juncture was approximately 0.5 cm. A separate compartment for the extensor pollicis brevis was noted in 35% of the specimens. The abductor pollicis longus tendon demonstrated great variability with 1, 2, 3, or 4 slips in 9%, 30%, 43%, or 26% of the specimens, respectively. Conclusion: The superficial bony prominences of the radial wrist can be used reliably as anatomic landmarks for the first dorsal compartment. PMID:19092992

  12. Ionic Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size…

  13. Femoral obturator and sciatic neurectomy with iliacus and psoas muscle section for spasticity following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Benzel, E C; Barolat-Romana, G; Larson, S J

    1988-08-01

    The treatment of severe refractory spasticity following spinal cord injury may raise challenging therapeutic problems. Classical approaches involve various types of myelotomies, rhizotomies and intrathecal injections of neurolytic substances. Alternative approaches include percutaneous rhizotomies and, more recently, the possible use of electrical stimulation of the spinal cord. Certain cases, however, may not be amenable to commonly accepted techniques. An operative technique is presented which involves a suprapubic incision for an infraperitoneal approach to a femoral and obturator neurectomy and an incision of the iliacus and psoas muscles bilaterally. This may be followed, when indicated, by a bilateral infragluteal section of the sciatic nerves. This technique offers a viable surgical alternative to the treatment of spasticity following spinal cord injury in cases where other traditional methods are contraindicated or have failed.

  14. Status spasticus and psoas muscle edema due to anti-GAD antibody associated stiff-man syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maramattom, Boby Varkey

    2015-08-01

    Severe muscle rigidity and spasms are uncommon causes of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admissions. Stiff-man syndrome (SMS) is a rare disorder characterized by continuous muscle spasms, axial muscle rigidity, "tin soldier gait," and continuous motor unit activity on electromyography. There are three clinical variants of SMS; stiff-limb syndrome, classical SMS, and paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus. Three types of antibodies have been associated with SMS; however, anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies are the most frequent and are seen in the idiopathic type of SMS. The spasms of SMS can be very disabling and severe enough to cause muscle ruptures and skeletal fractures. We present a case of anti-GAD positive SMS with "status spasticus" causing bilateral psoas myoedema and rhabdomyolysis due to repeated axial muscle jerking in a 64-year-old man and discuss the differential diagnosis of a "jerking patient in the ICU."

  15. [A case of conus medullaris infarction expanding to the vertebral bodies, major psoas and erector spinae muscles].

    PubMed

    Konno, Takuya; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Sou; Umeda, Yoshitaka; Oyake, Mutsuo; Fujita, Nobuya

    2015-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman presented with conus medullaris and cauda equina syndrome following a sudden pain in the bilateral lower abdomen and right buttock. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed not only a conus medullaris lesion, but also several lesions in the vertebral bodies (L1, L2), right major psoas muscle, right multifidus muscle and bilateral erector spinae muscles. As these areas receive blood supply from each branch of the same segmental artery, we considered all of the lesions as infarctions that were a result of a single parent vessel occlusion. It is known that a vertebral body lesion can be accompanied by a spinal cord infarction, but in combination with infarction of a muscle has not been reported. This is the first report of a concomitant spinal cord and muscle infarction revealed by MRI. It is noteworthy that a spinal cord infarction could expand not only to neighboring vertebral bodies, but also to muscles.

  16. [The perichromatin compartment of the cell nucleus].

    PubMed

    Bogoliubov, D S

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the data on the structure and composition of the perichromatin compartment, a special border area between the condensed chromatin and the interchromatin space of the cell nucleus, are discussed in the light of the concept of nuclear functions in complex nuclear architectonics. Morphological features, molecular composition and functions of main extrachromosomal structures of the perichromatin compartment, perichromatin fibrils (PFs) and perichromatin granules (PGs) including nuclear stress-bodies (nSBs) that are derivates of the PGs under heat shock, are presented. A special attention was paid to the features of the molecular compositions of PFs and PGs in different cell types and at different physiological conditions.

  17. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Pelvic Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Taype Zamboni, Danilo E. R.; Carabelli, Guido S.; Barla, Jorge D.; Sancineto, Carlos F.

    2016-01-01

    Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) is extremely rare when compared to compartment syndrome in other anatomical regions, such as the forearm or the lower leg. It usually occurs in drug users following prolonged immobilization due to loss of consciousness. Another possible cause is trauma, which is rare and has only few reports in the literature. Physical examination may show tense and swollen buttocks and severe pain caused by passive range of motion. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who developed GCS after prolonged anterior-posterior pelvis compression. The physical examination revealed swelling, scrotal hematoma, and left ankle extension weakness. An unstable pelvic ring injury was diagnosed and the patient was taken to surgery. Measurement of the intracompartmental pressure was measured in the operating room, thereby confirming the diagnosis. Emergent fasciotomy was performed to decompress the three affected compartments. Trauma surgeons must be aware of the possibility of gluteal compartment syndrome in patients who have an acute pelvic trauma with buttock swelling and excessive pain of the gluteal region. Any delay in diagnosis or treatment can be devastating, causing permanent disability, irreversible loss of gluteal muscles, sciatic nerve palsy, kidney failure, or even death. PMID:27579205

  18. Compartment syndrome in a patient treated with perineural liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel).

    PubMed

    Soberón, José Raul; Sisco-Wise, Leslie E; Dunbar, Ross M

    2016-06-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is a condition that may result in sensorimotor deficits and loss of function of the affected limb as a result of ischemic injury. It is considered a surgical emergency and prompt diagnosis and treatment results in more favorable outcomes. The use of regional anesthesia is controversial in patients at risk for compartment syndrome due to concern of its potential to mask symptoms of the condition. A 44-year-old African American male presented to surgery for open reduction and internal fixation of a comminuted distal radius fracture. As part of an off-label, investigator-initiated, and institutional review board-approved study, he received a perineural injection of liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel) around the median, ulnar, and radial nerves at the level of the proximal forearm. The following morning, his initial complaints of numbness and incisional pain progressively evolved into worsening numbness, diffuse discomfort, and pain with passive movement. A diagnosis of compartment syndrome was made and he underwent an emergency fasciotomy. The diagnosis of compartment syndrome requires a high index of suspicion and prompt treatment. This patient's changing pattern of symptoms-rather than his pain complaints alone-resulted in the diagnosis of compartment syndrome treated with emergent fasciotomy in spite of finger numbness that was initially attributed to the liposomal bupivacaine. While the use of liposomal bupivacaine did not preclude the diagnosis of compartment syndrome in our patient, it should be used with caution in patients at risk for compartment syndrome until additional data, particularly regarding block characteristics, are available.

  19. A radiologic and anatomic assessment of injectate spread following transmuscular quadratus lumborum block in cadavers.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, S D; El-Boghdadly, K; Nasralah, Z; Sarwani, N; Nixon, A M; Chin, K J

    2017-01-01

    We performed bilateral transmuscular quadratus lumborum blocks in six cadavers using iodinated contrast and methylene blue. Computed tomography imaging was performed in four cadavers and anatomical dissection was completed in five. This demonstrated spread to the lumbar paravertebral space in 63% of specimens, laterally to the transversus abdominis muscle in 50% and caudally to the anterior superior iliac spine in 63% of specimens. There was no radiographic evidence of spread to the thoracic paravertebral space. Anatomical dissection revealed dye staining of the upper branches of the lumbar plexus and the psoas major muscle in 70% of specimens. Further clinical studies are required to confirm if the quadratus lumborum block might be a suitable alternative to lumbar plexus block.

  20. Extraocular Muscle Compartments in Superior Oblique Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Soh Youn; Clark, Robert A.; Le, Alan; Demer, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate changes in volumes of extraocular muscle (EOM) compartments in unilateral superior oblique (SO) palsy using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods High-resolution, surface-coil MRI was obtained in 19 patients with unilateral SO palsy and 19 age-matched orthotropic control subjects. Rectus EOMs and the SO were divided into two anatomic compartments for volume analysis in patients with unilateral SO palsy, allowing comparison of total compartmental volumes versus controls. Medial and lateral compartmental volumes of the SO muscle were compared in patients with isotropic (round shape) versus anisotropic (elongated shape) SO atrophy. Results The medial and lateral compartments of the ipsilesional SO muscles were equally atrophic in isotropic SO palsy, whereas the lateral compartment was significantly smaller than the medial in anisotropic SO palsy (P = 0.01). In contrast to the SO, there were no differential compartmental volume changes in rectus EOMs; however, there was significant total muscle hypertrophy in the ipsilesional inferior rectus (IR) and lateral rectus (LR) muscles and contralesional superior rectus (SR) muscles. Medial rectus (MR) volume was normal both ipsi- and contralesionally. Conclusions A subset of patients with SO palsy exhibit selective atrophy of the lateral, predominantly vertically acting SO compartment. Superior oblique atrophy is associated with whole-muscle volume changes in the ipsilesional IR, ipsilesional LR, and contralesional SR; however, SO muscle atrophy is not associated with compartmentally selective volume changes in the rectus EOMs. Selective compartmental SO pathology may provide an anatomic mechanism that explains some of the variability in clinical presentations of SO palsy. PMID:27768791

  1. Acute exertional anterior compartment syndrome in an adolescent female.

    PubMed

    Fehlandt, A; Micheli, L

    1995-01-01

    Acute compartment syndromes usually occur as a complication of major trauma. While the chronic exertional anterior tibial compartment syndrome is well described in the sports medicine literature, reports of acute tibial compartment syndromes due to physical exertion, or repetitive microtrauma, are rare. The case of an adolescent female who developed an acute anterior compartment syndrome from running in a soccer game is described in this report. Failure to recognize the onset of an acute exertional compartment syndrome may lead to treatment delay and serious complications. Whereas the chronic exertional anterior compartment syndrome is characterized by pain that diminishes with the cessation of exercise, the onset of the acute exertional anterior compartment syndrome is heralded by pain that continues, or increases, after exercise has stopped. Compartment pressure measurement confirms the clinical diagnosis and helps guide treatment. True compartment syndromes require urgent fasciotomy.

  2. Selective lengthening of the psoas and rectus femoris and preservation of the iliacus for flexion deformity of the hip in cerebral palsy patients.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, T; Hara, H; Tada, S

    1987-01-01

    Between 1978 and 1983, 52 Japanese patients with cerebral palsy underwent operative correction of flexion deformity of the hip. The results of lengthening of the psoas, rectus femoris, and proximal hamstrings were satisfactory. The iliacus was left intact. Improvement in gait and activities of daily living was attained. Concentric reduction was obtained in 27 of 33 dislocated or subluxated hips. Sitting and perineal care were facilitated, and pain was alleviated. We conclude that preservation of the iliacus is important.

  3. Neuromuscular block

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, W C

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions of the South American arrow poisons known as curares were reported by explorers in the 16th century, and their site of action in producing neuromuscular block was determined by Claude Bernard in the mid-19th century. Tubocurarine, the most important curare alkaloid, played a large part in experiments to determine the role of acetylcholine in neuromuscular transmission, but it was not until after 1943 that neuromuscular blocking drugs became established as muscle relaxants for use during surgical anaesthesia. Tubocurarine causes a number of unwanted effects, and there have been many attempts to replace it. The available drugs fall into two main categories: the depolarising blocking drugs and the nondepolarising blocking drugs. The former act by complex mixed actions and are now obsolete with the exception of suxamethonium, the rapid onset and brief duration of action of which remain useful for intubation at the start of surgical anaesthesia. The nondepolarising blocking drugs are reversible acetylcholine receptor antagonists. The main ones are the atracurium group, which possess a built-in self-destruct mechanism that makes them especially useful in kidney or liver failure, and the vecuronium group, which are especially free from unwanted side effects. Of this latter group, the compound rocuronium is of especial interest because its rapid onset of action allows it to be used for intubation, and there is promise that its duration of action may be rapidly terminated by a novel antagonist, a particular cyclodextrin, that chelates the drug, thereby removing it from the acetylcholine receptors. PMID:16402115

  4. Neuromuscular block.

    PubMed

    Bowman, W C

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions of the South American arrow poisons known as curares were reported by explorers in the 16th century, and their site of action in producing neuromuscular block was determined by Claude Bernard in the mid-19th century. Tubocurarine, the most important curare alkaloid, played a large part in experiments to determine the role of acetylcholine in neuromuscular transmission, but it was not until after 1943 that neuromuscular blocking drugs became established as muscle relaxants for use during surgical anaesthesia. Tubocurarine causes a number of unwanted effects, and there have been many attempts to replace it. The available drugs fall into two main categories: the depolarising blocking drugs and the nondepolarising blocking drugs. The former act by complex mixed actions and are now obsolete with the exception of suxamethonium, the rapid onset and brief duration of action of which remain useful for intubation at the start of surgical anaesthesia. The nondepolarising blocking drugs are reversible acetylcholine receptor antagonists. The main ones are the atracurium group, which possess a built-in self-destruct mechanism that makes them specially useful in kidney or liver failure, and the vecuronium group, which are specially free from unwanted side effects. Of this latter group, the compound rocuronium is of special interest because its rapid onset of action allows it to be used for intubation, and there is promise that its duration of action may be rapidly terminated by a novel antagonist, a particular cyclodextrin, that chelates the drug, thereby removing it from the acetylcholine receptors.

  5. Bilateral variations of the psoas major and the iliacus muscles and presence of an undescribed variant muscle--accessory iliopsoas muscle.

    PubMed

    Jelev, L; Shivarov, V; Surchev, L

    2005-07-01

    Inspite of the detailed description of the iliopsoas muscle complex, interesting variations of its main parts--the psoas major and the iliacus muscles can still be encountered. These variations may clarify some aspects of the embryological development of the iliopsoas and have certain clinical importance because of the frequent co-existence with an unusual femoral nerve by its formation and course. We present in our report a case of bilateral variations of the psoas major and the iliacus muscles combined with variations of the left and the right femoral nerves, which were found during the anatomical dissection of a female human cadaver. The most remarkable finding was noted on the left side, where an undescribed variant muscle accessory iliopsoas, was observed. It was the only finding of such a muscle among 108 human cadavers examined over a period of 22 years. The accessory iliopsoas was formed by the connection of two accessory muscles--accessory psoas major and accessory iliacus. The clinical significance of the described variant muscles and their importance as an additional factor in the femoral neuropathy are also a matter of discussion in our report.

  6. Decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, E.; Malbrain, M.; Nesbitt, I.; Cohen, J.; Kaloiani, V.; Ivatury, R.; Mone, M.; Debergh, D.; Björck, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The effect of decompressive laparotomy on outcomes in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome has been poorly investigated. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to describe the effect of decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome on organ function and outcomes. Methods This was a prospective cohort study in adult patients who underwent decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome. The primary endpoints were 28‐day and 1‐year all‐cause mortality. Changes in intra‐abdominal pressure (IAP) and organ function, and laparotomy‐related morbidity were secondary endpoints. Results Thirty‐three patients were included in the study (20 men). Twenty‐seven patients were surgical admissions treated for abdominal conditions. The median (i.q.r.) Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was 26 (20–32). Median IAP was 23 (21–27) mmHg before decompressive laparotomy, decreasing to 12 (9–15), 13 (8–17), 12 (9–15) and 12 (9–14) mmHg after 2, 6, 24 and 72 h. Decompressive laparotomy significantly improved oxygenation and urinary output. Survivors showed improvement in organ function scores, but non‐survivors did not. Fourteen complications related to the procedure developed in eight of the 33 patients. The abdomen could be closed primarily in 18 patients. The overall 28‐day mortality rate was 36 per cent (12 of 33), which increased to 55 per cent (18 patients) at 1 year. Non‐survivors were no different from survivors, except that they tended to be older and on mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Decompressive laparotomy reduced IAP and had an immediate effect on organ function. It should be considered in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome. PMID:26891380

  7. Perfluoroalkyl acid distribution in various plant compartments ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Crop uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from biosolids-amended soil has been identified as a potential pathway for PFAA entry into the terrestrial food chain. This study compared the uptake of PFAAs in greenhouse-grown radish (Raphanus sativus), celery (Apium graveolens var.dulce), tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum), and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon) from an industrially impacted biosolids-amended soil, a municipal biosolids­ amended soil, and a control soil. Individual concentrations of PFAAs, on a dry weight basis, in mature, edible portions of crops grown in soil amended with PFAA industrially impacted biosolids were highest for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA; 67 ng/g) in radish root, perfluorobutanoate (PFBA;232 ng/g) in celery shoot, and PFBA (150 ng/g) in pea fruit. Comparatively, PFAA concentrations in edible compartments of crops grown in the municipal biosolids-amended soil and in the control soil were less than 25 ng/g. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated for the root, shoot, and fruit compartments (as applicable) of all crops grown in the industrially impacted soil. BAFs were highest for PFBA in the shoots of all crops, as well as in the fruit compartment of pea. Root­ soil concentration factors (RCFs) for tomato and pea were independent of PFAA chain length, while radish and celery RCFs showed a slight decrease with increasing chain length. Shoot-soil concentration factors (SCFs) for all crops showed a decrease with incre

  8. Compartment-Specific Phosphorylation of Squid Neurofilaments.

    PubMed

    Grant, Philip; Pant, Harish C

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the giant axon and synapse of third-order neurons in the squid stellate ganglion have provided a vast literature on neuronal physiology and axon transport. Large neuronal size also lends itself to comparative biochemical studies of cell body versus axon. These have focused on the regulation of synthesis, assembly, posttranslational modification and function of neuronal cytoskeletal proteins (microtubules (MTs) and neurofilaments (NFs)), the predominant proteins in axoplasm. These contribute to axonal organization, stability, transport, and impulse transmission responsible for rapid contractions of mantle muscles underlying jet propulsion. Studies of vertebrate NFs have established an extensive literature on NF structure, organization, and function; studies of squid NFs, however, have made it possible to compare compartment-specific regulation of NF synthesis, assembly, and function in soma versus axoplasm. Since NFs contain over 100 eligible sites for phosphorylation by protein kinases, the compartment-specific patterns of phosphorylation have been a primary focus of biochemical studies. We have learned that NF phosphorylation is tightly compartmentalized; extensive phosphorylation occurs only in the axonal compartment in squid and in vertebrate neurons. This extensive phosphorylation plays a key role in organizing NFs, in association with microtubules (MTs), into a stable, dynamic functional lattice that supports axon growth, diameter, impulse transmission, and synaptic activity. To understand how cytoskeletal phosphorylation is topographically regulated, the kinases and phosphatases, bound to NFs isolated from cell bodies and axoplasm, have also been studied.

  9. 14 CFR 29.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 29.787 Cargo and baggage compartments. (a) Each cargo and baggage compartment must be...

  10. 14 CFR 27.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 27.787 Cargo and baggage compartments. (a) Each cargo and baggage compartment must be...

  11. 14 CFR 25.365 - Pressurized compartment loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pressurized compartment loads. 25.365... an engine disintegration; (2) Any opening in any pressurized compartment up to the size Ho in square... small compartment. The size Ho must be computed by the following formula: Ho=PAs where,...

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Changes in Abdominal Compartments in Obese Diabetics during a Low-Calorie Weight-Loss Program

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Lena J.; Steveling, Antje; Meffert, Peter J.; Kromrey, Marie-Luise; Kessler, Rebecca; Hosten, Norbert; Krüger, Janine; Gärtner, Simone; Aghdassi, Ali A.; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M.; Kühn, Jens-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate changes in the fat content of abdominal compartments and muscle area during weight loss using confounder-adjusted chemical-shift-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in overweight diabetics. Methods Twenty-nine obese diabetics (10/19 men/women, median age: 59.0 years, median body mass index (BMI): 34.0 kg/m2) prospectively joined a standardized 15-week weight-loss program (six weeks of formula diet exclusively, followed by reintroduction of regular food with gradually increasing energy content over nine weeks) over 15 weeks. All subjects underwent a standardized MRI protocol including a confounder-adjusted chemical-shift-encoded MR sequence with water/fat separation before the program as well at the end of the six weeks of formula diet and at the end of the program at 15 weeks. Fat fractions of abdominal organs and vertebral bone marrow as well as volumes of visceral and subcutaneous fat were determined. Furthermore, muscle area was evaluated using the L4/L5 method. Data were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired samples. Results Median BMI decreased significantly from 34.0 kg/m2 to 29.9 kg/m2 (p < 0.001) at 15 weeks. Liver fat content was normalized (14.2% to 4.1%, p < 0.001) and vertebral bone marrow fat (57.5% to 53.6%, p = 0.018) decreased significantly throughout the program, while fat content of pancreas (9.0%), spleen (0.0%), and psoas muscle (0.0%) did not (p > 0.15). Visceral fat volume (3.2 L to 1.6 L, p < 0.001) and subcutaneous fat diameter (3.0 cm to 2.2 cm, p < 0.001) also decreased significantly. Muscle area declined by 6.8% from 243.9 cm2 to 226.8 cm2. Conclusion MRI allows noninvasive monitoring of changes in abdominal compartments during weight loss. In overweight diabetics, weight loss leads to fat reduction in abdominal compartments, such as visceral fat, as well as liver fat and vertebral bone marrow fat while pancreas fat remains unchanged. PMID:27110719

  13. Actin: its cumbersome pilgrimage through cellular compartments

    PubMed Central

    Schleicher, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we follow the history of one of the most abundant, most intensely studied proteins of the eukaryotic cells: actin. We report on hallmarks of its discovery, its structural and functional characterization and localization over time, and point to present days’ knowledge on its position as a member of a large family. We focus on the rather puzzling number of diverse functions as proposed for actin as a dual compartment protein. Finally, we venture on some speculations as to its origin. PMID:18438682

  14. [Intraabdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sonne, Morten; Hillingsø, Jens

    2008-02-11

    Intraabdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare conditions with high mortality. IAH is an intraabdominal pressure (IAP) above 12 mmHg and ACS an IAP above 20 mmHg with evidence of organ dysfunction. IAP is measured indirectly via the bladder or stomach. Various medical and surgical conditions increase the intraabdominal volume. When the content exceeds the compliance of the abdominal wall, the IAP rises. Increased IAP affects the functioning of the brain, lungs, circulation, kidneys, and bowel. The treatment of ACS is a reduction of IAP.

  15. Microspectroscopy of the photosynthetic compartment of algae.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Valtere; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Barsanti, Laura; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    We performed microspectroscopic evaluation of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic compartments of algae belonging to different taxonomic divisions and higher plants. The feasibility of microspectroscopy for discriminating among species and/or phylogenetic groups was tested on laboratory cultures. Gaussian bands decompositions and a fitting algorithm, together with fourth-derivative transformation of absorbance spectra, provided a reliable discrimination among chlorophylls a, b and c, phycobiliproteins and carotenoids. Comparative analysis of absorption spectra highlighted the evolutionary grouping of the algae into three main lineages in accordance with the most recent endosymbiotic theories.

  16. Ultrasonic Apparatus and Method to Assess Compartment Syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A process and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatible components on compartment dimensions and muscle tissue characteristics. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring pressure build-up in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the imparted ultrasonic waves, mathematically manipulating the captured ultrasonic waves and categorizing pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  17. Biodistribution of titanium dioxide from biologic compartments.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Daniel G; Tasat, Deborah R; Guglielmotti, María Beatriz; Cabrini, Rómulo Luis

    2008-09-01

    The layer of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) of the implant is chronically exposed to the internal electrolyte milieu in the peri-implant biological compartment. Corrosion results from electrochemical attack and ensuing gradual degradation of the metallic materials and is thus of biological interest when these biomaterials are employed in clinical implantology. Herein we evaluated and compared the chronic effect and the biodistribution of TiO(2) administered subcutaneously or intraperitoneally. We propose that the compartmentalization of titanium in the area of subcutaneous injection would reproduce the biological compartment of the implant and its microenvironment from which metal ions could be released and migrate systemically. Potential TiO(2) deposits were identified and characterized in skin, liver and lung by histological and EDX analyses. After both treatments, the skin, liver, and lungs exhibited histological evidence of TiO(2) deposits. In order to characterize in situ macrophage-like cells, tissue sections were immunohistochemically stained for CD68. Tissue specimens from all organs assayed showed positive staining for anti-macrophage monoclonal antibody CD68 (PGM1). Despite the compartmentalization of titanium within nodular areas in rats treated subcutaneously, systemic migration occurred. We concluded that systemic migration of TiO(2) occurred regardless of the administration route.

  18. Remote detection of pressure compartments. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Surdam, R.C.; Boyd, N.; Jiao, Z.; Maucione, D.; Kubicheck, S.

    1996-02-01

    A significant portion of the Cretaceous shale section in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB) is anomalously pressured and gas saturated. The top of the anomalously pressured zone is identified by marked increases in sonic transit time, hydrocarbon production index (P.I.), clay diagenesis (smectite to illite), and vitrinite reflectance gradients. The driving mechanism of anomalous pressure development and compartmentalization is the generation and storage of liquid hydrocarbons that subsequently partially react to gas, converting the fluid-flow system to a multiphase regime in which capillarity controls permeability; the result is elevated displacement pressure within the shales. Sandstone reservoirs within this anomalously pressured shale section are subdivided stratigraphically and diagenetically into relatively small, isolated pressure or fluid-flow compartments. The saturation of these compartments with hydrocarbons and the subsequent oil-to-gas reaction causes explusion of a significant portion of the free water, resulting in anomalously pressured gas accumulations characterized by depletion drive. The determination of the position and configuration of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalously pressured regimes and the detection and delineation of porosity/permeability `sweet spots` below this boundary are the two most important elements in exploring for basin center gas in the RMLB.

  19. Subcellular storage compartments of bacteriopheophorbide sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Joerg G.; Dembeck, U.; Hubert, M.; Spengler, Bernhard; Bayer, Rainer; Wagner, Birgit

    1994-03-01

    Fluorescence colocalization with the Golgi specific stain, NBD-ceramide, and the mitochondrial localizing stain, Rhodamine 123, confirmed the earlier assumption that the Golgi apparatus is one of the prominent storage compartments for bacteriopheophorbide esters in OAT 75 SCLC cells and several amelanotic melanoma cell lines (A375, Melur SP18, SkAMel 25). Furthermore, a diffuse staining of mitochondria, of non-structured cytoplasm, and an additional storage in melanine vesicles of the amelanotic melanoma cells suggests further storage compartments with quantitatively different contributions to the phototoxicity of bacteriochlorophyll-derived photosensitizers. Independent observations of early phototoxic effects on microfilamentous networks, enzymatic activities (succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase), and redistribution phenomena following primary uptake of the sensitizers let us assume that only a part of the 108 molecules taken up by a cell contribute directly to phototoxicity. Thus it may be asked if a proper subcellular positioning of only a few sensitizer molecules may have similar phototoxic effects as the huge amounts stored at apparently ineffective sites.

  20. Temporal and compartment-specific signals coordinate mitotic exit with spindle position

    PubMed Central

    Caydasi, Ayse Koca; Khmelinskii, Anton; Duenas-Sanchez, Rafael; Kurtulmus, Bahtiyar; Knop, Michael; Pereira, Gislene

    2017-01-01

    The spatiotemporal control of mitotic exit is crucial for faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis. In budding yeast, the mitotic exit network (MEN) drives cells out of mitosis, whereas the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) blocks MEN activity when the anaphase spindle is mispositioned. How the SPOC operates at a molecular level remains unclear. Here, we report novel insights into how mitotic signalling pathways orchestrate chromosome segregation in time and space. We establish that the key function of the central SPOC kinase, Kin4, is to counterbalance MEN activation by the cdc fourteen early anaphase release (FEAR) network in the mother cell compartment. Remarkably, Kin4 becomes dispensable for SPOC function in the absence of FEAR. Cells lacking both FEAR and Kin4 show that FEAR contributes to mitotic exit through regulation of the SPOC component Bfa1 and the MEN kinase Cdc15. Furthermore, we uncover controls that specifically promote mitotic exit in the daughter cell compartment. PMID:28117323

  1. Temporal and compartment-specific signals coordinate mitotic exit with spindle position.

    PubMed

    Caydasi, Ayse Koca; Khmelinskii, Anton; Duenas-Sanchez, Rafael; Kurtulmus, Bahtiyar; Knop, Michael; Pereira, Gislene

    2017-01-24

    The spatiotemporal control of mitotic exit is crucial for faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis. In budding yeast, the mitotic exit network (MEN) drives cells out of mitosis, whereas the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) blocks MEN activity when the anaphase spindle is mispositioned. How the SPOC operates at a molecular level remains unclear. Here, we report novel insights into how mitotic signalling pathways orchestrate chromosome segregation in time and space. We establish that the key function of the central SPOC kinase, Kin4, is to counterbalance MEN activation by the cdc fourteen early anaphase release (FEAR) network in the mother cell compartment. Remarkably, Kin4 becomes dispensable for SPOC function in the absence of FEAR. Cells lacking both FEAR and Kin4 show that FEAR contributes to mitotic exit through regulation of the SPOC component Bfa1 and the MEN kinase Cdc15. Furthermore, we uncover controls that specifically promote mitotic exit in the daughter cell compartment.

