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Sample records for psoriasis atopic dermatitis

  1. Differences in itch characteristics between psoriasis and atopic dermatitis patients: results of a web-based questionnaire.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Jenna L; Chan, Yiong Huak; Rapp, Stephen R; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2011-09-01

    Differences in itch characteristics between different inflammatory dermatoses are not well described. The aim of this study was to assess differences in itch characteristics between patients with psoriasis and atopic dermatitis using a previously validated web-based questionnaire that was made available through the National Psoriasis Foundation and National Eczema Association for Science and Education websites. Participants rated frequency and intensity of itch, associated symptoms, itch descriptors, and effect of scratching. A total of 524 subjects with atopic dermatitis and 195 subjects with psoriasis completed the survey. Atopic dermatitis responders experienced more frequent and more intense itch. Associated sweating and heat sensation were also more common in atopic dermatitis. Scratching was considered pleasurable in both atopic dermatitis and psoriasis; pleasurability correlated weakly with itch intensity in atopic dermatitis. Psoriasis respondents reported higher embarrassment associated with itch. Itch sensation is experienced differently among patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Future therapeutic interventions may be developed to target these differences.

  2. Prevalence of tinea pedis in psoriasis, compared to atopic dermatitis and normal controls--a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Leibovici, Vera; Ramot, Yuval; Siam, Rula; Siam, Ihab; Hadayer, Noa; Strauss-Liviatan, Nurith; Hochberg, Malka

    2014-12-01

    There are discrepancies in the literature regarding the prevalence of tinea pedis in psoriasis. The aim of this investigation was to conduct a cross-sectional study of the prevalence of tinea pedis in psoriasis compared to atopic dermatitis patients and normal controls. We enrolled 232 psoriatic patients, 190 atopic dermatitis patients and 202 normal controls, between the years 2010 and 2013. The prevalence of tinea pedis was 13.8% in psoriasis patients, not significantly different from that in atopic dermatitis patients 8.4% (P = 0.092)), but significantly higher than in normal controls 7.4% (P = 0.043). Both gender and age affected the prevalence of tinea pedis in psoriasis and normal controls, while only age affected the prevalence of tinea pedis in atopic dermatitis. Regarding gender, there was higher prevalence of tinea pedis in men: 19.1% (P = 0.019) in psoriasis and 12.1% (P = 0.013) in normal controls. Age affected the prevalence of tinea pedis in normal controls (P < 0.001), psoriasis patients (P = 0.001) and atopic dermatitis patients (P = 0.001), with higher prevalence with increasing age. Trichophyton rubrum was the most common species in psoriasis (71.9%), atopic dermatitis (75.0%) and normal controls (73.3%). Our study found a relatively high prevalence of tinea pedis among psoriasis patients. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Which plant for which skin disease? Part 1: Atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, condyloma and herpes simplex.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Juliane; Wölfle, Ute; Weckesser, Steffi; Schempp, Christoph

    2010-10-01

    Plant extracts and isolated compounds are increasingly used in cosmetics and food supplements to improve skin conditions. We first introduce the positive plant monographs with dermatological relevance of the former German Commission E. Subsequently clinical studies with botanicals for atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, condylomata acuminata and herpes simplex are discussed. The best studies have been conducted with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis patients. Mahonia aquifolium, Hypericum perforatum, Glycyrrhiza glabra and certain traditional Chinese therapies have been shown to be effective in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Mahonia aquifolium, Indigo naturalis and Capsicum frutescens are effective treatments for psoriasis. Green tea extract and tea tree oil have been investigated in the treatment of acne. Podophyllin and green tea extract are effective treatments for condylomata acuminata. Balm mint and a combination of sage and rhubarb have been shown to be effective in the treatment of herpes simplex in proof of concept studies. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  4. T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC) in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subpopulations in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis show major differences in the emission of recent thymic emigrants.

    PubMed

    Just, Helle L; Deleuran, Mette; Vestergaard, Christian; Deleuran, Bent; Thestrup-Pedersen, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    We used T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC) to evaluate thymic function in adult patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. We observed that men, but not women, with atopic dermatitis had a significantly faster decline in TREC content with increasing age compared with healthy men. In contrast, both men and women with psoriasis had significantly reduced TREC levels, which were, on average, only 30% of that of healthy persons. In atopic dermatitis the levels of TREC declined with increasing levels of IgE, disease intensity and extent of eczema. Furthermore, patients with atopic dermatitis showed signs of altered thymus function, as they had a significantly greater variation in TREC content measured over time than healthy controls, especially within the CD8+ T-cell subpopulation. Because both atopic dermatitis and psoriasis patients have an increased number of T-cells, this indicates that atopic dermatitis patients can have compensatory emissions of thymic emigrants, whereas psoriatic patients do not, thus supporting different thymic function in these two diseases.

  5. Atopic Dermatitis and Comorbidities: Added Value of Comprehensive Dermatoepidemiology.

    PubMed

    Nijsten, Tamar

    2017-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis is common and in its severe form is devastating. This chronic inflammatory dermatosis is part of the atopic syndrome, which includes asthma, food allergies, and hay fever and is known to be associated with mental health disorders. In line with psoriasis, several recent observational studies using national survey and linkage data have suggested a link between atopic dermatitis and cardiovascular disease. The atopic dermatitis field can benefit from the past experiences in psoriasis research and should not follow the same path, but, rather, aim for a more comprehensive approach from the beginning. A recent German consortium studying links between atopic dermatitis and cardiovascular disease first screened a large claims database, followed by analyses of more deeply phenotyped (birth) cohorts with longitudinal data. In addition, genetic and metabolic analyses assessing the predisposition of patients with atopic dermatitis for cardiovascular disease were performed. Overall, the association between atopic dermatitis and cardiovascular disease was at most modest, but in more refined cohorts the cardiovascular risk profile and genetic architecture was comparable. A more integrated approach could create clarity about the clinical relevance of cardiovascular disease in individuals with atopic dermatitis sooner, avoid speculation that affects patient care, and save scientific resources. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Erectile Dysfunction in Male Adults With Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Egeberg, Alexander; Hansen, Peter R; Gislason, Gunnar H; Skov, Lone; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-03-01

    Patients with psoriasis have increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but data on atopic dermatitis (AD) are less clear-cut. However, it is well-established that erectile dysfunction (ED) can serve as a risk marker for coronary disease. To investigate the incidence, prevalence, and risk of ED in men with psoriasis and AD. The sample included all Danish men at least 30 years old. In patients with AD and psoriasis, we determined disease severity based on use of systemic therapy. We performed a cross-sectional study (January 1, 2008) using logistic regression to estimate the prevalence and odds ratio of ED. Moreover, in a cohort study design, patients were followed from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2012, and Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios of new-onset ED. Models were adjusted for potential confounding factors, including age, socioeconomic status, health care consumption, smoking, alcohol abuse, diabetes, and cholesterol-lowering drug use. The outcome was initiation of pharmacotherapy used for treatment of ED. The sample consisted of 1,756,679 Danish men (age range = 30-100 years), of which 2,373 and 26,536 had adult AD (mild = 1,072; severe = 1,301) and psoriasis (mild = 21,775; severe = 4,761), respectively. Mean ages (SDs) were 53.0 (14.6), 46.7 (12.0), and 56.3 (13.8) years for the general population, patients with AD, and patients with psoriasis, respectively. Prevalences of ED were 8.7%, 6.7%, and 12.8% for the general population, patients with AD, and patients with psoriasis, respectively. Adjusted odds ratios (logistic regression) of ED were decreased in patients with AD (0.68; 0.57-0.80) but increased in those with psoriasis (1.15; 1.11-1.20). Adjusted odds ratios for mild and severe AD were 0.63 (0.48-0.82) and 0.72 (0.58-0.88), respectively, and those for psoriasis these were 1.16 (1.11-1.21) and 1.13 (1.03-1.23). Adjusted hazard ratios (Cox regression) were 0.92 (0.76-1.11) for AD and 1.14 (1.08-1.20) for

  7. AN-2728, a PDE4 inhibitor for the potential topical treatment of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Nazarian, Rachel; Weinberg, Jeffrey M

    2009-11-01

    Cytokines are signaling molecules that are believed to be key factors in perpetuating the inflammatory process in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. AN-2728, being developed by Anacor Pharmaceuticals Inc, is a topically administered, boron-containing, anti-inflammatory compound that inhibits PDE4 activity and thereby suppresses the release of TNFalpha, IL-12, IL-23 and other cytokines. At the time of publication, three phase Ib clinical trials, a IIa trial and a IIb trial of AN-2728 in patients with psoriasis had been completed; the compound was also undergoing phase II development for atopic dermatitis, but no data were available for this indication. AN-2728 was reported to be well tolerated and to demonstrate significant effects on markers of efficacy, with results that were comparable to positive controls. AN-2728 appears to have good therapeutic potential, although further and larger trials are required to assess the long-term safety and characterize the broad utility of this drug.

  8. Molecular basis of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonness, Sonja; Bieber, Thomas

    2007-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease and there are numerous publications on this topic. This review will focus on developments in understanding the molecular basis of atopic dermatitis while considering the genetic background, skin barrier impairment, immune system deviation and microbial superinfections. Atopic dermatitis is a complex genetic disease in which gene-gene and gene-environment interactions play a key role. Surprisingly some genetic regions of interest were found to be overlapping with loci identified to play a role in another very common inflammatory skin disease, psoriasis, while no overlap has so far been observed with asthma. Impairment of the skin barrier followed by antigens trespassing seems to play an important role, favouring sensitization via transepidermal penetration which is the focus of current investigations. Superinfections by pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus due to a weak innate defence seem to be significant in atopic dermatitis as they elicit a strong inflammatory response. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a high incidence in school children and adults. Disease pathogenesis is complex and the background is multifactorial, making the underlying predispositions elusive. Understanding new pathogenic pathways may lead to the development of new drugs with enhanced benefit for the patient.

  9. Periostin contributes to epidermal hyperplasia in psoriasis common to atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Arima, Kazuhiko; Ohta, Shoichiro; Takagi, Atsushi; Shiraishi, Hiroshi; Masuoka, Miho; Ontsuka, Kanako; Suto, Hajime; Suzuki, Shoichi; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi; Ogawa, Masahiro; Simmons, Olga; Yamaguchi, Yukie; Toda, Shuji; Aihara, Michiko; Conway, Simon J.; Ikeda, Shigaku; Izuhara, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidermal hyperplasia is a histological hallmark observed in both atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis, although the clinical features and the underlying immunological disorders of these diseases are different. We previously showed that periostin, a matricellular protein, plays a critical role in epidermal hyperplasia in AD, using a mouse model and a 3-dimensional organotypic coculture system. In this study, we explore the hypothesis that periostin is involved in epidermal hyperplasia in psoriasis. Methods To examine expression of periostin in psoriasis patients, we performed immunohistochemical analysis on skin biopsies from six such patients. To investigate periostin’s role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, we evaluated periostin-deficient mice in a psoriasis mouse model induced by topical treatment with imiquimod (IMQ). Results Periostin was substantially expressed in the dermis of all investigated psoriasis patients. Epidermal hyperplasia induced by IMQ treatment was impaired in periostin-deficient mice, along with decreased skin swelling. However, upon treatment with IMQ, periostin deficiency did not alter infiltration of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils; production of IL-17, –22, or –23; or induction/expansion of IL-17– and IL-22–producing group 3 innate lymphoid cells. Conclusions Periostin plays an important role during epidermal hyperplasia in IMQ-induced skin inflammation, independently of the IL-23–IL-17/IL-22 axis. Periostin appears to be a mediator for epidermal hyperplasia that is common to AD and psoriasis. PMID:25572557

  10. The Asian atopic dermatitis phenotype combines features of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis with increased TH17 polarization.

    PubMed

    Noda, Shinji; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Ungar, Benjamin; Kim, Soo Jung; de Guzman Strong, Cristina; Xu, Hui; Peng, Xiangyu; Estrada, Yeriel D; Nakajima, Saeko; Honda, Tetsuya; Shin, Jung U; Lee, Hemin; Krueger, James G; Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Kabashima, Kenji; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2015-11-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) shows very high prevalence in Asia, with a large unmet need for effective therapeutics. Direct comparisons between European American (EA) and Asian patients with AD are unavailable, but earlier blood studies detected increased IL-17(+)-producing cell counts in Asian patients with AD. We sought to characterize the Asian AD skin phenotype and compare it with the EA AD skin phenotype. We performed genomic profiling (real-time PCR) and immunohistochemistry on lesional and nonlesional biopsy specimens from 52 patients with AD (25 EAs and 27 Asians), 10 patients with psoriasis (all EAs), and 27 healthy subjects (12 EAs and 15 Asians). Although disease severity/SCORAD scores were similar between the AD groups (58.0 vs 56.7, P = .77), greater acanthosis, higher Ki67 counts, and frequent parakeratosis were characteristics of lesional epidermis from Asian patients with AD (P < .05). Most (24/27) Asian patients had high IgE levels. A principal component analysis using real-time PCR data clustered the Asian AD phenotype between the EA AD and psoriasis phenotypes. TH2 skewing characterized both Asian and EA patients with AD but not patients with psoriasis. Significantly higher TH17 and TH22 (IL17A, IL19, and S100A12 in lesional and IL-22 in nonlesional skin; P < .05) and lower TH1/interferon (CXCL9, CXCL10, MX1, and IFNG in nonlesional skin; P < .05) gene induction typified AD skin in Asian patients. The Asian AD phenotype presents (even in the presence of increased IgE levels) a blended phenotype between that of EA patients with AD and those with psoriasis, including increased hyperplasia, parakeratosis, higher TH17 activation, and a strong TH2 component. The relative pathogenic contributions of the TH17 and TH2 axes in creating the Asian AD phenotype need to be tested in future clinical trials with appropriate targeted therapeutics. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationships among plasma granzyme B level, pruritus and dermatitis in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Yayoi; Kimura, Utako; Matsuda, Hironori; Tengara, Suhandy; Kamo, Atsuko; Umehara, Yoshie; Iizumi, Kyoichi; Kawasaki, Hiroaki; Suga, Yasushi; Ogawa, Hideoki; Tominaga, Mitsutoshi; Takamori, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease characterized by skin barrier dysfunction, allergic inflammation and intractable pruritus resistant to conventional antipruritic treatments, including H 1 -antihistamines. Granzymes (Gzms) are a family of serine proteases expressed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells that have been shown to modulate inflammation. However, the relationship between Gzms and pathology in AD remains unclear. This study assessed the correlation between plasma GzmB levels and severity of pruritus and dermatitis, in AD patients. Plasma was collected from 46 patients with AD, 24 patients with psoriasis, and 30 healthy controls. AD severity was assessed with the scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) index, psoriasis severity with the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), and degree of pruritus by visual analogue scale (VAS) score. GzmA, GzmB and gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Plasma GzmB concentrations were significantly higher in patients with AD and psoriasis than in healthy controls. Correlation analyses showed that plasma GzmB concentrations positively correlated with SCORAD and serum levels of severity markers such as thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, and lactate dehydrogenase in AD patients. Moreover, plasma levels of GRP, an itch-related peptide, were higher in patients with AD, positively correlating with VAS score and plasma GzmB level. In addition, plasma GzmB concentration was significantly lower in the treatment group than the untreated group with AD. Meanwhile, there were no correlations among GzmB levels, VAS score and PASI score in patients with psoriasis. In contrast to the results of plasma GzmB, plasma GzmA levels were unchanged among AD, psoriasis and healthy groups, and showed no correlations with VAS score and SCORAD index in patients with AD. Plasma GzmB levels may reflect the degree of pruritus and dermatitis in

  12. Flexural eczema versus atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Goldenberg, Alina; Nedorost, Susan; Thyssen, Jacob P; Fonacier, Luz; Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2015-01-01

    Flexural eczema and atopic dermatitis are frequently synonymized. As respiratory atopy is rarely tested for and found in these patients, systematically equating a flexural distribution of dermatitis with atopic dermatitis may too frequently result in misclassified diagnoses and potentially missed opportunity for intervention toward improving patients' symptoms and quality of life. We present a critical review of the available evidence for the atopic dermatitis diagnosis and discuss the similarities between atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. Because neither flexural predilection nor atopy is specific for atopic dermatitis, we conclude that the term atopic dermatitis is a misnomer and propose an etymologic reclassification of atopic dermatitis to "atopy-related" dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis can induce an atopic dermatitis-like phenotype, and thus, flexural dermatitis cannot be assumed as atopic without further testing. Patch testing should at least be considered in cases of chronic or recurrent eczema regardless of the working diagnosis.

  13. Narrow band UVB: is it effective and safe for paediatric psoriasis and atopic dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Pavlovsky, M; Baum, S; Shpiro, D; Pavlovsky, L; Pavlotsky, F

    2011-06-01

    Phototherapy has a time-honoured place in the treatment of variety of skin diseases in adults. The use of this modality in children is limited mainly due to concerns about long-term carcinogenic potential. Only a few clinical trials have been performed on the efficacy and safety of phototherapy in children. To determine the efficacy and safety of NB-UVB phototherapy in children with atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis. This is a retrospective review of the treatment outcomes of 129 children with psoriasis and AD, who were treated with NB-UVB between 1998 and 2006 at our institute. Fifty per cent of the psoriatic patients and 25% of patients with AD achieved clearance by the end of the treatment. NB-UVB phototherapy was well-tolerated, with no serious adverse effects except one doubtful case of melanoma in situ. NB-UVB may be considered as a viable therapeutic option in children with psoriasis and AD. Children who are treated by phototherapy should remain under annual dermatologic observation. To determine true carcinogenic risk of UV therapy, longer follow-up is essential. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  14. Stressors in Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Barilla, Steven; Felix, Kayla; Jorizzo, Joseph L

    2017-01-01

    As with other inflammatory skin disorders, atopic dermatitis has a tendency to cause stress and also be exacerbated by it. Patients with atopic dermatitis have several disease-associated stressors, some of which include physical discomfort due to itching and altered appearance due to flare-ups. These stressors have been shown to effect patients psychosocially by altering sleep patterns, decreasing self-esteem and interfering with interpersonal relationships. In combination with its direct effect on patients, atopic dermatitis also causes stress for parents and caregivers. Studies suggest that atopic dermatitis is strongly correlated with co-sleeping habits, which can negatively impact the health and mood of parents or caregivers. It has also been reported to interfere with the formation of a strong mother-child relationship. In order to optimize treatment for patients with atopic dermatitis, it is important to note the impact that it has on quality of life. By implementing patient counseling, sleep-targeted therapies, and the use of quality of life (QoL) indices, atopic dermatitis patients and caregivers have the potential to experience greater satisfaction with treatment.

  15. Discovery and structure-activity study of a novel benzoxaborole anti-inflammatory agent (AN2728) for the potential topical treatment of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Akama, Tsutomu; Baker, Stephen J; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Hernandez, Vincent; Zhou, Huchen; Sanders, Virginia; Freund, Yvonne; Kimura, Richard; Maples, Kirk R; Plattner, Jacob J

    2009-04-15

    A series of phenoxy benzoxaboroles were synthesized and screened for their inhibitory activity against PDE4 and cytokine release. 5-(4-Cyanophenoxy)-2,3-dihydro-1-hydroxy-2,1-benzoxaborole (AN2728) showed potent activity both in vitro and in vivo. This compound is now in clinical development for the topical treatment of psoriasis and being pursued for the topical treatment of atopic dermatitis.

  16. [Canine atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Bensignor, Emmanuel

    2010-10-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease characterized by typical clinical signs and affecting up to 10 % of dogs aged from 1 to 3 years. The diagnosis is mainly clinical and the treatment is complex. This canine form may offer a good model of human atopic dermatitis, as the two diseases show many pathogenetic, clinical and therapeutic similarities.

  17. Atopic dermatitis phenotypes and the need for personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Cabanillas, Beatriz; Brehler, Ann-Christin; Novak, Natalija

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review To describe recent developments in therapies which target the molecular mechanisms in atopic dermatitis. Recent findings Current advances in the understanding of the molecular basis of atopic dermatitis are leading to the stratification of different atopic dermatitis phenotypes. New therapies offer the option to target-specific molecules involved in the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis. Current new therapies under investigation aim to modulate specific inflammatory pathways associated with distinctive atopic dermatitis phenotypes, which would potentially translate into the development of personalized, targeted-specific treatments of atopic dermatitis. Summary Despite the unmet need for well tolerated, effective, and personalized treatment of atopic dermatitis, the current standard treatments of atopic dermatitis do not focus on the individual pathogenesis of the disease. The development of targeted, phenotype-specific therapies has the potential to open a new promising era of individualized treatment of atopic dermatitis. PMID:28582322

  18. A genome-wide association study of atopic dermatitis identifies loci with overlapping effects on asthma and psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Weidinger, Stephan; Willis-Owen, Saffron A G; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Morar, Nilesh; Liang, Liming; Edser, Pauline; Street, Teresa; Rodriguez, Elke; O'Regan, Grainne M; Beattie, Paula; Fölster-Holst, Regina; Franke, Andre; Novak, Natalija; Fahy, Caoimhe M; Winge, Mårten C G; Kabesch, Michael; Illig, Thomas; Heath, Simon; Söderhäll, Cilla; Melén, Erik; Pershagen, Göran; Kere, Juha; Bradley, Maria; Lieden, Agne; Nordenskjold, Magnus; Harper, John I; McLean, W H Irwin; Brown, Sara J; Cookson, William O C; Lathrop, G Mark; Irvine, Alan D; Moffatt, Miriam F

    2013-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common dermatological disease of childhood. Many children with AD have asthma and AD shares regions of genetic linkage with psoriasis, another chronic inflammatory skin disease. We present here a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of childhood-onset AD in 1563 European cases with known asthma status and 4054 European controls. Using Illumina genotyping followed by imputation, we generated 268 034 consensus genotypes and in excess of 2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for analysis. Association signals were assessed for replication in a second panel of 2286 European cases and 3160 European controls. Four loci achieved genome-wide significance for AD and replicated consistently across all cohorts. These included the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) on chromosome 1, the genomic region proximal to LRRC32 on chromosome 11, the RAD50/IL13 locus on chromosome 5 and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6; reflecting action of classical HLA alleles. We observed variation in the contribution towards co-morbid asthma for these regions of association. We further explored the genetic relationship between AD, asthma and psoriasis by examining previously identified susceptibility SNPs for these diseases. We found considerable overlap between AD and psoriasis together with variable coincidence between allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma. Our results indicate that the pathogenesis of AD incorporates immune and epidermal barrier defects with combinations of specific and overlapping effects at individual loci.

  19. A genome-wide association study of atopic dermatitis identifies loci with overlapping effects on asthma and psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Weidinger, Stephan; Willis-Owen, Saffron A.G.; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Morar, Nilesh; Liang, Liming; Edser, Pauline; Street, Teresa; Rodriguez, Elke; O'Regan, Grainne M.; Beattie, Paula; Fölster-Holst, Regina; Franke, Andre; Novak, Natalija; Fahy, Caoimhe M.; Winge, Mårten C.G.; Kabesch, Michael; Illig, Thomas; Heath, Simon; Söderhäll, Cilla; Melén, Erik; Pershagen, Göran; Kere, Juha; Bradley, Maria; Lieden, Agne; Nordenskjold, Magnus; Harper, John I.; Mclean, W.H. Irwin; Brown, Sara J.; Cookson, William O.C.; Lathrop, G. Mark; Irvine, Alan D.; Moffatt, Miriam F.

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common dermatological disease of childhood. Many children with AD have asthma and AD shares regions of genetic linkage with psoriasis, another chronic inflammatory skin disease. We present here a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of childhood-onset AD in 1563 European cases with known asthma status and 4054 European controls. Using Illumina genotyping followed by imputation, we generated 268 034 consensus genotypes and in excess of 2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for analysis. Association signals were assessed for replication in a second panel of 2286 European cases and 3160 European controls. Four loci achieved genome-wide significance for AD and replicated consistently across all cohorts. These included the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) on chromosome 1, the genomic region proximal to LRRC32 on chromosome 11, the RAD50/IL13 locus on chromosome 5 and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6; reflecting action of classical HLA alleles. We observed variation in the contribution towards co-morbid asthma for these regions of association. We further explored the genetic relationship between AD, asthma and psoriasis by examining previously identified susceptibility SNPs for these diseases. We found considerable overlap between AD and psoriasis together with variable coincidence between allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma. Our results indicate that the pathogenesis of AD incorporates immune and epidermal barrier defects with combinations of specific and overlapping effects at individual loci. PMID:23886662

  20. Influences of Environmental Chemicals on Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangmi

    2015-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition including severe pruritus, xerosis, visible eczematous skin lesions that mainly begin early in life. Atopic dermatitis exerts a profound impact on the quality of life of patients and their families. The estimated lifetime prevalence of atopic dermatitis has increased 2~3 fold during over the past 30 years, especially in urban areas in industrialized countries, emphasizing the importance of life-style and environment in the pathogenesis of atopic diseases. While the interplay of individual genetic predisposition and environmental factors contribute to the development of atopic dermatitis, the recent increase in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis might be attributed to increased exposure to various environmental factors rather than alterations in human genome. In recent decades, there has been an increasing exposure to chemicals from a variety of sources. In this study, the effects of various environmental chemicals we face in everyday life - air pollutants, contact allergens and skin irritants, ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and food additives - on the prevalence and severity of atopic dermatitis are reviewed.

  1. Influences of Environmental Chemicals on Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition including severe pruritus, xerosis, visible eczematous skin lesions that mainly begin early in life. Atopic dermatitis exerts a profound impact on the quality of life of patients and their families. The estimated lifetime prevalence of atopic dermatitis has increased 2~3 fold during over the past 30 years, especially in urban areas in industrialized countries, emphasizing the importance of life-style and environment in the pathogenesis of atopic diseases. While the interplay of individual genetic predisposition and environmental factors contribute to the development of atopic dermatitis, the recent increase in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis might be attributed to increased exposure to various environmental factors rather than alterations in human genome. In recent decades, there has been an increasing exposure to chemicals from a variety of sources. In this study, the effects of various environmental chemicals we face in everyday life - air pollutants, contact allergens and skin irritants, ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and food additives - on the prevalence and severity of atopic dermatitis are reviewed. PMID:26191377

  2. [Atopic dermatitis physiopathology].

    PubMed

    Waton, J

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of the physiopathology of atopic dermatitis has much improved over the recent years. Epidermal barrier alterations are integrated into 2 theories called inside out and outside in. They are related to complex immune abnormalities. Understanding their mechanism makes it possible to foresee new therapeutics. Moreover, environmental biodiversity, the diversity of cutaneous microbiota and genetic predispositions in atopic dermatitis lead to a new, more comprehensive theory, « the biodiversity theory », integrating epigenetics. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.

  3. Can atopic dermatitis be prevented?

    PubMed

    Gómez-de la Fuente, E

    2015-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis has become a health problem in our setting due to its rising prevalence, impact on quality of life, associated costs, and role in the progression to other atopic diseases. Furthermore, atopic dermatitis has no definitive cure and therefore preventive measures are important. In this article, we review the latest advances in both primary prevention (reduction of the incidence of atopic dermatitis) and secondary prevention (reduction of associated morbidity and reduction of the atopic march). We analyze the different preventive strategies available, including modification of the immune system through microbial exposure, induction of immune tolerance through antigen exposure, and restoration of skin barrier function to halt the atopic march. Dermatologists need to be familiar with these strategies in order to apply them where necessary and to accurately inform patients and their relatives to prevent misguided or inappropriate actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  4. Economic Impact of Atopic Dermatitis in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chulmin; Park, Kui Young; Ahn, Seohee; Kim, Dong Ha; Li, Kapsok; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Moon-Beom; Jo, Sun-Jin; Yim, Hyeon Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis is a global public health concern owing to its increasing prevalence and socioeconomic burden. However, few studies have assessed the economic impact of atopic dermatitis in Korea. Objective We conducted a cost analysis of atopic dermatitis and evaluated its economic impacts on individual annual disease burden, quality of life, and changes in medical expenses with respect to changes in health related-quality of life. Methods The cost analysis of atopic dermatitis was performed by reviewing the home accounting records of 32 patients. The economic impact of the disease was evaluated by analyzing questionnaires. To handle uncertainties, we compared the results with the data released by the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Board on medical costs claimed by healthcare facilities. Results The direct cost of atopic dermatitis per patient during the 3-month study period was 541,280 Korean won (KRW), and expenditures on other atopic dermatitis-related products were 120,313 KRW. The extrapolated annual direct cost (including expenditures on other atopic dermatitis-related products) per patient was 2,646,372 KRW. The estimated annual indirect cost was 1,507,068 KRW. Thus, the annual cost of illness of atopic dermatitis (i.e., direct+indirect costs) was estimated to be 4,153,440 KRW. Conclusion The annual total social cost of atopic dermatitis on a national level is estimated to be 5.8 trillion KRW. PMID:26082587

  5. Use of ustekinumab for severe refractory atopic dermatitis in a young teenager.

    PubMed

    Wlodek, C; Hewitt, H; Kennedy, C T

    2016-08-01

    When conventional systemic immunosuppressive treatments fail in the setting of severe eczema, unlike in psoriasis, there are limited treatment options and only anecdotal evidence to help guide clinicians. There is a growing body of evidence for the use of certain biologic agents for moderate to severe eczema. We report the youngest case to date successfully and safely treated with ustekinumab for severe refractory atopic dermatitis. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Epidemiology and Comorbidity in Children with Psoriasis and Atopic Eczema.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Matthias; Radtke, Marc A; Glaeske, Gerd; Reich, Kristian; Christophers, Enno; Schaefer, Ines; Jacobi, Arnd

    2015-01-01

    First studies have shown that juvenile psoriasis is associated with an increased prevalence of comorbidity. We carried out a data analysis to characterise the profiles of comorbidity in children with psoriasis and atopic eczema. Prevalence data were derived from the database of a German statutory health insurance company according to ICD-10 codes L40 (psoriasis) and L20 (atopic eczema) of children up to 18 years insured in 2009. Data sets included 1.64 million persons and 293,181 children. 1,313 children = 0.45% (0.42-0.47) had a diagnosis of psoriasis and 30,354 = 10.35% (10.24-10.47) had a diagnosis of atopic eczema. Obesity, hyperlipidaemia, arterial hypertension and diabetes were more often diagnosed in children with psoriasis in comparison to all children without psoriasis and to those with atopic eczema. Children with psoriasis and atopic eczema show different and specific patterns of comorbidity which should be detected early and treated adequately. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Molecular aspects of allergens in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Campana, Raffaela; Dzoro, Sheron; Mittermann, Irene; Fedenko, Elena; Elisyutina, Olga; Khaitov, Musa; Karaulov, Alexander; Valenta, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Molecular allergology uses pure, mainly recombinant and structurally defined allergen molecules and allergen-derived epitopes to study mechanisms of IgE-associated allergy, to diagnose, and even predict the development of allergic manifestations and to treat and prevent IgE-associated allergies. Atopic dermatitis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease is almost always associated with IgE sensitization to allergens. However, also non-IgE-mediated pathomechanisms seem to be operative in atopic dermatitis and it is often difficult to identify the disease-causing allergens. Here we review recent work showing the usefulness of molecular allergology to study mechanisms of atopic dermatitis, for diagnosis and eventually for treatment and prevention of atopic dermatitis. Recent findings IgE sensitization to airborne, food-derived, microbial allergens, and autoallergens has been found to be associated with atopic dermatitis. Using defined allergen molecules and non-IgE-reactive allergen derivatives, evidence could be provided for the existence of IgE- and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms of inflammation in atopic dermatitis. Furthermore, effects of epicutaneous allergen administration on systemic allergen-specific immune responses have been studied. Multi-allergen tests containing micro-arrayed allergen molecules have been shown to be useful for the identification of culprit allergens in atopic dermatitis and may improve the management of atopic dermatitis by allergen-specific immunotherapy, allergen avoidance, and IgE-targeting therapies in a personalized medicine approach. Summary Molecular allergology allows for dissection of the pathomechanisms of atopic dermatitis, provides new forms of allergy diagnosis for identification of disease-causing allergens, and opens the door to new forms of management by allergen-specific and T cells-targeting or IgE-targeting interventions in a personalized medicine approach. PMID:28622169

  8. 2% Crisaborole topical ointment for the treatment of mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cheape, Alice C; Murrell, Dedee F

    2017-05-01

    Crisaborole 2% topical ointment is an anti-inflammatory, non-steroidal phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor which is currently under investigation for its potential role in the treatment of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Areas covered: So far, 7 trials have been completed in atopic dermatitis. The 2% strength appeared to be the superior dosing regimen. Pruritus improved significantly within one week. The improvements in objective efficacy assessments in crisaborole-treated patients were also statistically significant compared to the vehicle. Expert commentary: Crisaborole has several key features in its mode of action which distinguish it from existing treatments for atopic dermatitis (AD), notably its activity against the phosphodiesterase E4 (PDE4) pathway, regulating cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels. This is less immunosuppressive than other pathways and has no effect on skin thinning. The pathway interrupts the itch sensation (pruritus) which means that the itch-scratch cycle, the bane in the life of patients with AD, is interrupted, usually as early as a few days into treatment. Hence, with the promising safety profile demonstrated, early treatment of mild to moderate AD patients might help to control AD better and improve quality of life for patients.

  9. Atopic dermatitis: an overview.

    PubMed

    Berke, Rebecca; Singh, Arshdeep; Guralnick, Mark

    2012-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis, also known as atopic eczema, is a chronic pruritic skin condition affecting approximately 17.8 million persons in the United States. It can lead to significant morbidity. A simplified version of the U.K. Working Party's Diagnostic Criteria can help make the diagnosis. Asking about the presence and frequency of symptoms can allow physicians to grade the severity of the disease and response to treatment. Management consists of relieving symptoms and lengthening time between flare-ups. Regular, liberal use of emollients is recommended. The primary pharmacologic treatment is topical corticosteroids. Twice-daily or more frequent application has not been shown to be more effective than once-daily application. A maintenance regimen of topical corticosteroids may reduce relapse rates in patients who have recurrent moderate to severe atopic dermatitis. Pimecrolimus and tacrolimus are calcineurin inhibitors that are recommended as second-line treatment for persons with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis and who are at risk of atrophy from topical corticosteroids. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued a boxed warning about a possible link between these medications and skin malignancies and lymphoma, studies have not demonstrated a clear link. Topical and oral antibiotics may be used to treat secondary bacterial infections, but are not effective in preventing atopic dermatitis flare-ups. The effectiveness of alternative therapies, such as Chinese herbal preparations, homeopathy, hypnotherapy/biofeedback, and massage therapy, has not been established.

  10. Mental Health Comorbidity in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yaghmaie, Pouya; Koudelka, Caroline W.; Simpson, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent data, primarily from Europe, suggest children with atopic dermatitis may be at increased risk of developing mental health disorders. Objective We aimed to quantify the mental health burden associated with pediatric atopic dermatitis in the United States. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used analyzing data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health – a survey reporting on the health status of 92,642 non-institutionalized children ages 0-17. The lifetime prevalence of various provider-diagnosed mental health conditions was calculated for those with and without a history of atopic dermatitis. Results The odds of having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was significantly increased in children with atopic dermatitis compared to non-atopic dermatitis controls, OR 1.87 (95% CI 1.54, 2.27) even after controlling for known confounders. The adjusted odds ratios for depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and autism were 1.81 (95% CI 1.33,2.46) , 1.77 (95% CI 1.36, 2.29), 1.87 (1.46, 2.39), and 3.04 (95% CI 2.13, 4.34), respectively, and these estimates were all statistically significant. A clear dose-dependent relationship was observed between the prevalence of a mental health disorder and the reported severity of the skin disease. Conclusions Our data reveal a striking association between mental health disorders and atopic dermatitis in the U.S. pediatric population. The severity of the skin disease alters the strength of the association. Prospective cohort studies are needed to verify these associations and to explore underlying mechanisms. Strategies to prevent atopic dermatitis or to aggressively treat early skin inflammation may modify the risk of developing mental health disorders in at-risk children. PMID:23245818

  11. Japanese Guideline for Atopic Dermatitis 2014.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Ichiro; Kohno, Yoichi; Akiyama, Kazuo; Aihara, Michiko; Kondo, Naomi; Saeki, Hidehisa; Shoji, Shunsuke; Yamada, Hidekazu; Nakamura, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of appropriate diagnosis and appropriate assessment of cutaneous symptoms in treatment of atopic dermatitis, the basics of treatment in this guideline are composed of (1) investigation and coun- termeasures of causes and exacerbating factors, (2) correction of skin dysfunctions (skin care), and (3) pharmacotherapy, as three mainstays. These are based on the disease concept that atopic dermatitis is a inflammatory cutaneous disease with eczema by atopic diathesis, multi-factorial in onset and aggravation, and accompanied by skin dysfunctions. These three points are equally important and should be appropriately combined in accordance with the symptoms of each patient. In treatment, it is important to transmit the etiological, pathological, physiological, or therapeutic information to the patient to build a favorable partnership with the patient or his/her family so that they may fully understand the treatment. This guideline discusses chiefly the basic therapy in relation to the treatment of this disease. The goal of treatment is to enable patients to lead an uninterrupted social life and to control their cutaneous symptoms so that their quality of life (QOL) may meet a satisfactory level. The basics of treatment discussed in this guideline are based on the "Guidelines for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis 2008" prepared by the Health and Labour Sciences Research and the "Guidelines for the Management of Atopic Dermatitis 2012 (ADGL2012)" prepared by the Atopic Dermatitis Guidelines Advisory Committee, Japanese Society of Allergology in principle. The guidelines for the treatment of atopic dermatitis are summarized in the "Japanese Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Disease 2013" together with those for other allergic diseases. © 2014 Japanese Society of Allergology.

  12. Japanese Guideline for Atopic Dermatitis 2014.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Ichiro; Kohno, Yoichi; Akiyama, Kazuo; Aihara, Michiko; Kondo, Naomi; Saeki, Hidehisa; Shoji, Shunsuke; Yamada, Hidekazu; Nakamura, Koichiro

    2014-09-01

    Given the importance of appropriate diagnosis and appropriate assessment of cutaneous symptoms in treatment of atopic dermatitis, the basics of treatment in this guideline are composed of (1) investigation and countermeasures of causes and exacerbating factors, (2) correction of skin dysfunctions (skin care), and (3) pharmacotherapy, as three mainstays. These are based on the disease concept that atopic dermatitis is a inflammatory cutaneous disease with eczema by atopic diathesis, multi-factorial in onset and aggravation, and accompanied by skin dysfunctions. These three points are equally important and should be appropriately combined in accordance with the symptoms of each patient. In treatment, it is important to transmit the etiological, pathological, physiological, or therapeutic information to the patient to build a favorable partnership with the patient or his/her family so that they may fully understand the treatment. This guideline discusses chiefly the basic therapy in relation to the treatment of this disease. The goal of treatment is to enable patients to lead an uninterrupted social life and to control their cutaneous symptoms so that their quality of life (QOL) may meet a satisfactory level. The basics of treatment discussed in this guideline are based on the "Guidelines for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis 2008" prepared by the Health and Labour Sciences Research and the "Guidelines for the Management of Atopic Dermatitis 2012 (ADGL2012)" prepared by the Atopic Dermatitis Guidelines Advisory Committee, Japanese Society of Allergology in principle. The guidelines for the treatment of atopic dermatitis are summarized in the "Japanese Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Disease 2013" together with those for other allergic diseases.

  13. Atopic dermatitis in the domestic dog.

    PubMed

    Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M

    2016-01-01

    Dogs may develop a syndrome of spontaneous, inflammatory, pruritic dermatitis that shares many features with human atopic dermatitis, including a young age of onset, characteristic lesion distribution, immunoglobulin E sensitization to common environmental allergen sources, and evidence of epidermal barrier dysfunction. There are also several important differences between canine and human atopic dermatitis. Although dogs may suffer from multiple-organ hypersensitivity syndromes, there is no evidence that this species experiences the progressive evolution from cutaneous to respiratory allergy characteristic of the human atopic march. Despite the presence of epidermal barrier derangement, there is no significant association between canine atopic dermatitis and mutations in filaggrin. Finally, treatment of canine disease relies much less heavily on topical therapy than does its human counterpart, while allergy testing and allergen-specific immunotherapy provide an often essential component of effective clinical management of affected dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Japanese guidelines for atopic dermatitis 2017.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Ichiro; Aihara, Michiko; Ohya, Yukihiro; Saeki, Hidehisa; Shimojo, Naoki; Shoji, Shunsuke; Taniguchi, Masami; Yamada, Hidekazu

    2017-04-01

    Given the importance of appropriate diagnosis and appropriate assessment of cutaneous symptoms in treatment of atopic dermatitis, the basics of treatment in this guideline are composed of (1) investigation and countermeasures of causes and exacerbating factors, (2) correction of skin dysfunctions (skin care), and (3) pharmacotherapy, as three mainstays. These are based on the disease concept that atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory cutaneous disease with eczema by atopic diathesis, multi-factorial in onset and aggravation, and accompanied by skin dysfunctions. These three points are equally important and should be appropriately combined in accordance with the symptoms of each patient. In treatment, it is important to transmit the etiological, pathological, physiological, or therapeutic information to the patient to build a favorable partnership with the patient or his/her family so that they may fully understand the treatment. This guideline discusses chiefly the basic therapy in relation to the treatment of this disease. The goal of treatment is to enable patients to lead an uninterrupted social life and to control their cutaneous symptoms so that their quality of life (QOL) may meet a satisfactory level. The basics of treatment discussed in this guideline are based on the "Guidelines for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis 2008" prepared by the Health and Labour Sciences Research and the "Guidelines for the Management of Atopic Dermatitis 2015 (ADGL2015)" prepared by the Atopic Dermatitis Guidelines Advisory Committee, Japanese Society of Allergology in principle. The guidelines for the treatment of atopic dermatitis are summarized in the "Japanese Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Disease 2016" together with those for other allergic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Atopic dermatitis: professional orientation.

    PubMed

    Frimat, Paul; Boughattas, Wided; Even, Dorothée

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is often exacerbated by the working environment. In order to reduce the risk of allergy, young people must receive better medical guidance when they choose a career. This is all the more relevant for young atopic patients.

  16. Management of Itch in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Judith; Buddenkotte, Joerg; Berger, Timothy G.; Steinhoff, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common, pruritic, inflammatory skin disorder. Chronic, localized, or even generalized pruritus is the diagnostic hallmark of atopic dermatitis, and its management remains a challenge for physicians. The threshold for itch and alloknesis is markedly reduced in these patients, and infections can promote exacerbation and thereby increase the itch. Modern management consists of anti-inflammatory, occasionally antiseptic, as well as antipruritic therapies to address the epidermal barrier as well as immunomodulation or infection. Mild forms of atopic dermatitis may be controlled with topical therapies, but moderate-to-severe forms often require a combination of systemic treatments consisting of antipruritic and immunosuppressive drugs, phototherapy, and topical compounds. In addition, patient education and a therapeutic regimen to help the patient cope with the itch and eczema are important adjuvant strategies for optimized long-term management. This review highlights various topical, systemic, and complementary and alternative therapies, as well as provide a therapeutic ladder for optimized long-term control of itch in atopic dermatitis. PMID:21767767

  17. Atopic dermatitis, atopic eczema, or eczema? A systematic review, meta-analysis, and recommendation for uniform use of 'atopic dermatitis'.

    PubMed

    Kantor, R; Thyssen, J P; Paller, A S; Silverberg, J I

    2016-10-01

    The lack of standardized nomenclature for atopic dermatitis (AD) creates unnecessary confusion for patients, healthcare providers, and researchers. It also negatively impacts accurate communication of research in the scientific literature. We sought to determine the most commonly used terms for AD. A systematic review of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS (1945-2016) for the terms AD, atopic eczema (AE), and multiple other eczematous disorders. In MEDLINE, 33 060 were identified, of which 21 299 (64.4%) publications used the term 'AD', 15 510 (46.9%) 'eczema', and only 2471 (7.5%) AE. Most of these publications used the term AD (82.0%) or eczema (70.8%) without additional nomenclature; only 1.2% used AE alone. Few publications used the terminology 'childhood eczema', 'flexural eczema', 'infantile eczema', 'atopic neurodermatitis', or 'Besnier's prurigo'. AD was rarely used until the late 1970s, after which it became the most commonly used of the three terms and continuously increased until 2015. Atopic eczema decreased between 2008 and 2015. Atopic dermatitis was the most commonly used term in studies across almost all publication types, languages, and journals. Atopic dermatitis is the most commonly used term and appears to be increasing in popularity. Given that eczema is a nonspecific term that describes the morphological appearance of several forms of dermatitis, we strongly suggest the use of a more specific term, AD, in publications, healthcare clinician training, and patient education. Support from researchers, reviewers, and editors is key to success. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Role of Malassezia spp. in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Glatz, Martin; Bosshard, Philipp P.; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Malassezia spp. is a genus of lipophilic yeasts and comprises the most common fungi on healthy human skin. Despite its role as a commensal on healthy human skin, Malassezia spp. is attributed a pathogenic role in atopic dermatitis. The mechanisms by which Malassezia spp. may contribute to the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis are not fully understood. Here, we review the latest findings on the pathogenetic role of Malassezia spp. in atopic dermatitis (AD). For example, Malassezia spp. produces a variety of immunogenic proteins that elicit the production of specific IgE antibodies and may induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, Malassezia spp. induces auto-reactive T cells that cross-react between fungal proteins and their human counterparts. These mechanisms contribute to skin inflammation in atopic dermatitis and therefore influence the course of this disorder. Finally, we discuss the possible benefit of an anti-Malassezia spp. treatment in patients with atopic dermatitis. PMID:26239555

  19. [Atopic dermatitis and domestic animals].

    PubMed

    Song, M

    2000-09-01

    Several arguments are raised attributing to aeroallergens an important role in atopic dermatitis. The aeroallergens that penetrate the epidermis could be fixed by IgE on the Langerhans cells and then induce a cellular mediator reaction comparable to that of allergic contact eczema. Patch tests have been developed to evaluate the role of aeroallergens (dust mites, animal dander, etc.). Preventive anti-dust mites measures in the home of atopic patients are recommended. Eviction of domestic animals (cat, dog, etc.) or avoidance measures for animal dander in the home can produce improvement in atopic dermatitis. Oral specific immunotherapy is being validated as a treatment for this disease.

  20. Effect of Benralizumab in Atopic Dermatitis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-22

    Dermatitis, Atopic; Dermatitis; Eczema; Skin Diseases; Skin Diseases, Genetic; Genetic Diseases, Inborn; Skin Diseases, Eczematous; Hypersensitivity; Hypersensitivity, Immediate; Immune System Diseases

  1. Advances in understanding and managing atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Michael; Sidbury, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, pruritic skin disease characterized by an improperly functioning skin barrier and immune dysregulation. We review proposed atopic dermatitis pathomechanisms, emphasizing how these impact current perspectives on natural history, role of allergic sensitization, and future therapeutic targets. PMID:26918129

  2. Kaposi's sarcoma concealed by stasis dermatitis in a patient with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Hilal Kaya; Bulur, Işıl; Saraçoğlu, Zeynep Nurhan; Karapınar, Tekden; Arık, Deniz

    2017-09-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal and angioproliferative neoplasm. KS may be accompanied by psoriasis; however, in most of these cases the main mechanism involves iatrogenic KS associated with the immunosuppressive drugs that are used in psoriasis treatment. In angioproliferative lesions as a result of venous insufficiency and stasis dermatitis, acroangiodermatitis (pseudo-KS) is initially considered. However, the concurrent occurrence of psoriasis, stasis dermatitis, and KS has not been previously reported. We report a case of classic-type KS in an 83-year-old man that was concealed by stasis dermatitis and accompanied by psoriasis.

  3. [Atopic dermatitis in children: general principles of management].

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yusuke Leo; Christen-Zaech, Stéphanie

    2013-04-03

    Atopic dermatitis is the most frequent dermatosis in childhood. Numerous studies underscored the central role of skin barrier alterations in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory skin lesions. The management of atopic dermatitis has to be multidimensional. It combines among others some daily local care and a sporadic topical anti-inflammatory treatment during the acute flare-ups. The objective of this article is to summarize, in light of the recent European guidelines, the general principles of management of atopic dermatitis, for the general practitioner.

  4. Childhood atopic dermatitis: a cross-sectional study of relationships between child and parent factors, atopic dermatitis management, and disease severity.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Amy E; Fraser, Jennifer A; Ramsbotham, Joanne; Morawska, Alina; Yates, Patsy

    2015-01-01

    Successful management of atopic dermatitis poses a significant and ongoing challenge to parents of affected children. Despite frequent reports of child behaviour problems and parenting difficulties, there is a paucity of literature examining relationships between child behaviour and parents' confidence and competence with treatment. To examine relationships between child, parent, and family variables, parents' self-efficacy for managing atopic dermatitis, self-reported performance of management tasks, observed competence with providing treatment, and atopic dermatitis severity. Cross-sectional study design. Participants A sample of 64 parent-child dyads was recruited from the dermatology clinic of a paediatric tertiary referral hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Parents completed self-report questionnaires examining child behaviour, parents' adjustment, parenting conflict, parents' relationship satisfaction, and parents' self-efficacy and self-reported performance of key management tasks. Severity of atopic dermatitis was assessed using the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index. A routine home treatment session was observed, and parents' competence in carrying out the child's treatment assessed. Pearson's and Spearman's correlations identified significant relationships (p<.05) between parents' self-efficacy and disease severity, child behaviour difficulties, parent depression and stress, parenting conflict, and relationship satisfaction. There were also significant relationships between each of these variables and parents' self-reported performance of management tasks. More profound child behaviour difficulties were associated with more severe atopic dermatitis and greater parent stress. Using multiple linear regressions, significant proportions of variation in parents' self-efficacy and self-reported task performance were explained by child behaviour difficulties and parents' formal education. Self-efficacy emerged as a likely mediator for relationships between both child

  5. Management of Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: The Role of Emollient Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Catherine Mack Correa, M.; Nebus, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin disorder that afflicts a growing number of young children. Genetic, immune, and environmental factors interact in a complex fashion to contribute to disease expression. The compromised stratum corneum found in atopic dermatitis leads to skin barrier dysfunction, which results in aggravation of symptoms by aeroallergens, microbes, and other insults. Infants—whose immune system and epidermal barrier are still developing—display a higher frequency of atopic dermatitis. Management of patients with atopic dermatitis includes maintaining optimal skin care, avoiding allergic triggers, and routinely using emollients to maintain a hydrated stratum corneum and to improve barrier function. Flares of atopic dermatitis are often managed with courses of topical corticosteroids or calcineurin inhibitors. This paper discusses the role of emollients in the management of atopic dermatitis, with particular emphasis on infants and young children. PMID:23008699

  6. [Role of IgE-dependent reactions in atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Dynowski, Jarosław; Wasowska-Królikowska, Krystyna; Modzelewska-Hołyńska, Małgorzata; Tomaszewska, Monika; Funkowicz, Marzena

    2007-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a disease of multifactorial pathogenesis. of the study was to establish the most common allergens responsible for development of atopic symptoms in children with atopic dermatitis. the study complied 36 children aged 4 months - 3 years treated in the Department of Children Allergology, Gastroenterology and Nutrition because of atopic dermatitis. With each case the patient and family history of atopy was collected and basic laboratory tests were conducted (including total IgE and specific IgE using Polly Check system). eosinophilia was found in 11/36 children, elevated total IgE level in 16/36 and specific IgE were present in 14/36 patients. 6 patients proved to have sIgE for more then one allergen. The most commonly found allergens were animal hair, and food allergens. In 22 cases in spite of obvious clinical symptoms requiring therapy at hospital, all sIgE were negative for all tested allergens. although estimating sIgE is commonly used in diagnosing atopic dermatitis, it may not be sufficient to establish complete diagnosis. It seems that animal hair and food allergens are mainly responsible for development of atopic dermatitis.

  7. Treatment of psoriasis with crisaborole.

    PubMed

    Lee, Erica B; Lebwohl, Mark G; Wu, Jashin J

    2018-06-08

    Crisaborole, a topical phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor, is effective in patients with atopic dermatitis. As systemic PDE4 inhibition has also been used with success in psoriasis, clinical trials are underway to determine the utility of topical PDE4 inhibitors in these patients. However, there is no current literature documenting use of crisaborole for psoriasis. Here, we present two cases in which patients with psoriasis were treated successfully with crisaborole.

  8. Parents' reported preference scores for childhood atopic dermatitis disease states

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Joëlle Y; Reed, Shelby D; Weinfurt, Kevin P; Kahler, Kristijan H; Walter, Emmanuel B; Schulman, Kevin A

    2004-01-01

    Background We sought to elicit preference weights from parents for health states corresponding to children with various levels of severity of atopic dermatitis. We also evaluated the hypothesis that parents with children who had been diagnosed with atopic dermatitis would assign different preferences to the health state scenarios compared with parents who did not have a child with atopic dermatitis. Methods Subjects were parents of children aged 3 months to 18 years. The sample was derived from the General Panel, Mommies Sub-Panel, and Chronic Illness Sub-Panel of Harris Interactive. Participants rated health scenarios for atopic dermatitis, asthma, and eyeglasses on a visual analog scale, imagining a child was experiencing the described state. Results A total of 3539 parents completed the survey. Twenty-nine percent had a child with a history of atopic dermatitis. Mean preference scores for atopic dermatitis were as follows: mild, 91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.7 to 91.5); mild/moderate, 84 (95%CI, 83.5 to 84.4); moderate, 73 (95%CI, 72.5 to 73.6); moderate/severe, 61 (95%CI, 60.6 to 61.8); severe, 49 (95% CI, 48.7 to 50.1); asthma, 58 (95%CI, 57.4 to 58.8); and eyeglasses, 87(95%CI, 86.3 to 87.4). Conclusions Parents perceive that atopic dermatitis has a negative effect on quality of life that increases with disease severity. Estimates of parents' preferences can provide physicians with insight into the value that parents place on their children's treatment and can be used to evaluate new medical therapies for atopic dermatitis. PMID:15491500

  9. A prospective study on canine atopic dermatitis and food-induced allergic dermatitis in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Picco, F; Zini, E; Nett, C; Naegeli, C; Bigler, B; Rüfenacht, S; Roosje, P; Gutzwiller, M E Ricklin; Wilhelm, S; Pfister, J; Meng, E; Favrot, C

    2008-06-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis sensu stricto and food-induced allergic dermatitis are common canine skin conditions, which are often considered clinically undistinguishable. Several attempts have been made to describe populations of atopic dogs and determine breed predisposition but the results were often biased by the use of hospital populations as control group. The present study aims to describe a population of Swiss atopic and food-allergic dogs and to compare it with a data set representing more than 85% of all Swiss dogs. The study, which was carried out during 1 year in several practices and teaching hospital in Switzerland, describes a group of 259 allergic dogs, determines breed predisposition for atopic dermatitis and food-induced allergic dermatitis, compares the clinical signs and features of both conditions, and outlines the clinical picture of five frequently affected breeds.

  10. Scalp Psoriasis vs. Seborrheic Dermatitis: What's the Difference?

    MedlinePlus

    ... dermatitis of the scalp? Answers from Lawrence E. Gibson, M.D. Your doctor can usually tell whether ... bring psoriasis under better control. With Lawrence E. Gibson, M.D. Sasseville D. Seborrheic dermatitis in adolescents ...

  11. Evolving Concepts in Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sidbury, Robert; Khorsand, Kate

    2017-07-01

    Tremendous advances have been made in the field of atopic dermatitis in the past 5 years. We will explore developments in burden of disease, co-morbidities, pathogenesis, prevention, and management. The tremendous burden moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) places on families from a medical, psychosocial, and financial perspective has been characterized. Epidemiologic studies have identified intriguing new associations beyond the well-characterized "atopic march" of food allergies, asthma, and hay fever. Studies of primary prevention have gained traction including the remarkable impacts of early emollient therapy. Basic advances have simultaneously elucidated the nature of atopic inflammation, setting the stage for an explosion of new potential therapeutic targets. After a fallow period of nearly 15 years without a substantial therapeutic advance, this year has already seen two new FDA-approved treatments for AD. AD has a tremendous impact on quality of life with an underappreciated burden of disease; there are important newly described co-morbidities including ADHD and anemia; new insights into etio-pathogenesis have paved the way for novel topical therapies like crisaborole, and new systemic interventions like dupilumab.

  12. [Inpatient rehabilitation of chronic dermatoses illustrated by atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Nürnberg, W

    2005-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis is defined as a chronically relapsing skin disease resulting from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. It usually occurs during early childhood and shows typical clinical manifestations, depending on the patient's age. In cases of chronic atopic dermatitis, negative effects on professional and social activities and participation have to be expected. To counteract or overcome these threatening impairments in the different facets of life, prescribing inpatient rehabilitative measures should be considered early. Dermatological rehabilitation according to guidelines guarantees an interdisciplinary and multimodal treatment of atopic dermatitis.

  13. [Peripheral blood cells luminol-dependent chemiluminescence at the different stages of atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Elistratova, I V; Morozov, S G; Zakharova, I A; Tarasova, M V

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this work was to record the luminol-dependent spontaneous and induced chemiluminescence at the different stages of atopic dermatitis. Peripheral blood cells were obtained from adult patient with atopic dermatitis followed by the registration of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence on luminograph. Opsonized zymosan as well as yeasts Candida tropicalis have been used to induce the chemiluminescence. Spontaneous and induced chemiluminescence were slightly elevated at the mild atopic dermatitis but were decreased at the severe stage of disease. Statistically significant difference has been found between group with mild and severe atopic dermatitis, Skin contamination by yeasts Candida tropicalis causes the increased level of blood cells chemiluminescence at the first week of atopic relapse when the disease was mild. Severe stage of atopic dermatitis was coupled with statistically significant inhibition of both, spontaneous and induced chemiluminescence. Luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of peripheral blood cells from adult atopic dermatitis patients may be stimulated at the mild stage and suppressed at severe stage of atopic dermatitis.

  14. London-born black Caribbean children are at increased risk of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Williams, H C; Pembroke, A C; Forsdyke, H; Boodoo, G; Hay, R J; Burney, P G

    1995-02-01

    Previous reports suggest that atopic dermatitis is more common in black Caribbean children born in the United Kingdom than in white children. It is unclear whether these differences are caused by selection bias or variations in the use of the word "eczema" in the groups studied. Our objective was to explore ethnic group differences in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis in London schoolchildren. A cross-sectional prevalence survey of 693 junior school children in three schools was performed. Atopic dermatitis was defined in three ways: (1) by a dermatologist, (2) by visible flexural dermatitis as recorded by an independent observer, and (3) by a history of flexural dermatitis according to the child's parents. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis according to examination by a dermatologist was 16.3% in black Caribbean children and 8.7% in white children. This increased risk was present for different methods of defining of a atopic dermatitis and persisted after adjustment for potential confounders. London-born black Caribbean children appear to be at an increased risk of having atopic dermatitis.

  15. [A guide for education programs in atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Barbarot, S; Gagnayre, R; Bernier, C; Chavigny, J-M; Chiaverini, C; Lacour, J-P; Dupre-Goetghebeur, D; Misery, L; Piram, M; Cuny, J-F; Dega, H; Stalder, J-F

    2007-02-01

    Education about therapy applies to many chronic diseases. The aim is to improve patient management through the development of certain skills by patients themselves. Atopic dermatitis is an area amenable to the development of therapeutic education. The purpose of this study was to define the skills required for management of atopic dermatitis suitable for therapeutic education and to bring together these skills in a handbook suitable for use. Thirty caregivers were involved in the drafting of the handbook (dermatologists, a doctor specialising in therapeutic education, a psychologist and nurses), each of whom has experience of therapeutic education in atopic dermatitis. Four age groups were selected (under 5 years, 6 to 10 years, pre-teens/adults, parents of children aged under 5 years). For each age group, different levels of skill were identified for patients or parents of children and suitable learning methods were selected. Skills were classed according to 3 levels: (i) knowledge about the disease, treatments, triggering factors, (ii) knowledge about provision of care by patients or their parents, (iii) knowledge in terms of explaining the disease and treatment methods to family, and knowing who to contact and when. Finally, a 10-question evaluation guide was drawn up. In this paper we report the method of production and content of the handbook of skills for atopic dermatitis patients. The aim is not to impose all skills listed in this work on patients but rather to provide caregivers with a complete handbook covering therapeutic education. The book is intended for patients with moderate to severe forms of atopic dermatitis currently in therapeutic failure. It may be used by anyone treating such patients, whether doctors, nurses or psychologists, depending on the items chosen. It is intended for use as a support for the elaboration, diffusion and evaluation of a therapeutic education programme for atopic dermatitis.

  16. The history of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Owen N; Strom, Mark A; Ladizinski, Barry; Lio, Peter A

    Fred Wise (1881-1950) and Marion Sulzberger (1895-1983) are often credited with introducing the term atopic dermatitis to dermatology in 1933. This definition was based on atopy, a term first created by Arthur Coca (1875-1959) and Robert Cooke (1880-1960) in 1923, when they recognized an association between allergic rhinitis and asthma. Despite its recent introduction into our medical lexicon, historical precursors of atopic dermatitis date back to at least as early as 69-140 ce. In this contribution, we highlight both the prominent individuals credited with shaping the disorder into our current interpretation and the suspected historical precursors of this disease and reported treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Current management of atopic dermatitis and interruption of the atopic march.

    PubMed

    Boguniewicz, Mark; Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Hultsch, Thomas

    2003-12-01

    Treatment of atopic dermatitis requires a comprehensive approach that includes evaluation of potential triggers and education of the patient and family regarding proper avoidance measures. Hydration of the skin and maintenance of an intact skin barrier remain integral to proper management. Although topical corticosteroids have been a mainstay of anti-inflammatory therapy, the newer topical calcineurin inhibitors offer advantages for treatment of this chronic, relapsing disease. Studies aimed at defining optimal combination therapy and early intervention might change the treatment paradigm for atopic dermatitis.

  18. The Association Between Bathing Habits and Severity of Atopic Dermatitis in Children.

    PubMed

    Koutroulis, Ioannis; Pyle, Tia; Kopylov, David; Little, Anthony; Gaughan, John; Kratimenos, Panagiotis

    2016-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that frequently affects children. The current recommendations on management using lifestyle modification are highly variable, leading to confusion and uncertainty among patients. To determine current bathing behaviors and the subsequent impact on disease severity. This was an observational cross-sectional study conducted at an urban pediatric emergency department. Parents were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning the patient's bathing habits. The results were correlated with the atopic dermatitis severity determined by the SCORAD (SCORing Atopic Dermatitis) tool. No difference between variables was found to be significant for bathing frequency, time spent bathing, or use of moisturizers. Multivariate analysis showed that atopic dermatitis severity increased with age greater than 2 years (P = .0004) and with greater bathing duration (P = .001). Atopic dermatitis severity may be associated with a longer duration of bathing. The frequency of bathing does not appear to affect atopic dermatitis severity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis From the Perspective of Traditional Persian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Choopani, Rasool; Mehrbani, Mehrzad; Fekri, Alireza; Mehrabani, Mitra

    2015-01-01

    There is a strong current trend for using complementary and alternative medications to treat atopic dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis is a common, chronic, pruritic, and inflammatory skin disease. It can have a profound, negative effect on patients’ quality of life. Mild cases of atopic dermatitis can be controlled by the application of moisturizers and topical corticosteroids. However, in severe cases, application of immunosuppressive medication is unavoidable but it can have adverse effects. In traditional Persian medicine, diseases similar to resistant atopic dermatitis are treated with whey in combination with decoction of field dodder. Both whey and field dodder have anti-inflammatory properties. Consumption of whey can also aid skin repair, mitigate pruritus, and help combat the high level of stress experienced by patients. Therefore, it is hypothesized that consumption of traditional medicinal treatment of whey with decoction of field dodder can be applied as a complementary treatment for atopic dermatitis. PMID:26260045

  20. Advances in pediatric asthma and atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Foroughi, Shabnam; Thyagarajan, Ananth; Stone, Kelly D

    2005-10-01

    Allergic diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, food allergy, and urticaria are common in general pediatric practice. This review highlights several significant advances in pediatric allergy over the past year, focusing on asthma and atopic dermatitis. With increasing options for the treatment of allergic diseases, much work is now focused on methods for individualizing treatments to a patient's phenotype and genotype. Progress over the past year includes the characterization of effects of regular albuterol use in patients with genetic variations in the beta-adrenergic receptor. Maintenance asthma regimens for children in the first years of life are also an ongoing focus. The relation between upper airway allergic inflammation and asthma has continued to accumulate support and now extends to the middle ear. Environmental influences on asthma and interventions have been described, including environmental controls for asthma and the role of air pollution on lung development in children. Finally, concerns have been raised regarding the use of topical immunomodulators in young children with atopic dermatitis. Progress continues in the care of children with atopic diseases. Attention to treatment with appropriate medications, patient-individualized environmental controls, and extensive education are the keys to successfully treating atopic children. This review highlights several recent advances but is not intended to be a comprehensive review.

  1. Prevalence and comorbidities in adults with psoriasis compared to atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Radtke, M A; Schäfer, I; Glaeske, G; Jacobi, A; Augustin, M

    2017-01-01

    Most data suggesting an association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have come from specialized populations at either low or high risk of CVD. Atopic dermatitis (AD) has been associated with a number of modifiable risk factors, particularly obesity. There has been a recent controversy on the suggestion that associations with comorbidities in psoriasis may be due to overreporting or biased by disease severity and therefore not necessarily representative of the general psoriasis population. To evaluate the prevalence of AD and psoriasis and to compare the prevalence rates of comorbidities based on a large sample of health insurance data. Data were collected from a database of non-selected individuals from a German statutory health insurance organization that covers all geographic regions. Individuals identified by International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 codes applied to all outpatient and inpatient visits in the year 2009. Comorbidities were evaluated by ICD-10 diagnoses. The database consisted of 1 642 852 members of a German statutory health insurance. Of 1 349 671 data sets analyzed, 37 456 patients ≥18 years were diagnosed with psoriasis (prevalence 2.78%), and 48 140 patients ≥18 years of age were diagnosed with AD, equivalent to a prevalence of 3.67%. Patients with psoriasis showed increased rates of comorbidities in all age groups. Comorbidities related to the metabolic syndrome including arterial hypertension [prevalence ratio (PR), 1.94; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.90-1.98], hyperlipidaemia (PR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.73-1.81), obesity (PR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.69-1.79) and diabetes mellitus (PR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.83-1.94) were significantly more common among patients with psoriasis compared to AD. Diseases forming part of the metabolic syndrome showed significant lower prevalence rates in patients with AD than in patients with psoriasis. Within the limitations of secondary healthcare data, our study disproves the suggestion that

  2. Early-life risk factors for occurrence of atopic dermatitis during the first year.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Mikio; Arakawa, Hirokazu; Ozawa, Kiyoshi; Mizuno, Takahisa; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Tokuyama, Kenichi; Morikawa, Akihiro

    2007-03-01

    In a prospective birth cohort study, we sought to identify perinatal predictors of the occurrence of atopic dermatitis in the first year of life. Associations of family history, infection during pregnancy, cord blood cytokine concentrations, and skin function parameters with atopic dermatitis were analyzed. Stratum corneum hydration was measured with an impedance meter until 5 days after delivery and again at 1 month. Complete data were obtained for 213 infants, including 27 diagnosed by a physician as having atopic dermatitis during their first year and 26 diagnosed as having infantile eczema during their first month. The risk of atopic dermatitis during the first year of life was related to maternal atopic dermatitis, lower concentrations of macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta in cord blood, and greater skin moisture in the surface and stratum corneum of the forehead and cheek at 1 month of age but not to viral or bacterial infection during pregnancy or breastfeeding. Paternal hay fever was associated negatively with the development of atopic dermatitis. High concentrations of interleukin-5, interleukin-17, and macrophage chemotactic protein-1 and only surface moisture in the cheek were associated with greater risk of infantile eczema in the first month. The association of atopic dermatitis in infancy with reduced neonatal macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta levels suggests a link with immature immune responses at birth. Stratum corneum barrier disruption in atopic dermatitis may involve impairment of cutaneous adaptation to extrauterine life. The majority of risk factors had different effects on infant eczema and atopic dermatitis, indicating different causes.