  2. An earthquake instability model based on faults containing high fluid-pressure compartments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockner, D.A.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    results of a one-dimensional dynamic Burridge-Knopoff-type model to demonstrate various aspects of the fluid-assisted fault instability described above. In the numerical model, the fault is represented by a series of blocks and springs, with fault rheology expressed by static and dynamic friction. In addition, the fault surface of each block has associated with it pore pressure, porosity and permeability. All of these variables are allowed to evolve with time, resulting in a wide range of phenomena related to fluid diffusion, dilatancy, compaction and heating. These phenomena include creep events, diffusion-controlled precursors, triggered earthquakes, foreshocks, aftershocks, and multiple earthquakes. While the simulations have limitations inherent to 1-D fault models, they demonstrate that the fluid compartment model can, in principle, provide the rich assortment of phenomena that have been associated with earthquakes. ?? 1995 Birkha??user Verlag.

  3. Evaluation of Psoas Major and Quadratus Lumborum Recruitment Using Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Before and After 5 Trunk Exercises.

    PubMed

    Imai, Atsushi; Okubo, Yu; Kaneoka, Koji

    2017-02-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study, with a pretest-posttest design. Background Diffusion-weighted imaging is a noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging technique that can be used to assess the recruitment of the psoas major (PM) and quadratus lumborum (QL). The recruitment of these muscles during trunk exercises has not been evaluated. Objective To evaluate the diffusion of water movement in several trunk muscles using diffusion-weighted imaging before and after specific trunk exercises and thereby to understand the level of recruitment of each muscle during each exercise. Methods Nine healthy male participants performed the right side bridge, knee raise, and 3 front bridges, including the hand-knee, elbow-knee, and elbow-toe bridges. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed before and after each exercise. After scanning, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map was constructed, and ADC values of the rectus abdominis, lateral abdominal muscles, QL, PM, and back muscles were calculated. Results The right PM following the elbow-toe bridge demonstrated the largest increase in ADC values, a change significantly greater than that demonstrated by the hand-knee bridge (P<.001) and side bridge (P = .002) exercises. The ADC change in the right QL following the side bridge exercise was significantly larger than that of other exercises (P<.008). Conclusion Of the 5 exercises investigated, the elbow-toe bridge and side bridge exercises elicit the greatest recruitment of the PM and QL, respectively. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(2):108-114. Epub 5 Nov 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.6730.

  4. Postoperative change of the psoas muscle area as a predictor of survival in surgically treated esophageal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seong Yong; Lee, Su Jin; Haam, Seokjin; Jung, Joonho

    2017-01-01

    Background Although a decrease in the psoas muscle area (PMA) has been reported as a risk factor for survival after esophagectomy in esophageal cancer, no previous studies have focused on the change in the PMA after surgery. We investigated the prognostic role of PMA changes in patients with surgically treated esophageal cancer. Methods Fifty-eight patients with esophageal cancer who underwent surgical resection and complete lymph node dissection were reviewed retrospectively. The PMA was measured at the level of the L3 vertebrae on preoperative and one-year postoperative follow-up computed tomography images. The percentage change of the PMA was calculated as follows: delta (%) = (postoperative PMA − preoperative PMA) / (preoperative PMA × 100). Results The study patients included 54 (93.1%) males and 4 females (mean age, 60.59±9.16 years), of whom 17 (29.3%) were pathological Stage I, 18 (31.0%) were Stage II, and 23 (39.7%) were Stage III. The mean change of the PMA was −10.17% and the postoperative PMA was decreased significantly compared with the preoperative PMA (P<0.001). The PMA was increased in 13 (22.4%) patients, whereas it was decreased in 45 (77.6%). Multivariate analysis revealed that the change of the PMA (hazard ratio, HR =0.688; P=0.001) and the pathologic stage (Stage III vs. Stage I, HR =3.388; P=0.016) were risk factors for overall survival (OS). The 3-year OS in patients with a PMA decrease of more than 10%, and those with a PMA decrease of less than 10% or an increase, were 18.9% and 59.5%, respectively (P=0.049). Conclusions The decrease in the PMA had a negative prognostic effect on OS in patients with surgically treated esophageal cancer. PMID:28275484

  5. The Orbital Workshop Waste Management Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This image is a wide-angle view of the Orbital Workshop waste management compartment. The waste management facilities presented a unique challenge to spacecraft designers. In addition to collection of liquid and solid human wastes, there was a medical requirement to dry all solid human waste products and to return the residue to Earth for examination. Liquid human waste (urine) was frozen for return to Earth. Total quantities of each astronaut's liquid and solid wastes were precisely measured. Cabin air was drawn into the toilet, shown on the wall at right in this photograph, and over the waste products to generate a flow of the waste in the desired direction. The air was then filtered for odor control and antiseptic purposes prior to being discharged back into the cabin.

  6. Vehicle hydraulic system that provides heat for passenger compartment

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle includes a vehicle housing which defines a passenger compartment. Attached to the vehicle housing is a hydraulic system, that includes a hydraulic fluid which flows through at least one passageway within the hydraulic system. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a passenger compartment heating system. The passenger compartment heating system includes a heat exchanger, wherein a portion of the heat exchanger is a segment of the at least one passageway of the hydraulic system.

  7. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25... means to control ventilation and drafts within the compartment so that the extinguishing agent used...

  8. The myofascial compartments of the foot: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Ling, Z X; Kumar, V P

    2008-08-01

    Compartment syndrome of the foot requires urgent surgical treatment. Currently, there is still no agreement on the number and location of the myofascial compartments of the foot. The aim of this cadaver study was to provide an anatomical basis for surgical decompression in the event of compartment syndrome. We found that there were three tough vertical fascial septae that extended from the hindfoot to the midfoot on the plantar aspect of the foot. These septae separated the posterior half of the foot into three compartments. The medial compartment containing the abductor hallucis was surrounded medially by skin and subcutaneous fat and laterally by the medial septum. The intermediate compartment, containing the flexor digitorum brevis and the quadratus plantae more deeply, was surrounded by the medial septum medially, the intermediate septum laterally and the main plantar aponeurosis on its plantar aspect. The lateral compartment containing the abductor digiti minimi was surrounded medially by the intermediate septum, laterally by the lateral septum and on its plantar aspect by the lateral band of the main plantar aponeurosis. No distinct myofascial compartments exist in the forefoot. Based on our findings, in theory, fasciotomy of the hindfoot compartments through a modified medial incision would be sufficient to decompress the foot.

  9. Coping with the diagnostic complexities of the compartment syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Hargens, A. R.; Karkal, S. S.

    1988-01-01

    This review recognizes that, given the various complexities associated with the condition, no pat answers can be given to fit every patient with the compartment syndrome. The authors first give a definition of the syndrome, together with a brief account of how this self-perpetuating pathologic cycle is triggered. Next, they delineate specific anatomical features of compartments that are likely to be involved, and follow this with an inventory of symptoms and signs to look for in suspected cases. After sorting out the entities that can mimic the compartment syndrome, the authors describe three essential techniques of measuring tissue pressure, which can prove invaluable in diagnosing the compartment syndrome.

  10. Acute exercise-induced bilateral thigh compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boland, Michael R; Heck, Chris

    2009-03-01

    Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh is rare due to the space's ability to accommodate large volumes of fluid and, with the exception of the lateral septum, its thin compliant linings. This article describes a case of bilateral exercise-induced severe compartment syndrome treated with anterior and posterior fasciotomies. A 29-year-old man was admitted to intensive care with myoglobinuria. His left thigh was evaluated 18 hours later for compartment syndrome. The patient reported that 14 hours prior to initial presentation, he had participated in a 1-hour session of vigorous basketball. He gradually developed bilateral moderately severe thigh pain and tea-colored urine. Physical examination revealed pain secondary to passive stretch of both knees at 20 degrees flexion, plus firm anterior and posterior compartments to palpation. A handheld pressure monitor revealed the following compartment pressures: left anterior 80 mm Hg; left posterior 75 mm Hg; right anterior 45 mm Hg; and right posterior 50 mm Hg. Bilateral emergent anterior and posterior compartment fasciotomies were performed. The patient developed a significant severe distal motor and sensory neurological deficit on the left side, which recovered to 3/5 motor strength and protective sensation. At 6-month follow-up, he ambulated with the assistance of a left ankle foot orthosis. Acute severe compartment syndrome can occur following vigorous exercise. We recommend fasciotomies after exercise-induced acute compartment syndrome rather than initial observation because of the severity of morbidity associated with undertreated compartment syndrome.

  11. Degradation of Kidney and Psoas Muscle Proteins as Indicators of Post-Mortem Interval in a Rat Model, with Use of Lateral Flow Technology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Gi; Yang, Kyeong Eun; Hwang, Jeong Won; Kang, Hwan-Soo; Lee, Seung-Yeul; Choi, Seoyeon; Shin, Joonchul; Jang, Ik-Soon; An, Hyun Joo; Chung, Heesun; Jung, Hyo-Il; Choi, Jong-Soon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated potential protein markers of post-mortem interval (PMI) using rat kidney and psoas muscle. Tissue samples were taken at 12 h intervals for up to 96 h after death by suffocation. Expression levels of eight soluble proteins were analyzed by Western blotting. Degradation patterns of selected proteins were clearly divided into three groups: short-term, mid-term, and long-term PMI markers based on the half maximum intensity of intact protein expression. In kidney, glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β were degraded completely within 48 h making them short-term PMI markers. AMP-activated protein kinase α, caspase 3 and GS were short-term PMI markers in psoas muscle. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was a mid-term PMI marker in both tissues. Expression levels of the typical long-term PMI markers, p53 and β-catenin, were constant for at least 96 h post-mortem in both tissues. The degradation patterns of GS and caspase-3 were verified by immunohistochemistry in both tissues. GAPDH was chosen as a test PMI protein to perform a lateral flow assay (LFA). The presence of recombinant GAPDH was clearly detected in LFA and quantified in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that LFA might be used to estimate PMI at a crime scene. PMID:27552165

  12. State-dependent radial elasticity of attached cross-bridges in single skinned fibres of rabbit psoas muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, S; Brenner, B; Yu, L C

    1993-01-01

    1. In a single skinned fibre of rabbit psoas muscle, upon attachment of cross bridges to actin in the presence of ADP or pyrophosphate (PPi), the separation between the contractile filaments, as determined by equatorial X-ray diffraction, is found to decrease, suggesting that force is generated in the radial direction. 2. The single muscle fibres were subjected to compression by 0-8% of dextran T500. The changes in lattice spacings by dextran compression were compared with changes induced by cross-bridge attachment to actin. Based on this comparison, the magnitude and the direction of the radial force generated by the attached cross-bridges were estimated. The radial cross-bridge force varied with filament separation, and the magnitude of the radial cross-bridge force reached as high as the maximal axial force produced during isometric contraction. 3. One key parameter of the radial elasticity, i.e. the equilibrium spacing where the radial force is zero, was found to depend on the ligand bound to the myosin head. In the presence of ADP, the equilibrium spacing was 36 nm. In the presence of MgPPi the equilibrium spacing shifted to 35 nm and Ca2+ had little effect on the equilibrium spacing. 4. The equilibrium spacing was independent of the fraction of cross-bridges attached to actin. The fraction of cross-bridges attached in rigor was modulated from 100% to close to 0% by adding up to 10 mM of ATP gamma S in the rigor solution. The lattice spacing remained at 38 nm, the equilibrium spacing for nucleotide-free cross-bridges at mu = 170 mM. 5. Radial force generated by cross-bridges in rigor at large lattice spacings (38 nm < or = d10 < or = 46 nm) appeared to vary linearly with lattice spacing. 6. The titration of ATP gamma S to fibres in rigor provided a correlation between the radial stiffness of the nucleotide-free cross-bridges and the equatorial intensities. The relation between the equatorial intensity ratio I11/I10 and radial stiffness appeared to be

  13. Cross-bridge scheme and force per cross-bridge state in skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, M; Zhao, Y

    1993-01-01

    The rate and association constants (kinetic constants) which comprise a seven state cross-bridge scheme were deduced by sinusoidal analysis in chemically skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers at 20 degrees C, 200 mM ionic strength, and during maximal Ca2+ activation (pCa 4.54-4.82). The kinetic constants were then used to calculate the steady state probability of cross-bridges in each state as the function of MgATP, MgADP, and phosphate (Pi) concentrations. This calculation showed that 72% of available cross-bridges were (strongly) attached during our control activation (5 mM MgATP, 8 mM Pi), which agreed approximately with the stiffness ratio (active:rigor, 69 +/- 3%); active stiffness was measured during the control activation, and rigor stiffness after an induction of the rigor state. By assuming that isometric tension is a linear combination of probabilities of cross-bridges in each state, and by measuring tension as the function of MgATP, MgADP, and Pi concentrations, we deduced the force associated with each cross-bridge state. Data from the osmotic compression of muscle fibers by dextran T500 were used to deduce the force associated with one of the cross-bridge states. Our results show that force is highest in the AM*ADP.Pi state (A = actin, M = myosin). Since the state which leads into the AM*ADP.Pi state is the weakly attached AM.ADP.Pi state, we confirm that the force development occurs on Pi isomerization (AM.ADP.Pi --> AM*ADP.Pi). Our results also show that a minimal force change occurs with the release of Pi or MgADP, and that force declines gradually with ADP isomerization (AM*ADP -->AM.ADP), ATP isomerization (AM+ATP-->AM*ATP), and with cross-bridge detachment. Force of the AM state agreed well with force measured after induction of the rigor state, indicating that the AM state is a close approximation of the rigor state. The stiffness results obtained as functions of MgATP, MgADP, and Pi concentrations were generally consistent with the cross

  14. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  16. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25... attached to) the airplane structure. (c) Ceiling and sidewall liner panels of Class C compartments must.... (d) All other materials used in the construction of the cargo or baggage compartment must meet...

  17. 14 CFR 135.170 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.170 Materials for compartment interiors. (a) No person may operate an airplane... 26, 1984. (c) Thermal/acoustic insulation materials. For transport category airplanes type... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors....

  18. 14 CFR 135.170 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.170 Materials for compartment interiors. (a) No person may operate an airplane... 26, 1984. (c) Thermal/acoustic insulation materials. For transport category airplanes type... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors....

  19. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25... attached to) the airplane structure. (c) Ceiling and sidewall liner panels of Class C compartments must.... (d) All other materials used in the construction of the cargo or baggage compartment must meet...

  20. 14 CFR 135.170 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.170 Materials for compartment interiors. (a) No person may operate an airplane... 26, 1984. (c) Thermal/acoustic insulation materials. For transport category airplanes type... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors....

  1. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25... attached to) the airplane structure. (c) Ceiling and sidewall liner panels of Class C compartments must.... (d) All other materials used in the construction of the cargo or baggage compartment must meet...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  4. Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh after weight training.

    PubMed Central

    Bidwell, J P; Gibbons, C E; Godsiff, S

    1996-01-01

    Compartment syndrome of the thigh is a rare but serious condition that is normally associated with closed trauma or compressive injury. A case of acute compartment syndrome of the thigh occurred in a 16 year old boy after intensive weight training. There was no evidence of muscle tear or focal haemorrhage during subsequent fasciotomy. PMID:8889126

  5. Spontaneous Compartment Syndrome of the Hand in Systemic Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tanagho, Andy; Hatab, Sameh; Youssef, Sally; Ansara, Sameh

    2015-09-01

    Compartment syndrome refers to a condition of compromised circulation within a limited space due to increased pressure within that space. The reduced tissue perfusion results in reduced venous drainage, leading to increased interstitial tissue pressure and subsequent compromised arterial flow. Although not as common as compartment syndrome of the leg and forearm, compartment syndrome of the hand is not rare and can lead to devastating sequelae as a result of tissue necrosis. Compartment syndrome of the hand has several etiologies, including trauma, arterial injury, thermal injury, and constrictive bandaging. The cardinal clinical sign is pain that is aggravated by passive stretching of the muscles within the involved compartments. Extremity function is usually restored with expeditious fasciotomy of the involved myofascial compartments, and complications, such as intrinsic muscular dysfunction and Volkmann's ischemic contracture, can usually be prevented. There are no reported cases of compartment syndrome of the hand in patients with systemic sclerosis or Raynaud's phenomenon. Systemic sclerosis is a form of scleroderma that affects the skin and internal organs. The limited cutaneous subset affects the skin of the extremities but is associated with a set of characteristic features that includes calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal involvement, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia. This report describes an unusual case of a patient who had spontaneous compartment syndrome of the hand. The patient's concomitant limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis may have played a role in this unusual occurrence. The diagnosis was based on the clinical picture, and the symptoms resolved after surgical decompression.

  6. 14 CFR 25.772 - Pilot compartment doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment doors. 25.772 Section 25... § 25.772 Pilot compartment doors. For an airplane that has a lockable door installed between the pilot... passengers require use of the flightdeck door in order to reach the emergency exits provided for them; and...

  7. 14 CFR 25.772 - Pilot compartment doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment doors. 25.772 Section 25... § 25.772 Pilot compartment doors. For an airplane that has a lockable door installed between the pilot... passengers require use of the flightdeck door in order to reach the emergency exits provided for them; and...

  8. 49 CFR 179.220-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.220-9 Section 179.220-9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-9 Compartment tanks....

  9. 14 CFR 121.314 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the certificate holder for operation under this part that has at least one Class D compartment that...: (a) Each Class C or Class D compartment, as defined in § 25.857 of this Chapter in effect on June 16... capability of the liner to safely contain a fire. (c) After March 19, 2001, each Class D...

  10. Compartment in vertical flow reactor for ferruginous mine water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Won; Cheong, Young-Wook; Yim, Gil-Jae; Ji, Sang-Woo; Hong, Ji-Hye

    2014-05-01

    Mine effluents contain varying concentrations of ferrous ion along with other metal ions. Fe(II) that quickly oxidizes to form precipitates in the presence of oxygen under net alkaline or neutral conditions. Thus, passive treatment methods are designed for the mine water to reside in an open containment area so as to allow simultaneous oxidation and precipitation of Fe(II), such as in a lagoon or an oxidation pond. A vertical flow reactor (VFR) was also suggested to remediate ferruginous mine drainage passing down through an accreting bed of ochre. However, VFR has a limited operation time until the system begins to overflow. It was also demonstrated that two-compartment VFR has a longer operation time than single compartment VFR of same size. In this study, a mathematical model was developed as a part of efforts to explore the operation of VFR, showing dynamic changes in head differences, ochre depth and Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentration in the effluent flow. The analysis shows that Fe(II) oxidation and ochre formation should be balanced with permeability of ochre bed to maximize VFR operation time and minimize residual Fe(II) in the effluent. The model demonstrates that two compartment VFR can have a longer operation time than a single-compartment VFR and that an optimum compartment ratio exists that maximize VFR operation time. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation significantly affects the optimum ratio of compartment area and reduced residual Fe(II) in the effluent. VFR operation time can be significantly prolonged by increasing the rate of ochre formation not by accelerated Fe(II) oxidation. Taken together, ochre forms largely in the first compartment while overflowed mine water with reduced iron contents is efficiently filtered in the second compartment. These results provide us a better understanding of VFR operation and optimum design criteria for maximum operation time in a two-compartment VFR. Rapid ochre accretion in the first compartment maintains constant hydraulic

  11. Long-term storage facility for reactor compartments in Sayda Bay - German support for utilization of nuclear submarines in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, Dietmar; Voelzke, Holger; Weber, Wolfgang; Noack, Volker; Baeuerle, Guenther

    2007-07-01

    storage space to allow the radioactivity to decay. For transport of reactor compartments at the shipyard, at the dock and at the storage facility, hydraulic keel blocks, developed and supplied by German subcontractors, are used. In July 2006 the first stage of the reactor compartment storage facility was commissioned and the first seven reactor compartments have been delivered from Nerpa shipyard. Following transports of reactor compartments to the storage facility are expected in 2007. (authors)

  12. Stochastic Turing patterns: analysis of compartment-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yang; Erban, Radek

    2014-12-01

    Turing patterns can be observed in reaction-diffusion systems where chemical species have different diffusion constants. In recent years, several studies investigated the effects of noise on Turing patterns and showed that the parameter regimes, for which stochastic Turing patterns are observed, can be larger than the parameter regimes predicted by deterministic models, which are written in terms of partial differential equations (PDEs) for species concentrations. A common stochastic reaction-diffusion approach is written in terms of compartment-based (lattice-based) models, where the domain of interest is divided into artificial compartments and the number of molecules in each compartment is simulated. In this paper, the dependence of stochastic Turing patterns on the compartment size is investigated. It has previously been shown (for relatively simpler systems) that a modeler should not choose compartment sizes which are too small or too large, and that the optimal compartment size depends on the diffusion constant. Taking these results into account, we propose and study a compartment-based model of Turing patterns where each chemical species is described using a different set of compartments. It is shown that the parameter regions where spatial patterns form are different from the regions obtained by classical deterministic PDE-based models, but they are also different from the results obtained for the stochastic reaction-diffusion models which use a single set of compartments for all chemical species. In particular, it is argued that some previously reported results on the effect of noise on Turing patterns in biological systems need to be reinterpreted.

  13. Compartment Syndrome of the Calf Due to Nicolau Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Enshaei, Ali; Afshar, Ahmadreza

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of Nicolau syndrome in a 15 months old girl following an intramuscular injection of penicillin 6.3.3 in her left buttock. This case is unique because she developed compartment syndrome in her left calf far from her injection site. Her toe’s tips gangrened in the course of her ailment. We hypothesized that the compartment syndrome might be produced by a probable intra-arterial injection that had produced embolic obstruction of the small and medium size arteries in her leg or a probable perineural or periarteial injection had produced secondary sympathetic stimulation, extensive vasospasm, compromised microcirculation and the development of compartment syndrome. PMID:26894227

  14. Compartment Syndrome of the Calf Due to Nicolau Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Enshaei, Ali; Afshar, Ahmadreza

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of Nicolau syndrome in a 15 months old girl following an intramuscular injection of penicillin 6.3.3 in her left buttock. This case is unique because she developed compartment syndrome in her left calf far from her injection site. Her toe's tips gangrened in the course of her ailment. We hypothesized that the compartment syndrome might be produced by a probable intra-arterial injection that had produced embolic obstruction of the small and medium size arteries in her leg or a probable perineural or periarteial injection had produced secondary sympathetic stimulation, extensive vasospasm, compromised microcirculation and the development of compartment syndrome.

  15. Structural Characterization of the Binding of Myosin*ADP*Pi to Actin in Permeabilized Rabbit Psoas Muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Xu,S.; Gu, J.; Belknap, B.; White, H.; Yu, L.

    2006-01-01

    When myosin is attached to actin in a muscle cell, various structures in the filaments are formed. The two strongly bound states (A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP and A{center_dot}M) and the weakly bound A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ATP states are reasonably well understood. The orientation of the strongly bound myosin heads is uniform ('stereospecific' attachment), and the attached heads exhibit little spatial fluctuation. In the prehydrolysis weakly bound A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ATP state, the orientations of the attached myosin heads assume a wide range of azimuthal and axial angles, indicating considerable flexibility in the myosin head. The structure of the other weakly bound state, A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i}, however, is poorly understood. This state is thought to be the critical pre-power-stroke state, poised to make the transition to the strongly binding, force-generating states, and hence it is of particular interest for understanding the mechanism of contraction. However, because of the low affinity between myosin and actin in the A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i} state, the structure of this state has eluded determination both in isolated form and in muscle cells. With the knowledge recently gained in the structures of the weakly binding M{center_dot}ATP, M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i} states and the weakly attached A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ATP state in muscle fibers, it is now feasible to delineate the in vivo structure of the attached state of A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i}. The series of experiments presented in this article were carried out under relaxing conditions at 25{sup o}C, where {approx}95% of the myosin heads in the skinned rabbit psoas muscle contain the hydrolysis products. The affinity for actin is enhanced by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG) or by lowering the ionic strength in the bathing solution. Solution kinetics and binding constants were determined in the presence and in

  16. Force generation examined by laser temperature-jumps in shortening and lengthening mammalian (rabbit psoas) muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Ranatunga, K W; Coupland, M E; Pinniger, G J; Roots, H; Offer, G W

    2007-11-15

    We examined the tension change induced by a rapid temperature jump (T-jump) in shortening and lengthening active muscle fibres. Experiments were done on segments of permeabilized single fibres (length (L0) approximately 2 mm, sarcomere length 2.5 microm) from rabbit psoas muscle; [MgATP] was 4.6 mm, pH 7.1, ionic strength 200 mm and temperature approximately 9 degrees C. A fibre was maximally Ca2+-activated in the isometric state and a approximately 3 degrees C, rapid (< 0.2 ms), laser T-jump applied when the tension was approximately steady in the isometric state, or during ramp shortening or ramp lengthening at a limited range of velocities (0-0.2 L0 s(-1)). The tension increased to 2- to 3 x P0 (isometric force) during ramp lengthening at velocities > 0.05 L0 s(-1), whereas the tension decreased to about < 0.5 x P0 during shortening at 0.1-0.2 L0 s(-1); the unloaded shortening velocity was approximately 1 L0 s(-1) and the curvature of the force-shortening velocity relation was high (a/P0 ratio from Hill's equation of approximately 0.05). In isometric state, a T-jump induced a tension rise of 15-20% to a new steady state; by curve fitting, the tension rise could be resolved into a fast (phase 2b, 40-50 s(-1)) and a slow (phase 3, 5-10 s(-1)) exponential component (as previously reported). During steady lengthening, a T-jump induced a small instantaneous drop in tension, followed by recovery, so that the final tension recorded with and without a T-jump was not significantly different; thus, a T-jump did not lead to a net increase of tension. During steady shortening, the T-jump induced a pronounced tension rise and both its amplitude and the rate (from a single exponential fit) increased with shortening velocity; at 0.1-0.2 L0 s(-1), the extent of fibre shortening during the T-jump tension rise was estimated to be approximately 1.2% L(0) and it was shorter at lower velocities. At a given shortening velocity and over the temperature range of 8-30 degrees C, the

  17. Trunk Muscle Characteristics of the Multifidi, Erector Spinae, Psoas, and Quadratus Lumborum in Older Adults With and Without Chronic Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Sions, J Megan; Elliott, James M; Pohlig, Ryan T; Hicks, Gregory E

    2017-03-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Objective To determine whether there are differences in trunk muscle characteristics between older adults with and without chronic low back pain (LBP), while controlling for age, sex, and body mass index. Background Muscle support for the trunk is provided by the multifidi, erector spinae, psoas, and quadratus lumborum. Trunk muscle characteristics may be altered with aging and/or chronic LBP. To date, most trunk muscle research has been conducted among younger adults. Given age-related muscle changes, such as reduced size and increased intramuscular fat, studies are needed in older adults, including those comparing older adults with and without LBP. Methods One hundred two older adults with (n = 53) and without (n = 49) chronic LBP were included. Cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements were taken by tracing inside the fascial borders on magnetic resonance images. Pixel intensity summaries were obtained to compute muscle-to-fat indices and relative muscle CSA, that is, CSA void of fat. Right/left averages for levels L2 through L5 were determined. Mixed-design analyses of covariance were used to test for differences between groups, based on LBP presence and sex, across levels (P≤.05). Results Older adults with LBP had a greater average multifidus muscle-to-fat index (0.51 versus 0.49) and smaller average erector spinae relative muscle CSA (8.56 cm(2) versus 9.26 cm(2)) when compared to control participants without LBP. No interactions between LBP status and average muscle characteristics were found for the psoas or quadratus lumborum (P>.05). Conclusion Up to 54% of older adult trunk muscle CSA may be fat. Women have smaller muscles and greater intramuscular fat (at lower spinal levels) than men. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(3):173-179. Epub 3 Feb 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7002.

  18. Morphometric analysis of somatotropic cells of the adenohypophysis and muscle fibers of the psoas muscle in the process of aging in humans.

    PubMed

    Antić, Vladimir M; Stefanović, Natalija; Jovanović, Ivan; Antić, Milorad; Milić, Miroslav; Krstić, Miljan; Kundalić, Braca; Milošević, Verica

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this research was to quantify changes of the adenohypophyseal somatotropes and types 1 and 2 muscle fibers with aging, as well as to establish mutual interactions and correlations with age. Material was samples of hypophysis and psoas major muscle of 27 cadavers of both genders, aged from 30 to 90 years. Adenohypophyseal and psoas major tissue sections were immunohistochemically processed and stained by anti-human growth hormone and anti-fast myosin antibodies, respectively. Morphometric analysis was performed by ImageJ. Results of morphometric analysis showed a significant increase in the somatotrope area, and significant decrease in somatotrope volume density and nucleocytoplasmic ratio with age. Cross-sectional areas of types 1 and 2, and volume density of type 2 muscle fibers decreased significantly with age. One Way ANOVA showed that the latter cited changes in the somatotropes and types 1 and 2 muscle fibers mostly become significant after the age of 70. Significant positive correlation was observed between the area of the somatotropes and volume density of type 2 muscle fibers. A significant negative correlation was detected between the nucleocytoplasmic ratio of the somatotropes and cross-sectional areas of types 1 and 2 muscle fibers. So, it can be concluded that after the age of 70, there is significant loss of the anterior pituitary's somatotropes associated with hypertrophy and possible functional decline of the remained cells. Age-related changes in the somatotropes are correlated with the simultaneous atrophy of type 1, as well as with the atrophy and loss of type 2 muscle fibers.

  19. Change in Psoas Muscle Volume as a Predictor of Outcomes in Patients Treated with Chemotherapy and Radical Cystectomy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, Homayoun; Almassi, Nima; Kovac, Evan; Ercole, Cesar; Remer, Erick; Rini, Brian; Stephenson, Andrew; Garcia, Jorge A.; Grivas, Petros

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Sarcopenia, or the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, has been investigated as a potential marker of adverse outcomes among surgical patients. Our aim was to assess for changes in psoas muscle volume (PMV) following administration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with bladder cancer and to examine whether changes in PMV following NAC are predictive of perioperative complications, pathologic response or survival. Methods: During the period of 2009–2013, patients undergoing NAC and radical cystectomy (RC) at our institution with pre and post NAC cross sectional images available were included. Bilateral total psoas muscle volume (PMV) was obtained from pre- and post- NAC images and the proportion of PMV change was calculated by dividing the change PMV by pre-NAC PMV. Analyses for the assessment of factors predicting PMV loss, partial/complete pathologic response (pPR/pCR), complications, readmission, cancer specific (CSS), recurrence-free (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were performed. Results: Total of 60 patients had complete radiological data available. Post-NAC PMV and BMI declines were statistically significant, 4.9% and 0.05%, respectively. NAC dose reduction/delay was a significant predictor of PMV loss (coefficient B 4.6; 95% CI 0.05–9.2; p = 0.047). The proportion of PMV decline during NAC was not a predictor of pPR, pCR, complications, readmission, CSS, RFS, or OS. Conclusions: We observed an interval decline in PMV during the period of NAC administration and this decline was more than it could be appreciated with changes in BMI during the same period. PMV decline was associated with the need for dose reduction/dose delay during NAC. In our series, PMV changes occurring during NAC administration were not predictive of pathologic response to chemotherapy, postoperative complications or survival. PMID:28149936

  20. FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  1. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....510 Rooms and compartments. (a) Processing operations with open cheese vats should be separated from... ingredients supplies or finished products are handled, processed, packaged or stored shall be designed...

  2. 11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. 10. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward front of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward front of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne... quality and condition of the products. Coolers shall be kept clean, orderly and free from mold,...

  5. 19 CFR 123.24 - Sealing of conveyances or compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.24 Sealing of conveyances or compartments. (a) Sealing required. Merchandise in...

  6. The pathophysiology, diagnosis and current management of acute compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, James; Haddad, Behrooz; Khan, Wasim S

    2014-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is a surgical emergency warranting prompt evaluation and treatment. It can occur with any elevation in interstitial pressure in a closed osseo-fascial compartment. Resultant ischaemic damage may be irreversible within six hours and can result in long-term morbidity and even death. The diagnosis is largely clinical with the classical description of 'pain out of proportion to the injury'. Compartment pressure monitors can be a helpful adjunct where the diagnosis is in doubt. Initial treatment is with the removal of any constricting dressings or casts, avoiding hypotension and optimizing tissue perfusion by keeping the limb at heart level. If symptoms persist, definitive treatment is necessary with timely surgical decompression of all the involved compartments. This article reviews the pathophysiology, diagnosis and current management of ACS.

  7. 2. INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST VIEW (STORAGE COMPARTMENTS). Vanadium Corporation of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST VIEW (STORAGE COMPARTMENTS). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Mine Warehouse, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  8. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inertial load factor is 9g and assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (b... means to protect the occupants from injury when the baggage or cargo is subjected to the inertial...

  9. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inertial load factor is 9g and assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (b... means to protect the occupants from injury when the baggage or cargo is subjected to the inertial...

  10. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... inertial load factor is 9g and assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (b... means to protect the occupants from injury when the baggage or cargo is subjected to the inertial...

  11. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inertial load factor is 9g and assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (b... means to protect the occupants from injury when the baggage or cargo is subjected to the inertial...

  12. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inertial load factor is 9g and assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (b... means to protect the occupants from injury when the baggage or cargo is subjected to the inertial...

  13. Compartment pressure monitoring during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Amendola, A; Faber, K; Willits, K; Miniaci, A; Labib, S; Fowler, P

    1999-09-01

    A prospective double blind randomized study was carried out using 20 healthy males with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiency undergoing bone-patellar tendon-bone ACL reconstruction. The subjects were randomized into either water or saline irrigation and then underwent identical reconstructive procedures using an arthroscopic pump. Continuous preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative pressures were monitored using the slit catheter technique. Blood pressure and compartment pressure measurements were continuously recorded and noted at all stages of the procedure. Mean preoperative anterior and posterior compartment pressures were similar in both groups. No significant differences were noted between the anterior and posterior compartments of each group. No difference between water and saline irrigation was identified throughout the procedure. In both groups, postoperative pressures were slightly lower in the anterior and posterior compartments compared with preoperative pressures, but not significantly.

  14. 9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. Dynamics of the Establishment of Multinucleate Compartments in Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Shermineh; Beerens, Bas; Manders, Erik M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear dynamics can vary widely between fungal species and between stages of development of fungal colonies. Here we compared nuclear dynamics and mitotic patterns between germlings and mature hyphae in Fusarium oxysporum. Using fluorescently labeled nuclei and live-cell imaging, we show that F. oxysporum is subject to a developmental transition from a uninucleate to a multinucleate state after completion of colony initiation. We observed a special type of hypha that exhibits a higher growth rate, possibly acting as a nutrient scout. The higher growth rate is associated with a higher nuclear count and mitotic waves involving 2 to 6 nuclei in the apical compartment. Further, we found that dormant nuclei of intercalary compartments can reenter the mitotic cycle, resulting in multinucleate compartments with up to 18 nuclei in a single compartment. PMID:25398376

  16. Measuring Compartment Size and Gas Solubility in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    phocids (Fig. 1). Fig. 1: Relative weight of integument (blubber), bones, muscle, internal organs, connective tissue , and the soft tissue of the...status of animals of the same species and similar age. Fig.2: Mean relative body weight of integument, bones, muscle, organs, connective tissue ...a five-compartment model arranging the tissues in the following compartments [10-12]: blood, brain, fat, muscle (muscle, skin, bone, connective

  17. Diagnosis of Compartment Syndrome Based on Tissue Oxygenation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    tissue oxygenation and compartment pressure following tibia fracture, Injury 2013, 44:1076- 1080 8. Cathcart CC, Shuler MS, Freedman BA, Reno LR...Injury, Int. J. Care Injured 44 (2013) 1076– 1080 1077percentage of postoperative CP measurements would meet established warning criteria for compartment...Care Injured 44 (2013) 1076– 1080 1079in one patient. Correlations between PmO2 and CP excluding the first 3 h resulted in Pearson correlation

  18. Contralateral compartment syndrome inoculated by invasive group A streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huiwen; Mcphillips, Sean Thomas; Chundi, Vishnu

    2016-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is a rare but a well-documented complication in patients with trauma-induced group A streptococcus infection. Here, we present a case of a male who developed compartment syndrome on the left lower extremity after an injury inoculated by group A streptococcus on the right lower extremity. The patient was resuscitated with antibiotics, urgent fasciotomy, and immunoglobulin. The patient was eventually transferred to a burn center for further care. PMID:27802865

  19. Differential gene expression in anatomical compartments of the human eye

    PubMed Central

    Diehn, Jennifer J; Diehn, Maximilian; Marmor, Michael F; Brown, Patrick O

    2005-01-01

    Background The human eye is composed of multiple compartments, diverse in form, function, and embryologic origin, that work in concert to provide us with our sense of sight. We set out to systematically characterize the global gene expression patterns that specify the distinctive characteristics of the various eye compartments. Results We used DNA microarrays representing approximately 30,000 human genes to analyze gene expression in the cornea, lens, iris, ciliary body, retina, and optic nerve. The distinctive patterns of expression in each compartment could be interpreted in relation to the physiology and cellular composition of each tissue. Notably, the sets of genes selectively expressed in the retina and in the lens were particularly large and diverse. Genes with roles in immune defense, particularly complement components, were expressed at especially high levels in the anterior segment tissues. We also found consistent differences between the gene expression patterns of the macula and peripheral retina, paralleling the differences in cell layer densities between these regions. Based on the hypothesis that genes responsible for diseases that affect a particular eye compartment are likely to be selectively expressed in that compartment, we compared our gene expression signatures with genetic mapping studies to identify candidate genes for diseases affecting the cornea, lens, and retina. Conclusion Through genome-scale gene expression profiling, we were able to discover distinct gene expression 'signatures' for each eye compartment and identified candidate disease genes that can serve as a reference database for investigating the physiology and pathophysiology of the eye. PMID:16168081

  20. Modulatory compartments in cortex and local regulation of cholinergic tone.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Jennifer J; Ward, Nicholas J; Jadi, Monika P; Disney, Anita A

    2016-09-01

    Neuromodulatory signaling is generally considered broad in its impact across cortex. However, variations in the characteristics of cortical circuits may introduce regionally-specific responses to diffuse modulatory signals. Features such as patterns of axonal innervation, tissue tortuosity and molecular diffusion, effectiveness of degradation pathways, subcellular receptor localization, and patterns of receptor expression can lead to local modification of modulatory inputs. We propose that modulatory compartments exist in cortex and can be defined by variation in structural features of local circuits. Further, we argue that these compartments are responsible for local regulation of neuromodulatory tone. For the cholinergic system, these modulatory compartments are regions of cortical tissue within which signaling conditions for acetylcholine are relatively uniform, but between which signaling can vary profoundly. In the visual system, evidence for the existence of compartments indicates that cholinergic modulation likely differs across the visual pathway. We argue that the existence of these compartments calls for thinking about cholinergic modulation in terms of finer-grained control of local cortical circuits than is implied by the traditional view of this system as a diffuse modulator. Further, an understanding of modulatory compartments provides an opportunity to better understand and perhaps correct signal modifications that lead to pathological states.

  1. Testing block subdivision algorithms on block designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Natalie; Patterson, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Integrated land use-transportation models predict future transportation demand taking into account how households and firms arrange themselves partly as a function of the transportation system. Recent integrated models require parcels as inputs and produce household and employment predictions at the parcel scale. Block subdivision algorithms automatically generate parcel patterns within blocks. Evaluating block subdivision algorithms is done by way of generating parcels and comparing them to those in a parcel database. Three block subdivision algorithms are evaluated on how closely they reproduce parcels of different block types found in a parcel database from Montreal, Canada. While the authors who developed each of the algorithms have evaluated them, they have used their own metrics and block types to evaluate their own algorithms. This makes it difficult to compare their strengths and weaknesses. The contribution of this paper is in resolving this difficulty with the aim of finding a better algorithm suited to subdividing each block type. The proposed hypothesis is that given the different approaches that block subdivision algorithms take, it's likely that different algorithms are better adapted to subdividing different block types. To test this, a standardized block type classification is used that consists of mutually exclusive and comprehensive categories. A statistical method is used for finding a better algorithm and the probability it will perform well for a given block type. Results suggest the oriented bounding box algorithm performs better for warped non-uniform sites, as well as gridiron and fragmented uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel areas and widths. The Generalized Parcel Divider 1 algorithm performs better for gridiron non-uniform sites. The Straight Skeleton algorithm performs better for loop and lollipop networks as well as fragmented non-uniform and warped uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel shapes and patterns.

  2. Numerical modelling of crural fascia mechanical interaction with muscular compartments.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Piero G; Pachera, Paola; Natali, Arturo N

    2015-05-01

    The interaction of the crural fascia with muscular compartments and surrounding tissues can be at the origin of different pathologies, such as compartment syndrome. This pathology consists in the onset of excessive intracompartmental pressure, which can have serious consequences for the patient, compromising blood circulation. The investigation of compartment syndrome etiology also takes into account the alteration of crural fascia mechanical properties as a cause of the syndrome, where the fascial stiffening would result in the rise of intracompartmental pressure. This work presents a computational approach toward evaluating some biomechanical aspects of the problem, within the context of a more global viewpoint. Finite element analyses of the interaction phenomena of the crural fascia with adjacent regions are reported here. This study includes the effects of a fascial stiffness increase along the proximal-distal direction and their possible clinical implications. Furthermore, the relationship between different pre-strain levels of the crural fascia in the proximal-distal direction and the rise of internal pressure in muscular compartments are considered. The numerical analyses can clarify which aspects could be directly implied in the rise of compartment syndrome, leading to greater insight into muscle-fascia mechanical phenomena, as well as promoting experimental investigation and clinical analysis of the syndrome.

  3. 77 FR 19148 - Special Conditions: Airbus, A350-900 Series Airplane; Crew Rest Compartments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ...-900 Series Airplane; Crew Rest Compartments AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... separate Crew Rest Compartments: a Flight Crew Rest Compartment (FCRC) intended to be occupied by flight crew members only, and a Cabin Crew Rest Compartment (CCRC) intended to be occupied by cabin...

  4. Psittacine paranasal sinus--a new definition of compartments.

    PubMed

    Artmann, A; Henninger, W

    2001-12-01

    Documentation of the psittacine paranasal sinuses has been limited. To provide more published detail, spiral computed tomography (CT) was used to scan the cephalic and cervical region from cadavers of 10 psittacine birds (Ara ararauna, Ara chloroptera, Ara macao, and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus). Skeletal studies, histologic examinations, and evaluation of deep-frozen sections and anatomic preparations confirmed the results of the CT scans. New morphologic details of the paranasal sinus and some compartments were discovered. The paranasal sinuses of these macaws consist of two unpaired rostral compartments, followed caudally by eight paired compartments. Histologic examinations revealed that the walls of the paranasal sinuses consist of flat or cubic monolayer epithelium with underlying connective tissue. The described method of CT examination of these macaws, especially the positioning, scan orientation and parameters, and documentation of the normal paranasal sinus, provides a basis for future clinical use of CT.

  5. Hypothyroid-induced acute compartment syndrome in all extremities

    PubMed Central

    Musielak, Matthew C.; Chae, Jung Hee

    2016-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is an uncommon complication of uncontrolled hypothyroidism. If unrecognized, this can lead to ischemia, necrosis and potential limb loss. A 49-year-old female presented with the sudden onset of bilateral lower and upper extremity swelling and pain. The lower extremity anterior compartments were painful and tense. The extensor surface of the upper extremities exhibited swelling and pain. Motor function was intact, however, limited due to pain. Bilateral lower extremity fasciotomies were performed. Postoperative Day 1, upper extremity motor function decreased significantly and paresthesias occurred. She therefore underwent bilateral forearm fasciotomies. The pathogenesis of hypothyroidism-induced compartment syndrome is unclear. Thyroid-stimulating hormone-induced fibroblast activation results in increased glycosaminoglycan deposition. The primary glycosaminoglycan in hypothyroid myxedematous changes is hyaluronic acid, which binds water causing edema. This increases vascular permeability, extravasation of proteins and impaired lymphatic drainage. These contribute to increased intra-compartmental pressure and subsequent ACS. PMID:28003319

  6. Fire safety evaluation of aircraft lavatory and cargo compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.; Anderson, R. A.; Tustin, E.; Arnold, D. E.; Gaume, J. G.; Binding, A. T.; Mikeska, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Large-scale aircraft lavatory and cargo compartment fire tests are described. Tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of these compartments to contain fire and smoke. Two tests were conducted and are detailed. Test 1 involved a production Boeing 747 lavatory of the latest design installed in an enclosure outside the aircraft, to collect gases and expose animals to these gases. Results indicate that the interior of the lavatory was completely burned, evolving smoke and combustion products in the enclosure. Test 2 involved a simulated Douglas DC-10 cargo compartment retro-fitted with standard fiberglass liner. The fire caused excessive damage to the liner and burned through the ceiling in two areas. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed.

  7. A total and biosafe liquefaction compartment for MELiSSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraete, W.; Albrecht, T.; Kübe, J.; Dussap, G.; Creuly, C.

    2005-10-01

    Envisaging long-duration space missions and settlements on the Moon or even on more distant planets means considering the production of food and the recycling of scarce, valuable chemical species from waste. ESA's MELiSSA project (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is studying, in which five different compartments degrade waste into basic chemicals and then assimilate them into food, clean water and a breathable atmosphere. Crucial to the success of such a closed system is the absolute efficiency of the first compartment, in which all waste is biologically degraded into easily assimilable basic compounds. In order to ease this strenuous task and to ensure total and biosafe liquefaction of the waste, this MAP project is studying additional technologies that complement MELiSSA's waste degrading compartment.

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag proteins are processed in two cellular compartments.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, A H; Swanstrom, R

    1991-01-01

    The structural proteins of the retroviral capsid are translated as a polyprotein (the Gag precursor) that is cleaved by a virally encoded protease. Processing of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag precursor Pr55 was analyzed through a combination of pulse-chase labeling, cell fractionation, and immunoprecipitation. We observed a membrane-associated processing pathway for the Gag precursor that gives rise to virions. In addition, we found that a significant amount of processing occurs in the cytoplasm of infected cells resulting in the intracellular accumulation of appropriately processed viral proteins. This observation suggests the viral protease is active in the cytoplasmic compartment of the cell. Processing of the Gag protein was blocked in both compartments by the addition of a viral protease inhibitor. A comparison of the amount of cytoplasmic processing seen in lytically infected cells with that seen in chronically infected cells showed that cytoplasmic processing was associated with the lytic infection. These observations raise the possibility that activation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease in the cytoplasm of lytically infected cells might result in the cleavage of cellular proteins and thus contribute to cytotoxicity. Images PMID:2034693

  9. Block That Pain!

    MedlinePlus

    ... 314. This combination produces a unique effect, blocking pain-sensing neurons without impairing signals from other cells. In contrast, most pain relievers used for surgical procedures block activity in ...

  10. The Optic Nerve Compartment Syndrome in Cryptococcus-Induced Visual Loss

    PubMed Central

    Moodley, Anand; Naidoo, Neil; Reitz, Deneys; Chetty, Naren; Rae, William

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Visual loss in cryptococcal meningitis has been postulated to be due to papilloedema and/or optic neuritis. A 28-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive female presented with visual loss, swollen optic discs, and elevated intracranial pressure due to cryptococcal meningitis. Computerised tomographic cisternography and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed occlusion of the peri-optic subarachnoid space and its reopening after serial lumbar punctures. Presumably lowering of the intracranial pressure resulted in equalisation of pressure across the pressure gradient created by the fungal block. This case supports a third mechanism of visual loss in cryptococcal meningitis, namely, an optic nerve compartment syndrome, that seems more plausible as the principal mechanism. PMID:28163768

  11. The Optic Nerve Compartment Syndrome in Cryptococcus-Induced Visual Loss.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Anand; Naidoo, Neil; Reitz, Deneys; Chetty, Naren; Rae, William

    2013-01-01

    Visual loss in cryptococcal meningitis has been postulated to be due to papilloedema and/or optic neuritis. A 28-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive female presented with visual loss, swollen optic discs, and elevated intracranial pressure due to cryptococcal meningitis. Computerised tomographic cisternography and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed occlusion of the peri-optic subarachnoid space and its reopening after serial lumbar punctures. Presumably lowering of the intracranial pressure resulted in equalisation of pressure across the pressure gradient created by the fungal block. This case supports a third mechanism of visual loss in cryptococcal meningitis, namely, an optic nerve compartment syndrome, that seems more plausible as the principal mechanism.

  12. Dendritic spines as individual neuronal compartments for synaptic Ca2+ responses.

    PubMed

    Müller, W; Connor, J A

    1991-11-07

    The possibility that postsynaptic spines on neuronal dendrites are discrete biochemical compartments for Ca(2+)-activated processes involved in synaptic plasticity is a widely proposed concept that has eluded experimental demonstration. Using microfluorometry on CA3 neurons in hippocampal slices, we show here that with weak presynaptic stimulation of associative/commissural fibres, Ca2+ accumulates in single postsynaptic spines but not in the parent dendrite. Stronger stimulation also promotes changes in dendrites. The NMDA-receptor antagonist AP-5 blocks changes in Ca2+ in spines. Sustained steep Ca2+ gradients between single spines and the parent dendrite, often lasting several minutes, develop with repeated stimulation. The observed compartmentalization allows for the specificity, cooperativity and associativity displayed by memory models such as long-term potentiation.

  13. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome with Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Reece, Kevin; Day, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Superior Mesenteric Artery (SMA) syndrome is a condition in which the duodenum becomes compressed between the SMA and the aorta, resulting in bowel obstruction which subsequently compresses surrounding structures. Pressure on the inferior vena cava (IVC) and aorta decreases cardiac output which compromises distal blood flow, resulting in abdominal compartment syndrome with ischemia and renal failure. A 15-year-old male with SMA syndrome presented with 12 hours of pain, a distended, rigid abdomen, mottled skin below the waist, and decreased motor and sensory function in the lower extremities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed ischemic small bowel and stomach with abdominal compartment syndrome. Despite decompression, the patient arrested from hyperkalemia following reperfusion. PMID:28003918

  14. Blocked Tear Duct

    MedlinePlus

    Blocked tear duct Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff When you have a blocked tear duct, your tears can't drain normally, leaving you ... in the tear drainage system. A blocked tear duct is common in newborns. The condition usually gets ...

  15. Total Spinal Block after Thoracic Paravertebral Block

    PubMed Central

    Beyaz, Serbülent Gökhan; Özocak, Hande; Ergönenç, Tolga; Erdem, Ali Fuat; Palabıyık, Onur

    2014-01-01

    Thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) can be performed with or without general anaesthesia for various surgical procedures. TPVB is a popular anaesthetic technique due to its low side effect profile and high analgesic potency. We used 20 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine for a single injection of unilateral TPVB at the T7 level with neurostimulator in a 63 year old patient with co-morbid disease who underwent cholecystectomy. Following the application patient lost consciousness, and was intubated. Haemodynamic instability was normalised with rapid volume replacement and vasopressors. Anaesthetic drugs were stopped at the end of the surgery and muscle relaxant was antagonised. Return of mucle strenght was shown with neuromuscular block monitoring. Approximately three hours after TPVB, spontaneous breathing started and consciousness returned. A total spinal block is a rare and life-threatening complication. A total spinal block is a complication of spinal anaesthesia, and it can also occur after peripheral blocks. Clinical presentation is characterised by hypotension, bradicardia, apnea, and cardiac arrest. An early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is life saving. In this case report, we want to present total spinal block after TPVB. PMID:27366387

  16. A Novel CT-Guided Transpsoas Approach to Diagnostic Genitofemoral Nerve Block and Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Parris, David; Fischbein, Nancy; Mackey, Sean; Carroll, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Background Inguinal hernia repair is associated with a high incidence of chronic postsurgical pain. This pain may be caused by injury to the iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, or genitofemoral nerves. It is often difficult to identify the specific source of the pain, in part, because these nerves are derived from overlapping nerve roots and closely colocalize in the area of surgery. It is therefore technically difficult to selectively block these nerves individually proximal to the site of surgical injury. In particular, the genitofemoral nerve is retroperitoneal before entering the inguinal canal, a position that puts anterior approaches to the proximal nerve at risk of transgressing into the peritoneum. We report a computed tomography (CT)-guided transpsoas technique to selectively block the genitofemoral nerve for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes while avoiding injury to the nearby ureter and intestines. Case A 39-year-old woman with chronic lancinating right groin pain after inguinal hernia repair underwent multiple pharmacologic interventions and invasive procedures without relief. Using CT and Stimuplex nerve stimulator guidance, the genitofemoral nerve was localized on the anterior surface of the psoas muscle and a diagnostic block with local anesthetic block was performed. The patient had immediate relief of her symptoms for 36 hours, confirming the diagnosis of genitofemoral neuralgia. She subsequently underwent CT-guided radiofrequency and phenol ablation of the genitofemoral nerve but has not achieved long-term analgesia. Conclusion CT-guided transpsoas genitofemoral nerve block is a viable option for safely and selectively blocking the genitofemoral nerve for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes proximal to injury caused by inguinal surgery. PMID:20546515

  17. The Space Block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Ciba-Geigy Corporation's "Space Block," technically known as TDT-177-51 Ren Shape epoxy model block, is a two-foot by two-foot by five- inch plastic block from which master models of the Space Shuttle protective tiles are cut by NC machines. Space Block is made of epoxy resin with low viscosity and slow curing time, enabling the large block to cure uniformly without cracking. Rockwell International uses master models of Shuttle tiles to check accuracy of NC machines accurately by comparing model dimensions with specifications. New epoxy resins are attracting broad interest as a replacement for traditional materials used in modeling auto, aerospace or other parts.

  18. FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome following an Iliac Bone Marrow Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Najera, Carlos; Leal-Contreras, Carlos; Leal-Berumen, Irene

    2013-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is a condition characterized by a raised hydraulic pressure within a closed and non expandable anatomical space. It leads to a vascular insufficiency that becomes critical once the vascular flow cannot return the fluids back to the venous system. This causes a potential irreversible damage of the contents of the compartment, especially within the muscle tissues. Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) secondary to hematomas is seldom reported. Here we present a case of a 51-year-old patient with history of a non-Hodgkin lymphoma who underwent a bone marrow aspiration from the posterior iliac crest that had excessive bleeding at the puncture zone. The patient complained of increasing pain, tenderness, and buttock swelling. Intraoperative pressure validation of the gluteal compartment was performed, and a GCS was diagnosed. The patient was treated with a gluteal region fasciotomy. The patient recovered from pain and swelling and was discharged shortly after from the hospital. We believe clotting and hematologic disorders are a primary risk factor in patients who require bone marrow aspirations or biopsies. It is important to improve awareness of GCS in order to achieve early diagnosis, avoid complications, and have a better prognosis. PMID:24392235

  20. 14 CFR 91.613 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... materials. For transport category airplanes type certificated after January 1, 1958: (1) For airplanes... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors. 91.613... and Operating Requirements for Large and Transport Category Aircraft § 91.613 Materials...

  1. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... breakage or failure of such an item would not create a hazard. (f) Airplane materials located on the cabin... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES... compartment to be used by the crew or passengers: (a) The materials must be at least flame-resistant; (b)...

  2. 14 CFR 91.613 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... materials. For transport category airplanes type certificated after January 1, 1958: (1) For airplanes... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors. 91.613... and Operating Requirements for Large and Transport Category Aircraft § 91.613 Materials...

  3. 14 CFR 121.314 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and baggage compartments. For each transport category airplane type certificated after January 1, 1958... sidewall liner panels which are constructed of: (1) Glass fiber reinforced resin; (2) Materials which meet... number of each airplane listed in the operations specifications issued to the certificate holder...

  4. 14 CFR 121.312 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 121.312 Materials for compartment interiors. (a) All interior materials; transport category airplanes and nontransport category airplanes type certificated before January 1, 1965. Except for the materials..., must comply with the material requirements under which the airplane was type certificated,...

  5. 14 CFR 91.613 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... materials. For transport category airplanes type certificated after January 1, 1958: (1) For airplanes... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors. 91.613... and Operating Requirements for Large and Transport Category Aircraft § 91.613 Materials...

  6. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... breakage or failure of such an item would not create a hazard. (f) Airplane materials located on the cabin... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES... compartment to be used by the crew or passengers: (a) The materials must be at least flame-resistant; (b)...

  7. 14 CFR 121.312 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 121.312 Materials for compartment interiors. (a) All interior materials; transport category airplanes and nontransport category airplanes type certificated before January 1, 1965. Except for the materials..., must comply with the material requirements under which the airplane was type certificated,...

  8. 14 CFR 121.314 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and baggage compartments. For each transport category airplane type certificated after January 1, 1958... sidewall liner panels which are constructed of: (1) Glass fiber reinforced resin; (2) Materials which meet... number of each airplane listed in the operations specifications issued to the certificate holder...

  9. 14 CFR 91.613 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... materials. For transport category airplanes type certificated after January 1, 1958: (1) For airplanes... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors. 91.613... and Operating Requirements for Large and Transport Category Aircraft § 91.613 Materials...

  10. 14 CFR 91.613 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... materials. For transport category airplanes type certificated after January 1, 1958: (1) For airplanes... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors. 91.613... and Operating Requirements for Large and Transport Category Aircraft § 91.613 Materials...

  11. 14 CFR 121.312 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 121.312 Materials for compartment interiors. (a) All interior materials; transport category airplanes and nontransport category airplanes type certificated before January 1, 1965. Except for the materials..., must comply with the material requirements under which the airplane was type certificated,...

  12. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... breakage or failure of such an item would not create a hazard. (f) Airplane materials located on the cabin... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES... compartment to be used by the crew or passengers: (a) The materials must be at least flame-resistant; (b)...

  13. 14 CFR 121.312 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 121.312 Materials for compartment interiors. (a) All interior materials; transport category airplanes and nontransport category airplanes type certificated before January 1, 1965. Except for the materials..., must comply with the material requirements under which the airplane was type certificated,...

  14. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... breakage or failure of such an item would not create a hazard. (f) Airplane materials located on the cabin... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES... compartment to be used by the crew or passengers: (a) The materials must be at least flame-resistant; (b)...

  15. Does oedema following lower limb revascularisation cause compartment syndromes?

    PubMed Central

    Scott, D. J.; Allen, M. J.; Bell, P. R.; McShane, M.; Barnes, M. R.