  3. Children with atopic dermatitis may have unacknowledged contact allergies contributing to their skin symptoms.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, A B; Johansen, J D; Deleuran, M; Mortz, C G; Skov, L; Sommerlund, M

    2018-03-01

    Whether children with atopic dermatitis have an altered risk of contact allergy than children without atopic dermatitis is frequently debated and studies have been conflicting. Theoretically, the impaired skin barrier in atopic dermatitis (AD) facilitates the penetration of potential allergens and several authors have highlighted the risk of underestimating and overlooking contact allergy in children with atopic dermatitis. To determine the prevalence of contact allergy in Danish children with atopic dermatitis and explore the problem of unacknowledged allergies maintaining or aggravating the skin symptoms. In a cross-sectional study, 100 children and adolescents aged 5-17 years with a diagnosis of atopic dermatitis were patch tested with a paediatric series of 31 allergens. Thirty per cent of the children had at least one positive patch test reaction, and 17% had at least one contact allergy that was relevant to the current skin symptoms. The risk of contact allergy was significantly correlated to the severity of atopic dermatitis. Metals and components of topical skincare products were the most frequent sensitizers. Patch testing is relevant as a screening tool in the management of children with atopic dermatitis as they may have unacknowledged contact allergies contributing to or maintaining their skin symptoms. Children with atopic dermatitis seem to be at greater risk of sensitization to certain allergens including metals and components of skincare products. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. The burden of atopic dermatitis in US adults: Health care resource utilization data from the 2013 National Health and Wellness Survey.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Laurent; Gupta, Shaloo; Amand, Caroline; Gadkari, Abhijit; Mahajan, Puneet; Gelfand, Joel M

    2018-01-01

    There is a lack of data on the burden of atopic dermatitis (AD) in adults relative to the general population. To characterize the AD burden in adult patients relative to both matched non-AD controls and matched patients with psoriasis in terms of comorbidities, health care resource utilization (HCRU), and costs. Adults (≥18 years) who self-reported a diagnosis of AD or psoriasis and adult non-AD controls were identified from the 2013 US National Health and Wellness Survey. Patients with AD were propensity score-matched with non-AD controls and patients with psoriasis on demographic variables. Patient-reported outcomes were analyzed between matched cohorts. Patients with AD had a significantly greater risk for atopic comorbidities, as well as significantly greater HCRU and total cost compared with non-AD controls. The burden of AD was generally comparable to that of psoriasis, although patients with AD reported increased use of emergency room visits compared with patients with psoriasis. Patient-reported data are susceptible to recall bias and erroneous classification. Adult patients with AD reported a substantial disease burden, suggesting an unmet need for more effective AD treatment options. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tacrolimus treatment of atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thestrup-Pedersen, Kristian

    2003-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis is today the most common chronic disease of children in Europe, the US and Japan. The 'golden standard' of therapy is topical glucocorticosteroids and emollients. The steroids have been on the market for four decades, are efficacious, but only advised for short-term treatment due to their risks of side effects. More than 16,000 persons suffering from atopic dermatitis have been enrolled in clinical studies of tacrolimus. One third of patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis experience over 90% improvement in their disease over a 12-week treatment period and up to 70% of patients have over 50% improvement. A 1-year treatment leads to more than 90% improvement in 75% of patients. The most pronounced side effect is a burning sensation occurring in up to 60% of patients. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic skin disease leading to a demand for long-term treatment control. Such treatment options have not previously been available--except for emollients which are not efficacious for controlling skin inflammation. Tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are new treatment options, free from the potential side effects of topical steroids, which are known for their efficacy in short-term treatment. The new treatment modalities prevent the eczema from relapsing and at the same time they control active eczema. The future will see a shift towards the long-term use of tacrolimus which is able to control the skin inflammation and, hopefully, shorten the course of the eczema.

  6. Japanese guideline for atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Ichiro; Kohno, Yoichi; Akiyama, Kazuo; Ikezawa, Zenro; Kondo, Naomi; Tamaki, Kunihiko; Kouro, Osamu

    2011-03-01

    Given the importance of appropriate diagnosis and appropriate assessment of cutaneous symptoms in treatment of atopic dermatitis, the basics of treatment in this guideline are composed of (1) investigation and countermeasures of causes and exacerbating factors, (2) correction of skin dysfunctions (skin care), and (3) pharmacotherapy, as three mainstays. These are based on the disease concept that atopic dermatitis is a inflammatory cutaneous disease with eczema by atopic diathesis, multi-factorial in onset and aggravation, and accompanied by skin dysfunctions. These three points are equally important and should be appropriately combined in accordance with the symptoms of each patient. In treatment, it is important to transmit the etiological, pathological, physiological, or therapeutic information to the patient to build a favorable partnership with the patient or his/her family so that they may fully understand the treatment. This guideline discusses chiefly the basic therapy in relation to the treatment of this disease. The goal of treatment is to enable patients to lead an uninterrupted social life and to control their cutaneous symptoms so that their quality of life (QOL) may meet a satisfactory level.

  7. Atopic Dermatitis According to GARP: New Mechanistic Insights in Disease Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nousbeck, Janna; Irvine, Alan D

    2016-12-01

    In complex disease such as atopic dermatitis, the journey from identification of strong risk loci to profound functional and mechanistic insights can take several years. Here, Manz et al. have elegantly deciphered the mechanistic pathways in the well-established 11q13.5 atopic dermatitis risk locus. Their genetic and functional insights emphasize a role for T regulatory cells in atopic dermatitis pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of Suicidal Ideation in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimata, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of suicidal ideation in patients with mild, moderate, and severe atopic dermatitis between the age of 15 to 49 years were 0.21%, 6%, and 19.6%, respectively. In addition, the prevalence of homicide-suicidal ideation in mothers or fathers of patients (aged 0-14 years) with mild, moderate, and severe atopic dermatitis were 0.11%,…

  9. Cost of illness of atopic dermatitis in children: a societal perspective.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Andrew S

    2003-01-01

    Childhood atopic dermatitis is a disorder with considerable social and financial costs. Consideration of these costs is increasingly important in view of the growing prevalence of atopic dermatitis, particularly in developed countries over recent decades. The family stress related to the care of children with moderate or severe atopic dermatitis is significantly greater than that of the care of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The factors contributing to family stress include sleep deprivation, loss of employment, time taken for care of atopic dermatitis and financial costs. The financial costs for the family and community include medical and hospital direct costs of treatments and indirect costs from loss of employment. There are many interventions utilised in the treatment of childhood atopic dermatitis which involve not only medical practitioners but nurses, pharmacists, dieticians, psychologists and purveyors of so-called alternative therapies such as naturopathy, aromatherapy and bioresonance, all of which contribute to the financial burdens on the parents and the community. It is possible that appropriate interventions directed to reducing trigger factors might produce worthwhile savings, although the cost benefit of these measures has not been demonstrated. In conclusion, atopic dermatitis should not be regarded as a minor skin disorder but as a condition which has the potential to be a major handicap with considerable personal, social and financial consequences both to the family and the community.

  10. A retrospective review of streptococcal infections in pediatric atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, Jeffrey L; Hersh, Adam L; Okamura, Tessie; Howard, Renee; Frieden, Ilona J

    2011-01-01

    In order to assess the clinical characteristics and impact of group A streptococcal infection in children with atopic dermatitis, a retrospective review was performed in children diagnosed with atopic dermatitis who had a skin culture. Culture results and clinical characteristics of those with group A streptococcus were compared with those with Staphlococcus aureus. Infection with group A streptococcus was present in 16%; infection with Staphlococcus aureus was present in 72%, and 14% had mixed cultures. Patients infected with group A streptococcus were more likely to be febrile, to have facial and periorbital involvement, and to be hospitalized compared with those infected with Staphlococcus aureus alone (p ≤ 0.01 for all comparisons). Bacteremia and cellulitis were significantly more common in those infected with group A streptococcus than in those infected with Staphlococcus aureus. Retrospective design and review of only those patients receiving bacterial cultures may select for greater severity than in the general atopic dermatitis population. Group A streptococcus appears to be a significant skin pathogen infecting children with atopic dermatitis. Children with atopic dermatitis and group A streptococcal infection are more likely to have invasive disease and complications than those infected with Staphlococcus aureus alone. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effect of environmental tobacco smoke on atopic dermatitis among children in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yi, Okhee; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Kim, Ho; Ha, Mina; Hong, Soo-Jong; Hong, Yun-Chul; Leem, Jong-Han; Sakong, Joon; Lee, Chul Gab; Kim, Su-Young; Kang, Dongmug

    2012-02-01

    The prevalence of atopic dermatitis is increasing in many countries. Several factors are known to be associated with childhood atopic dermatitis. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the most common indoor pollutants, and children are more vulnerable to ETS exposure than adults are. In this study, the possible association of ETS with atopic dermatitis was evaluated in 7030 individuals aged 6-13 years who participated in the Children's Health and Environment Research study. In addition, predictive factors, such as the allergic history of the parents, children's immunoglobulin E levels and children's history of rhinitis and its association with dermatitis, were assessed. After adjustment for possible confounding variables, atopic dermatitis was found to be highly correlated with ETS, especially among children whose mothers had smoked during pregnancy and/or in the first year after birth (OR=2.06, 95% CI: 1.01-4.22). In conclusion, our results show that childhood exposure to ETS is a major risk factor for atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nickel allergy and relationship with Staphylococcus aureus in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bogdali, Anna M; Anna, Bogdali M; Grazyna, Antoszczyk; Wojciech, Dyga; Aleksander, Obtulowicz; Anna, Bialecka; Andrzej, Kasprowicz; Zofia, Magnowska; Krystyna, Obtulowicz

    2016-01-01

    The increase of nickel air pollution is supposed to frequent side effects of nickel action related to virulence potential of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with nickel allergy in atopic dermatitis. The goal was to investigate the relationship between nickel allergy and infection by S. aureus in atopic dermatitis. Nickel allergy was confirmed in atopic patients and excluded in healthy volunteers using patch testing. Infection by S. aureus was tested in atopic patients and healthy volunteers by use of API Staph system. The specific IgE for staphylococcal enterotoxin A and B were measured. Secretion of IFN-g, IL-2, IL-13 by PBMC under nickel sulfate and the enterotoxins A and B stimulations were studied with ELISpot. We found the increased number of infections by S. aureus in atopic patients with nickel allergy in comparison to atopic patients and healthy volunteers without nickel allergy. The elevated secretion of IL-2 under nickel sulfate stimulation in vitro was exclusively found in atopic patients with nickel allergy infected by S. aureus. Our data suggest that nickel allergy and infection by S. aureus are linked in atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. 21 CFR 358.750 - Labeling of drug products for the control of dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis. 358.750 Section 358.750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Dermatitis, and Psoriasis § 358.750 Labeling of drug products for the control of dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established...

  14. 21 CFR 358.750 - Labeling of drug products for the control of dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis. 358.750 Section 358.750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Dermatitis, and Psoriasis § 358.750 Labeling of drug products for the control of dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established...

  15. [Inpatient rehabilitation of adults with atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Breuer, K; Kapp, A

    2006-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease which often persists until adulthood. In severe cases, eczematous lesions and pruritus are resistant to therapy and result in depression, impairment of professional activities and social withdrawal. The goal of inpatient rehabilitation measures is to keep the patient involved and active in professional and social activities. Rehabilitative measures include diagnostics and medical therapy according to current guidelines, instruction in basic medical information, psychological intervention (relaxation techniques, improvement of self-confidence), dietetic measures, exercise, and social advice. Patients with atopic dermatitis often have work-related problems which should be identified as early as possible during rehabilitation.

  16. Prebiotics and probiotics: the prevention and reduction in severity of atopic dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Foolad, N; Armstrong, A W

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this review was to identify whether supplementation with prebiotics and/or probiotics help prevent the development or reduce the severity of atopic dermatitis in children less than three years of age. Since 1997, immunostimulatory supplements, such as prebiotics and probiotics, have been investigated. Various supplementations include probiotics (single strain or mix), probiotics with formula, probiotics mix with prebiotics, and prebiotics. In this narrative review, we examined 13 key articles on prebiotics and/or probiotics, and their effects on infant atopic dermatitis. Among the selected studies, a total of 3,023 participants received supplements or placebo. Eight out of the 13 (61.5%) studies reported a significant effect on the prevention of atopic dermatitis after supplementation with probiotics and/or prebiotics. Five out of the 13 (38.5%) studies indicated significant reduction in the severity of atopic dermatitis after supplementation. Based on the available studies, supplementation with certain probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) appears to be an effective approach for the prevention and reduction in severity of atopic dermatitis. A mix of specific probiotic strains prevented atopic dermatitis among infants. Based on studies with prebiotics, there was a long-term reduction in the incidence of atopic dermatitis. Supplementation with prebiotics and probiotics appears useful for the reduction in the severity of atopic dermatitis. Additional interventional studies exploring prebiotics and probiotics are imperative before recommendations can be made.

  17. Prospective Investigation of 25(OH)D3 Serum Concentration Following UVB Narrow Band Phototherapy in Patients with Psoriasis and Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Weinhold, Annett; Obeid, Rima; Vogt, Thomas; Reichrath, Jörg

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin D deficiency represents a major health issue. It is a worldwide endemic and is associated with a broad variety of severe diseases. The skin is a key tissue for the human body's vitamin D endocrine system. It represents a target tissue for biologically active vitamin D metabolites. Approximately 90% of the human body's requirements of vitamin D have to be synthesised in the skin by the action of UVB-radiation. However, individual factors that influence a person's cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D are still not well understood. In our present prospective study we investigated the effect of UVB narrow band (UVBnb, 311 nm) and PUVA phototherapy on 25(OH)D3 serum concentration, in patients with psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and a few cases with other dermatoses (n=41). We found that two weeks of UVBnb treatment resulted in an increase of 25(OH)D3 serum concentration from 11.4 to 20.5 ng/ml (p<0.001), while in contrast PUVA-treatment did not significantly alter vitamin D status. These findings question the hypothesis of a relevant vitamin D metabolizing effect of UVA. Psoriasis patients showed a trend for a stronger increase in 25(OH)D3 serum levels following UVBnb compared to patients with atopic dermatitis. Patients with relatively low baseline serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations had a stronger increase in 25(OH)D3 concentrations compared to patients with relatively high 25(OH)D serum concentrations. In general patients with skin types (Fitzpatrick) I and II (median=14.3 ng/ml) had a higher baseline of 25(OH)D3 serum concentration compared to patients with skin types III (median=11.2 ng/ml) or IV-V (median=12.3 ng/ml), although these differences were not statistically significant (p=0.106). Baseline 25(OH)D3 serum concentrations were correlated with presence of genetic variants (SNPs of VDR, CYP2R1, VDBP/GC) that influence vitamin D status, and with other individual factors such as body mass index, age and gender. We also investigated the effect of phototherapy on

  18. Physicians' perceptions of an eczema action plan for atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ntuen, Edidiong; Taylor, Sarah L; Kinney, Megan; O'Neill, Jenna L; Krowchuk, Daniel P; Feldman, Steven R

    2010-01-01

    Poor adherence to topical medications in atopic dermatitis may lead to exposure to more costly and potentially toxic systemic agents. Written action plans (WAPs) improve adherence and treatment outcomes in asthma patients and may be useful for children with atopic dermatitis. To assess physicians' perceptions of a WAP for atopic dermatitis and their openness to using it. An Eczema Action Plan (EAP) was modeled from those used in pediatric asthma. A brief survey to assess the perceived practicality and usefulness of the EAP was sent to 48 pediatricians in our local area and to 17 pediatric dermatologists nationally. Survey items included layout, graphics, readability, accuracy, and utility. Qualitative analyses were performed due to small sample sizes. Seventeen pediatricians from five community practices and eight pediatric dermatologists responded (response rates of 35% and 41%, respectively). Layout was rated as excellent by 59% of pediatricians and 43% of pediatric dermatologists, the graphics were rated good (60% and 70%), the readability as good to excellent (100% and 86%), the accuracy as excellent or good (83% and 86%), and usefulness as good to excellent (100% of both groups). Most (71%) of the pediatric dermatologists reported already having their own patient education materials for atopic dermatitis, but none of the pediatricians did. All pediatricians and 60% of pediatric dermatologists reported they were likely to use the EAP in their clinical practices. Limitations included the sample size being small, but it still provided for qualitative assessment of generalists and sub-specialists. We did not assess how the EAP would be perceived by patients or their families. The practice settings of the community and academic physicians are not identical, which may make for weakened comparisons. Pediatricians are open to using an EAP for atopic dermatitis. If an EAP were effective at improving adherence and outcomes in atopic dermatitis, widespread implementation

  19. [Symptoms of anxiety and depression in atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome].

    PubMed

    Brzoza, Zenon; Badura-Brzoza, Karina; Nowakowski, Marek; Matysiakiewicz, Jerzy; Rogala, Barbara; Hese, Robert T

    2005-01-01

    The presence of chronic disease is a risk factor for the development of mood disturbances and panic disorders. They can influence the course of disease and effectiveness of therapy. Depression may be the cause of making light doctor's advice. Anxious patients often aggravate symptoms of the disease. To study symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients suffering from atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (ZAZS). Material. We studied 38 patients suffering from adequately controlled moderate ZAZS and 62 volunteers in the control group. Mental status of subjects was assessed by means of State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) questionnaires. ZAZS patients demonstrated higher intensity of anxiety (as a trait and as a state) than healthy subjects. Intensity and prevalence of depression in the atopic eczema/ dermatitis syndrome group was higher than in the control group. Patients suffering from atopic/eczema dermatitis syndrome are pre-disposed to anxiety and depression manifestation. Even adequately controlled symptoms of atopic/eczema dermatitis syndrome may be the cause of those disturbances' occurrence.

  20. Apgar Score Is Related to Development of Atopic Dermatitis: Cotwin Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Naeser, Vibeke; Kahr, Niklas; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel; Backer, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To study the impact of birth characteristics on the risk of atopic dermatitis in a twin population. Methods. In a population-based questionnaire study of 10,809 twins, 3–9 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry, we identified 907 twin pairs discordant for parent-reported atopic dermatitis. We cross-linked with data from the Danish National Birth Registry and performed cotwin control analysis in order to test the impact of birth characteristics on the risk of atopic dermatitis. Results. Apgar score, OR (per unit) = 1.23 (1.06–1.44), P = 0.008, and female sex, OR = 1.31 (1.06–1.61), P = 0.012, were risk factors for atopic dermatitis in cotwin control analysis, whereas birth anthropometric factors were not significantly related to disease development. Risk estimates in monozygotic and dizygotic twins were not significantly different for the identified risk factors. Conclusions. In this population-based cotwin control study, high Apgar score was a risk factor for atopic dermatitis. This novel finding must be confirmed in subsequent studies. PMID:24222775

  1. Analysis of Food Allergy in Atopic Dermatitis Patients – Association with Concomitant Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Čelakovská, Jarmila; Bukač, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Background: A few reports demonstrate the comorbidity of food allergy and allergic march in adult patients. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate, if there is some relation in atopic dermatitis patients at the age 14 years and older who suffer from food allergy to common food allergens to other allergic diseases and parameters as bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, duration of atopic dermatitis, family history and onset of atopic dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Complete dermatological and allergological examination was performed; these parameters were examined: food allergy (to wheat flour, cow milk, egg, peanuts and soy), the occurrence of bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, duration of atopic dermatitis, family history and onset of atopic dermatitis. The statistical evaluation of the relations among individual parameters monitored was performed. Results: Food allergy was altogether confirmed in 65 patients (29%) and these patients suffer significantly more often from bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. Persistent atopic dermatitis lesions and positive data in family history about atopy are recorded significantly more often in patients with confirmed food allergy to examined foods as well. On the other hand, the onset of atopic dermatitis under 5 year of age is not recorded significantly more often in patients suffering from allergy to examined foods. Conclusion: Atopic dermatitis patients suffering from food allergy suffer significantly more often from allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, persistent eczematous lesions and have positive data about atopy in their family history. PMID:25284847

  2. Evidence-based treatment of atopic dermatitis with topical moisturizers.

    PubMed

    Micali, Giuseppe; Paternò, Valentina; Cannarella, Rossella; Dinotta, Franco; Lacarrubba, Francesco

    2018-06-01

    Skin barrier restoration represents the mainstay of the treatment of atopic dermatitis and the use of moisturizers is recommended by several international guidelines. The aim of the study was to investigate through an evidence-based medicine analysis the effectiveness and safety of different moisturizing products available for a non-pharmacological treatment of atopic dermatitis. A total of 92 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been identified and analyzed. The results confirm the presence of a reasonable number of studies highlighting moisturizers safety and effectiveness in the treatment of atopic dermatitis by improving disease severity, increasing the time of relapse and reducing the time of flares. Moisturizers containing urea, glycerin or glycyrrhetinic acid seem to show the greater evidence of efficacy being supported by more clinical trials. Among the existing moisturizers, those containing a single agent generally work although the heterogeneity of RCTs does not allow reaching more definitive conclusions. Moisturizers made of a mixture of substances seem to be more effective thanks to the presence of different active substances that may exert a synergistic effect. A meta-analysis of 4 RCTs confirms the efficacy of a medical device containing glycyrrhetinic acid, hyaluronic acid, shea butter, telmesteine, and vitis vinifera in the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

  3. Food Allergy and Atopic Dermatitis: Fellow Travelers or Triggers?

    PubMed

    Tom, Wynnis L

    2016-03-01

    Many children with atopic dermatitis also have an allergy to one or more foods, but the presence of these two conditions in an individual does not necessarily indicate a causal link between them. Testing and interpretation, sometimes with specialist consultation, may be required to discern whether food allergy is present in a child with atopic dermatitis and-if it is present-whether the food is triggering or exacerbating signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis. Recent milestone trials have demonstrated that early introduction of peanuts can reduce the development of peanut allergy in at-risk children. Parents may benefit from education about current revised guidelines that now recommend offering peanut-containing foods to most children at the time he or she is ready for solid food. Semin Cutan Med Surg 36(supp4):S95-S97. 2017 published by Frontline Medical Communications.

  4. Atopic dermatitis and concomitant disease patterns in children up to two years of age.

    PubMed

    Böhme, Maria; Lannerö, Eva; Wickman, Magnus; Nordvall, S Lennart; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik

    2002-01-01

    There are few prospective studies of atopic dermatitis and co-existing diseases such as respiratory infections in children up to 2 years of age. Using annual questionnaires, we studied the cumulative incidence of atopic dermatitis and concomitant symptoms indicating other atopic diseases and respiratory infections in 0-2-year-old children in a prospective birth cohort of 4089 children. We found associations between atopic dermatitis and asthma (ratio of proportion 1.45, 95% CI 1.16-1.80), allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (RP 2.25, CI 1.77-2.85), adverse reactions to foods (RP 3.20, CI 2.83-3.62), urticaria (RP 2.04, CI 1.80-2.31), acute otitis media (RP 1.13, CI 1.05-1.21), more than one pneumonia during the first and/or second year of life (RP 2.17, CI 1.14-4.15), and use of antibiotics at least twice yearly (RP 1.29, CI 1.07-1.56). The association between atopic dermatitis and respiratory infections persisted after stratification for asthma. There was a higher proportion of atopic disease manifestations, but not respiratory infections, in children with onset of atopic dermatitis during the first year of life than during the second. The study shows that during the first 2 years of life there is a significant association not only between atopic dermatitis and other atopic disease manifestations, but also between atopic dermatitis and respiratory infections manifested in an increased rate of acute otitis media, pneumonia and use of antibiotics.

  5. Efficacy trial of bioresonance in children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Schöni, M H; Nikolaizik, W H; Schöni-Affolter, F

    1997-03-01

    Single case reports and uncontrolled studies claim significant improvements in patients with atopic diseases treated with bioresonance therapy, also called biophysical information therapy (BIT). To assess the efficacy of this alternative method of treatment, we performed a conventional double-blind parallel group study in children hospitalized for long-lasting atopic dermatitis. Over a period of 1.5 year, 32 children with atopic dermatitis, age range 1.5-16.8 years and hospitalized for 4-6 weeks at the Alpine Children's Hospital Davos, Switzerland, were randomized according to sex, age and severity of the skin disease to receive conventional inpatient therapy and either a putatively active or a sham (placebo) BIT treatment. Short- and long-term outcome within 1 year were assessed by skin symptom scores, sleep and itch scores, blood cell activation markers of allergy, and a questionnaire. Hospitalization and conventional therapy in a high altitude climate resulted in immediate and sustained amelioration of the disease state in both the BIT-treated and sham-treated groups. BIT had no significant additive measurable effect on the outcome variables determined in this study. The statement by protagonists of this alternative form of therapy that BIT can considerably influence or even cure atopic dermatitis was not confirmed using for the first time a conventional double-blind study design. Considering the high costs and false promises caused by the promotors of this kind of therapy, it is concluded that BIT has no place in the treatment of children with atopic dermatitis.

  6. Patch-test reaction patterns in patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Brasch, Jochen; Schnuch, Axel; Uter, Wolfgang

    2003-10-01

    Patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis often need to be patch tested in order to detect possible contact sensitization. However, it is unknown whether immunologic or other peculiarities of atopic skin are related to altered patch-test reaction patterns. Our study was aimed at answering this question, because patch-test reaction patterns are of considerable practical importance in the reading and interpretation of patch tests. Therefore, we compared patterns of patch-test reactions in patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis and in control patients matched for sex, age, reason for testing and test centre. Patch-test results from 9 centres (2322 patients with a disposition to atopic dermatitis and 2126 matched controls) were evaluated retrospectively. All patients were tested with nickel sulfate, fragrance mix, potassium dichromate, lanolin alcohol, formaldehyde and mercury ammonium chloride. Patch tests applied for 1 day with readings on days 1, 2 and 3 were evaluated in order to cover the early phase of the reactions. Not unexpectedly, we found that, compared to the matched controls, patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis tended to have more doubtful and irritant reactions on day 1. As a new observation, it turned out that they had less reactions of crescendo pattern and more strong reactions on day 3. All these differences were slight/insignificant. A higher skin irritability in patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis is a likely explanation. In conclusion, standard methods for patch testing can be applied in patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis, but minor differences in reaction patterns should be considered.

  7. [Burden of atopic dermatitis in adults].

    PubMed

    Misery, L

    2017-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis may have a very important impact on adults. Visible lesions, but especially near-permanent pruritus or sometimes pain for decades, necessarily have consequences on all aspects of everyday life, including sleep, and professional, social, family and emotional life. Financial consequences are also possible. Poorly known, stigmatisation can be real. Treatments can be very demanding. Thus, the quality of life can be greatly altered and atopic dermatitis could be a heavy burden. The psychological consequences can be major. Co-morbidity appears more and more as a major problem. Patients can therefore be caught in an infernal circle, consequences of the disease aggravating the disease. The best way out is probably to have very effective and well-tolerated treatments. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.

  8. Increasing Comorbidities Suggest that Atopic Dermatitis Is a Systemic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Patrick M; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Paller, Amy S; Kabashima, Kenji; Amagai, Masayuki; Luger, Thomas A; Deleuran, Mette; Werfel, Thomas; Eyerich, Kilian; Stingl, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis comorbidities extend well beyond the march to allergic conditions (food allergy, asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and eosinophilic esophagitis), suggesting both cutaneous and systemic immune activation. In reviewing atopic dermatitis comorbidities, Councilors of the International Eczema Council found a strong pattern of immune activation in peripheral blood and the propensity to both skin and systemic infections. Associations with cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric, and malignant diseases were increasingly reported, but confirmation of their link with atopic dermatitis requires longitudinal studies. Given the possibility of atopic dermatitis-related systemic immune activation, future investigations of new interventions should concurrently examine the impact on these comorbidities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Atopic dermatitis, atopic eczema, or eczema? A systematic review, meta-analysis, and recommendation for uniform use of ‘atopic dermatitis’

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, R.; Thyssen, J. P.; Paller, A. S.; Silverberg, J. I.

    2017-01-01

    Background The lack of standardized nomenclature for atopic dermatitis (AD) creates unnecessary confusion for patients, healthcare providers, and researchers. It also negatively impacts accurate communication of research in the scientific literature. We sought to determine the most commonly used terms for AD. Methods A systematic review of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS (1945–2016) for the terms AD, atopic eczema (AE), and multiple other eczematous disorders. Results In MEDLINE, 33 060 were identified, of which 21 299 (64.4%) publications used the term ‘AD’, 15 510 (46.9%) ‘eczema’, and only 2471 (7.5%) AE. Most of these publications used the term AD (82.0%) or eczema (70.8%) without additional nomenclature; only 1.2% used AE alone. Few publications used the terminology ‘childhood eczema’, ‘flexural eczema’, ‘infantile eczema’, ‘atopic neurodermatitis’, or ‘Besnier’s prurigo’. AD was rarely used until the late 1970s, after which it became the most commonly used of the three terms and continuously increased until 2015. Atopic eczema decreased between 2008 and 2015. Atopic dermatitis was the most commonly used term in studies across almost all publication types, languages, and journals. Conclusion Atopic dermatitis is the most commonly used term and appears to be increasing in popularity. Given that eczema is a nonspecific term that describes the morphological appearance of several forms of dermatitis, we strongly suggest the use of a more specific term, AD, in publications, healthcare clinician training, and patient education. Support from researchers, reviewers, and editors is key to success. PMID:27392131

  10. Defining intrinsic vs. extrinsic atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Karimkhani, Chante; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2015-06-16

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin condition characterized by eczematous lesions, i.e. ill-demarcated erythematous patches and plaques. AD is commonly associated with elevated immunoglobulin E (IgE) and atopic disorders, such as asthma, hay fever, and food allergies. Rackemann and Mallory were some of the first to distinguish between asthma based on the presence ("extrinsic") or absence ("intrinsic") of allergy. This distinction has subsequently been applied to AD based on the presence ("extrinsic") or absence ("intrinsic") of increased IgE and atopic disease. Although the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic AD is widely used, it remains controversial.

  11. Emollient enhancement of the skin barrier from birth offers effective atopic dermatitis prevention

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Eric L.; Chalmers, Joanne R.; Hanifin, Jon M.; Thomas, Kim S.; Cork, Michael J.; McLean, W.H. Irwin; Brown, Sara J.; Chen, Zunqiu; Chen, Yiyi; Williams, Hywel C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (atopic eczema) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that has reached epidemic proportions in children worldwide and is increasing in prevalence. Because of the significant socioeconomic effect of atopic dermatitis and its effect on the quality of life of children and families, there have been decades of research focused on disease prevention, with limited success. Recent advances in cutaneous biology suggest skin barrier defects might be key initiators of atopic dermatitis and possibly allergic sensitization. Objective Our objective was to test whether skin barrier enhancement from birth represents a feasible strategy for reducing the incidence of atopic dermatitis in high-risk neonates. Methods We performed a randomized controlled trial in the United States and United Kingdom of 124 neonates at high risk for atopic dermatitis. Parents in the intervention arm were instructed to apply full-body emollient therapy at least once per day starting within 3 weeks of birth. Parents in the control arm were asked to use no emollients. The primary feasibility outcome was the percentage of families willing to be randomized. The primary clinical outcome was the cumulative incidence of atopic dermatitis at 6 months, as assessed by a trained investigator. Results Forty-two percent of eligible families agreed to be randomized into the trial. All participating families in the intervention arm found the intervention acceptable. A statistically significant protective effect was found with the use of daily emollient on the cumulative incidence of atopic dermatitis with a relative risk reduction of 50% (relative risk, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.28-0.9; P = .017). There were no emollient-related adverse events and no differences in adverse events between groups. Conclusion The results of this trial demonstrate that emollient therapy from birth represents a feasible, safe, and effective approach for atopic dermatitis prevention. If confirmed in larger trials

  12. [Updates on the earlier treatments for atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Jelen, G

    1998-01-01

    The GERDA classes have the function of updating our knowledge of dermato-allergology. One of the themes tackled this year was the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Apart from consideration of treatment or exception with cortisone, it seemed to be of interest to find the relevance of "old treatments" for atopic dermatitis, either preventive or symptomatic. Preventive treatment made reference to correction of food factors (diet in infants, removal of maternal allergens, supplementation on fatty acids) and of environmental factors especially the fight against house dust mites by use of anti-mite mattress covers. Miracle treatments of atopy do not always exist. Thus there is often need for, besides local corticosteroid therapy, an external symptomatic treatment where the emphasis is on the struggle against skin microbiology, the fight against pruritic inflammatory conditions and above all the battle against xerosis. Knowledge of the physiology of the stratum corneum gives better understanding of the effect of emollients and moisturizers in restoration of the cutaneous barrier, of which dysfunction is one of the elements of atopic dermatitis.

  13. Burden of atopic dermatitis in Japanese adults: Analysis of data from the 2013 National Health and Wellness Survey.

    PubMed

    Arima, Kazuhiko; Gupta, Shaloo; Gadkari, Abhijit; Hiragun, Takaaki; Kono, Takeshi; Katayama, Ichiro; Demiya, Sven; Eckert, Laurent

    2018-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. The objective of this study was to characterize the burden of atopic dermatitis in Japanese adult patients relative to the general population. Japanese adults (≥18 years) with a self-reported diagnosis of atopic dermatitis and adult controls without atopic dermatitis/eczema/dermatitis were identified from the 2013 Japan National Health and Wellness Survey. Atopic dermatitis patients were propensity-score matched with non-atopic dermatitis controls (1:2 ratio) on demographic variables. Patient-reported outcome data on comorbidities, mood and sleep disorders, health-related quality of life, work productivity and activity impairment, and health-care resource utilization were analyzed in atopic dermatitis patients and matched controls. A total of 638 Japanese adult patients with atopic dermatitis were identified, of whom 290 (45.5%) rated their disease as "moderate/severe" and 348 (54.5%) as "mild". The analysis cohort comprised 634 atopic dermatitis patients and 1268 matched controls. Atopic dermatitis patients reported a significantly higher prevalence of arthritis, asthma, nasal allergies/hay fever, anxiety, depression and sleep disorders compared with controls (all P < 0.001). Atopic dermatitis patients also reported a significantly poorer health-related quality of life, higher overall work and activity impairment, and higher health-care resource utilization (all P < 0.001). Self-rated disease severity was not associated with disease burden, except for a significantly higher overall work and activity impairment. In conclusion, Japanese adult patients with atopic dermatitis reported a substantial disease burden relative to adults without atopic dermatitis, suggesting an unmet need for effective strategies targeting disease management. © 2018 The Authors. The Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Dermatological Association.

  14. Comorbidity in Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Eric L

    2012-03-01

    The negative impact of atopic dermatitis (AD) often extends beyond the skin. Children with AD experience increased rates of infectious, mental health, and allergic diseases compared to their non-atopic peers. The mechanisms underlying these associations remain elusive. New insights from genetic and epidermal research pinpoint the skin barrier as a primary initiator of AD. Epicutaneous sensitization represents an intriguing new model which links a disrupted skin barrier to the later development of IgE-mediated diseases in patients with AD. Recent epidemiological studies have identified new comorbidities linked to AD as well, including several mental health disorders and obesity. This manuscript reviews the recent literature regarding both classic and newly described AD comorbidities.

  15. Effects of scalp dermatitis on chemical property of hair keratin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Min Kyung; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2013-05-01

    The effects of scalp dermatitis (seborrheic dermatitis (SD), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)) on chemical properties of hair keratin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hairs were collected from lesional regions affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD and non-lesional regions separately. The hairs with SD were taken from patients with ages of 16-80 years. The ages of patients with psoriasis ranged from 8 to 67 years, and all patients exhibited moderate disease. Hairs with AD were taken from the patients with ages of 24-45 years and the average SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was 48.75. Hairs from 20 normal adults were collected as a control. The FT-IR absorbance bands were analyzed by the Gaussian model to obtain the center frequency, half width, height, and area of each band. The height and area of all bands in the spectra were normalized to the amide I centered at 1652 cm-1 to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of keratin. The spectra of hair with scalp dermatitis were different with that of control, the amide A components centered at 3278 cm-1 were smaller than those of the control. The psoriasis hair showed a large difference in the IR absorbance band between lesional and non-lesional hairs indicating good agreement with the morphological changes. The hairs with diseases did not show differences in the content of cystine, which was centered at 1054 cm-1, from the control. The chemical properties of keratin were not significantly different between the hairs affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD. However, the changes induced by scalp dermatitis were different with weathering. Therefore, FT-IR analysis could be used to screen differences between the physiological and pathological conditions of scalp hair.

  16. Atopic dermatitis results in intrinsic barrier and immune abnormalities: Implications for contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Gittler, Julia K.; Krueger, James G.; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD), as well as irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), are common skin diseases. These diseases are characterized by skin inflammation mediated by activated innate immunity or acquired immune mechanisms. Although AD, ICD, and ACD can be encountered in pure forms by allergists and dermatologists, patients with AD often present with increased frequency of ICD and ACD. Although a disturbed barrier alone could potentiate immune reactivity in patients with AD through increased antigen penetration, additional immune mechanisms might explain the increased susceptibility of atopic patients to ICD and ACD. This review discusses cellular pathways associated with increased skin inflammation in all 3 conditions and presents mechanisms that might contribute to the increased rate of ICD and ACD in patients with AD. PMID:22939651

  17. Deletion of Late Cornified Envelope 3B and 3C genes is not associated with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bergboer, Judith G M; Zeeuwen, Patrick L J M; Irvine, Alan D; Weidinger, Stephan; Giardina, Emiliano; Novelli, Giuseppe; Den Heijer, Martin; Rodriguez, Elke; Illig, Thomas; Riveira-Munoz, Eva; Campbell, Linda E; Tyson, Jess; Dannhauser, Emma N; O'Regan, Gráinne M; Galli, Elena; Klopp, Norman; Koppelman, Gerard H; Novak, Natalija; Estivill, Xavier; McLean, W H Irwin; Postma, Dirkje S; Armour, John A L; Schalkwijk, Joost

    2010-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis are common skin diseases characterized by cutaneous inflammation and disturbed epidermal differentiation. Genome-wide analyses have shown overlapping susceptibility loci, such as the epidermal differentiation complex on chromosome 1q21. Recently, a deletion on 1q21 (LCE3C_LCE3B-del), comprising LCE3B and LCE3C, two members of the late cornified envelope (LCE) gene cluster, was found to be associated with psoriasis. Although the mechanistic role of LCE proteins in psoriasis has not been identified, these proteins are putatively involved in skin barrier formation and repair. Considering the potential genetic overlap between the two diseases and the recent finding that mutations in the skin barrier protein filaggrin are associated with AD, we investigated a possible association between LCE3C_LCE3B-del and AD. Evaluation of four different cohorts of European ancestry, containing a total of 1075 AD patients and 1658 controls, did not provide evidence for such an association. Subgroup analysis did not reveal an association with concomitant asthma. Our data suggest that the potential roles of skin barrier defects in the pathogenesis of AD and psoriasis are based on distinct genetic causes.

  18. Vitamin D in atopic dermatitis, asthma and allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Searing, Daniel A; Leung, Donald Y M

    2010-08-01

    This review examines the scientific evidence behind the hypothesis that vitamin D plays a role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, along with a focus on emerging data regarding vitamin D and atopic dermatitis. Elucidated molecular interactions of vitamin D with components of the immune system and clinical data regarding vitamin D deficiency and atopic diseases are discussed. The rationale behind the sunshine hypothesis, laboratory evidence supporting links between vitamin D deficiency and allergic diseases, the clinical evidence for and against vitamin D playing a role in allergic diseases, and the emerging evidence regarding the potential use of vitamin D to augment the innate immune response in atopic dermatitis are reviewed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-Interleukin-31 Receptor A Antibody for Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ruzicka, Thomas; Hanifin, Jon M; Furue, Masutaka; Pulka, Grazyna; Mlynarczyk, Izabela; Wollenberg, Andreas; Galus, Ryszard; Etoh, Takafumi; Mihara, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Hiroki; Stewart, Jonathan; Kabashima, Kenji

    2017-03-02

    Interleukin-31 may play a role in the pathobiologic mechanism of atopic dermatitis and pruritus. We wanted to assess the efficacy and safety of nemolizumab (CIM331), a humanized antibody against interleukin-31 receptor A, in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. In this phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial, we assigned adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis that was inadequately controlled by topical treatments to receive subcutaneous nemolizumab (at a dose of 0.1 mg, 0.5 mg, or 2.0 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo every 4 weeks or an exploratory dose of 2.0 mg of nemolizumab per kilogram every 8 weeks. The primary end point was the percentage improvement from baseline in the score on the pruritus visual-analogue scale (on which a negative change indicates improvement) at week 12. Secondary end points included changes in the score on the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI, on which a negative change indicates improvement), and body-surface area of atopic dermatitis. Of 264 patients who underwent randomization, 216 (82%) completed the study. At week 12, among the patients who received nemolizumab every 4 weeks, changes on the pruritus visual-analogue scale were -43.7% in the 0.1-mg group, -59.8% in the 0.5-mg group, and -63.1% in the 2.0-mg group, versus -20.9% in the placebo group (P<0.01 for all comparisons). Changes on the EASI were -23.0%, -42.3%, and -40.9%, respectively, in the nemolizumab groups, versus -26.6% in the placebo group. Respective changes in body-surface area affected by atopic dermatitis were -7.5%, -20.0%, and -19.4% with nemolizumab, versus -15.7% with placebo. Among the patients receiving nemolizumab every 4 weeks, treatment discontinuations occurred in 9 of 53 patients (17%) in the 0.1-mg group, in 9 of 54 (17%) in the 0.5-mg group, and in 7 of 52 (13%) in the 2.0-mg group, versus in 9 of 53 (17%) in the placebo group. In this phase 2 trial, nemolizumab at all monthly doses significantly

  20. Fermented rice bran prevents atopic dermatitis in DNCB-treated NC/Nga mice

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Evelyn; Lee, Chun Hee; Jeong, Da Hye; Lee, Kija; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Roh, Seong-Soo; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Rhee, Man Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The fermentation of natural plants has a favorable effect on the functional and biological activities of living systems. These include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-platelet aggregation activities. This is attributed to the chemical conversion of the parent plants to functional constituents, which show more potent biological activity. In our study, rice bran along with oriental medicinal plants (Angelicae gigantis, Cnidium officinale, Artemisia princeps, and Camellia sinensis) was fermented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Pichia deserticola (FRBE). We evaluated the effects of oral administration of FRBE on atopic dermatitis in 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB)-treated NC/Nga mice. FRBE significantly ameliorated the macroscopic and microscopic appearance of skin lesions in DNCB-induced atopic dermatitis and reduced levels of serum immunoglobulin E and the differential white blood cell count. In addition, it reduced skin thickness compared to that of atopic dermatitis-affected skin. FRBE treatment also reduced mast cell incorporation in skin lesions of atopic dermatitis. The total cell number in dorsal skin tissue and the axillary lymph node increased following DNCB application, and this was normalized by FRBE treatment. Moreover, it decreased the levels of CD8+ helper T cells and Gr-1+/CD11b+ B cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and skin lesions in DNCB-induced atopic dermatitis. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, we demonstrated that FRBE significantly inhibited mRNA expression of cytokines (e.g., interleukin-5 and interleukin-13) and cyclooxygenase-2 in AD skin lesions. These results suggest that FRBE could be a valuable herbal remedy for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. PMID:27323667

  1. Fermented rice bran prevents atopic dermatitis in DNCB-treated NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Saba, Evelyn; Lee, Chun Hee; Jeong, Da Hye; Lee, Kija; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Roh, Seong-Soo; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Rhee, Man Hee

    2016-07-01

    The fermentation of natural plants has a favorable effect on the functional and biological activities of living systems. These include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-platelet aggregation activities. This is attributed to the chemical conversion of the parent plants to functional constituents, which show more potent biological activity. In our study, rice bran along with oriental medicinal plants (Angelicae gigantis, Cnidium officinale, Artemisia princeps, and Camellia sinensis) was fermented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Pichia deserticola (FRBE). We evaluated the effects of oral administration of FRBE on atopic dermatitis in 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB)-treated NC/Nga mice. FRBE significantly ameliorated the macroscopic and microscopic appearance of skin lesions in DNCB-induced atopic dermatitis and reduced levels of serum immunoglobulin E and the differential white blood cell count. In addition, it reduced skin thickness compared to that of atopic dermatitis-affected skin. FRBE treatment also reduced mast cell incorporation in skin lesions of atopic dermatitis. The total cell number in dorsal skin tissue and the axillary lymph node increased following DNCB application, and this was normalized by FRBE treatment. Moreover, it decreased the levels of CD8(+) helper T cells and Gr-1(+)/CD11b(+) B cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and skin lesions in DNCB-induced atopic dermatitis. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, we demonstrated that FRBE significantly inhibited mRNA expression of cytokines (e.g., interleukin-5 and interleukin-13) and cyclooxygenase-2 in AD skin lesions. These results suggest that FRBE could be a valuable herbal remedy for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. © 2016 the Journal of Biomedical Research. All rights reserved.

  2. Vitamin D in Atopic Dermatitis, Asthma and Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Searing, Daniel A; Leung, Donald YM

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis This review examines the scientific evidence behind the hypothesis that vitamin D plays a role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, with a particular focus on emerging data regarding vitamin D and atopic dermatitis. Both elucidated molecular interactions of vitamin D with components of the immune system, as well as clinical data regarding vitamin D deficiency and atopic diseases are discussed. The rationale behind the “sunshine hypothesis,” laboratory evidence supporting links between vitamin D deficiency and allergic diseases, the clinical evidence for/and against vitamin D playing a role in allergic diseases, and the emerging evidence regarding the potential use of vitamin D in augmentation of the innate immune response in atopic dermatitis are reviewed. PMID:20670821

  3. Translation and validation of Portuguese of a questionnaire for evaluation of psychosomatic symptoms in adults with atopic dermatitis*

    PubMed Central

    Boleira, Manuela; Lupi, Omar; Pires, Gisele Vianna; Dias, Gabriela; Seba, Amanda Jaccobson; Guimarães, Daniel Boleira Sieiro

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND atopic dermatitis is directly related to psychological stress, reduced quality of life and psychosomatic symptoms. The Psychosomatic Scale for Atopic Dermatitis is the only questionnaire developed specifically for assessment of psychosomatization in atopic dermatitis. OBJECTIVES the objective of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate a Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Psychosomatic Scale for Atopic Dermatitis. METHODS adaptation consisted of independent translation and backtranslation by three bilingual translators, followed by a pre-test. The Psychosomatic Scale for Atopic Dermatitis and the Dermatology Life Quality Index were self-administered to 47 patients with atopic dermatitis. Disease severity was evaluated using the Eczema Area and Severity Index. Factor analysis was used to identify the dimensions of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Psychosomatic Scale for Atopic Dermatitis. Internal consistency and convergence validity were also analyzed. Reproducibility was assessed using the Kappa coefficient. RESULTS factor analysis revealed a two-dimensional structure: stress/laziness/insecurity (I) and maladjustment/social relationships (II), explaining 54.4% of total variance. All dimensions revealed excellent internal consistency. External construct validity was confirmed by positive correlations between the Psychosomatic Scale for Atopic Dermatitis and the Dermatology Life Quality Index. Test-retest reliability was excellent, with k>0.7 for all questions. CONCLUSIONS the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Psychosomatic Scale for Atopic Dermatitis demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties and can be used for the evaluation of psychosomatic symptoms in patients with atopic dermatitis and as a tool in clinical and epidemiological research. PMID:25184916

  4. Feline atopic dermatitis. A model for Langerhans cell participation in disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Roosje, P J; Whitaker-Menezes, D; Goldschmidt, M H; Moore, P F; Willemse, T; Murphy, G F

    1997-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a disorder characterized by cutaneous exanthemata as a consequence of exaggerated eczematous reactions to topical and systemic allergens. Langerhans cells, expressing CD1a and HLA-DR, and dermal dendritic cells, expressing HLA-DR, are known to be potent antigen-presenting cells and are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. The immunophenotype of lesional skin in atopic dermatitis in humans involves increased numbers of CD1a+/MHC class II+ dendritic cells in addition to activated T cells, mast cells, and macrophages. To establish feline skin as a model for the study of human atopic dermatitis, and to elucidate the role of dendritic cells in feline atopic dermatitis, we investigated the presence of CD1a+ cells and MHC class II+ cells in the epidermis and dermis of lesional feline skin and in skin of healthy control animals. Immunohistochemistry revealed that MHC class II+ epidermal dendritic cells were CD1a+ in normal feline skin and significantly increased numbers of CD1a+ cells and MHC class II+ cells were present in the epidermis and dermis of lesional skin. These data provide the first correlative documentation of CD1a expression by feline dendritic cells containing Birbeck granules, and indicate the utility of feline skin in the study of human cutaneous atopy.

  5. Prevalence and features of canine atopic dermatitis in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Tarpataki, Noémi; Pápa, Kinga; Reiczigel, J; Vajdovich, P; Vörösi, K

    2006-09-01

    Medical records of 600 dogs diagnosed with atopic dermatitis were reviewed and evaluated with reference to history, geographical distribution, breed predilection, clinical signs and positive reactions to allergens as determined by intradermal skin testing (IDT) manufactured by Artuvetrin Laboratories. In 66.6% of dogs, the age of onset of atopic dermatitis was between 4 months and 3 years. Dogs living in the garden suburb of Budapest were more sensitive to house dust mites, fleas and moulds, and dogs from the western part of Hungary were more sensitive to weeds than to other allergens (p < 0.01). Positive reactions were most common to Dermatophagoides farinae followed by human dander. The breed distribution found in the present study was consistent with that reported in the literature, except for the breeds Hungarian Vizsla, Pumi, French bulldog, Doberman Pinscher and Bobtail which were over-represented among atopic dogs compared to the breed distribution of the general dog population of a large city in Hungary. Breeds with verified adverse reaction to food were Cocker spaniels, French bulldogs, Bullmastiffs, Bull terriers, St. Bernards, Tervurens, West Highland White terriers and American Staffordshire terriers (p < 0.05). The clinical signs of atopic dermatitis and their occurrence are in accordance with the data described in the literature.

  6. Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema): An Appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Arthur L.

    1962-01-01

    Atopic (spontaneous) allergies and nonatopic (induced) allergies are often confused. The meaning of these terms is definite, but the occurrence of either (in a given individual) may depend upon his autonomic nervous system control. The evidence that allergens produce the cutaneous changes in atopic dermatitis is flimsy, and neurodermatitis would be a more appropriate term since the entity falls into that pattern of skin changes. Treatment carried out, from infancy sometimes to old age, consists of careful management of the patient in the physical and emotional spheres, avoidance of external irritation and the use of a multiplicity of anti-pruritic, anti-inflammatory and sedative agents. PMID:13955448

  7. Atopic Dermatitis in Animals and People: An Update and Comparative Review

    PubMed Central

    Marsella, Rosanna; De Benedetto, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is an extremely common, pruritic, and frustrating disease to treat in both people and animals. Atopic dermatitis is multifactorial and results from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Much progress has been done in recent years in terms of understanding the complex pathogenesis of this clinical syndrome and the identification of new treatments. As we learn more about it, we appreciate the striking similarities that exist in the clinical manifestations of this disease across species. Both in animals and people, atopic disease is becoming increasingly common and important similarities exist in terms of immunologic aberrations and the propensity for allergic sensitization. The purpose of this review is to highlight the most recent views on atopic dermatitis in both domestic species and in people emphasizing the similarities and the differences. A comparative approach can be beneficial in understanding the natural course of this disease and the variable response to existing therapies. PMID:29056696

  8. Atopic Dermatitis in Animals and People: An Update and Comparative Review.

    PubMed

    Marsella, Rosanna; De Benedetto, Anna

    2017-07-26

    Atopic dermatitis is an extremely common, pruritic, and frustrating disease to treat in both people and animals. Atopic dermatitis is multifactorial and results from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Much progress has been done in recent years in terms of understanding the complex pathogenesis of this clinical syndrome and the identification of new treatments. As we learn more about it, we appreciate the striking similarities that exist in the clinical manifestations of this disease across species. Both in animals and people, atopic disease is becoming increasingly common and important similarities exist in terms of immunologic aberrations and the propensity for allergic sensitization. The purpose of this review is to highlight the most recent views on atopic dermatitis in both domestic species and in people emphasizing the similarities and the differences. A comparative approach can be beneficial in understanding the natural course of this disease and the variable response to existing therapies.

  9. Clinical efficacy of Avène hydrotherapy measured in a large cohort of more than 10,000 atopic or psoriatic patients.

    PubMed

    Merial-Kieny, C; Mengual, X; Guerrero, D; Sibaud, V

    2011-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis are chronic skin conditions. Local or systemic treatments are effective, but their effects are transient. Hydrotherapy, used alone or in combination with other treatments, could be considered as one form of care in providing effective management of these dermatoses. The objective of this observational study was to evaluate the benefit of a 3-week treatment at Avène Hydrotherapy Centre in a very large cohort of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis and psoriasis and to assess the treatment benefits on patients undergoing hydrotherapy for two consecutive years. This 8-year observational study analysed 14,328 records of patients having a dermatological disease and who came to Avène Hydrotherapy Centre for a 3-week treatment between 2001 and 2009. Among them, patients were suffering from atopic dermatitis (n = 5916) and psoriasis (n = 4887). On admission on D0 (day 0) and at the end of cure on D18 (day 18), the severity of AD and psoriasis were evaluated by SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), respectively. In order to assess the cumulative effect of the hydrotherapy treatment, the evolution of SCORAD or PASI of patients who came 2 years in a row was also calculated. A significant improvement in SCORAD was observed between D0 and D18 (-41.6%) (P < 0.0001) and similarly, a significant reduction in PASI was noted between D0 and D18 (-54.4%) (P < 0.0001) after 3-weeks of hydrotherapy. PASI 50 and PASI 75 were 64.3% and 19.5%, respectively. For atopic patients (n = 1102) or patients suffering from psoriasis (n = 833) who came for two consecutive years, a significant SCORAD and PASI improvement was observed on D0 of the second year when compared with D0 of the previous year (P < 0.0001). This study is the first observational study in such a large cohort demonstrating the benefit of a 3-week treatment at the Avène Hydrotherapy Centre for atopic and psoriatic patients. © 2010 The Authors

  10. Novel Therapeutic Approaches to Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Osinka, Katarzyna; Dumycz, Karolina; Kwiek, Bartłomiej; Feleszko, Wojciech

    2018-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common inflammatory skin diseases. The number of people affected by AD is relatively high and seems to be rising. Although mild and moderate forms of the disease can be well controlled by the use of emollients, topical corticosteroids, and topical calcineurin inhibitors, treatment of severe is still a huge challenge. The new hope is biologic drugs, magic bullets in allergy, targeted at different points of the complex pathomechanism of inflammation in AD. In this review, novel biologic therapies are discussed, including recombinant monoclonal antibodies directed against various interleukin pathways (such as IL-4, IL-13, TSLP, IL-31, and IL-12/23), on immunoglobulin E, molecules acting as T cells, B cells, etc. Of biological drugs, the most promising seems to be anti-IL-4/IL-13 therapy (dupilumab-the biological agent) and phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor (crisaborole-a small molecule). A deep understanding of the AD pathomechanism provides a new perspective for tailor-made treatment of severe atopic dermatitis.

  11. The efficacy of commercially available veterinary diets recommended for dogs with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Glos, Katharina; Linek, Monika; Loewenstein, Christine; Mayer, Ursula; Mueller, Ralf S

    2008-10-01

    The classical treatments for dogs with atopic dermatitis have traditionally been oral antipruritic drugs, allergen-specific immunotherapy and topical therapy. Fifty dogs with atopic dermatitis were included in this multicentred, double-blinded, randomized study to compare clinical response to an 8-week period of feeding one of three commercial veterinary foods marketed for dogs with atopic dermatitis (diets A-C) or a widely distributed supermarket food (diet D). Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed using Willemse's criteria and through the exclusion of differential diagnoses. Fourteen dogs were assigned to diet A and 12 dogs each to diet B, C or D. Flea and tick control using a monthly fipronil spot-on product was administered for a minimum of 4 weeks prior to inclusion in the study and during the study period. Evaluations were made monthly. These included lesion scores, using an established scoring system (canine atopic dermatitis extent and severity index, CADESI-03) and owner evaluation of pruritus level using a visual analogue scale. After 8 weeks on the new diets, there was a significant improvement in CADESI and pruritus scores with diet B (Wilcoxon test, P = 0.043 and paired t-test, P = 0.012, respectively), in pruritus scores with diet A (paired t-test, P = 0.019) and in CADESI scores with diet D (Wilcoxon test, P = 0.037). No significant changes were detected with diet C. Based on the results of this study, in addition to the conventional therapies, changing the diet of dogs with atopic dermatitis may be a useful adjunctive therapeutic measure.

  12. Atopic dermatitis: emerging therapies.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Eric; Udkoff, Jeremy; Borok, Jenna; Tom, Wynnis; Beck, Lisa; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2017-09-01

    Crisaborole and dupilumab represent the first 2 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapies for atopic dermatitis (AD) in more than 15 years, and there are many promising drugs currently in development. This new wave of therapeutics capitalizes on the large body of work clarifying the pathogenesis of AD over the last several decades. In particular, type 2 cytokine-driven inflammation and skin barrier dysfunction are key processes underlying AD pathogenesis. ©2017 Frontline Medical Communications.

  13. Harmful Effects of Synthetic Surface-Active Detergents against Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Hajime; Aoyama, Riho; Takahashi, Hideaki; Isobe, Yoshinari; Tsutsumi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We report herein two cases of intractable atopic dermatitis successfully treated by simply avoiding the contact with surface-active detergents in the daily life and living. The detergents were closely related to the exacerbation and remission of the disease. Steroid ointment was no longer used. We discuss that the removal of horny layer lipids by surface-active detergents accelerates the transepidermal water loss and disturbs the barrier function of the epidermis and thus is intimately involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis.

  14. Grades of Severity and the Validation of an Atopic Dermatitis Assessment Measure (ADAM).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charman, Denise P.; Varigos, George A.

    1999-01-01

    Studied the validity of the Atopic Dermatitis Assessment Measure (D. Charman and others, 1999) with 171 pediatric patients in Australia using partial credit analyses to produce clinically relevant "word pictures" of grades of severity for atopic dermatitis. Discusses implications for measurement in medicine. (SLD)

  15. Dysbiosis and Staphylococcus aureus Colonization Drives Inflammation in Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Glatz, Martin; Horiuchi, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Kaplan, Daniel H; Kong, Heidi H; Amagai, Masayuki; Nagao, Keisuke

    2015-04-21

    Staphylococcus aureus skin colonization is universal in atopic dermatitis and common in cancer patients treated with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors. However, the causal relationship of dysbiosis and eczema has yet to be clarified. Herein, we demonstrate that Adam17(fl/fl)Sox9-(Cre) mice, generated to model ADAM17-deficiency in human, developed eczematous dermatitis with naturally occurring dysbiosis, similar to that observed in atopic dermatitis. Corynebacterium mastitidis, S. aureus, and Corynebacterium bovis sequentially emerged during the onset of eczematous dermatitis, and antibiotics specific for these bacterial species almost completely reversed dysbiosis and eliminated skin inflammation. Whereas S. aureus prominently drove eczema formation, C. bovis induced robust T helper 2 cell responses. Langerhans cells were required for eliciting immune responses against S. aureus inoculation. These results characterize differential contributions of dysbiotic flora during eczema formation, and highlight the microbiota-host immunity axis as a possible target for future therapeutics in eczematous dermatitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dysbiosis and Staphylococcus aureus colonization drives inflammation in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Glatz, Martin; Horiuchi, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Kaplan, Daniel H.; Kong, Heidi H.; Amagai, Masayuki; Nagao, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Summary Staphylococcus aureus skin colonization is universal in atopic dermatitis and common in cancer patients treated with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors. However, the causal relationship of dysbiosis and eczema has yet to be clarified. Herein, we demonstrate that Adam17fl/flSox9-Cre mice, generated to model ADAM17-deficiency in human, developed eczematous dermatitis with naturally occurring dysbiosis, similar to that observed in atopic dermatitis. Corynebacterium mastitidis, S. aureus, and Corynebacterium bovis sequentially emerged during the onset of eczematous dermatitis, and antibiotic specific for these bacterial species almost completely reversed dysbiosis and eliminated skin inflammation. Whereas S. aureus prominently drove eczema formation, C. bovis induced robust T helper 2 cell responses. Langerhans cells were required for eliciting immune responses against S. aureus inoculation. These results characterize differential contributions of dysbiotic flora during eczema formation, and highlight the microbiota-host immunity axis as a possible target for future therapeutics in eczematous dermatitis. PMID:25902485

  17. Efficacy and Safety of Dupilumab in Patients ≥12 to <18 Years of Age, With Moderate-to-Severe Atopic Dermatitis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-12-18

    Moderate-to-Severe Atopic Dermatitis; Dermatitis, Dermatitis Atopic; Eczema, Skin Diseases, Skin; Diseases Genetic, Genetic; Diseases Inborn, Skin; Disease, Eczematous Skin; Hypersensitivity, Immediate; Hypersensitivity, Immune System Diseases; Dermatitis, Atopic

  18. Acute health effects of urban fine and ultrafine particles on children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Song, Sanghwan; Lee, Kiyoung; Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Sang Il; Yu, Seung-Do; Paek, Domyung

    2011-04-01

    Although ambient particulate pollutants have been shown to exacerbate existing allergic symptoms of mucous membranes including rhinitis and asthma, the effects on skin such as atopic dermatitis in childhood deserve further study. We investigated the effects of urban particulate pollutants including ultrafine particles on atopic severity in children with atopic dermatitis. We included 41 schoolchildren, 8-12 years old, who had been diagnosed with atopic dermatitis. For 67 consecutive days, all of them measured their symptoms in a diary. To assess exposure, the daily ambient mass concentrations of particulate matter less than 10, 2.5 and 1 μm (PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(1), respectively) and concentrations of submicron particles (0.01- 1 μm) were measured at a local school. The mean mass concentrations of PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(1) were 74.0, 57.8 and 50.8 μg/m(3), respectively. The mean concentrations were 41,335/cm(3) ultrafine particles (UFPs) and 8577/cm(3) accumulation mode (0.1-1 μm) particles. Significant associations were found between the concentrations of ultrafine particles and the itchiness symptom in children with atopic dermatitis. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in previous day ultrafine particles concentration (IQR: 28-140/m(3)) was significantly associated with a 3.1% (95% confidence interval, 0.2-6.1) increase in the itch symptom score for children with atopic dermatitis. The results suggested that the concentration of ambient ultrafine particles may exacerbate skin symptoms in children with atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Distinct molecular signatures of mild extrinsic and intrinsic atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Martel, Britta C; Litman, Thomas; Hald, Andreas; Norsgaard, Hanne; Lovato, Paola; Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice; Skov, Lone; Thestrup-Pedersen, Kristian; Skov, Søren; Skak, Kresten; Poulsen, Lars K

    2016-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease with underlying defects in epidermal function and immune responses. In this study, we used microarray analysis to investigate differences in gene expression in lesional skin from patients with mild extrinsic or intrinsic AD compared to skin from healthy controls and from lesional psoriasis skin. The primary aim was to identify differentially expressed genes involved in skin barrier formation and inflammation, and to compare our results with those reported for patients with moderate and severe AD. In contrast to severe AD, expression of the majority of genes associated with skin barrier formation was unchanged or upregulated in patients with mild AD compared to normal healthy skin. Among these, no significant differences in the expression of filaggrin (FLG) and loricrin at both mRNA and protein level were found in lesional skin from patients with mild AD, despite the presence of heterozygous FLG mutations in the majority of patients with mild extrinsic AD. Several inflammation-associated genes such as S100A9, MMP12, CXCL10 and CCL18 were highly expressed in lesional skin from patients with mild psoriasis and were also increased in patients with mild extrinsic and intrinsic AD similar to previous reports for severe AD. Interestingly, expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses in intrinsic AD resembled that of psoriasis more than that of extrinsic AD. Overall, differences in expression of inflammation-associated genes found among patients with mild intrinsic and extrinsic AD correlated with previous findings for patients with severe intrinsic and extrinsic AD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Atopic dermatitis and vitamin D: facts and controversies*

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Kleyton de Carvalho; Igreja, Ana Carolina de Souza Machado; Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have genetically determined risk factors that affect the barrier function of the skin and immune responses that interact with environmental factors. Clinically, this results in an intensely pruriginous and inflamed skin that allows the penetration of irritants and allergens and predisposes patients to colonization and infection by microorganisms. Among the various etiological factors responsible for the increased prevalence of atopic diseases over the past few decades, the role of vitamin D has been emphasized. As the pathogenesis of AD involves a complex interplay of epidermal barrier dysfunction and dysregulated immune response, and vitamin D is involved in both processes, it is reasonable to expect that vitamin D's status could be associated with atopic dermatitis' risk or severity. Such association is suggested by epidemiological and experimental data. In this review, we will discuss the evidence for and against this controversial relationship, emphasizing the possible etiopathogenic mechanisms involved. PMID:24474104

  1. Identifying patients likely to have atopic dermatitis: development of a pilot algorithm.

    PubMed

    Farage, Miranda A; Bowtell, Philip; Katsarou, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    A quick method to distinguish people who are predisposed to skin complaints would be useful in a variety of fields. Certain subgroups, such as people with atopic dermatitis, might be more susceptible to skin irritation than the typical consumer and may be more likely to report product-related complaints. To develop a rapid, questionnaire-based algorithm to predict whether or not individuals who report skin complaints have atopic dermatitis. A 9-item questionnaire on self-perceived skin sensitivity and product categories reportedly associated with skin reactions was administered to two groups of patients from a dermatology clinic: one with clinically diagnosed, active atopic dermatitis (n = 25) and a control group of patients with dermatologic complaints unrelated to atopic dermatitis (n = 25). Questionnaire responses were correlated with the patients' clinical diagnoses in order to derive the minimum number of questions needed to best predict the patients' original diagnoses. We demonstrated that responses to a sequence of three targeted questions related to self-perceived skin sensitivity, preference for hypoallergenic products, and reactions to or avoidance of alpha-hydroxy acids were highly predictive of atopic dermatitis among a population of dermatology clinic patients. The predictive algorithm concept may be useful in postmarketing surveillance programs to rapidly assess the possible status of consumers who report frequent or persistent product-related complaints. Further refinement and validation of this concept is planned with samples drawn from the general population and from consumers who report skin complaints associated with personal products.

  2. Randomized controlled trial using vitamins E and D supplementation in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Javanbakht, Mohammad Hassan; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Djalali, Mahmoud; Siassi, Fereydoun; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Firooz, Alireza; Seirafi, Hassan; Ehsani, Amir Hooshang; Chamari, Maryam; Mirshafiey, Abbas

    2011-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronically relapsing, highly pruritic and inflammatory skin disease. This study was done to assess the effects of vitamins D and E supplementation on the clinical manifestation of atopic dermatitis. Forty-five atopic dermatitis patients were included in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. They were randomly divided into four groups and treated for 60 days: group P (n = 11), vitamins D and E placebos; group D (n = 12), 1600 IU vitamin D(3) plus vitamin E placebo; group E (n = 11), 600 IU synthetic all-rac-α-tocopherol plus vitamin D placebo; and group DE (n = 11), 1600 IU vitamin D(3) plus 600 IU synthetic all-rac-α-tocopherol. Serum 25(OH) vitamin D and plasma α-tocopherol were determined before and after the trial. The clinical improvement was evaluated with SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD). Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis tests. SCORAD was reduced after 60 days in groups D, E and DE by 34.8%, 35.7% and 64.3%, respectively (p = 0.004). Objective SCORAD also showed significant improvement. There was a positive correlation between SCORAD and intensity, objective, subjective and extent (p < 0.001). We found a significant negative association between plasma α-tocopherol and SCORAD, intensity, objective and extent (p = 0.02). This study supports the contributing and beneficial effects of vitamins D and E in the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

  3. Use of a silklike bedding fabric in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Eleanor J; Yelverton, Christopher B; Camacho, Fabian T; Fleischer, Alan B

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of atopic dermatitis are often affected by environmental irritants. Modulation of potential irritants may benefit such symptoms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a novel silklike bedding fabric for persons with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis. Participants with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis were provided a bedsheet set. Eczema Area and Severity Index and Investigator Global Assessment were the primary outcome measures. Visual Analog Scale for itch and a quality of life were also evaluated. The Wilcoxon signed rank test indicated a significant decrease in severity, with the Investigator Global Assessment score decreasing from 2.05 to 1.74 at week 8 (p = 0.03), the Eczema Area and Severity Index decreasing from 2.63 at baseline to 2.19 (p = 0.014), and the itching score decreasing from 3.97 to 3.00 (p = 0.010). An increase in the study-specific quality of life index was also observed, changing from -0.08 (no change in quality of life) to 1.23 (some improvement) (p < 0.0001). Atopic dermatitis is commonly recalcitrant to therapy and synthetic silklike bed linens may have value as another option for the treatment of this disease. This pilot study demonstrated promising results that warrant confirmation in controlled clinical studies.

  4. Atopic and Contact Dermatitis of the Vulva.

    PubMed

    Pichardo-Geisinger, Rita

    2017-09-01

    Pruritus, or itch, is a common vulvar complaint that is often treated empirically as a yeast infection; however, yeast infections are just one of the many conditions that can cause vulvar itch. Ignoring other conditions can prolong pruritus unnecessarily. Atopic dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, and allergic contact dermatitis are extremely common noninfectious causes of vulvar itch that are often underdiagnosed by nondermatologists. Identifying these conditions and treating them appropriately can significantly improve a patient's quality of life and appropriately decrease health care expenditures by preventing unnecessary additional referrals or follow-up visits and decreasing pharmaceutical costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Antipsoriatic Effects of Wannachawee Recipe on Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis-Like Dermatitis in BALB/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Na Takuathung, Mingkwan; Wongnoppavich, Ariyaphong; Panthong, Ampai; Khonsung, Parirat; Chiranthanut, Natthakarn; Soonthornchareonnon, Noppamas; Sireeratawong, Seewaboon

    2018-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common immune-mediated chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by thick and erythema raised plaques with adherent silvery scales. T-cells are activated via the IL-23/Th17 axis which is involved in psoriasis pathogenesis. Conventional treatments of psoriasis have adverse events that influence patients' adherence. Wannachawee Recipe (WCR) is Thai traditional medicine that is known to be effective for psoriasis patients; however, preclinical evidence is still lacking. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of WCR on antiproliferant activity using imiquimod- (IMQ-) induced psoriasis-like dermatitis in a mouse model. Psoriasis-like dermatitis was induced on the shaved dorsal skin and right ear pinna of BALB/c mice by topical application of IMQ for 15 consecutive days after which WCR was administered to the mice by oral gavage for 10 days. Phenotypical observations, histopathological examinations, and ELISA of skin and blood samples were conducted. WCR significantly ameliorated development of IMQ-induced psoriasis-like dermatitis and reduced levels of Th17 cytokines (IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-23) in both serum and dorsal skin. Histopathological findings showed a decrease in epidermal thickness and inflammatory T-cell infiltration in the WCR-treated groups. The WCR has pharmacological actions which regulate Th17 related cytokines suggesting that it is a potential alternative therapeutic strategy for psoriasis.