    1988-01-01

    Oedema of the leg, particularly the calf, is a well-recognised complication following lower limb reconstructive vascular surgery, but its effect on the limb is unknown. In this study, anterior compartment pressures and calf circumference were measured in both the operated and non-operated limbs following femoropopliteal bypass in 15 patients. All the patients developed lower limb swelling, which was significantly greater than the non-operated limb, P less than 0.05 paired t test (day 2-5). There was a significant difference in the mean anterior compartment pressures between the operated and non-operated limbs on the third and fourth postoperative days for the overall and below knee group, P less than 0.05 (paired t test). However, none of the patients developed signs, symptoms or pressures indicative of a compartment syndrome. These results suggest that the oedema following reconstructive vascular surgery is subcutaneous rather than compartmental in origin and that compartment pressure measurements should only be undertaken if a fasciotomy is being contemplated. Images fig. 2 PMID:3207329

  16. 12. Interior view of battle staff compartment showing the general's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Interior view of battle staff compartment showing the general's chair. View toward front of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanneganti, Kumud; Simon, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The transport of potassium permanganate between two continuous-stirred vessels was investigated to help chemical and biomedical engineering students understand two-compartment pharmacokinetic models. Concepts of modeling, mass balance, parameter estimation and Laplace transform were applied to the two-unit process. A good agreement was achieved…

  18. Digital Microscopy Assessment of Angiogenesis in Different Breast Cancer Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Rogojanu, Radu; Croitoru, Camelia; Jitaru, Daniela; Tarniceriu, Cristina; Carasevici, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim. Tumour angiogenesis defined by microvessel density (MVD) is generally accepted as a prognostic factor in breast cancer. However, due to variability of measurement systems and cutoffs, it is questionable to date whether it contributes to predictive outline. Our study aims to grade vascular heterogeneity by comparing clear-cut compartments: tumour associated stroma (TAS), tumour parenchyma, and tumour invasive front. Material and Methods. Computerized vessel area measurement was performed using a tissue cytometry system (TissueFAXS) on slides originated from 50 patients with breast cancer. Vessels were marked using immunohistochemistry with CD34. Regions of interest were manually defined for each tumour compartment. Results. Tumour invasive front vascular endothelia area was 2.15 times higher than that in tumour parenchyma and 4.61 times higher than that in TAS (P < 0.002). Worth to mention that the lymph node negative subgroup of patients show a slight but constant increase of vessel index in all examined compartments of breast tumour. Conclusion. Whole slide digital examination and region of interest (ROI) analysis are a valuable tool in scoring angiogenesis markers and disclosing their prognostic capacity. Our study reveals compartments' variability of vessel density inside the tumour and highlights the propensity of invasive front to associate an active process of angiogenesis with potential implications in adjuvant therapy. PMID:24073397

  19. 38. Port side of engine compartment at salon deck level, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Port side of engine compartment at salon deck level, with salon wall panels removed to show engine frame. Main connecting rod from crank to walking beam appears at extreme right of view, top of cylinder and piston rod appear at extreme left. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  20. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  1. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  2. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  3. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  4. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  5. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  6. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  7. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  8. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  9. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  10. 14 CFR 29.855 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accessories whose damage or failure would affect safe operation, unless those items are protected so that— (1... endangering the safety of a rotorcraft or its occupants must be designed, or must have a device, to ensure... area may be considered a cargo compartment and, in addition to paragraphs (a) through (d) of...

  11. Test strips detect different CO2 concentrations in closed compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Four different test strips, using crystal violet for one pair of strips and basic fuchsin as a dye for the second pair, give unambiguous colorimetric indications of four different concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of a closed compartment. Tetraethylene pentamine is used as a dye decoloring agent.

  12. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compartments assumed flooded: general. 174.075 Section 174.075 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore...

  13. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments assumed flooded: general. 174.075 Section 174.075 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore...

  14. 19 CFR 123.24 - Sealing of conveyances or compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sealing of conveyances or compartments. 123.24 Section 123.24 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or...

  15. 9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cleaning of rooms and compartments... Sanitary Conditions and Precautions Against Contamination of Products § 354.241 Cleaning of rooms and... rooms shall be of such construction as readily to permit their thorough cleaning, and such docks...

  16. 14 CFR 27.855 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartments. 27.855 Section 27.855 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection §...

  17. Compartment syndrome of the foot in a child.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A K; Sharaf, I; Ajay, S

    2001-06-01

    We report a case of a 12-year-old boy with acute compartment syndrome of the foot following a road-traffic accident. Due to the rarity of the injury, there was a delay in diagnosing the injury. An emergency fasciotomy was performed 19 hours after the injury. The foot healed with a mild extension contracture of the second toe.

  18. 49 CFR 179.220-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.220-9 Section 179.220-9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for...

  19. 49 CFR 179.200-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.200-9 Section 179.200-9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for...

  20. 49 CFR 179.200-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.200-9 Section 179.200-9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for...

  1. 49 CFR 179.200-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.200-9 Section 179.200-9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for...

  2. 9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 354.221 Section 354.221 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... needs of the inspection in the plant may require. They shall be equipped with locks and keys and...

  3. 9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 354.221 Section 354.221 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... needs of the inspection in the plant may require. They shall be equipped with locks and keys and...

  4. 9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 354.221 Section 354.221 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... needs of the inspection in the plant may require. They shall be equipped with locks and keys and...

  5. 9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 354.221 Section 354.221 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... needs of the inspection in the plant may require. They shall be equipped with locks and keys and...

  6. Congenital complete heart block.

    PubMed Central

    Agarwala, B.; Sheikh, Z.; Cibils, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    Congenital complete heart block in utero has become diagnosed more frequently with the clinical use of fetal echocardiography. The fetus with complete heart block may remain asymptomatic or may develop congestive heart failure. Congenital complete heart block is more frequently seen in infants of mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus, both clinically manifested and subclinical systemic lupus erythematosus with positive antibodies (SS-A and SS-B antibodies). At birth, the neonate with complete heart block may remain asymptomatic and may not require a pacemaker to increase the heart rate. The indications for a pacemaker in neonates with complete heart block have been discussed. Both in-utero and neonatal management of congenital complete heart block are discussed to manage congestive heart failure in a fetus. Four patients with congenital complete heart block are presented covering a broad spectrum of clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management both in the fetal and neonatal period. Images Figure 1 PMID:8961692

  7. Changes in direction-specific activity of psoas major and quadratus lumborum in people with recurring back pain differ between muscle regions and patient groups.

    PubMed

    Park, Rachel J; Tsao, Henry; Cresswell, Andrew G; Hodges, Paul W

    2013-06-01

    Psoas major (PM) and quadratus lumborum (QL) muscles have anatomically discrete regions. Redistribution of activity between these regions has been observed in people with low back pain (LBP). We hypothesised that the bias of activity of specific regions of PM and QL towards trunk extension may change depending on whether LBP individuals have more or less erector spinae (ES) activity in an extended/upright lumbar posture. Ten volunteers with recurring episodes of LBP and nine pain-free controls performed isometric trunk efforts in upright sitting. LBP individuals were subgrouped into those with high and low ES electromyographic activity (EMG) when sitting with a lumbar lordosis. Fine-wire electrodes were inserted into fascicles of PM arising from the transverse process (PM-t) and vertebral body (PM-v) and anterior (QL-a) and posterior layers (QL-p) of QL. The LBP group with low ES EMG had greater bias of PM-t, PM-v and QL-p towards trunk extension. The LBP group with high ES activity showed less PM activity towards extension. These findings suggest redistribution of activity within and/or between these muscles with extensor moments. This is likely to be important to consider for effective clinical interventions for individuals with LBP.

  8. Multimodal delivery of irinotecan from microparticles with two distinct compartments.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Sahar; Park, Tae-Hong; Dishman, Acacia Frances; Lahann, Joerg

    2013-11-28

    In the last several decades, research in the field of drug delivery has been challenged with the fabrication of carrier systems engineered to deliver therapeutics to the target site with sustained and controlled release kinetics. Herein, we report the fabrication of microparticles composed of two distinct compartments: i) one compartment containing a pH responsive polymer, acetal-modified dextran, and PLGA (polylactide-co-glycolide), and ii) one compartment composed entirely of PLGA. We demonstrate the complete release of dextran from the microparticles during a 10-hour period in an acidic pH environment and the complete degradation of one compartment in less than 24h. This is in congruence with the stability of the same microparticles in neutral pH over the 24-hour period. Such microparticles can be used as pH responsive carrier systems for drug delivery applications where their cargo will only be released when the optimum pH window is reached. The feasibility of the microparticle system for such an application was confirmed by encapsulating a cancer therapeutic, irinotecan, in the compartment containing the acetal-modified dextran polymer and the pH dependent release over a 5-day period was studied. It was found that upon pH change to an acidic environment, over 50% of the drug was first released at a rapid rate for 10h, similar to that observed for the dextran release, before continuing at a more controlled rate for 4 days. As such, these microparticles can play an important role in the fabrication of novel drug delivery systems due to the selective, controlled, and pH responsive release of their encapsulated therapeutics.

  9. The mosaic structure of the symbiotic plasmid of Rhizobium etli CFN42 and its relation to other symbiotic genome compartments

    PubMed Central

    González, Víctor; Bustos, Patricia; Ramírez-Romero, Miguel A; Medrano-Soto, Arturo; Salgado, Heladia; Hernández-González, Ismael; Hernández-Celis, Juan Carlos; Quintero, Verónica; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Girard, Lourdes; Rodríguez, Oscar; Flores, Margarita; Cevallos, Miguel A; Collado-Vides, Julio; Romero, David; Dávila, Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    Background Symbiotic bacteria known as rhizobia interact with the roots of legumes and induce the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules. In rhizobia, essential genes for symbiosis are compartmentalized either in symbiotic plasmids or in chromosomal symbiotic islands. To understand the structure and evolution of the symbiotic genome compartments (SGCs), it is necessary to analyze their common genetic content and organization as well as to study their differences. To date, five SGCs belonging to distinct species of rhizobia have been entirely sequenced. We report the complete sequence of the symbiotic plasmid of Rhizobium etli CFN42, a microsymbiont of beans, and a comparison with other SGC sequences available. Results The symbiotic plasmid is a circular molecule of 371,255 base-pairs containing 359 coding sequences. Nodulation and nitrogen-fixation genes common to other rhizobia are clustered in a region of 125 kilobases. Numerous sequences related to mobile elements are scattered throughout. In some cases the mobile elements flank blocks of functionally related sequences, thereby suggesting a role in transposition. The plasmid contains 12 reiterated DNA families that are likely to participate in genomic rearrangements. Comparisons between this plasmid and complete rhizobial genomes and symbiotic compartments already sequenced show a general lack of synteny and colinearity, with the exception of some transcriptional units. There are only 20 symbiotic genes that are shared by all SGCs. Conclusions Our data support the notion that the symbiotic compartments of rhizobia genomes are mosaic structures that have been frequently tailored by recombination, horizontal transfer and transposition. PMID:12801410

  10. Detection of functional class II-associated antigen: role of a low density endosomal compartment in antigen processing

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a functional assay to identify processed antigen in subcellular fractions from antigen-presenting cells; stimulatory activity in this assay may be caused by either free peptide fragments or by complexes of peptide fragments and class II molecules present on organellar membrane sheets and vesicles. In addition, we have developed a functional assay to identify proteolytic activity in subcellular fractions capable of generating antigenic peptides from intact proteins. These techniques permit the direct identification of intracellular sites of antigen processing and class II association. Using a murine B cell line stably transfected with a phosphorylcholine (PC)-specific membrane-bound immunoglobulin (Ig), we show that PC- conjugated antigens are rapidly internalized and efficiently degraded to generate processed antigen within an early low density compartment. Proteolytic activity capable of generating antigenic peptide fragments from intact proteins is found within low density endosomes and a dense compartment consistent with lysosomes. However, neither processed peptide nor peptide-class II complexes are detected in lysosomes from antigen-pulsed cells. Furthermore, blocking the intracellular transport of internalized antigen from the low density endosome to lysosomes does not inhibit the generation of processed antigen. Therefore, antigens internalized in association with membrane Ig on B cells can be efficiently processed in low density endosomal compartments without the contribution of proteases present within denser organelles. PMID:7722450

  11. Protein based Block Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Rabotyagova, Olena S.; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of protein-based block copolymers with control of chemistry and molecular weight, resulting in unique physical and biological properties. The benefits from incorporating peptide blocks into copolymer designs arise from the fundamental properties of proteins to adopt ordered conformations and to undergo self-assembly, providing control over structure formation at various length scales when compared to conventional block copolymers. This review covers the synthesis, structure, assembly, properties, and applications of protein-based block copolymers. PMID:21235251

  12. MeLiSSA third compartment: a kinetic and stoichiometric study for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi axenic cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creuly, Catherine; Poughon, Laurent; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Farges, Berangere

    2012-07-01

    As a part of a natural biological N-cycle, nitrification is one of the steps included in the conception of artificial ecosystems designed for extraterrestrial life support systems (LSS). In MELiSSA loop, which is based on carbon and nitrogen recycling, the non-edible part of the higher plants and the waste produced by the crew are collected in the liquefying compartment that degrades the chemically complex wastes into simpler building blocks (organic acids and CO2). The organic acids are eliminated in the second photoheterotrophic compartment letting an organic free medium mostly containing minerals and N-NH+4 nitrogen. The third compartment is in charge to re-oxidize N-NH+4 in order to make nitrogen usable by the following compartments. In MELiSSA, the constraint is to perform axenic cultures in order to fully control the genetic status of the culture and a thorough modelling for developing a control strategy of the compartment and of the loop, knowing that the reliability of the production of oxidized forms of nitrogen NO3- directly impacts the behaviour of the following compartments. Nitrification in aerobic environments is carried out by two groups of bacteria in co-cultures in a two-step process. The ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosomonas europaea) realize the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrobacter winogradskyi) the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. In both cases, the bacteria achieve the oxidations to obtain an energy and reductant source for their growth and maintenance. Both groups use CO2 predominantly as their carbon source. They are typically found together in ecosystems and, consequently, nitrite accumulation is rare. This study concerns kinetic and mass balances studies of axenic cultures of Ns. europaea and Nb. winogradskyi in autotrophic conditions. The daily follow-up of these cultures is done using a new protocol involving flow cytometry and ionic chromatography. Nitrogen substrates and products are

  13. Endoscopic Thermal Fasciotomy for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Voleti, Pramod B.; Lebrun, Drake G.; Roth, Cameron A.; Kelly, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is an activity-induced condition that occurs when intracompartmental pressures within an osteofascial envelope increase during exercise, leading to reversible ischemic symptoms such as pain, cramping, numbness, or weakness. Nonoperative treatment options for this condition have shown limited success and are often undesirable for the patient given the requirement for activity modification. Traditional surgical treatment options involving open or subcutaneous fasciotomies have more favorable results, but these techniques are associated with significant morbidity. Endoscopically assisted fasciotomy techniques afford the advantages of being minimally invasive, providing excellent visualization, and allowing accelerated rehabilitation. The purpose of this article is to describe a technique for performing endoscopically assisted fasciotomies for chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower leg using an entirely endoscopic thermal ablating device. The endoscopic thermal fasciotomy technique is associated with minimal morbidity, ensures excellent hemostasis, and affords an early return to sports. PMID:26900549

  14. p73-induced apoptosis: A question of compartments and cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbelstein, Matthias; Strano, Sabrina; Roth, Judith; Blandino, Giovanni . E-mail: blandino@ifo.it

    2005-06-10

    The transcriptionally active forms of p73 are capable of inducing apoptosis, and the isoforms termed TAp73 are important players when E2F and its oncogenic activators induce programmed cell death. However, the conditions under that TAp73 can kill a cell remain to be clarified. Recently, it has been found that p73 proteins are not merely floating in the nucleoplasm but rather can associate with specific compartments in the cell. Examples of intranuclear compartments associated with p73 proteins include the PML oncogenic domains and the nuclear matrix. In addition, p73 is found in the cytoplasm. It remains to be seen whether p73 might also associate with mitochondria, in analogy with p53. The relocalization of p73 is expected to be mediated by specific binding partners, mostly other proteins. Here, we discuss the possibility that the compartmentalization of p73, and the cooperation with the corresponding binding partners, might decide about its apoptosis-inducing activity.

  15. Head and neck fascia and compartments: no space for spaces.

    PubMed

    Guidera, Alice K; Dawes, Patrick J D; Fong, Amy; Stringer, Mark D

    2014-07-01

    An accurate understanding of the arrangement of cervical fascia and its associated compartments is essential for differential diagnosis, predicting the spread of disease, and surgical management. The purpose of this detailed review is to summarize the anatomic, clinical, and radiological literature to determine what is known about the arrangement of cervical fascia and to highlight controversies and consensus. The current terminology used to describe cervical fascia and compartments is replete with confusing synonyms and inconsistencies, creating important interdisciplinary differences in understanding. The term "spaces" is inappropriate. A modified nomenclature underpinned by evidence-based anatomic and radiologic findings is proposed. This should not only enhance our understanding of cervical anatomy but also facilitate clearer interdisciplinary communication.

  16. Understanding tumor heterogeneity as functional compartments--superorganisms revisited.

    PubMed

    Grunewald, Thomas G P; Herbst, Saskia M; Heinze, Jürgen; Burdach, Stefan

    2011-05-27

    Compelling evidence broadens our understanding of tumors as highly heterogeneous populations derived from one common progenitor. In this review we portray various stages of tumorigenesis, tumor progression, self-seeding and metastasis in analogy to the superorganisms of insect societies to exemplify the highly complex architecture of a neoplasm as a system of functional "castes."Accordingly, we propose a model in which clonal expansion and cumulative acquisition of genetic alterations produce tumor compartments each equipped with distinct traits and thus distinct functions that cooperate to establish clinically apparent tumors. This functional compartment model also suggests mechanisms for the self-construction of tumor stem cell niches. Thus, thinking of a tumor as a superorganism will provide systemic insight into its functional compartmentalization and may even have clinical implications.

  17. Emerging Technologies and Their Applications in Lipid Compartment Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Heymsfield, Steven B.; Hu, Houchun Harry; Shen, Wei; Carmichael, Owen

    2015-01-01

    Non-Communicable diseases (NCDs), including obesity, are emerging as the major health concern of the 21st century. Excess adiposity and related NCD metabolic disturbances have stimulated development of new lipid compartment measurement technologies to help us understand cellular energy exchange, to refine phenotypes, and to develop predictive markers of adverse clinical outcomes. Recent advances now allow for quantification of multiple intracellular lipid and adipose tissue compartments that can be evaluated across the human lifespan. With magnetic resonance methods leading the way, newer approaches will give molecular structural and metabolic information beyond the laboratory in real-world settings. The union between these new technologies and the growing NCD population is creating an exciting interface advancing our understanding of chronic disease mechanisms. PMID:26596676

  18. Measuring Compartment Size and Gas Solubility in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    dissection data were collected from one spotted dolphin , one bottlenose dolphin , three common dolphins , one elephant seal, three californian sea lions and...deviation for body compartments of three common dolphins of similar age (subadults and adults) but with different body condition. Muscle was the most...AL, Dennison SE, Early G, Garner MM, Hayward BA, Lentell BJ, Rotstein DS (2009) Gas Bubbles in Seals, Dolphins , and Porpoises Entangled and Drowned

  19. Closeup view if the starboard side of the crew compartment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view if the starboard side of the crew compartment mid-deck of the Orbiter Discovery. This is a close up view of the galley for meal preparations. In the center right of the image is stowage lockers that are designated to store meals for the mission. This photograph was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  20. Diagnosis of Compartment Syndrome Based on Tissue Oxygenation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    measured with microprobes has been shown to be highly correlated with tissue oxygenation and the extent of ischemia reperfusion injury .3 Near-infrared...Tissue Oxygenation PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Hubert Kim, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Northern California Institute for...SUBTITLE Diagnosis of Compartment Syndrome based on Tissue Oxygenation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-1024 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  1. Shaped Charge Jet/Propellant Interactions in a Vented Compartment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    the vented ammunition compartment. One of these was the Susquehanna Instruments Model ST-4 tourmaline transducer, a nonresonant transducer capable of...S1-4 tourmaline gauges and those at positons 3 and 4 were Kistler Model 617A tourmaline gauges. Thin strips of metal were welded over the trans- ducers...two different types of piezoelectric transducers. One was a fast almost totally non- resonant though somewhat temperature sensitive Tourmaline bar gauge

  2. Bacterial assemblages differ between compartments within the coral holobiont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, M. J.; Croquer, A.; Bythell, J. C.

    2011-03-01

    It is widely accepted that corals are associated with a diverse and host species-specific microbiota, but how they are organized within their hosts remains poorly understood. Previous sampling techniques (blasted coral tissues, coral swabs and milked mucus) may preferentially sample from different compartments such as mucus, tissue and skeleton, or amalgamate them, making comparisons and generalizations between studies difficult. This study characterized bacterial communities of corals with minimal mechanical disruption and contamination from water, air and sediments from three compartments: surface mucus layer (SML), coral tissue and coral skeleton. A novel apparatus (the `snot sucker') was used to separate the SML from tissues and skeleton, and these three compartments were compared to swab samples and milked mucus along with adjacent environmental samples (water column and sediments). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity was significantly different between the various coral compartments and environmental samples (PERMANOVA, F = 6.9, df = 8, P = 0.001), the only exceptions being the complete crushed coral samples and the coral skeleton, which were similar, because the skeleton represents a proportionally large volume and supports a relatively rich microflora. Milked mucus differed significantly from the SML collected with the `snot sucker' and was contaminated with zooxanthellae, suggesting that it may originate at least partially from the gastrovascular cavity rather than the tissue surface. A common method of sampling the SML, surface swabs, produced a bacterial community profile distinct from the SML sampled using our novel apparatus and also showed contamination from coral tissues. Our results indicate that microbial communities are spatially structured within the coral holobiont, and methods used to describe these need to be standardized to allow comparisons between studies.

  3. Closeup view of the reflective insulation protecting the Crew Compartment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the reflective insulation protecting the Crew Compartment bulkhead, orbiter structure and landing gear housing in the void created by the removal of the Forward Reaction Control System Module from the forward section of the Orbiter Discovery. This image was taken from the service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  4. Independent Passive Mechanical Behavior of Bovine Extraocular Muscle Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Andrew; Yoo, Lawrence; Chaudhuri, Zia; Demer, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Intramuscular innervation of horizontal rectus extraocular muscles (EOMs) is segregated into superior and inferior (transverse) compartments, while all EOMs are also divided into global (GL) and orbital (OL) layers with scleral and pulley insertions, respectively. We sought evidence of potential independent action by examining passive mechanical coupling between EOM compartments. Methods. Putative compartments of each of the six whole bovine anatomical EOMs were separately clamped to a physiologically controlled, dual channel microtensile load cell (5-mN force resolution) driven by independent, high-speed, linear motors having 20-nm position resolution. One channel at a time was extended or retracted by 3 to 5 mm, with the other channel stationary. Fiducials distributed on the EOM global surface enabled optical tracking of local deformation. Loading rates of 5 to 100 mm/sec were applied to explore speeds from slow vergence to saccades. Control loadings employed transversely loaded EOM and isotropic latex. Results. All EOM bellies and tendons exhibited substantial compartmental independence when loaded in the physiologic direction, both between OL and GL, and for arbitrary transverse parsings of EOM width ranging from 60%:40% to 80%:20%. Intercompartmental force coupling in the physiologic direction was less than or equal to 10% in all six EOMS even for saccadic loading rates. Coupling was much higher for nonphysiologic transverse EOM loading and isotropic latex. Optical tracking demonstrated independent strain distribution between EOM compartments. Conclusions. Substantial mechanical independence exists among physiologically loaded fiber bundles in bovine EOMs and tendons, providing biomechanical support for the proposal that differential compartmental function in horizontal rectus EOMs contributes to novel torsional and vertical actions. PMID:23188730

  5. Rare times rare: The hyponatremia, rhabdomyolysis, anterior compartment syndrome sequence

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Ina; Gelber, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Lesson Primary polydipsia occurs in up to 25% of patients with chronic psychiatric disorders (especially schizophrenia), related to the disease, its treatment or both. Urine output fails to match intake >10 L/day and water intoxication may develop. Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication of hyponatremia, and an acute anterior compartment syndrome of the leg, an emergency, may be very rarely associated. PMID:27186379

  6. Ruptured Baker's cyst with compartment syndrome: an extremely unusual complication.

    PubMed

    Hamlet, Mark; Galanopoulos, Ilias; Mahale, Avinash; Ashwood, Neil

    2012-12-20

    A 69-year-old man presented with sudden onset of pain with acute tense swelling of his left leg. Initially he was treated empirically with antibiotics for cellulitis while the possibility of deep vein thrombosis was ruled out. His symptoms gradually worsened with progressive distal neurological deficit and increasing pain. Further investigations suggested that he had a ruptured Baker's cyst in the calf with development of compartment syndrome.

  7. The pseudo-compartment method for coupling partial differential equation and compartment-based models of diffusion.

    PubMed

    Yates, Christian A; Flegg, Mark B

    2015-05-06

    Spatial reaction-diffusion models have been employed to describe many emergent phenomena in biological systems. The modelling technique most commonly adopted in the literature implements systems of partial differential equations (PDEs), which assumes there are sufficient densities of particles that a continuum approximation is valid. However, owing to recent advances in computational power, the simulation and therefore postulation, of computationally intensive individual-based models has become a popular way to investigate the effects of noise in reaction-diffusion systems in which regions of low copy numbers exist. The specific stochastic models with which we shall be concerned in this manuscript are referred to as 'compartment-based' or 'on-lattice'. These models are characterized by a discretization of the computational domain into a grid/lattice of 'compartments'. Within each compartment, particles are assumed to be well mixed and are permitted to react with other particles within their compartment or to transfer between neighbouring compartments. Stochastic models provide accuracy, but at the cost of significant computational resources. For models that have regions of both low and high concentrations, it is often desirable, for reasons of efficiency, to employ coupled multi-scale modelling paradigms. In this work, we develop two hybrid algorithms in which a PDE in one region of the domain is coupled to a compartment-based model in the other. Rather than attempting to balance average fluxes, our algorithms answer a more fundamental question: 'how are individual particles transported between the vastly different model descriptions?' First, we present an algorithm derived by carefully redefining the continuous PDE concentration as a probability distribution. While this first algorithm shows very strong convergence to analytical solutions of test problems, it can be cumbersome to simulate. Our second algorithm is a simplified and more efficient implementation of

  8. RAB24 facilitates clearance of autophagic compartments during basal conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ylä-Anttila, Päivi; Mikkonen, Elisa; Happonen, Kaisa E; Holland, Petter; Ueno, Takashi; Simonsen, Anne; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    RAB24 belongs to a family of small GTPases and has been implicated to function in autophagy. Here we confirm the intracellular localization of RAB24 to autophagic vacuoles with immuno electron microscopy and cell fractionation, and show that prenylation and guanine nucleotide binding are necessary for the targeting of RAB24 to autophagic compartments. Further, we show that RAB24 plays a role in the maturation and/or clearance of autophagic compartments under nutrient-rich conditions, but not during short amino acid starvation. Quantitative electron microscopy shows an increase in the numbers of late autophagic compartments in cells silenced for RAB24, and mRFP-GFP-LC3 probe and autophagy flux experiments indicate that this is due to a hindrance in their clearance. Formation of autophagosomes is shown to be unaffected by RAB24-silencing with siRNA. A defect in aggregate clearance in the absence of RAB24 is also shown in cells forming polyglutamine aggregates. This study places RAB24 function in the termination of the autophagic process under nutrient-rich conditions. PMID:26325487

  9. Deltoid Compartment Syndrome: A Rare Complication after Humeral Intraosseous Access

    PubMed Central

    Thadikonda, Kishan M.; Ma, Irene; Spiess, Alexander M.

    2017-01-01

    Summary: We present a case of a 65-year-old woman who developed a delayed deltoid compartment syndrome after resuscitation via humeral intraosseous access. Initially she was treated conservatively but then was taken emergently for a fasciotomy. After confirming the diagnosis with compartment pressures, a 2-incision approach was employed and a large hematoma was evacuated from the inferior margin of the anterior deltoid. The rest of the deltoid was inspected and debrided to healthy bleeding tissue. Her fasciotomy wounds were left open to heal on their own due to her tenuous clinical condition. At most recent follow-up, she had full range of motion in her shoulder and no residual pain. Our unique case study is the first documented incidence of upper extremity compartment syndrome after intraosseous access. Additionally, our case supports using humeral access only as a second-line option if lower extremity access is not available and prolonged vigilant monitoring after discontinuing intraosseous access to prevent disastrous late complications. PMID:28203508

  10. Design/Development of Spacecraft and Module Crew Compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the design and development of crew compartments for spacecraft and for modules. The Crew Compartment or Crew Station is defined as the spacecraft interior and all other areas the crewman interfaces inside the cabin, or may potentially interface.It uses examples from all of the human rated spacecraft. It includes information about the process, significant drivers for the design, habitability, definitions of models, mockups, prototypes and trainers, including pictures of each stage in the development from Apollo, pictures of the space shuttle trainers, and International Space Station trainers. It further reviews the size and shape of the Space Shuttle orbiter crew compartment, and the Apollo command module and the lunar module. It also has a chart which reviews the International Space Station (ISS) internal volume by stage. The placement and use of windows is also discussed. Interestingly according to the table presented, the number 1 rated piece of equipment for recreation was viewing windows. The design of crew positions and restraints, crew translation aids and hardware restraints is shown with views of the restraints and handholds used from the Apollo program through the ISS.

  11. Dynamically Active Compartments Coupled by a Stochastically Gated Gap Junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Lawley, Sean D.

    2017-03-01

    We analyze a one-dimensional PDE-ODE system representing the diffusion of signaling molecules between two cells coupled by a stochastically gated gap junction. We assume that signaling molecules diffuse within the cytoplasm of each cell and then either bind to some active region of the cell's membrane (treated as a well-mixed compartment) or pass through the gap junction to the interior of the other cell. We treat the gap junction as a randomly fluctuating gate that switches between an open and a closed state according to a two-state Markov process. This means that the resulting PDE-ODE is stochastic due to the presence of a randomly switching boundary in the interior of the domain. It is assumed that each membrane compartment acts as a conditional oscillator, that is, it sits below a supercritical Hopf bifurcation. In the ungated case (gap junction always open), the system supports diffusion-induced oscillations, in which the concentration of signaling molecules within the two compartments is either in-phase or anti-phase. The presence of a reflection symmetry (for identical cells) means that the stochastic gate only affects the existence of anti-phase oscillations. In particular, there exist parameter choices where the gated system supports oscillations, but the ungated system does not, and vice versa. The existence of oscillations is investigated by solving a spectral problem obtained by averaging over realizations of the stochastic gate.

  12. The statolith compartment in Chara rhizoids contains carbohydrate and protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang-Cahill, F.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to higher plants, the alga Chara has rhizoids with single membrane-bound compartments that function as statoliths in gravity perception. Previous work has demonstrated that these statoliths contain barium sulfate crystals. In this study, we show that statoliths in Chara rhizoids react with a Coomassie Brilliant Blue cytochemical stain for proteins. While statoliths did not react with silver methenamine carbohydrate cytochemistry, the monoclonal antibody CCRC-M2, which is against a carbohydrate (sycamore-maple rhamnogalacturonan I), labeled the statolith compartment. These results demonstrate that in addition to barium sulfate, statoliths in Chara rhizoids have an organic matrix that consists of protein and carbohydrate moieties. Since the statoliths were silver methenamine negative, the carbohydrate in this compartment could be a 3-linked polysaccharide. CCRC-M2 also labeled Golgi cisternae, Golgi-associated vesicles, apical vesicles, and cell walls in the rhizoids. The specificity of CCRC-M2 immunolabeling was verified by several control experiments, including the demonstration that labeling was abolished when the antibody was preabsorbed with its antigen. Since in this and a previous study (John Z. Kiss and L. Andrew Staehelin, American Journal of Botany 80: 273-282, 1993) antibodies against higher plant carbohydrates crossreacted with cell walls of Chara in a specific manner, Characean algae may be a useful model system in biochemical and molecular studies of cell walls.

  13. Thermally actuated wedge block

    DOEpatents

    Queen, Jr., Charles C.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an automatically-operating wedge block for maintaining intimate structural contact over wide temperature ranges, including cryogenic use. The wedging action depends on the relative thermal expansion of two materials having very different coefficients of thermal expansion. The wedge block expands in thickness when cooled to cryogenic temperatures and contracts in thickness when returned to room temperature.

  14. View of bulkhead mounted steam powered windlass in compartment B126 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of bulkhead mounted steam powered windlass in compartment B-126 used for servicng boiler room compartments B-3 and B-4. (052A) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. Dynamic behaviour of half-sarcomeres during and after stretch in activated rabbit psoas myofibrils: sarcomere asymmetry but no 'sarcomere popping'.

    PubMed

    Telley, I A; Stehle, R; Ranatunga, K W; Pfitzer, G; Stüssi, E; Denoth, J

    2006-05-15

    We examined length changes of individual half-sarcomeres during and after stretch in actively contracting, single rabbit psoas myofibrils containing 10-30 sarcomeres. The myofibrils were fluorescently immunostained so that both Z-lines and M-bands of sarcomeres could be monitored by video microscopy simultaneously with the force measurement. Half-sarcomere lengths were determined by processing of video images and tracking the fluorescent Z-line and M-band signals. Upon Ca2+ activation, during the rise in force, active half-sarcomeres predominantly shorten but to different extents so that an active myofibril consists of half-sarcomeres of different lengths and thus asymmetric sarcomeres, i.e. shifted A-bands, indicating different amounts of filament overlap in the two halves. When force reached a plateau, the myofibril was stretched by 15-20% resting length (L0) at a velocity of approximately 0.2 L0 s(-1). The myofibril force response to a ramp stretch is similar to that reported from muscle fibres. Despite the approximately 2.5-fold increase in force due to the stretch, the variability in half-sarcomere length remained almost constant during the stretch and A-band shifts did not progress further, independent of whether half-sarcomeres shortened or lengthened during the initial Ca2+ activation. Moreover, albeit half-sarcomeres lengthened to different extents during a stretch, rapid elongation of individual sarcomeres beyond filament overlap ('popping') was not observed. Thus, in contrast to predictions of the 'popping sarcomere' hypothesis, a stretch rather stabilizes the uniformity of half-sarcomere lengths and sarcomere symmetry. In general, the half-sarcomere length changes (dynamics) before and after stretch were slow and the dynamics after stretch were not readily predictable on the basis of the steady-state force-sarcomere length relation.

  16. 75 FR 81 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Flightcrew Rest Compartment Occupiable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... wishes to use an OFCR compartment as ``sleeping quarters,'' the compartment must undergo an additional... suitability'' evaluation or a ``sleeping quarters'' evaluation of its OFCR compartment. The results of these... berths and must be compatible with the sleeping position during cruise conditions. There must be...

  17. 75 FR 75 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Crew Rest Compartment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... operator wishes to use an OCR compartment as ``sleeping quarters,'' the compartment must undergo an... request a ``basic suitability'' evaluation or a ``sleeping quarters'' evaluation of its OCR compartment... provided for berths and must be compatible for the sleeping attitude during cruise conditions. There...

  18. 46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming... and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. (a... and the other extending to the overhead of the compartment. Powered ventilation may be used...

  19. 46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming... and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. (a... and the other extending to the overhead of the compartment. Powered ventilation may be used...

  20. 46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming... and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. (a... and the other extending to the overhead of the compartment. Powered ventilation may be used...

  1. 46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming... and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. (a... and the other extending to the overhead of the compartment. Powered ventilation may be used...

  2. 46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming... and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. (a... and the other extending to the overhead of the compartment. Powered ventilation may be used...

  3. Compartment A126 port side. Note ash hoist for boiler room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-126 port side. Note ash hoist for boiler room compartment B-1 and compartment B-2. Scuttlebutt (drinking water fountain) is at right center of photograph. Manikin wearing WWII wave uniform is in display case at left center. (045) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Acute compartment syndrome after muscle rupture in a non-athlete.

    PubMed Central

    Thennavan, A S; Funk, L; Volans, A P

    1999-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome after muscle rupture, although rare, is a limb threatening condition, which warrants emergency treatment. The case of acute compartment syndrome secondary to a gastrocnemius muscle tear of the right lower leg, in a non-athlete is reported. To our knowledge, this is the only description of acute compartment syndrome due to muscle rupture in a non-athlete. PMID:10505928

  5. 14 CFR 121.587 - Closing and locking of flightcrew compartment door.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... compartment door. 121.587 Section 121.587 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... locking of flightcrew compartment door. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a pilot in command of an airplane that has a lockable flightcrew compartment door in accordance with §...

  6. 14 CFR 121.587 - Closing and locking of flightcrew compartment door.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... compartment door. 121.587 Section 121.587 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... locking of flightcrew compartment door. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a pilot in command of an airplane that has a lockable flightcrew compartment door in accordance with §...

  7. View forward to aft of compartment B126. Note steam powered ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward to aft of compartment B-126. Note steam powered windlass for ash hoist that services boiler room compartment B-3 and compartment B-4. Ash hoist conveyor rail is at top left. Diving suit and helmet dating from 1950's is displayed in case at center of photograph. (049) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 46 CFR 58.25-40 - Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. 58.25-40... AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-40 Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. (a) The steering-gear compartment must— (1) Be readily accessible and, as far as...

  9. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  10. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  11. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  12. Acute compartment syndrome of the forearm caused by calcific tendinitis of the distal biceps.

    PubMed

    Garayoa, Santiago Amillo; Romero-Muñoz, Luis M; Pons-Villanueva, Juan

    2010-12-01

    Acute compartment syndrome of the forearm requires immediate treatment to avoid damage of the soft tissues and a poor functional outcome for the forearm. Muscular and bone lesions are the main causes of acute compartment syndromes. We report a case of acute compartment syndrome of the forearm caused by a calcific tendinitis of the distal biceps.

  13. 14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121.576 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The certificate holder must... each item of crew baggage, which is carried in a passenger or crew compartment from becoming a...

  14. Types of Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... is less serious than Mobitz type II. The animation below shows how your heart's electrical system works. ... block. Click the "start" button to play the animation. Written and spoken explanations are provided with each ...

  15. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, M. V.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kantzos, P. T.; Krause, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Initial investigations of investment cast superalloy lattice block suggest that this technology will yield a low cost approach to utilize the high temperature strength and environmental resistance of superalloys in lightweight, damage tolerant structural configurations. Work to date has demonstrated that relatively large superalloy lattice block panels can be successfully investment cast from both IN-718 and Mar-M247. These castings exhibited mechanical properties consistent with the strength of the same superalloys measured from more conventional castings. The lattice block structure also accommodates significant deformation without failure, and is defect tolerant in fatigue. The potential of lattice block structures opens new opportunities for the use of superalloys in future generations of aircraft applications that demand strength and environmental resistance at elevated temperatures along with low weight.

  16. What Causes Heart Block?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of congenital heart block occurs in babies whose mothers have autoimmune diseases, such as lupus. People who have these diseases make proteins called antibodies that attack and damage the body's tissues or ...

  17. Blocked tear duct

    MedlinePlus

    ... your baby may have an eye infection called conjunctivitis . ... increase the chance of other infections, such as conjunctivitis. ... be prevented. Proper treatment of nasal infections and conjunctivitis may reduce the risk of having a blocked ...

  18. Resolving writer's block.

    PubMed Central

    Huston, P.

    1998-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED: Writer's block, or a distinctly uncomfortable inability to write, can interfere with professional productivity. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: To identify writer's block and to outline suggestions for its early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: Once the diagnosis has been established, a stepwise approach to care is recommended. Mild blockage can be resolved by evaluating and revising expectations, conducting a task analysis, and giving oneself positive feedback. Moderate blockage can be addressed by creative exercises, such as brainstorming and role-playing. Recalcitrant blockage can be resolved with therapy. Writer's block can be prevented by taking opportunities to write at the beginning of projects, working with a supportive group of people, and cultivating an ongoing interest in writing. CONCLUSIONS: Writer's block is a highly treatable condition. A systematic approach can help to alleviate anxiety, build confidence, and give people the information they need to work productively. PMID:9481467

  19. Mid-Career Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Richard A.

    1984-01-01

    Considers typical reactions of midcareer employees to blocked opportunity; reasons for correcting these attitudes; ways of motivating these employees; methods of rekindling midcareer employees' interest in their jobs; encouraging competition; job switching; self-development programs; and supervisory attitudes. (CT)

  20. Block copolymer battery separator

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  1. Exercise-induced Pediatric Lumbar Paravertebral Compartment Syndrome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Verena M; Ward, W Timothy

    2015-09-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is described as an elevation of interstitial pressure in a closed fascial compartment that can lead to damage of the microvasculature with subsequent tissue necrosis. Although paravertebral compartment syndrome has been described there is no case of paravertebral compartment syndrome that has been described in the pediatric population. We report the case of a 17-year-old boy who presented at our institution with severe, acute-onset low back pain that started shortly after a rigorous 4-hour workout. He was diagnosed with acute lumbar paravertebral compartment syndrome and underwent emergent fasciotomy with 2 more debridements.

  2. View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and southwest guard tower, looking from cell block eight roof - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from cell block two into the "Death Row" exercise yard - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Renal compartment segmentation in DCE-MRI images.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Le Minh, Hung; Tim Cheng, Kwang-Ting; Sung, Kyung Hyun; Liu, Wenyu

    2016-08-01

    Renal compartment segmentation from Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) images is an important task for functional kidney evaluation. Despite advancement in segmentation methods, most of them focus on segmenting an entire kidney on CT images, there still lacks effective and automatic solutions for accurate segmentation of internal renal structures (i.e. cortex, medulla and renal pelvis) from DCE-MRI images. In this paper, we introduce a method for renal compartment segmentation which can robustly achieve high segmentation accuracy for a wide range of DCE-MRI data, and meanwhile requires little manual operations and parameter settings. The proposed method consists of five main steps. First, we pre-process the image time series to reduce the motion artifacts caused by the movement of the patients during the scans and enhance the kidney regions. Second, the kidney is segmented as a whole based on the concept of Maximally Stable Temporal Volume (MSTV). The proposed MSTV detects anatomical structures that are homogeneous in the spatial domain and stable in terms of temporal dynamics. MSTV-based kidney segmentation is robust to noises and does not require a training phase. It can well adapt to kidney shape variations caused by renal dysfunction. Third, voxels in the segmented kidney are described by principal components (PCs) to remove temporal redundancy and noises. And then k-means clustering of PCs is applied to separate voxels into multiple clusters. Fourth, the clusters are automatically labeled as cortex, medulla and pelvis based on voxels' geometric locations and intensity distribution. Finally, an iterative refinement method is introduced to further remove noises in each segmented compartment. Experiments on 14 real clinical kidney datasets and 12 synthetic dataset demonstrate that results produced by our method match very well with those segmented manually and the performance of our method is superior to the other five existing methods.

  5. Bap31 is an itinerant protein that moves between the peripheral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and a juxtanuclear compartment related to ER-associated Degradation.

    PubMed

    Wakana, Yuichi; Takai, Sawako; Nakajima, Ken-Ichi; Tani, Katsuko; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Watson, Peter; Stephens, David J; Hauri, Hans-Peter; Tagaya, Mitsuo

    2008-05-01

    Certain endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) substrates with transmembrane domains are segregated from other ER proteins and sorted into a juxtanuclear subcompartment, known as the ER quality control compartment. Bap31 is an ER protein with three transmembrane domains, and it is assumed to be a cargo receptor for ER export of some transmembrane proteins, especially those prone to ERAD. Here, we show that Bap31 is a component of the ER quality control compartment and that it moves between the peripheral ER and a juxtanuclear ER or ER-related compartment distinct from the conventional ER-Golgi intermediate compartment. The third and second transmembrane domains of Bap31 are principally responsible for the movement to and recycling from the juxtanuclear region, respectively. This cycling was blocked by depolymerization of microtubules and disruption of dynein-dynactin function. Overexpression of Sar1p and Arf1 mutants affected Bap31 cycling, suggesting that this cycling pathway is related to the conventional vesicular transport pathways.

  6. Modeling fires in adjacent ship compartments with computational fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Koski, J.A.

    1998-05-10

    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal effects on radioactive (RAM) transportation packages with a fire in an adjacent compartment. An assumption for this analysis is that the adjacent hold fire is some sort of engine room fire. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis tools were used to perform the analysis in order to include convective heat transfer effects. The analysis results were compared to experimental data gathered in a series of tests on tile US Coast Guard ship Mayo Lykes located at Mobile, Alabama.

  7. Electrowinning process with electrode compartment to avoid contamination of electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Poa, D.S.; Pierce, R.D.; Mulcahey, T.P.; Johnson, G.K.

    1991-12-31

    An electrolytic process and apparatus for reducing calcium oxide in a molten electrolyte of CaCl{sub 2}-CaF{sub 2} with a graphite anode in which particles or other contamination from the anode is restricted by the use of a porous barrier in the form of a basket surrounding the anode which may be removed from the electrolyte to burn the graphite particles, and wherein the calcium oxide feed is introduced to the anode compartment to increase the oxygen ion concentration at the anode.

  8. Acute Compartment Syndrome in Orthopedics: Causes, Diagnosis, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Hasnain; Mahapatra, Anant

    2015-01-01

    Almost all orthopaedic surgeons come across acute compartment syndrome (ACS) in their clinical practice. Diagnosis of ACS mostly relies on clinical findings. If the diagnosis is missed and left untreated, it can lead to serious consequences which can endanger limb and life of the patient and also risk the clinician to face lawsuits. This review article highlights the characteristic features of ACS which will help an orthopaedic surgeon to understand the pathophysiology, natural history, high risk patients, diagnosis, and surgical management of the condition. PMID:25688303

  9. Relevance of mangled extremity severity score to compartment syndromes.

    PubMed

    Uslu, M M; Altun, N S; Cila, E; Atik, O S

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the relevance of a mangled extremity severity score (MESS) to the evaluation of intracompartmental pressure in injured patients. We measured intracompartmental pressures with a modification of the Whitesides method and compared these values with MESS in 27 patients after trauma. For 5 of them fasciotomy was necessary to relieve high intracompartmental pressures. In our series MESS seemed to correlate with intracompartmental pressure values (r = 0.733, P < 0.05). We conclude that the MESS system provides objective criteria in determining the risk of a compartment syndrome.

  10. Internalized compartments encapsulated nanogels for targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jicheng; Zhang, Yuqi; Sun, Wujin; Wang, Chao; Ranson, Davis; Ye, Yanqi; Weng, Yuyan; Gu, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Drug delivery systems inspired by natural particulates hold great promise for targeted cancer therapy. An endosome formed by internalization of plasma membrane has a massive amount of membrane proteins and receptors on the surface, which is able to specifically target the homotypic cells. Herein, we describe a simple method to fabricate an internalized compartments encapsulated nanogel with endosome membrane components (EM-NG) from source cancer cells. Following intracellular uptake of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (m-HA) adsorbed SiO2/Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulating a crosslinker and a photoinitiator, EM-NG was readily prepared through in situ crosslinking initiated under UV irradiation after internalization. The resulting nanogels loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) displayed enhanced internalization efficiency to the source cells through a specific homotypic affinity in vitro. However, when treated with the non-source cells, the EM-NGs exhibited insignificant difference in therapeutic efficiency compared to a bare HA nanogel with DOX. This study illustrates the potential of utilizing an internalized compartments encapsulated formulation for targeted cancer therapy, and offers guidelines for developing a natural particulate-inspired drug delivery system.Drug delivery systems inspired by natural particulates hold great promise for targeted cancer therapy. An endosome formed by internalization of plasma membrane has a massive amount of membrane proteins and receptors on the surface, which is able to specifically target the homotypic cells. Herein, we describe a simple method to fabricate an internalized compartments encapsulated nanogel with endosome membrane components (EM-NG) from source cancer cells. Following intracellular uptake of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (m-HA) adsorbed SiO2/Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulating a crosslinker and a photoinitiator, EM-NG was readily prepared through in situ crosslinking initiated under UV irradiation after internalization. The

  11. Electrowinning process with electrode compartment to avoid contamination of electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Poa, Davis S.; Pierce, R. Dean; Mulcahey, Thomas P.; Johnson, Gerald K.

    1993-01-01

    An electrolytic process and apparatus for reducing calcium oxide in a molten electrolyte of CaCl.sub.2 -CaF.sub.2 with a graphite anode in which particles or other contamination from the anode is restricted by the use of a porous barrier in the form of a basket surrounding the anode which may be removed from the electrolyte to burn the graphite particles, and wherein the calcium oxide feed is introduced to the anode compartment to increase the oxygen ion concentration at the anode.

  12. Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Thigh in Combat Casualties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    mechanisms such as motor vehicle trauma (1), femur fracture (2, 3), blunt vascular injury (4), and contusion (5, 6); (b) compressive mechanisms of injury...anesthesia (12); (c) internal hemorrhage or fluid extravasation such as coagulopathy and intramuscular hematoma (13, 14), false aneurysm (15), hamstring...Ipsilateral Femur Fracture Bilateral Compartment Syndromes ISS ½ 25 Nonsurvivors (n D 7) 42.4 š 8.6 70.1 š 5.6 0% (0/7) 86% (6/7) 100% (7/7

  13. Surgical management of abdominal compartment syndrome; indications and techniques

    PubMed Central

    Leppäniemi, Ari

    2009-01-01

    The indications for surgical decompression of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are not clearly defined, but undoubtedly some patients benefit from it. In patients without recent abdominal incisions, it can be achieved with full-thickness laparostomy (either midline, or transverse subcostal) or through a subcutaneous linea alba fasciotomy. In spite of the improvement in physiological variables and significant decrease in IAP, however, the effects of surgical decompression on organ function and outcome are less clear. Because of the significant morbidity associated with surgical decompression and the management of the ensuing open abdomen, more research is needed to better define the appropriate indications and techniques for surgical intervention. PMID:19366442

  14. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Nathal, M. V.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kraus, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    In their simplest form, lattice block panels are produced by direct casting and result in lightweight, fully triangulated truss-like configurations which provide strength and stiffness [2]. The earliest realizations of lattice block were made from A1 and steels, primarily under funding from the US Navy [3]. This work also showed that the mechanical efficiency (eg., specific stiffness) of lattice block structures approached that of honeycomb structures [2]. The lattice architectures are also less anisotropic, and the investment casting route should provide a large advantage in cost and temperature capability over honeycombs which are limited to alloys that can be processed into foils. Based on this early work, a program was initiated to determine the feasibility of extending the high temperature superalloy lattice block [3]. The objective of this effort was to provide an alternative to intermetallics and composites in achieving a lightweight high temperature structure without sacrificing the damage tolerance and moderate cost inherent in superalloys. To establish the feasibility of the superalloy lattice block concept, work was performed in conjunction with JAMCORP, Inc. Billerica, MA, to produce a number of lattice block panels from both IN71 8 and Mar-M247.

  15. PTEN and PI-3 kinase inhibitors control LPS signaling and the lymphoproliferative response in the CD19+ B cell compartment

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Alok R.; Peirce, Susan K.; Joshi, Shweta; Durden, Donald L.

    2014-09-10

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), e.g. toll receptors (TLRs) that bind ligands within the microbiome have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer. LPS is a ligand for two TLR family members, TLR4 and RP105 which mediate LPS signaling in B cell proliferation and migration. Although LPS/TLR/RP105 signaling is well-studied; our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms controlling these PRR signaling pathways remains incomplete. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for PTEN/PI-3K signaling in B cell selection and survival, however a role for PTEN/PI-3K in TLR4/RP105/LPS signaling in the B cell compartment has not been reported. Herein, we crossed a CD19cre and PTEN{sup fl/fl} mouse to generate a conditional PTEN knockout mouse in the CD19+ B cell compartment. These mice were further crossed with an IL-14α transgenic mouse to study the combined effect of PTEN deletion, PI-3K inhibition and expression of IL-14α (a cytokine originally identified as a B cell growth factor) in CD19+ B cell lymphoproliferation and response to LPS stimulation. Targeted deletion of PTEN and directed expression of IL-14α in the CD19+ B cell compartment (IL-14+PTEN-/-) lead to marked splenomegaly and altered spleen morphology at baseline due to expansion of marginal zone B cells, a phenotype that was exaggerated by treatment with the B cell mitogen and TLR4/RP105 ligand, LPS. Moreover, LPS stimulation of CD19+ cells isolated from these mice display increased proliferation, augmented AKT and NFκB activation as well as increased expression of c-myc and cyclinD1. Interestingly, treatment of LPS treated IL-14+PTEN-/- mice with a pan PI-3K inhibitor, SF1126, reduced splenomegaly, cell proliferation, c-myc and cyclin D1 expression in the CD19+ B cell compartment and normalized the splenic histopathologic architecture. These findings provide the direct evidence that PTEN and PI-3K inhibitors control TLR4/RP105/LPS signaling in the CD19+ B cell compartment and that pan PI

  16. Compartment Syndrome as a Result of Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    D'Egidio, Gianni; Wan, Cynthia; Baxter, Alan; Rosenberg, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To describe a single case of Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome (SCLS) with a rare complication of compartment syndrome. Patient. Our patient is a 57-year-old male, referred to our hospital due to polycythemia (hemoglobin (Hgb) of 220 g/L), hypotension, acute renal failure, and bilateral calf pain. Measurements and Main Results. The patient required bilateral forearm, thigh, and calf fasciotomies during his ICU stay and continuous renal replacement therapy was instituted following onset of acute renal failure and oliguria. Ongoing hemodynamic (Norepinephrine and Milrinone infusion) and respiratory (ventilator) support in the ICU was provided until resolution of intravascular fluid extravasation. Conclusions. SCLS is an extremely rare disorder characterized by unexplained episodic capillary hyperpermeability, which causes shift of volume and protein from the intravascular space to the interstitial space. Patients present with significant hypotension, hemoconcentration, hypovolemia, and oliguria. Severe edema results from leakage of fluid and proteins into tissue. The most important part of treatment is maintaining stable hemodynamics, ruling out other causes of shock and diligent monitoring for complications. Awareness of the clinical syndrome with the rare complication of compartment syndrome may help guide investigations and diagnoses of these critically ill patients. PMID:27688917

  17. Fire safety evaluation of aircraft lavatory and cargo compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.; Anderson, R. A.; Tustin, E.; Arnold, D. B.; Gaume, J. G.; Binding, A. T.; Mikeska, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    A program of experimental fires has been carried out to assess fire containment and other fire hazards in lavatory and cargo compartments of wide-body jet aircraft by evaluation of ignition time, burn-through time, fire spread rate, smoke density, evolution of selected combustible and toxic gases, heat flux, and detector response. Two tests were conducted: one involving a standard Boeing 747 lavatory and one involving a simulated DC-10 cargo compartment. A production lavatory module was furnished with conventional materials and was installed in an enclosure. The ignition load was four polyethylene bags containing paper and plastic waste materials representive of a maximum flight cabin waste load. Standard aircraft ventilation conditions were utilized and the lavatory door was closed during the test. Lavatory wall and ceiling panels contained the fire spread during the 30-minute test. Smoke was driven into the enclosure primarily through the ventilation grille in the door and through the gaps between the bifold door and the jamb where the door distorted from the heat earlier in the test. The interior of the lavatory was almost completely destroyed by the fire.

  18. [Compartment analysis of 123I-IMP brain SPECT].

    PubMed

    Higano, S; Shishido, F; Aizawa, Y; Miura, S; Murakami, M; Inugami, A; Kanno, I; Fujita, H; Uemura, K

    1990-01-01

    To clarify the kinetics of N-isopropyl [123I]p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in the brain, 2-compartment analysis was applied for brain SPECT with 57-minute dynamic scan in 9 subjects. The model consisted of blood component and brain tissue component. Two transfer rate constants were defined; k1 showed the rate from the blood to the brain tissue, and k2 was that of back diffusion. The late scan was performed 210 minutes after the tracer injection. Suitable k values best fitting to the dynamic data were determined for all regions of interest. Predicted regional cerebral activity at 210 minutes using 57-minute dynamic data was well agreed with measured activity. These showed the kinetics of IMP in the brain was well described by the 2-compartment model. The partition coefficient (k1/k2 ratio) was as large as about 35, and almost constant in the various brain structures including hypoperfused areas. These findings indicated that the initial IMP images reflected the reasonable CBF distribution, which gave relatively reliable CBF values even if using microsphere model.

  19. Identifiability Results for Several Classes of Linear Compartment Models.

    PubMed

    Meshkat, Nicolette; Sullivant, Seth; Eisenberg, Marisa

    2015-08-01

    Identifiability concerns finding which unknown parameters of a model can be estimated, uniquely or otherwise, from given input-output data. If some subset of the parameters of a model cannot be determined given input-output data, then we say the model is unidentifiable. In this work, we study linear compartment models, which are a class of biological models commonly used in pharmacokinetics, physiology, and ecology. In past work, we used commutative algebra and graph theory to identify a class of linear compartment models that we call identifiable cycle models, which are unidentifiable but have the simplest possible identifiable functions (so-called monomial cycles). Here we show how to modify identifiable cycle models by adding inputs, adding outputs, or removing leaks, in such a way that we obtain an identifiable model. We also prove a constructive result on how to combine identifiable models, each corresponding to strongly connected graphs, into a larger identifiable model. We apply these theoretical results to several real-world biological models from physiology, cell biology, and ecology.

  20. Delayed Presentation of Gluteal Compartment Syndrome: The Argument for Fasciotomy

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, John E.; Cundall-Curry, Duncan J.; Stohr, Kuldeep K.