  6. Antipsoriatic Effects of Wannachawee Recipe on Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis-Like Dermatitis in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Na Takuathung, Mingkwan; Wongnoppavich, Ariyaphong; Panthong, Ampai; Khonsung, Parirat; Soonthornchareonnon, Noppamas

    2018-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common immune-mediated chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by thick and erythema raised plaques with adherent silvery scales. T-cells are activated via the IL-23/Th17 axis which is involved in psoriasis pathogenesis. Conventional treatments of psoriasis have adverse events that influence patients' adherence. Wannachawee Recipe (WCR) is Thai traditional medicine that is known to be effective for psoriasis patients; however, preclinical evidence is still lacking. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of WCR on antiproliferant activity using imiquimod- (IMQ-) induced psoriasis-like dermatitis in a mouse model. Psoriasis-like dermatitis was induced on the shaved dorsal skin and right ear pinna of BALB/c mice by topical application of IMQ for 15 consecutive days after which WCR was administered to the mice by oral gavage for 10 days. Phenotypical observations, histopathological examinations, and ELISA of skin and blood samples were conducted. WCR significantly ameliorated development of IMQ-induced psoriasis-like dermatitis and reduced levels of Th17 cytokines (IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-23) in both serum and dorsal skin. Histopathological findings showed a decrease in epidermal thickness and inflammatory T-cell infiltration in the WCR-treated groups. The WCR has pharmacological actions which regulate Th17 related cytokines suggesting that it is a potential alternative therapeutic strategy for psoriasis. PMID:29619073

  7. Cross allergic reactions in infants and toddlers with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cudowska, B; Kaczmarski, M; Wasilewska, J

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence and clinical significance of cross sensitization in children up to 3 years old, diagnosed with atopic dermatitis. The retrospective study included 69 children up to 3 years old with atopic dermatitis. Allergological diagnostics was performed based on skin tests, determination of total IgE concentration and allergen-specific IgE. Cross sensitization was found in 26% of children. Other patients were qualified to the control group. The sensitization to trees pollen and fruits as well as grass pollen and vegetables were the most frequent types of cross allergy. The patient's family history was positive with regard to atopy in 72% of children from the study group vs. 31% of children from the control group. The statistically higher prevalence of allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma as well as co-existence of sensitization to house dust mite and animal dander were revealed in the study group. The total concentration of IgE, eosinophilia and SCORAD values were statistically higher in the study group. Children with cross sensitization required systemic steroid therapy more frequently. In children up to 3 years with atopic dermatitis and sensitization to plant pollen, the role of a pollen-food allergy syndrome must be taken into account in the pathogenesis of the disease. In children with cross sensitization, the course of atopic dermatitis is more severe; the symptoms from the respiratory and digestive system co-exist. The positive family history is a factor, predisposing to the development of cross sensitization in infants and toddlers.

  8. Prenatal animal contact and gene expression of innate immunity receptors at birth are associated with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Roduit, Caroline; Wohlgensinger, Johanna; Frei, Remo; Bitter, Sondhja; Bieli, Christian; Loeliger, Susanne; Büchele, Gisela; Riedler, Josef; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Remes, Sami; Roponen, Marjut; Pekkanen, Juha; Kabesch, Michael; Schaub, Bianca; von Mutius, Erika; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Lauener, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have suggested that prenatal farm exposures might protect against allergic disease and increase the expression of receptors of the innate immune system. However, epidemiologic evidence supporting the association with atopic dermatitis remains inconsistent. To study the association between prenatal farm-related exposures and atopic dermatitis in a prospective study. We further analyzed the association between the expression of innate immune genes at birth and atopic dermatitis. A total of 1063 children who participated in a birth cohort study, Protection against Allergy-Study in Rural Environments, were included in this study. Doctor diagnosis of atopic dermatitis was reported by the parents from 1 to 2 years of age by questionnaire. Gene expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and CD14 was assessed in cord blood leukocytes by quantitative PCR. Maternal contact with farm animals and cats during pregnancy had a significantly protective effect on atopic dermatitis in the first 2 years of life. The risk of atopic dermatitis was reduced by more than half among children with mothers having contact with 3 or more farm animal species during pregnancy compared with children with mothers without contact (adjusted odds ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.19-0.97). Elevated expression of TLR5 and TLR9 in cord blood was associated with decreased doctor diagnosis of atopic dermatitis. A significant interaction between polymorphism in TLR2 and prenatal cat exposure was observed in atopic dermatitis. Maternal contact with farm animals and cats during pregnancy has a protective effect on the development of atopic dermatitis in early life, which is associated with a lower expression of innate immune receptors at birth. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Topical Therapy for Atopic Dermatitis: New and Investigational Agents.

    PubMed

    Stein Gold, Linda F; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2016-03-01

    Recently a new class of topical medications for mild to moderate atopic dermatitis has been introduced with US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of the first new prescription medication for this condition in more than a decade. Crisaborole, the newly approved medication, has relieved pruritus in more than one-third of patients within as little as 48 hours. It also has demonstrated efficacy in patients with skin of color. Topical therapies representing other new approaches to atopic dermatitis, with novel mechanisms of action, have shown promise in clinical development. Semin Cutan Med Surg 36(supp4):S99-S102. 2017 published by Frontline Medical Communications.

  10. Longitudinal Evaluation of the Skin Microbiome and Association with Microenvironment and Treatment in Canine Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Charles W; Morris, Daniel O; Rankin, Shelley C; Cain, Christine L; Misic, Ana M; Houser, Timothy; Mauldin, Elizabeth A; Grice, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    Host-microbe interactions may play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disorder characterized by universal colonization with Staphylococcus species. To examine the relationship between epidermal barrier function and the cutaneous microbiota in atopic dermatitis, this study used a spontaneous model of canine atopic dermatitis. In a cohort of 14 dogs with canine atopic dermatitis, the skin microbiota were longitudinally evaluated with parallel assessment of skin barrier function at disease flare, during antimicrobial therapy, and post-therapy. Sequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene showed decreased bacterial diversity and increased proportions of Staphylococcus (S. pseudintermedius in particular) and Corynebacterium species compared with a cohort of healthy control dogs (n = 16). Treatment restored bacterial diversity with decreased proportions of Staphylococcus species, concurrent with decreased canine atopic dermatitis severity. Skin barrier function, as measured by corneometry, pH, and transepidermal water loss also normalized with treatment. Bacterial diversity correlated with transepidermal water loss and pH level but not with corneometry results. These findings provide insights into the relationship between the cutaneous microbiome and skin barrier function in atopic dermatitis, show the impact of antimicrobial therapy on the skin microbiome, and highlight the utility of canine atopic dermatitis as a spontaneous nonrodent model of atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychological Stress and the Cutaneous Immune Response: Roles of the HPA Axis and the Sympathetic Nervous System in Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jessica M. F.; Cruser, desAnges; Podawiltz, Alan; Mummert, Diana I.; Jones, Harlan; Mummert, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Psychological stress, an evolutionary adaptation to the fight-or-flight response, triggers a number of physiological responses that can be deleterious under some circumstances. Stress signals activate the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system. Elements derived from those systems (e.g., cortisol, catecholamines and neuropeptides) can impact the immune system and possible disease states. Skin provides a first line of defense against many environmental insults. A number of investigations have indicated that the skin is especially sensitive to psychological stress, and experimental evidence shows that the cutaneous innate and adaptive immune systems are affected by stressors. For example, psychological stress has been shown to reduce recovery time of the stratum corneum barrier after its removal (innate immunity) and alters antigen presentation by epidermal Langerhans cells (adaptive immunity). Moreover, psychological stress may trigger or exacerbate immune mediated dermatological disorders. Understanding how the activity of the psyche-nervous -immune system axis impinges on skin diseases may facilitate coordinated treatment strategies between dermatologists and psychiatrists. Herein, we will review the roles of the HPA axis and the sympathetic nervous system on the cutaneous immune response. We will selectively highlight how the interplay between psychological stress and the immune system affects atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. PMID:22969795

  12. Pharmacophysiology of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hanifin, J M

    1986-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis is clearly characterized by altered cutaneous physiologic responses. There is a tendency to acral vasoconstriction. Rubbing causes skin pallor and white dermographism. Vascular instability is demonstrated by responses to cholinergic agents, histamine, and nicotinates. Psychophysiologic studies demonstrate exaggerated vasodilator responses to emotional stress with consequent pruritus and scratching. The itch threshold is low, duration is prolonged, and nighttime scratching movements may be frequent or almost continuous. Regardless of the inciting trigger factors, the scratching causes the damage and the severe dermatitis. Thermal as well as emotional stimuli to sweating cause severe itching in AD, yet the concept of a miliaria-type, poral occlusion mechanism remains unproven. Some studies suggest actually increased sweating along with erythema and pruritus during acute flares of AD. The concept of sweat-borne allergens causing skin reactions during sweating is interesting but has never been proven. Studies of sweat responses to pharmacologic agents have produced conflicting data, and attempts to link these responses to Szentivanyi's beta-adrenergic blockade theory are not convincing. The numerous variables of climate, season, sex, age, and habitus affect sweating greatly. Future studies must carefully control for each of these factors before pharmacologically induced sweat responses can be interpreted clearly. A number of lines of evidence suggest involvement of histamine and other mediators in the evolution of erythema, pruritus, and scratching in AD. Flares of the condition have been reproducibly evoked by only two incitants: experimental emotional stress interviews and specific food challenge in selected sensitive individuals. In the latter, increased plasma histamine has been demonstrated, presumably generated by antigen/IgE stimulated degranulation of mast cells in the gut and/or skin. The demonstrated increased histamine releasability of

  13. Food hypersensitivity in patients over 14 years of age suffering from atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Celakovská, Jarmila; Ettler, K; Ettlerová, K; Vaněčková, J

    2014-05-01

    Patients suffering from atopic dermatitis often describe food hypersensitivity. Rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity and severe allergic reactions to foods have been reported, but the data are scarce. Evaluation of food hypersensitivity reactions in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. The dermatological examination was performed in patients of age 14 years and above and the detailed history was taken concerning the food hypersensitivity. A total of 228 patients were examined-72 men, 156 women, average age 26.2 (SD 9.5) years. The food hypersensitivity reactions were recorded in 196 patients from 228 (86%), no reactions were recorded in 32 patients (24%). Foods with the most often recorded reactions are: Nuts (in 35% of patients), tomatoes (in 20%), and kiwi (in 17, 5%), apples and spices (in 16%), tangerines and oranges (in 15%), capsicum (in 13%), fishes (in 12%), celery (in 9%), and chocolate (in 7%). Food hypersensitivity reactions are recorded in 86% of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Nuts, tomatoes, and pollen-associated foods play a role in the majority of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF A STABLE COSMETIC PREPARATION BASED ON ENZYMATIC INTERESTERIFIED FAT, PROPOSED IN THE PREVENTION OF ATOPIC DERMATITIS.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Malgorzata; Mendrycka, Mariola; Zbikowska, Anna; Kowalska, Dorota

    2017-03-01

    Atopic dermatitis is one of the most common skin disorders seen in infants, children and adults. Proper prevention might slow the atopic symptoms. The purpose of the work was a sensory analysis, an evaluation of moistening properties and stability of emulsions based on an enzymatic interesterified fat blend (mutton tallow and walnut oil) and homogenized at different revolutions and different contents of thickener. The emulsions were evaluated with respect to sensory and skin moisturizing properties by 78 respondents. Stability tests, particle size, distribution, dispersity index, morphology structure of the emulsions were determinated too. Taking into consideration all properties of the emulsions, emulsion IV (containing 0.9 g carboxymethyl cellulose and homogenized at 18000 rpm) and emulsion V (1.5 g of carboxymethyl cellulose and homogenized at 24000 rpm) were found to be of optimum composition. The emulsions exhibited good stability, were highly rated in sensory terms and displayed optimum moistening properties. It has been proven that model emulsions based on interesterified fats containing partial acylglicerols, with optimum carboxymethyl cellulose content and specific revolutions at the time of homogenization are an opportunity for developing preparations targeted at skins requiring special care (e.g., with atopic dermatitis or psoriasis). The work proved the use of enzymatic process to create the emulsifier, which represents the innovative contribution of this work. Also it showed an additional application of enzymatic interesterified fats which since has been used only in food industries.

  15. Systemic Agents for Severe Atopic Dermatitis in Children.

    PubMed

    Notaro, Eliza R; Sidbury, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD), or eczema, is a chronic inflammatory skin condition characterized by relapsing pruritic, scaly, erythematous papules and plaques frequently associated with superinfection. The lifelong prevalence of AD is over 20 % in affluent countries. When a child with severe AD is not responding to optimized topical therapy including phototherapy, and relevant triggers cannot be identified or avoided, systemic therapy should be considered. If studies show early aggressive intervention can prevent one from advancing along the atopic march, and relevant triggers such as food allergies cannot be either identified or avoided, systemic therapy may also play a prophylactic role. Though the majority of evidence exists in adult populations, four systemic non-specific immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory drugs have demonstrated efficacy in AD and are used in most patients requiring this level of intervention regardless of age: cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, methotrexate, and azathioprine. This article reviews the use of these medications as well as several promising targeted therapies currently in development including dupilumab and apremilast. We briefly cover several other systemic interventions that have been studied in children with atopic dermatitis.

  16. Children with atopic dermatitis in Daejeon, Korea: individualized nutrition intervention for disease severity and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Hee; Lee, Jae Ho; Ly, Sun Yung

    2016-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis is one of the most common pediatric chronic inflammatory skin diseases, and certain food allergens and nutrients are closely related to the development and severity of atopic dermatitis. While avoidance of the causative foods is considered the mainstay of treatment, unverified excessive restriction might induce unnecessary limitations in the food intake, consequently leading to nutritional deficiencies and poor growth. This study aimed to identify the characteristics and nutrient intake status in children with atopic dermatitis and to investigate the effects of individualized nutrition intervention. We retrospectively reviewed electronic medical records of 77 pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis who received 4 months of individualized nutrition intervention combined with an elimination diet. The patient characteristics, nutrient intake status, and clinical status were examined before and after the intervention. Before the intervention, 5 children had a weight for height z-score below -2.0, and 48.1% had experienced food restriction; these children showed a significantly higher SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis index than those without experiences, with the number of restricted foods before the intervention positively correlating with the disease severity. The intakes of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, calcium, folate, and vitamin D were lower than the recommended nutrient intakes for Koreans. After the intervention, the weight for height z-score of 35 children was significantly increased and their SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis index was significantly reduced (p<0.05). Individualized nutrition intervention appears useful for alleviating the severity of atopic dermatitis and improving the growth status by improving the nutrient intake.

  17. Altered cytokine production by dendritic cells from infants with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Weiguo; Chang, JiHoon; Sehra, Sarita; Travers, Jeffrey B; Chang, Cheong-Hee; Tepper, Robert S; Kaplan, Mark H

    2010-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are potent initiators of immune responses, compared to other professional antigen-presenting cells, based on their ability to capture antigen, express high amounts of MHC and co-stimulatory molecules, and to secrete immunostimulatory cytokines. Altered functions of DC in atopic individuals have been observed, though it is not clear if this is a cause or a result of the development of allergic disease. In this report we demonstrate altered cytokine production by DC isolated from infants with atopic dermatitis but without a diagnosis of asthma, compared to infants with non-atopic dermatitis. Increased production of IL-6, IL-10 and IFNα from DC isolated from atopic infants is less apparent when DC from infants were examined 1 year later. An increase in the same cytokines was observed in neonatal mice that are genetically predisposed towards allergic inflammation. These results suggest that an atopic environment promotes altered cytokine production by DC from infants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Epidemiological Change of Atopic Dermatitis and Food Allergy in School-Aged Children in Korea between 1995 and 2000

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jae-Won; Pyun, Bok-Yang; Choung, Ji-Tae; Ahn, Kang-mo; Kim, Chul-Hong; Song, Sang-Wook; Son, Jin-Ah; Lee, Soo-young

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of atopic dermatitis and food allergy outside North America and Europe. We evaluated the prevalence of atopic dermatitis and food allergy with the comparison of prevalence between 1995 and 2000 in Korea and evaluated the correlation of prevalence between atopic dermatitis and food allergy. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on random samples of schoolchildren 6 to 14 yr at two time points, 1995 and 2000 throughout Korea. The last twelve months prevalence of atopic dermatitis in Korean school-aged children was increased from 1995 to 2000. The twelve-month prevalence of atopic dermatitis and food allergy were higher in Seoul than in any other provincial cities in 1995, but the prevalence of both diseases in Seoul and Provincial Centers became to be similar in 2000. The rate responded to food allergy of children with atopic dermatitis (9.5%) was lower than that of the western countries (60%). And our data demonstrated paternal and maternal allergy history is very significantly correlated to developing atopic dermatitis in their offspring. The further objective evaluations are required to confirm these outcomes because the environmental and risk factors may be different among the countries according to their living cultures. PMID:15483350

  19. Owner assessment of therapeutic interventions for canine atopic dermatitis: a long-term retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Dell, Darin L; Griffin, Craig E; Thompson, Lori A; Griffies, Joel D

    2012-06-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis is a frequent diagnosis in veterinary medicine; however, the long-term prognosis for canine atopic dermatitis has not been evaluated in a systematic fashion. To compare the relative efficacy of commonly used therapies for canine atopic dermatitis in two groups of dogs over 5 and 10 year time periods. Dogs were identified from the medical record database of a privately owned veterinary dermatology practice in the USA. Clients completed a four-part, 28-question, Internet-based survey. Surveys were included in the analysis if one entire section was completed. Each question was completed independently of the answers to other questions. Several respondents failed to complete all questions. Some respondents answered similar questions with contradictory answers. Each question was analysed individually. A total of 136 owner surveys were completed, 39 from the 10 year and 97 from the 5 year study dogs. Eighty-five of 135 respondents indicated that their pet was receiving some form of medical therapy for atopic dermatitis at the time of the survey. Thirty of 90 respondents (33.3%) indicated that their dog improved during a dietary trial. Five dogs met the study's definition for clinical cure. All five of these dogs had been treated with allergen-specific immunotherapy. This study revealed that clients believe antihistamines can be a useful part of multimodal therapy for canine atopic dermatitis. The results also demonstrated that a significant number of canines benefited from dietary modification. In addition, allergen-specific immunotherapy was the only treatment to induce true clinical remission of atopic dermatitis. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology. © 2012 ESVD and ACVD.

  20. Determinants of total and specific IgE in infants with atopic dermatitis. ETAC Study Group. Early Treatment of the Atopic Child.

    PubMed

    1997-11-01

    ETAC (Early Treatment of the Atopic Child), a multi-centre predominantly European study to investigate the potential for cetirizine to prevent the development of asthma in infants with atopic dermatitis has completed enrollment: 817 children have been randomised to 18 months' treatment with either active or placebo and a subsequent 18 months of post-treatment follow-up. Results of the therapeutic effects will not be available for some time, but the study has provided an opportunity to investigate influences on sensitization to allergens in a large cohort of 1-2 years olds with already established atopic dermatitis, resident in different countries and in different environments. The study shows that in infants with atopic dermatitis, raised serum total IgE has significantly different determinants from that a specific allergen sensitization. In infancy, increased total IgE is more affected by factors increasing risk of intercurrent infection and non-specific airway inflammation, such as environmental tobacco smoke exposure (p < 0.001) and the use of gas cookers (p = 0.02). Specific allergen sensitization as represented by detectable IgE antibodies is influenced primarily by allergen exposure. In Sweden, low level exposure to allergens is associated with reduced specific allergen sensitization rates even though the infants already have atopic dermatitis.

  1. The role of vitamin D in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Dębińska, Anna; Sikorska-Szaflik, Hanna; Urbanik, Magdalena; Boznański, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D has been suggested to have an important impact on a much wider aspects on human health than calcium homeostasis and mineral metabolism, specifically in the field of human immunology. It has been reported that vitamin D influences the regulation of both innate and adaptive immune systems, which makes the association between vitamin D and allergic diseases a field of interest. Although many studies have sought to determine whether vitamin D has an influence on progression of allergic disease, the impact of vitamin D on atopic dermatitis development and severity remains unclear. In this review, we summarize recent studies relating vitamin D to atopic dermatitis and discuss its possible role in the pathogenesis of allergic skin diseases, emphasizing the need for well-designed, prospective trials on vitamin D supplementation in the context of prevention and treatment for allergic conditions.

  2. The Atopic March: Progression from Atopic Dermatitis to Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Bantz, Selene K.; Zhu, Zhou; Zheng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The development of atopic dermatitis (AD) in infancy and subsequent allergic rhinitis and asthma in later childhood is known as the atopic march. This progressive atopy is dependent on various underlying factors such as the presence of filaggrin mutations as well as the time of onset and severity of AD. Clinical manifestations vary among individuals. Previously it was thought that atopic disorders may be unrelated with sequential development. Recent studies support the idea of a causal link between AD and later onset atopic disorders. These studies suggest that a dysfunctional skin barrier serves as a site for allergic sensitization to antigens and colonization of bacterial super antigens. This induces systemic Th2 immunity that predisposes patients to allergic nasal responses and promotes airway hyper reactivity. While AD often starts early in life and is a chronic condition, new research signifies that there may be an optimal window of time in which targeting the skin barrier with therapeutic interventions may prevent subsequent atopic disorders. In this review we highlight recent studies describing factors important in the development of atopic disorders and new insights in our understanding of the pathogenesis of the atopic march. PMID:25419479

  3. Plasma and skin vitamin E concentrations in canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Plevnik Kapun, Alja; Salobir, Janez; Levart, Alenka; Tavčar Kalcher, Gabrijela; Nemec Svete, Alenka; Kotnik, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Altered homeostasis of vitamin E has been demonstrated in human atopic dermatitis. Data on plasma and skin vitamin E concentrations in canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) are not available. To determine vitamin E concentrations in plasma and skin of atopic dogs. Vitamin E concentrations in plasma and full-thickness skin biopsies of 15 atopic dogs were related to CAD extent and severity index (CADESI-03) scores and compared to the equivalent concentrations in 17 healthy dogs. Statistically significant differences of measured parameters between the two groups were determined by the nonparametric Mann Whitney U test and correlations between CADESI-03 scores and vitamin E concentrations were evaluated by the Spearman rank test. A value of P < 0.05 was considered significant. Plasma concentrations of vitamin E were significantly lower in atopic dogs than in healthy dogs, with median values of 29.8 and 52.9 μmol/L, respectively. Skin vitamin E values did not differ significantly between patients and healthy controls. The median concentration of skin vitamin E in atopic dogs was higher than that in healthy dogs. No significant correlations were found between CADESI-03 score and plasma vitamin E or skin vitamin E concentrations. Significantly lower plasma vitamin E concentrations in atopic dogs than in healthy controls indicate altered homeostasis of vitamin E in CAD. Further investigation into vitamin E supplementation in CAD is warranted.

  4. Lactoferricin/verbascoside topical emulsion: a possible alternative treatment for atopic dermatitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Biasibetti, Elena; Bruni, Natascia; Bigliati, Mauro; Capucchio, Maria Teresa

    2017-08-28

    Atopic dermatitis affects 3-15% of the general dog population and it has been diagnosed by veterinarians up to 58% of dogs affected with skin disease. It is usually a life-long pathology which can be controlled, but it can be seldom cured. The present investigation describes a case study in which lactoferricin and verbascoside are part of a formulation to obtain a dermatological lotion for canine dermatitis treatment. The study was an open-label trial design of two-week treatment. Thirty-eight dogs (23 females and 15 males), with atopic dermatitis and secondary bacterial or yeast overgrowth have been included. During treatment period the total clinical score progressively decreased associated with an improvement in clinical signs. No adverse effects were reported in any of the treated dogs. The present research suggests that daily applications of tested emulsion are effective in reducing bacterial overgrowth and clinical signs in skin folds and atopic dermatitis.

  5. Risk assessment of bronchial asthma development in children with atopic dermatitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vуsotska, Olena V.; Klymenko, Viktoriia A.; Trubitcin, Alexei A.; Pecherska, Anna I.; Savchuk, Tamara O.; Kolimoldayev, Maksat; Wójcik, Waldemar; Szatkowska, Małgorzata; Burlibay, Aron

    2017-08-01

    This article offers a risk assessment of bronchial asthma development in children with atopic dermatitis by applying fuzzy-set theory to accumulated statistical data. It is shown that with a view to executing the said task one should exercise a complex approach involving factors such as "IgE level", "existence of obstructions" and "burdened bronchial asthma heredity of immediate relatives". The obtained results will assist in making adequate and well-informed medical decisions as well as facilitate the decrease of the risk of developing bronchial asthma in children with atopic dermatitis.

  6. Cesarean section delivery and development of food allergy and atopic dermatitis in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Papathoma, Evangelia; Triga, Maria; Fouzas, Sotirios; Dimitriou, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    Delivery by Cesarean section (CS) may predispose to allergic disorders, presumably due to alterations in the establishment of normal gut microbiota in early infancy. In this study, we sought to investigate the association between CS and physician-diagnosed food allergy and atopic dermatitis during the first 3 years of life, using data from a homogeneous, population-based, birth cohort. A total of 459 children born and cared for in the same tertiary maternity unit were examined at birth and followed up at 1, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months of age. Participants with symptoms suggestive of food allergy or atopic dermatitis were evaluated by a pediatric allergy specialist to confirm the diagnosis based on well-defined criteria. The rate of CS was 50.8% (n = 233). Food allergy was diagnosed in 24 participants (5.2%) while atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 62 children (13.5%). Cesarean section (OR 3.15; 95% CI 1.14-8.70), atopic dermatitis of the child (OR 3.01; 95% CI 1.18-7.80), parental atopy (OR 4.33; 95% CI 1.73-12.1), and gestational age (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.07-2.37) were significant and independent predictors of food allergy. Children with at least one allergic parent delivered by CS had higher probability of developing food allergy compared with vaginally delivered children of non-allergic parents (OR 10.0; 95% CI 3.06-32.7). Conversely, the effect of CS on atopic dermatitis was not significant (OR 1.35; 95% CI 0.74-2.47). Delivery by CS predisposes to the development of food allergy but not atopic dermatitis in early childhood. Cesarean section delivery seems to upregulate the immune response to food allergens, especially in children with allergic predisposition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms and Quality of Life in mothers of Children With Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Gunduz, S; Usak, E; Ozen, S; Gorpelioglu, C

    2017-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis is one of the most common skin disorders in children and it can negatively affect both children and their families. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of atopic dermatitis on quality of life related to maternal health and maternal obsessive compulsive symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the pediatric and dermatology polyclinics. The SCORAD index was used for determining the severity of disease, and the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) and SF-36 form were applied to the participants' mothers. A total of 120 children and their mothers participated the study. Comparing the atopic dermatitis group and the healthy control group, no statistically significant differences were seen in terms of MOCI and SF-36 scores, except for the physical functioning subscore. The results showed that having a child with atopic dermatitis and the severity of the disease do not influence their mothers in terms of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and health-related quality of life, except for physical functioning scores. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for atopic dermatitis: a cross-sectional study of 6,453 Korean preschool children.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Jun; Ko, Joo Yeon; Kim, Jin Wou; Lee, Kwang Hoon; Park, Chun Wook; Kim, Kyu Han; Kim, Myeung Nam; Lee, Ai Young; Cho, Sang Hyun; Park, Young Lip; Choi, Jee Ho; Seo, Seong Jun; Lee, Yang Won; Roh, Joo Young; Park, Young Min; Kim, Dong Jae; Ro, Young Suck

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence, severity and risk factors for atopic dermatitis in Korean pre-school children as determined by dermatological examination vs questionnaire survey. A total of 6,453 pre-school children from 59 kindergartens and 14 day-care centres were evaluated. Parents responded to an International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC)-based questionnaire containing questions concerning 23 risk factors, as well as the prevalence, and severity of atopic dermatitis. Fourteen dermatologists then examined the participants according to the Korean diagnostic criteria for atopic dermatitis, and the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) score. Atopic dermatitis prevalence determined by dermatological examination was lower than the questionnaire-based prevalence (9.2% vs 19.1%). Most patients (96.2%) had mild atopic dermatitis according to the EASI score (mean ± SD 3.91 ± 4.73; median 1.5; range 0.2-38.0). However, 17.4% had sleep disturbance, and 56.7% had not obtained complete remission of their rash over the previous 12 months. Among the 12 risk factors, "changing the patient's house to a newly built house during the first year of life" had significant odds ratio. In conclusion, the prevalence of atopic dermatitis in Korea in the ISAAC-based survey conducted by paediatricians was similar to that in several European countries, and lower than the 2006 Korean figure (28.9%). In addition, the prevalence of atopic dermatitis was lower when assessed by dermatological examination than by questionnaire.

  9. Diaper area skin microflora of normal children and children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Keswick, B H; Seymour, J L; Milligan, M C

    1987-01-01

    In vitro studies established that neither cloth nor disposable diapers demonstrably contributed to the growth of Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, or Candida albicans when urine was present as a growth medium. In a clinical study of 166 children, the microbial skin flora of children with atopic dermatitis was compared with the flora of children with normal skin to determine the influence of diaper type. No biologically significant differences were detected between groups wearing disposable or cloth diapers in terms of frequency of isolation or log mean recovery of selected skin flora. Repeated isolation of S. aureus correlated with atopic dermatitis. The log mean recovery of S. aureus was higher in the atopic groups. The effects of each diaper type on skin microflora were equivalent in the normal and atopic populations. PMID:3546360

  10. Atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Weidinger, Stephan; Novak, Natalija

    2016-03-12

    Atopic dermatitis (also known as atopic eczema) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is characterised by intense itching and recurrent eczematous lesions. Although it most often starts in infancy and affects two of ten children, it is also highly prevalent in adults. It is the leading non-fatal health burden attributable to skin diseases, inflicts a substantial psychosocial burden on patients and their relatives, and increases the risk of food allergy, asthma, allergic rhinitis, other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, and mental health disorders. Originally regarded as a childhood disorder mediated by an imbalance towards a T-helper-2 response and exaggerated IgE responses to allergens, it is now recognised as a lifelong disposition with variable clinical manifestations and expressivity, in which defects of the epidermal barrier are central. Present prevention and treatment focus on restoration of epidermal barrier function, which is best achieved through the use of emollients. Topical corticosteroids are still the first-line therapy for acute flares, but they are also used proactively along with topical calcineurin inhibitors to maintain remission. Non-specific immunosuppressive drugs are used in severe refractory cases, but targeted disease-modifying drugs are being developed. We need to improve understanding of the heterogeneity of the disease and its subtypes, the role of atopy and autoimmunity, the mechanisms behind disease-associated itch, and the comparative effectiveness and safety of therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hand eczema, atopic dermatitis and filaggrin mutations in adult Danes: a registry-based study assessing risk of disability pension.

    PubMed

    Heede, Nina G; Thuesen, Betina H; Thyssen, Jacob P; Linneberg, Allan; Szecsi, Pal B; Stender, Steen; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2017-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis and hand eczema often impair the ability of people to work. Only a few studies have investigated whether individuals with loss-of-function filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations, who often have severe and early onset of dermatitis, experience occupational consequences. To investigate the personal consequences of having atopic dermatitis and/or hand eczema and FLG mutations. Adult Danes from the general population (n = 3247) and patients with atopic dermatitis and/or hand eczema (n = 496) were genotyped for common FLG mutations, and completed a questionnaire about skin symptoms and hand eczema. Socioeconomic variables, including disability pension, and information on work in risk occupations were retrieved from national registries. The reasons for granting disability pension were unknown. Disability pension was associated with hand eczema in the general population, especially among individuals with a history of atopic dermatitis. Moreover, self-reported hand eczema and atopic dermatitis were associated with particularly high risk of disability pension among FLG mutation carriers [odds ratio (OR) 4.02 and 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-14.11; and OR 6.01 and 95%CI: 2.37-15.34, respectively]. Furthermore, 60% of the FLG mutation carriers with atopic dermatitis who developed hand eczema had experienced symptoms before adulthood. In the general population, self-reported hand eczema and atopic dermatitis, particularly in individuals with a genetically impaired skin barrier, were associated with disability pension, suggesting that FLG mutations carriers with a history of atopic dermatitis and hand eczema could benefit from early attention with respect to choice of occupation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Less common clinical manifestations of atopic dermatitis: prevalence by age.

    PubMed

    Julián-Gónzalez, Rolando Elias; Orozco-Covarrubias, Luz; Durán-McKinster, Carola; Palacios-Lopez, Carolina; Ruiz-Maldonado, Ramon; Sáez-de-Ocariz, Marimar

    2012-01-01

    The common manifestations of atopic dermatitis (AD) appear sequentially with involvement of the cheeks in infancy, flexural extremities in childhood, and hands in adulthood. Although less common clinical manifestations are well described, they have not been the subject of epidemiologic studies to describe their prevalence in specific age groups. This observational, cross-sectional, comparative study included 131 children younger than 18 of both sexes with AD who attended the clinics of the Dermatology Department of the National Institute of Pediatrics in Mexico City. Patients were examined to determine the presence of infrequent clinical manifestations of AD during infancy, preschool and school age, and adolescence and stratified according to sex, age, and number of clinical signs. A chi-square test was used to detect differences according to age and sex. Logistic regression analysis was also performed. The main findings according to age were genital dermatitis and papular-lichenoid dermatitis variant in infants; atopic feet, prurigo-like, nummular pattern, and erythroderma in preschool and school-aged children; and eyelid eczema and nipple dermatitis in adolescents. The risk of development of nipple dermatitis and eyelid eczema increased with age, and the development of genital dermatitis decreased with age. The knowledge of the prevalence of less common clinical manifestations of AD according to age in different populations might be helpful in diagnosing incipient cases of AD. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Canine and Human Atopic Dermatitis: Two Faces of the Same Host-Microbe Interaction.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Domenico; Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline

    2016-06-01

    Host-microbe interaction has been suggested to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. The dog has been shown to be the best model to study both pathogenesis and microbiome modifications in atopic dermatitis. Bradley et al. show a significant correlation between microbiome diversity, clinical signs, and skin barrier function in atopic dogs before, during, and after antimicrobial therapy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. How should an incident case of atopic dermatitis be defined? A systematic review of primary prevention studies

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Eric L.; Keck, Laura E.; Chalmers, Joanne R.; Williams, Hywel C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Eczema prevention is now an active area of dermatologic and allergic research. Defining an incident case is therefore a prerequisite for such as study. Objective We sought to examine how an incident case of atopic dermatitis was defined in previous atopic dermatitis prevention studies in order to make recommendations on a standard definition of new atopic dermatitis cases for use in future prevention trials. Methods We conducted a systematic review of controlled interventional atopic dermatitis prevention studies using searches of Medline and Cochrane databases from 1980 to the end of January 2011. Studies that included atopic dermatitis as a secondary outcome, such as asthma prevention trials, were included. Results One hundred and two (102) studies were included in the final analysis, of which 27 (26.5%) did not describe any criteria for defining an incident case of atopic dermatitis. Of the remaining 75 studies with reported disease criteria, the Hanifin-Rajka criteria were the most commonly used (28 studies). A disease definition unique to that particular study (21 studies) was the second most commonly used disease definition, although the sources for such novel definitions were not cited. Conclusions The results from this systematic review highlight the need for improved reporting and standardization of the definition used for an incident case in atopic dermatitis prevention studies. Most prevention studies have used disease definitions such as the Hanifin-Rajka criteria that include disease chronicity. While acceptable for cumulative incidence outcomes, inclusion of disease chronicity precludes the precise measurement of disease onset. We propose a definition based on existing scientific studies that could be used in future prospective studies. PMID:22424882

  15. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor AhR links atopic dermatitis and air pollution via induction of the neurotrophic factor artemin.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Takanori; Ogawa, Eisaku; Kobayashi, Eri H; Suzuki, Takafumi; Funayama, Ryo; Nagashima, Takeshi; Fujimura, Taku; Aiba, Setsuya; Nakayama, Keiko; Okuyama, Ryuhei; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is increasing worldwide in correlation with air pollution. Various organic components of pollutants activate the transcription factor AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor). Through the use of AhR-CA mice, whose keratinocytes express constitutively active AhR and that develop atopic-dermatitis-like phenotypes, we identified Artn as a keratinocyte-specific AhR target gene whose product (the neurotrophic factor artemin) was responsible for epidermal hyper-innervation that led to hypersensitivity to pruritus. The activation of AhR via air pollutants induced expression of artemin, alloknesis, epidermal hyper-innervation and inflammation. AhR activation and ARTN expression were positively correlated in the epidermis of patients with atopic dermatitis. Thus, AhR in keratinocytes senses environmental stimuli and elicits an atopic-dermatitis pathology. We propose a mechanism of air-pollution-induced atopic dermatitis via activation of AhR.

  16. Parents' self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-reported task performance when managing atopic dermatitis in children: instrument reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Amy E; Fraser, Jennifer A

    2011-02-01

    Support and education for parents faced with managing a child with atopic dermatitis is crucial to the success of current treatments. Interventions aiming to improve parent management of this condition are promising. Unfortunately, evaluation is hampered by lack of precise research tools to measure change. To develop a suite of valid and reliable research instruments to appraise parents' self-efficacy for performing atopic dermatitis management tasks; outcome expectations of performing management tasks; and self-reported task performance in a community sample of parents of children with atopic dermatitis. The Parents' Eczema Management Scale (PEMS) and the Parents' Outcome Expectations of Eczema Management Scale (POEEMS) were developed from an existing self-efficacy scale, the Parental Self-Efficacy with Eczema Care Index (PASECI). Each scale was presented in a single self-administered questionnaire, to measure self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-reported task performance related to managing child atopic dermatitis. Each was tested with a community sample of parents of children with atopic dermatitis, and psychometric evaluation of the scales' reliability and validity was conducted. A community-based convenience sample of 120 parents of children with atopic dermatitis completed the self-administered questionnaire. Participants were recruited through schools across Australia. Satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability was demonstrated for all three scales. Construct validity was satisfactory, with positive relationships between self-efficacy for managing atopic dermatitis and general perceived self-efficacy; self-efficacy for managing atopic dermatitis and self-reported task performance; and self-efficacy for managing atopic dermatitis and outcome expectations. Factor analyses revealed two-factor structures for PEMS and PASECI alike, with both scales containing factors related to performing routine management tasks, and managing the

  17. Investigation of the correlation of serum IL-31 with severity of dermatitis in an experimental model of canine atopic dermatitis using beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Marsella, Rosanna; Ahrens, Kim; Sanford, Rachel

    2018-02-01

    IL-31 is a cytokine that is believed to play an important role in atopic dermatitis (AD). IL-31 levels positively correlate with disease severity in children with AD. Currently, there is no study that has investigated such a correlation in atopic dogs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between IL-31 serum levels and severity of dermatitis. It was hypothesized that a positive correlation exists between severity of AD and circulating levels of IL-31. Sixteen atopic beagles experimentally sensitized to house dust mites. Atopic beagles were exposed to dust mites epicutaneously twice weekly for four weeks. Severity of dermatitis was scored by the Canine Atopic Dermatitis and Extent Severity Index, 3 rd iteration (CADESI-03) on days 0 and 28. Blood samples were taken on days 0 and 28 to measure serum IL-31 using a commercially available ELISA. Correlation between CADESI-03 scores and serum IL-31 levels was not detected on day 0 (Pearson, r = -0.2609, P = 0.3291). After flare-up of dermatitis was induced with allergen exposure, a significant positive correlation was detected between serum IL-31 and CADESI-03 on Day 28 (r = 0.6738, P = 0.004). Positive correlation was detected in active disease between severity of dermatitis and circulating levels of IL-31. Additional studies are needed to investigate this correlation in other breeds of dogs and to test whether circulating levels of IL-31 may predict clinical response to biological agents aimed at IL-31. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  18. Synbiotics could not reduce the scoring of childhood atopic dermatitis (SCORAD): a randomized double blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Alireza; Moin, Mostafa; Pourpak, Zahra; Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Aghamohamadi, Asghar; Sajedi, Vahid; soheili, Habib; Sotoodeh, Soheila; Movahedi, Masoud

    2011-03-01

    Despite preliminary evidence, the role of probiotic and synbiotic in treatment of the atopic dermatitis has shown varying results. We aimed to evaluate whether synbiotic supplementation decrease severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) in childhood. In a randomized double blind-placebo controlled trial, we evaluated the synbiotic supplementation efficiency on the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Infants aged 1-36 months with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis were randomized (n=41) and received either synbiotic (probiotic plus prebiotic) (n=20) or placebo (n=21) daily as a powder for two months. Emollient (Eucerin) and topical corticosteroid (Hydrocortisone) were permitted. Children were scored for severity of atopic dermatitis (SCORAD). Also allergen Skin Prick Tests (SPT), IgE blood level and eosinophil count were measured at first visit. Patients' SCORAD were reevaluated at the end of intervention. We followed 36 out of 41 subjects for two months (drop out rate = 9%). In the whole group, the mean Total SCORAD (at base line 40.93) decreased by 56% (p=0.00). The mean Objective SCORAD (at base line 31.29) decreased by 53% (p=0.00). There was no significant difference in the mean decrease of total SCORAD between placebo (22.3) and synbiotic groups (24.2). There was also no difference between two intervention groups in the mean decrease of total SCORAD regarding to different demographic, clinical and para clinical subgroups. This study could not confirm synbiotic as an effective treatment for childhood atopic dermatitis and further studies are needed. These findings challenge the role of synbiotics in the treatment of childhood atopic dermatitis.

  19. House dust mites on skin, clothes, and bedding of atopic dermatitis patients.

    PubMed

    Teplitsky, Valery; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Babai, Ilan; Dalal, Ilan; Cohen, Rifka; Tanay, Amir

    2008-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common allergic condition in children, often associated with a positive skin reaction to house dust mite allergens. To determine the presence of house dust mites on the skin, clothes, and bedding of patients with atopic dermatitis. Nineteen patients with atopic dermatitis were examined during a 2-year period. Samples from affected and healthy skin surfaces were obtained with adhesive tape, and dust samples from bedding and clothes were collected with a vacuum cleaner at the start of the study and 3-6 weeks later, and examined for the presence of house dust mites. The findings were compared with those of 21 healthy controls. The most common mite species on skin were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae, which were found in nine patients and three controls. The patient group showed a significantly larger percentage of samples with mites than did the control group (34.9% and 7.9%, respectively) (P < 0.001), and a significantly larger percentage of individuals with at least one positive sample (84.2% and 14.2%, respectively) (P < 0.0001). No correlation was found between the number of mites on the skin and clothes/bedding of patients, or between patients and controls with regard to the number of mites on the clothes and bedding. Patients with atopic dermatitis showed a higher prevalence of mites on their skin than did healthy individuals, which could be involved in allergic sensitization and disease exacerbation.

  20. The Role of Airborne Proteins in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hostetler, Sarah Grim; Kaffenberger, Benjamin; Hostetler, Todd

    2010-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common, chronic skin condition. A subpopulation of patients may have cutaneous exposure to common airborne proteins exacerbating their disease through direct proteolytic activity, direct activation of proteinase-activated receptor-2 itch receptors, and immunoglobulin E binding. The most common airborne proteins significant in atopic dermatitis include house dust mites, cockroach, pet dander, and multiple pollens. The literature on atopy patch testing, skin-prick testing, and specific IgE is mixed, with greater support for the use of atopy patch test. Patients with airborne proteins contributing to their disease typically have lesions predominately on air-exposed skin surfaces including the face, neck, and arms; a history of exacerbations after exposure to airborne proteins; severe disease resistant to conventional therapies; and concurrent asthma. Treatment strategies include airborne protein avoidance, removal of airborne proteins from the skin, and barrier repair. Further research is needed to establish the benefit of allergen-specific immunotherapy. PMID:20725535

  1. Evaluation of out-in skin transparency using a colorimeter and food dye in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, H; Tadaki, H; Takami, S; Muramatsu, R; Hagiwara, S; Mizuno, T; Arakawa, H

    2009-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a disease of skin barrier dysfunction and outside stimuli can cross the skin barrier. To examine a new method for evaluating the outside to inside skin transparency with a colorimeter and yellow dyes. In study 1, a total of 28 volunteer subjects (24 normal and four with atopic dermatitis) participated. After provocation with yellow dye, the skin colour of all the subjects was measured using a colorimeter. The skin transparency index was calculated by the changes of the skin colour to yellow. Other variables of skin function, including transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration, were also measured. In study 2, the skin transparency index was evaluated for a cohort of 38 patients with atopic dermatitis, 27 subjects with dry skin and 29 healthy controls. In study 1, the measurement of skin colour (b*) using tartrazine showed good results. There was a significant relationship between the skin transparency index with tartrazine and the atopic dermatitis score (P = 0.014). No other measurements of skin function, including the TEWL, were correlated. In study 2, the skin transparency index score obtained with tartrazine in the patients with atopic dermatitis was significantly higher than that of the controls and those with dry skin (P < 0.001 and P = 0.022, respectively). However, the TEWL in patients with atopic dermatitis was not significantly higher than that of patients with dry skin and the TEWL in subjects with dry skin was not higher than that of the controls. This method, which used a colorimeter and food dye, is noninvasive, safe and reliable for the evaluation of out-in skin transparency and can demonstrate the characteristic dysfunction in the skin barrier in patients with atopic dermatitis.

  2. Early Relief of Pruritus in Atopic Dermatitis with Crisaborole Ointment, A Non-steroidal, Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yosipovitch, Gil; Gold, Linda F; Lebwohl, Mark G; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Tallman, Anna M; Zane, Lee T

    2018-04-27

    Pruritus occurs in all patients with atopic dermatitis and requires quick relief to reduce disease exacerbation and improve quality of life. Crisaborole ointment is a non-steroidal phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor for the treatment of mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis. This post hoc analysis explores crisaborole ointment for early relief of pruritus in patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis from 2 phase III studies. Patients received crisaborole or vehicle twice daily for 28 days. Pruritus was graded on a 4-point scale of none (0) to severe (3). Early improvement in pruritus required a score of none (0) or mild (1), with a ≥ 1-grade improvement from baseline on day 6. Significantly more patients experienced early improvement in pruritus with crisaborole than with vehicle (56.6% vs 39.5%; p< 0.001), including at earliest assessment (day 2, 34.3% vs 27.3%; p = 0.013). Crisaborole is a topical treatment option that can rapidly relieve atopic dermatitis-associated pruritus.

  3. Progressive muscle relaxation therapy for atopic dermatitis: objective assessment of efficacy.

    PubMed

    Bae, Byung Gi; Oh, Sang Ho; Park, Chang Ook; Noh, Seongmin; Noh, Ji Yeon; Kim, Kyung Ran; Lee, Kwang Hoon

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to validate the efficacy of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) in patients with atopic dermatitis and to evaluate the serological parameters that may serve as objective measures of the efficacy of PMR. A total of 25 patients with atopic dermatitis were randomly assigned to either a PMR group (n = 15) or a control group (n = 10). Serum levels of nerve growth, neuropeptide Y, and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) were measured at baseline and after one month. At baseline, only anxiety was positively correlated with pruritus score (state anxiety: R = 0.496, p = 0.014; trait anxiety: R = 0.423, p = 0.04). Serum levels of neuropeptide Y were inversely related to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) (state anxiety: R = -0.475, p = 0.019; trait anxiety: R = -0.418, p = 0.042) and pruritus scores (R = -0.451, p = 0.035). After one month of PMR therapy, the degree of pruritus and loss of sleep was significantly decreased in the PMR group (p < 0.001), but not among controls. State anxiety scores showed significant improvement after treatment only in the PMR group (p = 0.005). There were no significant changes in the serological parameters in either group. Reductions in Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) scores were significant, but similar, in both groups. PMR may be a useful adjunctive modality for the management of atopic dermatitis through the reduction of anxiety. No change was found in biological parameters, but it was observed that neuropeptide Y may be related to high levels of anxiety in atopic dermatitis at baseline.

  4. Filaggrin genotype and skin diseases independent of atopic dermatitis in childhood.

    PubMed

    Bager, Peter; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Melbye, Mads

    2016-03-01

    Filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations compromise skin barrier functions and increase risk of atopic dermatitis. We aimed to study effects on other skin diseases using unique data from the Danish registers. FLG genotyping of a population-based sample of 1547 children with extracted DNA and information on skin diseases from the Danish National Birth Cohort and Health Register, with 18 years follow-up during years 1996-2013. Odds ratios (OR) and hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using logistic regression and Cox regression, respectively, and adjusted for physician-diagnosed atopic dermatitis. FLG mutations were associated with increased risk of dry skin (OR 1.9, CI 1.1-3.1), and a decreased risk of fungal skin infections at age <18 months (OR 0.2, CI 0.1-0.8). There was no association with wart treatments (HR 1.0, CI 0.6-1.7). FLG mutations were associated with an increased risk of atopic dermatitis (OR 3.3, CI 2.1-5.3), dermatology consultations for allergy or rash (HR 2.2, CI 1.4-3.5), basic dermatology consultations at age <5 years (HR 2.2, CI 1.7-2.9), urticaria at age <18 months (OR 2.9, CI 1.0-7.9), and other rash at age <18 months (OR 2.1, CI 1.2-3.8). FLG mutations may predispose to skin disease in young children including urticaria, and rash not recognized as atopic dermatitis although equally frequent. In clinical practice, FLG genotyping may help indicate the use of moisturizers to reduce skin problems. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Asthma and Atopic Dermatitis: A Review of Targeted Inhibition of Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-13 As Therapy for Atopic Disease.

    PubMed

    Buzney, Catherine D; Gottlieb, Alice B; Rosmarin, David

    2016-02-01

    Type 2 helper T cell (Th2)-mediated inflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis (AD). Recent research focusing on the suppression of the Th2 axis with targeted inhibitors in atopic disease is showing promising early results. In particular, the simultaneous blockage of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 has successfully mitigated symptoms of allergic asthma and AD in preliminary clinical trials. Given the current therapeutic challenges of treating these chronic and severe diseases, this review brings to light new data demonstrating that agents targeting IL-4 and IL-13 are relatively safe and effective medications in blocking the inflammatory cascade responsible for allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis.

  6. Role of primary and secondary prevention in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, Iwonna; Gutfreund, Katarzyna; Bienias, Wojciech; Matych, Marta; Szewczyk, Anna; Kaszuba, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a serious epidemiological problem in industrialized countries. The incidence of AD has increased considerably over the last 30 years. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, recurrent, inflammatory skin disease accompanied by strong itching. It is characterized by typical features depending on age. The parents of children suffering from AD must be prepared to change their lifestyle. They should avoid factors which can promote skin lesions and apply appropriate, regular skin care. The article describes primary prevention of AD as well as prophylactic measures to avoid skin eczema. It presents the role of infections, vaccinations, breastfeeding and the influence of domestic animals, house renovation and moulds on development of AD. The article also describes the significance of the epidermal barrier, skin colonization by microbial agents, pruritus, stress, food and inhalant allergy among people who suffer from AD. PMID:26755903

  7. Quantitative assessment of combination bathing and moisturizing regimens on skin hydration in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Charles; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2009-01-01

    Standard recommendations for skin care for patients with atopic dermatitis stress the importance of skin hydration and the application of moisturizers. However, objective data to guide recommendations regarding the optimal practice methods of bathing and emollient application are scarce. This study quantified cutaneous hydration status after various combination bathing and moisturizing regimens. Four bathing/moisturizer regimens were evaluated in 10 subjects, five pediatric subjects with atopic dermatitis and five subjects with healthy skin. The regimens consisted of bathing alone without emollient application, bathing and immediate emollient application, bathing and delayed application, and emollient application alone. Each regimen was evaluated in all subjects, utilizing a crossover design. Skin hydration was assessed with standard capacitance measurements. In atopic dermatitis subjects, emollient alone yielded a significantly (p < 0.05) greater mean hydration over 90 minutes (206.2% baseline hydration) than bathing with immediate emollient (141.6%), bathing and delayed emollient (141%), and bathing alone (91.4%). The combination bathing and emollient application regimens demonstrated hydration values at 90 minutes not significantly greater than baseline. Atopic dermatitis subjects had a decreased mean hydration benefit compared with normal skin subjects. Bathing without moisturizer may compromise skin hydration. Bathing followed by moisturizer application provides modest hydration benefits, though less than that of simply applying moisturizer alone.

  8. Clinical and Immunological Changes of Immunotherapy in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez Caraballo, Jorge Mario; Cardona Villa, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Background. Immunotherapy has proven to be an useful tool in the management of allergic respiratory diseases; however, little has been studied in atopic dermatitis. Objective. To evaluate the clinical and immunological impact of immunotherapy with mites allergen extracts in atopic dermatitis. Methods. Patients with atopic dermatitis were assigned with computer-generated randomization to either of the following groups: (a) controls received only topical treatment with steroids and/or tacrolimus and (b) actively treated patients received topical treatment plus immunotherapy. Levels of serum total IgE, mites-specific IgE and IgG4 were assessed at study start and after one year of immunotherapy. Results. 31 patients in the active group and 29 in the control group completed the study. Symptoms and medication scores were significantly reduced in the active group after six months. Three patients in the control group showed new sensitizations to mites, while 3 patients in the active group showed neosensitization to shrimp with negative oral food challenge. We observed significant increase of mites-specific IgG4 levels in active group. Conclusion. Specific allergen immunotherapy induced a tolerogenic IgG4 response to mite allergens associated with favorable clinical effects in atopic dermatitis patients. PMID:23724240

  9. Immunomodulatory Effects of Deokgu Thermomineral Water Balneotherapy on Oxazolone-Induced Atopic Dermatitis Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Sae Mi; Lee, Kyung Ho; Han, Hyung Jin; Yu, Dong Soo; Woo, So Youn; Yun, Seong Taek; Hamm, Se-Yeong; Kim, Hong Jig

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the therapeutic mechanism of balneotherapy for atopic dermatitis has not been clarified, many atopic patients who visit thermomineral springs have shown clinical improvements. Objective This study was aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of thermomineral water balneotherapy on the atopic dermatitis murine model. Methods The oxazolone-induced atopic dermatitis murine model was used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of balneotherapy with Deokgu thermomineral water compared with distilled water. Histologic evaluation and confocal microscopic imaging were performed to analyze the lesional expression of cluster-of-differentiation (CD)4 and forkhead box p3 (Foxp3). Lesional mRNA expression of interleukin (IL) 33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and Foxp3 was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results Compared with the distilled water bath group, confocal microscopic evaluation of CD4 and Foxp3 merged images showed increased expression of regulatory T cells in the thermomineral balneotherapy group. The lesional mRNA level of IL-33 showed a reduced trend in the thermomineral balneotherapy group, whereas the level of mRNA of Foxp3 was increased. TSLP showed a decreased trend in both distilled water and thermomineral water bath groups. There was a trend of reduced expression in lesional IL-33 mRNA but increased cell count of CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in thermomineral balneotherapy compared with distilled water bath. Conclusion Therefore, thermomineral balneotherapy can be an effective and safe adjuvant therapeutic option for atopic dermatitis. PMID:27081266

  10. Immunomodulatory Effects of Deokgu Thermomineral Water Balneotherapy on Oxazolone-Induced Atopic Dermatitis Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Sae Mi; Lee, Kyung Ho; Han, Hyung Jin; Yu, Dong Soo; Woo, So Youn; Yun, Seong Taek; Hamm, Se-Yeong; Kim, Hong Jig; Kim, Jin-Wou

    2016-04-01

    Although the therapeutic mechanism of balneotherapy for atopic dermatitis has not been clarified, many atopic patients who visit thermomineral springs have shown clinical improvements. This study was aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of thermomineral water balneotherapy on the atopic dermatitis murine model. The oxazolone-induced atopic dermatitis murine model was used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of balneotherapy with Deokgu thermomineral water compared with distilled water. Histologic evaluation and confocal microscopic imaging were performed to analyze the lesional expression of cluster-of-differentiation (CD)4 and forkhead box p3 (Foxp3). Lesional mRNA expression of interleukin (IL) 33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and Foxp3 was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Compared with the distilled water bath group, confocal microscopic evaluation of CD4 and Foxp3 merged images showed increased expression of regulatory T cells in the thermomineral balneotherapy group. The lesional mRNA level of IL-33 showed a reduced trend in the thermomineral balneotherapy group, whereas the level of mRNA of Foxp3 was increased. TSLP showed a decreased trend in both distilled water and thermomineral water bath groups. There was a trend of reduced expression in lesional IL-33 mRNA but increased cell count of CD4(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in thermomineral balneotherapy compared with distilled water bath. Therefore, thermomineral balneotherapy can be an effective and safe adjuvant therapeutic option for atopic dermatitis.

  11. [Hypnotherapy of atopic dermatitis in an adult. Case report].

    PubMed

    Perczel, Kristóf; Gál, János

    2016-01-17

    Hypnosis is well known for its modulatory effects on immune and inflammatory processes, and it is a therapeutic option for certain diseases of such pathogenesis. The authors report treatment of an adult patient with extensive atopic dermatitis, who was only minimally responsive to conservative treatment. In a 15 session hypnotherapy the authors combined the use of direct, symptom-oriented suggestive techniques with hypnotic procedures to identify and modify comorbid psychological issues. To monitor the effect of the treatment, patient diaries (quality and quantity of sleep, intensity of pain and itch) and repeated psychometric tests were used. At the end of treatment there were improvements in all measured dimensions (itch, pain, insomnia, activity, anxiety and emotional state) both clinically and psychometrically. The authors conclude, that hypnosis can be an effective adjunctive therapy in atopic dermatitis, and in certain severe cases may constitute a salvage therapy.

  12. Does Stress Increase the Risk of Atopic Dermatitis in Adolescents? Results of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (KYRBWS-VI)

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jeoung A.; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Minjee; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Park, Sohee

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between level of stress in middle and high school students aged 12–18 and risk of atopic dermatitis. Data from the Sixth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-VI), a cross-sectional study among 74,980 students in 800 middle schools and high schools with a response rate of 97.7%, were analyzed. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between stress and atopic dermatitis with severity. A total of 5,550 boys and 6,964 girls reported having been diagnosed with atopic dermatitis. Younger students were more likely to have atopic dermatitis. Interestingly, the educational level of parents was found to be associated with having atopic dermatitis and having more severe condition. In particular, girls with mothers with at least college education had a 41% higher risk of having atopic dermatitis and severe atopic condition (odds ratio (OR)) = 1.41, 95% CI, 1.22–1.63; P<0.0001) compared with those with mothers who had attended middle school at most. Similar trend was shown among both boys and girls for their father's education level. The stress level was found to be significantly associated with the risk of atopic dermatitis. Compared to boys with who reported “no stress”, boys with “very high” stress had 46% higher the risk of having more severe atopic dermatitis (OR = 1.46, 95% CI, 1.20–1.78; P<0.0001), 44% higher (OR = 1.44, 95% CI, 1.19–1.73; P<0.0001) with “high” stress, and 21% higher (OR = 1.21, 95% CI, 1.00–1.45; P = 0.05) with “moderate” stress. In contrast, we found no statistically significant relationship between stress and atopic dermatitis in girls. This study suggests that stress and parents' education level were associated with atopic dermatitis. Specifically, degree of stress is positively correlated with likelihood of being diagnosed with this condition and increasing the severity. PMID:23940513

  13. Tight Junction Defects in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    De Benedetto, Anna; Rafaels, Nicholas M.; McGirt, Laura Y.; Ivanov, Andrei I.; Georas, Steve N.; Cheadle, Chris; Berger, Alan E.; Zhang, Kunzhong; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan; Yoshida, Takeshi; Boguniewicz, Mark; Hata, Tissa; Schneider, Lynda C.; Hanifin, Jon M.; Gallo, Richard L.; Novak, Natalija; Weidinger, Stephan; Beaty, Terri H.; Leung, Donald Y.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Beck, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by dry skin and a hyperreactive immune response to allergens, two cardinal features that are caused in part by epidermal barrier defects. Tight junctions (TJ) reside immediately below the stratum corneum and regulate the selective permeability of the paracellular pathway. Objective We evaluated the expression/function of the TJ protein, claudin-1 in epithelium from AD and nonatopic (NA) subjects and screened two American populations for SNPs in CLDN1. Methods Expression profiles of nonlesional epithelium from extrinsic AD, NA and psoriasis subjects were generated using Illumina’s BeadChips. Dysregulated intercellular proteins were validated by tissue staining and qPCR. Bioelectric properties of epithelium were measured in Ussing chambers. Functional relevance of claudin-1 was assessed using a knockdown approach in primary human keratinocytes (PHK). Twenty seven haplotype-tagging SNPs in CLDN1 were screened in two independent AD populations. Results We observed strikingly reduced expression of the TJ proteins claudin-1 and -23 only in AD, which were validated at the mRNA and protein levels. Claudin-1 expression inversely correlated with Th2 biomarkers. We observed a remarkable impairment of the bioelectric barrier function in AD epidermis. In vitro, we confirmed that silencing claudin-1 expression in human keratinocytes diminishes TJ function while enhancing keratinocyte proliferation. Finally, CLDN1 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms revealed associations with AD in two North American populations. Conclusion Taken together, these data suggest that an impaired epidermal TJ is a novel feature of skin barrier dysfunction and immune dysregulation observed in AD, and that CLDN1 may be a new susceptibility gene in this disease. PMID:21163515

  14. [Role of Langerhans cells in the physiopathology of atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Bieber, T

    1995-12-01

    The demonstration of IgE receptors on the surface of epidermal dendritic cells and on other antigen presenting cells is a crucial element in the understanding of the pathophysiological role of these cells in the genesis of atopic disease, and especially the atopic dermatitis (AD). The sensibilisation phase to an aeroallergen at the level of nasal or bronchial mucosa and even at the skin may be mediated by dendritic cells expressing Fc epsilon RI. Distinct forms of AD may then represent the equivalent of the ellicitation phase of the classical allergic contact dermatitis. Fc epsilon RI would lead, via specific IgE, to an efficient antigen capture, to the activation of the dendritic cells and finally to an antigen presentation. Thus, AD may represent the paradigma of an IgE-mediated type IV reaction.

  15. Diagnosis, comorbidity, and psychosocial impact of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Dawn Marie; Waldman, Andrea; Jacob, Sharon; LeBovidge, Jennifer; Ahluwalia, Jusleen; Tollefson, Megha; Jetter, Nathan; Spergel, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, with a remitting relapsing course. The central diagnostic features of AD include pruritus, xerosis, eczematous lesions with a characteristic morphology and distribution, and a personal or family history of atopic disease. Several clinical studies have emphasized the link between AD and other atopic disorders including asthma, allergic rhinitis, and food allergies. More recent studies indicate possible links between AD and other nonatopic disorders, including ADHD, sleep disturbance, and mental health disorders, suggesting an even more profound impact of this disease. Furthermore, the social, emotional, and personal impact of AD for patients and their caregivers is substantial. Understanding both the clinical characteristics and implications of AD is critical to lessening the psychosocial, clinical, and economic burden of this disease. ©2017 Frontline Medical Communications.

  16. CROSS-CULTURAL ADAPTATION AND VALIDATION OF THE ITCHING SEVERITY SCALE IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH ATOPIC DERMATITIS.

    PubMed

    Bruscky, Dayanne Mota Veloso; Melo, Ana Caroline Cavalcanti Dela Bianca; Sarinho, Emanuel Sávio Cavalcanti

    2017-01-01

    To translate, adapt and validate the Itch Severity Scale to a Brazilian version (ISS-Ped) in order to measure the severity of pruritus in children and adolescents with atopic dermatitis. This is a methodological study of validation of an instrument following recommended protocols. The translated version was evaluated by a group of experts including one professional with experience in instrument validation, three English teachers, one linguistics teacher and seven allergists. After this, the scale was applied to 42 parents of children aged between 2 and 18 years old with atopic dermatitis, and 42 parents of children without pruritic diseases. Results were evaluated according to the severity of atopic dermatitis and disease control, and they were compared between groups with and without atopic dermatitis. More than 90% of the questions were clear to the parents. The ISS-Ped showed a strong positive correlation with the severity of atopic dermatitis (Pearson: 0.74; p<0.001) and a good correlation with the control of dermatitis (point-biserial correlation coefficient: 0.65; p<0.001). The scale showed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α: 0.96) and adequate test and retest agreement (95% confidence interval of intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.89-0.99; p<0.001). The ISS-Ped is a feasible, valid, reliable and satisfactorily equivalent. The translated scale was appropriate to assess the severity of itching in children and adolescents with eczema, allowing comparisons in the clinical practice and in the research setting.

  17. Texting atopic dermatitis patients to optimize learning and eczema area and severity index scores: A pilot randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Singer, Hannah M; Levin, Laura E; Morel, Kimberly D; Garzon, Maria C; Stockwell, Melissa S; Lauren, Christine T

    2018-05-02

    Atopic dermatitis is a common, chronic, debilitating disease. Poor adherence to treatment is the most important preventable contributor to adverse outcomes. Thus, improving adherence can improve patient outcomes. Text message reminders with embedded condition-specific information have been shown to improve pediatric immunization adherence but have not been assessed in atopic dermatitis. The objective was to assess the effect of daily text messages on Eczema Area Severity Index scores and caregiver knowledge of atopic dermatitis. In this pilot randomized controlled trial, caregivers of children with atopic dermatitis enrolled during their initial appointment with a pediatric dermatologist and randomized 1:1 to standard care or daily text messages with patient education material and treatment reminders. Participants completed a multiple-choice atopic dermatitis knowledge quiz at initial and follow-up visits, and Eczema Area Severity Index scores were assessed. Forty-two patients enrolled, and 30 completed the study: 16 standard care group, 14 text message group. There was no significant difference in Eczema Area Severity Index score between the standard care and text message groups at follow-up, with mean decreases in Eczema Area Severity Index score of 53% and 58%, respectively. Mean score on follow-up atopic dermatitis knowledge quiz was significantly higher in the text message group (84% correct) than in the standard care group (75% correct) (P = .04). This pilot study did not demonstrate a difference in Eczema Area Severity Index scores with text message reminders. The significantly higher follow-up atopic dermatitis quiz score in the text message group indicates that participants read and retained information from text messages. Limitations include small sample size and short duration of follow-up. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Hand dermatitis--differential diagnoses, diagnostics, and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of hand dermatitis is multifactorial, and includes factors such as genetic predisposition and exposure. A high incidence rate is associated with female gender, contact allergy, atopic dermatitis, and wet work. The most important risk factors for the persistence of hand dermatitis include its extent, contact allergic or atopic etiology, childhood dermatitis, and early onset (before the age of 20). The cost of illness of hand dermatitis corresponds to this seen in moderate to severe psoriasis. The diagnostic workup of hand dermatitis and its differential diagnoses requires a detailed assessment of occupational and recreational exposure. In case of possible work-related triggers, early notification of the accident insurer should be sought (via the dermatologist's report). Exposure to a contact allergen is a contributing factor in one-half of all cases of hand dermatitis. It is therefore imperative that all patients with hand dermatitis persisting for more than three months undergo patch testing. Successful and sustainable treatment of hand dermatitis starts with the proper identification and elimination of individual triggers, including the substitution of identified contact allergens and irritants, as well as optimizing preventive measures. Graded therapy taking the clinical severity into account is essential. Validated instruments may be used to monitor therapeutic efficacy. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Morus alba L. suppresses the development of atopic dermatitis induced by the house dust mite in NC/Nga mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Morus alba, a medicinal plant in Asia, has been used traditionally to treat diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia. However, the effects of M. alba extract (MAE) on atopic dermatitis have not been verified scientifically. We investigated the effects of MAE on atopic dermatitis through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods We evaluated the effects of MAE on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in RAW 264.7, as well as thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) in HaCaT cells. In an in vivo experiment, atopic dermatitis was induced by topical application of house dust mites for four weeks, and the protective effects of MAE were investigated by measuring the severity of the skin reaction on the back and ears, the plasma levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and histamine, and histopathological changes in the skin on the back and ears. Results MAE suppressed the production of NO and PGE2 in RAW 264.7 cells, as well as TARC in HaCaT cells, in a dose-dependent manner. MAE treatment of NC/Nga mice reduced the severity of dermatitis and the plasma levels of IgE and histamine. MAE also reduced the histological manifestations of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions such as erosion, hyperplasia of the epidermis and dermis, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the skin on the back and ears. Conclusion Our results suggest that MAE has potent inhibitory effects on atopic dermatitis-like lesion and may be a beneficial natural resource for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. PMID:24755250

  20. Lichen simplex chronicus

    MedlinePlus

    ... lichen simplex chronicus; Atopic dermatitis - lichen simplex chronicus; Psoriasis - lichen simplex chronicus ... people who have: Skin allergies Eczema (atopic dermatitis) Psoriasis Nervousness, anxiety, depression, and other emotional problems The ...