    2016-01-01

    A male patient in his fifties presented to his local hospital with numbness and weakness of the right leg which left him unable to mobilise. He reported injecting heroin the previous morning. Following an initial diagnosis of acute limb ischaemia the patient was transferred to a tertiary centre where Computed Tomography Angiography was reported as normal. Detailed neurological examination revealed weakness in hip flexion and extension (1/5 on the Medical Research Council scale) with complete paralysis of muscle groups distal to this. Sensation to pinprick and light touch was globally reduced. Blood tests revealed acute kidney injury with raised creatinine kinase and the patient was treated for rhabdomyolysis. Orthopaedic referral was made the following day and a diagnosis of gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) was made. Emergency fasciotomy was performed 56 hours after the onset of symptoms. There was immediate neurological improvement following decompression and the patient was rehabilitated with complete nerve recovery and function at eight-week follow-up. This is the first documented case of full functional recovery following a delayed presentation of GCS with sciatic nerve palsy. We discuss the arguments for and against fasciotomy in cases of compartment syndrome with significant delay in presentation or diagnosis. PMID:27073707

  1. Involvement of the mitochondrial compartment in human NCL fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Pezzini, Francesco; Gismondi, Floriana; Tessa, Alessandra; Tonin, Paola; Carrozzo, Rosalba; Mole, Sara E.; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Simonati, Alessandro

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondrial reticulum fragmentation occurs in human CLN1 and CLN6 fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Likewise mitochondrial shift-to periphery and decreased mitochondrial density are seen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced caspase-mediated apoptosis occurs following STS treatment in CLN1 fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) are a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders of childhood, characterized by the endo-lysosomal storage of autofluorescent material. Impaired mitochondrial function is often associated with neurodegeneration, possibly related to the apoptotic cascade. In this study we investigated the possible effects of lysosomal accumulation on the mitochondrial compartment in the fibroblasts of two NCL forms, CLN1 and CLN6. Fragmented mitochondrial reticulum was observed in all cells by using the intravital fluorescent marker Mitotracker, mainly in the perinuclear region. This was also associated with intense signal from the lysosomal markers Lysotracker and LAMP2. Likewise, mitochondria appeared to be reduced in number and shifted to the cell periphery by electron microscopy; moreover the mitochondrial markers VDCA and COX IV were reduced following quantitative Western blot analysis. Whilst there was no evidence of increased cell death under basal condition, we observed a significant increase in apoptotic nuclei following Staurosporine treatment in CLN1 cells only. In conclusion, the mitochondrial compartment is affected in NCL fibroblasts invitro, and CLN1 cells seem to be more vulnerable to the negative effects of stressed mitochondrial membrane than CLN6 cells.

  2. Medulloblastoma subgroups remain stable across primary and metastatic compartments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Dubuc, Adrian M; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Mack, Stephen; Gendoo, Deena M A; Remke, Marc; Wu, Xiaochong; Garzia, Livia; Luu, Betty; Cavalli, Florence; Peacock, John; López, Borja; Skowron, Patryk; Zagzag, David; Lyden, David; Hoffman, Caitlin; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Eberhart, Charles; MacDonald, Tobey; Li, Xiao-Nan; Van Meter, Timothy; Northcott, Paul A; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Hawkins, Cynthia; Rutka, James T; Bouffet, Eric; Pfister, Stefan M; Korshunov, Andrey; Taylor, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    Medulloblastoma comprises four distinct molecular variants with distinct genetics, transcriptomes, and outcomes. Subgroup affiliation has been previously shown to remain stable at the time of recurrence, which likely reflects their distinct cells of origin. However, a therapeutically relevant question that remains unanswered is subgroup stability in the metastatic compartment. We assembled a cohort of 12-paired primary-metastatic tumors collected in the MAGIC consortium, and established their molecular subgroup affiliation by performing integrative gene expression and DNA methylation analysis. Frozen tissues were collected and profiled using Affymetrix gene expression arrays and Illumina methylation arrays. Class prediction and hierarchical clustering were performed using existing published datasets. Our molecular analysis, using consensus integrative genomic data, establishes the unequivocal maintenance of molecular subgroup affiliation in metastatic medulloblastoma. We further validated these findings by interrogating a non-overlapping cohort of 19 pairs of primary-metastatic tumors from the Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute using an orthogonal technique of immunohistochemical staining. This investigation represents the largest reported primary-metastatic paired cohort profiled to date and provides a unique opportunity to evaluate subgroup-specific molecular aberrations within the metastatic compartment. Our findings further support the hypothesis that medulloblastoma subgroups arise from distinct cells of origin, which are carried forward from ontogeny to oncology.

  3. Characterization of a Novel Prevacuolar Compartment in Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Draskovic, Marija; Schnittker, Robert R.; El-Mellouki, Tarik; Plamann, Michael D.; Sánchez-León, Eddy; Riquelme, Meritxell; Bowman, Emma Jean

    2015-01-01

    Using confocal microscopy, we observed ring-like organelles, similar in size to nuclei, in the hyphal tip of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. These organelles contained a subset of vacuolar proteins. We hypothesize that they are novel prevacuolar compartments (PVCs). We examined the locations of several vacuolar enzymes and of fluorescent compounds that target the vacuole. Vacuolar membrane proteins, such as the vacuolar ATPase (VMA-1) and the polyphosphate polymerase (VTC-4), were observed in the PVCs. A pigment produced by adenine auxotrophs, used to visualize vacuoles, also accumulated in PVCs. Soluble enzymes of the vacuolar lumen, alkaline phosphatase and carboxypeptidase Y, were not observed in PVCs. The fluorescent molecule Oregon Green 488 carboxylic acid diacetate, succinimidyl ester (carboxy-DFFDA) accumulated in vacuoles and in a subset of PVCs, suggesting maturation of PVCs from the tip to distal regions. Three of the nine Rab GTPases in N. crassa, RAB-2, RAB-4, and RAB-7, localized to the PVCs. RAB-2 and RAB-4, which have similar amino acid sequences, are present in filamentous fungi but not in yeasts, and no function has previously been reported for these Rab GTPases in fungi. PVCs are highly pleomorphic, producing tubular projections that subsequently become detached. Dynein and dynactin formed globular clusters enclosed inside the lumen of PVCs. The size, structure, dynamic behavior, and protein composition of the PVCs appear to be significantly different from those of the well-studied prevacuolar compartment of yeasts. PMID:26453652

  4. Compartment specific response of antioxidants to drought stress in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Koffler, Barbara Eva; Luschin-Ebengreuth, Nora; Stabentheiner, Edith; Müller, Maria; Zechmann, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Compartment specific changes in ascorbate and glutathione contents were studied during drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and in ascorbate and glutathione deficient mutants vtc2-1 and pad2-1, respectively, over a time period of 10 days. The results of this study revealed a strong decrease of glutathione contents in both mutants (up to 52% in mitochondria of pad2-1 and 40% in nuclei of vtc2-1) at early time points when drought stress was not yet measurable in leaves even though the soil showed a drop in relative water contents. These results indicate that glutathione is used at early time points to signal drought stress from roots to leaves. Such roles could not be confirmed for ascorbate which remained unchanged in most cell compartments until very late stages of drought. During advanced drought stress the strong depletion of ascorbate and glutathione in chloroplasts (up to 50% in Col-0 and vtc2-1) and peroxisomes (up to 56% in Col-0) could be correlated with a strong accumulation of H2O2. The strong increase of H2O2 and ascorbate in vacuoles (up to 111%) in wildtype plants indicates that ascorbate plays an important role for the detoxification of ROS in vacuoles during drought stress. PMID:25219315

  5. Impression block with orientator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilin, V. I.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2015-02-01

    Tool review, namely the impression block, applied to check the shape and size of the top of fish as well as to determine the appropriate tool for fishing operation was realized. For multiple application and obtaining of the impress depth of 3 cm and more, the standard volumetric impression blocks with fix rods are used. However, the registered impress of fish is not oriented in space and the rods during fishing are in the extended position. This leads to rods deformation and sinking due to accidental impacts of impression block over the borehole irregularity and finally results in faulty detection of the top end of fishing object in hole. The impression blocks with copy rods and fixed magnetic needle allow estimating the object configuration and fix the position of magnetic needle determining the position of the top end of object in hole. However, the magnetic needle fixation is realized in staged and the rods are in extended position during fishing operations as well as it is in standard design. The most efficient tool is the impression block with copy rods which directs the examined object in the borehole during readings of magnetic needles data from azimuth plate and averaging of readings. This significantly increases the accuracy of fishing toll direction. The rods during fishing are located in the body and extended only when they reach the top of fishing object.

  6. A Single-Cell Platform for Monitoring Viral Proteolytic Cleavage in Different Cellular Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Abbadessa, Darin; Smurthwaite, Cameron A.; Reed, Connor W.; Wolkowicz, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases affect human health despite advances in biomedical research and drug discovery. Among these, viruses are especially difficult to tackle due to the sudden transfer from animals to humans, high mutational rates, resistance to current treatments, and the intricacies of their molecular interactions with the host. As an example of these interactions, we describe a cell-based approach to monitor specific proteolytic events executed by either the viral-encoded protease or by host proteins on the virus. We then emphasize the significance of examining proteolysis within the subcellular compartment where cleavage occurs naturally. We show the power of stable expression, highlighting the usefulness of the cell-based multiplexed approach, which we have adapted to two independent assays previously developed to monitor (a) the activity of the HIV-1-encoded protease or (b) the cleavage of the HIV-1-encoded envelope protein by the host. Multiplexing was achieved by mixing cells each carrying a different assay or, alternatively, by engineering cells expressing two assays. Multiplexing relies on the robustness of the individual assays and their clear discrimination, further enhancing screening capabilities in an attempt to block proteolytic events required for viral infectivity and spread. PMID:27688710

  7. Estimation of adipose compartment volumes in CT images of a mastectomy specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imran, Abdullah-Al-Zubaer; Pokrajac, David D.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Bakic, Predrag R.

    2016-03-01

    Anthropomorphic software breast phantoms have been utilized for preclinical quantitative validation of breast imaging systems. Efficacy of the simulation-based validation depends on the realism of phantom images. Anatomical measurements of the breast tissue, such as the size and distribution of adipose compartments or the thickness of Cooper's ligaments, are essential for the realistic simulation of breast anatomy. Such measurements are, however, not readily available in the literature. In this study, we assessed the statistics of adipose compartments as visualized in CT images of a total mastectomy specimen. The specimen was preserved in formalin, and imaged using a standard body CT protocol and high X-ray dose. A human operator manually segmented adipose compartments in reconstructed CT images using ITK-SNAP software, and calculated the volume of each compartment. In addition, the time needed for the manual segmentation and the operator's confidence were recorded. The average volume, standard deviation, and the probability distribution of compartment volumes were estimated from 205 segmented adipose compartments. We also estimated the potential correlation between the segmentation time, operator's confidence, and compartment volume. The statistical tests indicated that the estimated compartment volumes do not follow the normal distribution. The compartment volumes are found to be correlated with the segmentation time; no significant correlation between the volume and the operator confidence. The performed study is limited by the mastectomy specimen position. The analysis of compartment volumes will better inform development of more realistic breast anatomy simulation.

  8. Aging of microstructural compartments in human compact bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akkus, Ozan; Polyakova-Akkus, Anna; Adar, Fran; Schaffler, Mitchell B.

    2003-01-01

    Composition of microstructural compartments in compact bone of aging male subjects was assessed using Raman microscopy. Secondary mineralization of unremodeled fragments persisted for two decades. Replacement of these tissue fragments with secondary osteons kept mean composition constant over age, but at a fully mineralized limit. Slowing of remodeling may increase fracture susceptibility through an increase in proportion of highly mineralized tissue. In this study, the aging process in the microstructural compartments of human femoral cortical bone was investigated and related to changes in the overall tissue composition within the age range of 17-73 years. Raman microprobe analysis was used to assess the mineral content, mineral crystallinity, and carbonate substitution in fragments of primary lamellar bone that survived remodeling for decades. Tissue composition of the secondary osteonal population was investigated to determine the composition of turned over tissue volume. Finally, Raman spectral analysis of homogenized tissue was performed to evaluate the effects of unremodeled and newly formed tissue on the overall tissue composition. The chemical composition of the primary lamellar bone exhibited two chronological stages. Organic matrix became more mineralized and the crystallinity of the mineral improved during the first stage, which lasted for two decades. The mineral content and the mineral crystallinity did not vary during the second stage. The results for the primary lamellar bone demonstrated that physiological mineralization, as evidenced by crystal growth and maturation, is a continuous process that may persist as long as two decades, and the growth and maturation process stops after the organic matrix becomes "fully mineralized." The average mineral content and the average mineral crystallinity of the homogenized tissue did not change with age. It was also observed that the mineral content of the homogenized tissue was consistently greater than the

  9. Overuse injuries: tendinopathies, stress fractures, compartment syndrome, and shin splints.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Robert P; Sethi, Shikha

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 50% of all sports injuries are secondary to overuse and result from repetitive microtrauma that causes local tissue damage. Injuries are most likely with changes in mode, intensity, or duration of training and can accumulate before symptoms appear. Intrinsic factors contributing to injuries are individual bio-mechanical abnormalities such as malalignments, muscle imbalance, inflexibility, weakness, and instability. Contributing extrinsic (avoidable) factors include poor technique, improper equipment, and improper changes in duration or frequency of activity. Injuries are often related to biomechanical abnormalities removed from the specific injury site, requiring evaluation of the entire kinetic chain. This article discusses common overuse injuries of the lower leg, ankle, and foot: tendinopathies, stress fractures, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, and shin splints.

  10. Spatial organization of chromatin domains and compartments in single chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siyuan; Su, Jun-Han; Beliveau, Brian J; Bintu, Bogdan; Moffitt, Jeffrey R; Wu, Chao-ting; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2016-08-05

    The spatial organization of chromatin critically affects genome function. Recent chromosome-conformation-capture studies have revealed topologically associating domains (TADs) as a conserved feature of chromatin organization, but how TADs are spatially organized in individual chromosomes remains unknown. Here, we developed an imaging method for mapping the spatial positions of numerous genomic regions along individual chromosomes and traced the positions of TADs in human interphase autosomes and X chromosomes. We observed that chromosome folding deviates from the ideal fractal-globule model at large length scales and that TADs are largely organized into two compartments spatially arranged in a polarized manner in individual chromosomes. Active and inactive X chromosomes adopt different folding and compartmentalization configurations. These results suggest that the spatial organization of chromatin domains can change in response to regulation.

  11. Facile synthesis of dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Doermbach, Karla; Pich, Andrij

    2015-05-28

    In this article we report on the controlled synthesis of asymmetric lemon-shaped and dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles (MCPs) with a reactive surface and interesting morphology. In our approach we utilize partial coating of hematite ellipsoids with a hydrophobic polymer layer followed by selective silica deposition on the non-coated surface. Ellipsoidal hematite particles provide a non-centric asymmetry, which is strongly enhanced during the seeded emulsion polymerization. The asymmetric growth of polymers on the hematite particle surface is driven by phase separation phenomena, which lead to a reduction of the interfacial tension. We found the tips of the hematite ellipsoids to be uncovered after polymerization. A selective deposition of silica onto the free tips leads to dumbbell-shaped particles with hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts.

  12. Abdominal compartment syndrome following abdominoplasty: A case report and review

    PubMed Central

    Izadpanah, Arash; Izadpanah, Ali; Karunanayake, Mihiran; Petropolis, Christian; Deckelbaum, Dan L.; Luc, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Abdominoplasty is among the most commonly performed aesthetic procedures in plastic surgery. Despite high complication rate, abdominal contouring procedures are expected to rise in popularity with the advent of bariatric surgery. Patients with a history of gastric bypass surgery have an elevated incidence of small bowel obstruction from internal herniation, which is associated with non-specific upper abdominal pain, nausea, and a decrease in appetite. Internal hernias, when subjected to elevated intra-abdominal pressures, have a high-risk of developing ischemic bowel. We present a case report of patient with previous laparoscopic Roux-en-y gastric bypass who developed acute ischemic bowel leading to abdominal compartment syndrome following abdominoplasty. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature. We herein emphasise on the subtle symptoms and signs that warrant further investigations in prospective patients for an abdominal contouring procedure with a prior history of gastric bypass surgery. PMID:25190927

  13. Abdominal compartment syndrome following abdominoplasty: A case report and review.

    PubMed

    Izadpanah, Arash; Izadpanah, Ali; Karunanayake, Mihiran; Petropolis, Christian; Deckelbaum, Dan L; Luc, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Abdominoplasty is among the most commonly performed aesthetic procedures in plastic surgery. Despite high complication rate, abdominal contouring procedures are expected to rise in popularity with the advent of bariatric surgery. Patients with a history of gastric bypass surgery have an elevated incidence of small bowel obstruction from internal herniation, which is associated with non-specific upper abdominal pain, nausea, and a decrease in appetite. Internal hernias, when subjected to elevated intra-abdominal pressures, have a high-risk of developing ischemic bowel. We present a case report of patient with previous laparoscopic Roux-en-y gastric bypass who developed acute ischemic bowel leading to abdominal compartment syndrome following abdominoplasty. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature. We herein emphasise on the subtle symptoms and signs that warrant further investigations in prospective patients for an abdominal contouring procedure with a prior history of gastric bypass surgery.

  14. Anterior elbow dislocation with potential compartment syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Queipo-de-Llano Temboury, Alfonso; Lara, Jorge Mariscal; Fernadez-de-Rota, Antonio; Queipo-de-Llano, Enrique

    2007-03-01

    Anterior elbow dislocation is an infrequent lesion, usually produced by direct trauma to the proximal ulna after a fall on the elbow in flexion, and is often associated with soft tissue injuries. The authors report a case of a complex injury produced by a high-energy trauma in the right arm of a 65-year-old patient. His limb was trapped inside an industrial spin-dryer, resulting in a closed anterior elbow dislocation, diaphyseal ulnar shaft, radial styloid process fractures, and an associated compartment syndrome. The injury mechanism and its treatment are described to better manage the soft tissue injury and early elbow mobilization using the FEARM hinged external fixator. A good result was achieved, with almost complete restoration of the patient's arm functions, and he has returned to his previous working activities.

  15. Microbial diversity in different compartments of an aquaponics system.

    PubMed

    Schmautz, Zala; Graber, Andreas; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Goesmann, Alexander; Junge, Ranka; Smits, Theo H M

    2017-01-10

    Aquaponics is a solution for sustainable production of fish and plants in a single semi-closed system, where nutrient-rich water from the aquaculture provides nutrients for plant growth. We examined the microbial communities within an experimental aquaponics system. Whereas the fish feces contained a separate community dominated by bacteria of the genus Cetobacterium, the samples from plant roots, biofilter, and periphyton were more similar to each other, while the communities were more diverse. Detailed examination of the data gave the first indications to functional groups of organisms in the different compartments of the aquaponic system. As other nitrifiers other than members of the genus Nitrospira were only present at low numbers, it was anticipated that Nitrospirae may perform the nitrification process in the biofilm.

  16. Regulation of spermatogonial stem cell compartment in the mouse testis.

    PubMed

    Iwamori, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Spermatogenesis occurs throughout the adult lifetime of males and is supported by a robust stem cell system. Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the stem cells of postnatal male germ cells, and not only self-renew but also produce differentiated progeny continuously. Recent report revealed that differentiating spermatogonia could revert into an undifferentiated state, although it was believed that SSCs were homogeneous and that differentiating spermatogonia was not reversible. Although several molecules, which regulate SSC, have been identified so far, molecular mechanisms underlying the maintenance of SSCs as well as the reversible developmental lineage of SSCs remain to be elucidated. In this review, we describe a brief overview of spermatogenesis and summarize the molecular regulation of SSC compartment.

  17. Endocytosis of Epithelial Apical Junctional Proteins by a Clathrin-mediated Pathway into a Unique Storage Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Andrei I.; Nusrat, Asma; Parkos, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    The adherens junction (AJ) and tight junction (TJ) are key regulators of epithelial polarity and barrier function. Loss of epithelial phenotype is accompanied by endocytosis of AJs and TJs via unknown mechanisms. Using a model of calcium depletion, we defined the pathway of internalization of AJ and TJ proteins (E-cadherin, p120 and β-catenins, occludin, JAM-1, claudins 1 and 4, and ZO-1) in T84 epithelial cells. Proteinase protection assay and immunocytochemistry revealed orchestrated internalization of AJs and TJs into a subapical cytoplasmic compartment. Disruption of caveolae/lipid rafts did not prevent endocytosis, nor did caveolin-1 colocalize with internalized junctional proteins. Furthermore, AJ and TJ proteins did not colocalize with the macropinocytosis marker dextran. Inhibitors of clathrin-mediated endocytosis blocked internalization of AJs and TJs, and junctional proteins colocalized with clathrin and α-adaptin. AJ and TJ proteins were observed to enter early endosomes followed by movement to organelles that stained with syntaxin-4 but not with markers of late and recycling endosomes, lysosomes, or Golgi. These results indicate that endocytosis of junctional proteins is a clathrin-mediated process leading into a unique storage compartment. Such mechanisms may mediate the disruption of intercellular contacts during normal tissue remodeling and in pathology. PMID:14528017

  18. A Place for Block Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gary T.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of block play--including its contributions to perceptual, fine motor, and cognitive development--and components of a good preschool block play area. Recommends unit blocks complemented by stacking blocks, toys, beads, cubes, and Brio wooden toys. Makes recommendations for space, size, locations and connections to other…

  19. Native tissue repair for central compartment prolapse: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Paz-Levy, Dorit; Yohay, David; Neymeyer, Joerg; Hizkiyahu, Ranit; Weintraub, Adi Y

    2017-02-01

    Central descent due to a level 1 defect is a main component in pelvic organ prolapse (POP) reconstructive surgery, whether for symptomatic apical prolapse or for the prolapse repair of other compartments. A recent growth in the rate of native tissue repair procedures for POP, following the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warnings regarding the safety and efficacy of synthetic meshes, requires a re-evaluation of these procedures. The safety, efficacy, and determination of the optimal surgical approach should be the center of attention. Functional outcome measures and patient-centered results have lately gained importance and received focus. A comprehensive literature review was performed to evaluate objective and subjective outcomes of apical prolapse native tissue repair, with a special focus on studies reporting impact on patients' functional outcomes, quality of life, and satisfaction. We performed a MEDLINE search for articles in the English language by using the following key words: apical prolapse, sacrospinous ligament fixation, uterosacral ligament suspension, sacral colpopexy, McCall culdoplasty, iliococcygeus vaginal fixation, and functional outcomes. We reviewed references as well. Despite a prominent shortage of studies reporting standardized prospective outcomes for native tissue repair interventions, we noted a high rate of safety and efficacy, with a low complication rate for most procedures and low recurrence or re-treatment rates. The objective and subjective results of different procedures are reviewed. Functional outcomes of native tissue repair procedures have not been studied sufficiently, though existing data present those procedures as favorable and not categorically inferior to sacrocolpopexy. Apical compartment prolapse repair using native tissue is not a compromise. Functional outcomes of native tissue repair procedures are favorable, have a high rate of success, improve women's quality of life (QoL), and result in high rates of

  20. Evolution of trochlear compartment geometry in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Demey, Guillaume; Nover, Luca; Dejour, David

    2016-01-01

    Background The study aimed to compare trochlear profiles in recent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) models and to determine whether they feature improvements compared to their predecessors. The hypothesis was that recent TKA models have more anatomic trochlear compartments and would display no signs of trochlear dysplasia. Methods The authors analyzed the geometry of the 6 following TKA models using engineering software: PFC and Attune (DePuy), NexGen and Persona (Zimmer), Noetos and KneeTec (Tornier). The mediolateral trochlear profiles were plotted at various flexion angles (0°, 15°, 30° and 45°) to deduce the sulcus angle. Results Analysis of sulcus angles reveals general convergence of recent designs towards anatomic values. At 0° of flexion, sulcus angles of recent implant models were between 156.0–157.4°, while those of previous generation models between 154.5–165.5°. At 30° of flexion, sulcus angles of recent models also lie within 145.7–148.6°, but those of previous models are between 149.5–152.0°. All three manufacturers deepened their trochlear profile at 30° of flexion in recent models compared to earlier designs. Sulcus angles converge towards anatomic values but still exceed radiologic signs of dysplasia by 2–5°. Conclusions Recent TKA designs have more anatomic trochlear geometries than earlier TKA models by the same manufacturers, but trochlear compartments still exceed radiologic signs of trochlear dysplasia by 2° to 5°. The hypothesis that recent TKA models display no signs of trochlear dysplasia is therefore refuted. Surgeons should be aware of design limitations to optimize choice of implant and extensor mechanisms alignment. Level of evidence: IV geometric implant analysis. PMID:26855943

  1. Flattening basic blocks.

    SciTech Connect

    Utke, J.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2006-01-01

    The application of cross country elimination strategies requires access to the computational graph or at least subgraphs for certain scopes, e.g. a basic block. Under the presence of aliased variables the construction of these (sub)graphs encounters ambiguities. We propose an algorithm to construct ambiguity free subgraphs.

  2. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  3. Ischemic Nerve Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ian D.

    This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate…

  4. Hawaii Census 2000 Blocks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This data layer represents Census 2000 demographic data derived from the PL94-171 redistricting files and SF3. Census geographic entities include blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Tiger line files are the source of the geometry representing the Census blocks. Attributes include total population counts, racial/ethnic, and poverty/income information. Racial/ethnic classifications are represented in units of blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Poverty and income data are represented in units of blockgroups and tracts. Percentages of each racial/ethnic group have been calculated from the population counts. Total Minority counts and percentages were compiled from each racial/ethnic non-white category. Categories compiled to create the Total Minority count includes the following: African American, Asian, American Indian, Pacific Islander, White Hispanic, Other and all mixed race categories. The percentage poverty attribute represents the percent of the population living at or below poverty level. The per capita income attribute represents the sum of all income within the geographic entity, divided by the total population of that entity. Special fields designed to be used for EJ analysis have been derived from the PL data and include the following: Percentage difference of block, blockgroup and total minority from the state and county averages, percentile rank for each percent total minority within state and county entitie

  5. Concrete Block Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    1967, Cedergren 1974, Federal Highway .’,U .. V,47 -’":: 37 Administration 1980). Block pavements have essentially the same prob- lems with moisture...Vicksburg, Miss. Cedergren , H. R. 1974. Drainage of Highway and Airfield Pavements, John Wiley and Sons, New VOk. I Cement and Concrete Association

  6. Signal Unification Block,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A multichannel device is described for unifying the signals of thermocouples, tachometer generators and tensometers used in conducting tests on...various machines and mechanisms. The device is built on semiconductor instruments and has a block construction, permitting the easy alteration of the number of varieties of the signals being unified.

  7. Management of abdominal compartment syndrome after transurethral resection of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Gaut, Megan M; Ortiz, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Acute abdominal compartment syndrome is most commonly associated with blunt abdominal trauma, although it has been seen after ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, liver transplantation, pancreatitis, and massive volume resuscitation. Acute abdominal compartment syndrome develops once the intra-abdominal pressure increases to 20-25 mmHg and is characterized by an increase in airway pressures, inadequate ventilation and oxygenation, altered renal function, and hemodynamic instability. This case report details the development of acute abdominal compartment syndrome during transurethral resection of the prostate with extra- and intraperitoneal bladder rupture under general anesthesia. The first signs of acute abdominal compartment syndrome in this patient were high peak airway pressures and difficulty delivering tidal volumes. Management of the compartment syndrome included re-intubation, emergent exploratory laparotomy, and drainage of irrigation fluid. Difficulty with ventilation should alert the anesthesiologist to consider abdominal compartment syndrome high in the list of differential diagnoses during any endoscopic bladder or bowel case.

  8. [Management of abdominal compartment syndrome after transurethral resection of the prostate].

    PubMed

    Gaut, Megan M; Ortiz, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Acute abdominal compartment syndrome is most commonly associated with blunt abdominal trauma, although it has been seen after ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, liver transplantation, pancreatitis, and massive volume resuscitation. Acute abdominal compartment syndrome develops once the intra-abdominal pressure increases to 20-25mmHg and is characterized by an increase in airway pressures, inadequate ventilation and oxygenation, altered renal function, and hemodynamic instability. This case report details the development of acute abdominal compartment syndrome during transurethral resection of the prostate with extra- and intraperitoneal bladder rupture under general anesthesia. The first signs of acute abdominal compartment syndrome in this patient were high peak airway pressures and difficulty delivering tidal volumes. Management of the compartment syndrome included re-intubation, emergent exploratory laparotomy, and drainage of irrigation fluid. Difficulty with ventilation should alert the anesthesiologist to consider abdominal compartment syndrome high in the list of differential diagnoses during any endoscopic bladder or bowel case.

  9. Regulation of the Postsynaptic Compartment of Excitatory Synapses by the Actin Cytoskeleton in Health and Its Disruption in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stefen, Holly; Chaichim, Chanchanok

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of synaptic function at excitatory synapses is one of the earliest pathological changes seen in wide range of neurological diseases. The proper control of the segregation of neurotransmitter receptors at these synapses is directly correlated with the intact regulation of the postsynaptic cytoskeleton. In this review, we are discussing key factors that regulate the structure and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton, the major cytoskeletal building block that supports the postsynaptic compartment. Special attention is given to the complex interplay of actin-associated proteins that are found in the synaptic specialization. We then discuss our current understanding of how disruption of these cytoskeletal elements may contribute to the pathological events observed in the nervous system under disease conditions with a particular focus on Alzheimer's disease pathology. PMID:27127658

  10. Lateral compartment translation predicts the grade of pivot shift: a cadaveric and clinical analysis.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Asheesh; Musahl, Volker; Lane, Clayton; Citak, Musa; Warren, Russell F; Pearle, Andrew D

    2010-09-01

    Anterior translation of the lateral compartment was hypothesized to correlate with the clinical grade of a pivot shift maneuver. Using a computer-assisted navigation system, this hypothesis was tested by recording the maximum anterior tibial translation in the medial and lateral compartment as well as the arc of rotation during the pivot shift maneuver. One hundred and fifty-four pivot shift examinations were performed on cadavers with various degrees of instability, and 24 pivot shift exams were performed on patients under anesthesia before and after ACL reconstruction. In all positive pivot shift exams, anterior tibial translations were found to be higher on in the lateral compartment compared to the medial compartment. In addition, an excellent correlation was found between the amount of lateral compartment translation and the clinical grade of the pivot shift; medial compartment translations and amount of knee rotation could not distinguish between clinical grades. Finally, a threshold of 6-7 mm of anterior tibial translation in the lateral compartment was necessary to produce a positive pivot shift. Taken together, these data suggest that monitoring lateral compartment translations during a pivot shift exam may be a convenient means to evaluate the outcomes of ACL surgery and that requisite increases in anterior translation of the lateral compartment are necessary for each progressive clinical grade of the pivot shift examination.

  11. Anomalous supratendinous course of the fifth extensor compartment artery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tracy, C Alan

    2007-12-01

    Vascularized bone grafts have been successfully used in the treatment of carpal bone nonunion and avascular necrosis. The 4 + 5 extensor compartmental vascularized bone graft based on the fourth extensor compartment artery with retrograde blood flow through the fifth extensor compartment artery is the pedicle of choice for vascularized bone grafting of the lunate. This case report describes an anomalous supratendinous course of the fifth extensor compartment artery. The recognition of this anatomic variant is important for the safe dissection of the fifth extensor compartment artery.

  12. EXERTIONAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND PROPOSED REHABILITATION GUIDELINES FOLLOWING SURGICAL RELEASE

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is little published information regarding postoperative management of patients with Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome (CECS). Reports of recurrence of symptoms following surgical decompression exist, and are not uncommon depending on the specific technique used. Recurrence suggests that more time and effort may need to be spent on implementing strategic post-operative rehabilitation management in order to avoid repeat surgical intervention or prolonged symptoms. Objective: To summarize relevant literature regarding CECS and propose scientifically-based guidelines for rehab following compartment release with the rationale based on tissue healing, muscle loading, and scar tissue formation and consideration of all tissues contained in the involved compartment. Literature review: A literature search was performed in PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, PEDRO, and Google Scholar using the phrase: “chronic exertional compartment syndrome.” Results: No specific rehabilitation guidelines following surgical compartment release for lower extremity CECS were found in the literature search performed for this clinical commentary. Discussion: The development of the proposed post-operative guidelines may allow for improved long-term outcomes following anterior compartment release. Summary: Adequate description of long-term follow-up of outcomes following compartment release for CECS is lacking in current literature. The proposed guidelines for rehab following compartment release include consideration of tissue healing, muscle loading, scar tissue formation, and consideration of soft tissues contained in the involved compartment. Utilization of the proposed guidelines may allow for future research to be performed in order to assess outcomes following surgical intervention for CECS. PMID:21713230

  13. Compartment Syndrome of the Hand: A Rare Sequela of Transradial Cardiac Catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Jue, Jennifer; Karam, Joseph A.; Mejia, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    A 64-year-old man who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention via right radial artery access reported right-hand pain and swelling 2 hours after the procedure. He had developed compartment syndrome of the hand, specifically with muscular compromise of the thenar compartment but with no involvement of the forearm. He underwent emergency right-hand compartment release and carpal tunnel release, followed by an uneventful postoperative course. In addition to our patient's case, we discuss compartment syndrome of the hand and related issues. PMID:28265219

  14. Acute thigh compartment syndrome post femoral vein catheterization: a case report.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Mark W

    2008-08-01

    This case report presents a previously unreported etiology of acute thigh compartment syndrome following ipsilateral femoral vein catheterization, including clinical results and a brief review of the literature.

  15. A swollen hand with blisters: a case of compartment syndrome in a child.

    PubMed

    Rios-Alba, Tonatiuh; Ahn, James

    2015-06-01

    The accurate identification of compartment syndrome in the emergency department is essential to timely treatment and prevention of long-term sequela. Recognizing compartment syndrome is not straightforward, especially in the pediatric population. In addition to communication barriers that exist with children, the classic signs of pain, pallor, paresthesia, paralysis, and pulselessness are not always present, making its diagnosis a challenge. We report a case of a child with compartment syndrome to the left hand due to compression from an ACE wrap. The existing literature on compartment syndrome in children is reviewed.

  16. Feature-accelerated block matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Bo; Orchard, Michael T.

    1998-01-01

    We study the relationship between local features and block matching in this paper. We show that the use of many features can greatly improve the block matching results by introducing several fast block matching algorithms. The first algorithm is pixel decimation-based. We show that pixels with larger gradient magnitude have larger motion compensation error. Therefore for pixel decimation-based fast block matching, it benefits to subsample the block by selecting pixels with the largest gradient magnitude. Such a gradient-assisted adaptive pixel selection strategy greatly outperforms two other subsampling procedures proposed in previous literature. Fast block matching can achieve the optimal performance obtained using full search. We present a family of such fast block matching algorithm using various local features, such as block mean and variance. Our algorithm reduces more than 80 percent computation, while achieving the same performance as the full search. This present a brand new approach toward fast block matching algorithm design.

  17. Recovery from blocking between outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Daniel S; Miller, Ralph R

    2005-10-01

    Contemporary associative learning research largely focuses on cue competition phenomena that occur when 2 cues are paired with a common outcome. Little research has been conducted to investigate similar phenomena occurring when a single cue is trained with 2 outcomes. Three conditioned lick suppression experiments with rats assessed whether treatments known to alleviate blocking between cues would also attenuate blocking between outcomes. In Experiment 1, conditioned responding recovered from blocking between outcomes when a long retention interval was interposed between training and testing. Experiment 2 obtained recovery from blocking between outcomes when the blocking outcome was extinguished after the blocking treatment. In Experiment 3, a recovery from blocking between outcomes occurred when a reminder stimulus was presented in a novel context prior to testing. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that blocking of outcomes, like blocking of cues, appears to be caused by a deficit in the expression of an acquired association.

  18. NCCN Evidence Blocks.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Robert W; Jonasch, Eric

    2016-05-01

    NCCN has developed a series of Evidence Blocks: graphics that provide ratings for each recommended treatment regimen in terms of efficacy, toxicity, quality and consistency of the supporting data, and affordability. The NCCN Evidence Blocks are currently available in 10 tumor types within the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines). At a glance, patients and providers can understand how a given treatment was assessed by the NCCN Guidelines Panel and get a sense of how a given treatment may match individual needs and preferences. Robert W. Carlson, MD, CEO of NCCN, described the reasoning behind this new feature and how the tool is used, and Eric Jonasch, MD, Professor of Genitourinary Medical Oncology at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and Vice Chair of the NCCN Kidney Cancer Panel, described its applicability in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

  19. Thermal blocking of preheating

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, Rose; Tranberg, Anders E-mail: anders.tranberg@uis.no

    2015-04-01

    The parametric resonance responsible for preheating after inflation will end when self-interactions of the resonating field and interactions of this field with secondary degrees of freedom become important. In many cases, the effect may be quantified in terms of an effective mass and the resulting shifting out of the spectrum of the strongest resonance band. In certain curvaton models, such thermal blocking can even occur before preheating has begun, delaying or even preventing the decay of the curvaton. We investigate numerically to what extent this thermal blocking is realised in a specific scenario, and whether the effective mass is well approximated by the perturbative leading order thermal mass. We find that the qualitative behaviour is well reproduced in this approximation, and that the end of preheating can be confidently estimated.

  20. Liquid blocking check valve

    DOEpatents

    Merrill, John T.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid blocking check valve useful particularly in a pneumatic system utilizing a pressurized liquid fill chamber. The valve includes a floatable ball disposed within a housing defining a chamber. The housing is provided with an inlet aperture disposed in the top of said chamber, and an outlet aperture disposed in the bottom of said chamber in an offset relation to said inlet aperture and in communication with a cutaway side wall section of said housing.

  1. Intraocular radiation blocking

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, P.T.; Ho, T.K.; Fastenberg, D.M.; Hyman, R.A.; Stroh, E.M.; Packer, S.; Perry, H.D. )

    1990-09-01

    Iodine-based liquid radiographic contrast agents were placed in normal and tumor-bearing (Greene strain) rabbit eyes to evaluate their ability to block iodine-125 radiation. This experiment required the procedures of tumor implantation, vitrectomy, air-fluid exchange, and 125I plaque and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) chip implantation. The authors quantified the amount of radiation attenuation provided by intraocularly placed contrast agents with in vivo dosimetry. After intraocular insertion of a blocking agent or sham blocker (saline) insertion, episcleral 125I plaques were placed across the eye from episcleral TLD dosimeters. This showed that radiation attenuation occurred after blocker insertion compared with the saline controls. Then computed tomographic imaging techniques were used to describe the relatively rapid transit time of the aqueous-based iohexol compared with the slow transit time of the oil-like iophendylate. Lastly, seven nontumor-bearing eyes were primarily examined for blocking agent-related ocular toxicity. Although it was noted that iophendylate induced intraocular inflammation and retinal degeneration, all iohexol-treated eyes were similar to the control eyes at 7 and 31 days of follow-up. Although our study suggests that intraocular radiopaque materials can be used to shield normal ocular structures during 125I plaque irradiation, a mechanism to keep these materials from exiting the eye must be devised before clinical application.

  2. Facile synthesis of dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doermbach, Karla; Pich, Andrij

    2015-05-01

    In this article we report on the controlled synthesis of asymmetric lemon-shaped and dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles (MCPs) with a reactive surface and interesting morphology. In our approach we utilize partial coating of hematite ellipsoids with a hydrophobic polymer layer followed by selective silica deposition on the non-coated surface. Ellipsoidal hematite particles provide a non-centric asymmetry, which is strongly enhanced during the seeded emulsion polymerization. The asymmetric growth of polymers on the hematite particle surface is driven by phase separation phenomena, which lead to a reduction of the interfacial tension. We found the tips of the hematite ellipsoids to be uncovered after polymerization. A selective deposition of silica onto the free tips leads to dumbbell-shaped particles with hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts.In this article we report on the controlled synthesis of asymmetric lemon-shaped and dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles (MCPs) with a reactive surface and interesting morphology. In our approach we utilize partial coating of hematite ellipsoids with a hydrophobic polymer layer followed by selective silica deposition on the non-coated surface. Ellipsoidal hematite particles provide a non-centric asymmetry, which is strongly enhanced during the seeded emulsion polymerization. The asymmetric growth of polymers on the hematite particle surface is driven by phase separation phenomena, which lead to a reduction of the interfacial tension. We found the tips of the hematite ellipsoids to be uncovered after polymerization. A selective deposition of silica onto the free tips leads to dumbbell-shaped particles with hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM images of silica coating without a polymer layer, experiments for removal of the polymer by solvent extraction, TEM images of spherical α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with an asymmetric PSGD coating, and additional FESEM

  3. View southeast of caps for blocks for JFK; blocks are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast of caps for blocks for JFK; blocks are used to support ship when it is repositioned to paint inaccessible areas masked by original support blocks. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Carpentry Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Structure and Function of the Perinucleolar Compartment in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Slusarczyk, A.; Kamath, R.; Wang, C.; Anchel, D.; Pollock, C.; Lewandowska, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Bazett-Jones, D.P.; Huang, S.

    2014-01-01

    The perinucleolar compartment (PNC) is a subnuclear body that forms in cancer cells. In vivo analyses using human tumor tissues demonstrate a close correlation between PNC prevalence and disease progress in colorectal carcinoma, and a high PNC prevalence is associated with poor patient outcome. These findings are consistent with previous observations in breast cancer and cancer cell lines in vitro. The PNC is composed of thick strands that form a filamental meshwork often extending into the nucleolus. Although it appears to be electron dense as observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the actual density of the structure imaged by electron spectroscopy is much lower, similar to that of the interchromatin space, and is lined with ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). In situ detections show that the PNC is highly enriched with a subset of small RNAs of polymerase III (Pol III) origins and RNA-binding proteins primarily implicated in pre-mRNA processing. A novel gel-shifting approach demonstrates that the addition of PNC-associated RNAs into HeLa cell lysates increases the mobility of polypyrimidine tract-binding (PTB) protein in a native gel electrophoresis, suggesting an interaction between these RNAs and PTB proteins. On the basis of these and other findings, we propose a working model in which novel RNPs have a key role in regulating gene expression at the PNC in cancer cells. PMID:21289045

  5. Essential role of the chaperonin folding compartment in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yun-Chi; Chang, Hung-Chun; Chakraborty, Kausik; Hartl, F Ulrich; Hayer-Hartl, Manajit

    2008-01-01

    The GroEL/GroES chaperonin system of Escherichia coli forms a nano-cage allowing single protein molecules to fold in isolation. However, as the chaperonin can also mediate folding independently of substrate encapsulation, it remained unclear whether the folding cage is essential in vivo. To address this question, we replaced wild-type GroEL with mutants of GroEL having either a reduced cage volume or altered charge properties of the cage wall. A stepwise reduction in cage size resulted in a gradual loss of cell viability, although the mutants bound non-native protein efficiently. Strikingly, a mild reduction in cage size increased the yield and the apparent rate of green fluorescent protein folding, consistent with the view that an effect of steric confinement can accelerate folding. As shown in vitro, the observed acceleration of folding was dependent on protein encapsulation by GroES but independent of GroES cycling regulated by the GroEL ATPase. Altering the net-negative charge of the GroEL cage wall also strongly affected chaperonin function. Based on these findings, the GroEL/GroES compartment is essential for protein folding in vivo. PMID:18418386

  6. Prelysosomal Compartments in the Unconventional Secretion of Amyloidogenic Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Borland, Helena; Vilhardt, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    A mechanistic link between neuron-to-neuron transmission of secreted amyloid and propagation of protein malconformation cytopathology and disease has recently been uncovered in animal models. An enormous interest in the unconventional secretion of amyloids from neurons has followed. Amphisomes and late endosomes are the penultimate maturation products of the autophagosomal and endosomal pathways, respectively, and normally fuse with lysosomes for degradation. However, under conditions of perturbed membrane trafficking and/or lysosomal deficiency, prelysosomal compartments may instead fuse with the plasma membrane to release any contained amyloid. After a brief introduction to the endosomal and autophagosomal pathways, we discuss the evidence for autophagosomal secretion (exophagy) of amyloids, with a comparative emphasis on Aβ1–42 and α-synuclein, as luminal and cytosolic amyloids, respectively. The ESCRT-mediated import of cytosolic amyloid into late endosomal exosomes, a known vehicle of transmission of macromolecules between cells, is also reviewed. Finally, mechanisms of lysosomal dysfunction, deficiency, and exocytosis are exemplified in the context of genetically identified risk factors, mainly for Parkinson’s disease. Exocytosis of prelysosomal or lysosomal organelles is a last resort for clearance of cytotoxic material and alleviates cytopathy. However, they also represent a vehicle for the concentration, posttranslational modification, and secretion of amyloid seeds. PMID:28124989

  7. Shigella subverts the host recycling compartment to rupture its vacuole.

    PubMed

    Mellouk, Nora; Weiner, Allon; Aulner, Nathalie; Schmitt, Christine; Elbaum, Michael; Shorte, Spencer L; Danckaert, Anne; Enninga, Jost

    2014-10-08

    Shigella enters epithlial cells via internalization into a vacuole. Subsequent vacuolar membrane rupture allows bacterial escape into the cytosol for replication and cell-to-cell spread. Bacterial effectors such as IpgD, a PI(4,5)P2 phosphatase that generates PI(5)P and alters host actin, facilitate this internalization. Here, we identify host proteins involved in Shigella uptake and vacuolar membrane rupture by high-content siRNA screening and subsequently focus on Rab11, a constituent of the recycling compartment. Rab11-positive vesicles are recruited to the invasion site before vacuolar rupture, and Rab11 knockdown dramatically decreases vacuolar membrane rupture. Additionally, Rab11 recruitment is absent and vacuolar rupture is delayed in the ipgD mutant that does not dephosphorylate PI(4,5)P₂ into PI(5)P. Ultrastructural analyses of Rab11-positive vesicles further reveal that ipgD mutant-containing vacuoles become confined in actin structures that likely contribute to delayed vacular rupture. These findings provide insight into the underlying molecular mechanism of vacuole progression and rupture during Shigella invasion.

  8. Status of the International Space Station Waste and Hygiene Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Stephanie; Zahner, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) serves as the primary system for removal and containment of metabolic waste and hygiene activities on board the United States segment of the International Space Station (ISS). The WHC was launched on ULF 2 and is currently in the U.S. Laboratory and is integrated into the Water Recovery System (WRS) where pretreated urine is processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The waste collection part of the WHC system is derived from the Service Module system and was provided by RSC-Energia along with additional hardware to allow for urine delivery to the UPA. The System has been integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure for use on the U.S. segment of the ISS. The system has experienced several events of interest during the deployment, checkout, and operation of the system during its first year of use and these will be covered in this paper. Design and on-orbit performance will also be discussed.

  9. International Space Station USOS Waste and Hygiene Compartment Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Gelmis, Karen; Philistine, Cynthia; Balistreri, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides human waste collection and hygiene facilities in the Russian Segment Service Module (SM) which supports a three person crew. Additional hardware is planned for the United States Operational Segment (USOS) to support expansion of the crew to six person capability. The additional hardware will be integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure that was planned to be installed in the Node 3 element; however, the ISS Program Office recently directed implementation of the rack, or Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), into the U.S. Laboratory element to provide early operational capability. In this configuration, preserved urine from the WHC waste collection system can be processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) in either the U.S. Lab or Node 3 to recover water for crew consumption or oxygen production. The human waste collection hardware is derived from the Service Module system and is provided by RSC-Energia. This paper describes the concepts, design, and integration of the WHC waste collection hardware into the USOS including integration with U.S. Lab and Node 3 systems.

  10. Electrical Dissipative Structures in Membrane-Coupled Compartment Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feudel, U.; Feistel, R.; Ebeling, W.

    Reaction-diffusion systems with charged particles are studied. Conditions for the arising of electrical dissipative structures in a compartment system consisting of two boxes separated by a membrane are derived. The appearance of a polar dissipative structure is proved for a simple capacitor model in combination with a simple second order chemical kinetics which leads to an analytically solvable problem. Electrical dissipative structures can in principle be considered as non equilibrium electrical batteries. The theoretical efficiency of such batteries is estimated.Translated AbstractElektrische Dissipative Strukturen in Membrangekoppelten SystemenEs werden Reaktions-Diffusionssysteme mit geladenen Teilchen studiert. Bedingungen für die Entstehung elektrischer dissipativer Strukturen in einem Kompartment-System, bestehend aus zwei durch eine Membran getrennten Zellen werden abgeleitet. Die Entstehung einer polaren dissipativen Struktur wird für ein einfaches Kondensatorenmodell in Kombination mit einer einfachen chemischen Kinetik, das analytische Lösbarkeit gestattet, nachgewiesen. Elektrische dissipative Strukturen können im Prinzip als elektrische Batterien fern von Gleichgewicht betrachtet werden. Der theoretische Wirkungsgrad einer solchen Batterie wird berechnet.

  11. Are hydrodynamic interactions screened in spherically confined micro-compartments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aponte-Rivera, Christian; Zia, Roseanna

    2016-11-01

    We study diffusion of hydrodynamically interacting particles confined by a spherical cavity via dynamic simulation, as a model for intracellular transport. Previous models of 3D confined transport typically assume that hydrodynamic interactions are screened and thus can be neglected, but such assumptions lead to qualitative errors in predictive models. Recent studies show that crowding does not screen hydrodynamic entrainment of freely diffusing particles in unbound suspensions, and that diffusing near a planar wall can weaken (but does not screen) hydrodynamic entrainment. Biophysical and other confined suspensions are crowded, watery compartments, suggesting a role of both crowding and confinement in hydrodynamic entrainment. In the present work, we utilize our new computational framework to study the effect of 3D micro-confinement on particle entrainment, and whether such entrainment is algebraically screened. We measure the hydrodynamic entrainment of one particle in the flow induced by another, in suspensions of arbitrary concentration. We find that the strength of entrainment varies spatially in the cavity, changes qualitatively with the size of the confined particles relative to the enclosure, but varies only quantitatively with the concentration of particles.

  12. 46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017 Section 171.017 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS General § 171.017 One and two compartment standards of flooding. (a) One...

  13. 14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121.576 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The certificate holder...

  14. 14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121.576 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The certificate holder...

  15. 14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121.576 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The certificate holder...

  16. 14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121.576 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The certificate holder...

  17. 19 CFR 18.4 - Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... transported is waived under paragraph (a) or (b) of this section. When the packages are shipped in a railroad... or compartments in which carload lots of bonded merchandise are transported shall be sealed with... conveyances or compartments in which bonded merchandise is transported in other cases when in his opinion...

  18. 46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL. 32.70-20 Section 32.70..., 1936 § 32.70-20 Pump-engine compartment—TB/ALL. No cofferdam will be required between a cargo tank and a compartment containing pumping engines and their auxiliaries which are used exclusively...

  19. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  20. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  1. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  2. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  3. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  4. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... detection systems. 25.858 Section 25.858 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  5. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... detection systems. 25.858 Section 25.858 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  6. Posterior thigh compartment syndrome as a result of a basketball injury.

    PubMed

    Mallo, Gregory C; Stanat, Scott J C; Al-Humadi, Mohaned; Divaris, Nicholas

    2009-12-01

    Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh is a serious although rare occurrence that was sparsely documented in the orthopedic literature until Schwartz et al reported on a series of 21 cases. Although classically associated with high-energy femur fracture, thigh contusion, or the use of military anti-shock trousers, compartment syndrome of the thigh has recently been diagnosed in seemingly low-energy injuries. A complete hamstring avulsion from its ischial origin during routine ambulation and rupture of the quadriceps tendon after a low-energy fall have been shown to result in compartment syndrome. In light of the potential medicolegal ramifications surrounding the diagnosis of compartment syndrome, emergency room consultations to rule out compartment syndrome are on the rise. Specifically, the time to fasciotomy was found to be linearly related to indemnity payment, and a fasciotomy performed within 8 hours was uniformly associated with a successful defense. This article describes a case of a 29-year-old healthy man who developed posterior thigh compartment syndrome as a result of an intrasubstance tear of the biceps femoris muscle sustained while attempting a lay-up during a recreational basketball game. His posterior thigh compartment pressure measured 70 mm Hg and he required emergent posterior thigh compartment fasciotomy.

  7. Compartments in a marine food web associated with phylogeny, body mass, and habitat structure.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Enrico L; Albert, Eva M; Fortuna, Miguel A; Bascompte, Jordi

    2009-08-01

    A long-standing question in community ecology is whether food webs are organized in compartments, where species within the same compartment interact frequently among themselves, but show fewer interactions with species from other compartments. Finding evidence for this community organization is important since compartmentalization may strongly affect food web robustness to perturbation. However, few studies have found unequivocal evidence of compartments, and none has quantified the suite of mechanisms generating such a structure. Here, we combine computational tools from the physics of complex networks with phylogenetic statistical methods to show that a large marine food web is organized in compartments, and that body size, phylogeny, and spatial structure are jointly associated with such a compartmentalized structure. Sharks account for the majority of predatory interactions within their compartments. Phylogenetically closely related shark species tend to occupy different compartments and have divergent trophic levels, suggesting that competition may play an important role structuring some of these compartments. Current overfishing of sharks has the potential to change the structural properties, which might eventually affect the stability of the food web.

  8. 19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE § 24.13 Car, compartment.... ports as provided in §§ 123.24 and 123.51 of this chapter shall be stamped for use on railroad cars,...

  9. 19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE § 24.13 Car, compartment.... ports as provided in §§ 123.24 and 123.51 of this chapter shall be stamped for use on railroad cars,...

  10. 19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE § 24.13 Car, compartment.... ports as provided in §§ 123.24 and 123.51 of this chapter shall be stamped for use on railroad cars,...

  11. 19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE § 24.13 Car, compartment.... ports as provided in §§ 123.24 and 123.51 of this chapter shall be stamped for use on railroad cars,...

  12. 76 FR 10476 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Crew-Rest Compartment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... Crew- Rest Compartment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final special... will have novel or unusual design features associated with installation of an overhead crew-rest (OCR... Sec. 21.101. Novel or Unusual Design Features Crew-rest compartments have been installed...

  13. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    MedlinePlus

    ... and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... The eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ear (the space deep to the eardrum) and the back of the ...

  14. Anatomical compartments of the parasellar region: adipose tissue bodies represent intracranial continuations of extracranial spaces

    PubMed Central

    WENINGER, WOLFGANG J.; STREICHER, JOHANNES; MÜLLER, GERD B.

    1997-01-01

    The cavernous sinus is traditionally described as a single anatomical compartment that contains cranial nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue. A detailed analysis of 45 infant and 4 fetal parasellar regions shows that this view must be modified. The spatial arrangement, the topographic relations, and the expansion of the adipose and connective tissue spaces were analysed and reconstructed 3-dimensionally on a computer. It is shown that 3 different anatomical compartments, which are strictly demarcated by connective tissue, compose the parasellar region of infants. Two represent intracranial continuations of extracranial tissue spaces. The 3rd compartment corresponds to the so-called ‘cavernous sinus’ of the adult. Each of the 3 compartments contains characteristic adipose tissue bodies. Because the cavernous sinus represents only one compartment of the area, we propose to use the term ‘parasellar region’ to designate the entire anatomical region on either side of the sella turcica. PMID:9306202

  15. Current concepts in the pathophysiology, evaluation, and diagnosis of compartment syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Mubarak, S. J.

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews present knowledge of the pathophysiology and diagnosis of acute compartment syndromes. Recent results using compression of legs in normal volunteers provide objective data concerning local pressure thresholds for neuromuscular dysfunction in the anterior compartment. Results with this model indicate that a progression of neuromuscular deficits occurs when IMP increases to within 35 to 40 mm Hg of diastolic blood pressure. These findings provide useful information on the diagnosis and compression thresholds for acute compartment syndromes. Time factors are also important, however, and usually are incompletely known in most cases of acute compartment syndrome. Although the slit catheter is a very good technique for monitoring IMP during rest, these catheters and their associated extracorporeal transducer systems are not ideal. Recently developed miniature transducer-tipped catheters and, perhaps, future development of noninvasive techniques may provide accurate recordings of IMP in patients with acute compartment syndromes.

  16. Non-traumatic compartment syndrome secondary to deep vein thrombosis and anticoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Peter Alexander; Deo, Sunny

    2014-01-01

    We describe an unusual case of non-traumatic compartment syndrome in three compartments of the left lower limb in a 57-year-old male inpatient. He had recently been started on anticoagulation therapy for multiple pulmonary emboli and deep vein thrombosis of the left posterior tibial and peroneal veins. Three of the four osteofascial compartments had pressures above 70 mm Hg, hence four compartment fasciotomies were performed. Postoperatively, intravenous heparin therapy was started resulting in a significant blood loss, but he had no neurovascular deficit. At reoperation, for primary wound closure, his tissues looked healthy. Non-traumatic causes of acute compartment syndrome, including deep venous thrombosis and anticoagulation, are considered. PMID:24443334

  17. Fermion-scalar conformal blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-04-13

    In this study, we compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermionfermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called ‘seed blocks’ in three dimensions. In addition, conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  18. Porous block nanofiber composite filters

    SciTech Connect

    Ginley, David S.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Weiss, Alan J.; Paddock, Arnold

    2016-08-09

    Porous block nano-fiber composite (110), a filtration system (10) and methods of using the same are disclosed. An exemplary porous block nano-fiber composite (110) includes a porous block (100) having one or more pores (200). The porous block nano-fiber composite (110) also includes a plurality of inorganic nano-fibers (211) formed within at least one of the pores (200).

  19. CORE SATURATION BLOCKING OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Spinrad, R.J.

    1961-10-17

    A blocking oscillator which relies on core saturation regulation to control the output pulse width is described. In this arrangement an external magnetic loop is provided in which a saturable portion forms the core of a feedback transformer used with the thermionic or semi-conductor active element. A first stationary magnetic loop establishes a level of flux through the saturation portion of the loop. A second adjustable magnet moves the flux level to select a saturation point giving the desired output pulse width. (AEC)

  20. Building Curriculum during Block Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Blocks are not just for play! In this article, Nicole Andrews describes observing the interactions of three young boys enthusiastically engaged in the kindergarten block center of their classroom, using blocks in a building project that displayed their ability to use critical thinking skills, physics exploration, and the development of language…

  1. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; Wang, Junpu

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T] also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock space exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.

  2. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    DOE PAGES

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; ...

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T]ℓ also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock spacemore » exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.« less

  3. Solar power building block

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, W.T.

    1982-04-20

    A building unit for exterior walls and the like comprising a molded block of glass having a recess in the side face which is to face the exterior, the recess having a side wall and an open outer end on which a fresnel lens is disposed, the inner end of the recess having a solar cell disposed therein so that sunlight passing through the fresnel lens impinges on the solar cell for the generation of electric power together with a battery disposed within a cavity molded in the block connected by a circuit to the solar cell for storing the generated electric power for subsequent use as needed in a residence or the like. A further embodiment has attached to the interior wall a black painted duct containing vertical radiant fins. This unit contains a ''window'' through which the concentrated radiation is directed by the lens arrangement of the side walls and front lens to create a highly energetic radiant impingement upon the black duct heating it. Air flowing vertically in the duct is used for heating of interior air or removal of superheated interior air by using the force of the rising air for an '' air cooling'' effect.