  1. Gamisasangja-tang suppresses pruritus and atopic skin inflammation in the NC/Nga murine model of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Park, Bo-Kyung; Park, Yang-Chun; Jung, In Chul; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Choi, Jeong June; Do, Moonho; Kim, Sun Yeou; Jin, Mirim

    2015-05-13

    Gamisasangja-tang (GST) is a traditional herbal formula prescribed for patients with intractable pruritus in association with various inflammatory skin diseases. To evaluate the effects of GST on pruritic skin inflammation and investigate its cellular and molecular mechanisms. We orally administered GST to NC/Nga (NC) mice, an animal model of atopic dermatitis. Scratching frequency and the dermatitis index were evaluated, and histological examination was performed using hematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue staining. The levels of interleukin (IL)-31 and T-helper cell type 2 (TH2) cytokines were determined in both the dorsal skin and cultured splenocytes by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The serum levels of chemokines and immunoglobulin E (IgE) were determined by ELISA. Changes in the inflammatory cell population were analyzed by a hemocytometer. GST significantly lowered scratching frequency and inhibited increases in dermatitis index, thickness of epidermis/dermis and infiltration of chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 3 (CCR3)(+) and cluster of differentiation (CD)117(+)/FcεRIα (Fc fragment of IgE, high affinity I, receptor for; alpha polypeptide)(+) cells in atopic skin. Both IL-31 mRNA expression and production were significantly reduced by GST, which was accomrease in the levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Further, GST treatment suppressed the secretion of eotaxin, TARC (thymus and activation-regulated chemokine), IgE, and increases in the number of basophils and eosinophils in the blood. GST may have potential as an effective treatment for pruritic skin disease such as atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Recent Advances in Pharmacotherapeutic Paradigm of Mild to Recalcitrant Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Zahid; Sahudin, Shariza; Thu, Hnin Ei; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas; Kumolosasi, Endang

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic skin inflammatory disorder characterized by perivascular infiltration of immunoglobulin E (IgE), T lymphocytes, and mast cells. The key factors responsible for the pathophysiology of this disease are immunological disorders and defects in epidermal barrier properties. Pruritus, intense itching, psychological stress, deprived physical and mental performance, and sleep disturbance are the hallmark features of this dermatological disorder. Preventive interventions such as educational programs, avoidance of allergens, and exclusive care toward the skin could play a partial role in suppressing the symptoms. Based on the available clinical evidence, topical corticosteroids (TCs) are among the most commonly prescribed agents; however, these should be selected with care. In cases of steroid phobia, persistent adverse effects or chronic use, topical calcineurin inhibitors can be considered as a promising adjunct to TCs. Recent advances in the pharmacotherapeutic paradigm of atopic diseases exploring the therapeutic dominance of nanocarrier-mediated delivery is also discussed in this evidence-based review with regard to the treatment of AD. The present review summarizes the available clinical evidence, highlighting the current and emerging trends in the treatment of AD and providing evidence-based recommendations for the clinicians and health care professionals. Available evidence for the management of pediatric and adult atopic dermatitis (AD; atopic eczema) of all severities is explored. The management of other types of dermatitis, such as irritant contact dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, neurodermatitis, perioral dermatitis, stasis dermatitis, and allergic contact dermatitis are outside the scope of current review article. The presented studies were appraised using a unified system called the "Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT)", which was developed by the editors of several US family medicine and primary care journals

  3. CROSS-CULTURAL ADAPTATION AND VALIDATION OF THE ITCHING SEVERITY SCALE IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    PubMed Central

    Bruscky, Dayanne Mota Veloso; Melo, Ana Caroline Cavalcanti Dela Bianca; Sarinho, Emanuel Sávio Cavalcanti

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To translate, adapt and validate the Itch Severity Scale to a Brazilian version (ISS-Ped) in order to measure the severity of pruritus in children and adolescents with atopic dermatitis. Methods: This is a methodological study of validation of an instrument following recommended protocols. The translated version was evaluated by a group of experts including one professional with experience in instrument validation, three English teachers, one linguistics teacher and seven allergists. After this, the scale was applied to 42 parents of children aged between 2 and 18 years old with atopic dermatitis, and 42 parents of children without pruritic diseases. Results were evaluated according to the severity of atopic dermatitis and disease control, and they were compared between groups with and without atopic dermatitis. Results: More than 90% of the questions were clear to the parents. The ISS-Ped showed a strong positive correlation with the severity of atopic dermatitis (Pearson: 0.74; p<0.001) and a good correlation with the control of dermatitis (point-biserial correlation coefficient: 0.65; p<0.001). The scale showed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s α: 0.96) and adequate test and retest agreement (95% confidence interval of intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.89-0.99; p<0.001). Conclusions: The ISS-Ped is a feasible, valid, reliable and satisfactorily equivalent. The translated scale was appropriate to assess the severity of itching in children and adolescents with eczema, allowing comparisons in the clinical practice and in the research setting. PMID:28977301

  4. Case for diagnosis. Infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1: differential diagnosis of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lorena Maria Lima de; Souza, Marcos Vilela de; Guedes, Antonio Carlos Martins; Araújo, Marcelo Grossi

    2017-01-01

    Infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH) is the main cutaneous marker of HTLV-1 infection. This disease occurs primarily in children and should be differentiated from other eczemas, especially from atopic dermatitis. The largest series of IDH are from Jamaica and Brazil. There are an estimated 15 to 20 million infected people in the world, and Brazil is one of the endemic regions. Studies suggest that IDH in children may be a marker for the development of T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) or myelopathy associated with HTLV-1/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM / TSP) in adulthood.

  5. Physical Activity, Sedentary Habits, Sleep, and Obesity are Associated with Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis, and Atopic Dermatitis in Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lim, Man Sup; Lee, Chang Hee; Sim, Songyong; Hong, Sung Kwang; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2017-09-01

    Since pathophysiologic evidence has been raised to suggest that obesity could facilitate an allergic reaction, obesity has been known as an independent risk factor for allergic disease such as asthma. However, the relationship between sedentary behavior and lifestyle which could lead to obesity, and those allergic diseases remains unclear. We analyzed the relations between physical activity, including sitting time for study, sitting time for leisure and sleep time, and obesity, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis using the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, which was conducted in 2013. Total 53769 adolescent participants (12 through 18 years old) were analyzed using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Longer sitting time for study and short sitting time for leisure were associated with allergic rhinitis. High physical activity and short sleep time were associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. Underweight was negatively associated with atopic dermatitis, whereas overweight was positively correlated with allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. High physical activity, and short sleep time were associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017

  6. Relevance of inhalant and food allergens to the etiology and management of patients with atopic dermatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Platts-Mills, T.A.; Mitchell, E.B.; Rowntree, S.

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have IgE antibodies to common environmental antigens, both foods and inhalants. Such antibodies are probably relevant and exposure to the corresponding antigens can give rise to eczema. Nevertheless, the mechanisms involved and the role of other etiologies, e.g. contact reactions, remain to be elucidated. Patients with atopic dermatitis should have comprehensive evaluations to determine the role of environmental antigens.

  7. Differential Effects of Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins on Experimental Atopic and Contact Dermatitis Mediated by Treg and Th17 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Shin Yong; Gupta, Dipika; Kim, Chang H.; Dziarski, Roman

    2011-01-01

    Skin protects the body from the environment and is an important component of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Atopic dermatitis and contact dermatitis are among the most frequent inflammatory skin diseases and are both determined by multigenic predisposition, environmental factors, and aberrant immune response. Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins (Pglyrps) are expressed in the skin and we report here that they modulate sensitivity to experimentally-induced atopic dermatitis and contact dermatitis. Pglyrp3 −/− and Pglyrp4 −/− mice (but not Pglyrp2 −/− mice) develop more severe oxazolone-induced atopic dermatitis than wild type (WT) mice. The common mechanism underlying this increased sensitivity of Pglyrp3 −/− and Pglyrp4 −/− mice to atopic dermatitis is reduced recruitment of Treg cells to the skin and enhanced production and activation Th17 cells in Pglyrp3 −/− and Pglyrp4 −/− mice, which results in more severe inflammation and keratinocyte proliferation. This mechanism is supported by decreased inflammation in Pglyrp3 −/− mice following in vivo induction of Treg cells by vitamin D or after neutralization of IL-17. By contrast, Pglyrp1 −/− mice develop less severe oxazolone-induced atopic dermatitis and also oxazolone-induced contact dermatitis than WT mice. Thus, Pglyrp3 and Pglyrp4 limit over-activation of Th17 cells by promoting accumulation of Treg cells at the site of chronic inflammation, which protects the skin from exaggerated inflammatory response to cell activators and allergens, whereas Pglyrp1 has an opposite pro-inflammatory effect in the skin. PMID:21949809

  8. Crisaborole Ointment 2%: A Review in Mild to Moderate Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Sheridan M

    2017-12-01

    Crisaborole ointment 2% (Eucrisa™) is a novel, anti-inflammatory inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) that is available in the USA for the topical treatment of mild to moderate atopic dermatitis in patients aged ≥ 2 years. In two short-term (28 days), identically designed, multicentre, phase III studies in this patient population, topical therapy with crisaborole ointment 2% reduced disease severity and pruritus severity compared with vehicle, with the effect established early and sustained over the course of treatment. Improvements in the other signs of atopic dermatitis (erythema, exudation, excoriation, induration/papulation, and lichenification) were also seen. Crisaborole ointment 2% was generally well tolerated in the short-term studies, with its favorable safety profile maintained over the longer term (up to 52 weeks) in a multicentre, extension study. Most treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were of mild to moderate severity and considered unrelated to the study medication. Moreover, the incidence of application-site pain following short- and longer-term topical therapy with crisaborole ointment 2% was low. In conclusion, crisaborole ointment 2% is an effective and generally well tolerated new topical option for the management of mild to moderate atopic dermatitis in patients aged ≥ 2 years, with the potential to effectively treat this patient population over the longer term without the safety concerns associated with other current topical anti-inflammatory agents.

  9. Food compounds inhibit Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and the toxicity of Staphylococcus Enterotoxin A (SEA) associated with atopic dermatitis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Atopic dermatitis or eczema is characterized by skin rashes and itching is an inflammatory disease that affects 10-20% of children and 1-3% of adults. Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are present on the skin of nearly all patients with atopic dermatitis. Antibiotics that suppress colonization of S. au...

  10. [The potential of the non-pharmacological methods for the rehabilitation and prophylaxis in the patients suffering from with atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Kosheleva, I V; Bitkina, O A; Klivitskaya, N A; Shadyzheva, L I

    This article was designed to discuss the therapeutic potential of various non-pharmacological and physiotherapeutic methods for the treatment and rehabilitation of the patients presenting with atopic dermatitis (AD) during the inter-recurrence period of the disease. The particular emphasis is placed on the physical agents most frequently used for the purpose with special reference to the combined therapy of atopic dermatitis in the adults and children and to their rehabilitation in the inter-exacerbation periods. In addition, the data on the prospects for the use of various medications intended for tissue- and organotherapy of the patients suffering from atopic dermatitis are presented. The main traditional approaches to the management of the patients with atopic dermatitis under conditions of the spa and health resort facilities are considered based on the original experience of the authors including the application of various modes of ozone therapy regarded as a physiotherapeutic procedure for the treatment of atopic dermatitis in the children and adult patients, their rehabilitation, and the prevention of exacerbations of the pathological process based on the external and/or systemic application of the ozone-oxygen gaseous mixture. The selected modalities of ozone therapy used to treat various clinical forms and stages of the atopic dermatitis differing in severity are described in detail. The data on the influence of ozone therapy on a variety of pathogenetic factors of atopic dermatitis are presented as obtained by the investigations into dynamics of the characteristics of immunity, microcirculation, and the levels of free radical metabolites. The results of the study give evidence of the high effectiveness of ozone therapy as a method of physiotherapeutic treatment both in the capacity of a component of combined therapy during the acute phase of atopic dermatitis and as the means of secondary (post-exposure) prophylaxis of the exacerbations and relapses of

  11. Addressing the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis: advances in topical and systemic treatment.

    PubMed

    Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Stein Gold, Linda F

    2017-03-01

    Several immunologic mediators-phosphodiesterase (PDE), interleukin (IL), small molecules, and Janus kinase-have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, and evidence has shown that blocking these mediators can help modify the disease process. Several new topical medications have been developed that target the enzyme PDE; crisaborole was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of atopic dermatitis, and phase II studies have been completed on OPA-15406. The phase III clinical trial results of the systemic medication dupilumab, an inhibitor of the IL-4 receptor α subunit (which inhibits both IL-4 and IL-13 signaling), are currently being reviewed by the FDA. ©2017 Frontline Medical Communications.

  12. Injury downregulates the expression of the human cathelicidin protein hCAP18/LL-37 in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Mallbris, Lotus; Carlén, Lina; Wei, Tianling; Heilborn, Johan; Nilsson, Margareta Frohm; Granath, Fredrik; Ståhle, Mona

    2010-05-01

    Reduced production of antimicrobial peptides was proposed to contribute to susceptibility for skin infections in atopic dermatitis (AD). Focusing on the human cathelicidin protein, hCAP18, the aim of the present study was to explore whether reduced hCAP18 expression is a constitutive trait in AD and if established inducers affect the expression of hCAP18 in the skin of AD. First, we compared levels of hCAP18 mRNA between lesional skin in AD and psoriasis and verified significantly lower expression of hCAP18 mRNA in AD. In non-lesional skin, however, there was no difference between AD, psoriasis and healthy, indicating that there is no constitutive defect in the production of hCAP18 in AD patients. In healthy skin, hCAP18 was reported to be rapidly induced following wounding and here we verified this pattern in healthy controls and in psoriasis. In AD lesions, however, the expression of hCAP18 mRNA was markedly suppressed following wounding. Obviously, the inflammation in AD lesions neutralizes the expected induction of hCAP18 and even induces suppression. Notably, the mechanism to upregulate hCAP18 following vitamin D treatment was functional in lesional as well as in non-lesional AD indicating that the CAMP gene is normally regulated in this respect. In addition, cultured primary keratinocytes from non-lesional skin of psoriasis, AD and healthy skin, upregulated hCAP18mRNA following treatment with vitamin D. Itching is a hallmark of AD and scratching inevitably injures the skin. Failure to upregulate hCAP18 in eczema following injury is likely to affect antimicrobial protection and tissue repair in AD.

  13. Atopic Dermatitis Susceptibility Variants in Filaggrin Hitchhike Hornerin Selective Sweep

    PubMed Central

    Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Xu, Duo; Flanagan, Colin; Rzhetskaya, Margarita; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; Blekhman, Ran; Jablonski, Nina G.; Gokcumen, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Human skin has evolved rapidly, leaving evolutionary signatures in the genome. The filaggrin (FLG) gene is widely studied for its skin-barrier function in humans. The extensive genetic variation in this gene, especially common loss-of-function (LoF) mutations, has been established as primary risk factors for atopic dermatitis. To investigate the evolution of this gene, we analyzed 2,504 human genomes and genotyped the copy number variation of filaggrin repeats within FLG in 126 individuals from diverse ancestral backgrounds. We were unable to replicate a recent study claiming that LoF of FLG is adaptive in northern latitudes with lower ultraviolet light exposure. Instead, we present multiple lines of evidence suggesting that FLG genetic variation, including LoF variants, have little or no effect on fitness in modern humans. Haplotype-level scrutinization of the locus revealed signatures of a recent selective sweep in Asia, which increased the allele frequency of a haplotype group (Huxian haplogroup) in Asian populations. Functionally, we found that the Huxian haplogroup carries dozens of functional variants in FLG and hornerin (HRNR) genes, including those that are associated with atopic dermatitis susceptibility, HRNR expression levels and microbiome diversity on the skin. Our results suggest that the target of the adaptive sweep is HRNR gene function, and the functional FLG variants that involve susceptibility to atopic dermatitis, seem to hitchhike the selective sweep on HRNR. Our study presents a novel case of a locus that harbors clinically relevant common genetic variation with complex evolutionary trajectories. PMID:27678121

  14. Lack of Association Between Toll-like Receptor 2 Polymorphisms (R753Q and A-16934T) and Atopic Dermatitis in Children from Thrace Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Can, Ceren; Yazıcıoğlu, Mehtap; Gürkan, Hakan; Tozkır, Hilmi; Görgülü, Adnan; Süt, Necdet Hilmi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Atopic dermatitis is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease. A complex interaction of both genetic and environmental factors is thought to contribute to the disease. Aims: To evaluate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms in the TLR2 gene c.2258C>T (R753Q) (rs5743708) and TLR2 c.-148+1614T>A (A-16934T) (rs4696480) (NM_0032643) are associated with atopic dermatitis in Turkish children. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: The study was conducted on 70 Turkish children with atopic dermatitis aged 0.5-18 years. The clinical severity of atopic dermatitis was evaluated by the severity scoring of atopic dermatitis index. Serum total IgE levels, specific IgE antibodies to inhalant and food allergens were measured in both atopic dermatitis patients and controls, skin prick tests were done on 70 children with atopic dermatitis. Genotyping for TLR2 (R753Q and A-16934T) single nucleotide polymorphisms was performed in both atopic dermatitis patients and controls. Results: Cytosine-cytosine and cytosin-thymine genotype frequencies of the TLR2 R753Q single nucleotide polymorphism in the atopic dermatitis group were determined as being 98.6% and 1.4%, cytosine allele frequency for TLR2 R753Q single nucleotide polymorphism was determined as 99.29% and the thymine allele frequency was 0.71%, thymine-thymine, thymine-adenine, and adenine-adenine genotype frequencies of the TLR2 A-16934T single nucleotide polymorphism were 24.3%, 44.3%, and 31.4%. The thymine allele frequency for the TLR2 A-16934T single nucleotide polymorphism in the atopic dermatitis group was 46.43%, and the adenine allele frequency was 53.57%, respectively. There was not statistically significant difference between the groups for all investigated polymorphisms (p>0.05). For all single nucleotide polymorphisms studied, allelic distribution was analogous among atopic dermatitis patients and controls, and no significant statistical difference was observed. No homozygous carriers of

  15. Lack of Association Between Toll-like Receptor 2 Polymorphisms (R753Q and A-16934T) and Atopic Dermatitis in Children from Thrace Region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Can, Ceren; Yazıcıoğlu, Mehtap; Gürkan, Hakan; Tozkır, Hilmi; Görgülü, Adnan; Süt, Necdet Hilmi

    2017-05-05

    Atopic dermatitis is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease. A complex interaction of both genetic and environmental factors is thought to contribute to the disease. To evaluate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms in the TLR2 gene c.2258C>T (R753Q) (rs5743708) and TLR2 c.-148+1614T>A (A-16934T) (rs4696480) (NM_0032643) are associated with atopic dermatitis in Turkish children. Case-control study. The study was conducted on 70 Turkish children with atopic dermatitis aged 0.5-18 years. The clinical severity of atopic dermatitis was evaluated by the severity scoring of atopic dermatitis index. Serum total IgE levels, specific IgE antibodies to inhalant and food allergens were measured in both atopic dermatitis patients and controls, skin prick tests were done on 70 children with atopic dermatitis. Genotyping for TLR2 (R753Q and A-16934T) single nucleotide polymorphisms was performed in both atopic dermatitis patients and controls. Cytosine-cytosine and cytosin-thymine genotype frequencies of the TLR2 R753Q single nucleotide polymorphism in the atopic dermatitis group were determined as being 98.6% and 1.4%, cytosine allele frequency for TLR2 R753Q single nucleotide polymorphism was determined as 99.29% and the thymine allele frequency was 0.71%, thymine-thymine, thymine-adenine, and adenine-adenine genotype frequencies of the TLR2 A-16934T single nucleotide polymorphism were 24.3%, 44.3%, and 31.4%. The thymine allele frequency for the TLR2 A-16934T single nucleotide polymorphism in the atopic dermatitis group was 46.43%, and the adenine allele frequency was 53.57%, respectively. There was not statistically significant difference between the groups for all investigated polymorphisms (p>0.05). For all single nucleotide polymorphisms studied, allelic distribution was analogous among atopic dermatitis patients and controls, and no significant statistical difference was observed. No homozygous carriers of the TLR2 R753Q single nucleotide polymorphism were

  16. Atopic dermatitis: a review of topical nonsteroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Papier, Ariana; Strowd, Lindsay C

    2018-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that affects up to 20% of children and 3% of adults globally. Although topical corticosteroids are considered to be the first-line agents, they can be associated with cutaneous and systemic adverse effects. Since the early 2000s, two new classes of nonsteroid topical therapies, topical calcineurin inhibitors and phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors, have been introduced and provide a safe treatment alternative. We performed a search and review of clinical trials that examined the safety and efficacy of topical calcineurin inhibitors and PDE4 inhibitors. The search was conducted using the PubMed database as well as preselected keywords and filters. This review focuses on the safety and efficacy of each therapy. Sixty-nine clinical trials identified in this study have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of topical calcineurin and a single novel PDE4 inhibitor in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Topical calcineurin inhibitors have been shown to be effective in both achieving lesion clearance as well as reducing relapse when used long-term and proactively. Similarly, in clinical trials the PDE4 inhibitor showed success in lesion clearance and symptom management. All three therapies (pimecrolimus, tacrolimus, crisaborole) are associated with low systemic absorption. No clinical trials to date have shown an increased risk of systemic adverse events or malignancy such as lymphoma. The most commonly reported treatment-related adverse event across all three therapies was application-site discomfort, pain or pruritus. It is important to note that long-term studies are not yet available for the novel PDE4 inhibitor. Topical calcineurin inhibitors provide a safe and effective alternative to topical corticosteroid use in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Although the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) black box warning for topical calcineurin inhibitors remains, studies have not shown an increased risk of

  17. The effective management of atopic dermatitis in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Ward, Sue

    The terms atopic eczema and atopic dermatitis (AD) are synonymous. In this article, the latter term is used. AD can affect all age groups but is most commonly associated with children. It is a dry-skin condition, the severity of which can vary from person to person. It is not contagious. In mild forms of the condition the skin is dry, hot and itchy, while in more severe cases the skin can be broken, raw and bleeding, or produce vesicles and papules that may become eroded.

  18. Clinical use of a ceramide-based moisturizer for treating dogs with atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ji-young; Nam, Eui-hwa; Park, Seol-hee; Han, Seung-hee

    2013-01-01

    In humans, skin barrier dysfunction is thought to be responsible for enhanced penetration of allergens. Similar to conditions seen in humans, canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is characterized by derangement of corneocytes and disorganization of intercellular lipids in the stratum corenum (SC) with decreased ceramide levels. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a moisturizer containing ceramide on dogs with CAD. Dogs (n = 20, 3~8 years old) with mild to moderate clinical signs were recruited and applied a moisturizer containing ceramide for 4 weeks. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration, pruritus index for canine atopic dermatitis (PICAD) scores, and canine atopic dermatitis extent and severity index (CADESI) scores of all dogs were evaluated. Skin samples from five dogs were also examined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using ruthenium tetroxide. TEWL, PICAD, and CADESI values decreased (p < 0.05) and skin hydration increased dramatically over time (p < 0.05). Electron micrographs showed that the skin barrier of all five dogs was partially restored (p < 0.05). In conclusion, these results demonstrated that moisturizer containing ceramide was effective for treating skin barrier dysfunction and CAD symptoms. PMID:23814473

  19. [The medical rehabilitation of the children presenting with atopic dermatitis (a literature review)].

    PubMed

    Kotenko, K V; Khan, M A; Lyan, N A; Vakhova, E L; Novikova, E V

    Atopic dermatitis takes the predominant position in the structure of skin pathologies in the children of various age. Both the scientifically based forecasts and the data of numerous investigations give evidence not only of the significant increase in the number of patients presenting with this condition but also of the growing severity of this disease. Taken together, these facts account for the serious medico-social importance of the problems arising in connection with this pathology. The introduction of the eliminative actions, a hypoallergenic diet, local and systemic pharmacotherapeutic modalities do not always allow to prevent or arrest the inflammatory process and achieve the long-standing remission. The high frequency of undesirable reactions to the pharmacological products turns the attention of many clinicians to the application of the non-pharmacological factors and methods for the treatment of atopic dermatitis in the children. The main objectives of physical therapy in the case of atopic dermatitis include the normalization of the state of the central and vegetative nervous system, the achievement of hyposensitization, sedative, anti-toxic, and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as the application of the dissolving, trophic, and antipruritogenic agents, strengthening of the general health status of the children.

  20. Diospyros lotus leaf and grapefruit stem extract synergistically ameliorate atopic dermatitis-like skin lesion in mice by suppressing infiltration of mast cells in skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Cho, Byoung Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong Hua; Shin, Jae Young; Jang, Seon Il

    2017-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis, a chronic relapsing and pruritic inflammation of the skin also thought to be involved in, or caused by immune system destruction is an upsetting health problem due to its continuously increasing incidence especially in developed countries. Mast cell infiltration in atopic dermatitis skin lesions and its IgE-mediated activation releases various cytokines and chemokines that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. This study was aimed at investigating synergistic anti-inflammatory, anti-pruritic and anti-atopic dermatitis effects of Diospyros lotus leaf extract (DLE) and Muscat bailey A grapefruit stem extract (GFSE) in atopic dermatitis-like induced skin lesions in mice. Combinations of DLE and GFSE inhibited TNF-α and IL-6 production more than DLE or GFSE in PMA plus calcium ionophore A23187-activated HMC-1 cells. DLE and GFSE synergistically inhibited compound 48/80-induced dermal infiltration of mast cells and reduced scratching behavior than DLE or GFSE. Furthermore, DLE and GFSE synergistically showed a stronger ameliorative effect in skin lesions by reducing clinical scores; dermal infiltration of mast cells; ear and dorsal skin thickness; serum IgE and IL-4 production in atopic dermatitis-like mice. Collectively, these results suggest that DLE and GFSE synergistically exhibit anti-atopic dermatitis effects in atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. The immunology of atopic dermatitis and its reversibility with broad-spectrum and targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Patrick M; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Leung, Donald Y M

    2017-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD), the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease, is driven by both terminal keratinocyte differentiation defects and strong type 2 immune responses. In contrast to chronic plaque-type psoriasis, AD is now understood to be a much more heterogeneous disease, with additional activation of T H 22, T H 17/IL-23, and T H 1 cytokine pathways depending on the subtype of the disease. In this review we discuss our current understanding of the AD immune map in both patients with early-onset and those with chronic disease. Clinical studies with broad and targeted therapeutics have helped to elucidate the contribution of various immune axes to the disease phenotype. Importantly, immune activation extends well beyond lesional AD because nonlesional skin and the blood component harbor AD-specific inflammatory changes. For this reason, future therapeutics will need to focus on a systemic treatment approach, especially in patients with moderate-to-severe disease. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Current status of atopic dermatitis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Takahito; Takeuchi, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic or chronically relapsing, severely pruritic, eczematous skin disease. AD is the second most frequently observed skin disease in dermatology clinics in Japan. Prevalence of childhood AD is 12-13% in mainland Japan; however, it is only half that (about 6%) in children from Ishigaki Island, Okinawa. Topical steroids and tacrolimus are the mainstay of treatment. However, the adverse effects and emotional fear of long-term use of topical steroids have induced a "topical steroid phobia" in patients throughout the world. Undertreatment can exacerbate facial/periocular lesions and lead to the development of atopic cataract and retinal detachment due to repeated scratching/rubbing/patting. Overcoming topical steroid phobia is a key issue for the successful treatment of AD through education, understanding and cooperation of patients and their guardians. PMID:22053299

  3. [Do breast-feeding and "diet" milks have any preventive or curative effect in the management of atopic dermatitis in children?].

    PubMed

    de Boissieu, D

    2005-01-01

    A) The preventive interest of infants' food in the onset of atopic dermatitis. Measures of prevention of atopic dermatitis concern predisposed children. Most studies agree on the protective effect of breast feeding for at least 3 to 4 months, compared with industrial milk products, on the onset of atopic dermatitis. Partial breast feeding is not protective. There is no preventive effect of breast feeding on the onset of atopic dermatitis in the absence of a family history of atopy. However, a few studies have raised the question of the aggravation of eczema during prolonged breast feeding. The "breast fed" group is probably not a homogenous group. Mothers' milk contains IgA, TGFb-type cytokines and long-chain polyinsaturated fatty acids that may play an important part in the acquisition of tolerance to food and the prevention of atopic dermatitis. The administration of a protein hydrolysate is preferable in terms of prevention of an allergy to a formula based on cow's milk, but does not provide any benefit compared with breast feeding. The preventive effect on atopic dermatitis of a casein hydrolysate is greater than that of a partial hydrolysate, which itself is greater than a formula based on cow's milk. In conclusion, the first preventive measure is breast feeding for 3 to 4 months, associated with intensive protein hydrolysate in the case of mixed feeding. In the absence of breast feeding, intensive hydrolysate is recommended in children at high risk. B) The curative interest of infants' food in the management of atopic dermatitis. The curative interest implies the responsibility of food in the triggering-off or maintenance of atopic dermatitis. This concerns non-diversified infants exhibiting severe or moderate eczema concomitant to digestive disorders. In such cases, the diagnosis of food allergy should be evoked. If the infant is fed on industrial milk, a test diet should be proposed with a hydrolysate or based on amino acids, followed by the re

  4. Is the Atopy Patch Test Reliable in the Evaluation of Food Allergy-Related Atopic Dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Mahboubeh; Rafiee, Elham; Darougar, Sepideh; Mesdaghi, Mehrnaz; Chavoshzadeh, Zahra

    2018-01-01

    Aeroallergens and food allergens are found to be relevant in atopic dermatitis. The atopy patch test (APT) can help to detect food allergies in children with atopic dermatitis. This study evaluates if the APT is a valuable tool in the diagnostic workup of children with food allergy-related atopic dermatitis. 42 children between 6 months and 12 years of age were selected at the Mofid Children Hospital. Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed, and the severity of the disease was determined. At the test visit, the patients underwent a skin prick test (SPT), APT, and serum IgE level measurement for cow's milk, egg yolk, egg white, wheat, and soy. We found a sensitivity of 91.7%, a specificity of 72.7%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 88%, a negative predictive value (NPV) of 80%, and an accuracy of 85.7% for APT performed for cow's milk. APT performed for egg yolk had a sensitivity and a NPV of 100%, while the same parameters obtained with egg white were 84.2 and 75%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and NPV of the APT for wheat were 100, 75, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity, PPV, and NPV of the APT for soy were 87.5, 70, and 87.5%, respectively. Our data demonstrate that the APT is a reliable diagnostic tool to evaluate suspected food allergy-related skin symptoms in childhood and infancy. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Oral administration of Lactococcus chungangensis inhibits 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic-like dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo Jin; Konkit, Maytiya; Kim, Yena; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Wonyong

    2016-09-01

    Interest is increasing in the potentially beneficial role of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of atopic diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Lactococcus chungangensis CAU 28(T) against atopic dermatitis using murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, human keratinocyte HaCaT cells, human mast cell line HMC-1 cells, and a 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis model (NC/Nga mice). The results showed that L. chungangensis CAU 28(T) exhibited potent antiinflammatory activity by inhibiting the production of the proinflammatory mediators nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Treatment with L. chungangensis CAU 28(T) reduced the release of β-hexosaminidase and histamine in HMC-1 cells stimulated with mast cell activator compound 48/80. In addition, the back skin and ears of NC/Nga mice exhibited reduced histological manifestations of atopic skin lesions such as erosion, hyperplasia of the epidermis and dermis, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Oral administration of L. chungangensis CAU 28(T) suppressed the production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-12, IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) in skin lesions, indicating that it strongly drives the local immune system with efficacy comparable to that of tacrolimus, a topical immunomodulatory drug used for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. The findings indicate that L. chungangensis CAU 28(T) could be a novel probiotic candidate for controlling the symptoms of atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. New and developing therapies for atopic dermatitis*

    PubMed Central

    Hajar, Tamar; Gontijo, João Renato Vianna; Hanifin, Jon M

    2018-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin disease. New understanding in disease pathogenesis has led to a considerable number of promising new drugs in development. New topical agents can be especially helpful for children, providing an alternative to the need for chronic topical corticosteroid use. While many patients with mild or moderate disease can be managed with topical treatments, there are unmet needs for recalcitrant and severe cases. New and developing therapies hold promise for real advances in management of this complex disease. PMID:29641707

  7. Dermal fibroblasts from acute inflamed atopic dermatitis lesions display increased eotaxin/CCL11 responsiveness to interleukin-4 stimulation.

    PubMed

    Gahr, N; Fölster-Holst, R; Weichenthal, M; Christophers, E; Schröder, J-M; Bartels, J

    2011-03-01

    The presence of eosinophils and/or eosinophil-derived products in the dermis is characteristic for involved skin of patients with atopic dermatitis and contributes to the observed tissue injury. CCL11 is a potent chemoattractant and activator of human eosinophils and interleukin (IL)-4 is a potent inducer of CCL11 expression in dermal fibroblasts. As increased fibroblast CCL11 expression may explain eosinophilic infiltration of involved skin areas in atopic dermatitis, we asked whether dermal fibroblasts from atopic patients differ from fibroblasts of healthy individuals in their ability to express CCL11. We compared IL-4-induced CCL11 mRNA expression using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from cultured dermal fibroblasts derived from biopsies of chronic lesional and acute lesional atopic skin as well as from skin biopsies derived from normal skin of healthy donors. Considerable variability in IL-4-induced relative CCL11 mRNA expression was detected in fibroblasts derived from biopsies of different individuals. The lowest median IL-4 concentration inducing half maximal CCL11 mRNA expression (EC(50)) was found in fibroblasts derived from acute inflamed atopic lesions. Inducibility of CCL11 in dermal fibroblasts upon stimulation with Th2 cytokines explains the tissue eosinophilia observed in the presence of Th2 cytokines and the localization of eosinophils to the dermis. Decreased EC(50) values of IL-4-induced CCL11 expression in fibroblasts from acute inflamed atopic skin lesions indicates increased IL-4 responsiveness in these lesions and further substantiates the special role for IL-4-induced dermal fibroblast CCL11 expression in acute lesions. Variable CCL11 expression in fibroblasts from different patients with atopic dermatitis indicates heterogeneity of factors determining atopic phenotype in atopic dermatitis. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. Parenting and childhood atopic dermatitis: A cross-sectional study of relationships between parenting behaviour, skin care management, and disease severity in young children.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Amy E; Fraser, Jennifer A; Morawska, Alina; Ramsbotham, Joanne; Yates, Patsy

    2016-12-01

    The development of child behaviour and parenting difficulties is understood to undermine treatment outcomes for children with atopic dermatitis. Past research has reported on correlates of child behaviour difficulties. However, few research studies have sought to examine parenting confidence and practices in this clinical group. To examine relationships between child, parent, and family variables, parent-reported and directly-observed child and parent behaviour, parents' self-efficacy with managing difficult child behaviour, self-reported parenting strategies, and disease severity. Cross-sectional study design. Parent-child dyads (N=64) were recruited from the dermatology clinic of a paediatric tertiary referral hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Children had a diagnosis of atopic dermatitis of ≥3months and no other chronic health conditions except asthma, allergic rhinitis, or allergy. Parents completed self-report measures assessing child behaviour; parent depression, anxiety, and stress; parenting conflict and relationship satisfaction; self-efficacy with managing difficult child behaviour, and use of ineffective parenting strategies; and self-efficacy for managing atopic dermatitis, and performance of atopic dermatitis management tasks. The Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index was used to assess disease severity. Routine at-home treatment sessions were coded for parent and child behaviour. Pearson's and Spearman's correlations identified relationships (p<0.05) between self-efficacy with managing difficult child behaviour and child behaviour problems, parent depression and stress, parenting conflict and relationship satisfaction, and household income. There were also relationships between each of these variables and use of ineffective parenting strategies. Greater use of ineffective parenting strategies was associated with more severe atopic dermatitis. Using multiple linear regressions, child behaviour and household income explained unique variance in self

  9. Vitamin D in Atopic Dermatitis, Chronic Urticaria and Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Quirk, Shannon K; Rainwater, Ellecia; Shure, Anna K; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-01-01

    Summary Vitamin D influences allergen-induced pathways in the innate and adaptive immune system, and its potential immunomodulatory role in allergic skin disorders has been explored. This comprehensive review article provides an overview of the role of vitamin D in three common dermatologic conditions: atopic dermatitis (AD), chronic urticaria, and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Whereas the literature regarding vitamin D and AD has resulted in mixed findings, several studies have described an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and AD severity, and improvement in AD with vitamin D supplementation. Similarly, several studies report an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and severity of chronic urticaria. Although current research in humans remains limited, an increased likelihood of ACD has been demonstrated in vitamin D-deficient mice. Additional well-designed clinical trials will be necessary to determine whether vitamin D supplementation should be recommended for prevention or adjuvant treatment of these common dermatologic conditions. PMID:27014952

  10. Preliminary psycometric assessment of the Brazilian version of the DISABKIDS Atopic Dermatitis Module.

    PubMed

    Deon, Keila Cristiane; Santos, Danielle Maria de Souza Sério dos; Bullinger, Monika; Santos, Claudia Benedita dos

    2011-12-01

    To assess preliminary psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version of a questionnaire for measuring health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with atopic dermatitis. Cross-sectional study with a sample consisting of 52 children and adolescents aged 8 to 18 diagnosed with atopic dermatitis, and their parents or caregivers, selected at the dermatology department of a university hospital in the city of São Paulo, Southeast Brazil, in 2009. Construct validity, internal consistency and agreement between the responses of children and adolescents and their parents or caregivers were assessed in the Brazilian Portuguese version of the DISABKIDS-Atopic Dermatitis Module (ADM). Adequate internal consistency was found with Cronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.7024/0.8124 and 0.7239/0.8604. The multitrait multimethod analysis for assessing convergent validity showed measures higher than 0.30 for all items. The analysis showed good discriminant validity. Agreement between child self-report and parent proxy-report was evaluated using intra-class correlation with measures impact and social stigma of disease of 0.8173 and 0.7629, respectively. The study results showed that the DISABKIDS-ADM can be used by Brazilian researchers after its complete validation as it showed adequate preliminary psychometric properties and can be considered a valid, reliable instrument.

  11. Multifactorial skin barrier deficiency and atopic dermatitis: Essential topics to prevent the atopic march.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Gyohei; Kabashima, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common inflammatory skin disease in the industrialized world and has multiple causes. Over the past decade, data from both experimental models and patients have highlighted the primary pathogenic role of skin barrier deficiency in patients with AD. Increased access of environmental agents into the skin results in chronic inflammation and contributes to the systemic "atopic (allergic) march." In addition, persistent skin inflammation further attenuates skin barrier function, resulting in a positive feedback loop between the skin epithelium and the immune system that drives pathology. Understanding the mechanisms of skin barrier maintenance is essential for improving management of AD and limiting downstream atopic manifestations. In this article we review the latest developments in our understanding of the pathomechanisms of skin barrier deficiency, with a particular focus on the formation of the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the skin, which contributes significantly to skin barrier function. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The link between serum vitamin D level, sensitization to food allergens, and the severity of atopic dermatitis in infancy.

    PubMed

    Baek, Ji Hyeon; Shin, Youn Ho; Chung, In Hyuk; Kim, Hae Jung; Yoo, Eun-Gyong; Yoon, Jung Won; Jee, Hye Mi; Chang, Young Eun; Han, Man Yong

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the association between serum vitamin D levels, sensitization to food allergens, and the severity of atopic dermatitis in infants. We investigated serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and specific immunoglobulin E levels to common or suspected food allergens in 226 infants with atopic dermatitis or food allergy. The severity of atopic dermatitis by the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index and amount of vitamin D intake was measured in subcohort children. Sensitization to food allergen was categorized by the number (non-, mono-, and poly-) of sensitized allergens and the degree (undetected-, low-, and high-level) of sensitization. Significant differences in 25(OH)D levels were found between groups on number (P = .006) and degree (P = .005) of food sensitization. The polysensitization group had significantly lower levels of 25(OH)D than the nonsensitization (P = .001) and monosensitization (P = .023) group. High-level sensitization group had significantly lower 25(OH)D levels compared with undetected (P = .005) and low-level (P = .009) sensitization group. Vitamin D deficiency increased the risk of sensitization to food allergens (OR 5.0; 95% CI 1.8-14.1), especially to milk (OR 10.4; 95% CI 3.3-32.7) and wheat (OR 4.2; 95% CI 1.1-15.8). In addition, the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index was independently related to 25(OH)D levels after adjusting for the level of sensitization (adjusted R(2) = 0.112, P = .031). Our results suggest that vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of sensitization to food allergens and that atopic dermatitis may be more severe in infants with vitamin D deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A systematic review on the off-label use of montelukast in atopic dermatitis treatment.

    PubMed

    Chin, Weng Khong; Lee, Shaun Wen Huey

    2018-05-18

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common form of eczema. As leukotriene mediators are involved in the inflammatory phase of atopic dermatitis, montelukast has been suggested as a possible therapy. Aim of the review To evaluate the safety and efficacy of montelukast off-label use for the treatment atopic dermatitis. Method A search was performed from database inception until March 2018 in six electronic databases for randomized-controlled-trials examining the use of montelukast for AD. Results Among 301 articles screened, 11 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The study populations consist of paediatric and adult subjects with moderate-to-severe AD. Montelukast use was shown to improve symptoms such as pruritus in four studies. Another 2 studies reported that montelukast could improve symptoms similar to the standard regimen of topical steroid and oral antihistamine. However, five studies reported that montelukast had no effects in symptoms alleviation. The use of montelukast was associated with a similar safety profile to placebo and well-tolerated with minimal adverse effects. Conclusion There is limited evidence to suggest that the off-label use of montelukast is effective in treating moderate-to-severe AD. Further research with larger study populations employing standardized endpoint measuring instrument is warranted to further investigate the off-label use of montelukast in AD treatment. Until then, the use of conventional treatments including optimal daily skin hydration should remain the mainstay in the management of atopic dermatitis. In fact, for moderate-to-severe condition, steroid sparing immune-suppressants should still be used clinically until more effective and safer alternative is discovered.

  14. Erythrocyte and plasma fatty acid patterns in dogs with atopic dermatitis and healthy dogs in the same household

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Annett; Gück, Thomas; Oechtering, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have indicated that dogs with canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) may have a disorder of fatty acid metabolism: possibly low or absent activity of Δ6-desaturase or Δ5-desaturase, or both. To clarify this possibility, we examined the erythrocyte and plasma fatty acid patterns of 8 dogs with CAD and their 8 healthy housemates. Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Willemse; other causes of dermatitis were excluded clinically and by appropriate tests. Erythrocyte ghosts were prepared from blood samples. Membrane lipids were extracted and separated by thin-layer chromatography. From plasma and lipid fractions, fatty acid content was determined by gas chromatography. In erythrocytes, but not in plasma, we observed significant differences in the fatty acid pattern that suggested a reduction in the n6 fatty acid products of the Δ6- and Δ5-desaturases in dogs with atopic dermatitis when compared with healthy housemates. PMID:16850941

  15. The efficacy of cetirizine hydrochloride on the pruritus of cats with atopic dermatitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Wildermuth, Kerstin; Zabel, Sonja; Rosychuk, Rod A W

    2013-12-01

    Various antihistamines have been used in the management of feline atopic dermatitis, with variable reported benefit. To date, there have been no randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trials on the use of this drug class in cats. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of cetirizine hydrochloride for the control of pruritus and dermatitis in cats diagnosed with atopic dermatitis. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial, 21 client-owned cats diagnosed with mild to moderate nonseasonal atopic dermatitis were randomly assigned to two groups. Cats in each group received either 1 mg/kg cetirizine hydrochloride or placebo once daily per os for 28 days followed by a 14 day wash-out period. Treatments were then crossed over, and cats received placebo or cetirizine hydrochloride for another 28 days. Owners marked a pruritus severity scale before inclusion in the study and weekly throughout the entire study period. Lesions were scored by the clinician using a Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI)-03 modified for the cat before enrolment and at day 28 of each treatment. Nineteen cats completed the study. There were no statistically significant differences between treatment with cetirizine hydrochloride and placebo for modified CADESI-03 or pruritus scores. This study suggests that cetirizine hydrochloride cannot be recommended for the management of feline atopic dermatitis. © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  16. Atopic dermatitis: a review of topical nonsteroid therapy

    PubMed Central

    Papier, Ariana

    2018-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that affects up to 20% of children and 3% of adults globally. Although topical corticosteroids are considered to be the first-line agents, they can be associated with cutaneous and systemic adverse effects. Since the early 2000s, two new classes of nonsteroid topical therapies, topical calcineurin inhibitors and phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors, have been introduced and provide a safe treatment alternative. Method We performed a search and review of clinical trials that examined the safety and efficacy of topical calcineurin inhibitors and PDE4 inhibitors. The search was conducted using the PubMed database as well as preselected keywords and filters. This review focuses on the safety and efficacy of each therapy. Results Sixty-nine clinical trials identified in this study have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of topical calcineurin and a single novel PDE4 inhibitor in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Topical calcineurin inhibitors have been shown to be effective in both achieving lesion clearance as well as reducing relapse when used long-term and proactively. Similarly, in clinical trials the PDE4 inhibitor showed success in lesion clearance and symptom management. All three therapies (pimecrolimus, tacrolimus, crisaborole) are associated with low systemic absorption. No clinical trials to date have shown an increased risk of systemic adverse events or malignancy such as lymphoma. The most commonly reported treatment-related adverse event across all three therapies was application-site discomfort, pain or pruritus. It is important to note that long-term studies are not yet available for the novel PDE4 inhibitor. Discussion Topical calcineurin inhibitors provide a safe and effective alternative to topical corticosteroid use in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Although the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) black box warning for topical calcineurin inhibitors remains, studies

  17. Human Atopic Dermatitis Complicated by Eczema Herpeticum is Associated with Abnormalities in Gamma Interferon Response

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Donald YM; Gao, Pei-Song; Grigoryev, Dmitry N; Rafaels, Nicholas M; Streib, Joanne E; Howell, Michael D; Taylor, Patricia A; Boguniewicz, Mark; Canniff, Jennifer; Armstrong, Brian; Zaccaro, Daniel J; Schneider, Lynda C; Hata, Tissa R; Hanifin, Jon M; Beck, Lisa A; Weinberg, Adriana; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2011-01-01

    Background The basis for increased susceptibility of atopic dermatitis (AD) patients to develop disseminated viral skin infections such as eczema herpeticum (ADEH+) is poorly understood. Objective We sought to determine whether atopic dermatitis subjects prone to disseminated viral skin infections have defects in their interferon responses. Methods GeneChip profiling was used to identify differences in gene expression of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with a history of ADEH+ as compared to ADEH− and non-atopic controls. Key differences in protein expression were verified by ELISPOT and/or ELISA. Clinical relevance was further demonstrated by a mouse model of disseminated viral skin infection and genetic association analysis for genetic variants in IFNG and IFNGR1 and ADEH among 435 cases and controls. Results We demonstrate by global gene expression analysis selective transcriptomic changes within the interferon (IFN) superfamily of PBMCs from ADEH+ subjects reflecting low IFNγ and IFNγ receptor gene expression. IFNγ protein production was also significantly lower in ADEH+ (N=24) compared to ADEH− (N=20) and non-atopic (NA; N=20) controls. IFNγ receptor knockout (KO) mice developed disseminated viral skin infection after epicutaneous challenge with vaccinia virus (VV). Genetic variants in IFNG and IFNGR1 SNPs were significantly associated with ADEH (112 cases, 166 controls) and IFNγ production: a 2-SNP (A–G) IFNGR1 haplotype (rs10457655 and rs7749390) showed the strongest association with a reduced risk of ADEH+ ((13.2% ADEH+ vs 25.5% ADEH−, P = 0.00057). Conclusions ADEH+ patients have reduced IFNγ production, and IFNG and IFNGR1 SNPs are significantly associated with ADEH+ and may contribute to an impaired immune response to herpes simplex virus (HSV). Clinical Implications Atopic dermatitis subjects prone to disseminated viral skin infections have defects in their interferon responses. Capsule summary Using genomic

  18. GUIDELINES OF CARE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    PubMed Central

    Eichenfield, Lawrence F.; Tom, Wynnis L.; Berger, Timothy G.; Krol, Alfons; Paller, Amy S.; Schwarzenberger, Kathryn; Bergman, James N.; Chamlin, Sarah L.; Cohen, David E.; Cooper, Kevin D.; Cordoro, Kelly M.; Davis, Dawn M.; Feldman, Steven R.; Hanifin, Jon M.; Margolis, David J.; Silverman, Robert A.; Simpson, Eric L.; Williams, Hywel C.; Elmets, Craig A.; Block, Julie; Harrod, Christopher G.; Begolka, Wendy Smith; Sidbury, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common and chronic, pruritic inflammatory skin condition that can affect all age groups. This evidence-based guideline addresses important clinical questions that arise in its management. In this second of four sections, treatment of AD with non-pharmacological interventions and pharmacological topical therapies are reviewed. Where possible, suggestions on dosing and monitoring are given based on available evidence. PMID:24813302

  19. HPV16-E7 Expression in skin induces TSLP secretion, type 2 ILC infiltration and atopic dermatitis-like lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bergot, Anne-Sophie; Monnet, Nastasia; Tran, Le Son; Mittal, Deepak; Al-Kouba, Jane; Steptoe, Raymond J.; Grimbaldeston, Michele A.; Frazer, Ian H.; Wells, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common pruritic and inflammatory skin disorder with unknown etiology. Most commonly occurring during early childhood, atopic dermatitis is associated with eczematous lesions and lichenification, in which the epidermis becomes hypertrophied resulting in thickening of the skin. In this study, we report an atopic dermatitis-like pathophysiology results in a murine model following the expression of the high-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 oncoprotein E7 in keratinocytes under the Keratin 14 promoter. We show that HPV 16 E7 expression in the skin is associated with skin thickening, acanthosis and light spongiosis. Locally, HPV 16 E7 expressing skin secreted high levels of TSLP and contained increased numbers of ILCs. High levels of circulating IgE were associated with increased susceptibility to skin allergy in a model of cutaneous challenge, and to airway bronchiolar inflammation, enhanced airway goblet cell metaplasia and mucus production in a model of atopic march. Surprisingly, skin pathology occurred independently of T-cells and mast cells. Thus, our findings suggest that the expression of a single HPV oncogene in the skin can drive the onset of atopic dermatitis-like pathology through the induction of TSLP and type 2 ILC infiltration. PMID:25601274

  20. House dust and forage mite allergens and their role in human and canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, T J; Hill, Peter B; Bensignor, E; Willemse, T

    2006-08-01

    This article reviews the literature regarding the role of house dust and forage mite allergens in canine atopic dermatitis. The presence of immunoglobulin E (IgE) to these mites, especially to Dermatophagoides farinae, is common in both normal and atopic dogs. Exposure of dogs to the different mites is described both in the direct environment and in the coat of animals for house dust mites and in the food for forage mites. Allergens causing allergic disease in dogs seem to be different from those in humans. Dogs seem to react to high molecular weight allergens, compared to the low molecular weight group 1 and group 2 proteases that are commonly implicated in humans with atopic diseases. Despite numerous published studies dealing with this subject, a number of questions still need to be addressed to better understand the exact role of these mites in the pathogenesis of canine atopic dermatitis and to improve the quality of the allergens used in practice.

  1. Characteristics and prescription patterns of traditional Chinese medicine in atopic dermatitis patients: ten-year experiences at a medical center in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jing-Fan; Liu, Pi-Hua; Huang, Tzu-Ping; Lien, Angela Shin-Yu; Ou, Liang-Shiou; Yu, Chin-Hui; Yang, Shu-Ling; Chang, Hen-Hong; Yen, Hung-Rong

    2014-02-01

    Complementary and alternative therapies in treating atopic dermatitis are not uncommon. However, substantial evidence and consensus on treating atopic dermatitis is lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics and utilization of traditional Chinese medicine in patients with atopic dermatitis. We retrospectively collected patients with atopic dermatitis at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan between 2002 and 2011. Patients' demographic data, duration and frequency of treatment, serum total immunoglobulin E levels, and traditional Chinese medicine treatment principles and prescription were analyzed. There were 4145 patients (8.8%) received traditional Chinese medicine therapy between 2002 and 2011. Among them, 2841 (68.54%) chose TCM only and 1304 (31.46%) chose to combine TCM and WM therapies. Those who chose combination therapy were younger, and needed more times of visit and longer duration of treatment. The most frequent comorbid conditions accompany atopic dermatitis were allergic rhinitis (46.06%) and asthma (21.46%). Among the 87,573 prescriptions written for Chinese medicine, the most frequently prescribed herbal formula and single herb were Xiao-Feng-San (Eliminate Wind Powder) (16.98%) and Bai-Xian-Pi (Cortex Dictamni) (12.68%), respectively. The most commonly used therapeutic principles of herbal formulas and single herbs were releasing exterior (20.23%) and clearing heat (41.93%), respectively. Our hospital-based study characterized the utilization patterns of traditional Chinese medicine in atopic dermatitis patients. This information could be used as references for clinical application and provide valuable information for future clinical trials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Complementary, Alternative and Integrative Medicine for Childhood Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam Lun; Leung, Alexander K C; Leung, Theresa N H; Lee, Vivian W Y

    2017-01-01

    Atopic Dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing dermatosis associated with itch, sleep disturbance and poor quality of life. Treatment of AD includes the use of emollients, and topical and systemic immunomodulating agents. Many patients also use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This article reviews the pathophysiology of AD, clinical trials and recent patents involving various modalities of CAM in the treatment of AD. A Medline/Pubmed search was conducted using Clinical Queries with the key terms "Chinese Medicine OR Complementary and Alternative medicine" AND "Eczema OR Atopic dermatitis". The search strategy included meta-analyses, Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), clinical trials, reviews and pertinent references. Patents were searched using the key term "atopic dermatitis" from www.google.com/patents, www.uspto.gov, and www.freepatentsonline.com. Only a few RCTs evaluated the efficacy of Chinese medicinal herbs in treating AD. There was some evidence for other modalities of CAM. Integrative Medicine (IM) usually refers to the various forms of CAM that combine conventional western medicine and Chinese medicine. Supporting evidence for the efficacy of IM in the treatment of AD is presently lacking. Integration is difficult. Western medicine practitioners are often ignorant about CAM and IM. Parents are concerned about the potential side effects of Western medicine and will tend to be non-compliant with the conventional Western component of IM. Recent patents on CAM and IM are reviewed. Most CAM patents are herbal compositions, evidence on their efficacy is generally lacking. AD is a complex disease. The psychodynamics of the child and his/her family is the reason for the often suboptimal outcomes. Both Western and CAM practitioners should collaborate to create a mutually encouraging environment for the advances of IM. CAM and IM publications and patents are reviewed. Evidence of their efficacy is generally lacking. Further research is needed

  3. Two Phase 3 Trials of Dupilumab versus Placebo in Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Eric L; Bieber, Thomas; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Beck, Lisa A; Blauvelt, Andrew; Cork, Michael J; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Deleuran, Mette; Kataoka, Yoko; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Kingo, Külli; Worm, Margitta; Poulin, Yves; Wollenberg, Andreas; Soo, Yuhwen; Graham, Neil M H; Pirozzi, Gianluca; Akinlade, Bolanle; Staudinger, Heribert; Mastey, Vera; Eckert, Laurent; Gadkari, Abhijit; Stahl, Neil; Yancopoulos, George D; Ardeleanu, Marius

    2016-12-15

    Dupilumab, a human monoclonal antibody against interleukin-4 receptor alpha, inhibits signaling of interleukin-4 and interleukin-13, type 2 cytokines that may be important drivers of atopic or allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis. In two randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trials of identical design (SOLO 1 and SOLO 2), we enrolled adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis whose disease was inadequately controlled by topical treatment. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive, for 16 weeks, subcutaneous dupilumab (300 mg) or placebo weekly or the same dose of dupilumab every other week alternating with placebo. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who had both a score of 0 or 1 (clear or almost clear) on the Investigator's Global Assessment and a reduction of 2 points or more in that score from baseline at week 16. We enrolled 671 patients in SOLO 1 and 708 in SOLO 2. In SOLO 1, the primary outcome occurred in 85 patients (38%) who received dupilumab every other week and in 83 (37%) who received dupilumab weekly, as compared with 23 (10%) who received placebo (P<0.001 for both comparisons with placebo). The results were similar in SOLO 2, with the primary outcome occurring in 84 patients (36%) who received dupilumab every other week and in 87 (36%) who received dupilumab weekly, as compared with 20 (8%) who received placebo (P<0.001 for both comparisons). In addition, in the two trials, an improvement from baseline to week 16 of at least 75% on the Eczema Area and Severity Index was reported in significantly more patients who received each regimen of dupilumab than in patients who received placebo (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Dupilumab was also associated with improvement in other clinical end points, including reduction in pruritus and symptoms of anxiety or depression and improvement in quality of life. Injection-site reactions and conjunctivitis were more frequent in the dupilumab groups than in the placebo

  4. Saussurea lappa alleviates inflammatory chemokine production in HaCaT cells and house dust mite-induced atopic-like dermatitis in Nc/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hye-Sun; Ha, Hyekyung; Lee, Mee-Young; Jin, Seong-Eun; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Jeon, Woo-Young; Shin, Na-Ra; Sok, Dai-Eun; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2014-01-01

    Saussurea lappa is a traditional herbal medicine used for to treat various inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of S. lappa against atopic dermatitis using human keratinocyte HaCaT cells, murine mast cell line MC/9 cells, and a house dust mite-induced atopic dermatitis model of Nc/Nga mice. Treatment with the S. lappa caused a significant reduction in the mRNA levels and production of inflammatory chemokines and cytokine, including thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in tumor necrosis factor-α/interferone-γ-stimulated HaCaT cells. S. lappa exhibited the significant reduction in histamine production in MC/9 cells. In the atopic dermatitis model, S. lappa significantly reduced the dermatitis score and serum IgE and TARC levels. In addition, the back skin and ears of S. lappa-treated Nc/Nga mice exhibited reduced histological manifestations of atopic skin lesions such as erosion, hyperplasia of the epidermis and dermis, and inflammatory cell infiltration. In conclusion, an extract of S. lappa effectively suppressed the development of atopic dermatitis, which was closely related to the reduction of chemokines and cytokine. Our study suggests that S. lappa may be a potential treatment for atopic dermatitis. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Perinatal risk factors for sensitization, atopic dermatitis and wheezing during the first year of life (PIPO study).

    PubMed

    Hagendorens, M M; Bridts, C H; Lauwers, K; van Nuijs, S; Ebo, D G; Vellinga, A; De Clerck, L S; Van Bever, H P; Weyler, J J; Stevens, W J

    2005-06-01

    To evaluate the influence of perinatal environmental factors on early sensitization, atopic dermatitis and wheezing during the first year. Information on pregnancy-related factors, parental atopic history, environmental factors and the clinical course of the infant until age one was gathered by questionnaires, as part of a prospective birth cohort study (Prospective study on the Influence of Perinatal factors on the Occurrence of asthma and allergies [PIPO-study]). Quantification of total and specific IgE was performed in 810 children and their parents. Early sensitization was found in 107/810 (13%) of the infants. Multiple regression analysis showed that specific IgE in fathers was a risk factor for early sensitization in their daughters (adjusted odds ratios (OR(adj)) 2.21 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-4.49); P=0.03), whereas in boys, day care attendance was shown to be protective for early sensitization (OR(adj) 0.38 (95% CI 0.20-0.71); P=0.001). Atopic dermatitis occurred in 195/792 infants (25%). Specific IgE in the mother (OR(adj) 1.52 (95% CI 1.06-2.19); P=0.02) and in the infant (OR(adj) 4.20 (95% CI 2.63-6.68); P<0.001) were both risk factors for the occurence of atopic dermatitis, whereas postnatal exposure to cats was negatively associated with atopic dermatitis (OR(adj) 0.68 (0.47-0.97); P=0.03). Postnatal exposure to cigarette smoke (OR(adj) 3.31 (95% CI 1.79-6.09); P<0.001) and day care attendance (OR(adj) 1.96 (95% CI 1.18-3.23); P=0.009) were significantly associated with early wheezing, which occurred in 25% (197/795) of the infants. The effect of paternal sensitization and day care attendance on sensitization is gender dependent. Maternal sensitization predisposes for atopic dermatitis, whereas postnatal exposure to cats had a protective effect.

  6. Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants on Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, JaKyoung; Kim, HyungJin; Lim, DaeHyun; Lee, Young-Kyu; Kim, Jeong Hee

    2016-12-09

    The increasing prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with variations in indoor environments. In Korea, many inner walls of homes are covered with wallpaper: such walls emit indoor air pollutants, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and formaldehyde. This randomized, double-blind study investigated the effects of wallpaper on indoor air quality and AD. Thirty-one children (aged three to eight years) with moderate AD were assigned to environmentally-friendly (EF) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wallpaper groups. Indoor air concentrations of VOCs, natural VOCs (NVOCs), formaldehyde, and total suspended bacteria were measured before and two (W₂) and eight weeks (W₈) after wallpapering. Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) evaluations and blood tests were performed during the same period. The EF wallpaper and PVC wallpaper groups showed similar trends in the changes in total VOCs (TVOC) and formaldehyde content in the indoor air. However, the EF wallpaper group showed more improvement on the SCORAD at W₂ and W₈ than the PVC wallpaper group. The SCORAD index was positively correlated with several indoor air pollutants. Further, the SCORAD index and NVOC % were negatively correlated. Improved SCORAD index and effects of wallpapering on indoor air quality improvements occurred within a short period of time in both groups. We believe that NVOCs in indoor air after EF wallpapering have a beneficial effect on health.

  7. Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants on Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, JaKyoung; Kim, HyungJin; Lim, DaeHyun; Lee, Young-Kyu; Kim, Jeong Hee

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with variations in indoor environments. In Korea, many inner walls of homes are covered with wallpaper: such walls emit indoor air pollutants, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and formaldehyde. This randomized, double-blind study investigated the effects of wallpaper on indoor air quality and AD. Thirty-one children (aged three to eight years) with moderate AD were assigned to environmentally-friendly (EF) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wallpaper groups. Indoor air concentrations of VOCs, natural VOCs (NVOCs), formaldehyde, and total suspended bacteria were measured before and two (W2) and eight weeks (W8) after wallpapering. Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) evaluations and blood tests were performed during the same period. The EF wallpaper and PVC wallpaper groups showed similar trends in the changes in total VOCs (TVOC) and formaldehyde content in the indoor air. However, the EF wallpaper group showed more improvement on the SCORAD at W2 and W8 than the PVC wallpaper group. The SCORAD index was positively correlated with several indoor air pollutants. Further, the SCORAD index and NVOC % were negatively correlated. Improved SCORAD index and effects of wallpapering on indoor air quality improvements occurred within a short period of time in both groups. We believe that NVOCs in indoor air after EF wallpapering have a beneficial effect on health. PMID:27941696

  8. Difficult to control atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Difficult to control atopic dermatitis (AD) presents a therapeutic challenge and often requires combinations of topical and systemic treatment. Anti-inflammatory treatment of severe AD most commonly includes topical glucocorticosteroids and topical calcineurin antagonists used for exacerbation management and more recently for proactive therapy in selected cases. Topical corticosteroids remain the mainstay of therapy, the topical calcineurin inhibitors tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are preferred in certain locations. Systemic anti-inflammatory treatment is an option for severe refractory cases. Microbial colonization and superinfection contribute to disease exacerbation and thus justify additional antimicrobial / antiseptic treatment. Systemic antihistamines (H1) may relieve pruritus but do not have sufficient effect on eczema. Adjuvant therapy includes UV irradiation preferably of UVA1 wavelength. “Eczema school” educational programs have been proven to be helpful. PMID:23663504

  9. New era of biologic therapeutics in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Dhingra, Nikhil; Leung, Donald Y M

    2013-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease regulated by genetic and environmental factors. Both skin barrier defects and aberrant immune responses are believed to drive cutaneous inflammation in AD. Existing therapies rely largely on allergen avoidance, emollients and topical and systemic immune-suppressants, some with significant toxicity and transient efficacy; no specific targeted therapies are in clinical use today. As our specific understanding of the immune and molecular pathways that cause different subsets of AD increases, a variety of experimental agents, particularly biologic agents that target pathogenic molecules bring the promise of safe and effective therapeutics for long-term use. This paper discusses the molecular pathways characterizing AD, the contributions of barrier and immune abnormalities to its pathogenesis, and development of new treatments that target key molecules in these pathways. In this review, we will discuss a variety of biologic therapies that are in development or in clinical trials for AD, perhaps revolutionizing treatment of this disease. Biologic agents in moderate to severe AD offer promise for controlling a disease that currently lacks good and safe therapeutics posing a large unmet need. Unfortunately, existing treatments for AD aim to decrease cutaneous inflammation, but are not specific for the pathways driving this disease. An increasing understanding of the immune mechanisms underlying AD brings the promise of narrow targeted therapies as has occurred for psoriasis, another inflammatory skin disease, for which specific biologic agents have been demonstrated to both control the disease and prevent occurrence of new skin lesions. Although no biologic is yet approved for AD, these are exciting times for active therapeutic development in AD that might lead to revolutionary therapeutics for this disease.

  10. Increased numbers of peripheral blood CD34+ cells in dogs with canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bruet, Vincent; Lieubeau, Blandine; Herve, Julie; Roussel, Anne; Imparato, Laëtitia; Desfontis, Jean-Claude; Bourdeau, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    The bone marrow may be involved in human atopic diseases, as shown by the release of CD34+ cells into the peripheral blood. The aim was to determine the numbers of CD34+ cells in atopic dogs. The following three groups of dogs were studied: 27 dogs with nonfood-induced atopic dermatitis (NFICAD); 16 dogs with nonallergic inflammatory diseases; and 13 healthy control dogs. Dogs with NFICAD were selected after fulfilment of Favrot's criteria and exclusion of other pruritic dermatoses, including flea infestation and adverse reaction to foods. The Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI)-03 and a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score for pruritus were used to quantify clinical signs. A phycoerythrin-conjugated anticanine CD34 antibody was used to stain peripheral blood CD34+ cells, and these were enumerated using a flow cytometer. The CD34+ cell counts were compared between groups and tested (in the NFICAD group) for correlation with the severity of clinical signs. The numbers of peripheral CD34+ cells in dogs with NFICAD (median 1.7) were statistically higher than in dogs with other nonallergic inflammatory diseases (median 1.0; P = 0.01) and healthy control dogs (median 0.9; P = 0.009). In dogs with NFICAD, there was no correlation between CD34+ cell numbers and CADESI-03 scores or owner-assessed pruritus (VAS score). The results of this study suggest the possible involvement of CD34+ cells in dogs with NFICAD. The role of CD34+ cells in the aetiopathogenesis of canine atopic dermatitis remains to be determined. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  11. Vitamin E supplementation in canine atopic dermatitis: improvement of clinical signs and effects on oxidative stress markers.

    PubMed

    Plevnik Kapun, A; Salobir, J; Levart, A; Tavčar Kalcher, G; Nemec Svete, A; Kotnik, T

    2014-12-06

    Low levels of plasma vitamin E concentrations were found in canine atopic dermatitis (CAD). The present study was aimed at determining the effect of an eight-week vitamin E supplementation on clinical response (Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI-03) scores and pruritus intensity) in dogs with atopic dermatitis. Levels of oxidative stress markers (plasma malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), blood glutathione peroxidase and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, plasma and skin vitamin E concentrations) were also determined. Twenty-nine dogs with CAD were included in the study. Fourteen received vitamin E (8.1 IU/kg once daily, orally) and 15 received mineral oil as placebo (orally). All dogs were treated with antihistamine fexofenadine. Levels of oxidative stress markers (with the exception of skin vitamin E), CADESI-03 and pruritus intensity were determined at the beginning, then every two weeks. Skin vitamin E was determined at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. Significantly higher plasma levels of vitamin E and TAC were observed in the vitamin E group than in the placebo group. CADESI-03 scores determined throughout the treatment in the vitamin E group were significantly lower than in the placebo group. The findings of this study support the supplementation of vitamin E in dogs with atopic dermatitis. British Veterinary Association.

  12. β-Defensin-2 Protein Is a Serum Biomarker for Disease Activity in Psoriasis and Reaches Biologically Relevant Concentrations in Lesional Skin

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Patrick A. M.; Rodijk-Olthuis, Diana; Hollox, Edward J.; Kamsteeg, Marijke; Tjabringa, Geuranne S.; de Jongh, Gys J.; van Vlijmen-Willems, Ivonne M. J. J.; Bergboer, Judith G. M.; van Rossum, Michelle M.; de Jong, Elke M. G. J.; den Heijer, Martin; Evers, Andrea W. M.; Bergers, Mieke; Armour, John A. L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have extensively documented antimicrobial and chemotactic activities of beta-defensins. Human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2) is strongly expressed in lesional psoriatic epidermis, and recently we have shown that high beta-defensin genomic copy number is associated with psoriasis susceptibility. It is not known, however, if biologically and pathophysiologically relevant concentrations of hBD-2 protein are present in vivo, which could support an antimicrobial and proinflammatory role of beta-defensins in lesional psoriatic epidermis. Methodology/Principal Findings We found that systemic levels of hBD-2 showed a weak but significant correlation with beta defensin copy number in healthy controls but not in psoriasis patients with active disease. In psoriasis patients but not in atopic dermatitis patients, we found high systemic hBD-2 levels that strongly correlated with disease activity as assessed by the PASI score. Our findings suggest that systemic levels in psoriasis are largely determined by secretion from involved skin and not by genomic copy number. Modelling of the in vivo epidermal hBD-2 concentration based on the secretion rate in a reconstructed skin model for psoriatic epidermis provides evidence that epidermal hBD-2 levels in vivo are probably well above the concentrations required for in vitro antimicrobial and chemokine-like effects. Conclusions/Significance Serum hBD-2 appears to be a useful surrogate marker for disease activity in psoriasis. The discrepancy between hBD-2 levels in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis could explain the well known differences in infection rate between these two diseases. PMID:19266104

  13. IMPACT OF ATOPIC DERMATITIS ON THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF PEDIATRIC PATIENTS AND THEIR GUARDIANS

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Amanda Letícia Bezerra; de Araújo, Filipe Moreira; dos Santos, Maria Amélia Lopes; dos Santos, Alex de Assis Santos; Pires, Carla Andréa Avelar

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the impact of atopic dermatitis on the quality of life of pediatric patients in the age group of 5-16 years, and their parents, assisted at the Dermatology Department of Universidade do Estado do Pará in 2015. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 51 patients and their guardians, to whom two questionnaires about the quality of life were applied, the Children’s Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) and the Dermatitis Family Impact (DFI). To evaluate the severity of the disease, the researchers applied the Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC) evaluated the correlation between CDLQI, DFI, SCORAD, and the contingency coefficient C evaluated the association between the qualitative variables, considering p<0.05 significant. Results: Of the patients, 55% were female. The average age was 9.5±3.2 years, and 41% had family income up ≤1 minimum wage. The average score was 5.4±5.1 for CDLQI, 6.6±4.5 for DFI, and 28.3±19.8 for SCORAD. The correlation among the scores CDLQI, DFI, and SCORAD was significant by the PPMCC (p<0,001). Conclusions: Atopic dermatitis affects the quality of life of both children and their guardians, and indicates the importance of including the study of quality of life as a complement to clinical evaluation. PMID:28977306

  14. The association between phthalate exposure and atopic dermatitis with a discussion of phthalate induced secretion of interleukin-1β and thymic stromal lymphopoietin.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Line E K; Bonefeld, Charlotte M; Frederiksen, Hanne; Main, Katharina M; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2016-06-01

    Phthalate diesters are widely used as emollients in plastic and cosmetics as well as in food packaging and perfumes, potentially leading to prolonged and repeated dermal, oral and airborne exposure. We here review published articles that have evaluated the putative role of phthalate diesters in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis and discuss possible pathogenic pathways. A literature search resulted in 563 articles in Embase and 263 articles in Pubmed. After identification of relevant articles based on screening of titles, abstracts and reference lists, a total of 39 articles were selected and included. While no clear association has been shown between systemic phthalate levels and atopic dermatitis in human studies, animal data suggests that phthalates may worsen dermatitis and in vitro data suggests that interleukin-4 could be upregulated. Moreover, both loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene and atopic dermatitis have been associated with elevated systemic phthalate levels. There is a need for prospective studies to clarify the possible pathogenic role of phthalate diesters in atopic dermatitis and the associated health risk, especially with the general trend towards barrier restoration with emollients in infants at risk of developing atopic dermatitis. In summary, we conclude that the results from published studies are controversial and inconclusive.

  15. Occurrence and clinical features of sensitization to Pityrosporum orbiculare and other allergens in children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, L; Wahlgren, C F; Johansson, S G; Wiklund, I; Nordvall, S L

    1995-07-01

    One hundred and nineteen consecutive cases of children with atopic dermatitis aged 4-16 years (73 girls) from a pediatric dermatology outpatient clinic were included in a study of atopic sensitization. Structured interviews and clinical investigations were performed. IgE antibodies to common inhalant allergens, Pityrosporum orbiculare, Candida albicans, Tricophyton rubrum and Staphylococcus aureus were detected. Specific IgE antibodies frequently occurred to pollens, animal epithelia, C. albicans, house dust mites and moulds, whereas specific IgE antibodies to potential skin allergens were less prevalent. Twenty-six children (21.8%) had IgE antibodies to P. orbiculare, 14 (11.8%) to T. rubrum and 3 (2.5%) to S. aureus. Atopic dermatitis in children with one or several RAST positivities was worse, with a more chronic course, higher total eczema score, more frequent distribution in the head-neck-face regions and more itch compared to the children without serum detectable IgE antibodies. Severe itch disturbing nightly sleep was the only clinical feature that characterised P. orbiculare-positive cases. Allergy to P. orbiculare appears to be of little importance in early childhood atopic dermatitis but is likely to carry a poor prognosis.

  16. Cutaneous nocardiosis in two dogs receiving ciclosporin therapy for the management of canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Siak, Meng K; Burrows, Amanda K

    2013-08-01

    Ciclosporin is a calcineurin inhibitor that is currently registered for the treatment of canine atopic dermatitis. The most common adverse effects include mild, transient gastrointestinal disturbances. Single case reports of opportunistic infections due to Nocardia spp., Neospora spp. and papillomaviruses have also been reported. Clinicians should be aware of the potential risk of systemic immunosuppression and subsequent infection with Nocardia spp. in dogs receiving ciclosporin. Cutaneous nocardiosis in two dogs receiving ciclosporin therapy for management of canine atopic dermatitis. Histopathology, PCR for Nocardia spp. and computed tomography. One dog developed disseminated nocardiosis due to Nocardia brasiliensis and a second dog developed localized cutaneous nocardiosis due to a novel Nocardia species subsequent to ciclosporin administration at the recommended dose rate for the management of canine atopic dermatitis. The second case was receiving a combination of ciclosporin and ketoconazole, and serum trough ciclosporin levels were elevated. Clinicians should be aware of the potential risk of systemic immunosuppression and subsequent infection with Nocardia spp. in dogs receiving ciclosporin. Measurement of serum ciclosporin levels may be useful in identifying those individuals which are at risk of opportunistic infections. © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  17. Instant noodles, processed food intake, and dietary pattern are associated with atopic dermatitis in an adult population (KNHANES 2009-2011).

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Choi, Hyun-Seok; Bae, Ji-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) is continuously increasing in industrialized countries, possibly due to dietary and lifestyle changes. However, the association between processed food intake and AD has not been studied in a large adult population. We investigated the association between dietary habits and AD in 17,497 adults in the 2009-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We identified 4 dietary patterns using principal components analysis of a 63-item food frequency questionnaire: the "traditional dietary pattern", rich in rice and kimchi; the "processed food pattern", with more meat, instant noodles, soda, and processed foods; the "healthy dietary pattern", high in grains, vegetables, fruits, and seaweeds; and the "drinking dietary pattern", mainly drinking coffee and alcohol. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for AD were calculated according to dietary patterns after adjusting for potential confounders with incorporation of sample weights for the complex sample design. The "meat and processed food" pattern was associated with a significant 1.57 fold higher OR for atopic dermatitis than the low consumption group. Further analysis revealed that the increased atopic dermatitis was most closely associated with instant noodles. In contrast, the groups with high intake of rice and kimchi exhibited lower ORs, 0.38 and 0.43 folds, compared to the low intake group. Consuming instant noodles, meat and processed foods was associated with increased prevalence of atopic dermatitis, whereas consuming rice and kimchi, and coffee was associated with decreased prevalence of atopic dermatitis.

  18. Serum macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) levels are closely related with the disease activity of atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    KAKINUMA, T; NAKAMURA, K; WAKUGAWA, M; MITSUI, H; TADA, Y; SAEKI, H; TORII, H; KOMINE, M; ASAHINA, A; TAMAKI, K

    2002-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory skin disease characterized by the predominant infiltration of T cells, eosinophils and macrophages in lesional skin. Recently, macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC)/CCL22, a CC chemokine, was identified as a selective chemoattractant for CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4)-expressing cells, in addition to thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC). We have previously reported that serum TARC levels correlate with the severity of AD. In this report, we investigated the participation of MDC in AD. First, we measured serum MDC levels in 45 patients with AD, 25 patients with psoriasis vulgaris and 25 healthy controls. Serum MDC levels in AD patients were significantly higher than those in healthy controls and psoriasis patients. Furthermore, the increases in serum MDC levels in AD patients were greater in the severely affected group than in the moderate or mild groups. We compared serum MDC levels in 11 AD patients, before and after treatment, and observed a significant decrease after treatment. Moreover, the serum MDC levels significantly correlated with the Scoring AD (SCORAD) index, serum soluble (s) E-selectin levels, serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels, serum TARC levels and eosinophil numbers in peripheral blood. Our study strongly suggests that serum MDC levels have a notable correlation with disease activity and that MDC, as well as the CC chemokine TARC, may be involved in the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:11876749

  19. Hydrogel-gauze dressing for moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis: development and efficacy study on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Ng, Shiow-Fern; Lew, Pit-Chin; Sin, Yong-Boey

    2014-11-01

    Topical emollients are known to provide symptomatic relief for atopic dermatitis. In hospitals, wet-wrap therapy has been shown to benefit children with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD), but the application of wet-wraps is tedious and time-consuming. Topical emollients have low residence time and often dry out easily. The aim of this work was to develop a hydrogel-gauze dressing that is not only easy to apply but also rehydrates and traps moisture to provide longer relief for AD patients. In this study, a prototype hydrogel-gauze dressing was developed with varying ratios of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) and propylene glycol. The hydrogel-gauze dressings were assessed based on the moisture vapor transmission rate, moisture absorption, mechanical properties and storage stability over three months. Then, the efficacy of the hydrogel-gauze dressing was compared to topical emollients using transgenic NC/Nga mice with AD-like lesions. The NaCMC hydrogel-gauze dressings significantly lowered transepidermal water loss, and the animals displayed a faster recovery, which indicates that hydrogel-gauze dressings can trap moisture more effectively and accelerate AD healing. Hence, we propose that hydrogel-gauze dressings can potentially become an alternative to wet-wrap therapy due to the ease of application and the higher efficacy compared to topical products.

  20. GUIDELINES OF CARE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    PubMed Central

    Sidbury, Robert; Davis, Dawn M.; Cohen, David E.; Cordoro, Kelly M.; Berger, Timothy G.; Bergman, James N.; Chamlin, Sarah L.; Cooper, Kevin D.; Feldman, Steven R.; Hanifin, Jon M.; Krol, Alfons; Margolis, David J.; Paller, Amy S.; Schwarzenberger, Kathryn; Silverman, Robert A.; Simpson, Eric L.; Tom, Wynnis L.; Williams, Hywel C.; Elmets, Craig A.; Block, Julie; Harrod, Christopher G.; Begolka, Wendy Smith; Eichenfield, Lawrence F.

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, pruritic inflammatory dermatosis that affects up to 25% of children and 2-3% of adults. This guideline addresses important clinical questions that arise in AD management and care, providing recommendations based on the available evidence. In this third of four sections, treatment of AD with phototherapy and systemic immunomodulators, antimicrobials, and antihistamines is reviewed, including indications for use and the risk-benefit profile of each treatment option. PMID:24813298

  1. Inpatient management of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cathcart, Shelley D; Theos, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease that is generally managed on an outpatient basis. However, a significant percentage of patients may develop complications severe enough to require inpatient treatment. The most common complications of AD that may require hospital admission include erythroderma, eczema herpeticum, and systemic bacterial infection. Hospital admission can also be useful for chronic and severe disease that has not responded to standard therapy or in situations where nonadherence is suspected as the cause of treatment failure. In these cases, inpatient treatment can offer an opportunity for caretaker education and allow for an objective evaluation of a patient's response to a structured treatment plan. This article will review the indications for inpatient management of AD and the therapies that can be used to acutely manage severe disease and associated complications. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Measurement of Health Care Quality in Atopic Dermatitis - Development and Application of a Set of Quality Indicators.

    PubMed

    Steinke, S; Beikert, F C; Langenbruch, A; Fölster-Holst, R; Ring, J; Schmitt, J; Werfel, T; Hintzen, S; Franzke, N; Augustin, M

    2018-05-15

    Quality indicators are essential tools for the assessment of health care, in particular for guideline-based procedures. 1) Development of a set of indicators for the evaluation of process and outcomes quality in atopic dermatitis (AD) care. 2) Application of the indicators to a cross-sectional study and creation of a global process quality index. An expert committee consisting of 10 members of the German guideline group on atopic dermatitis condensed potential quality indicators to a final set of 5 outcomes quality and 12 process quality indicators using a Delphi panel. The outcomes quality and 7 resp. 8 process quality indicators were retrospectively applied to a nationwide study on 1,678 patients with atopic dermatitis (AtopicHealth). Each individual process quality indicator score was then summed up to a global index (ranges from 0 (no quality achieved) to 100 (full quality achieved)) displaying the quality of health care. In total, the global process quality index revealed a median value of 62.5 and did not or only slightly correlate to outcome indicators as the median SCORAD (SCORing Atopic Dermatitis; rp =0.08), Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI; rp = 0.256), and Patient Benefit Index (PBI; rp = -0.151). Process quality of AD care is moderate to good. The health care process quality index does not substantially correlate to the health status of AD patients measured by 5 different outcomes quality indicators. Further research should include the investigation of reliability, responsiveness, and feasibility of the proposed quality indicators for AD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Formaldehyde-Induced Aggravation of Pruritus and Dermatitis Is Associated with the Elevated Expression of Th1 Cytokines in a Rat Model of Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Back, Seung Keun; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Lee, JaeHee; Kim, Hye young; Kim, Hee Jin; Na, Heung Sik

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a complex disease of heterogeneous pathogenesis, in particular, genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, and their interactions. Indoor air pollution, increasing with urbanization, plays a role as environmental risk factor in the development of AD. However, we still lack a detailed picture of the role of air pollution in the development of the disease. Here, we examined the effect of formaldehyde (FA) exposure on the manifestation of atopic dermatitis and the underlying molecular mechanism in naive rats and in a rat model of atopic dermatitis (AD) produced by neonatal capsaicin treatment. The AD and naive rats were exposed to 0.8 ppm FA, 1.2 ppm FA, or fresh air (Air) for 6 weeks (2 hours/day and 5 days/week). So, six groups, namely the 1.2 FA-AD, 0.8 FA-AD, Air-AD, 1.2 FA-naive, 0.8 FA-naive and Air-naive groups, were established. Pruritus and dermatitis, two major symptoms of atopic dermatitis, were evaluated every week for 6 weeks. After that, samples of the blood, the skin and the thymus were collected from the 1.2 FA-AD, the Air-AD, the 1.2 FA-naive and the Air-naive groups. Serum IgE levels were quantified with ELISA, and mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines from extracts of the skin and the thymus were calculated with qRT-PCR. The dermatitis and pruritus significantly worsened in 1.2 FA-AD group, but not in 0.8 FA-AD, compared to the Air-AD animals, whereas FA didn't induce any symptoms in naive rats. Consistently, the levels of serum IgE were significantly higher in 1.2 FA-AD than in air-AD, however, there was no significant difference following FA exposure in naive animals. In the skin, mRNA expression levels of Th1 cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly higher in the 1.2 FA-AD rats compared to the air-AD rats, whereas mRNA expression levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), IL-17A and TSLP were significantly higher in 1.2 FA-naive group than in the Air-naive group. These results suggested that 1

  4. Barrier function and microbiotic dysbiosis in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Seite, Sophie; Bieber, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) or atopic eczema is the common inflammatory skin disorder, the prevalence of which has considerably increased during the last 30 years. It affects 15%–30% of children and 2%–10% of adults. AD characteristically alternates between periods of exacerbation or flares and periods of remission, which may be therapeutically induced or spontaneous. Current knowledge about AD includes abnormalities of the skin barrier (physical and chemical), the immune barrier, and more recently, the microbial barrier or microbiota. There is growing evidence for a tight relationship between them. To obtain satisfactory control of this condition, the clinical strategy to manage AD involves prescribing both anti-inflammatory medications and dermocosmetic products. The role of the physician is therefore to advise the patient with regard to hygiene measures aimed to help to improve these three barriers or to prevent any further deterioration. PMID:26396539

  5. Serum lipocalin-2 levels are increased in patients with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Kamata, M; Tada, Y; Tatsuta, A; Kawashima, T; Shibata, S; Mitsui, H; Asano, Y; Sugaya, M; Kadono, T; Kanda, N; Watanabe, S; Sato, S

    2012-04-01

    The protein lipocalin (LCN)-2 is known to be related to insulin resistance, obesity and atherosclerotic diseases. Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease related to metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between serum LCN2 levels and indicators for metabolic syndrome and inflammatory cytokine levels in patients with psoriasis. Serum LCN2 levels were measured in patients with psoriasis, atopic dermatitis (AD) or bullous pemphigoid (BP), and compared with those of healthy controls. Serum LCN2 levels were also compared with several indicators for metabolic syndrome, and with serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, two markers of inflammation. Serum LCN2 levels in patients with psoriasis were significantly higher than those of healthy controls, but there was no significant correlation between serum LCN2 and body mass index. Serum LCN2 levels also correlated with serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels in patients with psoriasis. Serum LCN2 levels are a general indicator for increased inflammation in the patients with psoriasis. © The Author(s). CED © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Efficacy of ultra-micronized palmitoylethanolamide in canine atopic dermatitis: an open-label multi-centre study.

    PubMed

    Noli, Chiara; Della Valle, M Federica; Miolo, Alda; Medori, Cristina; Schievano, Carlo

    2015-12-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide is a naturally occurring bioactive lipid, produced on-demand by damage-exposed cells. Palmitoylethanolamide is documented to counteract inflammation, itch and pain. The aim of this 8-week study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral ultra-micronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um) in dogs with moderate atopic dermatitis. Clinicians from 39 veterinary clinics enrolled 160 dogs with nonseasonal atopic dermatitis and moderate pruritus. This was a multi-centre open-label study. On days 0 (D0) and 56 (D56), owners evaluated pruritus with a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and completed a validated Quality of Life (QoL) questionnaire. Veterinarians assessed the severity of skin lesions using the Canine Atopic Dermatitis Lesion Index (CADLI). Mean pruritus VAS score decreased from 5.7 ± 0.08 cm (range 3.8-7.9 cm) to 3.63 ± 0.19 cm (range 0.1-9.2 cm) (P < 0.0001). At D56, 58% of dogs showed a greater than 2 cm reduction from baseline and 30% showed an absent-to-very mild pruritus (VAS ≤ 2 cm). Mean total CADLI at D56 decreased significantly (P < 0.0001); in 62% of dogs this score reached a value in the remission range (≤5). Mean total QoL score was significantly decreased (P < 0.0001) with 45% of dogs reaching QoL values described for healthy animals. Tolerability was good-to-excellent with only four dogs reporting treatment associated reversible adverse events. PEA-um appears to be effective and safe in reducing pruritus and skin lesions, and in improving QoL in dogs with moderate atopic dermatitis and moderate pruritus. © 2015 Innovet Italia Srl. Veterinary Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the ESVD and ACVD.

  7. Gentle cleansing and moisturizing for patients with atopic dermatitis and sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Wai Kwong

    2009-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common condition characterized by pruritus, inflammation, and dryness of the skin. Inflammation disrupts the barrier function of the stratum corneum, predisposing the skin to be dry, and increases susceptibility to irritants and secondary bacterial infection. Sensitive skin is common, reported by 40-50% of women and 30% of men in the US, Europe, and Japan. Basic requirements in managing eczema and sensitive skin include effective cleansers that do not compromise skin barrier integrity, alleviation of skin dryness, and restoration of skin barrier function through the use of therapeutic moisturizers. The selection of a skin cleanser is therefore an important part of managing these conditions. Studies have reported clinical improvement with the use of soap-free cleansers in combination with topical treatments. While topical corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents are mainstays of treatment for atopic dermatitis, therapeutic moisturizers are important adjuncts. Moisturizers improve skin hydration, reduce susceptibility to irritation, restore the integrity of the stratum corneum, and enhance the efficacy of topical corticosteroids.

  8. Vitamin D-deficient osteomalacia due to excessive self-restrictions for atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Shikino, Kiyoshi; Ikusaka, Masatomi; Yamashita, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    A 34-year-old Japanese woman presented with a 2-year history of generalised bone pain, muscle weakness and gait disturbance. The patient had been following a restricted diet (without fish or dairy products) and avoiding ultraviolet exposure for 8 years to manage her worsening atopic dermatitis. Physical examination revealed generalised bone tenderness and bilateral symmetric proximal muscle weakness. Vitamin D-deficient osteomalacia was diagnosed based on the laboratory examination findings, which indicated high serum alkaline phosphatase, high intact parathyroid hormone, and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Her symptoms improved after oral active vitamin D and calcium administration. To the best our knowledge, this case is the first report of vitamin D-deficient osteomalacia in an adult patient due to excessive dietary restriction for managing atopic dermatitis. We emphasise the importance of increasing awareness of vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for the development of osteomalacia, and caution against excessive avoidance of sun exposure and dietary restriction. PMID:25100811

  9. Vitamin D-deficient osteomalacia due to excessive self-restrictions for atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Shikino, Kiyoshi; Ikusaka, Masatomi; Yamashita, Tomoko

    2014-07-04

    A 34-year-old Japanese woman presented with a 2-year history of generalised bone pain, muscle weakness and gait disturbance. The patient had been following a restricted diet (without fish or dairy products) and avoiding ultraviolet exposure for 8 years to manage her worsening atopic dermatitis. Physical examination revealed generalised bone tenderness and bilateral symmetric proximal muscle weakness. Vitamin D-deficient osteomalacia was diagnosed based on the laboratory examination findings, which indicated high serum alkaline phosphatase, high intact parathyroid hormone, and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Her symptoms improved after oral active vitamin D and calcium administration. To the best our knowledge, this case is the first report of vitamin D-deficient osteomalacia in an adult patient due to excessive dietary restriction for managing atopic dermatitis. We emphasise the importance of increasing awareness of vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for the development of osteomalacia, and caution against excessive avoidance of sun exposure and dietary restriction. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Eczema, Atopic Dermatitis, or Atopic Eczema: Analysis of Global Search Engine Trends.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuai; Thyssen, Jacob P; Paller, Amy S; Silverberg, Jonathan I

    The lack of standardized nomenclature for atopic dermatitis (AD) creates challenges for scientific communication, patient education, and advocacy. We sought to determine the relative popularity of the terms eczema, AD, and atopic eczema (AE) using global search engine volumes. A retrospective analysis of average monthly search volumes from 2014 to 2016 of Google, Bing/Yahoo, and Baidu was performed for eczema, AD, and AE in English and 37 other languages. Google Trends was used to determine the relative search popularity of each term from 2006 to 2016 in English and the top foreign languages, German, Turkish, Russian, and Japanese. Overall, eczema accounted for 1.5 million monthly searches (84%) compared with 247 000 searches for AD (14%) and 44 000 searches for AE (2%). For English language, eczema accounted for 93% of searches compared with 6% for AD and 1% for AE. Search popularity for eczema increased from 2006 to 2016 but remained stable for AD and AE. Given the ambiguity of the term eczema, we recommend the universal use of the next most popular term, AD.

  11. What's in a name? Atopic dermatitis or atopic eczema, but not eczema alone.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, J I; Thyssen, J P; Paller, A S; Drucker, A M; Wollenberg, A; Lee, K H; Kabashima, K; Todd, G; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Bieber, T

    2017-12-01

    The ideal nomenclature of atopic dermatitis (AD) / atopic eczema (AE) has long been contested. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that the disparate nomenclature of this disease may have important deleterious ramifications for clinical care and research. An electronic questionnaire regarding the preferred nomenclature for AD was sent to councilors of the International Eczema Council (IEC) (n=77), an international group of clinicians and researchers with expertise in AD/AE. The survey consisted of 2 questions for consensus regarding the preference for an atopic prefix, and preference for the term AD or AE, and an exploratory question about the acceptability of the terms AD, AE or eczema. Consensus was defined a priori as at least 90% agreement for each question with a response rate of at least 90%. Seventy-one of 77 (92.2%) IEC councilors and associates responded to the survey, with all respondents completing the entire survey. Consensus was reached for question 1, with 69 of 71 respondents (97.2%) preferring the atopic prefix. However, consensus was not reached for question 2, with 40 respondents (58.0%) preferring the term AD and 30 (43,5%) preferring AE. Sixty-three respondents (88.7%) and 55 (77.5%) felt that the terms AD and AE were acceptable, whereas only 11 (15.5%) felt that eczema was acceptable. The IEC noted that the term eczema is imprecise, and its use is confusing. The consensus of the IEC was to recommend use of the prefix "atopic" (i.e., AD or AE) in all publications, presentations and discussions about the disorder. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  12. Treatment of pruritus in mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis with a topical non-steroidal agent.

    PubMed

    Veraldi, Stefano; De Micheli, Paolo; Schianchi, Rossana; Lunardon, Luisa

    2009-06-01

    Atopiclair (Zarzenda) is a topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of allergic diseases of the skin. Three main ingredients are contained in this product: glycyrrhetinic acid, telmesteine and Vitis vinifera extracts. Other ingredients include: allantoin, alpha-bisabolol, capryloyl glycine, hyaluronic acid, shea butter and tocopheryl acetate. Two previous randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled clinical studies provided evidence that Atopiclair is effective in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. This article presents an open, multicenter, sponsor-free, study on the anti-pruritic activity of this product in adult patients with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis. The Median Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) values were: at the start of the study (TO), median VAS was 48.5 mm; three weeks later (T1), median VAS was 34.1 mm (-14.4 mm from baseline); six weeks later (T2), median VAS was 24.6 mm (-23.9 mm from baseline). Statistical analysis revealed that differences between TO versus T1, TO versus T2 and T1 versus T2 were highly significant (p<0.001). Side effects (local burning) were relatively common, although mild in severity. On the basis of the results of this study, Atopiclair showed efficacy in relief of pruritus in adult patients with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis.

  13. Correlation and agreement of self-assessed and objective skin disease severity in a cross-sectional study of patients with acne, psoriasis, and atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Magin, Parker J; Pond, C Dimity; Smith, Wayne T; Watson, Alan B; Goode, Susan M

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have shown variable correlation of patients' self-assessed skin severity measures and clinician-assessed objective measures of severity. But, generally, correlation has not been as good as might be expected for conditions in which the objective physical extent of skin disease is apparent to the sufferer to an extent that is not applicable in many other diseases. This paper reports agreement and correlation of self-assessed and objective severity measures in a study of 108 subjects with acne, psoriasis, or atopic eczema. The study was a cross-sectional study examining psychological associations of these skin diseases. Objective severity was assessed with the Leeds technique (acne), the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index, and Six Area Six Sign Atopic Dermatitis instruments. Agreement is a more appropriate measure than correlation in this situation and was measured with weighted kappa, while correlation was measured with Spearman's rank correlation. There was a modest correlation of ρ = 0.46 and similarly very modest agreement of 0.35 (weighted kappa) of self-assessed and clinician-assessed disease severity. Furthermore, self-assessed (but not clinician-assessed) severity was statistically associated with psychological morbidity in this study; i.e. - depression, anxiety, and overall psychological morbidity. Clinicians should consider psychological sequelae of skin disease, not only in those with objectively more severe disease but in patients across the severity spectrum. Both observational and interventional studies of skin disease should include both clinician-assessed and self-assessed measures of severity among assessed variables. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus clonal dynamics and virulence factors in children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lomholt, Hans; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Kilian, Mogens

    2005-11-01

    A prospective cohort study was undertaken to determine the clonal dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection during 1 y in children with atopic dermatitis, and to correlate specific clones, accessory gene regulator (agr) groups, and production of virulence factors with eczema activity. Eleven children were examined every 6 wk with swaps taken from active eczema, anterior nose, axillae and perineum, and scoring of eczema activity by severity scoring of atopic dermatitis (SCORAD). Individual S. aureus clonal types were identified and examined for production of superantigens, toxins, and were assigned to agr groups. S. aureus colonization patterns ranged from rare colonization over transient colonization to persistent colonization by a single clone or a dynamic exchange of up to five clones. Production of no single virulence factor including superantigens and toxins was significantly associated with exacerbation of eczema. In four children there was a shift between visits in agr group of colonizing clones. These shifts were associated with an increased SCORAD value of 19 (SE = 7, p = 0.009). Change of clones belonging to the same agr group was not associated with a higher SCORAD value. In 11 of 12 cases with two different clones co-colonizing a child the clones belonged to the same agr group. In conclusion, this limited group of children with atopic dermatitis showed highly variable colonization patterns of S. aureus, and communication between strains by use of agr encoded octa peptides appeared to be active in vivo. Increased severity of eczema was related to a change in agr group and may have been because of inflammation triggered by the takeover of an antigenically different clone, as agr groups represent ancient phylogenetic lineages.

  15. Relationship and probabilistic stratification of EASI and oSCORAD severity scores for atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hurault, G; Schram, M E; Roekevisch, E; Spuls, P I; Tanaka, R J

    2018-06-26

    The Harmonizing Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) recommended the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) as the core outcome instrument for measuring the clinical signs of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, EASI may not have been used in previous clinical trials, and other scores, e.g. SCORAD (SCORing Atopic Dermatitis), the objective component of SCORAD (oSCORAD) and the Investigator Global Assessment (IGA), remain widely used. It is useful to establish a method to convert these scores into EASI to compare the results from different studies effectively. Indeed, EASI and oSCORAD have been found to be strongly correlated (r S pearman =0.92) 7 , suggesting a possibility to find a relationship between the two scores. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Reevaluation of the non-lesional dry skin in atopic dermatitis by acute barrier disruption: an abnormal permeability barrier homeostasis with defective processing to generate ceramide.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Ayumi; Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Atsuko; Imokawa, Genji

    2014-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis is characterized by disruption of the cutaneous barrier due to reduced ceramide levels even in non-lesional dry skin. Following further acute barrier disruption by repeated tape strippings, we re-characterized the non-lesional dry skin of subjects with atopic dermatitis, which shows significantly reduced levels of barrier function and ceramide but not of beta-glucocerebrosidase activity. For the first time, we report an abnormal trans-epidermal water loss homeostasis in which delayed recovery kinetics of trans-epidermal water loss occurred on the first day during the 4 days after acute barrier disruption compared with healthy control skin. Interestingly, whereas the higher ceramide level in the stratum corneum of healthy control skin was further significantly up-regulated at 4 days post-tape stripping, the lower ceramide level in the stratum corneum of subjects with atopic dermatitis was not significantly changed. In a parallel study, whereas beta-glucocerebrosidase activity at 4 days post-tape stripping was significantly up-regulated in healthy control skin compared with before tape stripping, the level of that activity remained substantially unchanged in atopic dermatitis. These findings indicate that subjects with atopic dermatitis have a defect in sphingolipid-metabolic processing that generates ceramide in the interface between the stratum corneum and the epidermis. The results also support the notion that the continued disruption of barrier function in atopic dermatitis non-lesional skin is associated with the impaired homeostasis of a ceramide-generating process, which underscores an atopy-specific inflammation-triggered ceramide deficiency that is distinct from other types of dermatitis.

  17. Granulocyte colony-stimulating-factor-induced psoriasiform dermatitis resembles psoriasis with regard to abnormal cytokine expression and epidermal activation.

    PubMed

    Mössner, R; Beckmann, I; Hallermann, C; Neumann, C; Reich, K

    2004-06-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder characterized by accumulation of Th1-type T cells and neutrophils, regenerative keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, and enhanced epidermal production of antimicrobial peptides. The underlying cause is unknown, but there are some similarities with the immunologic defense program against bacteria. Development of psoriasiform skin lesions has been reported after administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), a cytokine induced in monocytes by bacterial antigens. To further investigate the relation between this type of cytokine-induced dermatitis and psoriasis, we analyzed the cutaneous cytokine profile [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma, transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-12p35 and p40, and IL-8] and expression of markers of epidermal activation [Ki-67, cytokeratin-16, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)] in a patient who developed G-CSF-induced psoriasiform dermatitis by using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistology. The histologic picture resembled psoriasis with regard to epidermal hyperparakeratosis and the accumulation of lymphocytes in the upper corium. CD8(+) T cells were found to infiltrate the epidermis which was associated with an aberrant expression of Ki-67, cytokeratin-16, MHC class II, and ICAM-1 on adjacent keratinocytes. As compared to normal skin (n = 7), there was an increased expression of TNF-alpha, IL-12p40, and IL-8, a decreased expression of TGF-beta1, and a lack of IL-10, similar to the findings in active psoriasis (n = 8). Therefore, G-CSF may cause a lymphocytic dermatitis that, similar to psoriasis, is characterized by a pro-inflammatory Th1-type cytokine milieu and an epidermal phenotype indicative of aberrant maturation and acquisition of non-professional immune functions.

  18. Atopic dermatitis guideline. Position paper from the Latin American Society of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jorge; Páez, Bruno; Macías, A; Olmos, C; de Falco, A

    2014-01-01

    As in other regions, the incidence of atopic dermatitis in Latin America has been increasing in recent years. Although there are several clinical guidelines, many of their recommendations cannot be universal since they depend on the characteristics of each region. Thus, we decided to create a consensus guideline on atopic dermatitis applicable in Latin America and other tropical regions, taking into account socio-economic, geographical, cultural and health care system characteristics. The Latin American Society of Allergy Asthma and Immunology (SLAAI) conducted a systematic search for articles related to the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of dermatitis using various electronic resources such as Google, Pubmed, EMBASE (Ovid) and Cochrane data base. We have also looked for all published articles in Latin America on the subject using LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences) database. Each section was reviewed by at least two members of the committee, and the final version was subsequently approved by all of them, using the Delphi methodology for consensus building. Afterward, the final document was shared for external evaluation with physicians, specialists (allergists, dermatologists and pediatricians), patients and academic institutions such as universities and scientific societies related to the topic. All recommendations made by these groups were taken into account for the final drafting of the document. There are few original studies conducted in Latin America about dermatitis; however, we were able to create a practical guideline for Latin America taking into account the particularities of the region. Moreover, the integral management was highlighted including many of the recommendations from different participants in the health care of this disease (patients, families, primary care physicians and specialists). This practical guide presents a concise approach to the diagnosis and management of atopic dermatitis that can be

  19. Family functioning and illness perception of parents of children with atopic dermatitis, living without skin symptoms, but with psychosomatic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Orozco, Alain R; Kanán-Cedeño, E G; Guillén Martínez, E; Campos Garibay, M J

    2011-03-01

    Emotional factors and a recurrent psychosomatic environment, have been implicated in the evolution of atopic dermatitis. These, in turn, affect the disease. This study was under taken to evaluate the functioning of families with a child that has atopic dermatitis without skin symptoms and the parents' perceptions of their child's disease.Semi-quantitative and cross-sectional study in which questionnaires were applied: one to study family functioning (Espejel et al. scale) and the second to determine aspects of parental perception of their child's atopic dermatitis. Pearson's correlation was used to analyze the correlation between the categories of the Family Function Scale.The most affected categories of family functioning were authority, handling of disruptive conduct, communication, and negative affect. The most significant positive correlations between the categories of family functioning were: authority and support, r=0.867, p<.001; disruptive conduct and communication, r=0.798, p<.001; and support and communication, r=0.731, p<.001. Of the parents, 66.4% thought that the pharmacotherapy used for their child's atopic dermatitis was not effective, and 33.3% of parents stated that the disease had affected their child's daily activities.In families of children with atopic dermatitis, various family environment factors facilitate the recurrence of symptoms even when no cutaneous lesions have been found on the child. The identification and use of family resources to face this disease are aspects that should be taken into consideration during the psychotherapeutic management of these families, putting emphasis on the most affected functional categories of these families in a strategy that should be implanted in a multi-disciplinary context.

  20. Efficacy of a novel phosphodiesterase inhibitor, E6005, in patients with atopic dermatitis: An investigator-blinded, vehicle-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Fuminori; Matsuki, Shunji; Imayama, Shuhei; Matsuguma, Kyoko; Hojo, Seiichiro; Nomoto, Maiko; Akama, Hideto

    2016-10-01

    Phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) inhibition is a well-known anti-inflammatory mechanism. However, the clinical use of PDE4 inhibitors has been compromised by the occurrence of mechanism-associated adverse reactions, which often limit the maximum tolerated dose. To minimize systemic exposure, a topically active PDE4 inhibitor with low transdermal bioavailability could be clinically useful. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel topical PDE4 inhibitor, E6005, in patients with atopic dermatitis. This randomized, investigator-blinded, vehicle-controlled, multiple ascending dose study included 40 adult male patients with atopic dermatitis, who were randomly assigned to 10 days of treatment with either E6005 ointment (0.01, 0.03, 0.1 or 0.2%) or vehicle ointment. Of 81 patients screened, 40 who had typical lesions on their posterior trunk were randomized into the study. One patient receiving 0.03% E6005 treatment discontinued because of acute gout and one receiving vehicle treatment discontinued because of progression of atopic dermatitis. The targeted lesion severity scores decreased in a concentration-dependent manner in patients treated with E6005. This drop was significant in the 0.2% E6005 ointment treatment group (mean percent change: -54.30%, p = 0.007). E6005 ointment showed anti-inflammatory efficacy in adult patients with atopic dermatitis.

  1. Recent considerations in the use of recombinant interferon gamma for biological therapy of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Brar, Kanwaljit; Leung, Donald Y M

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common inflammatory skin disease in the general population. There are different endophenotypes of AD that likely have a unique immune and molecular basis, such as those who are predisposed to eczema herpeticum, or Staphylococcus aureus infections. In this review, we highlight the endophenotypes of AD where reduced interferon gamma expression may be playing a role. Additionally, we review the potential role of recombinant interferon gamma therapy in the treatment of atopic dermatitis and the particular phenotypes that may benefit from this treatment. Recombinant interferon gamma treatment will likely benefit the pediatric population with AD, as well as those with susceptibilities for skin infections. Future studies are needed to elucidate whether IFN-γ may reduce the prevalence of skin infection in AD.

  2. Interleukin-17 is a critical target for the treatment of ankylosing enthesitis and psoriasis-like dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Ebihara, Shin; Date, Fumiko; Dong, Yupeng; Ono, Masao

    2015-06-01

    Ankylosis is a major pathological manifestation of spondyloarthropathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of anti-IL-17 therapy on spontaneous ankylosing enthesitis in mice. In this study, we used male DBA/1 mice as a spontaneous ankylosis model. Serum IL-17 concentrations were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Male DBA/1 mice from different litters were mixed and caged together preceding the treatment at 10 weeks (wk) of age (prophylaxis) or 21 wk of age (intervention). Treatment with anti-IL-17 antibodies or saline was initiated after caging in groups of mice and administered weekly. The onset of tarsal ankylosis was assessed by ankle swelling and histopathological examination. Pathological changes and mRNA expression levels were assessed in joints and ears obtained at the experimental end-point. We found that circulating IL-17 increased with the onset of ankylosis in male DBA/1 mice, coinciding with the onset of dermatitis. The symptoms of dermatitis corresponded to the pathological characteristics of psoriasis: acanthosis with mild hyperkeratosis, scaling, epidermal microabscess formation and augmented expression of K16, S100A8 and S100A9. Prophylactic administration of anti-IL-17 antibodies significantly prevented the development of both ankylosis and dermatitis in male DBA/1 mice caged together. On the other hand, administration of anti-IL-17 antibodies after disease onset had a lesser but significant effect on ankylosis progression but did not affect dermatitis progression. In conclusion, IL-17 is a key mediator in the pathogenic process of tarsal ankylosis and psoriasis-like dermatitis in male DBA/1 mice caged together. Thus, IL-17 is a potential therapeutic target in ankylosing enthesitis and psoriasis in humans.

  3. Targeted Resequencing and Functional Testing Identifies Low-Frequency Missense Variants in the Gene Encoding GARP as Significant Contributors to Atopic Dermatitis Risk.

    PubMed

    Manz, Judith; Rodríguez, Elke; ElSharawy, Abdou; Oesau, Eva-Maria; Petersen, Britt-Sabina; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Mayr, Gabriele; Weber, Susanne; Harder, Jürgen; Reischl, Eva; Schwarz, Agatha; Novak, Natalija; Franke, Andre; Weidinger, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    Gene-mapping studies have consistently identified a susceptibility locus for atopic dermatitis and other inflammatory diseases on chromosome band 11q13.5, with the strongest association observed for a common variant located in an intergenic region between the two annotated genes C11orf30 and LRRC32. Using a targeted resequencing approach we identified low-frequency and rare missense mutations within the LRRC32 gene encoding the protein GARP, a receptor on activated regulatory T cells that binds latent transforming growth factor-β. Subsequent association testing in more than 2,000 atopic dermatitis patients and 2,000 control subjects showed a significant excess of these LRRC32 variants in individuals with atopic dermatitis. Structural protein modeling and bioinformatic analysis predicted a disruption of protein transport upon these variants, and overexpression assays in CD4 + CD25 - T cells showed a significant reduction in surface expression of the mutated protein. Consistently, flow cytometric (FACS) analyses of different T-cell subtypes obtained from atopic dermatitis patients showed a significantly reduced surface expression of GARP and a reduced conversion of CD4 + CD25 - T cells into regulatory T cells, along with lower expression of latency-associated protein upon stimulation in carriers of the LRRC32 A407T variant. These results link inherited disturbances of transforming growth factor-β signaling with atopic dermatitis risk. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diagnosis of Atopic Dermatitis: Mimics, Overlaps, and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Siegfried, Elaine C.; Hebert, Adelaide A.

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common skin diseases affecting infants and children. A smaller subset of adults has persistent or new-onset AD. AD is characterized by pruritus, erythema, induration, and scale, but these features are also typical of several other conditions that can mimic, coexist with, or complicate AD. These include inflammatory skin conditions, infections, infestations, malignancies, genetic disorders, immunodeficiency disorders, nutritional disorders, graft-versus-host disease, and drug eruptions. Familiarity of the spectrum of these diseases and their distinguishing features is critical for correct and timely diagnosis and optimal treatment. PMID:26239454

  5. Alternative, Complementary, and Forgotten Remedies for Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Allison L.; Lio, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis, perhaps more than other dermatologic diseases, has garnered much attention in the realm of alternative medicine. This may be because its etiopathogenesis is incompletely understood, it is increasingly common, and it waxes and wanes often without clear precipitants, opening up many opportunities for misinterpretation. Herein we explore the evidence for a number of different alternative and complementary therapies, from textiles to vitamin supplements. By definition, none have enough data to be deemed “effective” in a conventional sense, but it is hopeful that some show promising evidence that may one day lead to mainstream acceptance with further research. PMID:26257817

  6. Multi-ethnic genome-wide association study of 21,000 cases and 95,000 controls identifies new risk loci for atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Waage, Johannes; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Hotze, Melanie; Strachan, David P; Curtin, John A; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Tian, Chao; Takahashi, Atsushi; Esparza-Gordillo, Jorge; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Thyssen, Jacob P; den Dekker, Herman T; Ferreira, Manuel A; Altmaier, Elisabeth; Sleiman, Patrick MA; Xiao, Feng Li; Gonzalez, Juan R; Marenholz, Ingo; Kalb, Birgit; Yanes, Maria Pino; Xu, Cheng-Jian; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Venturini, Cristina; Pennell, Craig E; Barton, Sheila J; Levin, Albert M; Curjuric, Ivan; Bustamante, Mariona; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Lockett, Gabrielle A; Bacelis, Jonas; Bunyavanich, Supinda; Myers, Rachel A; Matanovic, Anja; Kumar, Ashish; Tung, Joyce Y; Hirota, Tomomitsu; Kubo, Michiaki; McArdle, Wendy L; Henderson, A J; Kemp, John P; Zheng, Jie; Smith, George Davey; Rüschendorf, Franz; Bauerfeind, Anja; Lee-Kirsch, Min Ae; Arnold, Andreas; Homuth, Georg; Schmidt, Carsten O; Mangold, Elisabeth; Cichon, Sven; Keil, Thomas; Rodríguez, Elke; Peters, Annette; Franke, Andre; Lieb, Wolfgang; Novak, Natalija; Fölster-Holst, Regina; Horikoshi, Momoko; Pekkanen, Juha; Sebert, Sylvain; Husemoen, Lise L; Grarup, Niels; de Jongste, Johan C; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; Pasmans, Suzanne GMA; Elbert, Niels J; Uitterlinden, André G; Marks, Guy B; Thompson, Philip J; Matheson, Melanie C; Robertson, Colin F; Ried, Janina S; Li, Jin; Zuo, Xian Bo; Zheng, Xiao Dong; Yin, Xian Yong; Sun, Liang Dan; McAleer, Maeve A; O'Regan, Grainne M; Fahy, Caoimhe MR; Campbell, Linda E; Macek, Milan; Kurek, Michael; Hu, Donglei; Eng, Celeste; Postma, Dirkje S; Feenstra, Bjarke; Geller, Frank; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Middeldorp, Christel M; Hysi, Pirro; Bataille, Veronique; Spector, Tim; Tiesler, Carla MT; Thiering, Elisabeth; Pahukasahasram, Badri; Yang, James J; Imboden, Medea; Huntsman, Scott; Vilor-Tejedor, Natàlia; Relton, Caroline L; Myhre, Ronny; Nystad, Wenche; Custovic, Adnan; Weiss, Scott T; Meyers, Deborah A; Söderhäll, Cilla; Melén, Erik; Ober, Carole; Raby, Benjamin A; Simpson, Angela; Jacobsson, Bo; Holloway, John W; Bisgaard, Hans; Sunyer, Jordi; Hensch, Nicole M Probst; Williams, L Keoki; Godfrey, Keith M; Wang, Carol A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Melbye, Mads; Koppelman, Gerard H; Jarvis, Deborah; McLean, WH Irwin; Irvine, Alan D; Zhang, Xue Jun; Hakonarson, Hakon; Gieger, Christian; Burchard, Esteban G; Martin, Nicholas G; Duijts, Liesbeth; Linneberg, Allan; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Noethen, Markus M; Lau, Susanne; Hübner, Norbert; Lee, Young-Ae; Tamari, Mayumi; Hinds, David A; Glass, Daniel; Brown, Sara J; Heinrich, Joachim; Evans, David M; Weidinger, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Genetic association studies have identified 21 loci associated with atopic dermatitis risk predominantly in populations of European ancestry. To identify further susceptibility loci for this common complex skin disease, we performed a meta-analysis of >15 million genetic variants in 21,399 cases and 95,464 controls from populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry, followed by replication in 32,059 cases and 228,628 controls from 18 studies. We identified 10 novel risk loci, bringing the total number of known atopic dermatitis risk loci to 31 (with novel secondary signals at 4 of these). Notably, the new loci include candidate genes with roles in regulation of innate host defenses and T-cell function, underscoring the important contribution of (auto-)immune mechanisms to atopic dermatitis pathogenesis. PMID:26482879

  7. Multi-ancestry genome-wide association study of 21,000 cases and 95,000 controls identifies new risk loci for atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Paternoster, Lavinia; Standl, Marie; Waage, Johannes; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Hotze, Melanie; Strachan, David P; Curtin, John A; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Tian, Chao; Takahashi, Atsushi; Esparza-Gordillo, Jorge; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Thyssen, Jacob P; den Dekker, Herman T; Ferreira, Manuel A; Altmaier, Elisabeth; Sleiman, Patrick Ma; Xiao, Feng Li; Gonzalez, Juan R; Marenholz, Ingo; Kalb, Birgit; Yanes, Maria Pino; Xu, Cheng-Jian; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Venturini, Cristina; Pennell, Craig E; Barton, Sheila J; Levin, Albert M; Curjuric, Ivan; Bustamante, Mariona; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Lockett, Gabrielle A; Bacelis, Jonas; Bunyavanich, Supinda; Myers, Rachel A; Matanovic, Anja; Kumar, Ashish; Tung, Joyce Y; Hirota, Tomomitsu; Kubo, Michiaki; McArdle, Wendy L; Henderson, A J; Kemp, John P; Zheng, Jie; Smith, George Davey; Rüschendorf, Franz; Bauerfeind, Anja; Lee-Kirsch, Min Ae; Arnold, Andreas; Homuth, Georg; Schmidt, Carsten O; Mangold, Elisabeth; Cichon, Sven; Keil, Thomas; Rodríguez, Elke; Peters, Annette; Franke, Andre; Lieb, Wolfgang; Novak, Natalija; Fölster-Holst, Regina; Horikoshi, Momoko; Pekkanen, Juha; Sebert, Sylvain; Husemoen, Lise L; Grarup, Niels; de Jongste, Johan C; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; Pasmans, Suzanne Gma; Elbert, Niels J; Uitterlinden, André G; Marks, Guy B; Thompson, Philip J; Matheson, Melanie C; Robertson, Colin F; Ried, Janina S; Li, Jin; Zuo, Xian Bo; Zheng, Xiao Dong; Yin, Xian Yong; Sun, Liang Dan; McAleer, Maeve A; O'Regan, Grainne M; Fahy, Caoimhe Mr; Campbell, Linda E; Macek, Milan; Kurek, Michael; Hu, Donglei; Eng, Celeste; Postma, Dirkje S; Feenstra, Bjarke; Geller, Frank; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Middeldorp, Christel M; Hysi, Pirro; Bataille, Veronique; Spector, Tim; Tiesler, Carla Mt; Thiering, Elisabeth; Pahukasahasram, Badri; Yang, James J; Imboden, Medea; Huntsman, Scott; Vilor-Tejedor, Natàlia; Relton, Caroline L; Myhre, Ronny; Nystad, Wenche; Custovic, Adnan; Weiss, Scott T; Meyers, Deborah A; Söderhäll, Cilla; Melén, Erik; Ober, Carole; Raby, Benjamin A; Simpson, Angela; Jacobsson, Bo; Holloway, John W; Bisgaard, Hans; Sunyer, Jordi; Hensch, Nicole M Probst; Williams, L Keoki; Godfrey, Keith M; Wang, Carol A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Melbye, Mads; Koppelman, Gerard H; Jarvis, Deborah; McLean, Wh Irwin; Irvine, Alan D; Zhang, Xue Jun; Hakonarson, Hakon; Gieger, Christian; Burchard, Esteban G; Martin, Nicholas G; Duijts, Liesbeth; Linneberg, Allan; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Noethen, Markus M; Lau, Susanne; Hübner, Norbert; Lee, Young-Ae; Tamari, Mayumi; Hinds, David A; Glass, Daniel; Brown, Sara J; Heinrich, Joachim; Evans, David M; Weidinger, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Genetic association studies have identified 21 loci associated with atopic dermatitis risk predominantly in populations of European ancestry. To identify further susceptibility loci for this common, complex skin disease, we performed a meta-analysis of >15 million genetic variants in 21,399 cases and 95,464 controls from populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry, followed by replication in 32,059 cases and 228,628 controls from 18 studies. We identified ten new risk loci, bringing the total number of known atopic dermatitis risk loci to 31 (with new secondary signals at four of these loci). Notably, the new loci include candidate genes with roles in the regulation of innate host defenses and T cell function, underscoring the important contribution of (auto)immune mechanisms to atopic dermatitis pathogenesis.

  8. [Quality of life in patients with atopic dermatitis: using the Japanese version of the SF-36 health status questionnaire].

    PubMed

    Fukuroku, Keiko; Nagano, Takuzou; Ogino, Satoshi

    2002-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common skin disorder with an age onset mainly from infancy to adolescence. Patients with this disorder usually have a long history of repeated relief and relapse. The aim of the present studies is to quantify the relationship between the QOL score of patients and symptomatic characteristics (including severity measured by SF-36). From November 2000 to February 2001, the study recruited 281 patients with atopic dermatitis who had been treated at the Nagano dermatology and allergology clinic. The results of this study demonstrated that the symptoms severity and pruritus grade had strong influences on QOL score, and the location of pruritic lesion on the neck had the strongest influence on their self-perceived health status. The patients group with moderate atopic dermatitis who showed pruritus lesion in face, neck, and or knee, and female had consistently lower scores than male on all of the subscales. In conclusion, it is critically important to control of pruritus, and to develop an appropriate management.

  9. GUIDELINES OF CARE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    PubMed Central

    Eichenfield, Lawrence F.; Tom, Wynnis L.; Chamlin, Sarah L.; Feldman, Steven R.; Hanifin, Jon M.; Simpson, Eric L.; Berger, Timothy G.; Bergman, James N.; Cohen, David E.; Cooper, Kevin D.; Cordoro, Kelly M.; Davis, Dawn M.; Krol, Alfons; Margolis, David J.; Paller, Amy S.; Schwarzenberger, Kathryn; Silverman, Robert A.; Williams, Hywel C.; Elmets, Craig A.; Block, Julie; Harrod, Christopher G.; Begolka, Wendy Smith; Sidbury, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, pruritic inflammatory dermatosis that affects up to 25% of children and 2–3% of adults. This guideline addresses important clinical questions that arise in AD management and care, providing updated and expanded recommendations based on the available evidence. In this first of four sections, methods for diagnosis and monitoring of disease, outcomes measures for assessment and common clinical associations that affect patients with AD are discussed. Known risk factors for the development of disease are also reviewed. PMID:24290431

  10. Translating Atopic Dermatitis Management Guidelines Into Practice for Primary Care Providers.

    PubMed

    Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Boguniewicz, Mark; Simpson, Eric L; Russell, John J; Block, Julie K; Feldman, Steven R; Clark, Adele R; Tofte, Susan; Dunn, Jeffrey D; Paller, Amy S

    2015-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis affects a substantial number of children, many of whom seek initial treatment from their pediatrician or other primary care provider. Approximately two-thirds of these patients have mild disease and can be adequately managed at the primary care level. However, recent treatment guidelines are written primarily for use by specialists and lack certain elements that would make them more useful to primary care providers. This article evaluates these recent treatment guidelines in terms of evaluation criteria, treatment recommendations, usability, accessibility, and applicability to nonspecialists and integrates them with clinical evidence to present a streamlined severity-based treatment model for the management of a majority of atopic dermatitis cases. Because each patient's situation is unique, individualization of treatment plans is critical as is efficient communication and implementation of the plan with patients and caregivers. Specifically, practical suggestions for individualizing, optimizing, implementing, and communicating treatment plans such as choosing a moisturizer formulation, avoiding common triggers, educating patients/caregivers, providing written treatment plans, and scheduling physician follow-up are provided along with a discussion of available resources for patients/caregivers and providers. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Preparation of hydrogels for atopic dermatitis containing natural herbal extracts by gamma-ray irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Mook; An, Sung-Jun; Kim, Hae-Kyoung; Kim, Yun-Hye; Youn, Min-Ho; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Shin, Junhwa; Nho, Young-Chang

    2009-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a familial and chronic inflammatory pruritic skin disease that affects a large number of children and adults in industrialized countries. It is known that one of the prominent features of AD and chronic pruritus is partially due to the histamine released from mast cell. In this work, hydrogel patches with natural herbal extracts were prepared by "freezing and thawing", and a gamma irradiation. It showed eminent healing results as a consequence of long-term moisturizing effects and natural herbal extracts on atopic wounds. Besides its non-toxicity and human harmlessness, it can be easily attached to or detached from the skin without any trace and help patients to feel refreshment when attached. Based on this work, the hydrogel patches we made can be potentially used as an alternative remedy for not only pruritus in AD, but other dermatitis.

  12. Psoriasis in childhood: effective strategies to improve treatment adherence

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Kara N; Cortina, Sandra; Ernst, Michelle M; Kichler, Jessica C

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a relatively common chronic inflammatory skin disease in children for which there is no cure. Most children have mild disease that can be managed with topical therapy as opposed to phototherapy or systemic therapy. Despite the mild presentation of psoriasis in most children, the disease can have a significant impact on quality of life due to the need for ongoing treatment, the frequently visible nature of the cutaneous manifestations, and the social stigma that is associated with psoriasis. Adherence to treatment, in particular topical therapy, is often poor in adults and compromises response to therapy and medical provider management strategies. Multiple factors that may contribute to nonadherence in adults with psoriasis have been identified, including lack of education on the disease and expectations for management, issues related to ease of use and acceptability of topical medications, and anxiety regarding possible medication side effects. There is currently no published data on adherence in the pediatric psoriasis population; however, poor adherence is often suspected when patients fail to respond to appropriate therapy. General strategies used to assess adherence in other pediatric disease populations can be applied to children with psoriasis, and interventions that reflect experience in other chronic dermatologic disorders such as atopic dermatitis may also be helpful for medical providers caring for children with psoriasis. PMID:29387581

  13. Complementary and alternative medicine therapies in acne, psoriasis, and atopic eczema: results of a qualitative study of patients' experiences and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Magin, Parker J; Adams, Jon; Heading, Gaynor S; Pond, Dimity C; Smith, Wayne

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies in patients with acne, psoriasis, or atopic eczema and the attitudes about CAM of these patients. This was a qualitative study, utilizing semistructured interviews and thematic analysis. Patients were recruited from the practices of dermatologists and general practitioners in a noncapital Australian city. Twenty-six (26) interviews were conducted with patients with acne, 29 with psoriasis, and 7 with atopic eczema. Use of CAM therapies was common. Participants tended to value CAM over orthodox therapies because of their preference for natural approaches to their skin diseases and the perceived lesser potential for adverse effects of CAM therapies. Respondents with acne were more confident about the efficacy of CAM than were those with psoriasis or eczema. The resulting sense of control attenuated psychologic sequelae of acne. This was not apparent in psoriasis or eczema. Practitioners should be cognizant of the likely use of CAM and its implications (including the potential for attenuation of psychologic morbidity) in their patients who have skin diseases.

  14. Assessment of Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Atopic Dermatitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ying; Ma, Wencong

    2017-01-01

    Background To develop new strategies for identifying atopic dermatitis patients, a better understanding of the signs for chronic inflammatory status is needed. This study was designed to investigate whether neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are related to the severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) assessed by the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. Material/Methods A retrospective study involving 80 AD patients and 45 healthy control subjects was performed. NLR, PLR, and the number of peripheral blood eosinophils were compared between AD patients and healthy controls, and correlations between these indexes and clinical characteristics were analyzed. Results NLR, PLR, and eosinophils in AD patients were all significantly higher than in healthy individuals. Among AD patients, NLR (p<0.001) and PLR (p<0.001), as contrasted with eosinophils (p=0.146), were correlated positively with SCORAD index. Additionally, an NLR level of 1.75 was determined as the predictive cut-off value of severe AD (SCORAD ≥51) (sensitivity 94.7%, specificity 58.6%, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) 0.778, p=0.001). For eosinophils, the sensitivity and specificity were 78.9% and 62.1%, respectively, and the AUROC was only 0.685 (p=0.032) in predicting high SCORAD. Conclusions NLR and PLR reflect inflammatory response and disease severity in AD patients. PMID:28306706

  15. Effect of administrating polysaccharide from black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) on atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Ashigai, Hiroshi; Komano, Yuta; Wang, Guanying; Kawachi, Yasuji; Sunaga, Kazuko; Yamamoto, Reiko; Takata, Ryoji; Miyake, Mika; Yanai, Takaaki

    2018-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that causes dry skin and functional disruption of the skin barrier. AD is often accompanied by allergic inflammation. AD patient suffer from heavy itching, and their quality of life is severely affected. Some pharmaceuticals for AD have some side effects such as skin atrophy. So it is necessary to develop mild solutions such as food ingredients without side effects. There are various causes of AD. It is especially induced by immunological imbalances such as IFN-γ reduction. IFN-γ has an important role in regulating IgE, which can cause an allergy reaction. NC/Nga mice develop AD and IgE hyperproduction. In a previous study, we revealed that administration of polysaccharide from black currant ( R. nigrum ) has an effect on immunomodulation. It induces IFN-γ production from myeloid dendritic cells. We named this polysaccharide cassis polysaccharide (CAPS). In this report, we studied the effect of administering CAPS on atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. Thirty NC/Nga mice that developed symptoms of atopic dermatitis were used. We divided them into three groups (control, CAPS administration 12 mg/kg/day, CAPS administration 60 mg/kg/day). For 4 weeks, we evaluated clinical score, serum IgE levels, gene expression of spleen, and skin pathology. We revealed that CAPS administration improves atopic dermatitis symptoms. We also found that CAPS administration suppresses IgE hyperproduction and induces IFN-γ gene transcription in the spleen. Finally, we confirmed that CAPS administration suppresses mast cell migration to epidermal skin. These results indicated that CAPS has an effect on AD.

  16. Genome-wide association study identifies two new susceptibility loci for atopic dermatitis in the Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liang-Dan; Xiao, Feng-Li; Li, Yang; Zhou, Wen-Ming; Tang, Hua-Yang; Tang, Xian-Fa; Zhang, Hui; Schaarschmidt, Heidi; Zuo, Xian-Bo; Foelster-Holst, Regina; He, Su-Min; Shi, Mei; Liu, Qiang; Lv, Yong-Mei; Chen, Xi-Lan; Zhu, Kun-Ju; Guo, Yi-Feng; Hu, Da-Yan; Li, Ming; Li, Min; Zhang, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Xin; Tang, Jian-Ping; Guo, Bi-Rong; Wang, Hua; Liu, Yuan; Zou, Xiao-Yan; Zhou, Fu-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Gang; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Shu-Mei; Jiang, Ai-Ping; Zheng, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Xing-Hua; Li, Pan; Tu, Cai-Xia; Yin, Xian-Yong; Han, Xiu-Ping; Ren, Yun-Qing; Song, Shun-Peng; Lu, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Xing-Lian; Cui, Yong; Chang, Jing; Gao, Min; Luo, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Pei-Guang; Dai, Xing; Su, Wei; Li, Hui; Shen, Chun-Pin; Liu, Sheng-Xiu; Feng, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Chun-Jun; Lin, Guo-Shu; Wang, Zai-Xing; Huang, Jian-Qing; Fan, Xing; Wang, Yan; Bao, Yi-Xiao; Yang, Sen; Liu, Jian-Jun; Franke, Andre; Weidinger, Stephan; Yao, Zhi-Rong; Zhang, Xue-Jun

    2011-06-12

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, relapsing form of inflammatory skin disorder that is affected by genetic and environmental factors. We performed a genome-wide association study of atopic dermatitis in a Chinese Han population using 1,012 affected individuals (cases) and 1,362 controls followed by a replication study in an additional 3,624 cases and 12,197 controls of Chinese Han ethnicity, as well as 1,806 cases and 3,256 controls from Germany. We identified previously undescribed susceptibility loci at 5q22.1 (TMEM232 and SLC25A46, rs7701890, P(combined) = 3.15 × 10(-9), odds ratio (OR) = 1.24) and 20q13.33 (TNFRSF6B and ZGPAT, rs6010620, P(combined) = 3.0 × 10(-8), OR = 1.17) and replicated another previously reported locus at 1q21.3 (FLG, rs3126085, P(combined) = 5.90 × 10(-12), OR = 0.82) in the Chinese sample. The 20q13.33 locus also showed evidence for association in the German sample (rs6010620, P = 2.87 × 10(-5), OR = 1.25). Our study identifies new genetic susceptibility factors and suggests previously unidentified biological pathways in atopic dermatitis.

  17. [Malassezia species in patients with seborrheic dermatitis and atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Tajima, Mami

    2005-01-01

    Malassezia species, organisms normally colonizing the skin surface, are thought to play a role as either the cause or an exacerbating factor in a number of skin conditions, including pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia folliculitis, seborrheic dermatitis (SD) and atopic dermatitis (AD). Using a non-cultural PCR method, we analyzed Malassezia spp. extracted from the skin surface of SD and AD patients. The species most commonly detected in both patient groups were M. globosa and M. restricta, and the number of Malassezia spp. In these patients was higher than in healthy subjects. After a topical application of 2% ketoconazole cream, changes in the population of Malassezia spp. in 20 intractable cases of AD were recorded. The addition of the 2% ketoconazole cream to the standard topical treatments was found to have reduced the Malassezia spp. population by 90%, and showed a clinical efficacy rate of 70%. Furthermore, a combination of azole agents and tacrolimus produced a synergistic anti-fungal effect against Malassezia spp. in vitro. A clinical trial using this drug combination conducted on the face and neck of patients with intractable AD showed a 66.6% efficacy rate in both the reduction of the flora and in clinical improvement. From these results it was evident that Malassezia is one of the factors exacerbating AD, and that removal of the organism results in an improvement in the clinical condition of the patient.

  18. Immunophenotyping of the cutaneous cellular infiltrate after atopy patch testing in cats with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Roosje, P J; Thepen, T; Rutten, V P M G; van den Brom, W E; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A F M; Willemse, T

    2004-10-01

    Cats with spontaneously occurring atopic dermatitis have clinical and immunocytochemical characteristics compatible with these in humans with atopic dermatitis (AD). The atopy patch test (APT) has proven to be a valuable tool in elucidating the disease process in humans. Additionally, the APT is very specific and bypasses the problem of conflicting results due to differences in chronicity of lesions of AD patients. We adapted the APT for use in cats to explore the suitability of the APT as a tool to study the onset of allergic inflammation in cats with atopic dermatitis. APT were performed in AD cats (n = 6) and healthy cats (n = 10). All cats were patch tested with two allergens in three different dilutions and a diluent control. The allergens for the APT were selected from positive intradermal test and /or prick test results and consisted of: Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and a grass pollen mixture. APT were read after 10, 24 and 48 h, and punch biopsies for immunohistochemical evaluation were collected at these time points. Macroscopically positive APT reactions were observed in three out of six cats at 24 and/or 48 h with allergen concentrations of 25,000 and 100,000 NU/ml. Reactions were not observed at negative control sites and neither in control animals. A significantly increased number of IL-4+, CD4+, CD3+, MHC class II+ and CD1a+ cells was found in one AD cat with positive APT reactions. Five out of six AD cats had significantly increased IL-4+ T cell numbers at 24 and/or 48 h. Our data indicate that in cats, macroscopically positive patch test reactions can be induced, which have a cellular infiltrate similar to that in lesional skin. We found a high specificity and a macroscopically positive APT reaction in half of the cats, which is similar to what is seen in humans. Hence, the APT in cats might be a useful tool in studying the immunopathogenesis of feline atopic dermatitis.

  19. The inhibitory effect of naringenin on atopic dermatitis induced by DNFB in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Gun-Dong; Ahn, Hyun-Jong; Cho, Jeong-Je; Park, Yong Seek; Park, Cheung-Seog

    2013-10-10

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory dermatitis characterized by pruritic and eczematous skin lesions. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effect of the fruit flavonoid naringenin on DNFB induced atopic dermatitis mice model. AD-like skin lesion was induced by repetitive skin contact with DNFB in NC/Nga mice and the effects of the fruit flavonoid naringenin were evaluated on the basis of histopathological findings of skin, ear swelling and cytokine production of CD4(+)T cells. Intraperitoneal injection of naringenin for one week after DNFB challenge significantly lowered ear swelling and improved back skin lesions. In addition, naringenin significantly suppressed production of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) by activated CD4(+) T cells and serum IgE level. Furthermore, naringenin reduced DNFB-induced infiltration of eosinophils, mast cells, CD4(+) T cells, and CD8(+) T cells in skin lesions. Naringenin may suppress the development of AD-like skin lesions in DNFB-treated NC/Nga mice by reducing IFN-γ production of activated CD4(+) T cells, serum IgE levels and infiltration of immune cells to skin lesion. © 2013.

  20. Structured Parent Education in the Management of Childhood Atopic Dermatitis: The Berlin Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenninger, Kerstin; Kehrt, Rainer; von Ruden, Ursula; Lehmann, Christine; Binder, Christiane; Wahn, Ulrich; Staab, Doris

    2000-01-01

    Describes the goals and content of the Berlin education program for parents and children with atopic dermatitis (AD). Program included six group sessions concerning medical, nutritional, and psychological issues. Program aimed to contribute towards a comprehensive, family-oriented management of childhood AD. Data showed the program had a positive…

  1. Stretch Garment Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mihan, Richard; Ayres, Samuel

    1968-01-01

    A disease of the skin, not hitherto described, is caused by pressure or tension on the skin from the wearing of tight-fitting stretch garments such as “stretch bras,” “stretch girdles” and “stretch socks.” The condition is not due to chemical sensitization of fabrics, dyes or other additives but is of mechanical origin. The eruption may assume various clinical forms and may be characterized by a nondescript erythematous and eczematous appearance or may consist of an exaggeration, in the areas covered by the stretch garment, of already existing dermatosis such as lichen planus, psoriasis, acne vulgaris, discoid lupus erythematosus or atopic dermatitis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:5639939

  2. Atopy patch tests in young adult patients with atopic dermatitis and controls: dose-response relationship, objective reading, reproducibility and clinical interpretation.

    PubMed

    Bygum, Anette; Mortz, Charlotte Gotthard; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2003-01-01

    The clinical interpretation and reproducibility of atopy patch tests was studied in 23 selected young adult patients with atopic dermatitis and 25 healthy controls using standard inhalant allergens. Non-invasive measurements were used for objective assessment of test reactions and the participants were retested after 6 weeks. Ten of 19 (53%) evaluable patients with atopic dermatitis had at least one positive atopy patch test. However, there was no clear clinical relevance of the atopy patch test results when related to patient history and distribution of dermatitis. Reproducible and dose-dependent results were obtained with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, grass and cat with a reproducibility rate of 0.69 to 0.81 in patients and 0.60-0.96 in controls. A unique finding was a significant positive correlation between a positive atopy patch test, allergen dose and increase in transepidermal water loss and erythema, while measurement of capacitance did not distinguish between positive and negative reactions. The results of the present study do not support the routine use of atopy patch tests in the evaluation of adult patients with atopic dermatitis.

  3. Exposure to pets and atopic dermatitis during the first two years of life. A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zirngibl, Angelika; Franke, Kaethe; Gehring, Ulrike; von Berg, Andrea; Berdel, Dietrich; Bauer, Carl Peter; Reinhardt, Dietrich; Wichmann, H-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between keeping pets in early childhood and the occurrence of atopic dermatitis in an ongoing birth cohort followed up to the age of 2 years. We analyzed data of 4578 children in the intervention and observation part of an ongoing cohort study. The children were recruited at birth in the two study regions Wesel and Munich between January 1996 and June 1998. Information on atopic diseases and pet ownership was obtained by questionnaire at the child's first and second birthday. The logistic regression model showed a negative association between 'keeping any pet' and in particular 'keeping dogs' in the 1st year of life and the development of atopic dermatitis in the 1st and the 2nd years of life. The protective effects remained statistically significant after adjusting for several possible confounding variables (1st year(any) pet OR 0.71, 95% CI [0.55;0.92], 1st year(dog) OR 0.62, 95% CI [0.39;0.98], 2nd year(any) pet OR 0.74, 95% CI [0.57;0.97], 2nd year(dog) OR 0.63, 95% CI [0.40;0.98]). Ownership of small furred pets (hamster, rabbit and guinea pig) also showed a borderline protective effect for the 1st year. We assume an association between keeping pets and undefined environmental factor(s) that contribute protectively to the development of atopic dermatitis in early life, presumably by effects on the maturation of the immune system.

  4. Homeopathy in paediatric atopic diseases: long-term results in children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Elio; Bartoli, Paola; Bianchi, Alba; Da Frè, Monica

    2012-01-01

    To study the socio-demographic features, the prescribed remedies and the outcome of atopic diseases in children treated with homeopathy at the Homeopathic Clinic of Lucca (Italy), and the long-term outcome of children suffering from atopic dermatitis (AD) after an approximate 8-year period (range 5-10 years). Our data derive from an observational longitudinal study carried out on 213 children (38.6%) with atopic diseases out of 551 children consecutively examined from September 1998 to December 2008. We used the Glasgow Homeopathic Hospital Outcome Score to evaluate the results that were classified on the basis of a Likert scale. Eighty-three (39%) children were affected by asthma, 51 (24%) by allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, 76 (36%) by AD and 3 (1%) by food intolerance. Follow-up patients were 104 (48.8%), and 65 (62.5%) of them reported a major improvement or resolution. The parents of paediatric patients suffering from AD, who had started homeopathic treatment at <4.9 years of age were invited to follow-up assessment 8 years later and 40 children (mean age 12.9) were examined; 28/40 (70%) had a complete disappearance of AD, 12/40 children (30.0%) were still affected by AD; 8/40 (20%) had asthma and 8/40 patients had, or developed, allergic rhinitis. These preliminary results seem to confirm a positive therapeutic effect of homeopathy in atopic children. Furthermore, according to the data from the literature paediatric patients treated with homeopathy seem to show a reduced tendency to maintain AD and develop asthma (and allergic rhinitis) in adult age. Copyright © 2011 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. T-helper immune phenotype may underlie 'paradoxical' tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitor therapy-related psoriasiform dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Moy, A P; Murali, M; Kroshinsky, D; Horn, T D; Nazarian, R M

    2018-01-01

    Therapeutics targeting tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α are effective for psoriasis; however, in patients treated for other disorders, psoriasis may worsen and psoriasiform dermatitis (PsoD) may arise. T helper (Th) cytokines in psoriasis upregulate keratin (K)17, which modulates TNF-α transduction, leading to vascular adhesion molecule upregulation and lymphocytic extravasation. We investigated Th phenotype and expression of K17, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in psoriasis and anti-TNF-α-related PsoD. Skin biopsies from patients with psoriasis unresponsive to TNF-α inhibitor therapy (n = 11), PsoD-related to TNF-α inhibition (n = 9), untreated psoriasis (n = 9) or atopic dermatitis (AD; n = 9) were immunohistochemically analysed for Th1, Th2, Th17 and Th22. Expression of K17, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was also examined. Anti-TNF-α-unresponsive psoriasis and anti-TNF-α-related PsoD showed decreased Th1 : Th2 raio and increased Th17 : Th1 ratio compared with untreated psoriasis. Anti-TNF-α-unresponsive psoriasis had significantly fewer Th1 (4% vs. 12%) and more Th17 (51% vs. 20%) cells than untreated psoriasis. No difference in Th22 cells was identified. K17 was present in all cases of untreated psoriasis and anti-TNF-α-related PsoD, 91% of anti-TNF-α-unresponsive psoriasis, and only 22% of AD. VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in anti-TNF-α-related PsoD was akin to untreated psoriasis, but decreased in anti-TNF-α-unresponsive psoriasis. These findings further the current understanding of the anti-TNF-α-related psoriasiform phenotype and support a rationale for therapeutic targeting of interleukin-17 and TNF-α in combination. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Vitamin D and Atopic Dermatitis in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Vestita, Michelangelo; Filoni, Angela; Congedo, Maurizio; Foti, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D features immunomodulatory effects on both the innate and adaptive immune systems, which may explain the growing evidence connecting vitamin D to allergic diseases. A wealth of studies describing a beneficial effect of vitamin D on atopic dermatitis (AD) prevalence and severity are known. However, observations linking high vitamin D levels to an increased risk of developing AD have also been published, effectively creating a controversy. In this paper, we review the existing literature on the association between AD and vitamin D levels, focusing on childhood. As of today, the role of vitamin D in AD is far from clear; additional studies are particularly needed in order to confirm the promising therapeutic role of vitamin D supplementation in childhood AD. PMID:25973433

  7. The Effect of Environmentally Friendly Wallpaper and Flooring Material on Indoor Air Quality and Atopic Dermatitis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Na, Jung Im; Byun, Sang Young; Jeong, Mi Young; Park, Kyoung Chan

    2014-01-01

    Background Formaldehyde (FA) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are considered among the main causes of atopic aggravation. Their main sources include wallpapers, paints, adhesives, and flooring materials. Objective To assess the effects of environmentally friendly wallpaper and flooring material on indoor air quality and atopic dermatitis severity. Methods Thirty patients with atopic dermatitis were enrolled in this study. To improve air quality, the wallpaper and flooring in the homes of the subjects were replaced with plant- or silica-based materials. The indoor air concentration of FA and the total VOCs (TVOCs) were measured before remodeling and 2, 6, and 10 weeks thereafter. Pruritus and the severity of atopic eczema were evaluated by using a questionnaire and the eczema area and severity index (EASI) score before and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after remodeling. The subjects were instructed to continue their therapy for atopic dermatitis. Results The houses of 24 subjects were remodeled; all subjects completed the study. The concentration of FA in ambient air significantly decreased within 2 weeks after remodeling. The TVOC level showed a decrease at week 2 but increased again at weeks 6 and 10. The reduction of pruritus and EASI score was statistically significant in patients whose baseline EASI score was >3. Conclusion Replacing the wallpaper and flooring of houses with environmentally friendly material reduced FA in ambient air and improved pruritus and the severity of atopic eczema. The improvement of pruritus and eczema was statistically significant in patients whose baseline EASI score was >3. PMID:25473219

  8. Th17-cells in atopic dermatitis stimulate orthodontic root resorption.

    PubMed

    Yamada, K; Yamaguchi, M; Asano, M; Fujita, S; Kobayashi, R; Kasai, K

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how atopic dermatitis (AD) contributes to root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. Atopic dermatitis model mice and wild-type mice were subjected to an excessive orthodontic force (OF) to induce movement of the upper first molars. The expression levels of the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), IL-17, IL-6, and RANKL proteins were determined in the periodontal ligament (PDL) by an immunohistochemical analysis. Furthermore, the effects of the compression force on co-cultures of CD4(+) cells from AD patients or healthy individuals and human PDL cells were investigated with regard to the levels of secretion and mRNA expression of IL-17, IL-6, RANKL, and osteoprotegerin. The immunoreactivities for TRAP, IL-17, IL-6, and RANKL in the AD group were found to be significantly increased. The double immunofluorescence analysis for IL-17/CD4 detected immunoreaction. The secretion of IL-17, IL-6, and RANKL, and the mRNA levels of IL-6 and RANKL in the AD patients were increased compared with those in healthy individuals. Th17 cells may therefore be associated with the deterioration of root resorption of AD mice, and may explain why AD patients are more susceptible to root resorption than healthy individuals when an excessive OF is applied. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Infected Atopic Dermatitis Lesions Contain Pharmacologic Amounts of Lipoteichoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Travers, Jeffrey B.; Kozman, Amal; Mousdicas, Nico; Saha, Chandan; Landis, Megan; Al-Hassani, Mohammed; Yao, Weiguo; Yao, Yongxue; Hyatt, Ann-Marie; Sheehan, Michael P.; Haggstrom, Anita N.; Kaplan, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Bacterial infection with Staphylococcus aureus is a known trigger for worsening of atopic dermatitis (AD); the exact mechanisms by which bacterial infection worsens dermatitis are unknown. Objective We sought to characterize the amounts of the biologically active bacterial lipoprotein lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in infected AD lesions. Methods Eighty-nine children with clinically impetiginized lesions of AD were enrolled in this study. A lesion was graded clinically using the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI), and then wash fluid obtained from the lesion for quantitative bacterial culture, and measurement of LTA and cytokines. The staphylococcal isolate was tested for antibiotic susceptibilities. The patients were treated with a regimen that included topical corticosteroids and systemic antibiotics and the lesion was re-analyzed after two weeks. Results S. aureus was identified in 79 of 89 children enrolled in the study. The bacterial CFU correlated with the EASI lesional score (p = 0.04). LTA levels up to 9.8 μg/ml were measured in the wash fluid samples and the amounts correlated with the lesional EASI scores (p = 0.01) and S. aureus CFU (p < 0.001). Approximately 30% of clinically impetiginized AD lesions contained greater than 1 μg/ml LTA, amounts that exert effects on various cell types in vitro. Moreover, injection of skin tissue ex vivo with amounts of LTA found in AD lesions resulted in epidermal cytokine gene expression. Conclusions Pharmacologic levels of LTA are found in many infected atopic dermatitis lesions. Clinical Implications These findings suggest that staphylococcal LTA could be an important mediator of the increased skin inflammation associated with infected AD. Capsule Summary These studies demonstrate high levels of staphylococcal LTA are found on impetiginized AD lesions. Moreover, subjects harboring MRSA exhibited greater total body involvement of AD. PMID:19962742

  10. The Development of a Practical and Reliable Assessment Measure for Atopic Dermatitis (ADAM).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charman, Denise; Varigos, George; Horne, David J. de L.; Oberklaid, Frank

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted in Australia to develop a reliable, valid, and practical measure of atopic dermatitis. The test development process and validity evaluation with two doctors and 51 patients are discussed. Results suggest that operational definitions of the scales need to be defined more clearly. The measure satisfies assumptions for a partial…

  11. House Dust Mite Prevalence in the House of Patients with Atopic Dermatitis in Mashhad, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ziyaei, Toktam; Berenji, Fariba; Jabbari-Azad, Farahzad; Fata, Abdolmajid; Jarahi, Lida; Fereidouni, Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    Being exposed to house dust mites intensifies atopic dermatitis. This study has investigated the contamination rate with Dermatophagoides mites in patient's residential home with atopic dermatitis. In this cross-sectional study, 40 patients took part with atopic dermatitis (positive or negative for mites by prick Dermal Test). Samples were collected from 3 locations (living room, bedroom and bed) by vacuum cleaner. Dust samples (transferred to freezer -20 °C) were examined by direct method and flotation. The data were analyzed using statistical SPSS vr.20 software. Twenty patients of positive prick test included 8 (40%) male and 12 (60%) female. The results of direct observation of mites: 7 cases (35%) in bedding sheets, 6 cases (30%) bedrooms' carpet, 3 cases (15%) living room's carpet. Twenty patients of negative prick test included 8 (40%) male and 12 (60%) female. Only mites were found (5%) in living room's carpets of negative prick test patients. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was more frequent than Dermatophagoides farina e. (98% vs 83%). Fifty-five percent of residential homes of prick test positive patients and only 5% of residential homes of prick test negative patients were positive for mite. Sunshine provided home had fewer mites than home where sunshine is not provided. Prick test positive patients used handmade carpets more than machine made ones. In positive prick test patients, mites were found in bed sheet and bedroom's carpet more than negative prick test patient's sheets and carpets.

  12. Enhancement of allergic skin wheal responses in patients with atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome by playing video games or by a frequently ringing mobile phone.

    PubMed

    Kimata, H

    2003-06-01

    Playing video games causes physical and psychological stress, including increased heart rate and blood pressure and aggression-related feelings. Use of mobile phones is very popular in Japan, and frequent ringing is a common and intrusive part of Japanese life. Atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome is often exacerbated by stress. Stress increases serum IgE levels, skews cytokine pattern towards Th2 type, enhances allergen-induced skin wheal responses, and triggers mast cell degranulation via substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide and nerve growth factor. (1). In the video game study, normal subjects (n = 25), patients with allergic rhinitis (n = 25) or atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (n = 25) played a video game (STREET FIGHTER II) for 2 h. Before and after the study, allergen-induced wheal responses, plasma levels of substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide and nerve growth factor, and in vitro production of total IgE, antihouse dust mite IgE and cytokines were measured. (2). In the mobile phone study, normal subjects (n = 27), patients with allergic rhinitis (n = 27) or atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (n = 27) were exposed to 30 incidences of ringing mobile phones during 30 min. Before and after the study, allergen-induced wheal responses, plasma levels of substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide and nerve growth factor were measured. Playing video games had no effect on the normal subjects or the patients with allergic rhinitis. In contrast, playing video games significantly enhanced allergen-induced skin wheal responses and increased plasma levels of substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide and nerve growth factors in the patients with atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome. Moreover, playing video games enhanced in vitro production of total IgE and anti-house dust mite IgE with concomitant increased production of IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 and decreased production of IFN-gamma and IL-12 in the patients with atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome. However, exposure

  13. Sesquiterpene lactone mix patch testing supplemented with dandelion extract in patients with allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis and non-allergic chronic inflammatory skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, M; Poljacki, M; Mimica-Dukić, N; Boza, P; Vujanović, Lj; Duran, V; Stojanović, S

    2004-09-01

    We investigated the value of patch testing with dandelion (Compositae) extract in addition to sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix in selected patients. After we detected a case of contact erythema multiforme after patch testing with dandelion and common chickweed (Caryophyllaceae), additional testing with common chickweed extract was performed. A total of 235 adults with a mean age of 52.3 years were tested. There were 66 men and 169 women: 53 consecutive patients with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD); 43 with atopic dermatitis (AD); 90 non-atopics suffering from non-allergic chronic inflammatory skin diseases; 49 healthy volunteers. All were tested with SL mix 0.1% petrolatum (pet.) and diethyl ether extracts from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) 0.1 and 3.0% pet. and from Stellaria media (common chickweed) 0.1 and 3% pet. A total of 14 individuals (5.9%) showed allergic reaction (AR) to at least 1 of the plant allergens, 4 (28.6%) to common chickweed extract, and 11 (78.6%) to Compositae allergens. These 11 persons made the overall prevalence of 4.7%: 8 (3.4%) were SL-positive and 3 (1.3%) reacted to dandelion extract. 5 persons (45.5%) had AD, 2 had ACD, 2 had psoriasis and 2 were healthy controls. The Compositae allergy was relevant in 8 cases (72.7%). The highest frequency of SL mix sensitivity (9.3%) was among those with AD. Half the SL mix-sensitive individuals had AD. ARs to dandelion extract were obtained only among patients with eczema. A total of 9 irritant reactions (IRs) in 9 individuals (3.8%) were recorded, 8 to SL mix and 1 to common chickweed extract 3.0% pet. No IR was recorded to dandelion extract (P = 0.007). Among those with relevant Compositae allergy, 50.0% had AR to fragrance mix and balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae resin) and colophonium. SLs were detected in dandelion but not in common chickweed. Our study confirmed the importance of 1 positive reaction for emerging, not fully established, Compositae allergy. In conclusion, the overall

  14. Developing drugs for treatment of atopic dermatitis in children (≥3 months to <18 years of age): Draft guidance for industry.

    PubMed

    Siegfried, Elaine C; Jaworski, Jennifer C; Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Paller, Amy; Hebert, Adelaide A; Simpson, Eric L; Altman, Emily; Arena, Charles; Blauvelt, Andrew; Block, Julie; Boguniewicz, Mark; Chen, Suephy; Cordoro, Kelly; Hanna, Diane; Horii, Kimberly; Hultsch, Thomas; Lee, James; Leung, Donald Y; Lio, Peter; Milner, Joshua; Omachi, Theodore; Schneider, Christine; Schneider, Lynda; Sidbury, Robert; Smith, Timothy; Sugarman, Jeffrey; Taha, Sharif; Tofte, Susan; Tollefson, Megha; Tom, Wynnis L; West, Dennis P; Whitney, Lucinda; Zane, Lee

    2018-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis is the most common chronic skin disease, and it primarily affects children. Although atopic dermatitis (AD) has the highest effect on burden of skin disease, no high-level studies have defined optimal therapy for severe disease. Corticosteroids have been used to treat AD since the 1950s and remain the only systemic medication with Food and Drug Administration approval for this indication in children, despite published guidelines of care that recommend against this option. Several clinical trials with level 1 evidence have supported the use of topical treatments for mild to moderate atopic dermatitis in adults and children, but these trials have had little consistency in protocol design. Consensus recommendations will help standardize clinical development and trial design for children. The Food and Drug Administration issues guidance documents for industry as a source for "the Agency's current thinking on a particular subject." Although they are nonbinding, industry considers these documents to be the standard for clinical development and trial design. Our consensus group is the first to specifically address clinical trial design in this population. We developed a draft guidance document for industry, Developing Drugs for Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis in Children (≥3 months to <18 years of age). This draft guidance has been submitted to the Food and Drug Administration based on a provision in the Federal Register (Good Guidance Practices). © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A pilot study of silver-loaded cellulose fabric with incorporated seaweed for the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Park, K Y; Jang, W S; Yang, G W; Rho, Y H; Kim, B J; Mun, S K; Kim, C W; Kim, M N

    2012-07-01

    Because clothing has the longest and most direct contact with human skin, it is important to carefully choose suitable fabrics for atopic patients who have disrupted skin. To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and biophysical properties of a newly developed silver-loaded cellulose fabric with incorporated seaweed, we enrolled 12 subjects with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis into a clinical control study. The subjects wore a two-piece garment (top and leggings), each piece of which was divided into two parts: one side was made of SkinDoctor(®) fabric, and the other of 100% cotton. Treatment efficacy was measured with the modified SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (mSCORAD) index, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and the patients' subjective impressions. All three of these measures had significantly better scores on the side covered with SkinDoctor. These results suggest that SkinDoctor is a beneficial fabric that can improve the comfort of patients with AD. © The Author(s). CED © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. [Observational study to evaluate the impact of an educational/informative intervention in the emotional status (anxiety) of patients with atopic dermatitis (CUIDA-DEL)].

    PubMed

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Lleonart, M; Balañá, M

    2007-05-01

    One of the first therapeutic measures in atopic dermatitis should be the educational and informative approach about prophylactic aspects and evolution of the disease. This type of proceedings has been shown to be beneficial for the anxious type of emotional status in patients with atopic dermatitis. We evaluated the impact of an educational/informative intervention in the emotional status (anxiety) of patients with atopic dermatitis in Spain. Investigators were randomized into two study groups: the control group (CG) that followed current clinical practice and the intervention group (IG) that handed patients, in each visit, a booklet of information about different prophylactic aspects and care of atopic dermatitis. The duration of the study was 6 months with quarterly visits. All included patients had a diagnosis of atopic dermatitis. Anxiety was evaluated with the STAI anxiety questionnaire and clinical data regarding dermatological aspects (IGA, pruritus scale, location of the lesions) were also recorded. A total of 1,247 patients were recruited thanks to the collaboration of 158 investigators. Patients were distributed as follows: 683 (54.7 %) in the CG and 564 (45.2 %) in the IG. Both group were homogeneous with respect to basal characteristics, and were constituted by 54 % of women with a mean age of 19 years. Eighty-six percent of atopic dermatitis lesions were preferentially located in extremities. Patients of both study groups showed improvement in their emotional status (trait and state anxiety) throughout the study with significant decreases in the STAI scores compared to basal ones. Regarding improvement in the questionnaire scores, no significant differences were observed between groups except in children aged 9 to 15 years, in the pediatric version of the STAI trait where the percentage of score decrease at 6 months adjusted to the basal score was 5.5 (19.0) for the CG and 10.6 (18.9) for the IG, (p < 0.05). A higher percentage of patients finished the

  17. Climate change and atopic dermatitis: is there a link?

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Giang Huong; Andersen, Louise Kronborg; Davis, Mark Denis P

    2018-06-05

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease with a growing health concern, because of its high prevalence and associated low quality of life. The etiology of AD is multifactorial with interaction between various factors such as genetic predisposition, immune, and importantly, environmental factors. Since climate change is associated with a profound shift in environmental factors, we suggest that AD is being influenced by climate change. This review highlights the effects of ultraviolet light, temperature, humidity, pollens, air pollutants, and their interaction between them contributing to the epidemiology and pathophysiology of AD. © 2018 The International Society of Dermatology.

  18. Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitor Therapies for Atopic Dermatitis: Progress and Outlook.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Jusleen; Udkoff, Jeremy; Waldman, Andrea; Borok, Jenna; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2017-09-01

    Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is a cyclic AMP degrading enzyme in leukocytes. Several decades ago, increased PDE activity was demonstrated in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Currently, several PDE4 inhibitors in both topical and oral formulation have been developed to target the inflammatory cascade of AD. This review shows the pathogenic rationale behind these inhibitors, and discusses multiple PDE4 inhibitors that are under evaluation or in the market. PDE4 inhibitors may be considered as favorable agents in the repertoire of current interventions for AD.

  19. Emollient treatment of atopic dermatitis: latest evidence and clinical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Jeng Sum Charmaine; Ng, Wing Gi Gigi; Leung, Ting Fan

    2018-01-01

    Aim To review current classes of emollients in the market, their clinical efficacy in atopic dermatitis (AD) and considerations for choice of an emollient. Methods PubMed Clinical Queries under Clinical Study Categories (with Category limited to Therapy and Scope limited to Narrow) and Systematic Reviews were used as the search engine. Keywords of ‘emollient or moisturizer’ and ‘atopic dermatitis’ were used. Overview of findings Using the keywords of ‘emollient’ and ‘atopic dermatitis’, there were 105 and 36 hits under Clinical Study Categories (with Category limited to Therapy and Scope limited to Narrow) and Systematic Reviews, respectively. Plant-derived products, animal products and special ingredients were discussed. Selected proprietary products were tabulated. Conclusions A number of proprietary emollients have undergone trials with clinical data available on PubMed-indexed journals. Most moisturizers showed some beneficial effects, but there was generally no evidence that one moisturizer is superior to another. Choosing an appropriate emollient for AD patients would improve acceptability and adherence for emollient treatment. Physician’s recommendation is the primary consideration for patients when selecting a moisturizer/emollient; therefore, doctors should provide evidence-based information about these emollients. PMID:29692852

  20. Distribution of Malassezia species on the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and healthy volunteers assessed by conventional and molecular identification methods.

    PubMed

    Jagielski, Tomasz; Rup, Elżbieta; Ziółkowska, Aleksandra; Roeske, Katarzyna; Macura, Anna B; Bielecki, Jacek

    2014-03-07

    The Malassezia yeasts which belong to the physiological microflora of human skin have also been implicated in several dermatological disorders, including pityriasis versicolor (PV), atopic dermatitis (AD), and psoriasis (PS). The Malassezia genus has repeatedly been revised and it now accommodates 14 species, all but one being lipid-dependent species. The traditional, phenotype-based identification schemes of Malassezia species are fraught with interpretative ambiguities and inconsistencies, and are thus increasingly being supplemented or replaced by DNA typing methods. The aim of this study was to explore the species composition of Malassezia microflora on the skin of healthy volunteers and patients with AD and PS. Species characterization was performed by conventional, culture-based methods and subsequently molecular techniques: PCR-RFLP and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1/2 regions and the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene. The Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis. Malassezia sympodialis was the predominant species, having been cultured from 29 (82.9%) skin samples collected from 17 out of 18 subjects under the study. Whereas AD patients yielded exclusively M. sympodialis isolates, M. furfur isolates were observed only in PS patients. The isolation of M. sympodialis was statistically more frequent among AD patients and healthy volunteers than among PS patients (P < 0.03). Whether this mirrors any predilection of particular Malassezia species for certain clinical conditions needs to be further evaluated. The overall concordance between phenotypic and molecular methods was quite high (65%), with the discordant results being rather due to the presence of multiple species in a single culture (co-colonization) than true misidentification. All Malassezia isolates were susceptible to cyclopiroxolamine and azole drugs, with M. furfur isolates being somewhat more drug tolerant than other Malassezia species

  1. Topical tacrolimus for atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cury Martins, Jade; Martins, Ciro; Aoki, Valeria; Gois, Aecio F T; Ishii, Henrique A; da Silva, Edina M K

    2015-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) (or atopic eczema) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that affects children and adults and has an important impact on quality of life. Topical corticosteroids (TCS) are the first-line therapy for this condition; however, they can be associated with significant adverse effects when used chronically. Tacrolimus ointment (in its 2 manufactured strengths of 0.1% and 0.03%) might be an alternative treatment. Tacrolimus, together with pimecrolimus, are drugs called topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs). To assess the efficacy and safety of topical tacrolimus for moderate and severe atopic dermatitis compared with other active treatments. We searched the following databases up to 3 June 2015: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library (Issue 5, 2015), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), LILACS (from 1982), and the Global Resource of Eczema Trials (GREAT database). We searched six trials registers and checked the bibliographies of included studies for further references to relevant trials. We contacted specialists in the field for unpublished data.A separate search for adverse effects of topical tacrolimus was undertaken in MEDLINE and EMBASE on 30 July 2013. We also scrutinised the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) websites for adverse effects information. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of participants with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (both children and adults) using topical tacrolimus at any dose, course duration, and follow-up time compared with other active treatments. Two authors independently screened and examined the full text of selected studies for compliance with eligibility criteria, risk of bias, and data extraction. Our three prespecified primary outcomes were physician's assessment, participant's self-assessment of improvement, and adverse effects. Our secondary outcomes included assessment of improvement of the disease by validated or objective measures, such as

  2. Assessment of a correlation between Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI-03) and selected biophysical skin measures (skin hydration, pH, and erythema intensity) in dogs with naturally occurring atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Zając, Marcin; Szczepanik, Marcin P; Wilkołek, Piotr M; Adamek, Łukasz R; Pomorski, Zbigniew J H; Sitkowski, Wiesław; Gołyński, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common allergic skin disease in dogs. The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of a correlation between biophysical skin variables: skin hydration (SH), skin pH, and erythema intensity measured in 10 different body regions and both total Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI-03) and CADESI measured in a given region (CADESI L). The study was conducted using 33 dogs with atopic dermatitis. The assessment of the biophysical variables was done in 10 body regions: the lumbar region, right axillary fossa, right inguinal region, ventral abdominal region, right lateral thorax region, internal surface of the auricle, interdigital region of right forelimb, cheek, bridge of nose, and lateral site of antebrachum. Positive correlations were found between SH and CADESI L for the following regions: the inguinal region (r = 0.73) and the interdigital region (r = 0.82), as well as between total CADESI and SH on digital region (r = 0.52). Also, positive correlations were reported for skin pH and CADESI L in the lumbar region (r = 0.57), the right lateral thorax region (r = 0.40), and the lateral antebrachum (r = 0.35). Positive correlations were found in the interdigital region between erythema intensity and the total CADESI-03 (r = 0.60) as well as the CADESI L (r = 0.7). The results obtained suggest that it may be possible to use skin hydration, pH, and erythema intensity to assess the severity of skin lesion but positive correlation was only found in < 13.3% of possible correlations and usage of these measures in dogs is limited.

  3. Assessment of a correlation between Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI-03) and selected biophysical skin measures (skin hydration, pH, and erythema intensity) in dogs with naturally occurring atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zając, Marcin; Szczepanik, Marcin P.; Wilkołek, Piotr M.; Adamek, Łukasz R.; Pomorski, Zbigniew J.H.; Sitkowski, Wiesław; Gołyński, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common allergic skin disease in dogs. The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of a correlation between biophysical skin variables: skin hydration (SH), skin pH, and erythema intensity measured in 10 different body regions and both total Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI-03) and CADESI measured in a given region (CADESI L). The study was conducted using 33 dogs with atopic dermatitis. The assessment of the biophysical variables was done in 10 body regions: the lumbar region, right axillary fossa, right inguinal region, ventral abdominal region, right lateral thorax region, internal surface of the auricle, interdigital region of right forelimb, cheek, bridge of nose, and lateral site of antebrachum. Positive correlations were found between SH and CADESI L for the following regions: the inguinal region (r = 0.73) and the interdigital region (r = 0.82), as well as between total CADESI and SH on digital region (r = 0.52). Also, positive correlations were reported for skin pH and CADESI L in the lumbar region (r = 0.57), the right lateral thorax region (r = 0.40), and the lateral antebrachum (r = 0.35). Positive correlations were found in the interdigital region between erythema intensity and the total CADESI-03 (r = 0.60) as well as the CADESI L (r = 0.7). The results obtained suggest that it may be possible to use skin hydration, pH, and erythema intensity to assess the severity of skin lesion but positive correlation was only found in < 13.3% of possible correlations and usage of these measures in dogs is limited. PMID:25852229

  4. Development of a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic/disease progression model in NC/Nga mice for development of novel anti-atopic dermatitis drugs.

    PubMed

    Baek, In-Hwan; Lee, Byung-Yo; Chae, Jung-Woo; Song, Gyu Yong; Kang, Wonku; Kwon, Kwang-Il

    2014-11-01

    1. JHL45, a novel immune modulator against atopic dermatitis (AD), was synthesized from decursin isolated from Angelica gigas. The goal is to evaluate the lead compound using quantitative modeling approaches to novel anti-AD drug development. 2. We tested the anti-inflammatory effect of JHL45 by in vitro screening, characterized its in vitro pharmacokinetic (PK) properties. The dose-dependent efficacy of JHL45 was developed using a pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics/disease progression (PK/PD/DIS) model in NC/Nga mice. 3. JHL45 has drug-like properties and pharmacological effects when administered orally to treat atopic dermatitis. The developed PK/PD/DIS model described well the rapid metabolism of JHL45, double-peak phenomenon in the PK of decursinol and inhibition of IgE generation by compounds in NC/Nga mice. Also, a quantitative model was developed and used to elucidate the complex interactions between serum IgE concentration and atopic dermatitis symptoms. 4. Our findings indicate that JHL45 has good physicochemical properties and powerful pharmacological effects when administered orally for treatment of AD in rodents.

  5. Current and emerging topical therapies for atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Udkoff, Jeremy; Waldman, Andrea; Ahluwalia, Jusleen; Borok, Jenna; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    The pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) involves epidermal barrier dysfunction and T helper cell type 2 (T h 2) lymphocyte-driven inflammation. Cytokines, such as interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-13, are important in this reaction. They stimulate B cells to produce immunoglobulin E, causing atopic disease. This process has been well characterized, and new therapies for AD, such as phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE-4) inhibitors, T h 2-expressed chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule antagonists, and Janus kinase inhibitors, work by antagonizing this cellular pathway. Recently, there have been many advances in treatment strategies and novel therapies for AD. This review summarizes the clinical evidence supporting the use of current and emerging topical treatments for AD, as well as their safety and efficacy profiles. Crisaborole, a novel PDE-4 inhibitor, is of particular note because phase III clinical trials were recently completed, as summarized here. It is prudent for dermatologists to be current with updates in the field because therapies are constantly changing. In addition to the academic interest, this results in improvement of patient care and advancement of the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. House Dust Mite Prevalence in the House of Patients with Atopic Dermatitis in Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ziyaei, Toktam; Berenji, Fariba; Jabbari-Azad, Farahzad; Fata, Abdolmajid; Jarahi, Lida; Fereidouni, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Background: Being exposed to house dust mites intensifies atopic dermatitis. This study has investigated the contamination rate with Dermatophagoides mites in patient’s residential home with atopic dermatitis. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 40 patients took part with atopic dermatitis (positive or negative for mites by prick Dermal Test). Samples were collected from 3 locations (living room, bedroom and bed) by vacuum cleaner. Dust samples (transferred to freezer −20 °C) were examined by direct method and flotation. The data were analyzed using statistical SPSS vr.20 software. Results: Twenty patients of positive prick test included 8 (40%) male and 12 (60%) female. The results of direct observation of mites: 7 cases (35%) in bedding sheets, 6 cases (30%) bedrooms’ carpet, 3 cases (15%) living room’s carpet. Twenty patients of negative prick test included 8 (40%) male and 12 (60%) female. Only mites were found (5%) in living room’s carpets of negative prick test patients. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was more frequent than Dermatophagoides farinae. (98% vs 83%). Conclusion: Fifty-five percent of residential homes of prick test positive patients and only 5% of residential homes of prick test negative patients were positive for mite. Sunshine provided home had fewer mites than home where sunshine is not provided. Prick test positive patients used handmade carpets more than machine made ones. In positive prick test patients, mites were found in bed sheet and bedroom’s carpet more than negative prick test patient’s sheets and carpets. PMID:29062855

  7. Association of Severe Atopic Dermatitis with month of birth in Armenian pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Sargsyan, Anna; Gupta, Jayanta; Ghosh, Debajyoti

    2018-04-26

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing skin disease which affects 15-20% of children worldwide.(1) It is also considered as a major risk factor for developing other atopic diseases including food allergy, asthma and allergic rhinitis later in life - a phenomenon known as the "atopic march". Multiple factors, including season of birth and associated perinatal environmental conditions, have been known to play important roles in the manifestation of AD.(2) Moreover, about 20% of patients with AD have moderate-to-severe disease, which is associated with significantly lower quality of life, imposing considerable burden on the nation's health-care resources.(3) Therefore, studying severe AD patients might be very important in managing overall AD-related disease burden. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Nuclear microprobe investigation of the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide into human skin affected by atopic dermatitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szikszai, Z.; Kertész, Zs.; Bodnár, E.; Borbíró, I.; Angyal, A.; Csedreki, L.; Furu, E.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Kiss, Á. Z.; Hunyadi, J.

    2011-10-01

    Skin penetration is one of the potential routes for nanoparticles to gain access into the human body. Ultrafine metal oxides, such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are widely used in cosmetic and health products like sunscreens. These oxides are potent UV filters and the particle size smaller than 200 nm makes the product more transparent compared to formulations containing coarser particles. The present study continues the work carried out in the frame of the NANODERM: “Quality of skin as a barrier to ultrafine particles” European project and complements our previous investigations on human skin with compromised barrier function. Atopic dermatitis (a type of eczema) is an inflammatory, chronically relapsing, non-contagious skin disease. It is very common in children but may occur at any age. The exact cause of atopic dermatitis is unknown, but is likely due to a combination of impaired barrier function together with a malfunction in the body's immune system. In this study, skin samples were obtained from two patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Our results indicate that the ultrafine zinc oxide particles, in a hydrophobic basis gel with an application time of 2 days or 2 weeks, have penetrated deeply into the stratum corneum in these patients. On the other hand, penetration into the stratum spinosum was not observed even in the case of the longer application time.

  9. Utility of Boron in Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Jackson, David G; Cardwell, Leah A; Oussedik, Elias; Feldman, Steven R

    2017-08-09

    Boron compounds are being investigated as therapies for dermatologic conditions. Several features of boron chemistry make this element an ideal component in dermatologic treatments. We review the published dermatologically-relevant clinical trials and case studies pertaining to boron compounds. PubMed was utilized to query terms boron, chemistry, drug, development, dermatology, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, onychomycosis, tavaborole, AN 2690, crisaborole, and AN 2728. Clinical trials, case studies, animal studies and in vitro studies. pertaining to atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and onychomycosis were included. Crisaborole 2% topical solution reduced atopic dermatitis lesions by approximately 60% when compared to pre-treatment baseline. Crisaborole maintains its dose-dependent effect in treatment of psoriasis and significantly reduces psoriatic plaques when compared to controls. Adverse effects were mild, frequency of events varied between studies. Crisaborole was well tolerated when applied to sensitive skin. Topical tavaborole significantly reduced or eliminated onychomycosis with minimal side effects compared to placebo. Tavaborole was effective in treating recalcitrant onychomycosis. Boron-based compounds form stable interactions with enzyme targets and are safe medications for the treatment of atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and onychomycosis. The mild and rare side effects of topical boron-based compounds may make them ideal treatments for individuals with sensitive skin and pediatric populations.

  10. Quality of Life of Parents of Children with Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Joanna; Reich, Adam; Szepietowski, Jacek C

    2017-06-09

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic dermatitis in children. The influence of AD on quality of life of parents of children with AD was studied using the Family Dermatology Life Quality Index (FDLQI). Fifty children with AD were included in the study (age range 2-24 months) together with their parents. Children's AD was found to influence the quality of life of both parents; however, it had a more significant influence on quality of life of mothers than that of fathers (mean FDLQI: 17.1 ± 5.3 vs. 14.7 ± 5.8 points; p < 0.001). Due to the children's AD, mothers spent more time caring for them and carried out more household duties. Childhood AD had a greater impact on quality of life of fathers through influence on their work or education. The influence of AD on the quality of life of family members is significant, and this should be taken into account in the therapeutic process.

  11. Topical application of rapamycin ointment ameliorates Dermatophagoides farina body extract-induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Tanaka, Mari; Wataya-Kaneda, Mari; Yang, Lingli; Nakamura, Ayumi; Matsumoto, Shoji; Attia, Mostafa; Murota, Hiroyuki; Katayama, Ichiro

    2014-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD), a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by relapsing eczema and intense prurigo, requires effective and safe pharmacological therapy. Recently, rapamycin, an mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor, has been reported to play a critical role in immune responses and has emerged as an effective immunosuppressive drug. In this study, we assessed whether inhibition of mTOR signalling could suppress dermatitis in mice. Rapamycin was topically applied to inflamed skin in a murine AD model that was developed by repeated topical application of Dermatophagoides farina body (Dfb) extract antigen twice weekly for 7 weeks in NC/Nga mice. The efficacy of topical rapamycin treatment was evaluated immunologically and serologically. Topical application of rapamycin reduced inflammatory cell infiltration in the dermis, alleviated the increase of serum IgE levels and resulted in a significant reduction in clinical skin condition score and marked improvement of histological findings. In addition, increased mTOR phosphorylation in the lesional skin was observed in our murine AD model. Topical application of rapamycin ointment inhibited Dfb antigen-induced dermatitis in NC/Nga mice, promising a new therapy for atopic dermatitis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Atopic Dermatitis 2016.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Hidehisa; Nakahara, Takeshi; Tanaka, Akio; Kabashima, Kenji; Sugaya, Makoto; Murota, Hiroyuki; Ebihara, Tamotsu; Kataoka, Yoko; Aihara, Michiko; Etoh, Takafumi; Katoh, Norito

    2016-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a disease characterized by relapsing eczema with pruritus as a primary lesion. Most patients have an atopic predisposition. The definitive diagnosis of AD requires the presence of all three features: (i) pruritus; (ii) typical morphology and distribution of the eczema; and (iii) chronic and chronically relapsing course. The current strategies to treat AD in Japan from the perspective of evidence-based medicine consist of three primary measures: (i) the use of topical corticosteroids and tacrolimus ointment as the main treatment for the inflammation; (ii) topical application of emollients to treat the cutaneous barrier dysfunction; and (iii) avoidance of apparent exacerbating factors, psychological counseling and advice about daily life. The guidelines present recommendations to review clinical research articles, evaluate the balance between the advantages and disadvantages of medical activities, and optimize medical activity-related patient outcomes with respect to several important points requiring decision-making in clinical practice. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  13. Molecular Mechanisms of Cutaneous Inflammatory Disorder: Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Eun; Kim, Jong Sic; Cho, Dae Ho; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease resulting from interactions between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. The pathogenesis of AD is poorly understood, and the treatment of recalcitrant AD is still challenging. There is accumulating evidence for new gene polymorphisms related to the epidermal barrier function and innate and adaptive immunity in patients with AD. Newly-found T cells and dendritic cell subsets, cytokines, chemokines and signaling pathways have extended our understanding of the molecular pathomechanism underlying AD. Genetic changes caused by environmental factors have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of AD. We herein present a review of the genetics, epigenetics, barrier dysfunction and immunological abnormalities in AD with a focus on updated molecular biology. PMID:27483258

  14. 21 CFR 358.750 - Labeling of drug products for the control of dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of drug products for the control of... DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Drug Products for the Control of Dandruff, Seborrheic Dermatitis, and Psoriasis § 358.750 Labeling of drug products for the control of dandruff, seborrheic...

  15. 21 CFR 358.750 - Labeling of drug products for the control of dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of drug products for the control of... DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Drug Products for the Control of Dandruff, Seborrheic Dermatitis, and Psoriasis § 358.750 Labeling of drug products for the control of dandruff, seborrheic...

  16. 21 CFR 358.750 - Labeling of drug products for the control of dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of drug products for the control of... DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Drug Products for the Control of Dandruff, Seborrheic Dermatitis, and Psoriasis § 358.750 Labeling of drug products for the control of dandruff, seborrheic...

  17. High circulating folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations in women during pregnancy are associated with increased prevalence of atopic dermatitis in their offspring.

    PubMed

    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Timmermans, Sarah; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A; de Jongste, Johan C; Moll, Henriette A

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that in utero exposure of methyl donors influences programming of the fetal immune system in favor of development of allergic disease. The aim of this study was to assess whether the MTHFR C677T polymorphism, folic acid supplementation, and circulating folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy were associated with wheezing, shortness of breath, and atopic dermatitis in offspring. The study was a population-based birth cohort from fetal life until 48 mo (n = 8742). The use of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy was assessed by questionnaire. Plasma folate and serum vitamin B-12 concentrations and the MTHFR C677T polymorphism were available from blood collected in early pregnancy. Atopic dermatitis, wheezing, and shortness of breath in the offspring were assessed by parental-derived questionnaires at 12, 24, 36, and 48 mo. Maternal folate >16.2 nmol/L and vitamin B-12 >178 pmol/L were positively associated with the development of atopic dermatitis [adjusted OR: 1.18 (95% CI: 1.05-1.33) and adjusted OR: 1.30 (95% CI: 1.06-1.60) for the highest quartiles of folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations, respectively] but not with wheezing and shortness of breath. Maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism and folic acid supplementation were not associated with wheezing, shortness of breath, and atopic dermatitis. No interactions were found by age, family history of atopy, folic acid supplementation, MTHFR C677T polymorphism, or maternal smoking (P-interaction > 0.10). High folate and vitamin B-12 levels during pregnancy are associated with increased prevalence of atopic dermatitis in the offspring. Potential risks of high folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations on allergic outcomes should be evaluated when discussing mandatory fortification programs.

  18. Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy with Monomeric Allergoid in a Mouse Model of Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Babakhin, Alexander; Andreev, Sergey; Nikonova, Alexandra; Shilovsky, Igor; Buzuk, Andrey; Elisyutina, Olga; Fedenko, Elena; Khaitov, Musa

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a widespread and difficult to treat allergic skin disease and is a tough challenge for healthcare. In this study, we investigated whether allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) with a monomeric allergoid obtained by succinylation of ovalbumin (sOVA) is effective in a mouse model of atopic dermatitis. An experimental model of AD was reproduced by epicutaneous sensitization with ovalbumin (OVA). ASIT was performed with subcutaneous (SC) administration of increasing doses of OVA or sOVA. The levels of anti-OVA antibodies, as well as cytokines, were detected by ELISA. Skin samples from patch areas were taken for histologic examination. ASIT with either OVA or sOVA resulted in a reduction of both the anti-OVA IgE level and the IgG1/IgG2a ratio. Moreover, ASIT with sOVA increased the IFN-γ level in supernatants after splenocyte stimulation with OVA. Histologic analysis of skin samples from the sites of allergen application showed that ASIT improved the histologic picture by decreasing allergic inflammation in comparison with untreated mice. These data suggest that ASIT with a succinylated allergen represents promising approach for the treatment of AD. PMID:26275152

  19. Bacterial pattern and antibiotic sensitivity in children and adolescents with infected atopic dermatitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samosir, C. T.; Ruslie, R. H.; Rusli, R. E.

    2018-03-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a pruritic and chronic inflammatory skin disease which affected approximately 20% in children. Bacterial infection is common in AD patients and correlates directly with AD severity. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of bacterial skin infection in AD patients and its relation with severity of AD and also to study bacteria in the infected AD and its antibiotic sensitivity. Samples were 86 children and adolescents with an AD in Helvetia Community Health Center Medan from March 2016 until February 2017. Index of SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) was used to evaluate the severity of AD. Lesion and nonlesional skinwere swabbed to take sterile cultures. All bacteria noted and tested for antibiotic sensitivity. Datawere by using Chi-Square and Mann Whitney test with 95% CI and p-value<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Fifty-six AD patients (65.1%) were bacterial infected. There was a significant relationship between severity of AD and bacterial infection (p = 0.006). Staphylococcus aureus was the leading bacteria from all degrees of AD severity. Isolated Staphylococcus aureuswas sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanate (93.3%), clindamycin (90%), erythromycin (90%), and gentamicin (90%), while sensitivity to tetracycline was low (20%).

  20. Modulation of experimental atopic dermatitis by topical application of Gami-Cheongyeul-Sodok-Eum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gami-Cheongyeul-Sodok-Eum (GCSE), an herbal formula of traditional Korean medicine, comprises nine herb components. GCSE has various biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-viral activities. However, it is still unclear whether GCSE has any immunomodulatory effect on atopic dermatitis (AD). Methods GCSE was treated to primary B cells and CD4+ T cells isolated from atopic mice to compare its inhibitory effects on IgE secretion and cytokine expression. Experimental AD was established by alternative treatment of 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and house dust mite extract to the ears of BALB/c mice. GCSE was topically applied to ears of atopic mice every day for 3 weeks. AD progression was analyzed by measuring ear thickness, serum IgE level, histological examination of ear tissue by H&E staining and cytokine profile of CD4+ T cells and CD19+ B cells by real time PCR and ELISA. Results Treatment of GCSE significantly reduced IgE production and expression of AD associated pathogenic cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, TNF-α, and IFN-γ by lymphocytes isolated from AD-induced mice. Topical application of GCSE on the ears of AD-induced mice significantly reduced ear thickness, clinical score and lymphocytes infiltration to ears as compared to control group. GCSE treatment also reduced serum IgE level and the levels of major pathogenic cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 and IL-17. In addition, GCSE treatment significantly increased Foxp3 expression level. Conclusions The protective effect of GCSE in experimental AD is mediated by inhibition of IgE production, by reduction in the levels of pathogenic cytokines and by induction of Foxp3, all of which are suggesting the beneficial effect of GCSE on modulating atopic dermatitis. PMID:24499290

  1. A Pragmatic Approach to Patch Testing Atopic Dermatitis Patients: Clinical Recommendations Based on Expert Consensus Opinion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jennifer K; Jacob, Sharon E; Nedorost, Susan T; Hanifin, Jon M; Simpson, Eric L; Boguniewicz, Mark; Watsky, Kalman L; Lugo-Somolinos, Aida; Hamann, Carsten R; Eberting, Cheryl Lee; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) may complicate the clinical course of atopic dermatitis (AD), and patch testing remains the criterion standard for diagnosing ACD. To date, there have been no guidelines or consensus recommendations on when and how to patch test individuals with AD. Failure to patch test when appropriate may result in overlooking an important and potentially curable complicating comorbidity. In this article, we present consensus recommendations regarding when to perform patch testing in the AD patient, best practices, and common pitfalls. Patch testing should be considered in AD patients with dermatitis that fails to improve with topical therapy; with atypical/changing distribution of dermatitis, or pattern suggestive of ACD; with therapy-resistant hand eczema in the working population; with adult- or adolescent-onset AD; and/or before initiating systemic immunosuppressants for the treatment of dermatitis. A suggested patch testing algorithm for AD patients is provided.

  2. Allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and asthma are associated with differences in school performance among Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have reported negative relations between allergic diseases and school performance but have not simultaneously considered various allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis, and only examined a limited number of participants. The present study investigated the associations of allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis with school performance in a large, representative Korean adolescent population. A total of 299,695 7th through 12th grade students participated in the Korea Youth Risk Behaviour Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2009 to 2013. The subjects' history of allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis and number of school absences due to these diseases in the previous 12 months were examined and compared. School performance was classified into 5 levels. The relations between allergic disorders and school performance were analyzed using multiple logistic regressions with complex sampling and adjusted for the subjects' durations of sleep, days of physical activity, body mass indexes (BMIs), regions of residence, economic levels, parents' education levels, stress levels, smoking status, and alcohol use. A subgroup analysis of the economic groups was performed. Allergic rhinitis was positively correlated with better school performance in a dose-dependent manner (adjusted odds ratios, AOR, [95% confidence interval, CI] = 1.50 [1.43-1.56 > 1.33 [1.28-1.38] > 1.17 [1.13-1.22] > 1.09 [1.05-1.14] for grades A > B > C > D; P < 0.001). Asthma was negatively correlated with better school performance (AOR [95% CI] = 0.74 [0.66-0.83], 0.87 [0.79-0.96], 0.83 [0.75-0.91], 0.93 [0.85-1.02] for performance A, B, C, and D, respectively; P < 0.001). Atopic dermatitis was not significantly correlated with school performance. The subgroup analysis of the students' economic levels revealed associations between allergic diseases and school performance. Compared to other allergic disorders, the asthma group had more school

  3. The alkylphenols 4-nonylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol and 4-tert-butylphenol aggravate atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Sadakane, Kaori; Ichinose, Takamichi; Takano, Hirohisa; Yanagisawa, Rie; Koike, Eiko; Inoue, Ken-ichiro

    2014-08-01

    Phthalate esters in plastics act as adjuvants for immunoglobulin production, which aggravates allergic disease. However, the effects of alkylphenols (used as plasticizers and surfactants) on atopic dermatitis have not been studied in detail. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of the alkylphenols 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) and 4-tert-butylphenol (BP) in a murine model of atopic dermatitis. NC/Nga mice were intraperitoneally administered NP, OP or BP and were subcutaneously injected with mite allergen in one ear to induce atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions (ADSLs). The condition of the skin was observed, and the levels of immunoglobulin in serum and inflammatory cytokines in lesions were determined. NP exacerbated mite allergen-induced ADSLs according to dose. OP and BP also significantly exacerbated skin lesions but not as a function of dose. Alkylphenols tended to increase the levels of IgE and antigen-specific IgG1 in serum. Further, the treatment of the alkylphenols increased the expression in lesions of inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-4 and monocyte chemotactic protein-3. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin levels increased according to ADSL severity. In contrast, the levels of the T-helper 1 cytokines (interleukin-18 and interferon-gamma) decreased. NP, OP or BP may enhance T-helper 2-type immune responses in NC/Nga mice, which aggravates mite allergen-induced ADSLs. Therefore, the uptake of very low levels of alkylphenols may contribute to the increase in the incidence of atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Lower Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis and Allergic Sensitization among Children and Adolescents with a Two-Sided Migrant Background.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Sinja Alexandra; Schmitz, Roma; Thamm, Michael; Ellert, Ute

    2016-02-26

    In industrialized countries atopic diseases have been reported to be less likely in children and adolescents with a migrant background compared to non-migrants. This paper aimed at both examining and comparing prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis and allergic sensitization to specific IgE antibodies in children and adolescents with and without a migrant background. Using data of the population-based German Health Interview and Examination Survey for children and adolescents (KiGGS;n = 17,450; 0-17 years), lifetime and 12-month prevalence of atopic diseases and point prevalence of 20 common allergic sensitizations were investigated among migrants compared to non-migrants. Multiple regression models were used to estimate the association of atopic disease and allergic sensitization with migrant background. In multivariate analyses with substantial adjustment we found atopic dermatitis about one-third less often (OR 0.73, 0.57-0.93) in participants with a two-sided migrant background. Statistically significant associations between allergic sensitizations and a two-sided migrant background remained for birch (OR 0.73, 0.58-0.90), soybean (OR 0.72, 0.54-0.96), peanut (OR 0.69, 0.53-0.90), rice (OR 0.64, 0.48-0.87), potato (OR 0.64, 0.48-0.85), and horse dander (OR 0.58, 0.40-0.85). Environmental factors and living conditions might be responsible for the observed differences.

  5. Evaluation of cyclosporine-sparing effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Müller, M R; Linek, M; Löwenstein, C; Röthig, A; Doucette, K; Thorstensen, K; Mueller, R S

    2016-04-01

    A randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled multicentre trial was conducted in 36 dogs with atopic dermatitis to evaluate the cyclosporine-sparing effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dogs were stable on their individual cyclosporine dosage and received either a mainly omega-3 fatty acid product with a minor omega-6 fatty acid fraction or placebo, orally for 12 weeks. Dogs were examined every 4 weeks and the Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI-03) was determined by a clinician. Pruritus, quality of life, global condition and coat quality were scored by the owner. If the dog's CADESI-03 and/or pruritus score improved by at least 25% compared with the previous visit, the cyclosporine dosage was decreased by approximately 25%. If the scores deteriorated by at least 25%, the cyclosporine dosage was increased by the same percentage. The median daily cyclosporine dosage/kg bodyweight decreased in the active group from 4.1 mg to 2.6 mg and in the placebo group from 3.5 mg to 3.3 mg over the study period. The difference between the two groups was significant (P = 0.009). The improvement in median pruritus score from inclusion to completion was significantly greater in the active group than in the placebo group (P = 0.04). There was no significant difference in CADESI-03 changes between groups (P = 0.38). The results of this study indicate a cyclosporine-sparing effect of a mainly omega-3 fatty acid supplement in dogs with atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The efficacy of cyclosporine A in cats with presumed atopic dermatitis: a double blind, randomised prednisolone-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Wisselink, Marinus A; Willemse, Ton

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of cyclosporine A (CsA) and prednisolone in feline atopic dermatitis (AD) in a randomised, controlled double blind study. Twenty-nine cats with feline AD were randomly allocated to two groups. Eleven cats were treated orally with prednisolone (1mg/kg SID) and 18 were treated with CsA (5mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. At day 0 (D0) and D28, skin lesions were graded by means of the canine atopic dermatitis extent and severity index (CADESI). Skin biopsies and intradermal allergy tests were performed at D0 and blood samples for haematology and serum biochemistry were collected at D0 and D28. During the trial the cat owners were asked to evaluate the intensity of the pruritus once weekly on a linear analog scale and to record side effects. Based on the CADESI there was no significant difference between the two groups in the amount of remission (P=0.0562) or in the number of cats that improved by >25% (P=0.0571). The effect of CsA and prednisolone on pruritus as evaluated by the owners was not significantly different (P=0.41) between the two groups. No serious side effects were observed. The conclusion was that CsA is an effective alternative to prednisolone therapy in cats with presumed atopic dermatitis.

  7. High dose intravenous immunoglobulin in atopic dermatitis and hyper-IgE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wakim, M; Alazard, M; Yajima, A; Speights, D; Saxon, A; Stiehm, E R

    1998-08-01

    High dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory properties that might benefit illnesses with exaggerated IgE responses including atopic dermatitis and hyper-IgE immunodeficiency syndrome. To determine if high-dose IVIG would be of benefit to patients with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hyper-IgE syndrome using serial clinical, pulmonary, and laboratory studies for evaluation. This was an open label study in which we gave patients with hyper-IgE syndrome (n = 1) or severe atopic dermatitis (n = 9) IVIG as a 10% solution (Venoglobulin I-Alpha Therapeutic Corporation, Los Angeles, CA) at a dose of 2 g/kg every 30 days for seven infusions. Therapy was completed in nine of the ten patients. Skin disease improved slightly in six patients, remained unchanged in two patients, and worsened slightly in one patient. The average daily prednisone dosage was 6.8 mg/day prior to treatment and 5.1 mg/day during IVIG therapy (P = .1250). The three patients with abnormal pulmonary function showed very mild improvement of pulmonary function during treatment, but returned to baseline during follow-up. Flow cytometric studies showed no consistent pattern of change. IgA and IgM levels were unchanged. The mean serum IgE levels went from 3221+/-2454 IU/mL (SD) before IVIG to 2944+/-2491 IU/mL (P = .4609) during IVIG and then to 2321+/-2229 IU/mL (P = .1484) during the 6-month follow-up period. In vitro IgE production of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) following IL-4 and anti-CD40 stimulation before IVIG was 6.6+/-3.1 ng/mL (SD) and 4.3+/-3.1 ng/mL (P = .1641) after six IVIG treatments. There were no significant trends in lymphocyte proliferative responses to PHA (phytohemaglutinin), Candida, tetanus, and anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody. Radioallergosorbent (RAST) testing showed no clear changes from positivity to negativity. We conclude that IVIG was of no clear clinical benefit in these nine patients and did not significantly decrease Ig

  8. A randomized controlled double blind investigation of the effects of Vitamin D dietary supplementation in subjects with atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hata, Tissa R.; Audish, David; Kotol, Paul; Coda, Alvin; Kabigting, Filamer; Miller, Jeremiah; Alexandrescu, Doru; Boguniewicz, Mark; Taylor, Patricia; Aertker, Leela; Kesler, Karen; Hanifin, Jon M.; Leung, Donald Y.M.; Gallo, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Subjects with atopic dermatitis (AD) have defects in antimicrobial peptide (AMP) production possibly contributing to an increased risk of infections. In laboratory models, vitamin D can alter innate immunity by increasing AMP production. Objective To determine if AD severity correlates with baseline vitamin D levels, and to test whether supplementation with oral vitamin D alters AMP production in AD skin. Methods This was a multi-center, placebo controlled, double-blind study in 30 subjects with AD, 30 non-atopic subjects, and 16 subjects with psoriasis. Subjects were randomized to receive either 4000 IU of cholecalciferol or placebo for 21 days. At baseline and day 21, levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), cathelicidin, HBD-3, IL-13, and Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) and Rajka-Langeland scores were obtained. Results At baseline, 20% of AD subjects had serum 25OHD below 20 ng/ml. Low serum 25OHD correlated with increased Fitzpatrick Skin Type and elevated BMI, but not AD severity. After 21 days of oral cholecalciferol, mean serum 25OHD increased, but there was no significant change in skin cathelicidin, HBD-3, IL-13, or EASI scores. Conclusions This study illustrated that darker skin types and elevated BMI are important risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in subjects with AD, and highlighted the possibility that seasonality and locale may be potent contributors to cathelicidin induction through their effect on steady state 25OHD levels. Given the molecular links between vitamin D and immune function, further study of vitamin D supplementation in subjects with AD is warranted. PMID:23638978

  9. The Epithelial Cell-derived Atopic Dermatitis Cytokine TSLP Activates Neurons to Induce Itch

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sarah R.; Thé, Lydia; Batia, Lyn M.; Beattie, Katherine; Katibah, George E.; McClain, Shannan P.; Pellegrino, Maurizio; Estandian, Daniel M.; Bautista, Diana M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic itch and inflammatory disorder of the skin that affects one in ten people. Patients suffering from severe AD eventually progress to develop asthma and allergic rhinitis, in a process known as the “atopic march.” Signaling between epithelial cells and innate immune cells via the cytokine Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP) is thought to drive AD and the atopic march. Here we report that epithelial cells directly communicate to cutaneous sensory neurons via TSLP to promote itch. We identify the ORAI1/NFAT calcium signaling pathway as an essential regulator of TSLP release from keratinocytes, the primary epithelial cells of the skin. TSLP then acts directly on a subset of TRPA1-positive sensory neurons to trigger robust itch behaviors. Our results support a new model whereby calcium-dependent TSLP release by keratinocytes activates both primary afferent neurons and immune cells to promote inflammatory responses in the skin and airways. PMID:24094650

  10. Probiotics and Atopic Dermatitis: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Rather, Irfan A; Bajpai, Vivek K; Kumar, Sanjay; Lim, Jeongheui; Paek, Woon K; Park, Yong-Ha

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, recurrent, chronic inflammatory skin disease that is a cause of considerable economic and social burden. Its prevalence varies substantially among different countries with an incidence rate proclaimed to reach up to 20% of children in developed countries and continues to escalate in developing nations. This increased rate of incidence has changed the focus of research on AD toward epidemiology, prevention, and treatment. The effects of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of AD remain elusive. However, evidence from different research groups show that probiotics could have positive effect on AD treatment, if any, that depend on multiple factors, such as specific probiotic strains, time of administration (onset time), duration of exposure, and dosage. However, till date we still lack strong evidence to advocate the use of probiotics in the treatment of AD, and questions remain to be answered considering its clinical use in future. Based on updated information, the processes that facilitate the development of AD and the topic of the administration of probiotics are addressed in this review.

  11. [Atopic dermatitis - risk factors and treatment].

    PubMed

    Zaleska, Martyna; Trojacka, Ewelina; Savitskyi, Stepan; Terlikowska-Brzósko, Agnieszka; Galus, Ryszard

    2017-08-21

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by severe itching and eczematic skin lesions. In Poland from 1.5 to 2.5 million people suffer from AD. The pathophysiologic complexity and the wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes cause diagnostic and therapeutic problems and this is the basis for the division of the disease into subtypes. Heterogeneity of the disease is also confirmed in the study of the genotype of the disease. In relation with AZS more than 1000 loci in chromosomes were demonstrated. The roles of certain genes and the pathophysiology of lesions caused by their polymorphism were described. Wide spectrums of AD risk factors are: cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption during pregnancy, obesity and high and low birth weight. The quality of life in patients with AD is impaired, the disease disrupts family and professional relationships. Biological medical products are an example of an individual approach to the treatment of AD. It seems, individual approach to disease and treatment can be a successive solution to the problem.

  12. Pigmentary changes and atopic dermatitis in a patient with Seckel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brackeen, Amy; Babb-Tarbox, Michelle; Smith, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Seckel syndrome is a very rare form of primordial dwarfism characterized by antenatal and postnatal growth delay, proportionate extreme short stature, a prominent beak-like nose, hypoplasia of the malar area, small chin, microcephaly, deformed ears lacking lobules, skeletal malformations, mental retardation, and developmental delay. This syndrome has been described with associated disorders of orthopedic, neurologic, hematologic, cardiac, and ocular systems; however, only a few reports mention dermatologic involvement. We describe a 5-year-old girl with classic Seckel syndrome who presented with moderately severe atopic dermatitis and diffuse hypopigmented macules and papules.

  13. Surveillance of home environment in children with atopic dermatitis: a questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Hyun; Suh, Jungmin; Kim, Eun Hye; Cho, Joong Bum; Park, Hwa Young; Kim, Jihyun; Cheong, Hae Kwan

    2012-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) suggests a role for environmental factors in triggering a genetic predisposition in sufferers. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate home environmental factors related to AD severity. Methods We conducted a questionnaire survey about the home environmental factors in 380 children from two daycare centers and the Samsung Medical Center outpatient clinic. AD was diagnosed by Hanifin and Rajka's criteria and its severity was assessed by the Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis index. Children were divided into normal control group, mild AD group and severe AD group. Home environmental factors were compared among the three groups and were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance, Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and multiple logistic analysis. Results Indoor remodeling activities, such as painting (p = 0.004), floor covering (p = 0.001) and wallpaper changing (p = 0.002) were associated with severity of AD. Those in the severe AD group were more likely to live in an apartment (p < 0.001). Severe AD was observed more frequently when the monthly income of household (p = 0.027) and final educational status of mother (p = 0.001) were higher. Conclusion Some home environmental factors were associated with AD severity, but its causal relationship is not clear. Further research is needed to confirm these associations and to clarify whether they are causative. PMID:22348208

  14. Nemolizumab in moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis: Randomized, phase II, long-term extension study.

    PubMed

    Kabashima, Kenji; Furue, Masutaka; Hanifin, Jon M; Pulka, Grazyna; Wollenberg, Andreas; Galus, Ryszard; Etoh, Takafumi; Mihara, Ryosuke; Nakano, Miwa; Ruzicka, Thomas

    2018-05-09

    Nemolizumab, an anti-interleukin-31 receptor A monoclonal antibody, improved pruritus, dermatitis, and sleep in adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis inadequately controlled by topical treatments in a phase II, 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (Part A) (NCT01986933). To assess long-term efficacy and safety of nemolizumab injected subcutaneously every 4 weeks (Q4W) or every 8 weeks (Q8W) in a 52-week double-blind extension (Part B). During Part B, patients continued previous nemolizumab dose (0.1, 0.5, or 2.0 mg/kg Q4W or 2.0 mg/kg Q8W). Part B endpoints included percentage improvement from baseline in pruritus visual analogue scale (VAS) and dermatitis scores (including Eczema Area and Severity Index [EASI]). Overall, 216/264 patients completed Part A and 191 entered Part B; 131 completed Part B. In 153 patients randomized to nemolizumab in Part A, improvement from baseline in pruritus VAS was maintained/increased from Week 12 to 64, with greatest improvement in the 0.5-mg/kg Q4W group (percentage change from baseline at Week 64: -73.0, -89.6, -74.7, and -79.1 in the 0.1-, 0.5-, and 2.0-mg/kg Q4W and 2.0-mg/kg Q8W groups, respectively). Improvement from baseline in dermatitis scores was also maintained/increased to Week 64 (percent change in EASI score: -68.5, -75.8, -78.9, and -69.3 in the 0.1-, 0.5-, and 2.0-mg/kg Q4W and 2.0-mg/kg Q8W groups, respectively). Over 64 weeks, 83-89% had ≥1 adverse event, with no new safety concerns identified. Nemolizumab for up to 64 weeks was efficacious and, overall, well tolerated in patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis inadequately controlled by topical therapy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. [Profile of sensitization to allergens in children with atopic dermatitis assisting to Allergology Service of University Hospital, Nuevo Leon, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Yong-Rodríguez, Adrián; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; Palma-Gómez, Samuel; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Pérez-Vanzzini, Rafael; Gutiérrez-Mujica, José Julio; González-Díaz, Sandra Nora

    2015-01-01

    Sensitization to allergens in atopic dermatitis patients is a risk factor for developing asthma and allergic rhinitis in the future,as well as an aggravating factor in the course of the disease. Recent studies have attributed the activity of the proteases of some antigens to cause a grater defect in the epithelial barrier and a more severe disease. To know the sensitization to allergens pattern in children with atopic dermatitis attended at Allergology Service of University Hospital of UANL, Mexico, and to know if these children have higher sensitization to antigens with proteolytic activity. A retrospective study was done reviewing the skin prick test reports done in our service to children ranging from 5 months to 16 years old, diagnosed with atopic dermatitis during a period of 2 years, from January 2012 to January 2014. The frequency of sensitization to aeroallergens and food were analyzed as well as the weal size (≥6mm) on the skin in response to each particular allergen in the case of food skin prick test. Reports of skin tests of 66 children, 30 boys and 36 girls, were included; 37 of children were sensitized to more than one allergen,18/66 had asthma and/or allergic rhinitis, 40/66 60% skin prick tests were positive to high activity protease aeroallergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus/Dermatophagoides farinae). Regarding food, sensitization was seen in 38 children; fruits and vegetables were the two most common foods. Only seven children had skin prick weal bigger than 6 mm, mainly to egg, fish and cow's milk. Children with atopic dermatitis are often sensitized to high protease activity aeroallergens, polysensitization is very common and the association with airway allergy is seen early in life. Sensitization to food is also common in these patients, but only a small percentage showed a response large enough to be associated with disease severity.

  16. Efficacy of prolonged ingestion of Lactobacillus acidophilus L-92 in adult patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kozo; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Matsukawa, Takehisa; Kato, Sayaka; Kato, Shinji; Yamada, Kazuhisa; Hirota, Tatsuhiko

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of prolonged ingestion of Lactobacillus acidophilus L-92 (L-92) on skin symptoms in adult atopic dermatitis (AD) patients, a placebo-controlled double-blinded parallel-group comparison study was performed. This included daily administration of heat-killed and dried L-92 or placebo for 24wk in 50 AD patients who were 16yr old or older. The severity of skin symptoms was evaluated at baseline and at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24wk during the intervention using the investigator global assessment, eczema area and severity index, and scoring atopic dermatitis. Serum cytokine and blood marker levels were also measured at baseline and at 4, 8, 16, and 24wk during the intervention. No adverse events were reported during the study period. Compared with the placebo group, the L-92 group showed significant decreases in investigator global assessment, eczema area and severity index, and scoring atopic dermatitis. Subjective symptoms in adult AD patients were reduced by intake of L-92. Furthermore, it was suggested that sustained ingestion of L-92 resulted in suppression of scratching behavior and maintenance of remission status of skin symptoms. Sixteen weeks after the study commenced, a significant decrease in lactate dehydrogenase and a significant increase in transforming growth factor-β were observed in the L-92 group compared with the placebo group. In the L-92 group, a significant elevation of IL-12 (p70) level at the end of treatment period compared with before the treatment was observed. This study suggested that L-92 suppresses type-2-helper-T-cell-dominant inflammation by activating regulatory T cells and type 1 helper T cells. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Methotrexate use in allergic contact dermatitis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ashaki; Burns, Erin; Burkemper, Nicole M

    2018-03-01

    Methotrexate, a folate antimetabolite, is used to treat atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although methotrexate's therapeutic efficacy has been noted in the literature, there are few data on the efficacy of methotrexate treatment for allergic contact dermatitis. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of methotrexate in treating allergic contact dermatitis at a single institution, and also to assess methotrexate efficacy in patients with chronic, unavoidable allergen exposure. We performed a retrospective chart review of 32 patients diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis by positive patch test reactions, and who received treatment with methotrexate from November 2010 to November 2014. Demographic and treatment-associated data were collected from electronic medical records. Ten patients were identified as allergen non-avoiders secondary to their occupation, and were subgrouped as such. Seventy-eight per cent (25/32) of patients showed either a partial or a complete response. Methotrexate had a comparable efficacy rate in the allergen non-avoiders subset, at 10 of 10. Of the 32 patients, 23% (5/22) had complete clearance of their dermatitis, and 1/10 of allergen non-avoiders had complete clearance of their dermatitis. Methotrexate is a well-tolerated and effective treatment for allergic contact dermatitis, and shows comparable efficacy to immunomodulatory agents such as cyclosporine and azathioprine, with robust efficacy despite persistent allergen exposure in patients with allergic contact dermatitis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Atopic dermatitis: impact on the quality of life of patients and their partners.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Finlay, A Y; Martin, N; Boussetta, S; Nguyen, C; Myon, E; Taieb, C

    2007-01-01

    The impact of atopic dermatitis (AD) on the patient's quality of life is relatively well known. However, the influence on the patient's spouse has never been studied. To evaluate the impact of AD on the quality of life, sleeping and sexual life of patients and their partners. In this cross-sectional study, patients and their partners completed a number of questionnaires asking about their general health and their quality of life [Short Form 12, Epworth, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI)] and completed an idiosyncratic measure asking about their sexual functioning. AD severity was clinician rated using Scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD). A total of 266 patients were included. The mean DLQI score was 8.8. The physical and mental composite 12 scores were 50.7 and 39.5, respectively. These 3 scores were significantly related to SCORAD. A decrease in sexual desire due to AD was noted in 57.5% of patients. The quality of life of partners did not appear to be particularly impaired, but 36.5% reported that the appearance of eczema had an impact on their sex life. The influence of AD on sex life is significant both for the patients and their partners. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Nutrient Intake and Food Restriction in Children with Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyunjin; Kim, Ran; Sim, Jiyeon; Park, Eunah; Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the status of food restriction and the list of restricted foods in children with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD), and to find out the effect of food restriction on the changes in nutrient intake and the severity of the disease. Sixty two patient children aged 12 months to 13 years presenting AD with a SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index between 20 and 50 were enrolled. The presence of food limitation, and list of restricted foods were surveyed through the caretakers and the patients were divided into 3 groups by the number of restricted food: non-restricted group, one to three restricted group, and more than three restricted group. Dietary intake was assessed for 3 months using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Half of the subjects restricted foods. The restriction was higher in the order of soda, food additives, walnut, peanut, and other nuts as a single food item; and shellfish and crustacean group, processed foods, nuts, milk & dairy products, and meats as a food group. More than three restricted group ingested more fruits and less fish and meats, resulting in high consumption of vitamin C (p = 0.027). No significant difference in the ratio of nutrient intake by the number of restricted foods was observed in other nutrients. Significant improvement of AD symptom was observed in non-restricted group (p = 0.036) and one to three restricted group (p = 0.003). It is necessary to provide proper nutrition information and systematic and continuous nutrition management for balanced nutrient intake and disease improvement in children with AD. PMID:23429834

  20. Treatment of canine atopic dermatitis with cetirizine, a second generation antihistamine: A single-blinded, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Cetirizine and placebo were administered orally as individual agents to 23 dogs with atopic dermatitis. The pruritus was satisfactorily reduced in 4/22 (18%) dogs that completed the trial with cetirizine. Two dogs vomited after administration of the active drug. PMID:15206590

  1. Diet and Dermatitis: Food Triggers

    PubMed Central

    Schlichte, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Given increasing awareness of the link between diet and health, many patients are concerned that dietary factors may trigger dermatitis. Research has found that dietary factors can indeed exacerbate atopic dermatitis or cause dermatitis due to systemic contact dermatitis. In atopic dermatitis, dietary factors are more likely to cause an exacerbation among infants or children with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis relative to other populations. Foods may trigger rapid, immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity reactions or may lead to late eczematous reactions. While immediate reactions occur within minutes to hours of food exposure, late eczematous reactions may occur anywhere from hours to two days later. Screening methods, such as food allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E tests or skin prick tests, can identify sensitization to specific foods, but a diagnosis of food allergy requires specific signs and symptoms that occur reproducibly upon food exposure. Many patients who are sensitized will not develop clinical findings upon food exposure; therefore, these tests may result in false-positive tests for food allergy. This is why the gold standard for diagnosis remains the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. In another condition, systemic contact dermatitis, ingestion of a specific food can actually cause dermatitis. Systemic contact dermatitis is a distinct T-cell mediated immunological reaction in which dietary exposure to specific allergens results in dermatitis. Balsam of Peru and nickel are well-known causes of systemic contact dermatitis, and reports have implicated multiple other allergens. This review seeks to increase awareness of important food allergens, elucidate their relationship with atopic dermatitis and systemic contact dermatitis, and review available diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:24688624

  2. Distribution of Malassezia species on the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and healthy volunteers assessed by conventional and molecular identification methods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Malassezia yeasts which belong to the physiological microflora of human skin have also been implicated in several dermatological disorders, including pityriasis versicolor (PV), atopic dermatitis (AD), and psoriasis (PS). The Malassezia genus has repeatedly been revised and it now accommodates 14 species, all but one being lipid-dependent species. The traditional, phenotype-based identification schemes of Malassezia species are fraught with interpretative ambiguities and inconsistencies, and are thus increasingly being supplemented or replaced by DNA typing methods. The aim of this study was to explore the species composition of Malassezia microflora on the skin of healthy volunteers and patients with AD and PS. Methods Species characterization was performed by conventional, culture-based methods and subsequently molecular techniques: PCR-RFLP and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1/2 regions and the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene. The Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test were used for statistical analysis. Results Malassezia sympodialis was the predominant species, having been cultured from 29 (82.9%) skin samples collected from 17 out of 18 subjects under the study. Whereas AD patients yielded exclusively M. sympodialis isolates, M. furfur isolates were observed only in PS patients. The isolation of M. sympodialis was statistically more frequent among AD patients and healthy volunteers than among PS patients (P < 0.03). Whether this mirrors any predilection of particular Malassezia species for certain clinical conditions needs to be further evaluated. The overall concordance between phenotypic and molecular methods was quite high (65%), with the discordant results being rather due to the presence of multiple species in a single culture (co-colonization) than true misidentification. All Malassezia isolates were susceptible to cyclopiroxolamine and azole drugs, with M. furfur isolates being somewhat more drug tolerant

  3. Daily intake of Jeju groundwater improves the skin condition of the model mouse for human atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akane; Jung, Kyungsook; Matsuda, Akira; Jang, Hyosun; Kajiwara, Naoki; Amagai, Yosuke; Oida, Kumiko; Ahn, Ginnae; Ohmori, Keitaro; Kang, Kyung-goo; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    Drinking water is an important nutrient for human health. The mineral ingredients included in drinking water may affect the physical condition of people. Various kinds of natural water are in circulation as bottled water in developed countries; however, its influence on clinical conditions of patients with certain diseases has not been fully evaluated. In this study, effects of the natural groundwater from Jeju Island on clinical symptoms and skin barrier function in atopic dermatitis (AD) were evaluated. NC/Tnd mice, a model for human AD, with moderate to severe dermatitis were used. Mice were given different natural groundwater or tap water for 8 weeks from 4 weeks of age. Clinical skin severity scores were recorded every week. Scratching analysis and measurement of transepidermal water loss were performed every other week. The pathological condition of the dorsal skin was evaluated histologically. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed for cytokine expression in the affected skin. The epidermal hyperplasia and allergic inflammation were reduced in atopic mice supplied with Jeju groundwater when compared to those supplied with tap water or other kinds of natural groundwater. The increase in scratching behavior with the aggravation of clinical severity of dermatitis was favorably controlled. Moreover, transepidermal water loss that reflects skin barrier function was recovered. The early inflammation and hypersensitivity in the atopic skin was alleviated in mice supplied with Jeju groundwater, suggesting its profitable potential on the daily care of patients with skin troubles including AD. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  4. Capsiate Inhibits DNFB-Induced Atopic Dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice through Mast Cell and CD4+ T-Cell Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji H; Lee, Yun S; Lee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Ji H; Kim, Tae-Yoon

    2015-08-01

    Capsaicin has many biological effects, such as antioxidant, anticancer, and antiangiogenic effects, but it is rarely used because of its high pungency. Capsiate, a nonpungent capsaicin analog, also has multiple biological effects, similar to those of capsaicin, but does not cause irritation. However, the effect of capsiate on allergic responses and immune cells has not been well studied. In this study, we investigated the effect of capsiate on atopic dermatitis, mouse CD4+ T cells, and mast cell activation. Capsiate inhibited DNFB-induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. Topical treatment with capsiate suppressed serum IgE levels and cytokine and chemokine expression in the skin of DNFB-treated NC/Nga mice. In addition, it suppressed the activation of CD4+ T cells and mast cells, which are implicated in allergic diseases. Capsiate inhibited the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into T helper type 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th17 cells. Treatment with capsiate inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and degranulation from activated bone marrow-derived mast cells through the inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signal pathways. Consistent with these results, treatment with capsiate inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Taken together, our results suggest that capsiate might be a good candidate molecule for the treatment of allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis.

  5. Effect of prolonged breast-feeding on risk of atopic dermatitis in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Hong, Soyoung; Choi, Won-Jun; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Cho, Yoon Hee; Yum, Hye Yung; Son, Dong Koog

    2014-01-01

    The effect of breast-feeding on the risk of developing atopic disease remains controversial. This study is an investigation of the effect of breast-feeding on current atopic dermatitis (AD) among Korean children. This cross-sectional study of children's histories of current AD and environmental factors was completed by the subjects' parents. The subjects included 10,383 children aged 0-13 years in Seoul, Korea, in 2008. The diagnostic criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood were applied in this study. Adjustments were performed for age, gender, maternal education, smoking in the household, relocation to a new house within 1 year of birth, and parental history of atopic disease. After adjustment for confounders, age and duration of maternal education were found to be inversely associated with the prevalence of AD. Among subjects aged ≤5 years, the prevalence of AD was positively associated with the duration of breast-feeding (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant association between AD and breast-feeding among children >5 years of age. Regardless of parental history of atopic diseases, breast-feeding >12 months was a significant risk factor for AD. The effect of breast-feeding differed by age group. Prolonged breast-feeding increased the risk of AD in children <5 years of age, regardless of parental history of atopic diseases.

  6. TNF-alpha single nucleotide polymorphisms in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Behniafard, Nasrin; Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Farhadi, Elham; Khaledi, Mojdeh; Sotoudeh, Soheila; Darabi, Behzad; Fathi, Seid Mohammad; Gholizadeh Moghaddam, Zahra; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Amirzargar, Ali Akbar; Rezaei, Nima

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) could be considered as potential biomarkers in atopic dermatitis (AD), while its level could be influenced by cytokine single gene polymorphisms (SNP). This study was performed in 89 pediatric patients with AD and 137 controls to assess polymorphisms of the TNF-α gene at positions -308 and -238, using the polymerase chain reaction and the sequence-specific primers method. The highest positive allelic association that made the patients susceptible to AD was seen for TNF-α -238/G (p<0.001) and TNF-α -308/G (p = 0.003). The GG genotypes at TNF-α -238 and TNF-α -308, were both significantly higher in the patients with AD, compared to the controls (p<0.01). The GG haplotype at TNF-α (-308,-238) was seen in 92.7% of the patients, which was significantly higher than the controls (p<0.001), while a negative haplotypic association with AD was seen for TNF-α (-308, -238) AG and GA (p<0.01). This study showed that the AG genotype of TNF-α -308, associated with a high production of cytokines, was significantly decreased in patients with AD, while the low-producing GG genotype, which could lead to low production of TNF-α, was over-expressed in the atopic patients.

  7. Filaggrin-stratified transcriptomic analysis of pediatric skin identifies mechanistic pathways in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cole, Christian; Kroboth, Karin; Schurch, Nicholas J; Sandilands, Aileen; Sherstnev, Alexander; O'Regan, Grainne M; Watson, Rosemarie M; McLean, W H Irwin; Barton, Geoffrey J; Irvine, Alan D; Brown, Sara J

    2014-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD; eczema) is characterized by a widespread abnormality in cutaneous barrier function and propensity to inflammation. Filaggrin is a multifunctional protein and plays a key role in skin barrier formation. Loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin (FLG) are a highly significant risk factor for atopic disease, but the molecular mechanisms leading to dermatitis remain unclear. We sought to interrogate tissue-specific variations in the expressed genome in the skin of children with AD and to investigate underlying pathomechanisms in atopic skin. We applied single-molecule direct RNA sequencing to analyze the whole transcriptome using minimal tissue samples. Uninvolved skin biopsy specimens from 26 pediatric patients with AD were compared with site-matched samples from 10 nonatopic teenage control subjects. Cases and control subjects were screened for FLG genotype to stratify the data set. Two thousand four hundred thirty differentially expressed genes (false discovery rate, P < .05) were identified, of which 211 were significantly upregulated and 490 downregulated by greater than 2-fold. Gene ontology terms for "extracellular space" and "defense response" were enriched, whereas "lipid metabolic processes" were downregulated. The subset of FLG wild-type cases showed dysregulation of genes involved with lipid metabolism, whereas filaggrin haploinsufficiency affected global gene expression and was characterized by a type 1 interferon-mediated stress response. These analyses demonstrate the importance of extracellular space and lipid metabolism in atopic skin pathology independent of FLG genotype, whereas an aberrant defense response is seen in subjects with FLG mutations. Genotype stratification of the large data set has facilitated functional interpretation and might guide future therapy development. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Review: The role of antibodies, autoantigens and food allergens in canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M; Bizikova, Petra; Eisenschenk, Melissa N C; Santoro, Domenico; Nuttall, Tim; Marsella, Rosanna

    2015-04-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis (AD) is considered to be an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity response to environmental allergens. The role of other antibody isotypes and nonenvironmental allergens in disease pathogenesis remains unclear. The objective of this review is to provide an update on advances in the understanding of the relevance of specific antibody isotypes, autoallergens and nonenvironmental allergens in the pathogenesis of canine AD. Citation databases, abstracts and proceedings from international meetings published between 2001 and 2013 were reviewed. Where necessary, older articles were included for background information. Neither total nor allergen-specific IgE necessarily correlates with clinical disease in canine AD. Some dogs exhibit clinical signs that are indistinguishable from AD but have no demonstrable allergen-specific IgE (atopic-like dermatitis). Allergen-specific immunoglobulin G may be demonstrated in canine AD, but there is no evidence that this isotype plays a role in disease development. Although humans with AD may develop serum IgE against autoallergens, this finding has not been substantiated in the dog. In contrast, adverse food reactions are frequently co-associated with AD in the dog. Ingestion of food and environmental allergens may trigger exacerbations of AD. Determination of the role of IgE in the pathogenesis of canine AD still requires clarification. Clinical trials and research studies must distinguish atopic dogs with allergen-specific IgE or skin test reactivity from those without. There is no convincing evidence demonstrating a pathogenic role for either allergen-specific immunoglobulin G or autoallergens in canine AD, but food items may be triggers for disease flares in certain individuals. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  9. [Allergic sensitization profile in 0-5 year old children with wheezing and/or atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Carvajal Urueña, I; Díaz Vázquez, C; Cano Garcinuño, A; García Merino, A; Morell Bernabé, J J; Pascual Pérez, J M; Jiménez Cortés, A; Blanco González, J; Montón Alvarez, J L; Pérez Porcuna, X; Torregrosa Bertet, M J; Callén Blecua, M

    2010-01-01

    Although allergic diseases are frequent in childhood, few studies have characterised the IgE sensitization profile among young children with allergic-like symptoms. To determine the prevalence and the type of allergic sensitization, as well as the demographic and environmental factors related to both characteristics, among 0-5 year old children presenting with wheezing and/or atopic dermatitis. Collaborative cross-over study developed in the paediatric setting of 20 Spanish Primary Health Care Centres. An allergology evaluation including blood determination of specific IgE antibodies to common inhalant and food allergens was performed on 468 children who presented with wheezing and/or atopic dermatitis. Allergic sensitization was detected in 32.4% of the children with wheezing (95% confidence interval, 95%CI, 26.3-38.6%), in 54.8% of the children who had atopic dermatitis (95%CI, 42.1-67.6%) and in 39.2% of the children with both processes (95%CI, 32.0-46.4%). The risk of allergic sensitization was sex related (male versus female adjusted odds ratio, OR(A), 1.91, 95%CI, 1.24-2.95), and also related to the age (3-5 versus 0-2 year old OR(A) 1.96, 95%CI, 1.27-3.0), type of early feeding (maternal milk versus infant formula OR(A) 0.51, 95%CI, 0.31-0.84) and geoclimatic area (OR(A) Continental versus Atlantic 2.26, 95%CI, 1.30-3.93). Compared to the Atlantic area, the Continental area the sensitization was lower to mites (OR(A) 0.16, 95%CI, 0.07-0.36) and higher to grass (OR(A) 4.65, 95%CI 1.99-10.86), cow milk (OR(A) 5.17, 95%CI, 1.71-15.62) and egg (OR(A) 5.26, 95%CI, 2.04-13.62), whereas in the Mediterranean area the sensitization was lower to mites (OR(A) 0.29, 95%CI, 0.13-0.64) and higher to cow milk (OR(A) 3.81, 95%CI, 1.20-12.14) and egg (OR(A) 5.24, 95%CI, 1.94-14.20). A significant proportion of small children treated at the paediatric primary health care centres due to wheezing and/or atopic dermatitis had allergic sensitization. There appears to be a

  10. Oral and subcutaneous therapy of canine atopic dermatitis with recombinant feline interferon omega.

    PubMed

    Litzlbauer, Petra; Weber, Karin; Mueller, Ralf S

    2014-03-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is a common allergic skin disease that has been treated with subcutaneously administered interferons (IFN). Recombinant feline IFN-ω (rFeIFN-ω) was reported to be efficacious for CAD. Whether dogs develop neutralizing antibodies against rFeIFN-ω during long-term treatment and whether orally administered IFNs are efficacious in CAD is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential development of antibodies against rFeIFN-ω in atopic dogs and to compare subcutaneous and oral IFN therapy. Twenty-six atopic dogs were randomly assigned to two groups. The first group (n=15) received eight subcutaneous injections of rFeIFN-ω (Virbagen® omega, Virbac, Carros, France) over four months, the second group (n=11) received rFeIFN-ω daily orally. Concurrent medication was permitted, except systemically acting glucocorticoids and cyclosporin, which had to be withdrawn at least two weeks prior to the study. Serum samples for antibody detection were collected before and after the study. On days 0, 60 and 120 skin lesions and pruritus were evaluated using a validated lesion score (Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index=CADESI) and a validated pruritus score. Concurrent medications were recorded. For every visit a total score, consisting of CADESI, pruritus score and medication score was created. For antibody detection an indirect ELISA, using Virbagen® omega as antigen, was performed. Comparison of pruritus scores, CADESI and total scores between days 0 and 120 showed improvement in both groups, however, significant improvement could only be detected in the oral group with CADESI and total scores (61%, P=0.04 and 36%, P=0.02 respectively). Serum antibodies against rFeIFN-ω could not be detected in any of the dogs. In this study antibody production could not be demonstrated. It suggests better efficacy with oral IFN administration, which should be further verified in larger, randomized, controlled studies. Copyright

  11. The influence of childhood atopic dermatitis on health of mothers, and its impact on Asian families.

    PubMed

    Ho, Roger C M; Giam, Y C; Ng, T P; Mak, Anselm; Goh, Daniel; Zhang, Melvyn W B; Cheak, Alicia; Van Bever, Hugo P

    2010-05-01

    This study examines maternal perceptions of paediatric atopic dermatitis (AD) on family and determines risk factors including severity of AD, maternal physical and mental health (MH), quality of life of patients and sociodemographics which predict a negative family impact. A cross-sectional assessment using the Dermatitis Family Impact Questionnaire Scale to assess the impact of AD on family, Infant's Dermatitis Quality of Life Index (<5-yrs old) or Children's Dermatitis Life Quality Index (5-17 yrs old) was used to measure health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of paediatric patients with AD. A 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) was used to assess physical and MH of their mothers. Risk factors of adverse family impact were assessed using multiple regression analysis. One hundred and four patients with AD and their mothers were studied. Their mean ages (+/-s.d.) were respectively 6.4 +/- 4.3 and 37.2 +/- 6.6 yrs. In multiple regression analysis, Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) appeared to be associated with negative family impact and the association remained significant after adjustment for bio-psycho-social factors and HRQOL of patients. The association remained insignificant after adjustment for physical and MH of the mothers. Our results show that the severity of paediatric AD leads to negative family impact through reduction of physical and MH of the mothers, and is independent of patients' HRQOL and sociodemographics. The current approach for managing paediatric AD in Asian society could include early multidisciplinary intervention, aiming at enhancing physical and MH of mothers while minimizing negative impact on family and social isolation. Further research will be welcomed as the results of this study mainly applied to Asian society which could be different to populations from other geographic areas.

  12. Aggravation of atopic dermatitis in breast-fed infants by tree nut-related foods and fermented foods in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Uenishi, Toshiaki; Sugiura, Hisashi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Uehara, Masami

    2011-02-01

    Ninety-two exclusively breast-fed Japanese infants with atopic dermatitis were studied to see whether tree nut-related foods (chocolate and coffee) and fermented foods (cheese, yogurt, bread, soy sauce, miso soup and fermented soy beans) eaten by their mothers affected their skin condition. Of the 92 infants, 67 (73%) showed improvement of skin lesions when their mothers avoided these foods and showed aggravation of skin lesions when these foods were reintroduced. The predominant offending foods were chocolate, yogurt, soy sauce and miso soup. A long-term maternal exclusion of the trigger foods brought about progressive improvement of skin lesions in the majority of the infants. These findings suggest that tree nut-related foods and fermented foods are important offending foods of atopic dermatitis in breast-fed infants. © 2010 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  13. Signs of atopic dermatitis and contact dermatitis affected by distinct H2-haplotype in the NC/Nga genetic background.

    PubMed

    Ohkusu-Tsukada, Kozo; Ito, Daiki; Okuno, Yuki; Tsukada, Teruyo; Takahashi, Kimimasa

    2018-02-07

    We recently advocated in favour of naming a novel H2-haplotype consisting of K d , D/L dm7 , I-A k and I-E k in the atopic dermatitis (AD) mouse model NC/Nga as "H-2 nc ." The role of the H2-haplotype in AD development was investigated in H2 b -congenic NC/Nga mice (NC.h2 b/b and NC.h2 b/nc ) established by backcrossing. A severe 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced dermatitis in NC/Nga was alleviated partially in NC.h2 b/nc and significantly in NC.h2 b/b . The AD phenotype was correlated with thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)-epidermal expression levels and serum levels of total IgE and IL-18/IL-33. Histologically, allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) was accompanied by lymphocytes and plasma cells-infiltrating perivasculitis in NC.h2 b/nc and NC.h2 b/b and clearly differed from AD accompanied by neutrophils, eosinophils and macrophages-infiltrating diffuse suppurative dermatitis in NC/Nga. Interestingly, IFN-γ/IL-17 production from autoreactive CD4 + T-cells remarkably increased in DNFB-sensitised NC.h2 b/b but not in NC/Nga. Our findings suggest that AD or ACD may depend on haplotype H-2 nc or H-2 b , respectively, in addition to the NC/Nga genetic background.

  14. Canine and feline atopic dermatitis: a review of the diagnostic options.

    PubMed

    Rees, C A

    2001-11-01

    Atopic dermatitis is an inherited pruritic skin disease in dogs and cats. This pruritic skin condition is due to the animal having an allergic reaction to environmental allergens. The environmental allergens that an individual dog or cat is allergic to are specific for that individual animal. Management options for affected dogs and cats include identification of the offending environmental allergens and subsequent avoidance of that allergen, or allergen-specific immunotherapy. Several diagnostic tests are available to veterinarians to try to identify these allergens. The pros and cons of each of these diagnostic tests will be addressed.

  15. Atopic Dermatitis: A Common Pediatric Condition and Its Evolution in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepti

    2015-11-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and pruritic inflammatory skin disorder that has a relapsing course and can affect any age group. Patients with AD have higher rates of other allergic disorders, mental health disorders, and skin infections. An important feature of AD for practitioners to recognize is that the clinical presentation varies by age from infancy into adulthood. The goals of treatment and management of AD focuses on restoring and maintaining the skin barrier function, minimizing inflammation, breaking the itch-scratch cycle, and treating possible external triggers and secondary infections that may propagate AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Twice-daily versus once-daily applications of pimecrolimus cream 1% for the prevention of disease relapse in pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ruer-Mulard, Mireille; Aberer, Werner; Gunstone, Anthony; Kekki, Outi-Maria; López Estebaranz, Jose Luis; Vertruyen, André; Guettner, Achim; Hultsch, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare twice-daily and once-daily applications of pimecrolimus cream 1% for prevention of atopic dermatitis relapses in pediatric patients. This multicenter trial enrolled 300 outpatients aged 2 to 17 years, with mild-to-severe atopic dermatitis. The patients were initially treated with twice-daily topical pimecrolimus until complete clearance or for up to 6 weeks (open-label period). Those who achieved a decrease of at least 1 point in the Investigator's Global Assessment score were then randomized to double-blind treatment with pimecrolimus cream 1% either twice daily or once daily for up to 16 weeks. Study medication was discontinued during periods of disease remission (Investigator's Global Assessment = 0). The primary efficacy end point of the double-blind phase was disease relapse (worsening requiring topical corticosteroids or additional/alternative therapy and confirmed by Investigator's Global Assessment score > or = 3 and pruritus score > or = 2). Of the 300 patients enrolled in the study, 268 were randomized to treatment with pimecrolimus cream 1% either twice daily or once daily (n = 134 in each group). The relapse rate was lower in the twice-daily dose group (9.9%) than that in the once-daily dose group (14.7%), but analysis of the time to disease relapse, using a Cox proportional model to adjust for confounding variables, did not show a statistically significant difference between treatment arms (hazard ratio: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.31-1.30). Treatment of active atopic dermatitis lesions with pimecrolimus cream 1% twice daily, followed by the once-daily dosing regimen, was sufficient to prevent subsequent atopic dermatitis relapses over 16 weeks in pediatric patients.

  17. Modulation of Interleukin-8 and staphylococcal flora by Avène hydrotherapy in patients suffering from chronic inflammatory dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Casas, C; Ribet, V; Alvarez-Georges, S; Sibaud, V; Guerrero, D; Schmitt, A-M; Redoulès, D

    2011-02-01

    A number of studies argue in favour of an important role of microbial colonization, in particular of Staphylococcus aureus, in triggering atopic dermatitis (AD) flare-up and psoriasis, in particular through the superantigenic properties of toxins generated by S. aureus. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a 3-week Avène hydrotherapy on the skin surface of patients suffering from psoriasis or atopic dermatitis. Skin samples were taken from healthy subjects or atopic (n = 18) or psoriatic patients (n = 39) undergoing hydrotherapy at Avène at the beginning (D0) and the end of treatment (D18). The severity of the dermatosis was evaluated according to SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) or Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) scores at D0 and D18. Marker of inflammation interleukin 8 (IL-8), S. aureus colonization (protein A) and enterotoxins were assessed in skin samples using RT-PCR. At D0, significant differences were observed between healthy subjects and atopic or psoriatic patients in all the parameters evaluated (IL-8, protein A). At the end of the hydrotherapy, a significant decrease in SCORAD was associated with a significant reduction of IL-8, S. aureus colonization and enterotoxin D in patients with atopic dermatitis. Similarly, a significant decrease in PASI was associated with a significant reduction of IL-8, S. aureus colonization and enterotoxin N in patients with psoriasis. This study demonstrates the positive effects of Avène hydrotherapy on the skin of patients suffering from chronic dermatosis, with decreased inflammation and reduced colonization by S. aureus. © 2010 The Authors. JEADV © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  18. From consumerism to active dependence: Patterns of medicines use and treatment decisions among patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Nørreslet, M; Bissell, P; Traulsen, J M

    2010-01-01

    In this article, findings from in-depth interviews with 12 people diagnosed with atopic dermatitis (AD) are described. The findings describe the range of strategies used to manage atopic dermatitis, including use of conventional medicines. A strong theme identified in informants' accounts centred on concerns about the risks of illness and long-term use of conventional medicines, which acted as a strong incentive for patients to seek alternatives to conventional treatments. However, despite their significant efforts to do so, patients were eventually forced to return to and rely on conventional medicines because of their efficacy in alleviating and treating symptoms. These findings are discussed in relation to the sociological literature on consumerism, risk and reflexivity in health. We argue that our findings exemplify how living with and managing a chronic illness may not be straightforward and the choices of treatment at hand may be limited. Consequently, this may limit the potential opportunities accruing from adopting a reflexive or consumerist approach to managing illness.

  19. The impact of atopic dermatitis on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Lifschitz, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 5-20% of children worldwide suffer from atopic dermatitis (AD), a kind of dermatitis characterized as an inflammatory, relapsing, noncontagious and itchy skin disorder. Children often develop AD during their first year of life. An increased rate of sensitization to both food and aeroallergens has been shown to coexist in patients with AD. Sensitization to well-known allergens such as cow's milk protein can occur on average in 50% of children with AD. In general, quality of life (QoL) is perceived as the quality of an individual's daily life, that is, an assessment of their well-being or lack thereof. QoL is a broad concept that includes such things as standard of living, community, and family life. Patients with skin diseases experience a wide range of symptoms ranging from trivial problems to major handicaps which affect their lives. The misery of living with AD cannot be overstated for it may have a profoundly negative effect on the health-related QoL of children and their families in many cases. Physicians taking care of children with AD should consult parents on how their child's illness has impacted their lifestyle and recommend professional intervention if deemed necessary. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. IDO-expressing Fibroblasts Suppress the Development of Imiquimod-induced Psoriasis-like Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Elizei, Sanam Salimi; Pakyari, Mohammadreza; Ghoreishi, Mehraneh; Kilani, Ruhangiz; Mahmoudi, Sanaz; Ghahary, Aziz

    2018-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition whose pathogenesis is reported to be due to the activation of the interleukin-23/interleukin-17 (IL-23/IL-17) pathway. Here, we report that indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-expressing fibroblasts reduce the activity of this pathway in activated immune cells. The findings showed that intralesional injection of IDO-expressing fibroblasts in imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like dermatitis on the back and ear (Pso. ear group) in mice significantly improves the clinical lesional appearance by reducing the number of skin-infiltrated IL-17+ CD4+ T cells (1.9% ± 0.3% vs. 6.9% ± 0.6%, n = 3, P value < 0.01), IL-17+ γδ+ T cells (2.8% ± 0.3% vs. 11.6% ± 1.2%, n = 3, P value < 0.01), IL-23+ activated dendritic cells (7.6% ± 0.9% vs. 14.0% ± 0.5%, n = 3, P < 0.01), macrophages (4.3% ± 0.1% vs. 11.3% ± 1.0%, n = 3, P value < 0.01), and granulocytes (2.5% ± 0.4% vs. 4.5% ± 0.3%, n = 3, P value < 0.01) as compared to untreated psoriatic mice. This finding suggests that IDO-expressing fibroblasts, and to a lesser extent, non-IDO primary fibroblasts suppress the psoriatic-like symptoms by inhibiting the infiltration of key immune cells involved in the development of psoriasis.

  1. Staphylococcal enterotoxin-specific IgE antibodies in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ide, Fumihito; Matsubara, Tomoyo; Kaneko, Miho; Ichiyama, Takashi; Mukouyama, Tokuko; Furukawa, Susumu

    2004-06-01

    The authors clarified the clinical significance of the measurement of serum concentrations of specific IgE antibodies to staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) A- and SEB in atopic dermatitis (AD). The serum concentrations of SEA- and SEB-specific IgE antibodies in 140 pediatric patients with AD were measured with an immuno CAP -radioallergosorbent test system (RAST). To check the cross-reaction of specific IgE antibodies to SEA/SEB and other allergens, the CAP RAST fluorescent enzyme immunoassay inhibition test was performed. Forty-seven patients (33.6%) tested positive for either SEA- or SEB-specific IgE antibodies. School children showed higher positive rates of SEA/SEB-specific IgE antibodies than infants or young children. The patients with severe AD and those with exacerbation of symptoms in summer, had higher positive rates of SEA/SEB-specific IgE antibodies than patients with mild AD or those with exacerbation in winter. In addition, the positive rates of specific IgE antibodies to both dog-dander and cat-dander were higher in patients with positive SEA/SEB-specific IgE antibodies than in patients with negative ones. No cross-reactions occurred among specific IgE antibodies to SEA/SEB and dog/cat dander with one patient's serum, which had positive IgE-specific antibodies against cat/dog dander and SEA/SEB. The positive rate of SEA/SEB-specific IgE antibodies in the patients with dogs and/or cats as pets was 48.4%, which was higher than in those with no pets. Atopic dermatitis patients who exhibit high positive rates of SEA/SEB-specific IgE antibodies were found to be school children, severe cases, cases with high serum concentrations of total IgE, cases with exacerbation in summer, and cases with dogs and/or cats as pets. The measurement of serum concentrations of specific IgE antibodies to SEA and SEB, thus has some value for evaluating AD patients.

  2. LIPID ABNORMALITIES AND LIPID-BASED REPAIR STRATEGIES IN ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have revealed the key roles played by Th1/Th2 cell dysregulation, IgE production, mast cell hyperactivity, and dendritic cell signaling in the evolution of the chronic, pruritic, inflammatory dermatosis that characterizes atopic dermatitis (AD). We review here increasing evidence that the inflammation in AD results primarily from inherited abnormalities in epidermal structural and enzymatic proteins that impact permeability barrier function. We also will show that the barrier defect can be attributed to a paracellular abnormality due to a variety of abnormalities in lipid composition, transport and extracellular organization. Accordingly, we also review the therapeutic implications of this emerging pathogenic paradigm, including several current and potentially novel, lipid-based approaches to corrective therapy. PMID:24128970

  3. Effect of German chamomile oil application on alleviating atopic dermatitis-like immune alterations in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soon-Hee; Heo, Yong

    2010-01-01

    Historically, German chamomile (GC) oil has been used for treatment of skin disorders. BALB/c mice were sensitized twice a week with 100 µL of 1% 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and challenged twice the following week with 100 µL of 0.2% DNCB for atopic dermatitis induction. Thereafter, 3% GC oil was applied daily (70 µL, 6 times week) on the dorsal skin for 4 weeks. Saline or jojoba oil was used for the control mice. Blood was collected after second DNCB challenge, and at 2 and 4 weeks after initiating oil application. Serum IgE levels were significantly lowered in the GC oil application group at the end of the 4-week application period. The GC oil application for 4 weeks resulted in reduction in serum IgG1 level compared with that after 2-week application. The GC oil application group showed a significantly lower serum histamine level than the control group 2 weeks after oil application. Scratching frequency of the GC oil application group was significantly lower than either control groups. This study is to demonstrate GC oil's immunoregulatory potential for alleviating atopic dermatitis through influencing of Th2 cell activation. PMID:20195063

  4. Effect of German chamomile oil application on alleviating atopic dermatitis-like immune alterations in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soon-Hee; Heo, Yong; Kim, Young-Chul

    2010-03-01

    Historically, German chamomile (GC) oil has been used for treatment of skin disorders. BALB/c mice were sensitized twice a week with 100 microL of 1% 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and challenged twice the following week with 100 microL of 0.2% DNCB for atopic dermatitis induction. Thereafter, 3% GC oil was applied daily (70 microL, 6 times week) on the dorsal skin for 4 weeks. Saline or jojoba oil was used for the control mice. Blood was collected after second DNCB challenge, and at 2 and 4 weeks after initiating oil application. Serum IgE levels were significantly lowered in the GC oil application group at the end of the 4-week application period. The GC oil application for 4 weeks resulted in reduction in serum IgG1 level compared with that after 2-week application. The GC oil application group showed a significantly lower serum histamine level than the control group 2 weeks after oil application. Scratching frequency of the GC oil application group was significantly lower than either control groups. This study is to demonstrate GC oil's immunoregulatory potential for alleviating atopic dermatitis through influencing of Th2 cell activation.

  5. Psychodermatologic Effects of Atopic Dermatitis and Acne: A Review on Self-Esteem and Identity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Catherine M; Koo, John; Cordoro, Kelly M

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and acne vulgaris are among the most-prevalent skin diseases in children. Both have been well documented in the literature to have significant negative effects on quality of life. Herein, we discuss the results of a comprehensive literature review aimed at assessing the impact of acne and AD on self-esteem and identity. We highlight clinical tools for their assessment and offer coping strategies for patients and families. Multiple factors including relationships with parents and classmates, sports participation, and the sex of the patient contribute to the development of self-esteem and identity in individuals with AD and acne. Atopic dermatitis was found to have significant behavioral effects on children, ultimately resulting in a lack of opportunity to develop proper coping. AD had a more-prominent role in identity formation and gender roles in girls. Acne vulgaris was found to have a more direct effect on self-esteem, self-confidence and identity, especially in girls. The Cutaneous Body Image Scale is reviewed and offered as an easy and reliable tool to evaluate a patient's mental perception of the appearance of their skin. Coping strategies that may be offered to patients and families include empowerment and cognitive adaptation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Assessing the New and Emerging Treatments for Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Friedlander, Sheila F; Simpson, Eric L; Irvine, Alan D

    2016-06-01

    The newer and emerging treatments for atopic dermatitis (AD) focus on blockade of inflammatory cytokines, especially those that derive from T helper cell type 2 (TH2) and are associated with a pathway of immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitization. Among the proinflammatory cytokines that have been identified as promising therapeutic targets are chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on TH2 cells (CRTH2), IgE, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and several monoclonal antibodies that block key cytokine pathways in the innate immune response. Two agents that have been studied in phase III clinical trials are the boronbased phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE-4) inhibitor, crisaborole, and dupilumab, an antibody that inhibits the interleukin-4/ IL-13 receptor α chain. Semin Cutan Med Surg 35(supp5):S92-S96. 2016 published by Frontline Medical Communications.

  7. Treatment of canine atopic dermatitis with a commercial homeopathic remedy: A single-blinded, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Danny W.; Miller, William H.; Senter, David A.; Cook, Christopher P.; Kirker, J. Edward; Cobb, Shaun M.

    2002-01-01

    A commercial homeopathic remedy and a placebo were administered orally as individual agents to 18 dogs with atopic dermatitis. The pruritus was reduced by less than 50% in only 2/18 dogs; 1 of these dogs was receiving the homeopathic remedy, the other was receiving the placebo. One dog vomited after administration of the homeopathic remedy. PMID:12170834

  8. [Establishment of novel biomarkers for Personalized medication for atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Ohta, Shoichiro; Taniguchi, Kazuto; Arima, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Shoichi; Shiraishi, Hiroshi; Masuoka, Miho; Izuhara, Kenji

    2013-03-01

    To diagnose atopic dermatitis (AD), an appearance of eczema examined by experienced dermatologists is required. Therefore, biomarkers to diagnose AD or to reflect the severity of AD would be of a great use for non-specialists in the clinic or hospitals. We can apply such a biomarker for realization of personalized medicine for AD in the future. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 have been known to play important roles in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases including AD. In addition to these, we previously identified SCCA1, SCCA2, and periostin as IL-4/IL-13-inducible genes. We recently established ELISA systems to measure serum levels of SCCA1, SCCA2, and periostin and evaluated their usefulness in the treatment of AD patients. Serum SCCA1 and SCCA2 are up-regulated in AD patients and can distinguish AD patients from non-atopic controls, and their serum levels reflect eczema grades. Periostin concentration is also elevated in the serum of AD patients. These results demonstrate that SCCA1, SCCA2, and periostin might be promising biomarkers for personalized medicine in allergic diseases including AD.

  9. The effect of a Web-based education programme (WBEP) on disease severity, quality of life and mothers' self-efficacy in children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Son, Hae Kyoung; Lim, Jiyoung

    2014-10-01

    To develop and evaluate the effects of a web-based education programme in early childhood for children with atopic dermatitis. The prevalence rate of atopic dermatitis is highest in early childhood. A holistic approach is urgently needed for young children with respect to disease severity, quality of life and management, particularly parental knowledge about atopic dermatitis and adherence to treatment. A quasi-experimental study design was used. A total of 40 mother-child dyads participated in the study from 1 July-30 November 2011 in Korea. All children were under 3 years of age. The programme was based on the Network-Based Instructional System Design model, which consists of five phases: analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation. The experimental group participated in the programme for 2 weeks. Participants took part in a learning session during the first week and then conducted the practice session at home during the second week. Participant knowledge and compliance were evaluated through online quizzes and self-checklists. Statistical analyses (chi-square test and t-test) were performed using the Statistical Analysis System, Version 9.13. There was a significant improvement in disease severity, quality of life and mothers' self-efficacy in the experimental group; thus, the web-based education programme was effective. The web-based education programme as an advanced intervention may be useful in providing basic data for future atopic dermatitis-related studies. Moreover, the programme may serve as a nursing educational intervention tool for clinical nursing practices. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Chemical Composition and Inhibitory Effect of Lentinula edodes Ethanolic Extract on Experimentally Induced Atopic Dermatitis in Vitro and in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Ju; Park, Zee-Yong; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2016-07-29

    The ethanolic extract of Lentinula edodes was partially analyzed and then characterized for its efficacy in treating atopic dermatitis. Polyphenols were determined to be the major antioxidant component in the extract (6.12 mg/g), followed by flavonoids (1.76 mg/g), β-carotene (28.75 μg/g), and lycopene (5.25 μg/g). An atopic dermatitis (AD) model was established and epidermal and dermal ear thickness, mast cell infiltration, and serum immunoglobulin levels were measured after oral administration of the L. edodes extract for 4 weeks. L. edodes extract decreased Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE) and 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced expression of several inflammatory cytokines in the ears, cervical lymph nodes, and splenocytes. Consequently, L. edodes extract may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of AD attributable to its immunomodulatory effects.

  11. Epidermal barrier defects link atopic dermatitis with altered skin cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Cipolat, Sara; Hoste, Esther; Natsuga, Ken; Quist, Sven R; Watt, Fiona M

    2014-05-05

    Atopic dermatitis can result from loss of structural proteins in the outermost epidermal layers, leading to a defective epidermal barrier. To test whether this influences tumour formation, we chemically induced tumours in EPI-/- mice, which lack three barrier proteins-Envoplakin, Periplakin, and Involucrin. EPI-/- mice were highly resistant to developing benign tumours when treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). The DMBA response was normal, but EPI-/- skin exhibited an exaggerated atopic response to TPA, characterised by abnormal epidermal differentiation, a complex immune infiltrate and elevated serum thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). The exacerbated TPA response could be normalised by blocking TSLP or the immunoreceptor NKG2D but not CD4+ T cells. We conclude that atopy is protective against skin cancer in our experimental model and that the mechanism involves keratinocytes communicating with cells of the immune system via signalling elements that normally protect against environmental assaults.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01888.001. Copyright © 2014, Cipolat et al.

  12. Deciphering the Complexities of Atopic Dermatitis: Shifting Paradigms in Treatment Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Donald Y. M.; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease. It often precedes the development of food allergy and asthma. Recent insights into AD reveal abnormalities in terminal differentiation of the epidermal epithelium leading to a defective stratum corneum, which allows enhanced allergen penetration and systemic IgE sensitization. Atopic skin is also predisposed to colonization or infection by pathogenic microbes, most notably Staphylococcus aureus and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Causes of this abnormal skin barrier are complex and driven by a combination of genetic, environmental and immunologic factors. These factors likely account for the heterogeneity of AD onset, severity and natural history of this skin disease. Recent studies suggest prevention of AD can be achieved by early interventions protecting the skin barrier. Onset of lesional AD requires effective control of local and systemic immune activation for optimal management. Early intervention may improve long term outcomes for AD and reduce the systemic allergen sensitization leading to associated allergic diseases in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract. PMID:25282559

  13. Molecular Genetic of Atopic dermatitis: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shobaili, Hani A.; Ahmed, Ahmed A.; Alnomair, Naief; Alobead, Zeiad Abdulaziz; Rasheed, Zafar

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic multifactorial inflammatory skin disease. The pathogenesis of AD remains unclear, but the disease results from dysfunctions of skin barrier and immune response, where both genetic and environmental factors play a key role. Recent studies demonstrate the substantial evidences that show a strong genetic association with AD. As for example, AD patients have a positive family history and have a concordance rate in twins. Moreover, several candidate genes have now been suspected that play a central role in the genetic background of AD. In last decade advanced procedures similar to genome-wide association (GWA) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) have been applied on different population and now it has been clarified that AD is significantly associated with genes of innate/adaptive immune systems, human leukocyte antigens (HLA), cytokines, chemokines, drug-metabolizing genes or various other genes. In this review, we will highlight the recent advancements in the molecular genetics of AD, especially on possible functional relevance of genetic variants discovered to date. PMID:27004062

  14. A method to induce stable atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in NC/Nga mice housed with skin-lesioned mice.

    PubMed

    Takano, N; Arai, I; Kurachi, M

    2006-03-01

    Itching is a characteristic symptom in various forms of dermatosis, especially atopic dermatitis; consequently it is a major diagnostic criterion. All features are similar to events seen in patients, hence NC/Nga mice are considered to be a suitable model of human atopic dermatitis. However, there were data spreads in commencing time and the degree of skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. In the present study, we attempted to improve experimental conditions to induce stable skin lesions and to establish a more appropriate method. Methods NC/Nga mice were kept together with skin-lesioned mice during the experiment period (mixed-NC mice). The dermatitis scores of face, ears and rostral back were assessed. Scratching behaviour was measured using an apparatus, MicroAct (Neuroscience, Tokyo, Japan). Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and serum total IgE levels were also measured. To observe the presence of mites, the skin of the rostral backs of the mixed-NC mice was stripped using cellulose tape. We also investigated the effects of fipronil (Wako, Osaka, Japan), an acaricidal compound, on skin lesions and scratching behaviour of these mixed-NC mice. In mixed-NC mice, skin lesions appeared from 2 weeks, worsened gradually and reached peak levels of a dermatitis score in 8 weeks. Scratching behaviour increased significantly from day 3. TEWL also increased from day 3, but total IgE increased from day 7. Mites were observed on the rostral backs of mixed-NC mice from day 3, and all mice had these mites on day 28. Giving pretreatment with fipronil (Wako), the skin lesions and scratching behaviour of mixed-NC mice was significantly suppressed. The findings of the present study suggest that the method of being kept together with skin-lesioned mice can induce stable skin lesions and scratching behaviour at an early stage, without skin lesions. This method could help investigate a more stable evaluation of the effects on symptoms of atopic dermatitis, and mechanisms of the itching. It was

  15. Oral Azathioprine for Recalcitrant Pediatric Atopic Dermatitis: Clinical Response and Thiopurine Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Caufield, Maura; Tom, Wynnis L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Azathioprine is prescribed as a corticosteroid-sparing agent for many inflammatory conditions, including refractory atopic dermatitis (AD). There is limited prospective data on its appropriate use and monitoring for children with AD. Objectives This study was designed to assess clinical response to azathioprine, determine the necessity for repeat measurement of thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) activity during treatment, and test the utility of measuring levels of the metabolites 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN) and 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP). Methods Twelve children with severe, recalcitrant AD were treated with oral azathioprine and followed prospectively. Disease severity was determined by the SCORing Atopic Dermatitis Index. Baseline TPMT activity was measured and this was repeated along with 6-TGN and 6-MMP measurement at times of stable improvement, inadequate response, or change in response. Results Azathioprine therapy was associated with clinical improvement in all but one subject. There were few adverse effects. Three subjects showed a significant change in TPMT activity during treatment: two had a mild decrease and one demonstrated enzyme inducibility with an increase from the intermediate to the normal activity range. These changes, but not 6-TGN or 6-MMP levels, inversely correlated with the clinical response to therapy. Limitations Small sample size Conclusions Azathioprine can be of benefit in the treatment of recalcitrant pediatric AD. Repeat assessment of TPMT activity may be helpful for evaluation of non–response or change in response and warrants further study. In contrast, measurement of thiopurine metabolites during treatment was not clinically useful. PMID:22892285

  16. [Written personalized action plan for atopic dermatitis: a patient education tool].

    PubMed

    Gabeff, R; Assathiany, R; Barbarot, S; Salinier, C; Stalder, J-F

    2014-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most frequent children's chronic skin disease. Management of AD can be difficult because local treatments must be adapted to the skin's condition. Between consultations, sudden changes in the state of the disease can make it difficult to manage local treatment. Parents and children need information that will help them adapt their treatment to the course of their disease. Aiming to enable parents to better treat their atopic child by themselves, we have developed a personalized action plan in order to simplify, personalize, and adapt the medical prescription to the state of the disease. The Personalized Written Action Plan for Atopics (PA2P) is based on the model used in the treatment of asthma, with integrated specificities for AD in children. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and pertinence of the PA2P for pediatricians to use in private practice. A total of 479 pediatricians answered a questionnaire sent by e-mail. The vast majority of the respondents gave positive reviews of the tool: 99% of the pediatricians declared the tool to be pertinent, qualifying it as clear and logical. The PA2P appeared to be appropriate for the atopic patient because it improves the families' involvement in the application of local treatment by offering personalized care and by simplifying the doctor's prescription. Finally, 72% of doctors responding to the questionnaire were willing to take part in future studies involving parents. More than a gadget, the PA2P could become a useful tool for therapeutic patient education. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Atopic and Non-atopic Eczema.

    PubMed

    Rożalski, Michał; Rudnicka, Lidia; Samochocki, Zbigniew

    2016-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common term used in the medical literature, but according to The Nomenclature Review Committee Of The World Allergy Organization the name which should be used is eczema. Eczema is divided into two subtypes: atopic and non-atopic. These subtypes differ in the level of total immunoglobulin E (IgE) in serum, response to allergens in skin prick tests, and detection of specific IgE antibodies. Non-atopic eczema is characterized by a low level of total IgE, negative skin prick tests, and undetectable specific IgE antibodies. It is estimated that 10-45% cases of eczema are non-atopic ones. In recent studies, other features differentiating these two subtypes have been identified, such as female predominance in non-atopic eczema. A more severe course, damage of the epidermal barrier, predominance of Th2 (T helper cells 2) response, and a lower positive reaction to metal patch tests are the characteristics of the atopic subtype. In our opinion, new diagnostic criteria taking into account the non-atopic subtype of eczema need to be established.

  18. Impact of atopic dermatitis on health-related quality of life and productivity in adults in the United States: An analysis using the National Health and Wellness Survey.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Laurent; Gupta, Shaloo; Amand, Caroline; Gadkari, Abhijit; Mahajan, Puneet; Gelfand, Joel M

    2017-08-01

    Given its public health impact, there is need for broad and representative data on the humanistic burden of atopic dermatitis (AD). To establish the humanistic burden of AD in US adults. Data were from the 2013 US National Health and Wellness Survey; AD self-reports were propensity-matched with non-AD controls and with psoriasis controls. Bivariate analyses were conducted on burden outcomes between the AD and control groups. Demographics and baseline characteristics were comparable between matched groups. Subjects with AD (n = 349) versus non-AD controls (n = 698) had significantly higher rates of anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders (29.8%, 31.2%, and 33.2% vs 16.1%, 17.3%, and 19.2%, respectively [all P < .001]); a lower Short Form-36 v2 mental component summary score (44.5 vs 48.0, respectively [P < .001]); a lower physical component summary score (47.6 vs 49.5, respectively [P = .004]), and lower health utilities (0.67 vs 0.72, respectively [P < .001]) in addition to a higher work absenteeism rate (9.9% vs 3.6%, respectively [P < .001]) and activity impairment rate (33.6% vs 25.2%, respectively [P < .001]). Subjects with AD and psoriasis controls (n = 260 each) showed similar impairment in health-related quality of life and productivity. Data were self-reported. AD is associated with a substantial humanistic burden that is similar in magnitude to that of psoriasis, which is also recognized for its debilitating symptoms, indicating the need for more effective treatments for AD. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pediatric Contact Dermatitis Registry Data on Contact Allergy in Children With Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; McGowan, Maria; Silverberg, Nanette B; Pelletier, Janice L; Fonacier, Luz; Mousdicas, Nico; Powell, Doug; Scheman, Andrew; Goldenberg, Alina

    2017-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) have a dynamic relationship not yet fully understood. Investigation has been limited thus far by a paucity of data on the overlap of these disorders in pediatric patients. To use data from the Pediatric Contact Dermatitis Registry to elucidate the associations and sensitizations among patients with concomitant AD and ACD. This retrospective case review examined 1142 patch test cases of children younger than 18 years, who were registered between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2015, by 84 health care providers (physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants) from across the United States. Data were gathered electronically from multidisciplinary providers within outpatient clinics throughout the United States on pediatric patients (ages 0-18 years). All participants were patch-tested to assess sensitizations to various allergens; history of AD was noted by the patch-testing providers. Primary outcomes were sensitization rates to various patch-tested allergens. A total of 1142 patients were evaluated: 189 boys (34.2%) and 363 girls (65.8%) in the AD group and 198 boys (36.1%) and 350 girls (63.9%) in the non-AD group (data on gender identification were missing for 17 patients). Compared with those without AD, patch-tested patients with AD were 1.3 years younger (10.5 vs 11.8 years; P < .001) and had longer history of dermatitis (3.5 vs 1.8 years; P < .001). Patch-tested patients designated as Asian or African American were more likely to have concurrent AD (odds ratio [OR], 1.92; 95% CI, 1.20-3.10; P = .008; and OR, 4.09; 95% CI, 2.70-6.20; P <.001, respectively). Patients with AD with generalized distribution were the most likely to be patch tested (OR, 4.68; 95% CI, 3.50-6.30; P < .001). Patients with AD had different reaction profiles than those without AD, with increased frequency of reactions to cocamidopropyl betaine, wool alcohol, lanolin, tixocortol pivalate, and

  20. Chemokine RANTES in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Glück, J; Rogala, B

    1999-01-01

    Chemokines play a key role in inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate chemokine RANTES in the sera of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and to analyze the correlation between RANTES serum level and the immunological and clinical parameters of the disease. Serum levels of RANTES (ELISA; R&D Systems), total IgE and specific IgE (FEIA; Pharmacia CAP System) were estimated in 24 patients with AD, 28 patients with pollinosis (PL) and 22 healthy nonatopic subjects (HC). The division of the AD group into a pure AD (pAD) subgroup, without a coexisting respiratory allergy, and a subgroup of patients with AD and a respiratory allergy (AD+AO) was done according to Wütrich. Levels of RANTES were higher in the AD group than in the HC group and the PL group. RANTES levels did not differ among subgroups with various clinical scores and between the pAD and AD+AO subgroups. There were no correlations between levels of RANTES and total IgE. Significant positive correlations between serum levels of RANTES and Dermatophagoides farinae and cat dander-specific IgE were found in the AD group. We conclude that the serum level of chemokine RANTES differs patients with AD from patients with PL. The increase of RANTES concentration in the serum of patients with AD depends neither on a clinical picture nor an IgE system.

  1. Report from the fourth international consensus meeting to harmonize core outcome measures for atopic eczema/dermatitis clinical trials (HOME initiative).

    PubMed

    Chalmers, J R; Simpson, E; Apfelbacher, C J; Thomas, K S; von Kobyletzki, L; Schmitt, J; Singh, J A; Svensson, Å; Williams, H C; Abuabara, K; Aoki, V; Ardeleanu, M; Awici-Rasmussen, M; Barbarot, S; Berents, T L; Block, J; Bragg, A; Burton, T; Bjerring Clemmensen, K K; Creswell-Melville, A; Dinesen, M; Drucker, A; Eckert, L; Flohr, C; Garg, M; Gerbens, L A A; Graff, A L B; Hanifin, J; Heinl, D; Humphreys, R; Ishii, H A; Kataoka, Y; Leshem, Y A; Marquort, B; Massuel, M-A; Merhand, S; Mizutani, H; Murota, H; Murrell, D F; Nakahara, T; Nasr, I; Nograles, K; Ohya, Y; Osterloh, I; Pander, J; Prinsen, C; Purkins, L; Ridd, M; Sach, T; Schuttelaar, M-L A; Shindo, S; Smirnova, J; Sulzer, A; Synnøve Gjerde, E; Takaoka, R; Vestby Talmo, H; Tauber, M; Torchet, F; Volke, A; Wahlgren, C-F; Weidinger, S; Weisshaar, E; Wollenberg, A; Yamaga, K; Zhao, C Y; Spuls, P I

    2016-07-01

    This article is a report of the fourth meeting of the Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative held in Malmö, Sweden on 23-24 April 2015 (HOME IV). The aim of the meeting was to achieve consensus over the preferred outcome instruments for measuring patient-reported symptoms and quality of life for the HOME core outcome set for atopic eczema (AE). Following presentations, which included data from systematic reviews, consensus discussions were held in a mixture of whole group and small group discussions. Small groups were allocated a priori to ensure representation of different stakeholders and countries. Decisions were voted on using electronic keypads. For the patient-reported symptoms, the group agreed by vote that itch, sleep loss, dryness, redness/inflamed skin and irritated skin were all considered essential aspects of AE symptoms. Many instruments for capturing patient-reported symptoms were discussed [including the Patient-Oriented SCOring Atopic Dermatitis index, Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM), Self-Administered Eczema Area and Severity Index, Itch Severity Scale, Atopic Dermatitis Quickscore and the Nottingham Eczema Severity Score] and, by consensus, POEM was selected as the preferred instrument to measure patient-reported symptoms. Further work is needed to determine the reliability and measurement error of POEM. Further work is also required to establish the importance of pain/soreness and the importance of collecting information regarding the intensity of symptoms in addition to their frequency. Much of the discussion on quality of life concerned the Dermatology Life Quality Index and Quality of Life Index for Atopic Dermatitis; however, consensus on a preferred instrument for measuring this domain could not be reached. In summary, POEM is recommended as the HOME core outcome instrument for measuring AE symptoms. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British

  2. Lack of Association Between Dust Mite Sensitivity and Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Jonathan Ian; Hanifin, Jon M; Law, Sandra; White, Kevin; Storrs, Frances J

    2016-01-01

    Dust mites (DMs) play a role in type I respiratory allergy. Studies relating to DM irritant versus immune reactions are somewhat conflicting in atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic use of patch testing to DM in patients with AD and other dermatitides. We performed a prospective study of 323 adults recruited in a patch testing clinic. Patch testing antigens were DM extract (0.01%, 0.1%, 1%, 10%, and 20% in petrolatum; Chemotechnique) and/or 200 index of reactivity in petrolatum (Stallergenes). Patches were placed and read at 48 hours with delayed readings after 72 to 168 hours. There was no association of DM positivity with AD, asthma, hay fever, or demographic factors. There was no association of DM positivity with the clinical diagnosis or phenotype. The number of positive (+, ++, and +++) and doubtful reactions to Chemotechnique DM extract increased with higher concentrations. Positive reactions to DM had a morphological appearance characterized by numerous discrete erythematous papules and, rarely, papulovesicles. Positive reactions to Stallergenes DM 200 IR were infrequent and all weak reactions, similar to DM 0.01%. Patch testing to DM does not seem to have clinical use for determining the etiology of dermatitis.

  3. Lessons from atopy patch testing in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kerschenlohr, Karin; Darsow, Ulf; Burgdorf, Walter H C; Ring, Johannes; Wollenberg, Andreas

    2004-07-01

    The exposure of atopic eczema (AE) patients to their relevant protein allergens (eg, from house dust mite, cat dander, grass pollen, or food allergens) can trigger an exacerbation or maintain the disease. Diagnostic procedures are needed to specify allergen avoidance recommendations for the individual patient. Skin prick tests and specific serum IgE tests might be helpful in pointing out potential trigger factors, but relevance needs to be confirmed (eg, with food provocation tests). The atopy patch test (APT) involves the epicutaneous application of intact protein allergens in a diagnostic patch test setting with an evaluation of the induced eczematous skin lesions after 24 to 72 hours. The APT targets the cellular component of AE and helps round out the AE test spectrum. As a number of apparently minor test modifications greatly influence the sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the APT, the European Task Force on Atopic Dermatitis (ETFAD) has developed a standardized APT technique. It consists of purified allergen preparations in petrolatum, applied in 12-mm diameter Finn chambers mounted on Scanpor tape to non-irritated, non-abraded, or tape-stripped skin of the upper back. The APT is read at 48 and 72 hours according to the test criteria and reading key of the ETFAD for appearance of erythema, and number and distribution pattern of the papules. In contrast with skin prick tests, the APT might even detect a relevant sensitization in the absence of specific IgE. Many studies have been undertaken to objectify the sensitivity and specificity of the APT to show its diagnostic use in clinical practice.

  4. Factors that predict remission of infant atopic dermatitis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    von Kobyletzki, Laura; Svensson, Åke; Apfelbacher, Christian; Schmitt, Jochen

    2015-04-01

    The individual prognosis of infants with atopic dermatitis (AD) is important for parents, healthcare professionals, and society. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors for remission of infant AD until school age. A systematic review was carried out of clinical and epidemiological studies investigating the effect of filaggrin gene (FLG) loss-of-function mutations, sex, exposure to pets, topical anti-inflammatory treatment, disease severity, and atopic sensitization during infancy on complete remission of infant-onset AD until 6-7 years of age. Systematic electronic searches until September 2013, data abstraction, and study quality assessment (Newcastle-Ottawa Scale) were performed. From 3,316 abstracts identified, 2 studies of good study quality were included. Parental allergies and sex did not significantly affect remission. For non-remission of AD, the included articles reported an association with any atopic sensitization at 2 years old (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.76; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-5.91), frequent scratching with early AD (aOR 5.86; 95% CI 3.04-11.29), objective severity score at 2 years old (aOR 1.10; 95% CI 1.07-1.14), and exposure to pets (cat OR 2.33; 95% CI 0.85-6.38). It is largely unknown which factors predict remission of infant AD. This is a highly relevant research gap that hinders patient information on the prognosis of infant-onset AD.

  5. The Genome-Wide Expression Profile of Saussurea lappa Extract on House Dust Mite-Induced Atopic Dermatitis in Nc/Nga Mice.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hye-Sun; Ha, Hyekyung; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Jeong, Soo-Jin

    2015-09-01

    Saussurea lappa has been reported to possess anti-atopic properties. In this study, we have confirmed the S. lappa's anti-atopic properties in Nc/Nga mice and investigated the candidate gene related with its properties using microarray. We determined the target gene using real time PCR in in vitro experiment. S. lappa showed the significant reduction in atopic dermatitis (AD) score and immunoglobulin E compared with the AD induced Nc/Nga mice. In the results of microarray using back skin obtained from animals, we found that S. lappa's properties are closely associated with cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Consistent with the microarray data, real-time RT-PCR confirmed these modulation at the mRNA level in skin tissues from S. lappa-treated mice. Among these genes, PI3Kca and IL20Rβ were significantly downregulated by S. lappa treatment in Nc/Nga mouse model. In in vitro experiment using HaCaT cells, we found that the S. lappa components, including alantolactone, caryophyllene, costic acid, costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone significantly decreased the expression of PI3Kca but not IL20Rβ in vitro. Therefore, our study suggests that PI3Kca-related signaling is closely related with the protective effects of S. lappa against the development of atopic-dermatitis.

  6. Beyond Psoriasis: Novel Uses for Biologic Response Modifiers in Pediatric Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Bellodi-Schmidt, Fernanda; Shah, Kara N

    2016-01-01

    Dermatologists have witnessed the increasing availability of novel biologic response modifiers for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in recent years. The most common dermatologic indication for the use of biologic response modifiers in adults is psoriasis, but the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has not approved any of these agents for use in any dermatologic disease in children with the exception of omalizumab, and as such, use in this population is considered off-label. In this review, we focus on the use of these agents in children to treat inflammatory skin diseases other than psoriasis, including atopic dermatitis, hidradenitis suppurativa, pemphigus vulgaris, bullous pemphigoid, and toxic epidermal necrolysis, with an emphasis on the use of etanercept, infliximab, rituximab, omalizumab, and ustekinumab. By highlighting novel uses of these agents, particularly for the treatment of dermatologic conditions for which optimal therapies are yet to be established, we hope to raise awareness of the potential use of this class of medications to treat inflammatory skin diseases in children. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Serum Vitamin D Levels Not Associated with Atopic Dermatitis Severity.

    PubMed

    Robl, Renata; Uber, Marjorie; Abagge, Kerstin Taniguchi; Lima, Monica Nunes; Carvalho, Vânia Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and the severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) in a Brazilian population. This was a cross-sectional study of patients younger than 14 years of age seen from April to November 2013. All patients fulfilled the Hanifin and Rajka Diagnostic Criteria for AD diagnosis. Disease severity was determined using the SCORing Atopic Dermatitis index and classified as mild (<25), moderate (25-50), or severe (>50). Serum vitamin D levels were classified as sufficient (≥30 ng/mL), insufficient (29-21 ng/mL), or deficient (≤20 ng/mL). A total of 105 patients met the inclusion criteria. Mild AD was diagnosed in 58 (55.2%) children, moderate in 24 (22.8%), and severe in 23 (21.9%). Vitamin D deficiency was observed in 45 individuals (42.9%). Of these, 24 (53.3%) had mild AD, 13 (28.9%) moderate, and 8 (17.7%) severe. Insufficient vitamin D levels were found in 45 (42.9%) individuals; 24 (53.3%) had mild AD, 9 (20.0%) moderate, and 12 (26.7%) severe. Of the 15 individuals (14.2%) with sufficient vitamin D levels, 10 (60.7%) had mild AD, 2 (13.3%) moderate, and 3 (20.0%) severe. The mean vitamin D level was 22.1 ± 7.3 ng/mL in individuals with mild AD, 20.8 ± 6.5 ng/mL in those with moderate AD, and 21.9 ± 9.3 ng/mL in those with severe AD. Variables such as sex, age, skin phototype, season of the year, and bacterial infection were not significantly associated with vitamin D levels. Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were deficient or insufficient in 85% of the children, but serum vitamin D concentrations were not significantly related to AD severity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Multispectral imaging based on a Smartphone with an external C-MOS camera for detection of seborrheic dermatitis on the scalp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Manjae; Kim, Sewoong; Hwang, Minjoo; Kim, Jihun; Je, Minkyu; Jang, Jae Eun; Lee, Dong Hun; Hwang, Jae Youn

    2017-02-01

    To date, the incident rates of various skin diseases have increased due to hereditary and environmental factors including stress, irregular diet, pollution, etc. Among these skin diseases, seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis are a chronic/relapsing dermatitis involving infection and temporary alopecia. However, they typically exhibit similar symptoms, thus resulting in difficulty in discrimination between them. To prevent their associated complications and appropriate treatments for them, it is crucial to discriminate between seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis with high specificity and sensitivity and further continuously/quantitatively to monitor the skin lesions during their treatment at other locations besides a hospital. Thus, we here demonstrate a mobile multispectral imaging system connected to a smartphone for selfdiagnosis of seborrheic dermatitis and further discrimination between seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis on the scalp, which is the more challenging case. Using the system developed, multispectral imaging and analysis of seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis on the scalp was carried out. It was here found that the spectral signatures of seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis were discernable and thus seborrheic dermatitis on the scalp could be distinguished from psoriasis by using the system. In particular, the smartphone-based multispectral imaging and analysis moreover offered better discrimination between seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis than the RGB imaging and analysis. These results suggested that the multispectral imaging system based on a smartphone has the potential for self-diagnosis of seborrheic dermatitis with high portability and specificity.

  9. Malassezia Yeast and Cytokine Gene Polymorphism in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Shukla; Ramachandran, V.G.; Saha, Rumpa; Bhattacharya, S.N.; Dar, Sajad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Atopic Dermatitis (AD) is a recurrent chronic condition associated with microorganism and their interaction with the susceptible host. Malassezia yeast is a known commensal which is thought to provoke the recurrent episodes of symptoms in atopic dermatitis patients. Malassezia immunomodulatory properties along with defective skin barrier in such host, results in disease manifestation. Here, we studied Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in IL10 and IFN γ genes of the host and its relation with susceptibility to Malassezia infection. Aim To isolate Malassezia yeast from AD patients and compare the genetic susceptibility of the host by correlating the cytokine gene polymorphism with the control subjects. Materials and Methods Study was conducted from January 2012 to January 2013. It was a prospective observational study done in Department of Microbiology and Department of Dermatology and Venereology in University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, Delhi. Sample size comprised of 38 cases each of AD. Skin scrapings were used for fungal culture on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) and Modified Dixon Agar (MDA) and isolated were identified as per conventional phenotypic methods. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples collected from all study subjects. Cytokine genotyping was carried out by Amplification Refractory Mutations System- Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR) with sequence specific primers. Three SNPs (IL10-1082A/G; IL10-819/592C/T; IFN-γ+874A/T) in two cytokine genes were assessed in all the patients and healthy controls. Statistical Analysis Chi-Square Test or Fisher’s-Exact Test and Bonferroni’s correction. Results In AD group, Malassezia yeasts were cultured in 24 out of 38 samples and thus the identification rate was 63.1 percent as compared to healthy group, 52.6 percent (20/38). Significant difference in allele, or genotype distribution were observed in IL10-819/592C/T and IFN-γ+874A/T gene polymorphism in AD group

  10. Atopic Dermatitis in Children: Clinical Features, Pathophysiology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Jonathan J.; Milner, Joshua D.; Stone, Kelly D.

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing, highly pruritic skin condition resulting from disruption of the epithelial barrier and associated immune dysregulation in the skin of genetically predisposed hosts. AD generally develops in early childhood, has a characteristic age-dependent distribution and is commonly associated with elevated IgE, peripheral eosinophilia and other allergic diseases. Staphylococcus aureus colonization is common and may contribute to disease progression and severity. Targeted therapies to restore both impaired skin barrier and control inflammation are required for optimal outcomes for patients with moderate to severe disease. Pruritus is universal among patients with AD and has a dominant impact on diminishing quality of life. Medications such as anti-histamines have demonstrated poor efficacy in controlling AD-associated itch. Education of patients regarding the primary underlying defects and provision of a comprehensive skin care plan is essential for disease maintenance and management of flares. PMID:25459583

  11. 7,8,4′-Trihydroxyisoflavone Attenuates DNCB-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Symptoms in NC/Nga Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heejung; Kim, Jong Rhan; Kang, Heerim; Choi, Jinhwan; Yang, Hee; Lee, Pomjoo; Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Ki Won

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by chronic highly pruritic and relapsing inflammatory skin lesions. Despite its growing prevalence, therapeutic treatments remain limited. Natural immune modulators from herbal extracts or derivatives may be useful for treating AD symptoms. This study examined the effect of 7,8,4′-trihydroxyisoflavone (7,8,4′-THIF), a metabolite of soy isoflavone daidzin, on AD-like symptoms. Repeated epicutaneous application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) was performed on the ear and dorsal skin of NC/Nga mice to induce AD-like symptoms and skin lesions, and 7,8,4′-THIF (200 and 400 nmol) or tacrolimus (100 µg) was applied topically for 3 weeks to assess their anti-pruritic effects. We found that 7,8,4′-THIF alleviated DNCB-induced AD-like symptoms as quantified by skin lesion, dermatitis score, ear thickness, and scratching behavior. Histopathological analysis demonstrated that 7,8,4′-THIF decreased DNCB-induced eosinophil and mast cell infiltration into skin lesions. We also found that 7,8,4′-THIF significantly alleviated DNCB-induced loss of water through the epidermal layer. In addition to reducing the DNCB-induced increase in serum IgE, 7,8,4′-THIF also lowered skin lesion levels of the chemokine thymus and activation regulated chemokine; Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13; and Th1 cytokines IL-12 and interferon-γ. These results suggest that 7,8,4′-THIF might be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. PMID:25170825

  12. Thermodynamic Insights and Conceptual Design of Skin-Sensitive Chitosan Coated Ceramide/PLGA Nanodrug for Regeneration of Stratum Corneum on Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sang-Myung; Yoon, Gwang Heum; Lee, Hoo Chul; Jung, Moon Hee; Yu, Sun Il; Yeon, Seung Ju; Min, Seul Ki; Kwon, Yeo Seon; Hwang, Jin Ha; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex skin disease primarily characterized by psoriasis of the stratum corneum. AD drugs have usually been used in acidic and hydrophilic solvents to supply moisture and prevent lipid defects. Ceramide is a typical treatment agent to regenerate the stratum corneum and relieve symptoms of AD. However, ceramide has limitation on direct use for skin because of its low dispersion properties in hydrophilic phase and side effects at excessive treatment. In this study, ceramide imbedded PLGA nanoparticles were developed with chitosan coating (Chi-PLGA/Cer) to overcome this problem. The chitosan coating enhanced initial adherence to the skin and prevented the initial burst of ceramide, but was degraded by the weakly acidic nature of skin, resulting in controlled release of ceramide with additional driving force of the squeezed PLGA nanoparticles. Additionally, the coating kinetics of chitosan were controlled by manipulating the reaction conditions and then mathematically modeled. The Chi-PLGA/Cer was not found to be cytotoxic and ceramide release was controlled by pH, temperature, and chitosan coating. Finally, Chi-PLGA/Cer was demonstrated to be effective at stratum corneum regeneration in a rat AD model. Overall, the results presented herein indicated that Chi-PLGA/Cer is a novel nanodrug for treatment of AD. PMID:26666701

  13. Clinical comparison of human and canine atopic dermatitis using human diagnostic criteria (Japanese Dermatological Association, 2009): proposal of provisional diagnostic criteria for canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Terada, Yuri; Nagata, Masahiko; Murayama, Nobuo; Nanko, Hiroko; Furue, Masutaka

    2011-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease encountered in both humans and dogs. Canine AD can be used in the analysis of naturally occurring AD; however, details of clinical comparison have been lacking. The purpose of this study is to compare those clinical features using the human diagnostic criteria (Japanese Dermatological Association, 2009). Fifty-one dogs with canine AD were evaluated by the human criteria. Prior to this study, canine AD was basically diagnosed by the fulfillment of two authentic canine AD criteria and a positive reaction against Dermatophagoides farinae in serum immunoglobulin E levels and/or in intradermal tests. Among the human AD criteria items, behavior corresponding to pruritus was observed in all 51 dogs. Skin lesions corresponding to eczematous dermatitis were seen in 50 dogs, and symmetrical distribution of skin lesions was noted in all 51 dogs. A chronic or chronically relapsing course was observed in 50 dogs. Based on these results, the concordance rate for the criteria was 96% (49/51). Differential diagnoses of AD were also investigated in the same manner. The concordance rate for the criteria was 0% (0/69) in scabies, 2% (1/50) in pyoderma, 0% (0/50) in demodicosis, 0% (0/9) in cutaneous lymphoma, 0% (0/2) in ichthyosis, 25% (2/7) in flea allergy, 48% (24/50) in seborrheic dermatitis and 75% (3/4) in food allergy. Canine AD is thus indicated as a valuable counterpart to human AD in clinical aspects. In addition, the human AD criteria could be applicable, with some modification, as provisional diagnostic criteria for canine AD. © 2011 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  14. Efficacy and Tolerability of Steroid-Free, Over-the-Counter Treatment Formulations in Infants and Children With Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Teresa M.; Herndon, James H.; Ewer, Melissa; Stephens, Thomas J.; Flick, Iris; Filbry, Alexander; Neufang, Gitta; Schoelermann, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Two steroid-free, over-the-counter skin protectant products have been developed for the care and treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD)—Eucerin Eczema Relief Body Crème (Body Cream) for daily skin moisturization and Eucerin Eczema Relief Instant Therapy cream (Instant Therapy) for treatment of AD flare-ups. We tested the efficacy and tolerability of these formulations in infants and children with AD. Methods Study 1: Body Cream was applied twice daily to the lower legs of 64 children with a history of AD (aged 3 months to 12 years) for 14 days. Study 2: Instant Therapy was applied to active lesions and surrounding skin of 29 children (aged 3 months to 12 years) with active atopic lesions. Assessments were performed at baseline and Days 7 and 14. Symptoms were assessed using the Atopic Dermatitis Severity Index in Study 2. Results Body Cream significantly improved skin hydration and reduced itching, burning/stinging, erythema, and tactile roughness. Instant Therapy significantly improved skin hydration and AD symptoms, notably pruritus, erythema, and lichenification. Both products were safe and well tolerated. Discussion Body Cream and Instant Therapy were effective and well tolerated in the treatment of AD in children. These products provide steroid-free, nonprescription therapy for the maintenance and treatment of acute eczema and were proven effective and safe in infants as young as 3 months. PMID:25699134

  15. Accumulation of immunoglobulin G against Dermatophagoides farinae tropomyosin in dorsal root ganglia of NC/Nga mice with atopic dermatitis-like symptoms.

    PubMed

    Otsu, Ayaka; Kawasaki, Hiroaki; Tominaga, Mitsutoshi; Shigenaga, Ayako; Matsuda, Hironori; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Nakajima, Tadaaki; Naito, Hisashi; Baba, Takeshi; Ogawa, Hideoki; Tomooka, Yasuhiro; Yamakura, Fumiyuki; Takamori, Kenji

    2017-04-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD), a chronic inflammatory skin disease, manifests as intractable itch, but its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This study assessed the relationship between immunoglobulin G (IgG) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in NC/Nga mice, a model of AD that manifests AD-like symptoms including itch. Immunohistochemical analysis showed large amounts of IgG in DRG extracts of NC/Nga mice with AD-like dermatitis, with a large fraction of the IgG distributed in satellite glial cells of the DRG. Proteomic analysis showed that this IgG was reactive against tropomyosin of Dermatophagoides farinae. These findings indicate that the accumulation of anti-tropomyosin IgG in DRG of atopic NC/Nga mice may be associated with the pathogenesis of AD-like symptoms, including itch. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Elevated blood eosinophils in early infancy are predictive of atopic dermatitis in children with risk for atopy.

    PubMed

    Rossberg, Siri; Gerhold, Kerstin; Geske, Thomas; Zimmermann, Kurt; Menke, Georg; Zaino, Mohammad; Wahn, Ulrich; Hamelmann, Eckard; Lau, Susanne

    2016-11-01

    Accessible markers to predict the development of atopic diseases are highly desirable but yet matter of debate. We investigated the role of blood eosinophils at 4 weeks and 7 months of life and their association with developing atopic dermatitis (AD) in a birth cohort of children with atopic heredity. Infant blood samples for eosinophil counts were taken from 559 infants at 4 weeks and from 467 infants at 7 month of life with at least one atopic parent. Elevation of blood eosinophils was defined as ≥ 5% of total leukocytes and the asscociation for the occurrence of AD was assessed by entering 2 × 2 tables and the odds ratios were estimated followed by hypothesis testing against the alternate working hypothesis: odds ratio < > 1. Survival analysis was carried out estimating the Kaplan-Meier product limit estimator from the life-time table of AD score and time to AD manifestation stratified by the eosinophil binary score. Elevated blood eosinophils observed at 4 weeks were significantly associated with the occurrence of AD in the whole cohort at the age of 7 months (p = 0.007), 1 year (p = 0.004), 2 years (p = 0.007) and 3 years (p = 0.006) of life. AD occurred app. 12 weeks earlier in infants with elevated blood eosinophils at 4 weeks of life. Blood eosinophil counts ≥5% at 7 months of life failed to show significance for AD; for eosinophils at 4.5% a significant association at 7 months (p = 0.005), and 1 year of life (p = 0.039), 2 years (p = 0.033) and 3 years (p = 0.034) was observed. Elevated blood eosinophils at age 4 weeks have a predictive value for the onset of atopic dermatitis in infancy and early childhood in children with high risk for atopy. Early eosinophil counts may therefore be helpful for counseling parents to provide infant skincare but furthermore identify individuals for interventional trials aiming at allergy prevention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Management of Atopic Dermatitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Hidehisa

    2017-01-01

    The guidelines for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) issued by the Japanese Dermatological Association (JDA), which are basically designed for dermatologists, were first prepared in 2000 and revised in 2016. The guidelines for AD of the Japanese Society of Allergology (JSA), which are basically designed for allergologists, including internists, otorhinolaryngologists, ophthalmologists, and dermatologists, were first prepared in 2009 and revised in 2014. In this article, I review the definition, pathophysiology, etiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, severity classification, examination for diagnosis and severity assessment, and treatments for AD in Japan according to these two guidelines for AD (JDA and JSA). Based on the definition and diagnostic criteria for AD of the JDA, patients meeting three basic criteria, 1) pruritus, 2) typical morphology and distribution of the eczema, and 3) chronic or chronically relapsing course, are regarded as having AD. Treatment measures for AD basically consist of drug therapy, skin care, and elimination of exacerbating factors. Drugs that potently reduce AD-related inflammation in the skin are topical corticosteroids and tacrolimus. It is most important to promptly and accurately reduce inflammation related to AD by using these topical anti-inflammatory drugs. Proactive therapy refers to a treatment method in which, after inducing remission, a topical corticosteroid or tacrolimus ointment is intermittently applied to the skin in addition to skin care with moisturizers in order to maintain remission.

  18. Effect of breast-feeding on the development of atopic dermatitis during the first 3 years of life--results from the GINI-birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Laubereau, Birgit; Brockow, Inken; Zirngibl, Angelika; Koletzko, Sibylle; Gruebl, Armin; von Berg, Andrea; Filipiak-Pittroff, Birgit; Berdel, Dietrich; Bauer, Carl Peter; Reinhardt, Dietrich; Heinrich, Joachim; Wichmann, H-Erich

    2004-05-01

    To investigate if exclusive breast-feeding for 4 months is associated with atopic dermatitis during the first 3 years of life. Data on 3903 children were taken from yearly parental-administered questionnaires from a birth cohort study in Germany (recruited 1995-1998) comprised of a noninterventional (NI) and an interventional (I) subgroup. Outcomes were physician-diagnosed atopic dermatitis (AD) and itchy rash. Multiple logistic regression was performed for the entire cohort and stratified by family history of allergy and by study group adjusting for a fixed set of risk factors for allergies. Exclusive breast-feeding (52 % of children) was not associated with higher risk for AD either in the entire cohort (OR(adj,) 0.95; 95% CI, 0.79-1.14) or if stratified by family history of AD. In the I subgroup, but not in the NI subgroup, exclusive breast-feeding showed a significant protective effect on AD if compared with conventional cow's milk formula (OR(adj), 0.64; 95% CI, 0.45-0.90). These findings do not support the hypothesis that exclusive breast-feeding is a risk factor for development of atopic dermatitis but is protective if compared with conventional cow's milk. Observational studies might not be able to effectively control for selection bias and reverse causation.

  19. Crisaborole: Phosphodiesterase inhibitor for treatment of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Paton, D M

    2017-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an extremely common condition affecting as many as 10-20% of children and 2-10% of adults. A particularly distressing symptom of AD is pruritus. One of the important aspects of AD is inflammation associated with increased activity of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4), resulting in decreased intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, which in turn causes increased production of inflammatory cytokines. Crisaborole was developed as a small-molecule, boron-based, selective PDE4 inhibitor that can be used topically. Clinical trials have demonstrated its efficacy in treating patients with mild to moderate AD, resulting in significant relief of pruritus. Unlike PDE4 inhibitors that act systemically, crisaborole does not cause significant gastrointestinal adverse effects. The most common adverse effect has been temporary stinging and burning in about 4% of patients upon application of the 2% ointment. To date there is no evidence of atrophy, telangiectasia or hypopigmentation resulting from its use. Crisaborole is the first topically applied PDE4 inhibitor to be approved by the FDA for use in AD. Copyright 2017 Clarivate Analytics.

  20. A Review of Multidisciplinary Interventions in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Spielman, Sara C.; LeBovidge, Jennifer S.; Timmons, Karol G.; Schneider, Lynda C.

    2015-01-01

    Multidisciplinary interventions have been developed for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and their families, with the aim of improving outcomes such as disease control, adherence, and quality of life. We reviewed the content of different multidisciplinary approaches to intervention for AD and evidence for their impact on key outcome measures. We also provided data from our multidisciplinary outpatient program for pediatric AD. Studies included in the review suggest benefits of multidisciplinary interventions as models of treatment or adjuncts to standard medical care, with a positive impact on outcomes including disease severity and itching/scratching. There were limitations to existing studies, including heterogeneous methods used to assess quality of life outcomes across studies and lack of controlled studies assessing the outcome of clinical care programs. Further research will be useful in assessing the impact of multidisciplinary interventions on important outcomes such as treatment adherence and sleep, identifying the elements of multidisciplinary interventions that are most critical for improved outcomes, and identifying the best candidates for multidisciplinary intervention approaches. PMID:26239470

  1. Contact sensitization in Dutch children and adolescents with and without atopic dermatitis - a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Lubbes, Stefanie; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Sillevis Smitt, Johannes H; Schuttelaar, Marie Louise; Middelkamp-Hup, Maritza A

    2017-03-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is known to occur in children with and without atopic dermatitis, but more data are needed on contact sensitization profiles in these two groups. To identify frequent allergens in children with and without atopic dermatitis suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis. A retrospective analysis of children aged 0-17 years patch tested between 1996 and 2013 was performed. Of all 1012 children tested because of suspected contact dermatitis, 46% developed one or more positive reactions, the proportions for children with (n = 526) and without (n = 395) atopic dermatitis being 48% and 47%, respectively. Children with atopic dermatitis reacted more often to lanolin alcohol (30% pet., p = 0.030), Amerchol L-101 (p = 0.030), and fragrances [fragrance mix I (p = 0.048) and Myroxylon pereirae (p = 0.005)]. Allergens outside the European baseline series that frequently gave positive reactions in these groups included cocamidopropyl betaine and Amerchol L-101. Reactivity to these allergens was significantly more common in atopic dermatitis children. Sensitization prevalences in children with and without atopic dermatitis were similar, but children with atopic dermatitis reacted significantly more often to lanolin alcohol and fragrances. Testing with additional series besides the European baseline series may be necessary, as reactions to, for example, cocamidopropyl betaine and Amerchol L-101 may otherwise be missed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The role of food allergy in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Greenhawt, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) affects ∼10% of children. Food allergy is a known provoking cause of AD in a subset of affected children. A literature search of PubMed and Medline was conducted to review the epidemiology and pathophysiology of AD, with special focus on the role of food allergy in the development of AD, its management, and its long-term preventive strategies. A literature search of PubMed and Medline was conducted. Food allergens readily provoke AD in ∼35% of patients, as proven through double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge studies. Milk, egg, wheat, soy, and peanut account for 75% of the cases of food-induced AD. However, the positive predictive values of the parental history, skin-prick tests, or serum tests for detecting food-specific IgE are low, making these unsuitable for use as single diagnostic modalities. Therefore, the use of a food challenge test is very helpful in objectively confirming the history or positive tests. Elimination diets are often helpful in challenge-proven cases, but care must be taken to evaluate the nutritional status of the child. There are few effective long-term strategies to prevent the development of food allergen-induced AD. Early onset of AD has been shown to be a risk factor for the development of other allergic diseases, including other food allergy/sensitization, as part of the atopic march. Treatment of other causes of AD, such as barrier dysfunction and cutaneous infection, are of equal importance to food allergen avoidance. Food allergy is an important provoking cause of AD, but it is only relevant in ∼35% of affected individuals.

  3. Pediatric Contact Dermatitis Registry Data on Contact Allergy in Children With Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Sharon E.; McGowan, Maria; Silverberg, Nanette B.; Pelletier, Janice L.; Fonacier, Luz; Mousdicas, Nico; Powell, Doug; Scheman, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Importance Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) have a dynamic relationship not yet fully understood. Investigation has been limited thus far by a paucity of data on the overlap of these disorders in pediatric patients. Objective To use data from the Pediatric Contact Dermatitis Registry to elucidate the associations and sensitizations among patients with concomitant AD and ACD. Design, Setting, and Participants This retrospective case review examined 1142 patch test cases of children younger than 18 years, who were registered between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2015, by 84 health care providers (physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants) from across the United States. Data were gathered electronically from multidisciplinary providers within outpatient clinics throughout the United States on pediatric patients (ages 0-18 years). Exposures All participants were patch-tested to assess sensitizations to various allergens; history of AD was noted by the patch-testing providers. Main Outcomes and Measures Primary outcomes were sensitization rates to various patch-tested allergens. Results A total of 1142 patients were evaluated: 189 boys (34.2%) and 363 girls (65.8%) in the AD group and 198 boys (36.1%) and 350 girls (63.9%) in the non-AD group (data on gender identification were missing for 17 patients). Compared with those without AD, patch-tested patients with AD were 1.3 years younger (10.5 vs 11.8 years; P < .001) and had longer history of dermatitis (3.5 vs 1.8 years; P < .001). Patch-tested patients designated as Asian or African American were more likely to have concurrent AD (odds ratio [OR], 1.92; 95% CI, 1.20-3.10; P = .008; and OR, 4.09; 95% CI, 2.70-6.20; P <.001, respectively). Patients with AD with generalized distribution were the most likely to be patch tested (OR, 4.68; 95% CI, 3.50-6.30; P < .001). Patients with AD had different reaction profiles than those without AD, with increased

  4. Atopic Dermatitis: A Disease of Altered Skin Barrier and Immune Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Boguniewicz, Mark; Leung, Donald YM

    2011-01-01

    Summary Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an important chronic or relapsing inflammatory skin disease that often precedes asthma and allergic disorders. New insights into the genetics and pathophysiology of AD point to an important role of structural abnormalities in the epidermis as well as immune dysregulation not only for this skin disease but also for the development of asthma and allergies. Patients with AD have a unique predisposition to colonization or infection by microbial organisms, most notably Staphylococcus aureus and herpes simplex virus. Measures directed at healing and protecting the skin barrier and addressing the immune dysregulation are essential in the treatment of patients with AD and early intervention may improve outcomes for both the skin disease as well as other target organs. PMID:21682749

  5. Management of atopic dermatitis: safety and efficacy of phototherapy

    PubMed Central

    Patrizi, Annalisa; Raone, Beatrice; Ravaioli, Giulia Maria

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease that can affect all age groups. It is characterized by a relapsing course and a dramatic impact on quality of life for patients. Environmental interventions together with topical devices represent the mainstay of treatment for AD, in particular emollients, corticosteroids, and calcineurin inhibitors. Systemic treatments are reserved for severe cases. Phototherapy represents a valid second-line intervention in those cases where non-pharmacological and topical measures have failed. Different forms of light therapy are available, and have showed varying degrees of beneficial effect against AD: natural sunlight, narrowband (NB)-UVB, broadband (BB)-UVB, UVA, UVA1, cold-light UVA1, UVA and UVB (UVAB), full-spectrum light (including UVA, infrared and visible light), saltwater bath plus UVB (balneophototherapy), Goeckerman therapy (coal tar plus UVB radiation), psoralen plus UVA (PUVA), and other forms of phototherapy. In particular, UVA1 and NB-UVB have gained importance in recent years. This review illustrates the main trials comparing the efficacy and safety of the different forms of phototherapy. No sufficiently large randomized controlled studies have been performed as yet, and no light modality has been defined as superior to all. Parameters and dosing protocols may vary, although clinicians mainly refer to the indications included in the American Academy of Dermatology psoriasis guidelines devised by Menter et al in 2010. The efficacy of phototherapy (considering all forms) in AD has been established in adults and children, as well as for acute (UVA1) and chronic (NB-UVB) cases. Its use is suggested with strength of recommendation B and level of evidence II. Home phototherapy can also be performed; this technique is recommended with strength C and level of evidence III. Phototherapy is generally considered to be safe and well tolerated, with a low but established percentage of short-term and long

  6. Lack of antinuclear antibody in children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Dhar, S; Kanwar, A J; Deodhar, S D

    1997-01-01

    Antinuclear antibody (ANA) was assayed in 76 children with atopic dermatitis (AD) of which 46 were males and 30 females. Their ages ranged from 6 months to 12 years (mean 3.4 years). Age at onset of AD ranged from 2 months to 5.5 years (mean 1.9 years) and its duration ranged from 4 months to 4 years (mean 1.2 years). While facial lesions were present in 56 (73.3%) patients, 49 (64.5%) patients had predominant involvement of extensors. As per severity score designed by Rajka and Langerland, 31 (40.8%), 42 (55.3%) and 3 (3.9%) patients had mild, moderate and severe diseases respectively. History of photosensitivity was present in 6 (7.9%) patients. Serum samples were positive for ANA in a very low titre (1:20) in 2/6 patients with facial lesions. However LE cell, rheumatoid factor and C-reactive proteins were negative and serum complement levels were within normal limits.

  7. Classification and possible bacterial infection in outpatients with eczema and dermatitis in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Shi, Xiao-Dong; Li, Lin-Feng; Zhou, Ping; Shen, Yi-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the classification and bacterial infection in outpatients with eczema and dermatitis in China. To investigate the prevalence of eczema and dermatitis in outpatients of dermatology clinics in China, examine classification and proportion of common types of dermatitis and the possible bacterial infection, and analyze the possible related factors. Outpatients with eczema or dermatitis from 39 tertiary hospitals of 15 provinces in mainland China from July 1 to September 30, 2014, were enrolled in this cross-sectional and multicenter study. Among 9393 enrolled outpatients, 636 patients (6.7%) were excluded because of incomplete information. The leading subtypes of dermatitis were unclassified eczema (35.5%), atopic dermatitis (13.4%), irritant dermatitis (9.2%), and widespread eczema (8.7%). Total bacterial infection rate was 52.3%, with widespread eczema, stasis dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis being the leading three (65.7%, 61.8%, and 61.4%, respectively). Clinically very likely bacterial infection has a significant positive correlation with disease duration, history of allergic disease, history of flexion dermatitis, and severe itching. Atopic dermatitis has become a common subtype of dermatitis in China. Secondary bacterial infection is common in all patients with dermatitis, and more attentions should be paid on this issue in other type of dermatitis apart from atopic dermatitis. PMID:28858126

  8. Translational Animal Models of Atopic Dermatitis for Preclinical Studies



    PubMed Central

    Martel, Britta C.; Lovato, Paola; Bäumer, Wolfgang; Olivry, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    There is a medical need to develop new treatments for patients suffering from atopic dermatitis (AD). To improve the discovery and testing of novel treatments, relevant animal models for AD are needed. Generally, these animal models mimic different aspects of the pathophysiology of human AD, such as skin barrier defects and Th2 immune bias with additional Th1 and Th22, and in some populations Th17, activation. However, the pathomechanistic characterization and pharmacological validation of these animal models are generally incomplete. In this paper, we review animal models of AD in the context of preclinical use and their possible translation to the human disease. Most of these models use mice, but we will also critically evaluate dog models of AD, as increasing information on disease mechanism show their likely relevance for the human disease. PMID:28955179

  9. Intense THz pulses down-regulate genes associated with skin cancer and psoriasis: a new therapeutic avenue?

    PubMed Central

    Titova, Lyubov V.; Ayesheshim, Ayesheshim K.; Golubov, Andrey; Rodriguez-Juarez, Rocio; Woycicki, Rafal; Hegmann, Frank A.; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation lies between the infrared and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and is non-ionizing. We show that exposure of artificial human skin tissue to intense, picosecond-duration THz pulses affects expression levels of numerous genes associated with non-melanoma skin cancers, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Genes affected by intense THz pulses include nearly half of the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) members. EDC genes, which are mapped to the chromosomal human region 1q21, encode for proteins that partake in epidermal differentiation and are often overexpressed in conditions such as psoriasis and skin cancer. In nearly all the genes differentially expressed by exposure to intense THz pulses, the induced changes in transcription levels are opposite to disease-related changes. The ability of intense THz pulses to cause concerted favorable changes in the expression of multiple genes implicated in inflammatory skin diseases and skin cancers suggests potential therapeutic applications of intense THz pulses. PMID:23917523

  10. Health-related quality of life in adult dermatitis patients stratified by filaggrin genotype.

    PubMed

    Heede, Nina G; Thyssen, Jacob P; Thuesen, Betina H; Linneberg, Allan; Szecsi, Pal B; Stender, Steen; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2017-03-01

    Information concerning health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and comorbidities of adult dermatitis patients stratified by loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) is limited. To investigate HRQoL, skin symptoms and comorbidities in adult FLG mutation carriers. This cross-sectional study included patients diagnosed with atopic dermatitis and/or hand eczema (n = 520). Patients completed questionnaires about dermatitis, skin symptoms, HRQoL, and comorbidities, including actinic keratosis, and atopic and mental disorders. FLG mutations (R501X, 2282del4, and R2447X) were identified in 16.9% of patients, and were significantly associated not only with atopic dermatitis, but also independently with skin fissures on the fingers and heels, and self-reported actinic keratosis. Although FLG mutations were significantly associated with reduced HRQoL, as measured by use of the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), no association with self-reported anxiety or depression was identified. Notably, the highest median DLQI score, reflecting greater impairment, was reported by patients with both FLG mutations and atopic dermatitis. Overall, 19.7% of patients with both atopic dermatitis and FLG mutations reported a 'large or extremely large' impact on their lives; this represents twice the prevalence seen in patients with atopic dermatitis and wild-type FLG (9.6%). Patients with both atopic dermatitis and common FLG mutations are more frequently affected by reduced HRQoL. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of Maintenance Treatment with a Barrier-strengthening Moisturizing Cream in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis in Finland, Norway and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Norrlid, Hanna; Hjalte, Frida; Lundqvist, Adam; Svensson, Åke; Tennvall, Gunnel Ragnarson

    2016-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic skin disorder with high prevalence, especially in the Nordic countries. Effective maintenance therapy during symptom-free episodes may prolong the time to eczema relapse according to a previously published clinical trial. The present study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of a barrier-strengthening moisturizer containing 5% urea, compared with a moisturizer with no active ingredients during eczema-free periods. A health economic microsimulation model, based on efficacy data from the randomized clinical trial, analysed the cost-effectiveness of the barrier-strengthening treatment in Finland, Norway and Sweden. The barrier-strengthening moisturizer was cost-saving compared with the moisturizer with no active ingredients in all 3 countries. The result was confirmed in all but one sensitivity analysis. In conclusion, the barrier-strengthening moisturizer is cost-effective as maintenance therapy for patients with atopic dermatitis compared with a moisturizer with no active ingredients.

  12. Lactobacillus plantarum IS-10506 supplementation reduced SCORAD in children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Prakoeswa, C R S; Herwanto, N; Prameswari, R; Astari, L; Sawitri, S; Hidayati, A N; Indramaya, D M; Kusumowidagdo, E R; Surono, I S

    2017-10-13

    Lactobacillus plantarum IS-10506 is a novel probiotic isolated from dadih, an Indonesian traditional fermented buffalo milk. It's in vitro and in vivo probiotic properties have been assessed. Probiotic function has been shown in vivo by the suppression of allergic reactions in BALB/c mice through the action of T-regulatory cells cytokines by balancing Th1 and Th2 immune response. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic recurrent inflammatory skin disease characterised by the imbalance of Th1 and Th2. The aim of the study was to assess the probiotic function of L. plantarum IS-10506 in children with mild and moderate AD. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial comparing microencapsulated L. plantarum IS-10506 (10 10 cfu/day) and placebo (skim milk-Avicel) twice daily for 12 weeks was conducted in an outpatient clinic on children with mild and moderate AD. The trial included 22 AD children divided into intervention and control groups of n=12 and n=10 patients, respectively. Scoring Atopic Dermatitis Index (SCORAD) and serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), interleukin (IL)-4, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), forkhead box P3 (Foxp3+)/IL-10, and IL-17 levels were assessed. Demographic and baseline characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. SCORAD and levels of IL-4, IFN-γ, and IL-17 were significantly lower in the probiotic group than those in the placebo group, while the IgE levels were not significantly changed. The ratio of Foxp3+ to IL-10 was significantly higher in the probiotic group than that in placebo group. Supplementation with the probiotic L. plantarum IS-10506 offered a potential treatment for children with AD. Further long-term studies with a larger sample size are required to confirm the therapeutic efficacy of L. plantarum IS-10506 in AD.

  13. Effects of a short-term parental education program on childhood atopic dermatitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Futamura, Masaki; Masuko, Ikuyo; Hayashi, Keiichi; Ohya, Yukihiro; Ito, Komei

    2013-01-01

    Parental education is important in managing childhood atopic dermatitis (AD). We evaluated the long-term effects of a 2-day parental education program (PEP) on childhood AD. In an investigator-blinded, randomized controlled trial, 59 children age 6 months to 6 years with moderate to severe AD and their mothers were recruited in Japan. Participants were given a booklet about AD and received conventional treatment alone or in combination with a 2-day PEP comprising three lectures, three practical sessions, and a group discussion. The primary outcome was evaluation of eczema severity using SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included changes in symptom scores, amount of corticosteroid used, parental quality of life as determined according to the Dermatitis Family Impact questionnaire, and change in parental anxiety regarding the use of corticosteroids in their children. Participants in the PEP group had a significantly lower SCORAD score than those in the control group at 6 months (mean difference 10.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3-17.7, p = 0.01) and objective SCORAD score (mean difference 7.1, 95% CI = 0.8-13.5, p = 0.03). The sleeplessness symptom score (mean difference 1.6, 95% CI = 0.0-3.1, p = 0.048) and corticosteroid anxiety score (p = 0.02) in the PEP group were significantly better than in the control group at 6 months. There was no significant difference between groups in the amount of corticosteroid used or quality of life. The PEP had positive long-term effects on eczema severity and parental anxiety about corticosteroid usage. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. [Experience of sexuality in patients with psoriasis and constitutional eczema].

    PubMed

    van Dorssen, I E; Boom, B W; Hengeveld, M W

    1992-10-31

    In order to determine the effect of chronic skin disorders on sexuality a cross-sectional study was carried out in the Dermatological Outpatient Clinic of Leiden University Hospital. Fifty-two patients with psoriasis and 25 patients with atopic dermatitis filled in a questionnaire which included items on sexual responsiveness and satisfaction. The response rate was 84%. One-third of the patients, especially those with psoriasis, had problems with dating and starting sexual relationships, and were embarrassed in these relationships. The sexual responsiveness of both male and female patients was below that in the normal population. Women appeared to have more problems in this area then men. Their sexual satisfaction was lower than in the average Dutch population, whereas in men this trend was found to be reversed. Sexual responsiveness did not correlate with the extent of the skin disease or location around genital areas, but was associated with self-esteem and the number of emotional complaints. In the treatment of patients with chronic skin disorders attention should be paid to sexual problems that may arise. Groups that are especially affected are females and young psoriatics who have their first sexual relationship.

  15. High-Fat and Low-Carbohydrate Diets Are Associated with Allergic Rhinitis But Not Asthma or Atopic Dermatitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have suggested that nutritional intake is related to allergic diseases. Although conflicting results exist, fat intake is often associated with allergic diseases. We investigated the relationship between allergic diseases and nutritional intake after adjusting for various demographic and socioeconomic factors in a large, representative sample of Korean children. Methods A total of 3,040 participants, aged 4 to 13 years old, were enrolled in the present study from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2010–2012. Nutritional intake data, including total calories, protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin, were retrieved from the survey using the complete 24-hour recall method. The associations between each nutritional factor and allergic rhinitis/asthma/atopic dermatitis were analyzed using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), number of household members, income level, and region of residence were adjusted for as covariates. Results Of the participants, 22.1%, 6.0%, and 15.5% suffered from allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis, respectively. Allergic rhinitis was significantly correlated with high-fat and low-carbohydrate diets. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was 1.25 (95% CIs = 1.06–1.46, P = 0.007) for fat intake, denoting a 10% increase. Carbohydrate intake (10% increase) was negatively related to allergic rhinitis with an AOR of 0.84 (95% CIs = 0.74–0.95, P = 0.004). No other significant relationships were found between the retrieved nutritional factors and either asthma or atopic dermatitis. Conclusion Allergic rhinitis was related to high-fat and low-carbohydrate diets. Although the underlying mechanisms and causal relationships remain elusive, the present study provides reliable evidence regarding the associations between nutritional factors and allergic rhinitis by considering

  16. Exposure to dogs but not cats is associated to a decrease in the prevalence in atopic dermatitis amongst school-children.

    PubMed

    Bedolla-Barajas, M; Morales-Romero, J; Bedolla-Pulido, T I; Bedolla-Pulido, T R; Meza-López, C; Pulido-Guillén, N A

    2018-02-15

    The association regarding the exposure to pets, especially cats and dogs, and the prevalence of allergic diseases is inconsistent. We analyzed the role played by early exposure to dogs or cats in the prevalence of allergic diseases amongst school-aged children. Through a cross-sectional study, we examined 756 children, aged 6-7; these candidates were selected through cluster sampling. We inquired about the exposure that these children had had to dogs and cats, and whether these pets spent most of their time indoors or outdoors during the first year of the child's life. In order to identify the prevalence of allergic diseases and their symptoms, each child's parent completed the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. Exposure to outdoor dogs was associated to nocturnal coughing, odds ratio (OR) 0.64, with a confidence interval of 95% (95% CI) 0.43-0.95 and with atopic dermatitis (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.20-0.76). Interestingly, exposure to outdoor cats was associated to nocturnal coughing (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.32-0.83) and current rhinitis symptoms (OR: 0.59; 95% CI 0.36-0.97). After carrying out the multivariate analyses, only exposure to dogs, both indoor and outdoor, was significantly associated to a decrease in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis OR 0.40 (95% CI: 0.20-0.79) and OR 0.38 (95% CI: 0.18-0.83), respectively. Our findings suggest that exposure to dogs, whether they be indoor or outdoor pets, is associated to a decreased prevalence in atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2018 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Infantile eczema at one month of age is associated with cord blood eosinophilia and subsequent development of atopic dermatitis and wheezing illness until two years of age.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Shimanouchi, Yasuhiro; Kawakubo, Keiichi; Oishi, Naobumi; Wakiguchi, Hiroshi; Futamura, Kyoko; Saito, Hirohisa

    2005-01-01

    Physiological and pathological skin eruptions are commonly encountered in neonates in our clinical practice. However, the types of skin eruptions that are associated with the subsequent development of atopic dermatitis and the mechanisms of these associations remain uncertain. A total of 105 newborn babies with normal delivery were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. The cord blood eosinophil count was measured and the neonates were examined at 1 month of age and followed until 8 years of age. At 1 month of age, infantile eczema, seborrheic dermatitis, intertrigo and diaper dermatitis were diagnosed in a total of 29, 7, 14 and 24 neonates, respectively. No association was found among the prevalences of these eruptions. Neonates with infantile eczema had a significantly higher number and ratio of eosinophils in the cord blood (eosinophil count: 670.8 +/- 67.8 vs. 349.0 +/- 30.3/microl, p < 0.0001; eosinophil ratio: 5.12 +/- 0.53 vs. 2.61 +/- 0.22%, p < 0.0001, for the presence and the absence of infantile eczema, respectively). In contrast, no such tendency was found for any other skin eruptions. In neonates with infantile eczema at 1 month of age, the diagnosis of atopic dermatitis had been made significantly earlier and the prevalence of wheezing illness was significantly higher than in those without infantile eczema until 2 years of age. Infantile eczema, but not other skin eruptions, precedes the development of atopic dermatitis and wheezing illness during early infancy, presumably because of the activation of eosinophils before birth. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The skin microbiome in allergen-induced canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Pierezan, Felipe; Olivry, Thierry; Paps, Judith S; Lawhon, Sara D; Wu, Jing; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline

    2016-10-01

    Studies focusing on next-generation sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene have allowed detailed surveys of skin bacterial populations (microbiota) of the skin. This study evaluated temporal changes in the skin microbiota in a canine model of atopic dermatitis. Eight atopic dogs previously sensitized with house dust mites (HDM). The dogs were topically challenged on the right groin with HDM allergens. Swabs were collected from the challenged and the contralateral nonchallenged sites prior to provocation (pre-challenge; baseline sample) and on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after allergen challenge. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified, sequenced and analysed. Staphylococcus spp. and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius were quantified with quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Skin lesions developed in all dogs on the challenged sites. Differences in bacterial groups were observed on the challenged site over time. Relatively lower abundances of Fusobacteriaceae on Day 7, and, based on LEfSe, increased abundances of Corynebacteriaceae on Day 1, and Staphylococcaceae on days 7, 14 and 21, were observed on the challenged site, compared to the contralateral site. Results of RT-qPCR correlated with those of next-generation sequencing, with significantly increased numbers of Staphylococcus spp. and S. pseudintermedius on Day 21, and days 7 and 21 on the challenged site compared to the contralateral site, respectively. This study demonstrates that an allergen challenge in sensitized dogs leads to bacterial dysbiosis with increased abundance of S. pseudintermedius at the site of lesion induction. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  19. Topical corticosteroid phobia in atopic dermatitis: International feasibility study of the TOPICOP score.

    PubMed

    Stalder, J-F; Aubert, H; Anthoine, E; Futamura, M; Marcoux, D; Morren, M-A; Trzeciak, M; Szalai, Z; Veres, K; Deleuran, M; Vestergaard, C; Boralevi, F; Chu, C-Y; De Raeve, L; Svensson, Å; Fölster-Holst, R; Buchner, M; Takaoka, R; Aoki, V; Chernyshov, P; Chernyshova, L; Murrell, D F; Zhao, C; Mckinster, C D; Von Kobyletzky, L; Eichenfield, L; Totri, C; Lio, P; Seneschal, J; Moret, L; Barbarot, S

    2017-11-01

    Adherence to topical corticosteroids (TCS) is essential for the effective treatment of atopic dermatitis but can be limited by concerns about their use. This study examined the feasibility of applying the validated TOPICOP score for assessing TCS phobia across different countries. This was a prospective multicentre feasibility study conducted in 21 hospitals in 17 countries. Patients >3 months of age with atopic dermatitis or their parents or legal representatives completed a validated translation of the TOPICOP questionnaire in the country's native language. Respondents also completed questionnaires collecting opinions about the feasibility and acceptability of the TOPICOP questionnaire. A total of 1564 participants in 15 countries were included in the analysis. 81% of respondents considered the questions clear or very clear, and 79% reported that it took less than 5 minutes to complete. Each of the individual items in the TOPICOP questionnaire was considered to be not at all difficult to answer by 49% to 74% of participants. The mean global TOPICOP score was 44.7%±20.5. Mean TOPICOP subscores were 37.0±22.8% for knowledge and beliefs, 54.7±27.8% for fears and 50.1±29.1% for behaviours. Global scores and subscores differed between countries, although the subscores did not always vary in parallel, suggesting different levels of TCS phobia and different drivers for each country. The TOPICOP score can be feasibly applied across countries and may therefore be useful for obtaining qualitative and quantitative data from international studies and for adapting patient education and treatment. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  20. [The contribution of food and airborne allergens in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Dynowska, Dorota; Kolarzyk, Emilia; Schlegel-Zawadzka, Małgorzata; Dynowski, Wojciech

    2002-01-01

    Food hypersensitivity and airborne allergens may play a role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the kind of food and airborne allergens which may most often induce and intensify AD lesions and also to assess the variability and the kind of allergens leading to AD. The subjects of this study were 610 persons, aged 3 months-70 years. The clinical status of the patients was estimated by an atopic dermatitis symptom score scale (SCORAD). The laboratory examinations differentiated inflammatory processes from allergic reactions. The skin prick tests (SPT), serum total IgE and specific IgE-antibody levels to chosen food products and standard airborne allergens with the immuno-enzymes method ELISA-DPC were performed. The elevated values of the total IgE were proved in 46.1% children from group 0-15 years and in 31.4% of adolescents and adult persons (above 15 year of age). On the basis of positive SPT and positive specific IgE values it was shown, that most frequent food allergens were: egg protein (13.0%), cow milk (9.5%), egg yolk (8.4%), wheat (3.6%) and chocolate (1.8%). The most often airborne allergens connected with AD were: grass (11.6%), moulds (10.2%), house dust mites (9.3%), pollen like hazel (8.0%) and weeds (6.7%), animal allergens coming from cats (7.2%) and dogs (6.1%). The food hypersensitivity was particularly manifested in children. It may be the predictor of potential future development of allergic disease as well as the indicator of the allergic march.

  1. Prevalence and clinical features of adult atopic dermatitis in tertiary hospitals of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Shi, Xiao-Dong; Li, Lin-Feng; Zhou, Ping; Shen, Yi-Wei; Song, Qing-Kun

    2017-03-01

    The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) has increased substantially. Previous studies have focused mostly on pediatric patients, while epidemiological investigation on adult AD has been very limited.The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical features of adult AD in outpatients with dermatitis and eczema in China mainland.A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted among outpatients with eczema or dermatitis from 39 tertiary hospitals of 15 provinces in China from July 1 to September 30, 2014.Of 8758 patients, 407 were adult AD. Compared with adults with other types of dermatitis, the mean age (41.8 ± 14.3 vs 42.04 ± 15.38 years, P < 0.05) and onset age (35.2 ± 11.2 vs 39.2 ± 14.0 years, P < 0.001) of adult AD were younger, and mean disease duration was longer (5.3 ± 7.1 vs 2.8 ± 4.9 years, P < 0.001). About 53.3% adult AD involved 3 or more body locations, higher than adults with other types of dermatitis (34.4%, P < 0.001), but lower than those with pediatric and adolescent AD (73.8%, P < 0.001). History of asthma (19.2% vs 6.9%, P < 0.001) or allergic conjunctivitis (21.9% vs 14.9%, P < 0.05) was more common in adult AD than pediatric/adolescent AD. Suspected bacterial infection was more frequently in adult AD than adults with other types of dermatitis (24.3% vs 14.6%, P < 0.001) and pediatric/adolescent AD (24.3% vs 14.9%, P < 0.001). More severe itching was observed in 31.4% of adult AD, higher than that of adults with other types of dermatitis (15.4%, P < 0.001), whereas similar to that of pediatric/adolescent AD (28.7%, P > 0.05). The highest (8.7%) and lowest prevalence (3.7%) of adult AD were in 25°N to 30°N and 35°N to 40°N latitude region.A substantial part of adult outpatients with eczema or dermatitis is adult AD. Middle age, more body location involvement, more suspected bacterial infection, and severe itching are the main clinical feathers of

  2. Identification of allergens by IgE-specific testing improves outcomes in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Will, Brett M; Severino, Richard; Johnson, Douglas W

    2017-11-01

    IgE quantitative assaying of allergens (IgEQAA) has long been implemented by allergists in determining patients' reactivities for allergic rhinitis and asthma, two of the three diagnoses in atopic syndrome. This test operates by measuring the patient's IgE response to different allergens and can identify potential triggers for a patient's symptoms. Despite this, IgEQAA has yet to see the same widespread use in the field of dermatology, specifically in the treatment of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). The affected body surface area (BSA) at first presentation, IgEQAA classes, and total immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentration were taken retrospectively for 54 patients with AD. Of the 54 patients observed, 41 had an abnormally high total IgE concentration (76%). Additionally, it was observed that nine (17%) of our patients significantly improved after making lifestyle changes. Knowledge of the identified specific antigens can guide patients to make lifestyle modifications that may improve disease outcomes. IgEQAA and avoidance of allergens may help some patients with AD. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  3. Atopic March from Atopic Dermatitis to Asthma-Like Lesions in NC/Nga Mice Is Accelerated or Aggravated by Neutralization of Stratum Corneum but Partially Inhibited by Acidification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-Jin; Lee, Noo Ri; Jung, Minyoung; Kim, Dong Hye; Choi, Eung Ho

    2015-12-01

    Prolonged and/or repeated damage to the skin barrier followed by atopic dermatitis (AD) is an initial step in atopic march that ultimately progresses to respiratory allergy. Maintaining normal stratum corneum (SC) acidity has been suggested as a therapeutic or preventive strategy for barrier impairment caused by skin inflammation. We determined whether a representative AD murine model, NC/Nga mice, develops airway inflammation after repeated epicutaneous application followed by inhalation of house dust mite (HDM), implying atopic march, and whether prolongation of non-proper SC acidity accelerates respiratory allergy. HDM was applied to the skin of NC/Nga mice, accompanied by the application of neutral cream (pH 7.4) or acidic cream (pH 2.8) for 6 weeks. Intranasal inhalation of HDM was administered daily during the last 3 days. Repeated epicutaneous applications followed by inhalation of HDM in NC/Nga mice induced an atopic march-like progression from AD lesions to respiratory allergy. Concurrent neutral cream treatment accelerated or aggravated the allergic inflammation in the skin and respiratory system, whereas an acidic cream partially alleviated these symptoms. Collectively, we developed an atopic march in NC/Nga mice by HDM application, and found that prevention of a neutral environment in the SC may be an interventional method to inhibit the march.

  4. CCR4 is expressed on infiltrating cells in lesional skin of early mycosis fungoides and atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Makoto; Morimura, Sohshi; Suga, Hiraku; Kawaguchi, Makiko; Miyagaki, Tomomitsu; Ohmatsu, Hanako; Fujita, Hideki; Sato, Shinichi

    2015-06-01

    CCR4 is expressed on tumor cells of mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS). In MF, most infiltrating cells in patches and plaques express CXCR3, while tumor cells express CCR4 in advanced stages. Poteligeo Test IHC (CCR4 staining kit) is a newly developed staining kit that can examine the presence of CCR4 expressed on tumor cells of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, peripheral T-cell lymphoma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma before treatment of anti-CCR4 antibody using paraffin-embedded samples. In this study, we analyzed CCR4 expression in lesional skin of MF, SS, atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis with this new kit. CCR4 was expressed on infiltrating cells in lesional skin of patch, plaque, tumor MF and SS, and the number of positive cells increased as the disease progressed. Immunohistochemistry with frozen sections also showed some positive cells scattered in the dermis, although the quality was not high enough to quantify positive cells. There were significant positive correlations between CCR4(+) cells and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels. Interestingly, CCR4(+) cells were also detected in AD skin, whose number was larger than that in psoriatic skin. Previous studies showed only scattered CCR4(+) cells in skin samples by standard immunohistochemical staining. The new, sensitive CCR4 staining kit has revealed that CCR4 is expressed on infiltrating cells in lesional skin of early MF and AD as well as advanced MF and SS. These cells can be therapeutic targets for patients who are resistant to standard treatments. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  5. The effect of encasings on quality of life in adult house dust mite allergic patients with rhinitis, asthma and/or atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Terreehorst, I; Duivenvoorden, H J; Tempels-Pavlica, Z; Oosting, A J; de Monchy, J G R; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A F M; van Wijk, R Gerth

    2005-07-01

    Environmental control has been put forward as an integral part of the management of house dust mite (HDM) allergy in sensitized patients. To validate this statement allergic disorders involved in HDM allergy--allergic asthma, rhinitis and atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (AEDS)--should be taken together and studied in terms of the efficacy of environmental control. Because a generic quality of life questionnaire exceeds the border of disease, this may be used as major outcome parameter. To study the effects of bedding encasings in HDM allergic patients with asthma, rhinitis and AEDS. A total of 224 adult HDM allergic patients with rhinitis and/or asthma and/or dermatitis were randomly allocated impermeable or nonimpermeable encasings for mattress, pillow and duvet. Short form 36 (SF-36) was filled in at baseline and after 12 months. Lower physical (P = 0.01) and emotional (P < 0.001) sumscores were seen in females. Also, the presence of asthma resulted in lower physical sumscore (P = 0.01). However, no effect was seen of encasings on either sumscore. Bedding encasings do not improve quality of life in a mixed population of subjects with combinations with rhinitis, asthma and atopic dermatitis and sensitized to HDMs.

  6. Psychological comorbidity in patients with chronic tinnitus: analysis and comparison with chronic pain, asthma or atopic dermatitis patients.

    PubMed

    Zirke, N; Seydel, C; Szczepek, A J; Olze, H; Haupt, H; Mazurek, B

    2013-03-01

    To determine the prevalence and severity of psychological comorbidity in patients with chronic tinnitus in comparison with other chronic illnesses, namely chronic pain, chronic asthma and atopic dermatitis. Psychological diagnoses were done according to ICD-10 Chapter V(F). Subjective impairment was evaluated using 5 psychometric questionnaires: tinnitus questionnaire, Berlin mood questionnaire, sense of coherence (SOC-L9) and perceived stress questionnaire. Sleep disturbance was measured by the subdomain 'exhaustion' of the Giessen physical complaints inventory. Somatoform or affective disorders were most frequent in all disease groups. Patients with chronic tinnitus had a stronger SOC and better subjective mood, stronger commitment, and less anger and anxious depression than the patients with chronic pain, chronic asthma or atopic dermatitis. However, in patients with higher tinnitus annoyance, psychological comorbidity was similar to that found in patients with other chronic diseases. Besides collecting medical and social history, special psychometric instruments should be used for the diagnosis of tinnitus patients. Based on relative high frequency of psychological comorbidity, we recommend interdisciplinary cooperation between otorhinolaryngologists and other specialists (psychosomatic medicine, psychology or psychiatry) during the treatment of tinnitus patients, especially when high degree of tinnitus annoyance is involved.

  7. A safety review of the medications used to treat atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shweta; Feldman, Steven R; Strowd, Lindsay C

    2018-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common disease in children and adults which causes severe physical discomfort and psychosocial distress. Recently novel therapies for AD have been FDA approved for use which creates the need to review the safety surrounding current FDA approved AD medications. Areas covered: Published clinical studies involving topical and oral FDA approved medications for AD are included in this review. Authors used PubMed research database to search for clinical trials involving AD patients. Expert opinion: AD is a common disease which currently has limited FDA approved medications. Given the chronicity of this disease, medications are needed which control disease while minimizing side effects to allow for long term use. Newer approved medications show promise but safety data is limited given their relatively new utilization for AD.

  8. The structure and function of the epidermal barrier in patients with atopic dermatitis – treatment options. Part two

    PubMed Central

    Czarnecka-Operacz, Magdalena; Adamski, Zygmunt

    2018-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and recurrent disease induced by underlying defects of the epidermal barrier and immunological disorders, typical of atopic diseases. The genetic and immunological mechanisms (outlined in the previous paper) affecting the dysfunction of the barrier are intensified by environmental factors, e.g. airborne and food allergens, infections and stress. For this reason, proper skin care, which prevents further damage and restores the epidermal barrier is of such importance in the field of AD therapy. Appropriate therapy is based on emollients which, coupled with anti-inflammatory and antipruritic treatment, should be used as the first-line therapy. The aim of the present paper is to outline the effects of the abovementioned factors on the dysfunction of the epidermal barrier as well as to emphasize the importance of proper atopic skin care in maintaining the integrity of the barrier and preventing exacerbation of the disease. PMID:29760610

  9. Inhibitory effect of arazyme on the development of atopic dermatitis-like lesions in BALB/c and Nc/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Sik; Lee, Na Rae; Baek, Seung Yeop; Kim, Eun Jeong; Kim, Jung Seok; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Shin, Dong-Ha; Park, Ho-Yong; Lee, Ji-Sook

    2015-05-01

    Arazyme is a metalloprotease released by Aranicola proteolyticus that was shown to inhibit cytokine release in HaCaT and endothelial cells. However, the regulatory effects of arazyme in atopic dermatitis remain to be fully understood. In the present study, the anti‑inflammatory effects of arazyme in BALB/c and Nc/Nga mice induced with 2,4‑dinitrochlrobenzene (DNCB) were investigated. BALB/c mice were sensitized with DNCB and were subsequently administered arazyme for 4 weeks either orally, dorsally or orally/dorsally. Arazyme administration significantly reduced epidermal thickening and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the dermis compared with the DNCB group. However, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were not altered by arazyme treatment. Additionally, the level of secretion of interleukins (IL)‑4, ‑5 and ‑13 in the splenocytes of BALB/c mice was elevated following stimulation with concanavalin A, while the increase of IL‑4 and IL‑13 was inhibited by arazyme. Administration of arazyme (25 mg/kg in phosphate‑buffered saline) to Nc/Nga mice that had been sensitized with DNCB for 6 weeks reduced the skin severity score compared with that in the DNCB group and inhibited the histological manifestations of atopic dermatitis‑like skin lesions. In addition, the serum IgE levels were reduced in the arazyme‑treated NC/Nga mice relative to the DNCB group. Collectively, these results indicated that arazyme attenuates the development of atopic dermatitis‑like lesions via lowering the levels of IgE and inflammatory cytokines. The results of the present study will aid in the development of effective therapeutic strategies for the treatment of allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis.

  10. Dendritic Core-Multishell Nanocarriers in Murine Models of Healthy and Atopic Skin.

    PubMed

    Radbruch, Moritz; Pischon, Hannah; Ostrowski, Anja; Volz, Pierre; Brodwolf, Robert; Neumann, Falko; Unbehauen, Michael; Kleuser, Burkhard; Haag, Rainer; Ma, Nan; Alexiev, Ulrike; Mundhenk, Lars; Gruber, Achim D

    2017-12-01

    Dendritic hPG-amid-C18-mPEG core-multishell nanocarriers (CMS) represent a novel class of unimolecular micelles that hold great potential as drug transporters, e.g., to facilitate topical therapy in skin diseases. Atopic dermatitis is among the most common inflammatory skin disorders with complex barrier alterations which may affect the efficacy of topical treatment.Here, we tested the penetration behavior and identified target structures of unloaded CMS after topical administration in healthy mice and in mice with oxazolone-induced atopic dermatitis. We further examined whole body distribution and possible systemic side effects after simulating high dosage dermal penetration by subcutaneous injection.Following topical administration, CMS accumulated in the stratum corneum without penetration into deeper viable epidermal layers. The same was observed in atopic dermatitis mice, indicating that barrier alterations in atopic dermatitis had no influence on the penetration of CMS. Following subcutaneous injection, CMS were deposited in the regional lymph nodes as well as in liver, spleen, lung, and kidney. However, in vitro toxicity tests, clinical data, and morphometry-assisted histopathological analyses yielded no evidence of any toxic or otherwise adverse local or systemic effects of CMS, nor did they affect the severity or course of atopic dermatitis.Taken together, CMS accumulate in the stratum corneum in both healthy and inflammatory skin and appear to be highly biocompatible in the mouse even under conditions of atopic dermatitis and thus could potentially serve to create a depot for anti-inflammatory drugs in the skin.

  11. Usefulness of Sweat Management for Patients with Adult Atopic Dermatitis, regardless of Sweat Allergy: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Sakae; Murota, Hiroyuki; Murata, Susumu; Katayama, Ichiro; Morita, Eishin

    2017-01-01

    Background . Sweat is an aggravating factor in atopic dermatitis (AD), regardless of age. Sweat allergy may be involved in AD aggravated by sweating. Objective. We investigated whether sweat exacerbates adult AD symptoms and examined the extent of sweat allergy's involvement. Method. We asked 34 AD patients (17 men, 17 women; mean age: 27.8 years) to record the extent to which sweat aggravated their symptoms on a 10-point numerical scale. Participant responses were compared with histamine release tests (HRT). Furthermore, 24 of the patients received instructions on methods of sweat management, and their outcomes were evaluated on a 10-point scale. Results. Sweat HRT results were class ≥ 2 in 13 patients, but HRT results were not correlated with the patients' self-assessments of symptom aggravation by sweat. One month after receiving sweat management instructions, a low mean score of 4.6 was obtained regarding whether active sweating was good, but a high mean score of 7.0 was obtained in response to whether the sweat management instructions had been helpful. Conclusion . Our investigation showed that patients' negative impressions of sweat might derive from crude personal experiences that are typically linked to sweating. Sweat management for patients with adult atopic dermatitis was extremely useful regardless of sweat allergy.

  12. Increased risk of stroke in contact dermatitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Lun; Hsu, Min-Hsien; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chan, Po-Chi; Chang, Ko-Shih; Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Hsu, Chung-Yi; Tsai, Min-Tein; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Dermatologic diseases are not traditional risk factors of stroke, but recent studies show atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and bullous skin disease may increase the risk of stroke and other cardiovascular diseases. No previous studies have focused on the association between contact dermatitis and stroke. We established a cohort comprised of 48,169 contact dermatitis patients newly diagnosed in 2000–2003 and 96,338 randomly selected subjects without the disorder, frequency matched by sex, age, and diagnosis year, as the comparison cohort. None of them had a history of stroke. Stroke incidence was assessed by the end of 2011 for both cohorts. The incidence stroke was 1.1-fold higher in the contact dermatitis cohort than in the comparison cohort (5.93 vs 5.37 per 1000 person-years, P < 0.01). The multivariable Cox method analyzed adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) were 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–1.19) for all stroke types and 1.12 (95% CI, 1.05–1.20) for ischemic stroke and 1.11 (95% CI, 0.94–1.30) for hemorrhagic stroke. The age-specific aHR of stroke for contact dermatitis cohort increased with age, from 1.14 (95% CI, 1.03–1.27) for 65 to 74 years; to 1.27 (95% CI, 1.15–1.42) for 75 years and older. The aHR of stroke were 1.16 (95% CI, 1.07–1.27) and 1.09 (95% CI, 1.00–1.18) for men and women, respectively. This study suggests that patients with contact dermatitis were at a modestly increased risk of stroke, significant for ischemic stroke but not for hemorrhagic stroke. Comorbidity, particularly hypertension, increased the hazard of stroke further. PMID:28272195

  13. Efficacy of proactive long-term maintenance therapy of canine atopic dermatitis with 0.0584% hydrocortisone aceponate spray: a double-blind placebo controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Ana M; Schmidt, Vanessa; São Braz, Berta; Nóbrega, Diana; Nunes, Telmo; Duarte-Correia, José H; Matias, Daniela; Maruhashi, Emi; Rème, Christophe A; Nuttall, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Long-term remission between flares of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) can be difficult to achieve. Therefore, additional strategic forms of treatment are needed in order to target flare prevention. The concept of proactive therapy is recommended in the European guidelines for the treatment of human atopic eczema. To evaluate the efficacy of a proactive treatment regimen with a 0.0584% hydrocortisone aceponate (HCA) spray for CAD. Client-owned dogs with spontaneous atopic dermatitis (AD) (n = 41). This pilot study was conducted as a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial with an end-point of treatment failure. Dogs were treated once daily to remission, then randomly assigned to receive either the HCA spray (n = 21) or a placebo (n = 20) spray on two consecutive days each week. All dogs were on appropriate flea control. No topical or systemic anti-inflammatory or antimicrobial agents were permitted. Intention-to-treat analysis was used. At Day 0, all the dogs were in remission or had mild AD based on their Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index, version 3 (CADESI-03) scores. The time to relapse was significantly higher in the HCA group (median 115 d; range 31-260 d) compared to the placebo group (median 33 d; range 15-61 d) (P < 0.0001). No adverse events were attributable to the HCA spray. Four dogs were lost to follow-up and four were withdrawn after receiving prohibited medication. These results indicate that proactive long-term therapy of CAD with an HCA spray administered on two consecutive days each week is effective and well-tolerated. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  14. Characterization of innate lymphoid cells in human skin and blood demonstrates increase of NKp44+ ILC3 in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Villanova, Federica; Flutter, Barry; Tosi, Isabella; Grys, Katarzyna; Sreeneebus, Hemawtee; Perera, Gayathri K; Chapman, Anna; Smith, Catherine H; Di Meglio, Paola; Nestle, Frank O

    2014-04-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are increasingly appreciated as key regulators of tissue immunity. However, their role in human tissue homeostasis and disease remains to be fully elucidated. Here we characterize the ILCs in human skin from healthy individuals and from the inflammatory skin disease psoriasis. We show that a substantial proportion of IL-17A and IL-22 producing cells in the skin and blood of normal individuals and psoriasis patients are CD3-negative innate lymphocytes. Deep immunophenotyping of human ILC subsets showed a statistically significant increase in the frequency of circulating NKp44+ ILC3 in the blood of psoriasis patients compared with healthy individuals or atopic dermatitis patients. More than 50% of circulating NKp44+ ILC3 expressed cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen, indicating their potential for skin homing. Analysis of skin tissue revealed a significantly increased frequency of total ILCs in the skin compared with blood. Moreover, the frequency of NKp44+ ILC3 was significantly increased in non-lesional psoriatic skin compared with normal skin. A detailed time course of a psoriasis patient treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor showed a close association between therapeutic response, decrease in inflammatory skin lesions, and decrease of circulating NKp44+ ILC3. Overall, data from this initial observational study suggest a potential role for NKp44+ ILC3 in psoriasis pathogenesis.

  15. Anti-atopic dermatitis effects and the mechanism of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Mongolian fermented milk.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Atsushi; Kimura, Makoto; Nakamura, Yusaku; Yasui, Hisako

    2009-05-01

    We investigated the anti-allergic effects of one strain (T120) of a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Mongolian fermented milk using atopic dermatitis (AD) model mice (NC/Nga mice). Strain T120 has already been identified as Enterococcus faecium and shown to induce strong production of IL-12 (Kimura et al. 2006). In in vitro studies, strain T120 suppressed total IgE production and induced IL-12 and IFN-gamma production by splenocytes of NC/Nga mice. The additional examination of various neutralization antibodies was performed to elucidate in detail the mechanism of depressed IgE production by strain T120. As a result, it became clear that IL-12 induced by strain T120 increased production of IFN-gamma and total IgE production was mainly controlled by the IFN-gamma. In order to define the cells which produce IL-12 powerfully by this strain, antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) were removed from the splenocytes, and the reactivity of these cells to the strain was examined. Induction of IL-12 and IFN-gamma by strain T120 became significantly very low by removal of APCs from splenocytes. Therefore, it was clear that strain T120 acted on APCs and induced production of IL-12. Further, this strain enhanced the production of IL-10 by splenocytes. In in vivo studies, intraperitoneal injection of strain T120 inhibited serum IgE elevation and atopic dermatitis symptoms in NC/Nga mice. These results suggest that an anti-allergic effect of strain T120 depends on the increased production of IL-12 by APCs activated by the strain and following the increased production of IFN-gamma. Further, activation of regulatory T cells by strain T120 may inhibit atopic disease.

  16. Sustained exogenous expression of therapeutic levels of IFN-gamma ameliorates atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice via Th1 polarization.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Kayoko; Nishikawa, Makiya; Watcharanurak, Kanitta; Ikoma, Akihiko; Kabashima, Kenji; Toyota, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Yuki; Takahashi, Rei; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2010-03-01

    The short in vivo half-life of IFN-gamma can prevent the cytokine from inducing immunological changes that are favorable for the treatment of Th2-dominant diseases, such as atopic dermatitis. To examine whether a sustained supply of IFN-gamma is effective in regulating the balance of Th lymphocyte subpopulations, plasmid vector encoding mouse IFN-gamma, pCpG-Mugamma, or pCMV-Mugamma was injected into the tail vein of NC/Nga mice, a model for human atopic dermatitis. A single hydrodynamic injection of a CpG motif reduced pCpG-Mugamma at a dose of 0.14 microg/mouse resulted in a sustained concentration of IFN-gamma in the serum, and the concentration was maintained at >300 pg/ml over 80 d. The pCpG-Mugamma-mediated IFN-gamma gene transfer was associated with an increase in the serum concentration of IL-12, reduced production of IgE, and inhibition of mRNA expression of IL-4, -5, -10, -13, and -17 and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine in the spleen. These immunological changes were not clearly observed in mice receiving two injections of 20 microg pCMV-Mugamma, a CpG-replete plasmid DNA, because of the transient nature of the expression from the vector. The mice receiving pCpG-Mugamma showed a significant reduction in the severity of skin lesions and in the intensity of their scratching behavior. Furthermore, high transepidermal water loss, epidermal thickening, and infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophils, all of which were obvious in the untreated mice, were significantly inhibited. These results indicate that an extraordinary sustained IFN-gamma expression induces favorable immunological changes, leading to a Th1-dominant state in the atopic dermatitis model.

  17. Measuring the impact of dermatological conditions on family and caregivers: a review of dermatology-specific instruments.

    PubMed

    Sampogna, F; Finlay, A Y; Salek, S S; Chernyshov, P; Dalgard, F J; Evers, A W M; Linder, D; Manolache, L; Marron, S E; Poot, F; Spillekom-van Koulil, S; Svensson, Å; Szepietowski, J C; Tomas-Aragones, L; Abeni, D

    2017-09-01

    The patient is the centre of a web of relationships, and the impact of his/her disease on family members and caregivers must be taken into account. The aim of this study was to identify the specific instruments that measure the impact of a dermatological disease on the quality of life (QoL) of family members, by performing a systematic search of the literature. Fifteen papers were identified, describing the creation and validation of nine instruments. Four of them concerned atopic dermatitis (Dermatitis Family Index, DFI; Parents' Index QoL Atopic Dermatitis, PiQoL-AD; QoL in primary caregivers of children with atopic dermatitis, QPCAD; Childhood Atopic Dermatitis Impact Scale, CADIS), two measured the impact of psoriasis in family members (Psoriasis Family Index, PFI; FamilyPso), one the impact of epidermolysis bullosa (Epidermolysis Bullosa Burden of Disease, EB-BoD), one of ichthyosis (Family Burden Ichthyosis, FBI), and one was generic for dermatological conditions (Family Dermatology Life Quality Index, FDLQI). The European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology quality of life taskforce recommends that the impact of a skin disease on family and caregivers should be measured as part of any thorough evaluation of the burden of a disease. Guidelines are given to choose the most appropriate instruments. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  18. [What's new in the management of atopic dermatitis in children and adolescents ?

    PubMed

    Czernielewski, Justine; Comte Krieger, Émilie; Christen-Zaech, Stéphanie

    2018-03-28

    A better understanding of the atopic dermatitis (AD) pathogenesis and the need for more efficient and safer treatments in severe AD promoted the development of new therapies. Several underwent and are still undergoing clinical trials, but due to safety reasons, they include mainly adults for now. AD is however predominant in childhood with a prevalence 20 % in children compared to only 5 % in adults. Regarding the pediatric population, the new pipeline relies on two selective immunosuppressive agents, notably crisaborole (phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor) and dupilumab (IL-4 and IL-13 inhibitor). In order to strengthen the medical treatment, therapeutic patient education plays a supportive role in the global approach, allowing an optimized care. The Lausanne model of the Pediatric Dermatology Unit is described in this article.

  19. Potential role of reduced environmental UV exposure as a driver of the current epidemic of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Zirwas, Matthew J; Elias, Peter M

    2015-11-01

    The basis for the sudden and dramatic increase in atopic dermatitis (AD) and related atopic diseases in the second half of the 20th century is unclear. The hygiene hypothesis proposes that the transition from rural to urban living leads to reduced childhood exposure to pathogenic microorganisms. Hence instead of having the normal TH1 bias and immune tolerance because of repeated exposure to pathogens, urban dwellers have TH2 cell immune activity and atopic disease in a more sterile environment. Various other environmental exposures have been implicated in the explosion of AD (and atopic disorders in general), including breast-feeding, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and exposure to domesticated furry pets. Notably, the key role of a compromised barrier of neonatal skin as a predisposing factor in the development of childhood AD has recently been demonstrated. In this article we review the salubrious effects of suberythemogenic doses of UVB irradiation for the skin barrier. We then discuss how the lack of sufficient UVB exposure could have contributed to the rapid increase in the incidence of AD in developed countries. This hypothesis offers a separate but not competing partial explanation, which should be viewed as not discounting the role of the etiopathogenic factors that also could influence the prevalence of atopic disorders. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  20. Review of Systemic Treatment Options for Adult Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Gooderham, Melinda; Lynde, Charles W; Papp, Kim; Bourcier, Marc; Guenther, Lyn; Gulliver, Wayne; Hong, Chih-Ho; Poulin, Yves; Sussman, Gordon; Vender, Ronald

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, pruritic inflammatory skin disease resulting from defects in skin barrier and aberrant immune responses. AD significantly affects the quality of life. Not all patients respond to topical therapies, and often systemic therapy is required to control the disease. To review the treatment options for adult AD patients including those options for patients who do not respond adequately or have contraindications to oral systemic therapy. A working group of clinicians with experience managing AD was convened to review the current literature on treatment options for adult AD patients. This review is based on the best available evidence from a published systematic review and an additional literature search. Current treatments for AD are reviewed, including options for adult AD patients who do not respond or have contraindications to current systemic therapies. A new approach with targeted therapies is reviewed based on best available evidence. Many AD patients respond satisfactorily to topical or systemic treatments, but for those patients who do not respond or have contraindications, new biologic agents appear to be promising therapies.