  4. Metabolic reprogramming and two-compartment tumor metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Chiavarina, Barbara; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Howell, Anthony; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Pestell, Richard G.; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1α and 2α are transcription factors responsible for the cellular response to hypoxia. The functional roles of HIF1α and HIF2α in cancer are distinct and vary among different tumor types. The aim of this study was to evaluate the compartment-specific role(s) of HIF1α and HIF2α in breast cancer. To this end, immortalized human fibroblasts and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells carrying constitutively active HIF1α or HIF2α mutants were analyzed with respect to their metabolic function(s) and ability to promote tumor growth in an in vivo setting. We observed that activation of HIF1α, but not HIF2α, in stromal cells promotes a shift toward aerobic glycolysis, with increased L-lactate production and a loss of mitochondrial activity. In a xenograft model, HIF1α-activated fibroblasts promoted the tumor growth of co-injected MDA-MB-231 cells without an increase in angiogenesis. Conversely, HIF2α-activated stromal cells did not favor tumor growth and behaved as the empty vector controls. Similarly, activation of HIF1α, but not HIF2α, in MDA-MB-231 cells promoted a shift toward aerobic glycolysis, with increased glucose uptake and L-lactate production. In contrast, HIF2α activation in cancer cells increased the expression of EGFR, Ras and cyclin D1, which are known markers of tumor growth and cell cycle progression. In a xenograft model, HIF1α activation in MDA-MB-231 cells acted as a tumor suppressor, resulting in an almost 2-fold reduction in tumor mass and volume. Interestingly, HIF2α activation in MDA-MB-231 cells induced a significant ~2-fold-increase in tumor mass and volume. Analysis of mitochondrial activity in these tumor xenografts using COX (cytochrome C oxidase) staining demonstrated elevated mitochondrial oxidative metabolism (OXPHOS) in HIF2α-tumors. We conclude that the role(s) of HIF1α and HIF2α in tumorigenesis are compartment-specific. HIF1α acts as a tumor promoter in stromal cells but as a tumor suppressor in

  5. A theoretical compartment model for antigen kinetics in the skin.

    PubMed

    Römgens, Anne M; Bader, Dan L; Bouwstra, Joke A; Oomens, Cees W J

    2016-03-10

    The skin is a promising location for vaccination with its abundant population of antigen capturing and presenting cells. The development of new techniques, such as the use of microneedles, can facilitate the delivery of vaccines into the skin. In recent years, many different types of microneedle arrays have been designed. However, their geometry and arrangement within an array may be optimized to trigger sufficient antigen presenting cells. A computational model can support the rational design of microneedle arrays. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to describe the distribution and kinetics of a delivered antigen within the skin using a theoretical compartment model, which included binding of antigens to receptors and their uptake by cells, and to determine which parameters should be measured to validate the model for a specific application. Multiple simulations were performed using a high and low antigen delivery dose and a range of values for the rate constants. The results indicated that the cells were highly saturated when a high dose was applied, while for a low dose saturation was only reached in 5% of the simulations. This was caused by the difference in the ratio between the administered dose and the available binding sites and suggests the dose should be adapted to the number of cells and receptors for a specific compound. The sensitivity analysis of the model parameters confirmed that the initial dose and receptor concentrations were indeed the two parameters that had the largest influence on the variance in antigen concentrations within the cells and circulation at equilibrium. Hence, these parameters are important to be measured in vivo. The presented pharmacokinetics model can be used in future computational models to predict the influence of microneedle array geometry to optimize their design.

  6. Coastal Ecosystem Integrated Compartment Model (ICM): Modeling Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meselhe, E. A.; White, E. D.; Reed, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Compartment Model (ICM) was developed as part of the 2017 Coastal Master Plan modeling effort. It is a comprehensive and numerical hydrodynamic model coupled to various geophysical process models. Simplifying assumptions related to some of the flow dynamics are applied to increase the computational efficiency of the model. The model can be used to provide insights about coastal ecosystems and evaluate restoration strategies. It builds on existing tools where possible and incorporates newly developed tools where necessary. It can perform decadal simulations (~ 50 years) across the entire Louisiana coast. It includes several improvements over the approach used to support the 2012 Master Plan, such as: additional processes in the hydrology, vegetation, wetland and barrier island morphology subroutines, increased spatial resolution, and integration of previously disparate models into a single modeling framework. The ICM includes habitat suitability indices (HSIs) to predict broad spatial patterns of habitat change, and it provides an additional integration to a dynamic fish and shellfish community model which quantitatively predicts potential changes in important fishery resources. It can be used to estimate the individual and cumulative effects of restoration and protection projects on the landscape, including a general estimate of water levels associated with flooding. The ICM is also used to examine possible impacts of climate change and future environmental scenarios (e.g. precipitation, Eustatic sea level rise, subsidence, tropical storms, etc.) on the landscape and on the effectiveness of restoration projects. The ICM code is publically accessible, and coastal restoration and protection groups interested in planning-level modeling are encouraged to explore its utility as a computationally efficient tool to examine ecosystem response to future physical or ecological changes, including the implementation of restoration and protection strategies.

  7. Nerve blocks for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Hayek, Salim M; Shah, Atit

    2014-10-01

    Nerve blocks are often performed as therapeutic or palliative interventions for pain relief. However, they are often performed for diagnostic or prognostic purposes. When considering nerve blocks for chronic pain, clinicians must always consider the indications, risks, benefits, and proper technique. Nerve blocks encompass a wide variety of interventional procedures. The most common nerve blocks for chronic pain and that may be applicable to the neurosurgical patient population are reviewed in this article. This article is an introduction and brief synopsis of the different available blocks that can be offered to a patient.

  8. Humanoid by ROBO-BLOCK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niimi, Hirofumi; Koike, Minoru; Takeuchi, Seiichi; Douhara, Noriyoshi

    2007-12-01

    Humanoid by ROBO-BLOCK (robot block system) and the rational formula of robots were proposed. ROBO-BLOCK is composed of servo motors, the parts for servomotor rotor, the brackets for servomotor fixation, the board parts and the controllers. A robot can be assembled easily by ROBO-BLOCK. Meanwhile, it is convenient when the structure of the robot can be described easily as a character. The whole structure of the robot is expressed as rational formula of the robot to show molecule structure in chemistry. ROBO-BLOCK can be useful for not only the research but also the education. Creative student experiment was done in the college of industrial technology.

  9. Block loss for ATM video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Sze K.; Leon-Garcia, Alberto

    1993-10-01

    In BISDN, the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) requires all information to be represented as a sequence of standard data units called cells. Cell los is inherent in ATM networks due to the cell header corruption and buffer overflow in the network. Several studies have shown that cell losses are bursty for an ATM network. In this work, we encoded real video sequences with a variable bit-rate (VBR) version of the H.261 video encoder in order for us to determine the relationship between blocks in a video frame and the number of ATM cells generated. We then considered the impact of bursty cell losses on image block loss probability. Block loss distributions are given at different codec and channel parameters. We also obtained block loss results using a cell loss correction scheme. Three sequences were analyzed to obtain the cumulative block loss probability distribution. Similar maximum and minimum block loss probability values were obtained for each sequence. The block loss probability distribution varies according to the amount and type of motion present in each sequence. We show that the block loss is confined to one group of blocks (GOB). The maximum block loss probability can be two orders of magnitude larger than the channel cell loss probability. By using the cell loss correction scheme, block loss was reduced to a level equivalent to reducing cell loss probability by five orders of magnitude.

  10. Isolation of the lateral border recycling compartment using a diaminobenzidine-induced density shift.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, David P; Rüffer, Claas; Muller, William A

    2014-09-01

    The migration of leukocytes across the endothelium and into tissue is critical to mounting an inflammatory response. The lateral border recycling compartment (LBRC), a complex vesicular-tubule invagination of the plasma membrane found at endothelial cell borders, plays an important role in this process. Although a few proteins have been shown to be present in the LBRC, no unique marker is known. Here, we detail methods that can be used to characterize a subcellular compartment that lacks an identifying marker. Initial characterization of the LBRC was performed using standard subcellular fractionation with sucrose gradients and took advantage of the observation that the compartment migrated at a lower density than other membrane compartments. To isolate larger quantities of the compartment, we modified a classic technique known as a diaminobenzidine (DAB)-induced density shift. The DAB-induced density shift allowed for specific isolation of membranes labeled with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated antibody. Because the LBRC could be differentially labeled at 4 °C and 37 °C, we were able to identify proteins that are enriched in the compartment, despite lacking a unique marker. These methods serve as a model to others studying poorly characterized compartments and organelles and are applicable to a wide variety of biological systems.

  11. Characterization and comparison of the bacterial microbiota in different gastrointestinal tract compartments in horses.

    PubMed

    Costa, M C; Silva, G; Ramos, R V; Staempfli, H R; Arroyo, L G; Kim, P; Weese, J S

    2015-07-01

    The advance of new sequencing technologies has allowed more comprehensive characterization of complex microbial communities, including the ones inhabiting the intestinal tract. The presence of extreme environmental filters, such as low pH, digestive enzymes and anaerobic conditions along the tract, acts on the selection of unique bacteria in each compartment. The intestinal microbiota has an enormous impact on the maintenance of health. However, data about the bacteria present in the different intestinal compartments of horses are sparse. In this study, high throughput sequencing was used to characterize and compare bacterial profiles from different intestinal compartments of 11 horses scheduled for euthanasia for reasons other than gastrointestinal problems. Marked differences among compartments even at high taxonomic levels were found, with Firmicutes comprising the main bacterial phylum in all compartments. Lactobacillus spp. and Sarcina spp. predominated in the stomach and a marked increase of Streptococcus spp. occurred in the duodenum. Actinobacillus and Clostridium sensu stricto were the most abundant genera in the ileum and '5 genus incertae sedis', a genus from the Subdivision 5 class of the Verrucomicrobia, was the most abundant from the large colon through feces. There was a significant increase in diversity towards the distal gut with similar profiles observed from the cecum through feces at the class level. The bacterial population comprising the equine intestinal tract varies greatly among compartments and fecal samples may be useful as representative of changes occurring in the distal compartments.

  12. Radiation Blocking Lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Biomedical Optical Company of America's Eagle 475 lens absorbs 100 percent of all photowavelengths considered hazardous to eye tissue, including ultraviolet and blue light, which are considered contributors to cataract and age-related macular degeneration. The lens absorbs hazardous wavelengths, but allows a higher percentage of visually useful areas of the spectrum to pass through. Polarization blocks out irritating glint and glare and heightens visual acuity. The Eagle 475 sunglasses are the latest in a series of spinoffs that originated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory where two scientists developed a protective, welding curtain that filtered out harmful irradiance. The result was a commercial curtain that absorbs filters and scatters light, providing protection for personnel in welding areas. Further research focused on protective industrial glasses and later on consumer products.

  13. Atomic Basic Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  14. Baroplastic Block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewlett, Sheldon A.

    2005-03-01

    Block copolymers with rubbery and glassy components have been observed to have pressure induced miscibility. These microphase-separated materials, termed baroplastics, were able to flow and be processed at temperatures below the Tg of the glassy component by simple compression molding and extrusion. Diblock and triblock copolymers of polystyrene and poly(butyl acrylate) or poly(2-ethyl hexyl acrylate) were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and processed at room temperature into well defined transparent objects. SAXS and SANS measurements demonstrated partial mixing between components as a result of pressure during processing. DSC results also show the presence of distinct domains even after several processing cycles. Their mechanical properties after processing were tested and compared with commercial thermoplastic elastomers.

  15. Optic nerve: Separating compartments based on 23Na TQF spectra and TQF-diffusion anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliav, Uzi; Xu, Xiang; Jerschow, Alexej; Navon, Gil

    2013-06-01

    We present a triple quantum filtered (TQF) sodium spectroscopy study of an excised bovine optic nerve. By choosing proper experimental parameters, this technique allowed us to independently observe the satellite transitions originating from the various compartments in the tissue. TQF-based diffusion experiments provided further characterization of the compartments in terms of their geometry. As a result, the peak that exhibited the smallest residual quadrupolar splitting, and the largest diffusion anisotropy was assigned to axons. Two other pairs of satellite peaks were assigned to extra-cellular compartments on the basis of either the size of their quadrupolar splitting or the diffusion properties.

  16. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome in a collegiate soccer player: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Farr, Derek; Selesnick, Harlan

    2008-07-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is a relatively rare condition among running athletes. In those who engage in repetitive activity, it can cause severe, debilitating leg pain. The diagnosis can be made with a thorough workup that includes history and physical examination, radiologic studies (x-rays, magnetic resonance imaging, bone scan), and compartment pressure monitoring. Most patients do not respond well to nonoperative intervention. Fasciotomy provides satisfactory relief of symptoms and helps patients return to their sports. We present the case of a high-level collegiate soccer player with chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

  17. Dual-Compartment Neurofluidic System for Electrophysiological Measurements in Physically Segregated and Functionally Connected Neuronal Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Kanagasabapathi, Thirukumaran T.; Ciliberti, Davide; Martinoia, Sergio; Wadman, Wytse J.; Decré, Michel M. J.

    2011-01-01

    We developed a dual-compartment neurofluidic system with inter-connecting microchannels to connect neurons from their respective compartments, placed on a planar microelectrode arrays. The design and development of the compartmented microfluidic device for neuronal cell culture, protocol for sustaining long-term cultures, and neurite growth through microchannels in such a closed compartment device are presented. Using electrophysiological measurements of spontaneous network activity in the compartments and selective pharmacological manipulation of cells in one compartment, the biological origin of network activity and the fluidic isolation between the compartments are demonstrated. The connectivity between neuronal populations via the microchannels and the crossing-over of neurites are verified using transfection experiments and immunofluorescence staining. In addition to the neurite cross-over to the adjacent compartment, functional connectivity between cells in both the compartments is verified using cross-correlation (CC) based techniques. Bidirectional signal propagation between the compartments is demonstrated using functional connectivity maps. CC analysis and connectivity maps demonstrate that the two neuronal populations are not only functionally connected within each compartment but also with each other and a well connected functional network was formed between the compartments despite the physical barrier introduced by the microchannels. PMID:22025913

  18. 14 CFR 25.789 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and galleys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... crew compartments and galleys. 25.789 Section 25.789 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... passenger and crew compartments and galleys. (a) Means must be provided to prevent each item of mass (that is part of the airplane type design) in a passenger or crew compartment or galley from becoming...

  19. 78 FR 25846 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A340-600 Series Airplanes; Lower Deck Crew Rest Compartments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ...; Lower Deck Crew Rest Compartments AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final... unusual design feature associated with the installation of lower deck crew rest (LDCR) compartments. The... certificate to install a lower deck crew rest (LDCR) compartment in Airbus Model A340-600 series...

  20. 78 FR 21037 - Special Conditions: Airbus Model A330-200 Airplanes; Bulk Cargo Lower Deck Crew Rest Compartments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... Cargo Lower Deck Crew Rest Compartments AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... unusual design feature associated with the installation of bulk cargo lower deck crew rest compartments... supplemental type certificate to install a bulk cargo lower deck crew rest compartment in the Airbus Model...

  1. Large Block Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W

    2001-12-01

    This report documents the Large-Block Test (LBT) conducted at Fran Ridge near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The LBT was a thermal test conducted on an exposed block of middle non-lithophysal Topopah Spring tuff (Tptpmn) and was designed to assist in understanding the thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes associated with heating and then cooling a partially saturated fractured rock mass. The LBT was unique in that it was a large (3 x 3 x 4.5 m) block with top and sides exposed. Because the block was exposed at the surface, boundary conditions on five of the six sides of the block were relatively well known and controlled, making this test both easier to model and easier to monitor. This report presents a detailed description of the test as well as analyses of the data and conclusions drawn from the test. The rock block that was tested during the LBT was exposed by excavation and removal of the surrounding rock. The block was characterized and instrumented, and the sides were sealed and insulated to inhibit moisture and heat loss. Temperature on the top of the block was also controlled. The block was heated for 13 months, during which time temperature, moisture distribution, and deformation were monitored. After the test was completed and the block cooled down, a series of boreholes were drilled, and one of the heater holes was over-cored to collect samples for post-test characterization of mineralogy and mechanical properties. Section 2 provides background on the test. Section 3 lists the test objectives and describes the block site, the site configuration, and measurements made during the test. Section 3 also presents a chronology of events associated with the LBT, characterization of the block, and the pre-heat analyses of the test. Section 4 describes the fracture network contained in the block. Section 5 describes the heating/cooling system used to control the temperature in the block and presents the thermal history of the block during the test

  2. Post-Golgi membrane traffic: brefeldin A inhibits export from distal Golgi compartments to the cell surface but not recycling

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Recent studies using the fungal metabolite brefeldin A (BFA) have provided important insights into the dynamics and the organization of the ER/Golgi membrane system. Here we examined the effect of BFA on the functional integrity of the distal part of the secretory pathway, i.e., transport between trans-Golgi cisternae and the cell surface. To assay export via the constitutive pathway, we followed the movement of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G glycoprotein that had been accumulated in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) by incubation of infected BHK-21 cells at 20 degrees C. Addition of BFA rapidly and reversibly inhibited cell surface transport of G protein. The block to secretion was not due to redistribution of externalized G protein to internal pools. It was also not due to collapse of TGN to the ER, since VSV G protein blocked in treated cells resided in compartments that were distinct from the ER/Golgi system. Similar effects were found with a bulk-flow marker: BFA blocked constitutive secretion of glycosaminoglycan chains that had been synthesized and sulfated in the trans-Golgi cisternae. To examine export via the regulated secretory pathway, we assayed secretion of [35S]SO4 labeled secretogranin II from PC12 cells, a marker that has been used to study secretory granule budding from the TGN (Tooze, S. A., U. Weiss, and W. B. Huttner. 1990. Nature [Lond.]. 347:207-208). BFA potently inhibited secretion of sulfated secretogranin II induced by K+ depolarization. Inhibition was at the level of granule formation, since BFA had no effect on regulated secretion from preformed granules. Taken together, the results suggest that BFA blocks export via both the constitutive and the regulated pathways. In contrast, endocytosis and recycling of VSV G protein were not blocked by BFA, consistent with previous studies that endocytosis is unaffected (Misumi, Y., Y. Misumi, K. Miki, A Takatsuki, G. Tamura, and Y. Ikehara. 1986. J. Biol. Chem. 261:11398-11403). These and earlier

  3. Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eitzen, D. G.; Sushinsky, G. F.; Chwirut, D. J.; Bechtoldt, C. J.; Ruff, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys are to be considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks have been taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and micro-structural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response. New fabrication techniques for reference blocks are discussed and ASTM activities are summarized.

  4. 46 CFR 105.25-5 - Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Requirements-When Cargo Tanks Are Installed Below Decks § 105.25-5 Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks... drive shaft and pump engine control rods if such openings are fitted with stuffing boxes or...

  5. Hemorrhoid sclerotherapy with the complication of abdominal compartment syndrome: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Wang, Ya-Jun; Li, Fei; Sun, Jia-Bang

    2011-06-01

    The complications of injection sclerotherapy for hemorrhoid are always local. Herein, we report a case in which a female patient with abdominal compartment syndrome developed after receiving a local injection of a sclerosing agent for hemorrhoid.

  6. LEG'S COMPARTMENT SYNDROME AFTER RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT: CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Filho, Jorge Sayum; Ramos, Leonardo Adeo; Sayum, Jorge; de Carvalho, Rogério Teixeira; Ejnisman, Benno; Matsuda, Marcelo Mitsuro; Nicolini, Alexandre; Cohen, Moisés

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of a patient that was submitted to a surgery of reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament and collateral medial ligament repair of the left knee that complicated to a compartment syndrome.

  7. Compartment B3, boiler room; showing boiler facing of boiler #5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment B-3, boiler room; showing boiler facing of boiler #5 aft to forward from passing room B-25. (030A) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. STS-35 Pilot Gardner in sleep station compartment on OV-102's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 Pilot Guy S. Gardner demonstrates the bunk-style sleep compartments onboard Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, middeck. Gardner uses bunk #2 of the sleep station located against the middeck starboard wall.

  9. Compartment A14m cork lined powder magazine looking port to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-14m - cork lined powder magazine looking port to starboard; note temperature sensor in the overhead. (022) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. 30 CFR 57.19107 - Precautions for work in compartment affected by hoisting operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19107 Precautions for work in compartment affected... by that hoisting operation and a “Men Working in Shaft” sign shall be posted at the hoist....

  11. An approach to the residence time distribution for stochastic multi-compartment models.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jihnhee; Wehrly, Thomas E

    2004-10-01

    Stochastic compartmental models are widely used in modeling processes such as drug kinetics in biological systems. This paper considers the distribution of the residence times for stochastic multi-compartment models, especially systems with non-exponential lifetime distributions. The paper first derives the moment generating function of the bivariate residence time distribution for the two-compartment model with general lifetimes and approximates the density of the residence time using the saddlepoint approximation. Then, it extends the distributional approach to the residence time for multi-compartment semi-Markov models combining the cofactor rule for a single destination and the analytic approach to the two-compartment model. This approach provides a complete specification of the residence time distribution based on the moment generating function and thus facilitates an easier calculation of high-order moments than the approach using the coefficient matrix. Applications to drug kinetics demonstrate the simplicity and usefulness of this approach.

  12. Rna-seq analysis of the functional compartments within the rat placentation site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rat placentation site is distinctly organized into interacting zones, the so-called labyrinth, junctional, and metrial gland compartments. These zones house unique cell populations equipped to undertake myriad prescribed functions including transport, hormonal responses, and immune interactions....

  13. A delayed presentation of bilateral leg compartment syndrome following non-stop dancing.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, James Gordon; Carter, Tom; White, Tim Oliver

    2015-03-18

    We present the case of a young man with a 48 h delayed presentation of bilateral lower limb acute compartment syndrome (ACS) affecting the anterior compartments following an extended period of dancing at a music festival. On making the diagnosis of ACS, the patient was immediately taken to theatre for fasciotomies and compartmental decompression. Repeat look fasciotomies revealed further necrosis to the muscles of the anterior compartments bilaterally and, effectively, all the muscle bellies within the anterior compartments were excised. The patient has been left with a significant functional deficit and disability. This case highlights the importance of timely diagnosis of ACS as delay in presentation can impact significantly on subsequent functional outcome and quality of life.

  14. Synchronous compartment temperature control and apparatus for refrigeration with reduced energy consumption

    DOEpatents

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Keres, Stephen L.; Kuehl, Stephen J.; Litch, Andrew D.; Richmond, Peter J.; Wu, Guolian

    2015-09-22

    A refrigerator appliance configuration, and associated methods of operation, for an appliance with a controller, a condenser, at least one evaporator, a compressor, and two refrigeration compartments. The configuration may be equipped with a variable-speed or variable-capacity compressor, variable speed evaporator or compartment fans, a damper and/or a dual-temperature evaporator with a valve system to control flow of refrigerant through one or more pressure reduction devices. The controller, by operation of the compressor, fans, damper and/or valve system, depending on the appliance configuration, controls the cooling rate in one or both compartments to synchronize, alternating cycles of cooling the compartments to their set point temperatures.

  15. Something Silent This Way Forms: The Functional Organization of the Repressive Nuclear Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Ritland Politz, Joan C.; Scalzo, David; Groudine, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The repressive compartment of the nucleus is comprised primarily of telomeric and centromeric regions, the silent portion of ribosomal RNA genes, the majority of transposable element repeats, and facultatively repressed genes specific to different cell types. This compartment localizes into three main regions: the peripheral heterochromatin, perinucleolar heterochromatin, and pericentromeric heterochromatin. Both chromatin remodeling proteins and transcription of noncoding RNAs are involved in maintenance of repression in these compartments. Global reorganization of the repressive compartment occurs at each cell division, during early development, and during terminal differentiation. Differential action of chromatin remodeling complexes and boundary element looping activities are involved in mediating these organizational changes. We discuss the evidence that heterochromatin formation and compartmentalization may drive nuclear organization. PMID:23834025

  16. DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL AND METHYLMERCURY IN DIFFERENT ECOSYSTEM COMPARTMENTS IN THE EVERGLADES: IMPLICATIONS FOR MERCURY BIOACCUMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury (Hg) species distribution patterns among ecosystem compartments in the Everglades were analyzed at the landscape level in order to explore the implications of Hg distribution for Hg bioaccumulation, and to investigate major biogeochemical processes that are pertinent to t...

  17. 14 CFR 25.819 - Lower deck service compartments (including galleys).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... lower deck service compartment, that indicates when seat belts should be fastened. (e) If a public... aft facing seat which meets the requirements of § 25.785(d), and must be able to withstand...

  18. 14 CFR 25.819 - Lower deck service compartments (including galleys).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... lower deck service compartment, that indicates when seat belts should be fastened. (e) If a public... aft facing seat which meets the requirements of § 25.785(d), and must be able to withstand...

  19. Lysosome-like compartments of Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes may originate directly from epimastigote reservosomes.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Juliana C; Alcantara, Carolina DE L; DE Souza, Wanderley; Cunha-E-Silva, Narcisa L

    2017-01-12

    Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote reservosomes store nutrients taken up during the intense endocytic activity exhibited by this developmental form. Reservosomes were classified as pre-lysosomal compartments. In contrast, trypomastigote forms are not able to take up nutrients from the medium. Interestingly, trypomastigotes also have acidic organelles with the same proteases contained in epimastigote reservosomes. Nevertheless, the origin and function of these organelles have not been disclosed so far. Given the similarities between the compartments of epimastigotes and trypomastigotes, the present study aimed to investigate the origin of metacyclic trypomastigote protease-containing organelles by tracking fluorospheres or colloidal gold particles previously stored in epimastigotes' reservosomes throughout metacyclogenesis. Using three-dimensional reconstruction of serial electron microscopy images, it was possible to find trypomastigote compartments containing the tracer. Our observations demonstrate that the protease-containing compartments from metacyclic trypomastigotes may originate directly from the reservosomes of epimastigotes.

  20. LEG'S COMPARTMENT SYNDROME AFTER RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Jorge Sayum; Ramos, Leonardo Adeo; Sayum, Jorge; de Carvalho, Rogério Teixeira; Ejnisman, Benno; Matsuda, Marcelo Mitsuro; Nicolini, Alexandre; Cohen, Moisés

    2015-01-01

    The authors report a case of a patient that was submitted to a surgery of reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament and collateral medial ligament repair of the left knee that complicated to a compartment syndrome. PMID:27047834

  1. Architectural properties of the neuromuscular compartments in selected forearm skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Liu, An-Tang; Liu, Ben-Li; Lu, Li-Xuan; Chen, Gang; Yu, Da-Zhi; Zhu, Lie; Guo, Rong; Dang, Rui-Shan; Jiang, Hua

    2014-07-01

    The purposes f this study were to (i) explore the possibility of splitting the selected forearm muscles into separate compartments in human subjects; (ii) quantify the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment; and (iii) discuss the implication of these properties in split tendon transfer procedures. Twenty upper limbs from 10 fresh human cadavers were used in this study. Ten limbs of five cadavers were used for intramuscular nerve study by modified Sihler's staining technique, which confirmed the neuromuscular compartments. The other 10 limbs were included for architectural analysis of neuromuscular compartments. The architectural features of the compartments including muscle weight, muscle length, fiber length, pennation angle, and sarcomere length were determined. Physiological cross-sectional area and fiber length/muscle length ratio were calculated. Five of the selected forearm muscles were ideal candidates for splitting, including flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radials, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris and pronator teres. The humeral head of pronator teres contained the longest fiber length (6.23 ± 0.31 cm), and the radial compartment of extensor carpi ulnaris contained the shortest (2.90 ± 0.28 cm). The ulnar compartment of flexor carpi ulnaris had the largest physiological cross-sectional area (5.17 ± 0.59 cm(2)), and the ulnar head of pronator teres had the smallest (0.67 ± 0.06 cm(2)). Fiber length/muscle length ratios of the neuromuscular compartments were relatively low (average 0.27 ± 0.09, range 0.18-0.39) except for the ulnar head of pronator teres, which had the highest one (0.72 ± 0.05). Using modified Sihler's technique, this research demonstrated that each compartment of these selected forearm muscles has its own neurovascular supply after being split along its central tendon. Data of the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment provide insight into the 'design' of their

  2. 31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 510.301 Section 510.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  3. 31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 510.301 Section 510.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  4. 31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 510.301 Section 510.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  5. 31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 510.301 Section 510.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  6. 31 CFR 586.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 586.301 Section 586.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF...

  7. 31 CFR 587.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 587.301 Section 587.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF...

  8. 31 CFR 558.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 558.301 Section 558.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOUTH SUDAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  9. 31 CFR 552.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 552.301 Section 552.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  10. 31 CFR 552.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 552.301 Section 552.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  11. 31 CFR 543.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 543.302 Section 543.302 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CôTE D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS...

  12. 31 CFR 542.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 542.301 Section 542.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  13. 31 CFR 542.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 542.301 Section 542.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  14. 31 CFR 542.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 542.301 Section 542.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 542.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 542.301 Section 542.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  16. 31 CFR 542.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 542.301 Section 542.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  17. Block 3. Central view of Block 3 observed from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Block 3. Central view of Block 3 observed from the west to the east. This photograph reveals the alignment of trees within the central path of the park. In addition, this photograph exposes broken bricks aligning tree beds - Skyline Park, 1500-1800 Arapaho Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  18. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 548.301 Section 548.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  19. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 548.301 Section 548.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  20. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 548.301 Section 548.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS...