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Sample records for psychiatric disorders progress

  1. PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND SLEEP

    PubMed Central

    Krystal, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Psychiatric disorders and sleep are related in important ways. In contrast to the longstanding view of this relationship which viewed sleep problems as symptoms of psychiatric disorders, there is growing experimental evidence that the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sleep is complex and includes bi-directional causation. In this article we provide the evidence that supports this point of view, reviewing the data on the sleep disturbances seen in patients with psychiatric disorders but also reviewing the data on the impact of sleep disturbances on psychiatric conditions. Although much has been learned about the psychiatric disorders-sleep relationship, additional research is needed to better understand these relationships. This work promises to improve our ability to understand both of these phenomena and to allow us to better treat the many patients with sleep disorders and with psychiatric disorders. PMID:23099143

  2. Annual Research Review: Progress in Using Brain Morphometry as a Clinical Tool for Diagnosing Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haubold, Alexander; Peterson, Bradley S.; Bansal, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Brain morphometry in recent decades has increased our understanding of the neural bases of psychiatric disorders by localizing anatomical disturbances to specific nuclei and subnuclei of the brain. At least some of these disturbances precede the overt expression of clinical symptoms and possibly are endophenotypes that could be used to diagnose an…

  3. Annual Research Review: Progress in Using Brain Morphometry as a Clinical Tool for Diagnosing Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haubold, Alexander; Peterson, Bradley S.; Bansal, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Brain morphometry in recent decades has increased our understanding of the neural bases of psychiatric disorders by localizing anatomical disturbances to specific nuclei and subnuclei of the brain. At least some of these disturbances precede the overt expression of clinical symptoms and possibly are endophenotypes that could be used to diagnose an…

  4. Psychiatric disorders and sleep issues.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Eliza L

    2014-09-01

    Sleep issues are common in people with psychiatric disorders, and the interaction is complex. Sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, can precede and predispose to psychiatric disorders, can be comorbid with and exacerbate psychiatric disorders, and can occur as part of psychiatric disorders. Sleep disorders can mimic psychiatric disorders or result from medication given for psychiatric disorders. Impairment of sleep and of mental health may be different manifestations of the same underlying neurobiological processes. For the primary care physician, key tools include recognition of potential sleep effects of psychiatric medications and familiarity with treatment approaches for insomnia in depression and anxiety.

  5. Progress in Using Brain Morphometry as a Clinical Tool for Diagnosing Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Haubold, Alexander; Peterson, Bradley S.; Bansal, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Brain morphometry in recent decades has increased our understanding of the neural bases of psychiatric disorders by localizing anatomical disturbances to specific nuclei and subnuclei of the brain. At least some of these disturbances precede the overt expression of clinical symptoms and possibly are endophenotypes that could be used to diagnose an individual accurately as having a specific psychiatric disorder. More accurate diagnoses could significantly reduce the emotional and financial burden of disease by aiding clinicians in implementing appropriate treatments earlier and in tailoring treatment to the individual needs. Several methods, especially those based on machine learning, have been proposed that use anatomical brain measures and gold-standard diagnoses of participants to learn decision rules that classify a person automatically as having one disorder rather than another. We review the general principles and procedures for machine learning, particularly as applied to diagnostic classification, and then review the procedures that have thus far attempted to diagnose psychiatric illnesses automatically using anatomical measures of the brain. We discuss the strengths and limitations of extant procedures and note that the sensitivity and specificity of these procedures in their most successful implementations have approximated 90%. Although these methods have not yet been applied within clinical settings, they provide strong evidence that individual patients can be diagnosed accurately using the spatial pattern of disturbances across the brain. PMID:22394424

  6. Psychiatric Disorders: Diagnosis to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Krystal, John H.; State, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings in a range of scientific disciplines are challenging the conventional wisdom regarding the etiology, classification and treatment of psychiatric disorders. This review focuses on the current state of the psychiatric diagnostic nosology and recent progress in three areas: genomics, neuroimaging, and therapeutics development. The accelerating pace of novel and unexpected findings is transforming the understanding of mental illness and represents a hopeful sign that the approaches and models that have sustained the field for the past 40 years are yielding to a flood of new data and presaging the emergence of a new and more powerful scientific paradigm. PMID:24679536

  7. Lamotrigine in psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Reid, Jennifer G; Gitlin, Michael J; Altshuler, Lori L

    2013-07-01

    Owing to the prevalence of medication side effects and treatment resistance, prescribers often consider off-label uses of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved agents for the treatment of persistent symptoms. The authors review the available literature on the FDA-approved and non-FDA-approved uses of lamotrigine in adults with psychiatric disorders. We used PubMed, MEDLINE, and a hand search of relevant literature to find studies published between 1990 and 2012 and available in English language. The following keywords were searched: lamotrigine, psychiatric, mood disorders, depression, personality disorders, anxiety, schizophrenia, side effects, and rash. Data were selected from 29 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). When RCTs were not available, open-label trials (6), retrospective case reviews (10), and case series (4) were summarized. We extracted results of monotherapy and augmentation trials of lamotrigine on primary and secondary outcome measures. Lamotrigine is generally well tolerated, with the best evidence for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder, particularly in prevention of depressive episodes. In acute bipolar depression, meta-analyses suggested a modest benefit, especially for more severely depressed subjects, with switch rates similar to placebo. In unipolar depression, double-blind RCTs noted benefit on subsets of symptoms and improved response in more severely depressed subjects. Data are limited but promising in borderline personality disorder. Use of lamotrigine in schizophrenia and anxiety disorders has little supportive evidence. Lamotrigine is recommended in bipolar maintenance when depression is prominent. It also has a role in treating acute bipolar depression and unipolar depression, though the latter warrants more research. Data are too limited in other psychiatric disorders to recommend its use at this time. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  8. Psychiatric comorbidities in movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Miguel-Puga, Adán; Villafuerte, Gabriel; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2017-07-06

    Psychiatric comorbidities are common in movement disorders. This review provides a practical approach to help clinicians to recognize psychiatric disorders in the most frequent movement disorders. However, the extent of neurodegeneration, as well as the impact of medications with considerable CNS effects, influences the diverse psychiatric presentations that, in turn, are influenced by the stress of living with a movement disorder. Depression, anxiety, and psychosis are the most common psychiatric comorbidities in movement disorders and of the medications used to treat the motor disturbances. These psychiatric problems impair patients' functioning throughout the course of the chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Due to the direct connection between brain dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms, there is hope that understanding the psychiatric comorbidities in movement disorders will lead to a better quality-of-life.

  9. Fibromyalgia and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Fietta, Pierluigi; Fietta, Pieranna; Manganelli, Paolo

    2007-08-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a common and polymorphic syndrome, characterized by long-lasting, widespread musculoskeletal pain, in the presence of 11 or more tender points located at specific anatomical sites. A heterogeneous series of disturbances, mainly involving autonomic, neuroendocrine and neuropsychic systems, is usually present. Even if subjective, the chronic psychophysical suffering state of FM adversely affects the patient's quality of life, performance and mood. Cognitive behavioural therapy and antidepressant drugs are useful in FM treatment, suggesting a close link between the syndrome and psychiatric, psychological and behavioural factors. Our aim was to evaluate the personality profiles of FM patients, as well as the aggregation and relationships between FM and psychiatric disorders (PD), reviewing the available evidences in current literature on this comorbidity. Personality variables associated with psychological vulnerability are frequent in FM patients. Personality disorders are rarely reported. Compared with controls, FM patients show a significantly higher prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders, reported in 20-80% and 13-63.8% of cases, respectively. This high variability may depend on the psychosocial characteristics of patients, since most of the studies were performed on tertiary care consulting patients, however, even referring to the lower percentages, the occurrence of PD is significantly higher in FM subjects compared to the general population (7%). Moreover, elevated frequencies of PD have been detected in relatives of FM patients. The FM/PD aggregation suggests a common physiopathology, and alterations of neurotransmitter systems may constitute the shared underlying factor.

  10. Psychiatric disorders in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Skoog, Ingmar

    2011-07-01

    Recent research has shown that depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosis are more common than previously supposed in elderly populations without dementia. It is unclear whether the frequency of these disorders increases or decreases with age. Clinical expression of psychiatric disorders in old age may be different from that seen in younger age groups, with less and often milder symptoms. Concurrently, comorbidity between different psychiatric disorders is immense, as well as comorbidity with somatic disorders. Cognitive function is often decreased in people with depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosis, but whether these disorders are risk factors for dementia is unclear. Psychiatric disorders in the elderly are often related to cerebral neurodegeneration and cerebrovascular disease, although psychosocial risk factors are also important. Psychiatric disorders, common among the elderly, have consequences that include social deprivation, poor quality of life, cognitive decline, disability, increased risk for somatic disorders, suicide, and increased nonsuicidal mortality.

  11. [Movement disorders is psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Hidasi, Zoltan; Salacz, Pal; Csibri, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Movement disorders are common in psychiatry. The movement disorder can either be the symptom of a psychiatric disorder, can share a common aetiological factor with it, or can be the consequence of psychopharmacological therapy. Most common features include tic, stereotypy, compulsion, akathisia, dyskinesias, tremor, hypokinesia and disturbances of posture and gait. We discuss characteristics and clinical importance of these features. Movement disorders are frequently present in mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, catatonia, Tourette-disorder and psychogenic movement disorder, leading to differential-diagnostic and therapeutical difficulties in everyday practice. Movement disorders due to psychopharmacotherapy can be classified as early-onset, late-onset and tardive. Frequent psychiatric comorbidity is found in primary movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, Huntington's disease, diffuse Lewy-body disorder. Complex neuropsychiatric approach is effective concerning overlapping clinical features and spectrums of disorders in terms of movement disorders and psychiatric diseases.

  12. Gene therapy for psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Yaroslav; Kaplitt, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy has become of increasing interest in clinical neurosurgery with the completion of numerous clinical trials for Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and pediatric genetic disorders. With improved understanding of the dysfunctional circuitry mediating various psychiatric disorders, deep brain stimulation for refractory psychiatric diseases is being increasingly explored in human patients. These factors are likely to facilitate development of gene therapy for psychiatric diseases. Because delivery of gene therapy agents would require the same surgical techniques currently being employed for deep brain stimulation, neurosurgeons are likely to lead the development of this field, as has occurred in other areas of clinical gene therapy for neurologic disorders. We review the current state of gene therapy for psychiatric disorders and focus specifically on particular areas of promising research that may translate into human trials for depression, drug addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. Issues that are relatively unique to psychiatric gene therapy are also discussed.

  13. Surgery for psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Luigjes, Judy; de Kwaasteniet, Bart P; de Koning, Pelle P; Oudijn, Marloes S; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Schuurman, P Richard; Denys, Damiaan

    2013-01-01

    Surgery in psychiatric disorders has a long history and has regained momentum in the past few decades with deep brain stimulation (DBS). DBS is an adjustable and reversible neurosurgical intervention using implanted electrodes to deliver controlled electrical pulses to targeted areas of the brain. It holds great promise for therapy-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. Several double-blind controlled and open trials have been conducted and the response rate is estimated around 54%. Open trials have shown encouraging results with DBS for therapy-refractory depression and case reports have shown potential effects of DBS on addiction. Another promising indication is Tourette syndrome, where potential efficacy of DBS is shown by several case series and a few controlled trials. Further research should focus on optimizing DBS with respect to target location and increasing the number of controlled double-blinded trials. In addition, new indications for DBS and new target options should be explored in preclinical research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Psychiatric Disorders of Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Charles R.; Lucas, Alexander R.

    A general textbook on the psychiatric disorders of childhood, the book is intended to be an introductory text for students and practitioners working with children (such as psychiatric and pediatric residents and psychologists, teachers, medical students). The genesis of mental illness is discussed in terms of the contributions of heredity and the…

  15. [Insomnia associated with psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Konno, Chisato; Furihata, Ryuji; Osaki, Koichi; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2009-08-01

    Most psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, or neurotic disorders are associated with sleep disorders of various kinds, among which insomnia is most prevalent and important in psychiatric practice. Almost all patients suffering from major depression complain of insomnia. Pharmacological treatment of insomnia associated with major depression shortens the duration to achieve remission of depression. Insomnia has been recently reported to be a risk factor for depression. In patients with schizophrenia, insomnia is often an early indicator of the aggravation of psychotic symptoms. Electroencephalographic sleep studies have also revealed sleep abnormalities characteristic to mood disorders, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders. A shortened REM sleep latency has been regarded as a biological marker of depression. Reduced amount of deep non-REM sleep has been reported to be correlated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Recently, REM sleep abnormalities were found in teenagers having post-traumatic stress disorder after a boat accident. Although these facts indicate that insomnia plays an important role in the development of psychiatric disorders, there are few hypotheses explaining the cause and effect of insomnia in these disorders. Here, we reviewed recent articles on insomnia associated with psychiatric disorders together with their clinical managements.

  16. Visceral Pain and Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Felice, Valeria D; Moloney, Rachel D; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; O'Mahony, Siobhain M

    2015-01-01

    The high comorbidity existing between visceral pain and psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety is well documented and it is gaining increasing interest among scientists. When visceral pain and psychiatric disorders are comorbid, they present a more debilitating condition than each disorder alone, impacting significantly on the quality of life of these patients. Despite several groups having shown that an overlapping pathophysiology exists between visceral pain and stress-related disorders the link between them is not clear yet. Moreover, it still remains to be elucidated if psychiatric conditions predispose the individual to develop visceral hypersensitivity or vice versa. The brain-gut-microbiome axis is the bidirectional communication between the CNS and the gastrointestinal tract. Alterations at different levels of this axis have been implicated in both visceral hypersensitivity and psychiatric disorders. Here we give an overview of what it is known about comorbid visceral pain and psychiatric disorders and provide evidence of potential overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms involved. Preclinical models of comorbid visceral pain and stress-related disorders are also discussed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Fledgling pathoconnectomics of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed

    2013-12-01

    Pathoconnectomics, the mapping of abnormal brain networks, is a popular current framework for the study of brain dysfunction in psychiatric disorders. In this review we evaluate the conceptual foundations of this framework, describe the construction and analysis of empirical models of brain networks or connectomes, and summarize recent reports of the large-scale whole-brain connectome organization of two candidate brain-network disorders, schizophrenia and autism. We consider the evidence for the abnormal brain-network nature of psychiatric disorders and find it inconclusive. For instance, although there is some evidence for more random whole-brain network organization in schizophrenia and autism, future studies need to determine if these and other observed brain-network abnormalities represent sufficient phenotypes of psychiatric disorders, in order to validate pathoconnectomics as a scientific and clinical framework. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dissociative disorders in psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Saxe, G N; van der Kolk, B A; Berkowitz, R; Chinman, G; Hall, K; Lieberg, G; Schwartz, J

    1993-07-01

    This study attempted to determine 1) the prevalence of dissociative disorders in psychiatric inpatients, 2) the degree of reported childhood trauma in patients with dissociative disorders, and 3) the degree to which dissociative experiences are recognized in psychiatric patients. A total of 110 patients consecutively admitted to a state psychiatric hospital were given the Dissociative Experiences Scale. Patients who scored above 25 were matched for age and gender with a group of patients who scored below 5 on the scale. All patients in the two groups were then interviewed in a blind manner, and the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule, the Traumatic Antecedent Questionnaire, and the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, Nonpatient Version, were administered. Chart reviews were also conducted on all patients. Fifteen percent of the psychiatric patients scored above 25 on the Dissociative Experiences Scale; 100% of these patients met DSM-III criteria for a dissociative disorder. These patients had significantly higher rates of major depression, PTSD, substance abuse, and borderline personality than did the comparison patients, and they also reported significantly higher rates of childhood trauma. Chart review data revealed that dissociative symptoms were largely unrecognized. A high proportion of psychiatric inpatients have significant dissociative pathology, and these symptoms are underrecognized by clinicians. The proper diagnosis of these patients has important implications for their clinical course.

  19. Cannabis and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Loga, Slobodan; Loga-Zec, Svjetlana; Spremo, Mira

    2010-06-01

    There are connection between use of cannabis and many psychiatric disturbances in adolescents, especially "cannabis psychosis", depression, panic attacks and suicide. Negative effects could occur either as a result of a specific pharmacological effect of cannabis, or as the result of stressful experiences during the intoxication of cannabis in young people. Potentially is very dangerous high frequency suicidal ideation among cannabis users.

  20. Parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jokiranta, Elina; Brown, Alan S.; Heinimaa, Markus; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Partanen, Auli; Sourander, Andre

    2013-01-01

    The present population-based, case-control study examines associations between specific parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD-NOS). The cohort includes 4713 children born between 1987 and 2005 with diagnoses of childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome or PDD-NOS. Cases were ascertained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and each was matched to four controls by gender, date of birth, place of birth, and residence in Finland. Controls were selected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Parents were identified through the Finnish Medical Birth Register and Finnish Central Population Register. Parental psychiatric diagnoses from inpatient care were collected from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess whether parents’ psychiatric disorders predicted ASD after controlling for parents’ age, smoking during pregnancy and weight for gestational age. In summary, parental schizophrenia spectrum disorders and affective disorders were associated with the risk of ASD regardless of the subgroup. PDD-NOS was associated with all parental psychiatric disorders investigated. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings. These results may facilitate the investigation of shared genetic and familial factors between ASD and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:23391634

  1. Work and common psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, M; Harvey, SB; Øverland, S; Mykletun, A; Hotopf, M

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are now the most common reason for long-term sickness absence. The associated loss in productivity and the payment of disability benefits places a substantial burden on the economies of many developed countries. The occupational dysfunction associated with psychiatric disorders can also lead to poverty and social isolation. As a result the area of work and psychiatric disorders is a high priority for policymakers. There are two main agendas: for many researchers and clinicians the focus is on the need to overcome stigma and ensure people with severe psychiatric disorders have meaningful work; however the public health agenda predominantly relates to the more common disorders such as depression and anxiety, which contribute a greater burden of disability benefits and pensions. In this review we attempt to address this second agenda. The relatively sparse evidence available reveals a complex field with significant interplay between medical, psychological social and cultural factors. Sick leave can be a ‘process’ as well as an ‘event’. In this review we propose a staged model where different risk and protective factors contribute to the onset of psychiatric disorders in the working population, the onset of short-term sickness absence, and the transition from short- to long-term absence. We also examine strategies to manage psychiatric disorder in the workforce with a view towards returning the employee to work. Our aim in this review is to highlight the complexity of the area, to stimulate debate and to identify important gaps in knowledge where further research might benefit both patients and wider society. PMID:21558098

  2. Family violence and psychiatric disorder.

    PubMed

    Bland, R; Orn, H

    1986-03-01

    The relationship between family violence and psychiatric disorders was examined using standardized diagnostic interviews of 1200 randomly selected residents of a large Canadian city. The results showed that higher than expected proportions of those exhibiting violent behavior had a psychiatric diagnosis and the rate of violent behaviors in those with diagnoses (54.4%) significantly (p less than .0001) exceeds the rate in the remainder of the sample (15.5%). Particularly high rates of violence are found in those where alcoholism is combined with antisocial personality disorder and/or recurrent depression (80-93%). Also at high risk for violence are those who have made suicide attempts (over 50%) and those who have been arrested for non-traffic offences (two-thirds). These data suggest that psychiatric disorders have a strong relationship to violent behavior, and are not in agreement with the predominantly sociological explanations of family violence.

  3. The nature of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S

    2016-02-01

    A foundational question for the discipline of psychiatry is the nature of psychiatric disorders. What kinds of things are they? In this paper, I review and critique three major relevant theories: realism, pragmatism and constructivism. Realism assumes that the content of science is real and independent of human activities. I distinguish two "flavors" of realism: chemistry-based, for which the paradigmatic example is elements of the periodic table, and biology-based, for which the paradigm is species. The latter is a much better fit for psychiatry. Pragmatism articulates a sensible approach to psychiatric disorders just seeking categories that perform well in the world. But it makes no claim about the reality of those disorders. This is problematic, because we have a duty to advocate for our profession and our patients against other physicians who never doubt the reality of the disorders they treat. Constructivism has been associated with anti-psychiatry activists, but we should admit that social forces play a role in the creation of our diagnoses, as they do in many sciences. However, truly socially constructed psychiatric disorders are rare. I then describe powerful arguments against a realist theory of psychiatric disorders. Because so many prior psychiatric diagnoses have been proposed and then abandoned, can we really claim that our current nosologies have it right? Much of our current nosology arose from a series of historical figures and events which could have gone differently. If we re-run the tape of history over and over again, the DSM and ICD would not likely have the same categories on every iteration. Therefore, we should argue more confidently for the reality of broader constructs of psychiatric illness rather than our current diagnostic categories, which remain tentative. Finally, instead of thinking that our disorders are true because they correspond to clear entities in the world, we should consider a coherence theory of truth by which disorders

  4. Functional and psychiatric vestibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Staab, J P

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral factors have long been recognized as affecting spatial orientation and balance function. Neuroanatomic and neurophysiologic studies conducted worldwide over the last 30 years have substantially advanced our knowledge about the inherently strong connectivity among threat/anxiety, vestibular, visual, and somatosensory systems in the brain. Clinical investigations have shed greater light on the nature of functional and psychiatric disorders that manifest or magnify vestibular morbidity. Concepts of these syndromes have changed over 150 years. Even their nomenclature has had different meanings in different eras. This chapter will review functional and psychiatric vestibular disorders. Terminology will follow the International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition, beta draft and the International Classification of Vestibular Disorders. Anxiety plays a central role in behavioral vestibular morbidity. Anxiety, traumatic stress, obsessive, and depressive disorders may be primary causes of episodic and chronic vestibular symptoms or secondary complications of other vestibular disorders. These psychiatric illnesses affect 30-50% of patients who consult neurologists or otologists for vestibular symptoms. Coexisting psychiatric disorders adversely affect treatment for patients with structural vestibular diseases, especially when unrecognized. Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness is the leading cause of long-term vestibular disability. Fortunately, pharmacologic, psychotherapeutic, and rehabilitative treatments of these illnesses have improved in recent years.

  5. Familial adversities and child psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Blanz, B; Schmidt, M H; Esser, G

    1991-09-01

    The well known association between child and adolescent psychiatric disorders and chronic adversities was proved in a field sample. Children (356) were investigated at the ages of 8 and 13 years. The association between child psychiatric disorders and chronic adverse conditions in the familial environment--measured by the FAI--was analysed with respect to the variables: age, sex, psychiatric diagnoses, and course (stability) of disorder. The FAI proved to be predictive of psychiatric disorder, in particular of early onset disorder, of disorders in boys, and of conduct disorders. According to the results, the common assumption that chronic adversities cause child psychiatric disorders must be viewed cautiously.

  6. Genomic structural variation in psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Rucker, James J H; McGuffin, Peter

    2012-11-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) are submicroscopic deletions and duplications of genomic material that were previously thought to be rare phenomena. They have now been robustly associated with a variety of disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder through an emerging research base in affective disorders. A complex picture is emerging of a polygenic, heterogeneous model of disease, with CNVs conferring broad susceptibility to a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders, rather than specific disorders per se. Although the insights gleaned thus far only represent a small piece of a much larger puzzle, progress has been rapid and new technologies promise even more insights into these hitherto opaque brain disorders. We will discuss CNVs, the current state of evidence for their role in the pathogenesis of classical psychiatric disorders, and the application of such knowledge in clinical settings.

  7. Psychiatric disorders and traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzbold, Marcelo; Diaz, Alexandre; Martins, Evandro Tostes; Rufino, Armanda; Amante, Lúcia Nazareth; Thais, Maria Emília; Quevedo, João; Hohl, Alexandre; Linhares, Marcelo Neves; Walz, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are frequent. Researches in this area are important for the patients’ care and they may provide hints for the comprehension of primary psychiatric disorders. Here we approach epidemiology, diagnosis, associated factors and treatment of the main psychiatric disorders after TBI. Finally, the present situation of the knowledge in this field is discussed. PMID:19043523

  8. Management of Current Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carbonnel, François; David, Michel; Norton, Joanna; Bourrel, Gérard; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Capdevielle, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Describe and analyse the experience of family physicians in managing current psychiatric disorders to obtain a better understanding of the underlying reasons of under-detection and inadequate prescribing identified in studies. Methods: A qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Sample of 15 practicing family physicians, recruited by telephone from a precedent cohort (Sesame1) with a maximum variation: sex, age, single or group practice, urban or rural. Qualitative method is inspired by the completed grounded theory of a verbatim semiopragmatic analysis from 2 experts in this approach. Results: Family physicians found that current psychiatric disorders were related to psychological symptoms in reaction to life events. Their role was to make patients aware of a psychiatric symptom rather than establish a diagnosis. Their management responsibility was considered in contrasting ways: it was claimed or endured. They defined their position as facilitating compliance to psychiatrist consultations, while assuring a complementary psychotherapeutic approach. Prescribing medication was not a priority for them. Conclusions: The identified under-detection is essentially due to inherent frontline conditions and complexity of clinical forms. The family physician role, facilitating compliance to psychiatrist consultations while assuring a support psychotherapy is the main result of this study. More studies should be conducted to define more accurately the clinical reality, management and course of current psychiatric disorders in primary care.

  9. Engram formation in psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gebicke-Haerter, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors substantially influence beginning and progression of mental illness, reinforcing or reducing the consequences of genetic vulnerability. Often initiated by early traumatic events, “engrams” or memories are formed that may give rise to a slow and subtle progression of psychiatric disorders. The large delay between beginning and time of onset (diagnosis) may be explained by efficient compensatory mechanisms observed in brain metabolism that use optional pathways in highly redundant molecular interactions. To this end, research has to deal with mechanisms of learning and long-term memory formation, which involves (a) epigenetic changes, (b) altered neuronal activities, and (c) changes in neuron-glia communication. On the epigenetic level, apparently DNA-methylations are more stable than histone modifications, although both closely interact. Neuronal activities basically deliver digital information, which clearly can serve as basis for memory formation (LTP). However, research in this respect has long time neglected the importance of glia. They are more actively involved in the control of neuronal activities than thought before. They can both reinforce and inhibit neuronal activities by transducing neuronal information from frequency-encoded to amplitude and frequency-modulated calcium wave patterns spreading in the glial syncytium by use of gap junctions. In this way, they serve integrative functions. In conclusion, we are dealing with two concepts of encoding information that mutually control each other and synergize: a digital (neuronal) and a wave-like (glial) computing, forming neuron-glia functional units with inbuilt feedback loops to maintain balance of excitation and inhibition. To better understand mental illness, we have to gain more insight into the dynamics of adverse environmental impact on those cellular and molecular systems. This report summarizes existing knowledge and draws some outline about further research in molecular

  10. [Psychiatric disorders following myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Meincke, Ulrich; Hoff, Paul

    2006-05-15

    The number of patients who survive acute myocardial infarction has increased during recent decades. In addition, demographic development results in a rising incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Based on these facts, also the significance of psychiatric disorders is growing that may occur after myocardial infarction, such as depression, posttraumatic stress and anxiety disorders. Physicians are faced with the challenge to identify these clinical entities, that show a syndromal overlap with somatic complaints after myocardial infarction. After differentiation prompt start of adequate psychiatric-psychotherapeutic interventions is of relevance, not only regarding the patient's quality of life, but also in terms of cardiovascular prognosis. Indeed, depressive and anxiety disorders are known to be associated with a poor compliance as for rehabilitation and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disorders. Moreover, some studies suggest depression to be an independent risk factor of coronary heart disease. Consequently, early recognition and treatment, most often primarily in the hands of internists and cardiologists, are of enormous importance for the course and prognosis of the psychiatric disorder but also of cardiovascular disease.

  11. TRP channels and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Chahl, Loris A

    2011-01-01

    Depression and schizophrenia are major psychiatric disorders that cause much human suffering. Current treatments have major limitations and new drug targets are eagerly sought. Study of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in these disorders is at an early stage and the potential of agents that activate or inhibit these channels remains speculative. The findings that TRPC6 channels promote dendritic growth and are selectively activated by hyperforin, the key constitutent of St John's wort, suggest that TRPC6 channels might prove to be a new target for antidepressant drug development. There is now considerable evidence that TRPV1 antagonists have anxiolytic activity but there is no direct evidence that they have antidepressant activity. There is also no direct evidence that TRP channels play a role in schizophrenia. However, the findings that TRPC channels are involved in neuronal development and fundamental synaptic mechanisms, and that TRPV1 channels play a role in central dopaminergic and cannabinoid mechanisms is suggestive of potential roles of these channels in schizophrenia. Investigation of TRP channels in psychiatric disorders holds the promise of yielding further understanding of the aetiology of psychiatric disorders and the development of new drug treatments.

  12. Perinatal psychiatric disorders: an overview.

    PubMed

    Paschetta, Elena; Berrisford, Giles; Coccia, Floriana; Whitmore, Jennifer; Wood, Amanda G; Pretlove, Sam; Ismail, Khaled M K

    2014-06-01

    Perinatal mental illness has a significant implication on maternal health, birth outcomes, and the offspring's development. Prevalence estimates of perinatal psychiatric illnesses range widely, with substantial heterogeneity in different population studies, with a lower prevalence rate in high- rather than low- or middle-income countries. Because of the potential negative impact on maternal and child outcomes and the potential lability of these disorders, the perinatal period is a critical time to identify psychiatric illnesses. Thus, obstetricians and midwives play a crucial role in assessing women's mental health needs and to refer identified women promptly for multidisciplinary specialist assessment. However, there is still limited evidence on best practice assessment and management policies during pregnancy and postpartum. This review focuses on the prevalence of common perinatal mental disorders and antenatal screening policies to identify women at risk. The effect of these conditions and their management on pregnancy, fetal outcomes, and child development are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Animal cruelty and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Gleyzer, Roman; Felthous, Alan R; Holzer, Charles E

    2002-01-01

    Animal cruelty in childhood, although generally viewed as abnormal or deviant, for years was not considered symptomatic of any particular psychiatric disorder. Although animal cruelty is currently used as a diagnostic criterion for conduct disorder, research establishing the diagnostic significance of this behavior is essentially nonexistent. In the current study, investigators tested the hypothesis that a history of substantial animal cruelty is associated with a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (APD) and looked for associations with other disorders commonly diagnosed in a population of criminal defendants. Forty-eight subjects, criminal defendants who had histories of substantial animal cruelty, were matched with defendants without this history. Data were systematically obtained from the files by using four specifically designed data retrieval outlines. A history of animal cruelty during childhood was significantly associated with APD, antisocial personality traits, and polysubstance abuse. Mental retardation, psychotic disorders, and alcohol abuse showed no such association.

  14. Comorbidity of Psychiatric Disorders and Parental Psychiatric Disorders in a Sample of Iranian Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Moini, Rozita

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the psychiatric comorbidity of a clinical sample of children with ADHD and the psychiatric disorders in their parents. Method: Structured psychiatric interviews assessing lifetime psychiatric disorders by "DSM-IV" criteria, using the Farsi version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Results: The…

  15. Comorbidity of Psychiatric Disorders and Parental Psychiatric Disorders in a Sample of Iranian Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Moini, Rozita

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the psychiatric comorbidity of a clinical sample of children with ADHD and the psychiatric disorders in their parents. Method: Structured psychiatric interviews assessing lifetime psychiatric disorders by "DSM-IV" criteria, using the Farsi version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Results: The…

  16. Psychiatric disorders after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    van Reekum, R; Bolago, I; Finlayson, M A; Garner, S; Links, P S

    1996-05-01

    Substantial psychological and neurobehavioural evidence is available to support the hypothesis that traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a risk factor for subsequent psychiatric disorders. However, studies utilizing established psychiatric diagnostic schemes to study these outcomes after TBI are scarce, and no studies have included an assessment of personality disorders in addition to the major psychiatric disorders. This study utilizes structured psychiatric interviews to measure the prevalence of DSM-III(R) disorders in a sample of 18 subjects derived from a TBI rehabilitation programme. Results revealed high rates for major depression, bipolar affective disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, borderline and avoidant personality disorders. Co-morbidity was also high. A preliminary study of postulated predictive factors revealed possible roles for sex and for initial severity of injury. The study supports the association between TBI and psychiatric disorder, and suggests the need for monitoring, for prevention, and for treatment of psychiatric disorders after TBI.

  17. Postpartum psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, G E; Stewart, D E

    1986-01-01

    Postpartum blues, postpartum neurotic depression and puerperal psychoses have distinct clinical features; they affect women in all social classes and in all cultures, and despite numerous studies they have not been linked definitively with any biologic or psychosocial variables. The only possible exception is puerperal psychosis, which emerges much more often in women with a personal or family history of a bipolar affective disorder than in women without, a finding that probably explains the reluctance of some researchers to recognize puerperal psychotic episodes as distinct from psychotic episodes at other times. If postpartum blues last longer than 2 weeks and are disabling they are classified as neurotic depression and warrant treatment, often requiring both psychosocial approaches and psychotropic drug therapy. Antidepressants, major tranquillizers, electroconvulsive therapy and lithium have proved effective in the treatment of postpartum psychoses, depending on the symptoms. Both lithium and diazepam have been reported to cause deleterious side effects on breast-fed infants, and as the side effects of other psychotropic drugs given to a nursing mother are imperfectly understood, bottle feeding seems prudent. PMID:3510069

  18. Imaging genetics and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, R; Ohi, K; Yamamori, H; Yasuda, Y; Fujimoto, M; Umeda-Yano, S; Watanabe, Y; Fukunaga, M; Takeda, M

    2015-01-01

    Imaging genetics is an integrated research method that uses neuroimaging and genetics to assess the impact of genetic variation on brain function and structure. Imaging genetics is both a tool for the discovery of risk genes for psychiatric disorders and a strategy for characterizing the neural systems affected by risk gene variants to elucidate quantitative and mechanistic aspects of brain function implicated in psychiatric disease. Early studies of imaging genetics included association analyses between brain morphology and single nucleotide polymorphisms whose function is well known, such as catechol-Omethyltransferase (COMT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). GWAS of psychiatric disorders have identified genes with unknown functions, such as ZNF804A, and imaging genetics has been used to investigate clues of the biological function of these genes. The difficulty in replicating the findings of studies with small sample sizes has motivated the creation of largescale collaborative consortiums, such as ENIGMA, CHARGE and IMAGEN, to collect thousands of images. In a genome-wide association study, the ENIGMA consortium successfully identified common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume at 12q24, and the CHARGE consortium replicated this finding. The new era of imaging genetics has just begun, and the next challenge we face is the discovery of small effect size signals from large data sets obtained from genetics and neuroimaging. New methods and technologies for data reduction with appropriate statistical thresholds, such as polygenic analysis and parallel independent component analysis (ICA), are warranted. Future advances in imaging genetics will aid in the discovery of genes and provide mechanistic insight into psychiatric disorders.

  19. Imaging Genetics and Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, R; Ohi, K; Yamamori, H; Yasuda, Y; Fujimoto, M; Umeda-Yano, S; Watanabe, Y; Fukunaga, M; Takeda, M

    2015-01-01

    Imaging genetics is an integrated research method that uses neuroimaging and genetics to assess the impact of genetic variation on brain function and structure. Imaging genetics is both a tool for the discovery of risk genes for psychiatric disorders and a strategy for characterizing the neural systems affected by risk gene variants to elucidate quantitative and mechanistic aspects of brain function implicated in psychiatric disease. Early studies of imaging genetics included association analyses between brain morphology and single nucleotide polymorphisms whose function is well known, such as catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). GWAS of psychiatric disorders have identified genes with unknown functions, such as ZNF804A, and imaging genetics has been used to investigate clues of the biological function of these genes. The difficulty in replicating the findings of studies with small sample sizes has motivated the creation of large-scale collaborative consortiums, such as ENIGMA, CHARGE and IMAGEN, to collect thousands of images. In a genome-wide association study, the ENIGMA consortium successfully identified common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume at 12q24, and the CHARGE consortium replicated this finding. The new era of imaging genetics has just begun, and the next challenge we face is the discovery of small effect size signals from large data sets obtained from genetics and neuroimaging. New methods and technologies for data reduction with appropriate statistical thresholds, such as polygenic analysis and parallel independent component analysis (ICA), are warranted. Future advances in imaging genetics will aid in the discovery of genes and provide mechanistic insight into psychiatric disorders. PMID:25732148

  20. Psychiatric disorders: a conceptual taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Zachar, Peter; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2007-04-01

    This article summarizes six conceptual dimensions that underlie common assumptions about what counts as an adequate category of psychiatric disorder. These dimensions are 1) causalism-descriptivism, 2) essentialism-nominalism, 3) objectivism-evaluativism, 4) internalism-externalism, 5) entities-agents, and 6) categories-continua. Four different versions of the medical model are described and compared with respect to these dimensions. The medical models vary in several ways, but all can be considered "essentialistic." As a counter to the essentialist homogeneity among the medical models, two nominalist analyses of psychiatric classification are reviewed. In order to fill out the space defined by the conceptual dimensions, two alternatives to medical model approaches are also described. After making some suggestions about where DSM-V might best be aligned with respect to the conceptual dimensions, the authors review the distinction between empirical and nonempirical aspects of classification--and argue that nonempirical aspects of classification are legitimate and necessary.

  1. Psoriasis and Associated Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, José Luís Pio Da Costa; Reis, José Pedro Gaspar Dos; Figueiredo, Américo Manuel Da Costa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and objective: Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease with a high impact on self-esteem and patients’ health-related quality of life. In the last decades some studies have pointed out mental disorders associated with psoriasis and the etiopathogenic mechanisms behind that co-existence. This work compiles psychopathology associated with psoriasis and further analyzes the etiopathogenesis of psoriasis and mental disorders. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and using the “5S” levels of organization of evidence from healthcare research, as previously described. Results: Psoriasis is linked with many mental disorders, both in the psychotic and neurotic sprectrum. Chronic stress diminishes hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and upregulates sympathetic-adrenal-medullary responses, stimulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Then, it maintains and exacerbates psoriasis and some of its mental disorders. High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines connect psoriasis, psychiatric conditions, and other comorbidities of psoriasis (such as atherosclerosis) within a vicious cycle. Furthermore, the etiopathogenesis of the link between each psychiatric comorbidity and psoriasis has its own subtleties, including the cooccurrence of other comorbidities, the parts of the body affected by psoriasis, treatments, and biological and psychosocial factors. Conclusion: The study of psychopathology can amplify our understanding about the etiopathogenesis of psoriasis and associated mental disorders. Patients would benefit from a psychodermatologic approach. The adequate treatment should take into account the mental disorders associated with psoriasis as well as the circumstances under which they occur. PMID:27386050

  2. Epigenetic Signaling in Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Catherine J; Bagot, Rosemary C; Labonté, Benoit; Nestler, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial illnesses involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function. While genetic factors are important in the etiology of disorders such as depression and addiction, relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins clearly indicate the importance of additional mechanisms. Environmental factors such as stress or prior drug exposure are known to play a role in the onset of these illnesses. Such exposure to environmental insults induces stable changes in gene expression, neural circuit function, and ultimately behavior, and these maladaptations appear distinct between developmental and adult exposures. Increasing evidence indicates that these sustained abnormalities are maintained by epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions. Indeed, transcriptional dysregulation and associated aberrant epigenetic regulation is a unifying theme in psychiatric disorders. Aspects of depression and addiction can be modeled in animals by inducing disease-like states through environmental manipulations (e.g., chronic-stress, drug administration). Understanding how environmental factors recruit the epigenetic machinery in animal models is revealing new insight into disease mechanisms in humans. PMID:24709417

  3. Psychiatric emergencies (part I): psychiatric disorders causing organic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Sollazzo, F; Petrongolo, L; Bernardini, L; Daini, S

    2013-02-01

    Psychiatric emergencies are conditions that mostly destabilize the already frenetic activity of the Emergency Department. Sometimes the emergency is clearly referable to primitive psychiatric illness. Other times, psychiatric and organic symptoms can independently coexist (comorbidity), or develop together in different conditions of substance abuse, including alcohol and prescription drugs. Differentiating between substance induced and pre-existing psychiatric disorder (dual diagnosis) may be difficult, other than controversial issue. Finally, an organic disease can hide behind a psychiatric disorder (pseudopsychiatric emergency). In this review (part I), psychiatric disorders that occur with organic symptoms are discussed. They include: (1) anxiety, conversion and psychosomatic disorders, and (2) simulated diseases. The physiologic mechanisms of the stress reaction, divided into a dual neuro-hormonal response, are reviewed in this section: (1) activation of the sympathetic nervous system and adrenal medulla with catecholamine production (rapid response), and (2) activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis with cortisol production (slow response). The concept of the fight-or-flight response, its adaptive significance and the potential evolution in paralyzing response, well showing by Yerkes-Dodson curve, is explained. Abnormal short- and long-term reactions to stress evolving toward well codified cluster of trauma and stressor-related disorders, including acute stress disorder, adjustment disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder, are examined. A brief review of major psychiatric disorder and related behaviour abnormalities, vegetative symptoms and cognitive impairment, according to DMS IV-TR classification, are described. Finally, the reactive psychic symptoms and behavioral responses to acute or chronic organic disease, so called "somatopsychic disorders", commonly occurring in elderly and pediatric patients, are presented. The specific conditions of

  4. Sleep in Children With Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ramtekkar, Ujjwal; Ivanenko, Anna

    2015-06-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in pediatric psychiatric disorders and constitute key elements in diagnostic symptomatology of various primary psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder, depression, and anxiety disorder. Although sleep is not included in key defining criteria of some impairing illnesses such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia, these disorders present with a very high prevalence of sleep disturbances. The interaction between sleep and psychopathology is very complex with significant interrelationship in development, severity, and prognosis of psychiatric disorders and comorbid sleep disturbances. The research ranging from small intervention case series to large epidemiologic studies have demonstrated the role of specific sleep complaints in specific psychiatric diagnoses. However, the research using objective instruments such as polysomnography and actigraphy remains limited in youth with psychiatric disorders. The intervention studies using pharmaceutical treatment specifically focusing on sleep disturbances in psychiatric disorders are also sparse in the pediatric literature. Early identification of sleep disturbances and behavioral management using cognitive behavior therapy-based tools appear to be the most effective approach for treatment. The use of psychotropic medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for the treatment of primary psychiatric disorder often alleviate the psychological barriers for sleep but may lead to emergence of other sleep issues such as restless leg syndrome. The safety and efficacy data of hypnotics for primary sleep disorders are limited in pediatrics and should be avoided or used with extreme caution in children with comorbid sleep and psychiatric problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effectiveness of anticonvulsants in psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Grunze, Heinz C. R.

    2008-01-01

    Anticonvulsant drugs are widely used in psychiatric indications. These include mainly alcohol and benzodiazepine withdrawal syndromes, panic and anxiety disorders, dementia, schizophrenia, affective disorders, bipolar affective disorders in particular, and, to some extent, personality disorders, A further area in which neurology and psychiatry overlap is pain conditions, in which some anticonvulsants, and also typical psychiatric medications such as antidepressants, are helpful. From the beginning of their psychiatric use, anticonvulsants have also been used to ameliorate specific symptoms of psychiatric disorders independently of their causality and underlying illness, eg, aggression, and, more recently, cognitive impairment, as seen in affective disorders and schizophrenia. With new anticonvulsants currently under development, it is likely that their use in psychiatry will further increase, and that psychiatrists need to learn about their differential efficacy and safety profiles to the same extent as do neurologists. PMID:18472486

  6. [Skin Diseases in Primary Psychiatric Disorders].

    PubMed

    Mavrogiorgou, P; Juckel, G

    2016-10-01

    Somatic diseases in psychiatric disorders are frequently seen in clinical practice. Several international studies have shown that patients with a primary psychiatric disorder are at increased risk for developing severe somatic comorbidities in comparison to the normal population. Whereas there has been accumulation of knowledge on cardiovascular comorbidities, the relationship between skin and psychiatric disorders is less understood. There are only a few systematic studies on this subject and, in addition, there is lack of knowledge about underlying neurobiological and immunological mechanisms. Impairments and disorders of the skin are often an (early) sign of a psychiatric disorder. Somatic treatment of skin diseases should be initiated as early as possible in patients with psychiatric disorders. This review article focuses on dermatological diagnoses that are related to primary psychiatric disorders such as psychotic and affective disorders as well as addiction disorders, and presents the most important aspects of epidemiology, symptomatology and possible pathophysiology. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. [Psychiatric disorders of the contemporary battlefield].

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2008-06-01

    This article presents the factors exerted an influence on psychiatric health status of participants of military missions and psychiatric disorders forming on the contemporary battlefield. The main stressors are threats being a result of duty in warfare, also hard climatic conditions, long-lasting separation from family, foreign language of local population, other customs, religion, caused alienation of mission personnel. Significant factors seem also dependences on duty and unofficial relationships prevailing in military environment. The consequence of survived psychiatric trauma being a result of short-lived incident or prolonged event are often acute stress disorder (ASD) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

  8. Comorbidity between neurological illness and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Hesdorffer, Dale C

    2016-06-01

    Psychiatric disorders are common in many neurological disorders, including epilepsy, migraine, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and stroke. These comorbidities increase disease burden and may complicate the treatment of the combined disorders. Initial studies of the comorbidity of psychiatric and neurological disorders were cross-sectional, and time order of the associations was impossible to elucidate. More recent work has clarified time associations between psychiatric disorders and neurological disorders, particularly in epilepsy and stroke where epidemiological evidence suggests that there is a bidirectional relationship. This article takes an epidemiological approach to understanding these relationships and focuses mostly on epilepsy. Although, these relationships are understood in many neurological disorders, routine screening for psychiatric disorders in neurological disorders is infrequent, mostly due to the lack of partnerships between psychiatrists and neurologists and the paucity of neuropsychiatrists. Much more needs to be done to improve the detection and treatment of patients affected by neurological and psychiatric disorders. Understanding the scope of this overlap may inspire collaborations to improve the lives of people affected by both disorders.

  9. Predictors of psychiatric disorders in combat veterans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most previous research that has examined mental health among Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) combatants has relied on self-report measures to assess mental health outcomes; few studies have examined predictors of actual mental health diagnoses. The objective of this longitudinal investigation was to identify predictors of psychiatric disorders among Marines who deployed to combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. Methods The study sample consisted of 1113 Marines who had deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Demographic and psychosocial predictor variables from a survey that all Marines in the sample had completed were studied in relation to subsequent psychiatric diagnoses. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to determine the influence of the predictors on the occurrence of psychiatric disorders. Results In a sample of Marines with no previous psychiatric disorder diagnoses, 18% were diagnosed with a new-onset psychiatric disorder. Adjusting for other variables, the strongest predictors of overall psychiatric disorders were female gender, mild traumatic brain injury symptoms, and satisfaction with leadership. Service members who expressed greater satisfaction with leadership were about half as likely to develop a mental disorder as those who were not satisfied. Unique predictors of specific types of mental disorders were also identified. Conclusions Overall, the study’s most relevant result was that two potentially modifiable factors, low satisfaction with leadership and low organizational commitment, predicted mental disorder diagnoses in a military sample. Additional research should aim to clarify the nature and impact of these factors on combatant mental health. PMID:23651663

  10. Subjectivity and Severe Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, John

    2011-01-01

    To have a complete human science in the mental health field it is essential to give adequate attention to both the objective and the subjective data related to people with psychiatric disorders. The tendency in the past has been to ignore or discount one or the other of these data sources. Subjective data are particularly neglected, sometimes considered (only) part of the “art” of medicine since the usual methodologies of the physical sciences in themselves are not adequate to reflect the nature, elusiveness, and complexity of human subjective experience. The complete experience of hallucinated voices, for instance, often includes not only the voices themselves but also terrible anguish and terrifying inability to concentrate. But even such descriptors fall unnecessarily short of reflecting the data of the experience, thus leaving research, theory, and treatment with incomplete information. To represent adequately the subjective data it is essential to recognize that besides the usual discursive knowledge and methods of traditional physical science, a second kind of knowledge and method is required to reflect the depth of human experience. To accomplish this, we must employ approaches to narrative and the arts that are uniquely capable of capturing the nature of these experiences. Only by attending seriously in our research, training, theory, and practice to the unique nature of subjective data is it possible to have a true human science for our field. PMID:20961994

  11. Impulse control disorders in adult psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Levine, Laura; Kim, Daniel; Potenza, Marc N

    2005-11-01

    The authors' goal was to examine the prevalence of impulse control disorders in psychiatric inpatients. They used the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview, a semistructured clinical interview assessing pathological gambling, trichotillomania, kleptomania, pyromania, intermittent explosive disorder, compulsive buying, and compulsive sexual behavior, to screen 204 consecutively admitted psychiatric inpatients. One hundred twelve of the inpatients were women (54.9%), and the mean age of the 204 inpatients was 40.5 years (SD=13.2, range=18-83). Patients whose screen was positive for an impulse control disorder were evaluated with structured clinical interviews. Sixty-three patients (30.9%) were diagnosed with at least one current impulse control disorder. The most common impulse control disorders were compulsive buying (N=19 [9.3%]), kleptomania (N=16 [7.8%]), and pathological gambling (N=14 [6.9%]). Patients with and without co-occurring impulse control disorders did not differ significantly from each other on demographic measures or number or type of psychiatric diagnoses other than impulse control disorders. Impulse control disorders appear common among psychiatric inpatients. Additional, larger studies are needed to examine the prevalence of impulse control disorders in the general population and specific psychiatric groups.

  12. Family patterns of psychopathology in psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Osman; Boysan, Murat; Özdemir, Pınar Güzel; Coşkun, Salih; Özcan, Halil; Yılmaz, Ekrem; Atilla, Ercan

    2015-01-01

    Familial loading and crucial outcomes of family history of psychopathology in psychiatric disorders have long been recognized. There has been ample literature providing convincing evidence for the importance of family psychopathology in development of emotional disturbances in children as well as worse outcomes in the course of psychiatric disorders. More often, maternal psychopathology seems to have been an issue of interest rather than paternal psychopathology while effects of second-degree familiality have received almost no attention. In this study, we addressed the relations between affected first- and second-degree relatives of probands and categories of psychiatric disorders. Subjects were 350 hospitalized psychiatric inpatients, consecutively admitted to psychiatry clinics in Van, Turkey. Mean age was 34.16 (SD±12) and 51.4% of the sample consisted of male patients. Assessment of psychopathology in psychiatric probands was conducted based on DSM-IV TR. Familial loading of psychiatric disorders amongst first- and second-degree relatives of patients were initially noted primarily relying on patients' retrospective reports, and confirmed by both phone call and following official health records via the Medical Knowledge System. We analyzed the data using latent class analysis approach. We found four patterns of familial psychopathology. Latent homogeneous subsets of patients due to familial characteristics were as paternal kinship psychopathology with schizophrenia, paternal kinship psychopathology with mood disorders, maternal kinship psychopathology and core family psychopathology. Family patterns were critical to exerting variation in psychiatric disorders of probands and affected relatives. Probands with a core family pattern of psychopathology exhibited the most colorful clinical presentations in terms of variation in psychopathology. We observed a specificity of intergenerational transmission of psychiatric disorders when family patterns of

  13. Psychiatric Disorders in Youth in Juvenile Detention

    PubMed Central

    Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.; McClelland, Gary M.; Dulcan, Mina K.; Mericle, Amy A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Given the growth of juvenile detainee populations, epidemiologic data on their psychiatric disorders are increasingly important. Yet, there are few empirical studies. Until we have better epidemiologic data, we cannot know how best to use the system’s scarce mental health resources. Methods Using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC 2.3), interviewers assessed a randomly selected, stratified sample of 1829 African American, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic youth (1172 males, 657 females, ages 10–18) arrested and detained in Cook County, Illinois (which includes Chicago and surrounding suburbs). We present six-month prevalence estimates by demographic subgroups (gender, race/ethnicity, and age) for the following disorders: affective disorders (major depressive episode, dysthymia, manic episode), anxiety (panic, separation anxiety, overanxious, generalized anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorders), psychosis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), disruptive behavior disorders (oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder) and substance use disorders (alcohol and drug). Results Nearly two thirds of males and nearly three quarters of females met diagnostic criteria for one or more psychiatric disorders. Excluding conduct disorder (common among detained youth), nearly 60% of males and over two thirds of females met diagnostic criteria and had diagnosis-specific impairment for one or more psychiatric disorders. One half of males and almost one half of females had a substance use disorder, and over 40% of males and females met criteria for disruptive behavior disorders. Affective disorders were also prevalent, especially among females; 20% of females met criteria for a major depressive episode. Rates of many disorders were higher among females, non-Hispanic whites, and older adolescents. Conclusion These results suggest substantial psychiatric morbidity among juvenile detainees. Youth with psychiatric disorders pose a

  14. Cognitive deficits in psychiatric disorders: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Cognition denotes a relatively high level of processing of specific information including thinking, memory, perception, motivation, skilled movements and language. Cognitive psychology has become an important discipline in the research of a number of psychiatric disorders, ranging from severe psychotic illness such as schizophrenia to relatively benign, yet significantly disabling, non-psychotic illnesses such as somatoform disorder. Research in the area of neurocognition has started unlocking various secrets of psychiatric disorders, such as revealing the biological underpinnings, explaining the underlying psychopathology and issues related to course, outcome and treatment strategies. Such research has also attempted to uproot a number of previously held concepts, such as Kraepelin's dichotomy. Although the range of cognitive problems can be diverse, there are several cognitive domains, including executive function, attention and information processing, and working memory, which appear more frequently at risk. A broad range of impairment across and within the psychiatric disorders are highlighted in this oration. The oration summarizes the studies investigating cognitive processing in different psychiatric disorders. I will also discuss the findings of my own research on neurocognitive deficits in mood disorders, schizophrenia, obsessive–compulsive disorder, somatoform disorder, including studies on ‘high-risk’ individuals. Tracing the evaluation of neurocognitive science may provide new insights into the pathophysiology and treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:20703409

  15. Nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Salín-Pascual, Rafael J; Alcocer-Castillejos, Natasha V; Alejo-Galarza, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    Nicotine addiction is the single largest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western World. Smoking is not any more just a bad habit, but a substance addiction problem. The pharmacological aspects of nicotine show that this substance has a broad distribution in the different body compartnents, due mainly to its lipophilic characteristic. There are nicotinic receptors as members of cholinergic receptors' family. They are located in neuromuscular junction and in the central nervous system (CNS). Although they are similar, pentameric structure with an ionic channel to sodium, there are some differences in the protein chains characteristics. Repeated administration of nicotine in rats, results in the sensitization phenomenon, which produces increase in the behavioral locomotor activity response. It has been found that most psychostimulants-induced behavioral sensitization through a nicotine receptor activation. Nicotine receptors in CNS are located mainly in presynaptic membrane and in that way they regulated the release of several neurotransmitters, among them acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. In some activities like sleep-wake cycle, nicotine receptors have a functional significance. Nicotine receptor stimulation promotes wake time, reduces both, total sleep time and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). About nicotine dependence, this substance full fills all the criteria for dependence and withdrawal syndrome. There are some people that have more vulnerability for to become nicotine dependent, those are psychiatric patients. Among them schizophrenia, major depression, anxiety disorders and attention deficit disorder, represent the best example in this area. Nicotine may have some beneficial effects, among them are some neuroprotective effects in disorders like Parkinson's disease, and Gilles de la Tourette' syndrome. Also there are several evidences that support the role of nicotine in cognitive improvement functions like attention

  16. Psychiatric disorders associated with Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bratek, Agnieszka; Koźmin-Burzyńska, Agnieszka; Górniak, Eliza; Krysta, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Cushing's syndrome is the term used to describe a set of symptoms associated with hypercortisolism, which in most cases is caused by hypophysial microadenoma over-secreting adrenocorticotropic hormone. This endocrine disorder is often associated with psychiatric comorbidities. The most important include mood disorders, psychotic disorders, cognitive dysfunctions and anxiety disorders. The aim of this article was to review the prevalence, symptoms and consequences of psychiatric disorders in the course of Cushing's syndrome. We therefore performed a literature search using the following keywords: Cushing's syndrome and psychosis, Cushing's syndrome and mental disorders, Cushing's syndrome and depression, Cushing's syndrome and anxiety. The most prevalent psychiatric comorbidity of Cushing's syndrome is depression. Psychiatric manifestations can precede the onset of full-blown Cushing's syndrome and therefore be misdiagnosed. Despite the fact that treatment of the underlying endocrine disease in most cases alleviates psychiatric symptoms, the loss of brain volume persists. It is important to be alert to the symptoms of hypercortisolism in psychiatric patients to avoid misdiagnosis and enable them receiving adequate treatment.

  17. [Circadian rhythm sleep disorders in psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Bromundt, Vivien

    2014-11-01

    Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are prevalent among psychiatric patients. This is most probable due to a close relationship between functional disturbances of the internal clock, sleep regulation and mental health. Mechanisms on molecular level of the circadian clock and neurotransmitter signalling are involved in the development of both disorders. Moreover, circadian disorders and psychiatric diseases favour each other by accessory symptoms such as stress or social isolation. Actimetry to objectively quantify the rest-activity cycle and salivary melatonin profiles as marker for the circadian phase help to diagnose circadian rhythm sleep disorders in psychiatric patients. Chronotherapeutics such as bright light therapy, dark therapy, melatonin administration, and wake therapy are used to synchronise and consolidate circadian rhythms and help in the treatment of depression and other psychiatric disorders, but are still neglected in medicine. More molecular to behavioural research is needed for the understanding of the development of circadian disorders and their relationship to psychiatric illnesses. This will help to boost the awareness and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders in psychiatry.

  18. Association of Oxidative Stress with Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Waseem; Noreen, Hamsa; Castro-Gomes, Vitor; Mohammadzai, Imdadullah; da Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira; Landeira-Fernandez, J

    2016-01-01

    When concentrations of both reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species exceed the antioxidative capability of an organism, the cells undergo oxidative impairment. Impairments in membrane integrity and lipid and protein oxidation, protein mutilation, DNA damage, and neuronal dysfunction are some of the fundamental consequences of oxidative stress. The purpose of this work was to review the associations between oxidative stress and psychological disorders. The search terms were the following: "oxidative stress and affective disorders," "free radicals and neurodegenerative disorders," "oxidative stress and psychological disorders," "oxidative stress, free radicals, and psychiatric disorders," and "association of oxidative stress." These search terms were used in conjunction with each of the diagnostic categories of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and World Health Organization's International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. Genetic, pharmacological, biochemical, and preclinical therapeutic studies, case reports, and clinical trials were selected to explore the molecular aspects of psychological disorders that are associated with oxidative stress. We identified a broad spectrum of 83 degenerative syndromes and psychiatric disorders that were associated with oxidative stress. The multi-dimensional information identified herein supports the role of oxidative stress in various psychiatric disorders. We discuss the results from the perspective of developing novel therapeutic interventions.

  19. Psychiatric disorders in preclinical Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Julien, Camille L; Thompson, Jennifer C; Wild, Sue; Yardumian, Pamela; Snowden, Julie S; Turner, Gwen; Craufurd, David

    2007-01-01

    Background Psychiatric symptoms are a common feature of Huntington's disease (HD) and often precede the onset of motor and cognitive impairments. However, it remains unclear whether psychiatric changes in the preclinical period result from structural change, are a reaction to being at risk or simply a coincidental occurrence. Few studies have investigated the temporal course of psychiatric disorder across the preclinical period. Objectives To compare lifetime and current prevalence of psychiatric disorder in presymptomatic gene carriers and non‐carriers and to examine the relationship of psychiatric prevalence in gene carriers to temporal proximity of clinical onset. Methods Lifetime and current psychiatric histories of 204 at risk individuals (89 gene carriers and 115 non‐carriers) were obtained using a structured clinical interview, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Psychiatric disorders were classified using both standardised diagnostic criteria and a more subtle symptom based approach. Follow‐up of gene carriers (n = 51) enabled analysis of the role of temporal proximity to clinical onset. Results Gene carriers and non‐carriers did not differ in terms of the lifetime frequency of clinical psychiatric disorders or subclinical symptoms. However, gene carriers reported a significantly higher rate of current depressive symptoms. Moreover, the rate of depression increased as a function of proximity to clinical onset. Conclusions Affective disorder is an important feature of the prodromal stages of HD. The findings indicate that depression cannot be accounted for by natural concerns of being at risk. There is evidence of a window of several years in which preclinical symptoms are apparent. PMID:17178819

  20. What kinds of things are psychiatric disorders?

    PubMed

    Kendler, K S; Zachar, P; Craver, C

    2011-06-01

    This essay explores four answers to the question 'What kinds of things are psychiatric disorders?' Essentialist kinds are classes whose members share an essence from which their defining features arise. Although elegant and appropriate for some physical (e.g. atomic elements) and medical (e.g. Mendelian disorders) phenomena, this model is inappropriate for psychiatric disorders, which are multi-factorial and 'fuzzy'. Socially constructed kinds are classes whose members are defined by the cultural context in which they arise. This model excludes the importance of shared physiological mechanisms by which the same disorder could be identified across different cultures. Advocates of practical kinds put off metaphysical questions about 'reality' and focus on defining classes that are useful. Practical kinds models for psychiatric disorders, implicit in the DSM nosologies, do not require that diagnoses be grounded in shared causal processes. If psychiatry seeks to tie disorders to etiology and underlying mechanisms, a model first proposed for biological species, mechanistic property cluster (MPC) kinds, can provide a useful framework. MPC kinds are defined not in terms of essences but in terms of complex, mutually reinforcing networks of causal mechanisms. We argue that psychiatric disorders are objectively grounded features of the causal structure of the mind/brain. MPC kinds are fuzzy sets defined by mechanisms at multiple levels that act and interact to produce the key features of the kind. Like species, psychiatric disorders are populations with central paradigmatic and more marginal members. The MPC view is the best current answer to 'What kinds of things are psychiatric disorders?'

  1. [Deep brain stimulation for psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Overbeek, Jozefien M; de Koning, Pelle P; Luigjes, Judy; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Schuurman, P R Richard; Denys, Damiaan

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a treatment using implanted electrodes to deliver electrical pulses to targeted areas of the brain. DBS holds great promise in psychiatry for the treatment of patients with treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Double-blind and open trials have shown that the treatment is effective in about half of these patients. Further research should focus on optimizing DBS with respect to target location for the various psychiatric disorders. More controlled double-blind trials are needed to corroborate the effectiveness of DBS in patients with psychiatric disorders.

  2. Deep Brain Stimulation for Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Holtzheimer, Paul E.; Mayberg, Helen S.

    2015-01-01

    Medications, psychotherapy, and other treatments are effective for many patients with psychiatric disorders. However, with currently available interventions, a substantial number of patients experience incomplete resolution of symptoms, and relapse rates are high. In the search for better treatments, increasing interest has focused on focal neuromodulation. This focus has been driven by improved neuroanatomical models of mood, thought, and behavior regulation, as well as by more advanced strategies for directly and focally altering neural activity. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is one of the most invasive focal neuromodulation techniques available; data have supported its safety and efficacy in a number of movement disorders. Investigators have produced preliminary data on the safety and efficacy of DBS for several psychiatric disorders, as well. In this review, we describe the development and justification for testing DBS for various psychiatric disorders, carefully consider the available clinical data, and briefly discuss potential mechanisms of action. PMID:21692660

  3. Out and Down: Incarceration and Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnittker, Jason; Massoglia, Michael; Uggen, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are unusually prevalent among current and former inmates, but it is not known what this relationship reflects. A putative causal relationship is contaminated by assorted influences, including childhood disadvantage, the early onset of most disorders, and the criminalization of substance use. Using the National Comorbidity…

  4. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichstrom, Lars; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Angold, Adrian; Egger, Helen Link; Solheim, Elisabet; Sveen, Trude Hamre

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many disorders in childhood and adolescence were already present in the preschool years. However, there is little empirical research on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in young children. A true community study using structured diagnostic tools has yet to be published. Methods: All children born in 2003 or 2004 in the city of…

  5. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichstrom, Lars; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Angold, Adrian; Egger, Helen Link; Solheim, Elisabet; Sveen, Trude Hamre

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many disorders in childhood and adolescence were already present in the preschool years. However, there is little empirical research on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in young children. A true community study using structured diagnostic tools has yet to be published. Methods: All children born in 2003 or 2004 in the city of…

  6. Out and Down: Incarceration and Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnittker, Jason; Massoglia, Michael; Uggen, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are unusually prevalent among current and former inmates, but it is not known what this relationship reflects. A putative causal relationship is contaminated by assorted influences, including childhood disadvantage, the early onset of most disorders, and the criminalization of substance use. Using the National Comorbidity…

  7. Psychiatric Disorders, Comorbidity, and Suicidality in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Guilherme; Nock, Matthew K.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Hwang, Irving; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Prior studies have reported that psychiatric disorders are among the strongest predictors of suicidal behavior (i.e., suicide ideation, plans, and attempts). However, surprisingly little is known about the independent associations between each disorder and each suicidal behavior due to a failure to account for comorbidity. Methods This study used data from a representative sample of 5,782 respondents participating in the Mexican National Comorbidity Survey (2001–2002) to examine the unique associations between psychiatric disorders and suicidality. Results A prior psychiatric disorder was present in 48.8% of those with a suicide ideation and in 65.2% of those with an attempt. Discrete-time survival models adjusting for comorbidity revealed that conduct disorder and alcohol abuse/dependence were the strongest predictors of a subsequent suicide attempt. Most disorders predicted suicidal ideation but few predicted the transition from ideation to a suicide plan or attempt. Limitations M-NCS is a household survey that excluded homeless and institutionalized people, andthe diagnostic instrument used did not include an assessment of all DSM-IV disorders which would increase the comorbidity discussed here. Conclusions These results reveal a complex pattern of associations in which diverse psychiatric disorders impact different parts of the pathway to suicide attempts. These findings will help inform clinical and public health efforts aimed at suicide prevention in Mexico and other developing countries. PMID:19926141

  8. Review of the american psychiatric publishing textbook of personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Hellerstein, David J

    2007-03-01

    Reviews the book, The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Personality Disorders edited by John M. Oldham, Andrew E. Skodol, and Donna S. Bender (see record 2005-05013-000). Definitive, encyclopedic, and somewhat daunting, The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Personality Disorders is a monument to the progress of contemporary psychiatry and related disciplines in understanding and treating the Axis II disorders--as well as to its limitations. One may properly ask, how well does this volume succeed in providing guidance for professionals who work with individuals diagnosed with personality disorders? To a large degree, I believe it succeeds. With all its exciting insights into the impact of trauma, the interaction between genes, serotonin and impulsive behavior, and so forth, and with its occasional frustrations, the Textbook of Personality Disorders provides an accurate, in-depth depiction of a true frontier of psychiatry. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Modeling psychiatric disorders at the cellular and network levels.

    PubMed

    Brennand, K J; Simone, A; Tran, N; Gage, F H

    2012-12-01

    Although psychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder affect a number of brain regions and produce a complex array of clinical symptoms, basic phenotypes likely exist at the level of single neurons and simple networks. Being highly heritable, it is hypothesized that these disorders are amenable to cell-based studies in vitro. Using induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons and/or induced neurons from fibroblasts, limitless numbers of live human neurons can now be generated from patients with a genetic background permissive to the disease state. We predict that cell-based studies will ultimately contribute to our understanding of the initiation, progression and treatment of these psychiatric disorders.

  10. Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Jack; Peen, Jaap; Koelen, Jurrijn; Smit, Filip; Schoevers, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in a nationwide German population study, controlling for other known risk factors such as gender, social class, marital status and the interaction variables of these factors with urbanization. Methods The Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) was used to assess the prevalence of mental disorders (DSM-IV) in a representative sample of the German population (N = 4181, age: 18–65). The sample contains five levels of urbanization based on residence location. The epidemiological study was commissioned by the German Ministry of Research, Education and Science (BMBF) and approved by the relevant Institutional Review Board and ethics committee. Written informed consent was obtained for both surveys (core survey and Mental Health Supplement). Subjects did not get any financial compensation for their study participation. Results Higher levels of urbanization were linked to higher 12-month prevalence rates for almost all major psychiatric disorders (with the exception of substance abuse and psychotic disorders). The weighted prevalence percentages were highest in the most urbanized category. Alongside urbanization, female gender, lower social class and being unmarried were generally found to be associated with higher levels of psychopathology. The impact of urbanization on mental health was about equal (for almost all major psychiatric disorders) in young people and elderly people, men and women, and in married and single people. Only people from a low social class in the most urbanized settings had more somatoform disorders, and unmarried people in the most urbanized settings had more anxiety disorders. Conclusion Psychiatric disorders are more prevalent among the

  11. Teaching psychiatric residents about paraphilic disorders.

    PubMed

    Wise, Thomas N

    2010-01-01

    The author describes a program for psychiatric residents in evaluating patients with paraphilic disorders. The program curriculum offers clinical education in paraphilic disorders and is organized by various perspectives within psychiatry, including the disease model, the life story, the dimensional perspective, and the behavioral perspective. Graduates of this program generally find this clinical and educational rotation very useful in their future work. To develop an effective teaching module for paraphilic disorders, programs need an interested and knowledgeable faculty and an adequate clinical experience.

  12. Cholinergic connectivity: it's implications for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Scarr, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew S.; Neo, Jaclyn; Udawela, Madhara; Dean, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholine has been implicated in both the pathophysiology and treatment of a number of psychiatric disorders, with most of the data related to its role and therapeutic potential focusing on schizophrenia. However, there is little thought given to the consequences of the documented changes in the cholinergic system and how they may affect the functioning of the brain. This review looks at the cholinergic system and its interactions with the intrinsic neurotransmitters glutamate and gamma-amino butyric acid as well as those with the projection neurotransmitters most implicated in the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders; dopamine and serotonin. In addition, with the recent focus on the role of factors normally associated with inflammation in the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders, links between the cholinergic system and these factors will also be examined. These interfaces are put into context, primarily for schizophrenia, by looking at the changes in each of these systems in the disorder and exploring, theoretically, whether the changes are interconnected with those seen in the cholinergic system. Thus, this review will provide a comprehensive overview of the connectivity between the cholinergic system and some of the major areas of research into the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders, resulting in a critical appraisal of the potential outcomes of a dysregulated central cholinergic system. PMID:23653591

  13. Glial Contributions to Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Hanna E.

    2009-01-01

    There are several researches that demonstrate the importance of glia for child psychiatric disorders. One study found that levels of two astrocyctic proteins are altered in the brains of adults with autism while another research found that changes in glia are induced by some early adverse experiences.

  14. Glial Contributions to Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Hanna E.

    2009-01-01

    There are several researches that demonstrate the importance of glia for child psychiatric disorders. One study found that levels of two astrocyctic proteins are altered in the brains of adults with autism while another research found that changes in glia are induced by some early adverse experiences.

  15. Dissociative disorders in the psychiatric emergency ward.

    PubMed

    Sar, Vedat; Koyuncu, Ahmet; Ozturk, Erdinc; Yargic, L Ilhan; Kundakci, Turgut; Yazici, Ahmet; Kuskonmaz, Ekrem; Aksüt, Didem

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dissociative disorders among emergency psychiatric admissions. Forty-three of the 97 consecutive outpatients admitted to the psychiatric emergency unit of a university hospital were screened using the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). Seventeen (39.5% of the 43 evaluated) patients with a DES score above 25.0 were then interviewed with the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule and the Structured Clinical Interview for Dissociative Disorders. Fifteen emergency unit patients (34.9% of the 43 evaluated participants) were diagnosed as having a dissociative disorder. Six (14.0%) patients had dissociative identity disorder, 6 (14.0%) had dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, and 3 (7.0%) had dissociative amnesia. The average DES score of dissociative patients was 43.7. A majority of them had comorbid major depression, somatization disorder, and borderline personality disorder. Most of the patients with dissociative disorder reported auditory hallucinations, symptoms associated with psychogenic amnesia, flashback experiences, and childhood abuse and/or neglect. Dissociative disorders constitute one of the diagnostic groups with high relevance in emergency psychiatry.

  16. Burnout and psychiatric disorder among cancer clinicians.

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, A. J.; Graham, J.; Richards, M. A.; Cull, A.; Gregory, W. M.; Leaning, M. S.; Snashall, D. C.; Timothy, A. R.

    1995-01-01

    The prevalence and causes of 'burnout' and psychiatric disorder among senior oncologists and palliative care specialists have been measured in a national questionnaire-based survey. All consultant non-surgical oncologists in the UK were asked to participate. Sources of work-related stress and satisfaction were measured using study-specific questions which were aggregated into factors. Psychiatric disorder was estimated using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The three components of 'burnout'--emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and low personal accomplishment--were assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Three hundred and ninety-three out of 476 (83%) consultants returned their questionnaires. The estimated prevalence of psychiatric disorder in cancer clinicians was 28%, and this is similar to the rate among British junior house officers. The study group had equivalent levels of emotional exhaustion and low personal accomplishment to those found in American doctors and nurses, but lower levels of depersonalisation. Among cancer clinicians, 'burnout' was more prevalent among clinical oncologists than among medical oncologists and palliative care specialists. Psychiatric disorder was independently associated with the stress of feeling overloaded (P < 0.0001), dealing with treatment toxicity/errors (P < 0.004) and deriving little satisfaction from professional status/esteem (P = 0.002). 'Burnout' was also related to these factors, and in addition was associated with high stress and low satisfaction from dealing with patients, and with low satisfaction from having adequate resources (each at a level of P < or = 0.002). Clinicians who felt insufficiently trained in communication and management skills had significantly higher levels of distress than those who felt sufficiently trained. If 'burnout' and psychiatric disorder among cancer clinicians are to be reduced, increased resources will be required to lessen overload and to improve training in

  17. Serotonin and gender-specific psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Steiner, M; Lepage, P; Dunn, E J

    1997-01-01

    The serotonergic system has been linked to the etiology of several, albeit disparate, psychiatric disorders. The accumulation of many lines of evidence support the view that there are gender differences in the serotonergic system in humans. It is further proposed that a gender differentiated serotonergic system acts as the nidus for the development of gender-specific psychiatric disorders. Depression, anxiety and eating disorders are largely seen in females, whereas alcoholism, aggressivity and suicide predominate in males. Evidence from both animal and human studies suggesting that the serotonergic system mediates between social-environmental experience and biological states is presented and reviewed. A reconceptualization of the serotonergic system as a gender-specific psychobiological interface is proposed. (Int J Psych Clin Prac 1997; 1: 3-13).

  18. The hypocretin system and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Pizza, Fabio; Magnani, Michele; Indrio, Camilla; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    The hypocretin system is constituted by a small group of hypothalamic neurons with widespread connections within the entire central nervous system producing two neuropeptides involved in several key physiological functions such as the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, motor control, autonomic functions, metabolism, feeding behavior, and reward. Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a neurological disorder regarded as a disease model for the selective hypocretin system damage, and also shares several psychopatological traits and comorbidities with psychiatric disorders. We reviewed the available literature on the involvement of the hypocretin system in psychiatric nosography. Different evidences such as cerebrospinal hypocretin-1 levels, genetic polymorphisms of the neuropeptides or their receptors, response to treatments, clinical, experimental and functional data directly or indirectly linked the hypocretin system to schizophrenia, mood, anxiety and eating disorders, as well as to addiction. Future genetic and pharmacological studies will disentangle the hypocretin system role in the field of psychiatry.

  19. Hypersomnia in children: interface with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Kotagal, Suresh

    2009-10-01

    Patients being evaluated in child psychiatry clinics for behavior and mood disturbances frequently exhibit daytime sleepiness. Conversely, patients being evaluated for hypersomnia by sleep specialists may have depressed mood or hyperactive and aggressive behavior. The etiology of daytime sleepiness in children and adolescents is diverse and includes inadequate sleep hygiene, obstructive sleep apnea, delayed sleep phase syndrome, idiopathic hypersomnia, periodic hypersomnia, narcolepsy, and mood disorders per se. Treatment of a sleep disorder can have a favorable impact on alertness and quality of life. A high index of suspicion for sleep problems should be maintained in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders.

  20. Dissociative disorders and suicidality in psychiatric outpatients.

    PubMed

    Foote, Brad; Smolin, Yvette; Neft, Deborah I; Lipschitz, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Although it is common for patients with dissociative disorders to report a history of suicide attempts, there is very little data systematically comparing suicidality in patients with dissociative disorders versus patients without these disorders. The subjects in our study were 231 patients consecutively admitted to an inner-city, hospital-based outpatient psychiatric clinic. Eighty-two of these patients completed structured interviews for dissociative disorders, borderline personality disorder, and trauma history (dissociative disorders interview schedule) and for posttraumatic stress disorder and substance abuse (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV). Patients receiving a dissociative disorder diagnosis were compared with nondissociative patients on measures of self-harm and suicidality. Presence of a dissociative disorder was strongly associated with all measures of self-harm and suicidality. When we focused on patients with a history of multiple suicide attempts, significant associations were found between several diagnoses (dissociative disorder; borderline personality disorder; posttraumatic stress disorder; alcohol abuse/dependence) and multiple suicide attempter status. When these diagnoses were entered in a logistic regression, a highly significant association remained for dissociative diagnosis and multiple suicide attempter status (odds ratio, 15.09; 95% confidence interval, 2.67-85.32; p = 0.002). Dissociative disorders are commonly overlooked in studies of suicidality, but in this population they were the strongest predictor of multiple suicide attempter status.

  1. Lithium Treatment for Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Maletzky, Barry M.; Shore, James H.

    1978-01-01

    Although used around the world since 1949, lithium has come into extensive use in psychiatry in the United States only within the past decade. Before initiating treatment with this drug, physicians must be familiar with the diagnostic scheme of the major affective disorders, the indications and contraindications to lithium's use, and its principles of treatment, including evaluation before lithium therapy, criteria for monitoring blood levels and signs of impending toxicity. Despite earlier reports about the toxicity of lithium when it was promoted as a salt substitute, lithium is a safe drug. Its use not only has revolutionized the treatment of the major affective disorders, but has opened up new and broad avenues of research into the regulation of man's emotions. PMID:664651

  2. Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Arab Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amr, Mostafa; Raddad, Dahoud; El-Mehesh, Fatima; Bakr, Ashraf; Sallam, Khalid; Amin, Tarek

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study is to estimate the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) recruited from three Arab countries. We also examine the relationship between comorbidity and children's cognitive functioning and gender. Children who received a diagnosis of ASD (n = 60) from a…

  3. Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Arab Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amr, Mostafa; Raddad, Dahoud; El-Mehesh, Fatima; Bakr, Ashraf; Sallam, Khalid; Amin, Tarek

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study is to estimate the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) recruited from three Arab countries. We also examine the relationship between comorbidity and children's cognitive functioning and gender. Children who received a diagnosis of ASD (n = 60) from a…

  4. The exclusion of people with psychiatric disorders from medical research.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Keith; Blodgett, Janet C; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2015-11-01

    People with psychiatric disorders are excluded from medical research to an unknown degree with unknown effects. We examined the prevalence of reported psychiatric exclusion criteria using a sample of 400 highly-cited randomized trials (2002-2010) across 20 common chronic disorders (6 psychiatric and 14 other medical disorders). Two coders rated the presence of psychiatric exclusion criteria for each trial. Half of all trials (and 84% of psychiatric disorder treatment trials) reported possible or definite psychiatric exclusion criteria, with significant variation across disorders (p < .001). Non-psychiatric conditions with high rates of reported psychiatric exclusion criteria included low back pain (75%), osteoarthritis (57%), COPD (55%), and diabetes (55%). The most commonly reported type of psychiatric exclusion criteria were those related to substance use disorders (reported in 48% of trials reporting at least one psychiatric exclusion criteria). General psychiatric exclusions (e.g., "any serious psychiatric disorder") were also prevalent (38% of trials). Psychiatric disorder trials were more likely than other medical disorder trials to report each specific type of psychiatric exclusion (p's < .001). Because published clinical trial reports do not always fully describe exclusion criteria, this study's estimates of the prevalence of psychiatric exclusion criteria are conservative. Clinical trials greatly influence state-of-the-art medical care, yet individuals with psychiatric disorders are often actively excluded from these trials. This pattern of exclusion represents an under-recognized and worrisome cause of health inequity. Further attention should be paid to how individuals with psychiatric disorders can be safely included in medical research to address this important clinical and social justice issue.

  5. Impulse control disorders in psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Müller, Astrid; Rein, Katharina; Kollei, Ines; Jacobi, Andrea; Rotter, Andrea; Schütz, Patricia; Hillemacher, Thomas; de Zwaan, Martina

    2011-08-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of impulse control disorders (ICDs) in a European psychiatric inpatient sample. Two hundred thirty four consecutive psychiatric inpatients (62% female) were examined using a module of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV) that has been developed for ICDs (SCID-ICD). In addition to intermittent explosive disorder, pyromania, kleptomania, pathological gambling, and trichotillomania, the proposed ICDs not otherwise specified were assessed, including compulsive buying, nonparaphilic compulsive sexual behavior, pathological internet use, and pathological skin picking. Based on the SCID-ICD, a lifetime ICD rate of 23.5% and a current ICD rate of 18.8% were found. The most frequent ICDs were pathological skin picking (lifetime 7.3%, current 6.8%), compulsive buying (lifetime 6.8%, current 6.0%), and intermittent explosive disorder (lifetime 5.6%, current 3.4%). In contrast, referring to admission diagnoses taken from patients' charts only 3.8% of the inpatients were diagnosed with any current ICD. Individuals with comorbid ICD were significantly younger and had more admission diagnoses other than ICD. The results suggest high rates of ICDs among psychiatric inpatients that remain to be under-diagnosed in clinical routine. 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comorbidity of psychiatric disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Brady, K T; Killeen, T K; Brewerton, T; Lucerini, S

    2000-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Data from epidemiologic surveys indicate that the vast majority of individuals with PTSD meet criteria for at least one other psychiatric disorder, and a substantial percentage have 3 or more other psychiatric diagnoses. A number of different hypothetical constructs have been posited to explain this high comorbidity; for example, the self-medication hypothesis has often been applied to understand the relationship between PTSD and substance use disorders. There is a substantial amount of symptom overlap between PTSD and a number of other psychiatric diagnoses, particularly major depressive disorder. It has been suggested that high rates of comorbidity may be simply an epiphenomenon of the diagnostic criteria used. In any case, this high degree of symptom overlap can contribute to diagnostic confusion and, in particular, to the underdiagnosis of PTSD when trauma histories are not specifically obtained. The most common comorbid diagnoses are depressive disorders, substance use disorders, and other anxiety disorders. The comorbidity of PTSD and depressive disorders is of particular interest. Across a number of studies, these are the disorders most likely to co-occur with PTSD. It is also clear that depressive disorder can be a common and independent sequela of exposure to trauma and having a previous depressive disorder is a risk factor for the development of PTSD once exposure to a trauma occurs. The comorbidity of PTSD with substance use disorders is complex because while a substance use disorder may often develop as an attempt to self-medicate the painful symptoms of PTSD, withdrawal states exaggerate these symptoms. Appropriate treatment of PTSD in substance abusers is a controversial issue because of the belief that addressing issues related to the trauma in early recovery can precipitate relapse. In conclusion, comorbidity in PTSD is the rule rather than the exception. This

  7. [Psychiatric comorbidities with tobacco-related disorders].

    PubMed

    Mühlig, S; Andreas, S; Batra, A; Petersen, K U; Hoch, E; Rüther, T

    2016-01-01

    The coincidence of tobacco smoking and psychiatric disorders is of great epidemiological and therapeutic importance. Tobacco smoking by people with mental disorders leads to disproportionately high somatic health risks, an adverse clinical course, poorer clinical outcomes and reduced quality of life (QoL). The etiological causes of the high comorbidity between smoking and mental disorders are still unclear: currently, tobacco smoking is discussed as being either the consequence or contributory cause of psychological disorders or both disorders share common antecedents and interactions. Psychiatric patients are motivated to quit and smoking cessation is not generally less effective with smokers with mental disorders than with mentally healthy individuals. Specific smoking cessation programs in the inpatient and outpatient settings are time-consuming and complex but effective. Within the framework of the current S3 guidelines the international evidence has been updated and transformed into treatment guidelines following an elaborate consensus process. Basically the same interventional measures should be used as with mentally healthy individuals; however, smokers with a psychological comorbidity often need more intensive adjuvant psychotherapeutic interventions and often need pharmaceutical support, (bupropion, varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy). Due to the overall unsatisfactory findings the treatment guidelines are partially based on clinical consensus decisions. In this field, a considerable need for research has been determined.

  8. Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Poppy L A; David, Anthony S

    2014-06-01

    Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders, depression, dissociation, eating disorders, schizophrenia and psychoses] to date and provide a useful reference for consultation by clinicians and researchers planning to administer a biofeedback treatment. A systematic search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and WOK databases and hand searches in Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, and Journal of Neurotherapy, identified 227 articles; 63 of which are included within this review. Electroencephalographic neurofeedback constituted the most investigated modality (31.7%). Anxiety disorders were the most commonly treated (68.3%). Multi-modal biofeedback appeared most effective in significantly ameliorating symptoms, suggesting that targeting more than one physiological modality for bio-regulation increases therapeutic efficacy. Overall, 80.9% of articles reported some level of clinical amelioration related to biofeedback exposure, 65.0% to a statistically significant (p < .05) level of symptom reduction based on reported standardized clinical parameters. Although the heterogeneity of the included studies warrants caution before explicit efficacy statements can be made. Further development of standardized controlled methodological protocols tailored for specific disorders and guidelines to generate comprehensive reports may contribute towards establishing the value of biofeedback interventions within mainstream psychiatry.

  9. Pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders: a review of neuroimaging findings.

    PubMed

    Atmaca, Murad

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was reviewed neuroimaging results of the pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and somatoform disorders. The author made internet search in detail by using PubMed database including the period between 1980 and 2012 October. It was included in the articles in English, Turkish and French languages on pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders through structural or functional neuroimaging results. After searching mentioned in the Methods section in detail, investigations were obtained on pituitary gland neuroimaging in a variety of psychiatric disorders. There have been so limited investigations on pituitary neuroimaging in psychiatric disorders including major psychiatric illnesses like schizophrenia and mood disorders. Current findings are so far from the generalizability of the results. For this reason, it is required to perform much more neuroimaging studies of pituitary gland in all psychiatric disorders to reach the diagnostic importance of measuring it.

  10. [Psychotherapy for pregnant women with psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Cyranka, Katarzyna; Smiatek-Mazgaj, Bogna; Mielimąka, Michał; Sobański, Jerzy; Rutkowski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is a major life change for many women. The related biological changes, especially complications in its course and in the course of delivery, carry a risk of developing a variety of psychological problems and mental disorders. However, their treatment is challenging due to the teratogenic effects of most psychoactive drugs and specific requirements for entering different psychotherapeutic programs. Mental disorders during pregnancy are undoubtedly an important issue for both gynecology and psychiatry. There is still a discussion considering the question whether psychotherapy during pregnancy is safe, although no scientifically valid data contradicting the safety of psychotherapy during pregnancy has been published so far. Together with psychotherapy - as a treatment of choice - clinicians approve some other relatively safe treatment methods for psychiatric disorders in pregnant women. Light therapy, limited pharmacotherapy, ECT are included. The goal of this paper is to review current opinions of clinicians and researches concerning possibilities, indications and outcome of psychological treatments as a way to help pregnant women who suffer from different psychiatric conditions, and also because this subject is not yet present in Polish psychiatric journals.

  11. Psychiatric disorders prior to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Goldacre, Raph; Talbot, Kevin; Goldacre, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    It is recognized that neuropsychiatric conditions are overrepresented in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient kindreds and psychiatric symptoms may precede the onset of motor symptoms. Using a hospital record linkage database, hospitalization with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, or anxiety was significantly associated with a first diagnosis of ALS within the following year. This is likely to specifically reflect the clinicopathological overlap of ALS with frontotemporal dementia. A diagnosis of depression was significantly associated with a first record of ALS ≥5 years later, in keeping with growing evidence for major depressive disorder as an early marker of cerebral neurodegeneration. Ann Neurol 2016;80:935–938 PMID:27761925

  12. Coping in Chest Pain Patients with and without Psychiatric Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaliano, Peter P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined relations between psychiatric disorder and coronary heart disease (CHD) in 77 patients with chest pain, and compared coping profiles of chest pain patients with and without psychiatric disorders and CHD. Psychiatric patients with no medical disease were also studied. Results are discussed in the context of illness behavior and…

  13. Amylin and Amylin Agonists for Treating Psychiatric Diseases and Disorders

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methods and compositions for treating psychiatric diseases and disorders are disclosed. The methods provided generally involve the administration of an amylin or an amylin agonist to a subject in order to treat psychiatric diseases and disorders, and conditions associated with psychiatric diseases a...

  14. Saccadic eye movement applications for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Juliana; Velasques, Bruna; Teixeira, Silmar; Basile, Luis F; Salles, José Inácio; Nardi, Antonio Egídio; Budde, Henning; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study presented here analyzed the patterns of relationship between oculomotor performance and psychopathology, focusing on depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety disorder. Methods Scientific articles published from 1967 to 2013 in the PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane, and SciELO databases were reviewed. Results Saccadic eye movement appears to be heavily involved in psychiatric diseases covered in this review via a direct mechanism. The changes seen in the execution of eye movement tasks in patients with psychopathologies of various studies confirm that eye movement is associated with the cognitive and motor system. Conclusion Saccadic eye movement changes appear to be heavily involved in the psychiatric disorders covered in this review and may be considered a possible marker of some disorders. The few existing studies that approach the topic demonstrate a need to improve the experimental paradigms, as well as the methods of analysis. Most of them report behavioral variables (latency/reaction time), though electrophysiological measures are absent. PMID:24072973

  15. Psychiatric Disorders in Iranian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Salmanian, Maryam; Asadian-koohestani, Fatemeh; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Alavi, Ali; Malek, Ayyoub; Dastgiri, Saeed; Moharreri, Fatemeh; Hebrani, Paria; Arman, Soroor; Khoshhal Dastjerdi, Javad; Motavallian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents in five provinces of Iran: Tehran, Shiraz, Isfahan, Tabriz and Mashhad. Method: In the present study, we selected 9,636 children and adolescents aged 6–18 years through multistage cluster random sampling method from Tehran, Shiraz, Isfahan, Tabriz and Mashhad. We instructed the clinical psychologists to complete the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for the participants, andthose who received a high score on SDQ, completed the Persian version of Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). We used descriptive analysis and 95% confidence interval to investigate the relationship between scores of the K-SADS questionnaire and demographic factors. We used one-way ANOVA to test the significant differences among the disorders according to sex, age and province of residence. Results: Based on the results, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (4.45%) had the highest prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the five provinces and substance abuse and alcohol abuse (0%) had the lowest prevalence. In addition, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had the most prevalence in boys (5.03%) and ODD had the most prevalence in girls (4.05%). Among the three age groups, 6 to 9 year olds had the highest rates of ADHD (5.69%); 10 to 14 and 15 to 18 year olds had the highest rates of ODD (4.32% and 4.37% respectively). Among the five provinces, Tehran and Mashhad allocated the highest rates of ODD; Isfahan and Shiraz had the highest rates of ADHD; and Tabriz had the highest rates of social phobia. Conclusion: The current study revealed that the overall frequency of psychiatric disorders based on Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) was higher than a similar study. Moreover, in this study, among the five provinces, Tehran and Mashhad allocated the highest rates of ODD; Isfahan and Shiraz had the highest rates of

  16. Characteristics of schizophrenia suicides compared with suicides by other diagnosed psychiatric disorders and those without a psychiatric disorder.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Juncheng; Zhang, Jie

    2014-05-01

    There has been much literature on schizophrenia, but very little is known about the characteristics of suicides with schizophrenia in comparison with the suicides with other diagnosed psychiatric disorders and without psychiatric disorders. Thirty-eight suicides with schizophrenia, 150 suicides with other psychiatric disorder, and 204 suicides without a psychiatric disorder were entered in current study. Psychological autopsy (PA) was applied to collect information of the suicides. Social demographic factors and clinical characteristics of the suicides were measured. The well validated standard scales were applied: Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Landerman's Social Support Scale (DSSI), Dickman's Impulsivity Inventory (DII), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). Suicide intents were appraised by the Beck Suicide Intent Scale (SIS). The SCID based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) was applied to assess the psychiatric status of individuals. Demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, method of suicide and suicide intents of suicides were compared among the three groups (schizophrenia group, other psychiatric disorders group, and none psychiatric disorders group). There were 9.7% of suicides who suffered schizophrenia. The current study found that being female was the risk factor for suicides with schizophrenia in rural China, which was opposite to the previous studies. The suicides with psychiatric disorder scored higher on hopelessness, anxiety, and depression, but lower on social support and impulsivity than suicides without psychiatric disorder. The suicides with psychiatric disorder were less impulsive than none psychiatric disorders group, too. The schizophrenia group did not show more violence than other psychiatric disorders group. This research compared the demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, method of suicide and suicide intents among the

  17. [Intermediate phenotype studies in psychiatric disorder].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ryota

    2016-02-01

    The concept of intermediate phenotype was proposed by Dr. Weinberger of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). The risk genes for mental disorders define intermediate phenotypes, neurobiological characteristics observed in psychiatric disorders, and intermediate phenotypes increase the risk of mental disorders. The author worked at Dr. Weinberger's laboratory, and after returning home, introduced the concept to Japan, creating a term "Chukanhyogengata" to translate "intermediate phenotype". Intermediate phenotype has been proposed as a tool for the identification of risk genes for mental disorders, spreading the concept as a biomarker for the bridging between genes and behaviors. Intermediate phenotype studies later became one of the main pillars of psychiatric research. As a large number of data and samples are needed for intermediate phenotype research, we built a research resource database that combines the brain phenotype and bioresources. We performed genome-wide association analysis of cognitive decline in schizophrenia and identified the DEGS2 gene using this sample. This research resource database was developed for a multicenter study by COCORO (Cognitive Genetics Collaborative Research Organization). COCORO carried out genome-wide association analysis of the gray matter volume of the superior temporal gyrus and identified genome-wide significant loci. In this paper, we introduce the concept and history of intermediate phenotype study of mental illness and the latest trends. We hope to contribute to the future development of mental illness research through translational research.

  18. Caffeine, mental health, and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Lara, Diogo R

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine intake is so common that its pharmacological effects on the mind are undervalued. Since it is so readily available, individuals can adjust their own dose, time of administration and dose intervals of caffeine, according to the perceived benefits and side effects of each dose. This review focuses on human studies of caffeine in subjects with and without psychiatric disorders. Besides the possibility of mild drug dependence, caffeine may bring benefits that contribute to its widespread use. These benefits seem to be related to adaptation of mental energy to the context by increasing alertness, attention, and cognitive function (more evident in longer or more difficult tasks or situations of low arousal) and by elevating mood. Accordingly, moderate caffeine intake (< 6 cups/day) has been associated with less depressive symptoms, fewer cognitive failures, and lower risk of suicide. However, its putative therapeutic effects on depression and ADHD have been insufficiently studied. Conversely, in rare cases high doses of caffeine can induce psychotic and manic symptoms, and more commonly, anxiety. Patients with panic disorder and performance social anxiety disorder seem to be particularly sensitive to the anxiogenic effects of caffeine, whereas preliminary data suggests that it may be effective for some patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The threshold for the anxiogenic effect of caffeine is influenced by a polymorphism of the A2A receptor. In summary, caffeine can be regarded as a pharmacological tool to increase energy and effortful behavior in daily activities. More populational (cross-sectional and prospective) and experimental studies are necessary to establish the role of caffeine intake in psychiatric disorders, especially its putative efficacy on depressive mood and cognitive/attentional disorders.

  19. Psychiatric Disorders and Treatments: A Primer for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forness, Steven R.; Walker, Hill M.; Kavale, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    This article for teachers provides basic information on psychiatric disorders and treatments. It covers oppositional defiant and conduct disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression or other mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders, and autistic spectrum disorders. Insets provide additional…

  20. Psychiatric Disorders and Treatments: A Primer for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forness, Steven R.; Walker, Hill M.; Kavale, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    This article for teachers provides basic information on psychiatric disorders and treatments. It covers oppositional defiant and conduct disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression or other mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders, and autistic spectrum disorders. Insets provide additional…

  1. Psychiatric disorders among the Mapuche in Chile.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Benjamin; Kohn, Robert; Rioseco, Pedro; Saldivia, Sandra; Torres, Silverio

    2005-06-01

    The Mapuche are the largest indigenous group in Chile; yet almost all data on the mental health of indigenous populations are from North America. The study examines the differential DSM-III-R prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders and service utilization among indigenous and non-indigenous community residence. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to a stratified random sample of 75 Mapuche and 434 non-Mapuche residents of the province of Cautín. Lifetime prevalence and 12-month prevalence rates were estimated. Approximately 28.4% of the Mapuche population had a lifetime, and 15.7% a 12-month, prevalent psychiatric disorder compared to 38.0% and 25.7%, respectively, of the non-Mapuche. Few significant differences were noted between the two groups; however, generalized anxiety disorder, simple phobia, and drug dependence were less prevalent among the Mapuche. Service utilization among the Mapuche with mental illness was low. This is a preliminary study based on a small sample size. Further research on the mental health of indigenous populations of South America is needed.

  2. Postpartum psychiatric disorders: Early diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Shashi; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Indira

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum period is demanding period characterized by overwhelming biological, physical, social, and emotional changes. It requires significant personal and interpersonal adaptation, especially in case of primigravida. Pregnant women and their families have lots of aspirations from the postpartum period, which is colored by the joyful arrival of a new baby. Unfortunately, women in the postpartum period can be vulnerable to a range of psychiatric disorders like postpartum blues, depression, and psychosis. Perinatal mental illness is largely under-diagnosed and can have far reaching ramifications for both the mother and the infant. Early screening, diagnosis, and management are very important and must be considered as mandatory part of postpartum care. PMID:26330638

  3. [Psychiatric disorders in epilepsy: an update].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Judit; Zaratiegui, Rodolfo; Thomson, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Although there is good clinical evidence suggesting that the psychiatric disorders of epilepsy are clinically distinct, they do not find a place in the current classification systems. To develop a useful classification of the psychopathology of epilepsy, it is important to embrace not only the spectrum of psychiatric diagnoses as given by current psychiatric terminology, as in ICD-10 and DSM-IV, but also those diagnoses related to the classification of seizures and epilepsy. This should be combined with considerable clinical experience in understanding these associations. The Commission on Psychobiology of The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) has developed a classification which is shown in this revision. We also describe the bidirectionality between epilepsy and depression and its consequences. A special issue is the overlap between depressive epilepsy-related symptoms and bipolar symptomatology. The psychoses of epilepsy, in the way the ILAE classification considers them, are also reviewed. Finally, we include case reports that illustrate what we understand as the complexity for the clinical diagnosis and therapeutics. Key words.

  4. Psychiatric disorders of opioid addicts entering treatment: preliminary data.

    PubMed

    Abbott, P J; Weller, S B; Walker, S R

    1994-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders have become an increasing concern in the treatment of substance abusers. The introduction of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) into this population has further complicated treatment. This study examines the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in an opioid dependent population maintained on methadone. Results from this preliminary analysis show high rates of psychiatric disorders in this population. Additionally, needle sharing behavior appears to be increased in patients with a diagnosis of dysthymia. These findings have direct implications for aggressive screening and treatment of psychiatric disorders in methadone maintenance clinics.

  5. Regional differences in psychiatric disorders in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Robert; Rioseco, Pedro; Saldivia, Sandra; Navarrette, Gonzalo; Veloso, Paula; Torres, Silverio

    2006-01-01

    Background Psychiatric epidemiological surveys in developing countries are rare and are frequently conducted in regions that are not necessarily representative of the entire country. In addition, in large countries with dispersed populations national rates may have low value for estimating the need for mental health services and programs. Methods The Chile Psychiatric Prevalence Study using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was conducted in four distinct regions of the country on a stratified random sample of 2,978 people. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence and service utilization rates were estimated. Results Significant differences in the rates of major depressive disorder, substance abuse disorders, non-affective psychosis, and service utilization were found across the regions. The differential prevalence rates could not be accounted by socio-demographic differences between sites. Conclusions Regional differences across countries may exist that have both implications for prevalence rates and service utilization. Planning mental health services for population centers that span wide geographical areas based on studies conducted in a single region may be misleading, and may result in areas with high need being underserved. PMID:17036264

  6. St. John's wort for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome

    2013-03-01

    St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) has been extensively studied and reviewed for its use in depression; however, there is less salient discussion on its clinical application for a range of other psychiatric disorders. This article outlines the current evidence of the efficacy of St John's wort in common psychiatric disorders, including major depression, bipolar depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, and somatization disorder. Mechanisms of action, including emerging pharmacogenetic data, safety, and clinical considerations are also detailed.

  7. Dyskinesias and associated psychiatric disorders following streptococcal infections

    PubMed Central

    Dale, R; Heyman, I; Surtees, R; Church, A; Giovannoni, G; Goodman, R; Neville, B

    2004-01-01

    Background: The classical extrapyramidal movement disorder following ß haemolytic streptococcus (BHS) infection is Sydenham's chorea (SC). Recently, other post-streptococcal movement disorders have been described, including motor tics and dystonia. Associated emotional and behavioural alteration is characteristic. Aims: To describe experience of post-streptococcal dyskinesias and associated co-morbid psychiatric features presenting to a tertiary referral centre 1999–2002. Methods: In all patients, dyskinetic movement disorders followed BHS pharyngeal infection. BHS infection was defined by pharyngeal culture of the organism, or paired streptococcal serology. Movement disorders were classified according to international criteria, and validated by experienced child neurologists. Psychiatric complications were defined using ICD-10 criteria using a validated psychiatric interview. Results: In the 40 patients, the following dyskinetic movement disorders were present: chorea (n = 20), motor tics (n = 16), dystonia (n = 5), tremor (n = 3), stereotypies (n = 2), opsoclonus (n = 2), and myoclonus (n = 1). Sixty five per cent of the chorea patients were female, whereas 69% of the tic patients were male. ICD-10 psychiatric diagnoses were made in 62.5%. Using the same psychiatric instrument, only 8.9% of UK children would be expected to have an ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis. Emotional disorders occurred in 47.5%, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (27.5%), generalised anxiety (25%), and depressive episode (17.5%). Additional psychiatric morbidity included conduct disorders (27.5%) and hyperkinetic disorders (15%). Psychiatric, movement, and post-streptococcal autoimmune disorders were commonly observed in family members. At a mean follow up of 2.7 years, 72.5% had continuing movement and psychiatric disorders. Conclusion: Post-streptococcal dyskinesias occur with significant and disabling psychiatric co-morbidity and are potential autoimmune models of common "idiopathic

  8. Modeling Psychiatric Disorders with Patient-derived iPSCs

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Zhexing; Christian, Kimberly M.; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-li

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are heterogeneous disorders characterized by complex genetics, variable symptomatology, and anatomically distributed pathology, all of which present challenges for effective treatment. Current treatments are often blunt tools used to ameliorate the most severe symptoms, often at the risk of disrupting functional neural systems, thus there is a pressing need to develop rational therapeutics. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) reprogrammed from patient somatic cells offers an unprecedented opportunity to recapitulate both normal and pathologic human tissue and organ development, and provides new approaches for understanding disease mechanisms and for drug discovery with higher predictability of their effects in humans. Here we review recent progress and challenges in using human iPSCs for modeling neuropsychiatric disorders and developing novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:26705693

  9. Modeling psychiatric disorders with patient-derived iPSCs.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhexing; Christian, Kimberly M; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-li

    2016-02-01

    Psychiatric disorders are heterogeneous disorders characterized by complex genetics, variable symptomatology, and anatomically distributed pathology, all of which present challenges for effective treatment. Current treatments are often blunt tools used to ameliorate the most severe symptoms, often at the risk of disrupting functional neural systems, thus there is a pressing need to develop rational therapeutics. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) reprogrammed from patient somatic cells offer an unprecedented opportunity to recapitulate both normal and pathologic human tissue and organ development, and provides new approaches for understanding disease mechanisms and for drug discovery with higher predictability of their effects in humans. Here we review recent progress and challenges in using human iPSCs for modeling neuropsychiatric disorders and developing novel therapeutic strategies.

  10. Transgenic Mouse Models of Childhood Onset Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Holly R.; Feng, Guoping

    2011-01-01

    Childhood onset psychiatric disorders, such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Mood Disorders, Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (OCSD), and Schizophrenia (SZ), affect many school age children leading to a lower quality of life, including difficulties in school and personal relationships that persists into adulthood. Currently, the causes of these psychiatric disorders are poorly understood resulting in difficulty diagnosing affected children, and insufficient treatment options. Family and twin studies implicate a genetic contribution for ADHD, ASD, Mood Disorders, OCSD, and SZ. Identification of candidate genes and chromosomal regions associated with a particular disorder provide targets for directed research, and understanding how these genes influence the disease state will provide valuable insights for improving the diagnosis and treatment of children with psychiatric disorders. Animal models are one important approach in the study of human diseases, allowing for the use of a variety of experimental approaches to dissect the contribution of a specific chromosomal or genetic abnormality in human disorders. While it is impossible to model an entire psychiatric disorder in a single animal model, these models can be extremely valuable in dissecting out the specific role of a gene, pathway, neuron subtype, or brain region in a particular abnormal behavior. In this review we discuss existing transgenic mouse models for childhood onset psychiatric disorders. We compare the strength and weakness of various transgenic animal models proposed for each of the common childhood onset psychiatric disorders, and discuss future directions for the study of these disorders using cutting-edge genetic tools. PMID:21309772

  11. The Role of Sleep in Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfano, Candice A.; Gamble, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Although sleep problems often comprise core features of psychiatric disorders, inadequate attention has been paid to the complex, reciprocal relationships involved in the early regulation of sleep, emotion, and behavior. In this paper, we review the pediatric literature examining sleep in children with primary psychiatric disorders as well as…

  12. The Role of Sleep in Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfano, Candice A.; Gamble, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Although sleep problems often comprise core features of psychiatric disorders, inadequate attention has been paid to the complex, reciprocal relationships involved in the early regulation of sleep, emotion, and behavior. In this paper, we review the pediatric literature examining sleep in children with primary psychiatric disorders as well as…

  13. Psychiatric Disorders and Treatment in Low-Income Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Flick, Louise H.; Homan, Sharon M.; Campbell, Claudia; McSweeney, Maryellen; Gallagher, Mary Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aims This study estimated the prevalence of twenty-two 12-month and lifetime psychiatric disorders in a sample of 744 low-income pregnant women and the frequency that women with psychiatric disorders received treatment. Method To identify psychiatric disorders, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) was administered to Medicaid or Medicaid-eligible pregnant women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). The sample was stratified by the rural or urban location of the WIC sites in southeastern Missouri and the city of St. Louis. Eligible women were enrolled at each site until their numbers were proportional to the racial distribution of African American and Caucasian pregnant women served there. Results The 12-month prevalence of one or more psychiatric disorders was 30.9%. Most common were affective disorders (13.6%), particularly major depressive disorder (8.2%) and bipolar I disorder (5.2%). Only 24.3% of those with a psychiatric disorder reported that they received treatment in the past year. Lifetime prevalence of at least one disorder was 45.6%, with affective disorders being the most frequent (23.5%). Caucasian women were more likely than African Americans to have at least one 12-month disorder, with the difference largely accounted for by nicotine dependence. Higher prevalence of lifetime disorders was also found in Caucasian women, particularly affective disorders and substance use disorders. There were no differences in the prevalence of 12-month or lifetime psychiatric disorders by the urban or rural residence of subjects. Conclusions With nearly one third of pregnant women meeting criteria for a 12-month psychiatric disorder and only one fourth receiving any type of mental health treatment, comprehensive psychiatric screening during pregnancy is needed along with appropriate treatment. PMID:20524895

  14. Prevalence and Type of Psychiatric Disorder and Developmental Disorders in Three Speech and Language Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, Dennis P.; Baker, Lorian

    1987-01-01

    Six hundred children with communication disorders (mean age 5 years 7 months) were evaluated for psychiatric and developmental disorders. The two subgroups with language involvement had higher rates of both psychiatric and developmental disorders than children with pure speech involvement and different patterns of psychiatric diagnoses. (Author/DB)

  15. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders among Female Juvenile Offenders.

    PubMed

    Morshed, N M; Rahman, F; Shahid, S F; Qusar, M S; Algin, S; Shah, M A; Maruf, M M; Chowdhury, M H

    2016-10-01

    Inmates of Juvenile Developmental Centers are the special group of youth population who are in conflict with law. They are vulnerable to psychiatric illness. The objective of this study was to see the prevalence and type of psychiatric disorders in institutionalized female juvenile offenders and non-offenders of same age, sex and socioeconomic group in the community. The association of mental disorders was examined in 43 female inmates of Juvenile Development Centers and 43 randomly selected comparison subjects in community. One stage-structured assessment of psychopathology was carried out by using a structured and valid Bangla version of the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA). Development and Well-Being Assessment generated psychiatric diagnosis was assigned based on ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for research. The result revealed that, of those who were in conflict with law, 93% had mental disorder, whereas 14% of non-offenders had psychiatric disorder. Among the offenders with psychiatric disorders, most of them (32.6%) suffered from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), followed by combined MDD & Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). On the other hand, among the non-offenders with psychiatric disorder 9.3% suffered from MDD. It can be concluded that considerable psychiatric disorders are prevalent among the female juvenile offenders with comparison to non-offenders. Broad-based replication study could confirm these findings.

  16. Circadian Clocks as Modulators of Metabolic Comorbidity in Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Barandas, Rita; Landgraf, Dominic; McCarthy, Michael J; Welsh, David K

    2015-12-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder are often accompanied by metabolic dysfunction symptoms, including obesity and diabetes. Since the circadian system controls important brain systems that regulate affective, cognitive, and metabolic functions, and neuropsychiatric and metabolic diseases are often correlated with disturbances of circadian rhythms, we hypothesize that dysregulation of circadian clocks plays a central role in metabolic comorbidity in psychiatric disorders. In this review paper, we highlight the role of circadian clocks in glucocorticoid, dopamine, and orexin/melanin-concentrating hormone systems and describe how a dysfunction of these clocks may contribute to the simultaneous development of psychiatric and metabolic symptoms.

  17. Restless Legs Syndrome and Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Susan; Winkelman, John W

    2015-09-01

    There are strong epidemiologic ties between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and a wide array of psychiatric conditions. Although the mechanism of this association is not fully understood, there are likely bidirectional cause-and-effect relationships. Appreciation of psychiatric comorbidity is an essential component of the treatment of RLS. Clinicians should be prepared to facilitate appropriate psychiatric treatment and consider the complex interactions between psychiatric medications, RLS medications, and the clinical course of both illnesses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Substance use and response to psychiatric treatment in methadone-treated outpatients with comorbid psychiatric disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kidorf, Michael; King, Van L.; Peirce, Jessica; Gandotra, Neeraj; Ghazarian, Sharon; Brooner, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    The psychiatric care of opioid users receiving agonist therapies is often complicated by high rates of illicit drug use (Brooner et al., 2013). The present study evaluates if illicit drug use (i.e., opioids, cocaine, sedatives) detected at the start of psychiatric care affects treatment response. Methadone maintenance patients (n = 125) with at least one current psychiatric disorder completed a 3-month randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of financial incentives on attendance to on-site integrated substance abuse and psychiatric services (Kidorf et al., 2013). The present study re-analyzes the data set by grouping participants into one of two conditions based on the 4-week baseline observation: 1) no illicit drug use (Baseline Negative; n = 50), or 2) any illicit drug use (Baseline Positive; n = 75). All participants received a similar schedule of psychiatric services, and had good access to prescribed psychiatric medications. The Global Severity Index (GSI) of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-Revised was administered monthly to evaluate changes in psychiatric distress. Results showed that while both conditions evidenced similar utilization of on-site psychiatric services, Baseline Negative participants remained in treatment somewhat longer (80.7 vs. 74.8 days, p = .04) and demonstrated greater reductions in GSI scores than Baseline Positive participants at Month 3 (p = .004). These results have implications for interpreting previous studies that have shown inconsistent efficacy of pharmacotherapy and other psychiatric treatments, and for providing clinical care for patients with co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders. PMID:25468006

  19. Gabapentin Therapy in Psychiatric Disorders: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Rachel K.; Butler, Paul M.; Perloff, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Gabapentin is commonly used off-label in the treatment of psychiatric disorders with success, failure, and controversy. A systematic review of the literature was performed to elucidate the evidence for clinical benefit of gabapentin in psychiatric disorders. Data sources: Bibliographic reference searches for gabapentin use in psychiatric disorders were performed in PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE search engines with no language restrictions from January 1, 1983, to October 1, 2014, excluding nonhuman studies. For psychiatric references, the keywords bipolar, depression, anxiety, mood, posttraumatic stress disorder (posttraumatic stress disorder and PTSD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (obsessive-compulsive disorder and OCD), alcohol (abuse, dependence, withdraw), drug (abuse, dependence, withdraw), opioid (abuse, dependence, withdraw), cocaine (abuse, dependence, withdraw), and amphetamine (abuse, dependence, withdraw) were crossed with gabapentin OR neurontin. Study selection and data extraction: The resulting 988 abstracts were read by 2 reviewers; references were excluded if gabapentin was not a study compound or psychiatric symptoms were not studied. The resulting references were subsequently read, reviewed, and analyzed; 219 pertinent to gabapentin use in psychiatric disorders were retained. Only 34 clinical trials investigating psychiatric disorders contained quality of evidence level II-2 or higher. Results: Gabapentin may have benefit for some anxiety disorders, although there are no studies for generalized anxiety disorder. Gabapentin has less likely benefit adjunctively for bipolar disorder. Gabapentin has clearer efficacy for alcohol craving and withdrawal symptoms and may have a role in adjunctive treatment of opioid dependence. There is no clear evidence for gabapentin therapy in depression, PTSD prevention, OCD, or other types of substance abuse. Limitations of available data include variation in dosing between studies, gabapentin as monotherapy or

  20. Psychiatric disorders: a global look at facts and figures.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2010-12-01

    According to data from Western countries, psychiatric disorders are relatively prevalent. For example, in the United States general population, data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication study indicate that about one-quarter of individuals experience a psychiatric disorder in a given year, with lifetime rates at about 50 percent. For both prevalence designations, anxiety disorders are most common. According to data from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders, the 12-month and lifetime-prevalence rates for psychiatric disorders among European general populations are 11.5 and 25.9 percent, respectively, with mood and anxiety disorders evidencing approximately equal rates. As expected, in primary care settings, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the United States and Europe is high, with point-prevalence rates varying, but affecting approximately 25 to 30 percent of patients. In primary care settings, the most common psychiatric diagnoses are mood and anxiety disorders as well as somatoform disorders. While no global summary of cost of care is available, the high prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders correspond with high expenditures for mental healthcare, as evidenced by a number of sources. Given these latter findings, prevention becomes all the more relevant in terms of cost management.

  1. [The relation of selected psychiatric disorders to occurrence of suicide attempts among teenage psychiatrically hospitalized patients].

    PubMed

    Krajewska, Katarzyna; Gawlik-Kotelnicka, Oliwia; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka

    2015-06-01

    Suicide is the third cause of death globally in the age group 10-19. Multiple risk factors (genetic, psychiatric, psychological, familial, social) increased number of suicide attempts. The aim of this study was to explore whether mental disorders are associated with the number of suicide attempts among psychiatric hospitalized adolescents. Retrospective, chart-based analysis of 119 patients, aged 13-18, treated in 2013-2014 in the Department of Adolescent Psychiatry in Łódź. Inclusion criteria was diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders, mood disorders, neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders, behavioral and emotional disorders according to ICD 10. Exclusion criteria were other psychiatric diagnosis, incomplete information about intention of self-harm behaviors. For statistical analysis used Statistica 9.1. Among psychiatricaly hospitalized patients, 51.2% of people attempted suicide. No relationship was found (p > 0.05) between psychiatric diagnosis and frequency of suicide attempts in adolescents, but the most common suicide attempts related to people with a diagnosis of mood disorders (59.3%) and neurotic disorders (54.6%), and least frequently in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia , schizotypal and delusional disorders (40%) and behavioral and emotional disorders (44.4%). There is no relation between the occurrence of suicide attempts and the type of mental disorders among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  2. Gestational Risks and Psychiatric Disorders Among Indigenous Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Devan M.

    2009-01-01

    This study reports on the effects maternal prenatal binge drinking, cigarette smoking, drug use, and pregnancy and birth complications on meeting criteria for psychiatric disorders at ages 10–12 and 13–15 years among 546 Indigenous adolescents from a single culture in the northern Midwest and Canada. Adolescent DSM-IV psychiatric disorders were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Revised (DISC-R). Results indicate that maternal behaviors when pregnant have significant effects on adolescent psychiatric disorders even when controlling for age and gender of adolescent, family per capita income, living in a single mother household, and adolescent reports of mother’s positive parenting. PMID:18998209

  3. Influence of interactions between genes and childhood trauma on refractoriness in psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Sun; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2016-10-03

    Psychiatric disorders are excellent disease models in which gene-environmental interaction play a significant role in the pathogenesis. Childhood trauma has been known as a significant environmental factor in the progress of, and prognosis for psychiatric illness. Patients with refractory illness usually have more severe symptoms, greater disability, lower quality of life and are at greater risk of suicide than other psychiatric patients. Our literature review uncovered some important clinical factors which modulate response to treatment in psychiatric patients who have experienced childhood trauma. Childhood trauma seems to be a critical determinant of treatment refractoriness in psychotic disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. In patients with psychotic disorders, the relationship between childhood trauma and treatment-refractoriness appears to be mediated by cognitive impairment. In the case of bipolar disorder, the relationship appears to be mediated by greater affective disturbance and earlier onset, while in major depressive disorder the mediating factors are persistent, severe symptoms and frequent recurrence. In suicidal individuals, childhood maltreatment was associated with violent suicidal attempts. In the case of PTSD patients, it appears that childhood trauma makes the brain more vulnerable to subsequent trauma, thus resulting in more severe, refractory symptoms. Given that several studies have suggested that there are distinct subtypes of genetic vulnerability to childhood trauma, it is important to understand how gene-environment interactions influence the course of psychiatric illnesses in order to improve therapeutic strategies.

  4. [Ability to detect psychiatric disorders by the family physician].

    PubMed

    Garrido-Elustondo, Sofía; Reneses, Blanca; Navalón, Aida; Martín, Olga; Ramos, Isabel; Fuentes, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    To determine the ability of family physicians to detect psychiatric disorders, comparing the presence of psychiatric disorders detected using validated tests and referrals by family physicians. Cross-sectional, two-phase study. Primary healthcare centres in an urban area of Madrid. Patients between 18 and 65years attending primary healthcare centres for non-administrative purposes. To detect psychiatric disorders in the waiting room, an interview was performed using GHQ-28 and MULTICAGE CAD-4 in the screening phase (considered positive: score of 6 or higher on the GHQ-28 or a score 2 or higher on MULTICAGE CAD-4). Patients with a positive score and 20% with negative were recruited for the second phase (case identification) using MINI interview. During family physician consultation, the patient gave his doctor a card with an identification number to record the presence of psychiatric illness in his/her opinion and whether there was treatment with psychotropic drugs. A total of 628 subjects participated. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders corrected by two phase methodology was 31.7% (95%CI: 27.9 to 35.5). Of the 185 patients with a psychiatric disorder detected, 44.2% (95%CI: 36.7 to 51.7) were identified as patients with psychiatric disorders by their family physician. Disorders best detected were: hypomania, dysthymic disorder, depressive episode with melancholic symptoms, and panic disorder. A significant percentage of patients with possible psychiatric disorders detected with validated test have not been identified by their family physician. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. TBI-ROC Part Nine: Diagnosing TBI and Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Eileen; Weider, Katie; Mustafa, Ruman

    2011-01-01

    This article is the ninth of a multi-part series on traumatic brain injury (TBI). It focuses on the process of diagnosing TBI and psychiatric disorders. Diagnosing traumatic brain injury can be challenging. It can be difficult differentiating TBI and psychiatric symptoms, as both have similar symptoms (e.g., memory problems, emotional outbursts,…

  6. Relational Aggression in Children with Preschool-Onset Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of preschool-onset (PO) psychiatric disorders as correlates and/or risk factors for relational aggression during kindergarten or first grade was tested in a sample of 146 preschool-age children (age 3 to 5.11 years). Method: Axis-I diagnoses and symptom scores were derived using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment.…

  7. TBI-ROC Part Nine: Diagnosing TBI and Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Eileen; Weider, Katie; Mustafa, Ruman

    2011-01-01

    This article is the ninth of a multi-part series on traumatic brain injury (TBI). It focuses on the process of diagnosing TBI and psychiatric disorders. Diagnosing traumatic brain injury can be challenging. It can be difficult differentiating TBI and psychiatric symptoms, as both have similar symptoms (e.g., memory problems, emotional outbursts,…

  8. Microbiota, immunoregulatory old friends and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Rook, Graham A W; Raison, Charles L; Lowry, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of the immune system is an important function of the gut microbiota. Increasing evidence suggests that modern living conditions cause the gut microbiota to deviate from the form it took during human evolution. Contributing factors include loss of helminth infections, encountering less microbial biodiversity, and modulation of the microbiota composition by diet and antibiotic use. Thus the gut microbiota is a major mediator of the hygiene hypothesis (or as we prefer, "Old Friends" mechanism), which describes the role of organisms with which we co-evolved, and that needed to be tolerated, as crucial inducers of immunoregulation. At least partly as a consequence of reduced exposure to immunoregulatory Old Friends, many but not all of which resided in the gut, high-income countries are undergoing large increases in a wide range of chronic inflammatory disorders including allergies, autoimmunity and inflammatory bowel diseases. Depression, anxiety and reduced stress resilience are comorbid with these conditions, or can occur in individuals with persistently raised circulating levels of biomarkers of inflammation in the absence of clinically apparent peripheral inflammatory disease. Moreover poorly regulated inflammation during pregnancy might contribute to brain developmental abnormalities that underlie some cases of autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. In this chapter we explain how the gut microbiota drives immunoregulation, how faulty immunoregulation and inflammation predispose to psychiatric disease, and how psychological stress drives further inflammation via pathways that involve the gut and microbiota. We also outline how this two-way relationship between the brain and inflammation implicates the microbiota, Old Friends and immunoregulation in the control of stress resilience.

  9. An epidemiological survey of psychiatric disorders in Iran

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background The nation-wide epidemiological survey of psychiatric disorders in term of lifetime prevalence is not adequately known in Iran. The prevalence of lifetime psychiatric disorders was estimated among the population of aged 18 and over on gender, age group, educational level, occupational status, marital status, and residential area. Methods The subjects were 25,180 individuals selected through a clustered random sampling method. The psychiatric disorders were diagnosed on the bases of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria. It is the first study in which the structured psychiatric interview administered to a representative sample of the Iranian population age 18 and over by the 250 trained clinical psychologist interviewers. The data was entered through EPI-Info software twice in an attempt to prevent any errors and SPSS-11 statistical software was also used for analyses. The odds ratios and their confidence intervals estimated by using logistic regression. Results and Discussion The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 10.81%. It was more common among females than males (14.34% vs. 7.34%, P < 0.001). The prevalence of anxiety and mood disorders were 8.35% and 4.29% respectively. The prevalence of psychotic disorders was 0.89%; neuro-cognitive disorders, 2.78% and dissociative disorders, 0.77%. Among mood disorders, major depressive disorder (2.98%) and among anxiety disorders, phobic disorder (2.05%) had the higher prevalence. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among divorced and separated 22.31%; residents of urban areas 11.77%; illiterates 13.80%; householders 15.48%; unemployed 12.33% that were more than other groups. Conclusion The mental health pattern in Iran is similar to the western countries, but it seems that the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Iran may be lower than these countries. It is estimated that at least about 7 millions of Iranian population suffer from one or more of the psychiatric disorders

  10. Psychiatric disorders in adolescent and young adult patients with phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Manti, Filippo; Nardecchia, Francesca; Chiarotti, Flavia; Carducci, Claudia; Carducci, Carla; Leuzzi, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric symptoms are a challenging aspect in adolescent and adult early treated phenylketonuric (ETPKU) patients. To assess the occurrence of psychiatric disorders we explored the presence of symptoms requiring intervention and further investigated the link between psychiatric disorders, the quality of biochemical control and cognitive functioning. Forty-six ETPKU patients (aged 12 to 44) and 30 age-matched healthy controls were subjected to cognitive and psychiatric assessment by means of self-report questionnaires and psychiatric interview. Psychiatric diagnoses, if detected, were made according to DSM-5 criteria. Concomitant IQ, historical and concurrent biochemical metabolic controls were included in the statistical analysis. Twenty-five out of 46 ETPKUs showed clinical scores on at least one scale of the psychiatric assessment (7/30 in controls); anxiety and withdrawal were the most frequent self-reported symptoms. Seventeen patients (and no controls) met criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis, most of them belonging to the Anxiety Disorders category. The occurrence of psychiatric symptoms was not associated with the life-long and concurrent quality of metabolic control but patients with good metabolic control (≤ 500 μM) in the first 11 years of life showed higher frequency of psychiatric diagnosis (Fisher's exact p=.0300). ETPKUs show a higher than normal vulnerability to psychiatric disorders, which cannot be explained by the usual biochemical alterations influencing intellectual outcome. Our data support the hypothesis that the burden of the disease acts as psychological stress for children and their families. Possible involvement of neuromediators in the pathogenesis of these complex symptoms requires further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Cerebral hydatic cyst and psychiatric disorders. Two cases].

    PubMed

    Asri, F; Tazi, I; Maaroufi, K; El Moudden, A; Ghannane, H; Ait Benali, S

    2007-01-01

    unconscious of his disorders. The patient has first been put under classical neuroleptic 9 mg/day of Haloperidol and 200 mg/day of chlorpromazine. The diagnosis of schizophrenia has been kept according to criteria of DSM IV. The PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale) was to 137 (score on a positive scale was to 34, score on a negative scale was to 35 and the general psychopathologie scale was to 58). One week after his hospitalization, he developed headache with subconfusion, a cerebral scanning has been made in emergency and showed a voluminous cyst in oval foramen compressing the mesencephalon strongly. The cyst was well limited, hypodense, not taking the contrast, and without intracerebral oedema, the diagnosis of cerebral hydatic cyst has been made. The complementary exploration didn't show any other localizations, and biologic exam results didn't show any particular anomalies. The patient has been operated in neurosurgery. The immediate evolution was favorable with disappearance of confusion and absence of complications. The patient was lost of view. Six months after, the patient has been readmitted to the psychiatric emergency. He dropped his neuroleptic treatment. He was aggressive, raving, hallucinated and depersonalized. The global score to the PANSS was 63. He has been put back under neuroleptics. Three weeks after improvement and passage of the PANSS to 30, the patient went out. We couldn't have a cerebral scanner of control because the patient had no medical assurance and no money for cerebral scanner. Case 2 - Patient aged of 53 years, father of four children, uneducated, native and resident of Marrakech, confectioner as profession. He is in contact with dogs since 12 years. He has been brought to the psychiatric emergencies by his family after an agitation. The history of his illness seemed to go back at eight months ago, by the progressive apparition of an instability, sleep disorders, hostility, associated with an emotional lability. To the interview he

  12. Dissecting psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding.

    PubMed

    Brodersen, Kay H; Deserno, Lorenz; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Lin, Zhihao; Penny, Will D; Buhmann, Joachim M; Stephan, Klaas E

    2014-01-01

    This proof-of-concept study examines the feasibility of defining subgroups in psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding, using dynamical system models which infer neuronal circuit mechanisms from neuroimaging data. To this end, we re-analysed an fMRI dataset of 41 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 42 healthy controls performing a numerical n-back working-memory task. In our generative-embedding approach, we used parameter estimates from a dynamic causal model (DCM) of a visual-parietal-prefrontal network to define a model-based feature space for the subsequent application of supervised and unsupervised learning techniques. First, using a linear support vector machine for classification, we were able to predict individual diagnostic labels significantly more accurately (78%) from DCM-based effective connectivity estimates than from functional connectivity between (62%) or local activity within the same regions (55%). Second, an unsupervised approach based on variational Bayesian Gaussian mixture modelling provided evidence for two clusters which mapped onto patients and controls with nearly the same accuracy (71%) as the supervised approach. Finally, when restricting the analysis only to the patients, Gaussian mixture modelling suggested the existence of three patient subgroups, each of which was characterised by a different architecture of the visual-parietal-prefrontal working-memory network. Critically, even though this analysis did not have access to information about the patients' clinical symptoms, the three neurophysiologically defined subgroups mapped onto three clinically distinct subgroups, distinguished by significant differences in negative symptom severity, as assessed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). In summary, this study provides a concrete example of how psychiatric spectrum diseases may be split into subgroups that are defined in terms of neurophysiological mechanisms specified by a generative model of

  13. The psychiatric aspects of tropical disorders.

    PubMed

    German, G A

    1979-01-01

    The nature of psychiatric disorders in tropical regions is affected much more by the effect on the patient of certain environmental and cultural factors than by any specific features of tropical diseases. In places where the standards of health care and health education are not yet fully developed, abnormalities of physical development, particularly those affecting the development of the cerebral cortex, are of great importance. For example, protein-energy malnutrition may result in deficits in cerebral maturation and efficiency that reduce the capacity of the brain to manage its behavioural functions and may give rise to impaired capacities for concentration, foresight, and judgement and impairment of inhibitory control over intensely experienced emotions. In addition, certain cultural attitudes that are widespread in pre-literate societies influence the type of secondary reaction to disease: for example, acute symptoms tend to be florid and uninhibited, and violently experienced and externalized emotions such as hilarity, terror, anger, and grief are the rule rather than the exception.Certain tropical diseases are, however, the direct cause of severe disturbance of cerebral functioning, while others affect only the finer cerebral controls so that normally controlled fears, anxieties, and other personality traits emerge. These specific brain syndromes may be acute or chronic and may be triggered by an apparently trivial physical cause. Acute brain syndromes appear to be more common in tropical countries perhaps because in the adult the cerebral cortical reserve is less than it ought to be because of the prevalence of earlier minimal brain damage. Formal psychiatric reactions are, of course, also seen in tropical countries, but the expression of, for example, schizophrenia, hypomanic and manic states, and depression is coloured by the underlying personality and the cultural background of the patient. Perhaps in no other setting is the intimate relationship between

  14. The Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders Distribution of Subjects Gender and its Relationship with Psychiatric Help-Seeking

    PubMed Central

    KESKİN, Ahmet; ÜNLÜOĞLU, İlhami; BİLGE, Uğur; YENİLMEZ, Çınar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalance of psychiatric disorders and psychiatric help-seeking behaviours in central Eskisehir according to sociodemographic variables. Method In this study, for the purpose of revealing the psychiatric disorder profile of Eskisehir city and evaluating the prevalance of psychiatric disorders according to gender differences and psychiatric help-seeking behaviours; The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) scale and psychiatric help questionnaire were administered to 1475 subjects who were randomly selected from 24 primary health care centers in Eskisehir. Results The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was as follows: at least one mood disorder 37%, anxiety disorders 29%, somatoform disorders - 8.6% and, possible alcohol abuse 7.7%. All diagnoses except possible alcohol abuse were found to be more frequent in women than men. Also It was found that in subjects who were thougth to have a psychiatric disorder, 64% of mood disorder patients, 67% of anxiety disorder patients, 70% of somatoform disorder patients and, 61% of possible alcohol abuse patients can receive appropriate treatment. Discussion Since psychiatric disorders are common, it is important to direct such patients to appropriate treatment. Therefore, new studies are necessary to find out the prevalance of psychiatric disorders and risky groups as well as to identify the reasons that why such people do not seek for help in different regions of our country. PMID:28360568

  15. Lifetime prevalence of and risk factors for psychiatric disorders among Mexican migrant farmworkers in California.

    PubMed Central

    Alderete, E; Vega, W A; Kolody, B; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, the prevalence of and risk factors for 12 psychiatric disorders were examined by sex and ethnicity (Indian vs non-Indian) among Mexican migrant farm-workers working in Fresno County, California. METHODS: Subjects aged 18 through 59 years were selected under a cluster sampling design (n = 1001). A modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used for case ascertainment. The effects of sociodemographic and acculturation factors on lifetime psychiatric disorders were tested. RESULTS: Lifetime rates of any psychiatric disorder were as follows: men, 26.7% (SE = 1.9); women, 16.8% (SE = 1.7); Indians, 26.0% (SE = 4.5); non-Indians, 20.1% (SE = 1.3). Total lifetime rates were as follows: affective disorders, 5.7%; anxiety disorders, 12.5%; any substance abuse or dependence, 8.7%; antisocial personality, 0.2%. Lifetime prevalence of any psychiatric disorder was lower for migrants than for Mexican Americans and for the US population as a whole. High acculturation and primary US residence increased the likelihood of lifetime psychiatric disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The results underscore the risk posed by cultural adjustment problems, the potential for progressive deterioration of this population's mental health, and the need for culturally appropriate mental health services. PMID:10754977

  16. Psychopathology and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders in patients with kleptomania.

    PubMed

    Baylé, Franck J; Caci, Hervé; Millet, Bruno; Richa, Sami; Olié, Jean-Pierre

    2003-08-01

    This study compared patients with kleptomania, patients with alcohol abuse or dependence, and psychiatric patients without impulse-control disorders or substance-related disorders on several key psychopathological dimensions. In addition, the comorbidity of kleptomania with other psychiatric disorders was examined. Eleven patients with kleptomania recruited over a cumulative 2-year period and 60 patients with alcohol abuse or dependence and 29 psychiatric comparison patients recruited over a consecutive 6-month period participated in structured clinical interviews to determine the presence of impulse-control and substance-related disorders and of other psychiatric disorders that were comorbid with kleptomania. Psychopathological dimensions were measured with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Sensation Seeking Scale, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and the anxiety and depression subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Significant group effects were found for the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale total and cognitive impulsivity scores, with the patients with kleptomania having higher impulsivity scores than the other groups. Significant group differences were found on the Sensation Seeking Scale total and disinhibition scores. No significant group effects were found for the mood and anxiety measures. Patients with kleptomania had high rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders, particularly mood disorders, other impulse-control disorders, and substance abuse or dependence (mainly nicotine dependence). Kleptomania presented a specific psychopathological profile that distinguished patients with this disorder from patients with alcohol abuse or dependence and other psychiatric comparison patients. Impulsivity was the major psychopathological feature of kleptomania. A link between kleptomania and affective disorder was supported by the high rate of comorbid affective disorders in patients with kleptomania and a specific pattern of variation in

  17. MAOA Variants and Genetic Susceptibility to Major Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zichao; Huang, Liang; Luo, Xiong-Jian; Wu, Lichuan; Li, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is a mitochondrial enzyme involved in the metabolism of several biological amines such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, which are important neurochemicals in the pathogenesis of major psychiatric illnesses. MAOA is regarded as a functional plausible susceptibility gene for psychiatric disorders, whereas previous hypothesis-driven association studies obtained controversial results, a reflection of small sample size, genetic heterogeneity, or true negative associations. In addition, MAOA is not analyzed in most of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on psychiatric disorders, since it is located on Chromosome Xp11.3. Therefore, the effects of MAOA variants on genetic predisposition to psychiatric disorders remain obscure. To fill this gap, we collected psychiatric phenotypic (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder) and genetic data in up to 18,824 individuals from diverse ethnic groups. We employed classical fixed (or random) effects inverse variance weighted methods to calculate summary odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). We identified a synonymous SNP rs1137070 showing significant associations with major depressive disorder (p = 0.00067, OR = 1.263 for T allele) and schizophrenia (p = 0.0039, OR = 1.225 for T allele) as well as a broad spectrum of psychiatric phenotype (p = 0.000066, OR = 1.218 for T allele) in both males and females. The effect size was similar between different ethnic populations and different gender groups. Collectively, we confirmed that MAOA is a risk gene for psychiatric disorders, and our results provide useful information toward a better understanding of genetic mechanism involving MAOA underlying risk of complex psychiatric disorders.

  18. Relational Aggression in Children with Preschool Onset (PO) Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The role of preschool onset (PO) psychiatric disorders as correlates and/or risk factors for relational aggression during kindergarten or 1st grade was tested in a sample of N = 146 preschool-age children (3 to 5.11). Method Axis-I diagnoses and symptom scores were derived using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment. Children’s roles in relational aggression as aggressor, victim, aggressive-victim, or non-aggressor/non-victim were determined at preschool and again 24 months later at elementary school entry. Results Preschoolers diagnosed with PO-psychiatric disorders were 3 times as likely as the healthy preschoolers to be classified aggressors, victims, or aggressive-victims. Children diagnosed with PO-disruptive, depressive, and/or anxiety disorders were at least 6 times as likely as children without PO-psychiatric disorders to become aggressive-victims during elementary school after covarying for other key risk factors. Conclusions Findings suggested that PO-psychiatric disorders differentiated preschool and school-age children’s roles in relational aggression based on teacher-report. Recommendations for future research and preventative intervention aimed at minimizing the development of relational aggression in early childhood by identifying and targeting PO-psychiatric disorders are made. PMID:22917202

  19. [Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders: diagnosis and pharmacological treatment].

    PubMed

    Paslakis, G; Schredl, M; Alm, B; Sobanski, E

    2013-08-01

    Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity and is a frequent psychiatric disorder with childhood onset. In addition to core symptoms, patients often experience associated symptoms like emotional dysregulation or low self-esteem and suffer from comorbid disorders, particularly depressive episodes, substance abuse, anxiety or sleep disorders. It is recommended to include associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders in the diagnostic set-up and in the treatment plan. Comorbid psychiatric disorders should be addressed with disorder-specific therapies while associated symptoms also often improve with treatment of the ADHD core symptoms. The most impairing psychiatric disorder should be treated first. This review presents recommendations for differential diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD with associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders with respect to internationally published guidelines, clinical trials and expert opinions.

  20. Deep brain stimulation for psychiatric disorders: where we are now.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Daniel R; Ozpinar, Alp; Raslan, Ahmed M; Ko, Andrew L

    2015-06-01

    Fossil records showing trephination in the Stone Age provide evidence that humans have sought to influence the mind through physical means since before the historical record. Attempts to treat psychiatric disease via neurosurgical means in the 20th century provided some intriguing initial results. However, the indiscriminate application of these treatments, lack of rigorous evaluation of the results, and the side effects of ablative, irreversible procedures resulted in a backlash against brain surgery for psychiatric disorders that continues to this day. With the advent of psychotropic medications, interest in invasive procedures for organic brain disease waned. Diagnosis and classification of psychiatric diseases has improved, due to a better understanding of psychiatric patho-physiology and the development of disease and treatment biomarkers. Meanwhile, a significant percentage of patients remain refractory to multiple modes of treatment, and psychiatric disease remains the number one cause of disability in the world. These data, along with the safe and efficacious application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for movement disorders, in principle a reversible process, is rekindling interest in the surgical treatment of psychiatric disorders with stimulation of deep brain sites involved in emotional and behavioral circuitry. This review presents a brief history of psychosurgery and summarizes the development of DBS for psychiatric disease, reviewing the available evidence for the current application of DBS for disorders of the mind.

  1. Risks of developing psychiatric disorders in pediatric patients with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Alexa B; Wu, Eric Q; Guérin, Annie; Yu, Andrew P; Tsaneva, Magda; Gupta, Shiraz R; Bao, Yanjun; Mulani, Parvez M

    2012-10-01

    Symptoms of psoriasis can be embarrassing and distressing, and may increase risk of developing psychiatric disorders in young people. We sought to compare incidences of psychiatric disorders between pediatric patients with psoriasis and psoriasis-free control subjects. Patients (<18 years) with continuous health plan enrollment 6 months before and after first psoriasis diagnosis (index date) were selected (Thomson Reuters MarketScan database, 2000-2006 [Thomson Reuters, New York, NY]). Patients with psoriasis (N = 7404) were matched 1:5 on age and sex to psoriasis-free control subjects (N = 37,020). Patients were followed from index date to first diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder (ie, alcohol/drug abuse, depression, anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, suicidal ideation, eating disorder), end of data availability, or disenrollment. Patients with psychiatric diagnoses or psychotropic medication use before the index date were excluded. Cox proportional hazard models controlling for age, sex, and comorbidities were used to estimate the effect of psoriasis on risks of developing psychiatric disorders. Patients with psoriasis were significantly more at risk of developing psychiatric disorders versus control subjects (5.13% vs 4.07%; P = .0001; hazard ratio = 1.25; P = .0001), especially depression (3.01% vs 2.42%; P = .0036; hazard ratio = 1.25; P = .0053) and anxiety (1.81% vs 1.35%; P = .0048; hazard ratio = 1.32; P = .0045). Retrospective, observational studies of medical claims data are typically limited by overall quality and completeness of data and accuracy of coding for diagnoses and procedures. Pediatric patients with psoriasis had an increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety, compared with psoriasis-free control subjects. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Study Links Psychiatric Disorders to Stroke Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... psychiatric illness, depression or post-stroke psychosis," said study lead author Jonah Zuflacht. He's a fourth-year medical student at Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City. " ...

  3. [Management of insomnia and hypersomnia associated with psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Makoto; Suzuki, Masahiro; Konno, Chisato; Furihata, Ryuji; Osaki, Koichi; Konno, Michiko; Takahashi, Sakae

    2010-01-01

    Most psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, or neurotic disorders are associated with sleep disorders of various kinds, among which insomnia is most prevalent and important in psychiatric practice. Almost all patients suffering from major depression complain of insomnia. Pharmacological treatment of insomnia associated with major depression shortens the duration to achieve remission of depression. Insomnia has been recently reported to be a risk factor for depression. Hypersomnia is also a major sleep problem in patient suffering from depression. There have been no clinical guide to treat the symptoms of hypersomnia in depression, but some clinical trials treating them with NDRI or adjunctive administration of psychostimulants. In patients with schizophrenia, insomnia is often an early indicator of the aggravation of psychotic symptoms. Electroencephalographic sleep studies have also revealed sleep abnormalities characteristic to mood disorders, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders. A shortened REM sleep latency has been regarded as a biological marker of depression. Reduced amount of deep Non-REM sleep has been reported to be correlated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Recently, REM sleep abnormalities were found in teenagers having post-traumatic stress disorder after a boat accident. Although these facts indicate that insomnia plays an important role in the development of psychiatric disorders, there are few hypotheses explaining the cause and effect of insomnia in these disorders. Here, we reviewed recent articles on insomnia and hypersomnia associated with psychiatric disorders together with their clinical managements.

  4. Cognitive functioning in psychiatric disorders following deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Bergfeld, Isidoor O; Mantione, Mariska; Hoogendoorn, Mechteld L C; Denys, Damiaan

    2013-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is routinely used as a treatment for treatment-refractory Parkinson's disease and has recently been proposed for psychiatric disorders such as Tourette syndrome (TS), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Although cognitive deterioration has repeatedly been shown in patients with Parkinson's disease following DBS, the impact of DBS on cognitive functioning in psychiatric patients has not yet been reviewed. Reviewing the available literature on cognitive functioning following DBS in psychiatric patients. A systematic literature search in PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science, last updated in September 2012, found 1470 papers. Abstracts were scrutinized and 26 studies examining cognitive functioning of psychiatric patients following DBS were included on basis of predetermined inclusion criteria. Twenty-six studies reported cognitive functioning of 130 psychiatric patients following DBS (37 TS patients, 56 OCD patients, 28 MDD patients, 6 patients with Alzheimer's disease, and 3 patients with other disorders). None of the studies reported substantial cognitive decline following DBS. On the contrary, 13 studies reported cognitive improvement following DBS. Preliminary results suggest that DBS in psychiatric disorders does not lead to cognitive decline. In selected cases cognitive functioning was improved following DBS. However, cognitive improvement cannot be conclusively attributed to DBS since studies are hampered by serious limitations. We discuss the outcomes in light of these limitations and offer suggestions for future work. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling psychiatric disorders: from genomic findings to cellular phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Falk, A; Heine, V M; Harwood, A J; Sullivan, P F; Peitz, M; Brüstle, O; Shen, S; Sun, Y-M; Glover, J C; Posthuma, D; Djurovic, S

    2016-01-01

    Major programs in psychiatric genetics have identified >150 risk loci for psychiatric disorders. These loci converge on a small number of functional pathways, which span conventional diagnostic criteria, suggesting a partly common biology underlying schizophrenia, autism and other psychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, the cellular phenotypes that capture the fundamental features of psychiatric disorders have not yet been determined. Recent advances in genetics and stem cell biology offer new prospects for cell-based modeling of psychiatric disorders. The advent of cell reprogramming and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) provides an opportunity to translate genetic findings into patient-specific in vitro models. iPSC technology is less than a decade old but holds great promise for bridging the gaps between patients, genetics and biology. Despite many obvious advantages, iPSC studies still present multiple challenges. In this expert review, we critically review the challenges for modeling of psychiatric disorders, potential solutions and how iPSC technology can be used to develop an analytical framework for the evaluation and therapeutic manipulation of fundamental disease processes. PMID:27240529

  6. Harnessing neural stem cells for treating psychiatric symptoms associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Trenton; Gelineau, Lindsey; Napoli, Eleonora; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2017-03-30

    Brain insults with progressive neurodegeneration are inherent in pathological symptoms that represent many psychiatric illnesses. Neural network disruptions characterized by impaired neurogenesis have been recognized to precede, accompany, and possibly even exacerbate the evolution and progression of symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Here, we focus on the neurodegeneration and the resulting psychiatric symptoms observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and epilepsy, in an effort to show that these two diseases are candidate targets for stem cell therapy. In particular, we provide preclinical evidence in the transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in both conditions, highlighting the potential of this cell-based treatment for correcting the psychiatric symptoms that plague these two disorders. Additionally, we discuss the challenges of NSC transplantation and offer insights into the mechanisms that may mediate the therapeutic benefits and can be exploited to overcome the hurdles of translating this therapy from the laboratory to the clinic. Our ultimate goal is to advance stem cell therapy for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic Counselling for Psychiatric Disorders: Accounts of Psychiatric Health Professionals in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Sian; Arribas-Ayllon, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Genetic counselling is not routinely offered for psychiatric disorders in the United Kingdom through NHS regional clinical genetics departments. However, recent genomic advances, confirming a genetic contribution to mental illness, are anticipated to increase demand for psychiatric genetic counselling. This is the first study of its kind to employ qualitative methods of research to explore accounts of psychiatric health professionals regarding the prospects for genetic counselling services within clinical psychiatry in the UK. Data were collected from 32 questionnaire participants, and 9 subsequent interviewees. Data analysis revealed that although participants had not encountered patients explicitly demanding psychiatric genetic counselling, psychiatric health professionals believe that such a service would be useful and desirable. Genomic advances may have significant implications for genetic counselling in clinical psychiatry even if these discoveries do not lead to genetic testing. Psychiatric health professionals describe clinical genetics as a skilled profession capable of combining complex risk communication with much needed psychosocial support. However, participants noted barriers to the implementation of psychiatric genetic counselling services including, but not limited to, the complexities of uncertainty in psychiatric diagnoses, patient engagement and ethical concerns regarding limited capacity.

  8. The habenula in psychiatric disorders: More than three decades of translational investigation.

    PubMed

    Fakhoury, Marc

    2017-02-13

    The habenula is an epithalamic structure located at the center of the dorsal diencephalic conduction system, a pathway involved in linking forebrain to midbrain regions. Composed of a medial and lateral subdivisions, the habenula receives inputs from the limbic system and basal ganglia mainly through the stria medullaris (SM), and projects to midbrain regions through the fasciculus retroflexus (FR). An increasing number of studies have implicated this structure in psychiatric disorders associated with dysregulated reward circuitry function, notably mood disorders, schizophrenia, and substance use disorder. However, despite significant progress in research, the mechanisms underlying the relationship between the habenula and the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders are far from being fully understood, and still need further investigation. This review provides a closer look at key findings from animal and human studies illustrating the role of the habenula in mood disorders, schizophrenia, and substance use disorder, and discusses the clinical potential of using this structure as a therapeutic target.

  9. Genetic Architectures of Psychiatric Disorders: The Emerging Picture and Its Implications

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Patrick F.; Daly, Mark J.; O’Donovan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are among the most intractable enigmas in medicine. In the past five years, there has been unprecedented progress on the genetics of many of these conditions. In this review, we discuss the genetics of nine cardinal psychiatric disorders (Alzheimer’s disease, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, alcohol dependence, anorexia nervosa, autism spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, nicotine dependence, and schizophrenia). Empirical approaches have yielded new hypotheses about etiology, and now provide data on the often debated genetic architectures of these conditions, which have implications for future research strategies. Further study using a balanced portfolio of methods to assess multiple forms of genetic variation is likely to yield many additional new findings. PMID:22777127

  10. Psychiatric disorders in single and multiple sexual murderers.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andreas; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer

    2007-01-01

    Sexual homicides - and particularly offenders with multiple victims - receive much attention in the general public as well as among forensic experts. The aim of this study was to assess psychiatric disorders in a large sample of sexual murderers and to identify disorders related to multiple sexual homicides. Psychiatric court reports from 20 German forensic psychiatrists on 166 men who had committed a sexual homicide were evaluated for psychiatric disorders according to DSM-IV, including standardized instruments for personality disorders (criteria from the Structured Clinical Interview) and psychopathy (Psychopathy Checklist-Revised). Offenders with a single sexual homicide victim (n = 130) were compared to those with multiple victims (n = 36). High lifetime prevalence rates were found for substance abuse or dependence, paraphilias (especially sexual sadism), sexual dysfunctions and personality disorders (especially antisocial, borderline, sadistic and schizoid). In the multiple sexual murderer group sexual sadism, voyeurism, sadistic, antisocial and schizoid personality disorders were more frequent than in the single-victim group; none of the multiple offenders was diagnosed with a mood disorder. Multiple sexual murderers are characterized by disorders in three major psychopathological domains: sexual as well as 'character' sadism, antisociality and schizoid personality. A thorough diagnostic evaluation of Axis I as well as Axis II disorders should be part of risk assessments in sexual homicide perpetrators. Although the study was a retrospective investigation on psychiatric court reports, the size of the sample and consistency with results from previous studies give confidence that the identified group differences are unlikely to be due to methodological limitations.

  11. Psychiatric disorders and menopause symptoms in Brazilian women.

    PubMed

    Barazzetti, Lidiane; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Garcez, Anderson da Silva; Mendes, Karina Giane; Theodoro, Heloísa; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the association between minor psychiatric disorders and menopause symptoms and their associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 615 women aged 40 to 65 years treated in a public menopause and gynecological outpatient clinic in the South Region of Brazil. Minor psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) and menopause symptoms using the Menopause Rating Scale. Score for menopause symptoms was categorized into three levels of symptoms: mild, moderate, and severe. Multivariate analyses used ordinal logistic regression. The prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe menopause symptoms was 34.1% (95% CI 30.3-37.9), 29.6% (95% CI 25.8-33.1), and 36.3% (95% CI 32.4-40.0), respectively. The overall prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders was 66.6% (95% CI 62.8-70.3). After adjustment, the odds ratio (OR) of the occurrence of menopause symptoms were approximately eight times higher in women relating minor psychiatric disorders compared with those without such disorders (OR = 7.76; 95% CI 5.27-11.44). The following factors were also associated with the menopause symptoms: women older than 50 years, living with a partner, lower educational level, smokers, larger number of pregnancies, obese, and those using psychotropic and/or postmenopause medication. The minor psychiatric disorders exhibited strong association with the presence of menopause symptoms independently of sociodemographic, behavioral, and reproductive factors, and of use of psychotropic medication.

  12. [Dance therapy in the treatment of psychiatric and somatic disorders].

    PubMed

    Ziarko, Beata; Twardowska, Marzena

    2002-01-01

    The article is an attempt of review of recent achievements in dance therapy. It presents possibilities of introducing dance into the treatment of psychiatric disturbances (psychoses, dementias, neurotic disorders) and somatic disorders (rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, terminal stages). The authors basing on the contemporary literature describe positive results of dance therapy in various clinical situations.

  13. Vocational Impact of Psychiatric Disorders: A Guide for Rehabilitation Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischler, Gary L.; Booth, Nan

    This book, which is intended for vocational rehabilitation (VR) professionals, is a guide to many of the disorders included in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual," fourth edition (DSM-IV), that VR professionals are likely to encounter. The introduction discusses the relationship between psychiatric disorders and vocational…

  14. Vocational Impact of Psychiatric Disorders: A Guide for Rehabilitation Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischler, Gary L.; Booth, Nan

    This book, which is intended for vocational rehabilitation (VR) professionals, is a guide to many of the disorders included in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual," fourth edition (DSM-IV), that VR professionals are likely to encounter. The introduction discusses the relationship between psychiatric disorders and vocational…

  15. Therapeutic prospects of PPARs in psychiatric disorders: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Benjamin; Deguil, Julie; Jardri, Renaud; Cottencin, Olivier; Thomas, Pierre; Bordet, Régis

    2013-06-01

    Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) are a family of nuclear receptors whose activation modulates the gene expression that underlies both the glucid-lipid and the inflammation pathways. While many PPARs agonists have been used for years as medication for metabolic disorders, an increasing attention is being currently dedicated to these drugs for inflammation-related pathologies. Within the psychiatric field, it has recently appeared that inflammatory processes are highly suspected in the pathophysiology of several important disorders, such as schizophrenia and mood disorders. By their anti-inflammatory properties, PPARs might have a disease-modifying action that could help in improving the outcome of patients. Furthermore, recent data suggest that PPARs could also modulate the expression of some neurotransmission factors. Therefore, PPARs may directly modify the information processing, and have a potential symptomatic action on several psychiatric disorders. At last, PPARs action of metabolic regulation could have a role on corrective or even preventive strategies against the metabolic adverse events that are commonly observed with some current psychiatric medications, notably antipsychotics. This triple potential action profile of PPARs modulators is investigated in this article, successively for schizophrenia spectrum disorders and mood disorders. Theoretical involvements of PPARs are also discussed for the treatment of Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder and Personality Disorders. At the time of the emerging concept of psychoneuroimmunology, PPARs open original therapeutic prospects for the psychiatric research.

  16. Psychiatric disorders and criminal history in male prisoners in Greece.

    PubMed

    Alevizopoulos, Giorgos; Igoumenou, Artemis

    2016-01-01

    Τo explore the psychopathology of the Greek male prisoner population and the relationship between psychiatric disorders and the criminal history of the subjects. The Iowa Structured Psychiatric Interview and the Personality Disorders Questionnaire were administered. The prevalence of the most common mental disorders was analyzed separately and in relation to the criminal history. SPSS was used for the statistical analysis. A total of 495 male prisoners were interviewed. Overall, 223 (45.06%) were diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder. Non-violent crimes were the most prevalent reason for imprisonment (40.7%). One-third (30.3%) of the sample was convicted with drug-related crimes, and 28.0% with violent crimes. The prevalence of mental disorders in Greek prisoners was higher than in the general population. Personality disorder was the most common type of mental disorder and the only psychiatric diagnosis related to violent crime. This highlights the need for screening for mental disorders and the need for therapeutic provision within the prison setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. High psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents with dissociative disorders.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Hasan; Duzman Mutluer, Tuba; Kose, Cigdem; Zoroglu, Salih

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate psychiatric comorbidity rates and patterns in a sample of clinically referred adolescents diagnosed with dissociative disorders (DD) by using a structured interview. All participants completed a comprehensive test battery, which consisted of a questionnaire for sociodemographic data and clinical history, Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index, Childhood Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire and the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale. Diagnosis was made by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders. Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children - Present and Lifetime Version. A total of 25 adolescent subjects aged 12-18 years participated in the study. Ten adolescents were diagnosed as having dissociative identity disorder and 15 of them were diagnosed as having dissociative disorder-not otherwise specified based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders findings. Adolescents with dissociative identity disorder were found to have higher scores on the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale and Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index than the dissociative disorder-not otherwise specified group. Sexual and physical abuses were also found to be among the main traumatic events. Incest was reported in six cases of the study sample. All subjects had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. The most common psychiatric diagnoses were major depressive disorder (n = 25; 100%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 22; 88%). High psychiatric comorbidity rates were found in adolescents diagnosed with DD. A prevalent history of abuse and traumatic events was represented. Clinicians should be aware of the impacts of DD on adolescents' mental health. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  18. Psychiatric symptoms and dissociation in conversion, somatization and dissociative disorders.

    PubMed

    Espirito-Santo, Helena; Pio-Abreu, Jose Luis

    2009-03-01

    Conversion, dissociation and somatization are historically related in the long established concept of hysteria. Somewhere along the way they were separated due to the Cartesian dualistic view. The aim of the present study was to compare these pathologies and investigate whether symptoms of these pathologies overlap in their clinical appearance in a Portuguese sample. Twenty-six patients with conversion disorder, 38 with dissociative disorders, 40 with somatization disorder, and a comparison group of 46 patients having other psychiatric disorders answered questions about dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale), somatoform dissociation (Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire), and psychopathological symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory). Dissociative and somatoform symptoms were significantly more frequent in dissociative and conversion disorder than in somatization disorder and controls. There were no significant differences between dissociative and conversion patients. Conversion disorder is closely related to dissociative disorders. These results support the ICD-10 categorization of conversion disorder among dissociative disorders and the hypothesis of analogous psychopathological processes in conversion and dissociative disorders versus somatization disorder.

  19. Molecular Pathways Bridging Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration and Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zanardini, Roberta; Ciani, Miriam; Benussi, Luisa; Ghidoni, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The overlap of symptoms between neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases has been reported. Neuropsychiatric alterations are commonly observed in dementia, especially in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), which is the most common clinical FTD subtype. At the same time, psychiatric disorders, like schizophrenia (SCZ), can display symptoms of dementia, including features of frontal dysfunction with relative sparing of memory. In the present review, we discuss common molecular features in these pathologies with a special focus on FTD. Molecules like Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and progranulin are linked to the pathophysiology of both neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. In these brain-associated illnesses, the presence of disease-associated variants in BDNF and progranulin (GRN) genes cause a reduction of circulating proteins levels, through alterations in proteins expression or secretion. For these reasons, we believe that prevention and therapy of psychiatric and neurological disorders could be achieved enhancing both BDNF and progranulin levels thanks to drug discovery efforts. PMID:26869919

  20. Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults and Preexisting Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Yu-Chuan; Bai, Ya-Mei; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Mu-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies showed that psychiatric disorders such as major depression, bipolar disorders, and alcohol misuse are associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. However, the link between psychiatric disorders and stroke in the young population is rarely investigated. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 2063 young adults aged between 18 and 45 years with ischemic stroke and 8252 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in our study between 1998 and 2011. Participants who had preexisting psychiatric disorders were identified. After adjusting for preexisting physical disorders and demographic data, patients with ischemic stroke had an increased risk of having preexisting psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder (odds ratio [OR]: 2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06∼4.67), unipolar depression (OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.62∼2.86), anxiety disorders (OR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.87∼3.69), and alcohol use disorders (OR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.79∼4.57). Young ischemic stroke (age ≥30 years) was related to the risk of preexisting unipolar depression (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.05∼2.11), anxiety disorders (OR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.33∼2.97), and alcohol use disorders (OR: 2.54, 95% CI: 1.55∼4.14); very young stroke (age <30 years) was only associated with the risk of preexisting unipolar depression (OR: 4.15, 95% CI: 1.47∼11.72). Patients who had experienced ischemic stroke at age younger than 45 years had a higher risk of having pre-existing bipolar disorder, unipolar depression, anxiety disorders, and alcohol use disorders than those who did not after adjusting for demographic data and stroke-related medical comorbidities. PMID:26402806

  1. Psychiatric disorders and MND in non-handicapped preterm children

    PubMed Central

    Swaab-Barneveld, H.; van Engeland, H.

    2007-01-01

    In preterm children (N = 66) without major physical and/ or mental handicaps the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and minor neurological dysfunction (MND) was assessed at school age (8–10 years). In adolescence (15–17 years) 43 children were reassessed. The study sample was drawn from a cohort of non-handicapped preterm children (N = 218) hospitalised in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit because of serious neonatal complications. The findings in the preterm group were compared with two control groups (N = 20 and N = 20) matched for age and sex ratio. The association between psychiatric disorders on the one hand and group status (preterm versus control), MND, IQ and family adversity on the other was explored. At both ages the preterm children exhibited more psychiatric disorders and MND than controls. The very preterm and/or very low birth weight children contributed to the differential psychopathological findings between the preterm and control groups. Besides preterm birth, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders was positively associated with MND and negatively associated with VIQ and family adversity. In the preterm group there was a shift from school age into adolescence into a predominance of anxious and depressive disorders. No significant changes with age were found with respect to the prevalence of MND and psychiatric disorders. Thus, very preterm and/or very low birth weight children are at increased risk of persistent psychiatric disorders, especially anxious and depressive disorders. In preterm children the development of psychopathology seems to be mediated by MND, decreased verbal abilities and family adversity. PMID:17896123

  2. Comorbidity of Psychiatric and Personality Disorders in First Suicide Attempters

    PubMed Central

    Rao, K. Nagaraja; Kulkarni, Ranganath R.; Begum, Shamshad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Attempted suicide is a common clinical problem in a general hospital setting. It has a serious clinical and socio-economical impact too. Aims: To study the psychosocial, psychiatric, and personality profile of the first suicide attempters in a general hospital. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional, hospital-based, descriptive study. Materials and Methods: All the consecutive cases of first suicide attempt (n=100) treated in a general hospital were studied to know the clinical profile. Variables related to socio-demographic characteristics, family background, suicide characteristics, psychiatric morbidity, and comorbidity were analyzed. Risk-Rescue rating was applied to know the medical seriousness of the suicide attempt. Presumptive stressful life event scale was utilized to calculate life events score. Structured clinical interview (MINI Plus) and semi-structured clinical interview (IPDE) were used for axis-I and axis-II (personality) diagnoses. The results were analyzed using appropriate statistical measures. Results: Family history of psychiatric illnesses (31%) and suicide (11%) were noted. Insecticides and pesticides were the most common agents (71%) employed to attempt suicide. Interpersonal difficulties (46%) were the most frequent stressor. Overall medical seriousness of the suicide attempt was of moderate lethality. 93% of the suicide attempters had at least one axis-I and/or axis-II psychiatric disorder. Most common diagnostic categories were mood disorders, adjustment disorders, and substance-related disorders, with axis-I disorders (89%), personality disorders (52%), and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders (51.6%). Conclusion: Individuals who made first suicide attempt were young adults, had lower educational achievement; overall seriousness of the suicide attempt was of moderate lethality, high prevalence of psychiatric morbidity, personality disorders, and comorbidity, and had sought medical help from general practitioners. PMID:23833346

  3. [Comorbid psychiatric disorders and differential diagnosis of patients with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability].

    PubMed

    Strunz, Sandra; Dziobek, Isabel; Roepke, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) without intellectual disability are often diagnosed late in life. Little is known about co-occurring psychiatric disorders and differential diagnosis of ASC in adulthood, particularly with regard to personality disorders. What kind of comorbid psychiatric disorders occur in ASC? Which are the most prevalent differential diagnoses in a sample of patients who seek autism specific clinical diagnostics? 118 adults who were referred with a presumed diagnosis of autistic disorder, were diagnosed with autism specific instruments and the prevalence of further psychiatric disorders was investigated. 59 (50%) fulfilled the criteria of ASC. 36% of the individuals with ASC fulfilled also criteria for a DSM-IV axis-I psychiatric disorder. Affective disorders (24%) and social phobia (14%) were the most prevalent comorbid disorders. The most frequent differential diagnoses were depression, social phobia, paranoid, avoidant and narcissistic personality disorder.

  4. Psychiatric disorders in preschoolers: continuity from ages 3 to 6.

    PubMed

    Bufferd, Sara J; Dougherty, Lea R; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Rose, Suzanne; Klein, Daniel N

    2012-11-01

    Recent studies indicate that many preschoolers meet diagnostic criteria for psychiatric disorders. However, data on the continuity of these diagnoses are limited, particularly from studies examining a broad range of disorders in community samples. Such studies are necessary to elucidate the validity and clinical significance of psychiatric diagnoses in young children. The authors examined the continuity of specific psychiatric disorders in a large community sample of preschoolers from the preschool period (age 3) to the beginning of the school-age period (age 6). Eligible families with a 3-year child were recruited from the community through commercial mailing lists. For 462 children, the child's primary caretaker was interviewed at baseline and again when the child was age 6, using the parent-report Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment, a comprehensive diagnostic interview. The authors examined the continuity of DSM-IV diagnoses from ages 3 to 6. Three-month rates of disorders were relatively stable from age 3 to age 6. Children who met criteria for any diagnosis at age 3 were nearly five times as likely as the others to meet criteria for a diagnosis at age 6. There was significant homotypic continuity from age 3 to age 6 for anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder, and heterotypic continuity between depression and anxiety, between anxiety and oppositional defiant disorder, and between ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder. These results indicate that preschool psychiatric disorders are moderately stable, with rates of disorders and patterns of homotypic and heterotypic continuity similar to those observed in samples of older children.

  5. Associations between Polygenic Risk for Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Caitlin E.; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Hartz, Sarah M.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Bierut, Laura J.; Bogdan, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence of substantial comorbidity between psychiatric disorders and substance involvement, the extent to which common genetic factors contribute to their co-occurrence remains understudied. In the current study, we tested for associations between polygenic risk for psychiatric disorders and substance involvement (i.e., ranging from ever-use to severe dependence) among 2573 non-Hispanic European–American participants from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for cross-disorder psychopathology (CROSS) were generated based on the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium’s Cross-Disorder meta-analysis and then tested for associations with a factor representing general liability to alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, nicotine, and opioid involvement (GENSUB). Follow-up analyses evaluated specific associations between each of the five psychiatric disorders which comprised CROSS—attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (AUT), bipolar disorder (BIP), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ)—and involvement with each component substance included in GENSUB. CROSS PRS explained 1.10% of variance in GENSUB in our sample (p < 0.001). After correction for multiple testing in our follow-up analyses of polygenic risk for each individual disorder predicting involvement with each component substance, associations remained between: (A) MDD PRS and non-problem cannabis use, (B) MDD PRS and severe cocaine dependence, (C) SCZ PRS and non-problem cannabis use and severe cannabis dependence, and (D) SCZ PRS and severe cocaine dependence. These results suggest that shared covariance from common genetic variation contributes to psychiatric and substance involvement comorbidity. PMID:27574527

  6. Comorbidity and Continuity of Psychiatric Disorders in Youth After Detention

    PubMed Central

    Abram, Karen M.; Zwecker, Naomi A.; Welty, Leah J.; Hershfield, Jennifer A.; Dulcan, Mina K.; Teplin, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Psychiatric disorders and comorbidity are prevalent among incarcerated juveniles. To date, no large-scale study has examined the comorbidity and continuity of psychiatric disorders after youth leave detention. OBJECTIVE To determine the comorbidity and continuity of psychiatric disorders among youth 5 years after detention. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective longitudinal study of a stratified random sample of 1829 youth (1172 male and 657 female; 1005 African American, 296 non-Hispanic white, 524 Hispanic, and 4 other race/ethnicity) recruited from the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center, Chicago, Illinois, between November 20, 1995, and June 14, 1998, and who received their time 2 follow-up interview between May 22, 2000, and April 3, 2004. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES At baseline, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version 2.3. At follow-ups, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (child and young adult versions) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule Version IV (substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder). RESULTS Five years after detention, when participants were 14 to 24 years old, almost 27% of males and 14% of females had comorbid psychiatric disorders. Although females had significantly higher rates of comorbidity when in detention (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.7), males had significantly higher rates than females at follow-up (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6-3.3). Substance use plus behavioral disorders was the most common comorbid profile among males, affecting 1 in 6. Participants with more disorders at baseline were more likely to have a disorder approximately 5 years after detention, even after adjusting for demographic characteristics. We found substantial continuity of disorder. However, some baseline disorders predicted alcohol and drug use disorders at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Although prevalence rates of comorbidity decreased in youth after detention, rates

  7. Psychiatric Disorders and TRP Channels: Focus on Psychotropic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Demirdaş, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric and neurological disorders are mostly associated with the changes in neural calcium ion signaling pathways required for activity-triggered cellular events. One calcium channel family is the TRP cation channel family, which contains seven subfamilies. Results of recent papers have discovered that calcium ion influx through TRP channels is important. We discuss the latest advances in calcium ion influx through TRP channels in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. Activation of TRPC4, TRPC5, and TRPV1 cation channels in the etiology of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, fear-associated responses, and depression modulate calcium ion influx. Evidence substantiates that anandamide and its analog (methanandamide) induce an anxiolytic-like effect via CB1 receptors and TRPV1 channels. Intracellular calcium influx induced by oxidative stress has an significant role in the etiology of bipolar disorders (BDs), and studies recently reported the important role of TRP channels such as TRPC3, TRPM2, and TRPV1 in converting oxidant or nitrogen radical signaling to cytosolic calcium ion homeostasis in BDs. The TRPV1 channel also plays a function in morphine tolerance and hyperalgesia. Among psychotropic drugs, amitriptyline and capsazepine seem to have protective effects on psychiatric disorders via the TRP channels. Some drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine also seem to have an important role in alcohol addiction and substance abuse via activation of the TRPV1 channel. Thus, we explore the relationships between the etiology of psychiatric disorders and TRP channel-regulated mechanisms. Investigation of the TRP channels in psychiatric disorders holds the promise of the development of new drug treatments. PMID:26411768

  8. Psychiatric Disorders and TRP Channels: Focus on Psychotropic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Demirdaş, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric and neurological disorders are mostly associated with the changes in neural calcium ion signaling pathways required for activity-triggered cellular events. One calcium channel family is the TRP cation channel family, which contains seven subfamilies. Results of recent papers have discovered that calcium ion influx through TRP channels is important. We discuss the latest advances in calcium ion influx through TRP channels in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. Activation of TRPC4, TRPC5, and TRPV1 cation channels in the etiology of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, fear-associated responses, and depression modulate calcium ion influx. Evidence substantiates that anandamide and its analog (methanandamide) induce an anxiolytic-like effect via CB1 receptors and TRPV1 channels. Intracellular calcium influx induced by oxidative stress has an significant role in the etiology of bipolar disorders (BDs), and studies recently reported the important role of TRP channels such as TRPC3, TRPM2, and TRPV1 in converting oxidant or nitrogen radical signaling to cytosolic calcium ion homeostasis in BDs. The TRPV1 channel also plays a function in morphine tolerance and hyperalgesia. Among psychotropic drugs, amitriptyline and capsazepine seem to have protective effects on psychiatric disorders via the TRP channels. Some drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine also seem to have an important role in alcohol addiction and substance abuse via activation of the TRPV1 channel. Thus, we explore the relationships between the etiology of psychiatric disorders and TRP channel-regulated mechanisms. Investigation of the TRP channels in psychiatric disorders holds the promise of the development of new drug treatments.

  9. Body awareness in preschool children with psychiatric disorder.

    PubMed

    Simons, J; Leitschuh, C; Raymaekers, A; Vandenbussche, I

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the body awareness of preschool children with a psychiatric disorder as measured by the test imitation of gestures (Bergès & Lézine, 1978), using the subsections for pointing to body parts (passive vocabulary) and naming body parts (active vocabulary). Seventy-seven children from 37 to 72 months of age with psychiatric disorders and 67 children without psychiatric disorders were matched for age and sex. A MANOVA indicated no significant interaction effects on the results between the sexes in the psychiatric group and the control group for passive vocabulary (F(1,150)=.59, p≥0.05) or for active vocabulary (F(1,150)=.61, p≥0.05). An ANOVA was conducted to determine the differences between the boys and girls for passive and active vocabulary, and the differences between the psychiatric group and the control group for passive and active vocabulary. No significant differences between the boys and girls for passive vocabulary (F(1,150)=1.968, p≥0.05) and active vocabulary (F(1,150)=1.57, p≥0.05) were found. There was a significant difference between the psychiatric and the control group for passive vocabulary (F(1,150)=9.511, p=0.002) and active vocabulary (F(1,150)=16.18, p=0.00009). The study provides support for the presence of language disorders associated with active and passive body awareness in children with psychiatric disorders compared to typically developing children.

  10. Family Structure, Transitions and Psychiatric Disorders Among Puerto Rican Children.

    PubMed

    Santesteban-Echarri, Olga; Eisenberg, Ruth E; Bird, Hector R; Canino, Glorisa J; Duarte, Cristiane S

    2016-11-01

    This paper examines whether family structure and its transitions are associated with internalizing and externalizing psychiatric disorders among Puerto Rican-origin children. It uses longitudinal data (three waves) from the Boricua Youth Study, which includes probability samples of children in the South Bronx (New York) and San Juan (Puerto Rico) (n = 2,142). We also examine factors which may explain how family structure and transitions may be related to child psychiatric disorders. Our results show that for both internalizing and externalizing disorders there were no significant differences between children of cohabiting (biological or step) parents or of single parents compared to children of married biological parents. In Puerto Rico only, transitioning once from a two-parent family to a single-parent family was related to child internalizing disorders. Family transitions were not associated with externalizing disorders at either site. Context may be an important factor shaping the risk that family dissolution is followed by an internalizing disorder among children.

  11. Psychiatric disorders in adults with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, C.S.; Levitas, A.S.

    1994-09-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a multiple anomaly/mental retardation syndrome currently mapped to 16p13.3 and characterized by microephaly, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, curved nose, elongated nasal columelia and broad thumbs and great toes, often with medial or lateral angulation. Although there are reports of attentional problems and impulsivity among children with RTS there have been no studies to date of behavioral characteristics of the syndrome. Since 1988 we have identified 7 adults with classic RTS and psychiatric disorders among 1500 mentally retarded individuals ascertained primarily for behavioral and psychiatric problems; these patients all had microcephaly, characteristic facies and broad halluces, frequently with angulation. An additional 6 adults with psychiatric disorders had some features suggesting RTS but not classic for the disorder; these patients had microcephaly, characteristic nasal configuration and somewhat broad thumbs but lacked hypertelorism, downslant of palpebral fissures, angulation of halluces, and/or other dysmorphic features typical of classic RTS. Among the seven with classic RTS, three had tic disorder and/or Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, one had Bipolar Disorder with Psychotic Features and one had Major Depressive Disorder with obsessive-compulsive features. The six with some RTS features had similar psychiatric disorders. All patients were extremely sensitive to side effects of antidopaminergic medication, with the exception of clozapine. This clustering of psychiatric disorders and sensitivity suggests possible dysfunction of dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in at least some patients with RTS. The 16p13.3 region should be examined for possible genes affecting metabolism or receptors of these neurotransmitters.

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid vasopressin in neurological and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, P S; Gjerris, A; Hammer, M

    1985-01-01

    Vasopressin was determined in CSF and plasma of 243 patients with different neurological and psychiatric disorders, including control patients. CSF vasopressin was significantly higher in patients with high pressure hydrocephalus, intracranial tumour, benign intracranial hypertension, intracranial haemorrhage, ischaemic stroke, and craniocerebral trauma. In patients with primary degenerative dementia, CSF vasopressin was lower than in control patients. Among patients with psychiatric disorders, CSF vasopressin was increased in manic patients, while in patients with depression CSF concentration of this hormone did not differ from that found in controls. However, an increase in CSF vasopressin level was found in patients recovering from a depression. The clinical significance of changes in CSF vasopressin concentrations in groups of patients with neurological and psychiatric disorders is still unknown. PMID:3973621

  13. Maternal Psychiatric Disorder and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder or Intellectual Disability in Subsequent Offspring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Hammond, Geoff; Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are more common in the mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability (ID) after the birth of their child. We aimed to assess the relationship between women's psychiatric contacts and subsequent offspring with ASD/ID. We linked three Western Australian registers to investigate pre-existing…

  14. Maternal Psychiatric Disorder and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder or Intellectual Disability in Subsequent Offspring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Hammond, Geoff; Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are more common in the mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability (ID) after the birth of their child. We aimed to assess the relationship between women's psychiatric contacts and subsequent offspring with ASD/ID. We linked three Western Australian registers to investigate pre-existing…

  15. Dissociative disorders in acute psychiatric inpatients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chui-De; Meg Tseng, Mei-Chih; Chien, Yi-Ling; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Liu, Chih-Min; Yeh, Yei-Yu; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Ross, Colin A

    2017-04-01

    Dissociative disorders have been documented to be common psychiatric disorders which can be detected reliably with standardized diagnostic instruments in North American and European psychiatric inpatients and outpatients (20.6% and 18.4%, respectively). However, there are concerns about their cross-cultural manifestations as an apparently low prevalence rate has been reported in East Asian inpatients and outpatients (1.7% and 4.9%, respectively). It is unknown whether the clinical profile of dissociative disorders in terms of their core symptomatic clusters, associated comorbid disorders, and environmental risk factors that has emerged in western clinical populations can also be found in non-western clinical populations. A standardized structured interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, and a history of interpersonal victimization was administered in a sample of Taiwanese acute psychiatric inpatients. Our results showed that 19.5% of our participants met criteria for a DSM-IV dissociative disorder, mostly dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. More importantly, the western clinical profile of dissociative disorders also characterized our patients, including a poly-symptomatic presentation and a history of interpersonal trauma in both childhood and adulthood. Our results lend support to the conclusion that cross-cultural manifestations of dissociative pathology in East Asia are similar to those in North America and Europe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Epigenetic signaling in psychiatric disorders: stress and depression

    PubMed Central

    Bagot, Rosemary C.; Labonté, Benoit; Peña, Catherine J.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial disorders involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function. While genetic factors play a role in the etiology of disorders such as depression, addiction, and schizophrenia, relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins clearly point to the importance of additional factors. Environmental factors, such as stress, play a major role in the psychiatric disorders by inducing stable changes in gene expression, neural circuit function, and ultimately behavior. Insults at the developmental stage and in adulthood appear to induce distinct maladaptations. Increasing evidence indicates that these sustained abnormalities are maintained by epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions. Indeed, transcriptional dysregulation and associated aberrant epigenetic regulation is a unifying theme in psychiatric disorders. Aspects of depression can be modeled in animals by inducing disease-like states through environmental manipulations, and these studies can provide a more general understanding of epigenetic mechanisms in psychiatric disorders. Understanding how environmental factors recruit the epigenetic machinery in animal models is providing new insights into disease mechanisms in humans. PMID:25364280

  17. Epigenetic signaling in psychiatric disorders: stress and depression.

    PubMed

    Bagot, Rosemary C; Labonté, Benoit; Peña, Catherine J; Nestler, Eric J

    2014-09-01

    Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial disorders involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function. While genetic factors play a role in the etiology of disorders such as depression, addiction, and schizophrenia, relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins clearly point to the importance of additional factors. Environmental factors, such as stress, play a major role in the psychiatric disorders by inducing stable changes in gene expression, neural circuit function, and ultimately behavior. Insults at the developmental stage and in adulthood appear to induce distinct maladaptations. Increasing evidence indicates that these sustained abnormalities are maintained by epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions. Indeed, transcriptional dysregulation and associated aberrant epigenetic regulation is a unifying theme in psychiatric disorders. Aspects of depression can be modeled in animals by inducing disease-like states through environmental manipulations, and these studies can provide a more general understanding of epigenetic mechanisms in psychiatric disorders. Understanding how environmental factors recruit the epigenetic machinery in animal models is providing new insights into disease mechanisms in humans.

  18. Factors associated with psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric disorders in ethnic minority youth.

    PubMed

    Adriaanse, Marcia; Doreleijers, Theo; van Domburgh, Lieke; Veling, Wim

    2016-10-01

    While ethnic diversity is increasing in many countries, ethnic minority youth is less likely to be reached, effectively treated and retained by youth mental health care compared to majority youth. Improving understanding of factors associated with mental health problems within socially disadvantaged ethnic minority youth is important to tailor current preventive and treatment interventions to the needs of these youth. The aim of this study was to explore factors at child, family, school, peer, neighbourhood and ethnic minority group level associated with mental health problems in Moroccan-Dutch youth (n = 152, mean age 13.6 ± 1.9 years). Self-reported and teacher-reported questionnaire data on psychiatric symptoms and self-report interview data on psychiatric disorders were used to divide children into three levels of mental health problems: no symptoms, only psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric symptoms and/or disorders were associated with more psychopathic traits, a higher number of experienced trauma and children in the family, and more conflicts with parents, affiliation with delinquent peers, perceived discrimination and cultural mistrust. Psychiatric symptoms and/or disorders were also associated with less self-esteem, parental monitoring, affiliation with religion and orientation to Dutch or Moroccan culture, and a weaker ethnic identity. For youth growing up in a disadvantaged ethnic minority position, the most important factors were found at family (parent-child relationship and parenting practices) and ethnic minority group level (marginalization, discrimination and cultural mistrust). Preventive and treatment interventions for socially disadvantaged ethnic minority youth should be aimed at dealing with social disadvantage and discrimination, improving the parent-child relationship and parenting practices, and developing a positive (cultural) identity.

  19. Modeling psychiatric disorders for developing effective treatments

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Tobias; Feng, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    The recent advance in identifying risk genes has provided an unprecedented opportunity for developing animal models for psychiatric disease research with the goal of attaining translational utility to ultimately develop novel treatments. However, at this early stage, successful translation has yet to be achieved. Here, we review recent advances in modeling psychiatric disease, discuss utility and limitations of animal models, and emphasize the importance of shifting from behavioral analysis to identifying neurophysiological defects, which are likely more conserved across species and thus increase translatability. Looking forward, we envision that preclinical research will align with clinical research to build a common framework of comparable neurobiological abnormalities and form subgroups of patients based on similar pathophysiology. Experimental neuroscience can then use animal models to discover mechanisms underlying distinct abnormalities and develop strategies for effective treatments. PMID:26340119

  20. Metabolic syndrome among psychiatric outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ching-I; Liu, Chia-Yih; Hsiao, Mei-Chun; Yu, Nan-Wen; Chu, Chun-Lin

    2014-06-21

    Few studies have simultaneously compared the impacts of pharmacotherapy and mental diagnoses on metabolic syndrome (MetS) among psychiatric outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of pharmacotherapy and mental diagnoses on MetS and the prevalence of MetS among these patients. Two-hundred and twenty-nine outpatients (men/women = 85/144) were enrolled from 1147 outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders by systematic sampling. Psychiatric disorders and MetS were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR and the new International Diabetics Federation definition, respectively. The numbers of antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and antidepressants being taken were recorded. Logistic regression was used to investigate the impacts of pharmacotherapy and psychiatric diagnoses on MetS. Among 229 subjects, 51 (22.3%) fulfilled the criteria for MetS. The prevalence of MetS was highest in the bipolar I disorder (46.7%) patients, followed by bipolar II disorder (25.0%), major depressive disorder (22.0%), anxiety-only disorders (16.7%), and no mood and/or anxiety disorders (14.3%). The percentages of MetS among the five categories were correlated with those of the patients being treated with antipsychotics and mood stabilizers. Use of antipsychotics and/or mood stabilizers independently predicted a higher risk of MetS after controlling for demographic variables and psychiatric diagnoses. When adding body mass index (BMI) as an independent variable in the regression model, BMI became the most significant factor to predict MetS. BMI was found to be an important factor related to MetS. Pharmacotherapy might be one of underlying causes of elevated BMI. The interactions among MetS, BMI, pharmacotherapy, and psychiatric diagnoses might need further research.

  1. Childhood organic neurological disease presenting as psychiatric disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Rivinus, T M; Jamison, D L; Graham, P J

    1975-01-01

    Over a period of one year 12 children with complaints which had been diagnosed as due to a psychiatric disorder presented to a paediatric neurological unit where neurological disease was diagnosed. The group was characterized by behavioural symptoms such as deteriorating school performance, visual loss, and postural disturbance, which are unusual in children attending child psychiatric departments. It is suggested that where there is diagnostic uncertainty the presence of these physical symptoms calls for periodic neurological reassessment, and attention is drawn to the rare but serious disorders which may thus be diagnosed. Making an organic diagnosis, however, should not preclude psychosocial management of emotional reactions in these families. PMID:1130816

  2. Celiac Disease Is Associated with Childhood Psychiatric Disorders: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Butwicka, Agnieszka; Lichtenstein, Paul; Frisén, Louise; Almqvist, Catarina; Larsson, Henrik; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2017-05-01

    To determine the risk of future childhood psychiatric disorders in celiac disease, assess the association between previous psychiatric disorders and celiac disease in children, and investigate the risk of childhood psychiatric disorders in siblings of celiac disease probands. This was a nationwide registry-based matched cohort study in Sweden with 10 903 children (aged <18 years) with celiac disease and 12 710 of their siblings. We assessed the risk of childhood psychiatric disorders (any psychiatric disorder, psychotic disorder, mood disorder, anxiety disorder, eating disorder, psychoactive substance misuse, behavioral disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], autism spectrum disorder [ASD], and intellectual disability). HRs of future psychiatric disorders in children with celiac disease and their siblings was estimated by Cox regression. The association between previous diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder and current celiac disease was assessed using logistic regression. Compared with the general population, children with celiac disease had a 1.4-fold greater risk of future psychiatric disorders. Childhood celiac disease was identified as a risk factor for mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, behavioral disorders, ADHD, ASD, and intellectual disability. In addition, a previous diagnosis of a mood, eating, or behavioral disorder was more common before the diagnosis of celiac disease. In contrast, siblings of celiac disease probands were at no increased risk of any of the investigated psychiatric disorders. Children with celiac disease are at increased risk for most psychiatric disorders, apparently owing to the biological and/or psychological effects of celiac disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Characteristics of the Schizophrenic Suicides in Comparison with the Suicides with Other Diagnosed Psychiatric Disorder and without a Psychiatric Disorder1

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Juncheng; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been much literature on schizophrenia, but very little is known about the characteristics of suicides with schizophrenia in comparison with the suicides with other diagnosed psychiatric disorder and without psychiatric disorders. Methods Thirty-eight suicides with schizophrenia, 150 suicides with other psychiatric disorder, and 204 suicides without a psychiatric disorder were entered in current study. Psychological Autopsy (PA) was applied to collect information of the suicides. Social demographic factors and clinical characteristics of the suicides were measured. The well validated standard scales were applied: Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Landerman’s Social Support Scale (DSSI), Dickman’s Impulsivity Inventory (DII), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). Suicide intents were appraised by the Beck Suicide Intent Scale (SIS). The SCID based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) was applied to assess the psychiatric status of individuals. Demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, method of suicide and suicide intents of suicides were compared among the three groups (Schizophrenia group, Other psychiatric disorders group, and None psychiatric disorders group). Results There were 9.7% of suicides who suffered schizophrenia. The current study found being female was the risk factor for suicides with schizophrenia in rural China, which was opposite to the previous studies. The suicides with psychiatric disorder scored higher on hopelessness, anxiety, and depression, but lower on social support and impulsivity than suicides without psychiatric disorder. The suicides with psychiatric disorder were less impulsive than none psychiatric disorders group, too. The schizophrenia group did not show more violence than other psychiatric disorders group. Conclusions This research compared the demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, method of

  4. Psychiatric manifestations of treatable hereditary metabolic disorders in adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Detecting psychiatric disorders of secondary origin is a crucial concern for the psychiatrist. But how can this reliably be done among a large number of conditions, most of which have a very low prevalence? Metabolic screening undertaken in a population of subjects with psychosis demonstrated the presence of treatable metabolic disorders in a significant number of cases. The nature of the symptoms that should alert the clinician is also a fundamental issue and is not limited to psychosis. Hereditary metabolic disorders (HMD) are a rare but important cause of psychiatric disorders in adolescents and adults, the signs of which may remain isolated for years before other more specific organic signs appear. HMDs that present purely with psychiatric symptoms are very difficult to diagnose due to low awareness of these rare diseases among psychiatrists. However, it is important to identify HMDs in order to refer patients to specialist centres for appropriate management, disease-specific treatment and possible prevention of irreversible physical and neurological complications. Genetic counselling can also be provided. This review focuses on three HMD categories: acute, treatable HMDs (urea cycle abnormalities, remethylation disorders, acute intermittent porphyria); chronic, treatable HMDs (Wilson’s disease, Niemann-Pick disease type C, homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis); and chronic HMDs that are difficult to treat (lysosomal storage diseases, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, creatine deficiency syndrome). We also propose an algorithm for the diagnosis of HMDs in patients with psychiatric symptoms. PMID:25478001

  5. Psychiatric manifestations of treatable hereditary metabolic disorders in adults.

    PubMed

    Demily, Caroline; Sedel, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Detecting psychiatric disorders of secondary origin is a crucial concern for the psychiatrist. But how can this reliably be done among a large number of conditions, most of which have a very low prevalence? Metabolic screening undertaken in a population of subjects with psychosis demonstrated the presence of treatable metabolic disorders in a significant number of cases. The nature of the symptoms that should alert the clinician is also a fundamental issue and is not limited to psychosis. Hereditary metabolic disorders (HMD) are a rare but important cause of psychiatric disorders in adolescents and adults, the signs of which may remain isolated for years before other more specific organic signs appear. HMDs that present purely with psychiatric symptoms are very difficult to diagnose due to low awareness of these rare diseases among psychiatrists. However, it is important to identify HMDs in order to refer patients to specialist centres for appropriate management, disease-specific treatment and possible prevention of irreversible physical and neurological complications. Genetic counselling can also be provided. This review focuses on three HMD categories: acute, treatable HMDs (urea cycle abnormalities, remethylation disorders, acute intermittent porphyria); chronic, treatable HMDs (Wilson's disease, Niemann-Pick disease type C, homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis); and chronic HMDs that are difficult to treat (lysosomal storage diseases, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, creatine deficiency syndrome). We also propose an algorithm for the diagnosis of HMDs in patients with psychiatric symptoms.

  6. Psychiatric disorders in individuals with high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli; Hergüner, Sabri; Tanidir, Canan

    2010-12-01

    To investigate and compare the rate and type of psychiatric co-morbidity in individuals with diagnosis of high functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's disorder (AS). This study includes 30 children and adolescents with diagnosis of HFA and 30 with diagnosis of AS. Diagnoses of HFA and AS were made using strict DSM-IV criteria. Psychiatric co-morbidity was assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL-T). The rate of comorbid psychiatric disorders was very high in both groups (93.3% in HFA and 100% in AS). The most common disorder in both groups was attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in the rate of associated psychiatric disorders, except for major depressive disorder (P = 0.029) and ADHD-combined type (P = 0.030). The AS group displayed greater comorbidity with depressive disorders and ADHD-CT. From a clinical perspective, it could be concluded that both disorders involve a high risk for developing psychiatric disorders, with AS patients at greater risk for depression. From a nosological perspective, the substantial similarities in terms of psychiatric comorbidity may support the idea that both disorders are on the same spectrum and differs in some aspects.

  7. Childhood and adolescent onset psychiatric disorders, substance use, and failure to graduate high school on time.

    PubMed

    Breslau, Joshua; Miller, Elizabeth; Joanie Chung, W-J; Schweitzer, Julie B

    2011-03-01

    We examined the joint predictive effects of childhood and adolescent onset psychiatric and substance use disorders on failure to graduate high school (HS) on time. Structured diagnostic interviews were conducted with a US national sample of adults (18 and over). The analysis sample included respondents with at least 8 years of education who were born in the US or arrived in the US prior to age 13 (N = 29,662). Psychiatric disorders, substance use and substance use disorders were examined as predictors of termination or interruption of educational progress prior to HS graduation, with statistical adjustment for demographic characteristics and childhood adversities. Failure to graduate HS on time was more common among respondents with any of the psychiatric and substance use disorders examined, ranging from 18.1% (specific phobia) to 33.2% (ADHD-combined type), compared with respondents with no disorder (15.2%). After adjustment for co-occurring disorders, significant associations with failure to graduate on time remained only for conduct disorder (OR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.57-2.26) and the three ADHD subtypes (Inattentive OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.44-2.20, Hyperactive-Impulsive OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.14-1.67, and Combined OR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.66-2.56). Adjusting for prior disorders, tobacco use was associated with failure to graduate on time (OR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.80-2.16). Among substance users, substance use disorders were not associated with on-time graduation. The findings suggest that the adverse impact of childhood and adolescent onset psychiatric disorders on HS graduation is largely accounted for by problems of conduct and inattention. Adjusting for these disorders, smoking remains strongly associated with failure to graduate HS on time.

  8. Childhood and adolescent onset psychiatric disorders, substance use, and failure to graduate high school on time

    PubMed Central

    Breslau, Joshua; Miller, Elizabeth; Chung, W-J Joanie; Schweitzer, Julie B.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the joint predictive effects of childhood and adolescent onset psychiatric and substance use disorders on failure to graduate high school (HS) on time. Structured diagnostic interviews were conducted with a US national sample of adults (18 and over). The analysis sample included respondents with at least 8 years of education who were born in the US or arrived in the US prior to age 13 (N=29,662). Psychiatric disorders, substance use and substance use disorders were examined as predictors of termination or interruption of educational progress prior to HS graduation, with statistical adjustment for demographic characteristics and childhood adversities. Failure to graduate HS on time was more common among respondents with any of the psychiatric and substance use disorders examined, ranging from 18.1% (specific phobia) to 33.2% (ADHD-combined type), compared with respondents with no disorder (15.2%). After adjustment for co-occurring disorders, significant associations with failure to graduate on time remained only for conduct disorder (OR=1.89, 95%CI 1.57–2.26) and the three ADHD subtypes (Inattentive OR=1.78, 95%CI 1.44–2.20, Hyperactive-Impulsive OR=1.38, 95%CI 1.14–1.67, and Combined OR=2.06, 95%CI 1.66–2.56). Adjusting for prior disorders, tobacco use was associated with failure to graduate on time (OR=1.97, 95%CI 1.80–2.16). Among substance users, substance use disorders were not associated with on time graduation. The findings suggest that the adverse impact of childhood and adolescent onset psychiatric disorders on HS graduation is largely accounted for by problems of conduct and inattention. Adjusting for these disorders, smoking remains strongly associated with failure to graduate HS on time. PMID:20638079

  9. Discrimination and psychiatric disorders among older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Mouzon, Dawne M; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Keith, Verna M; Nicklett, Emily J; Chatters, Linda M

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the impact of everyday discrimination (both racial and non-racial) on the mental health of older African Americans. This analysis is based on the older African American subsample of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) (n = 773). We examined the associations between everyday discrimination and both general distress and psychiatric disorders as measured by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Six dependent variables were examined: lifetime mood disorders, lifetime anxiety disorders, any lifetime disorder, number of lifetime disorders, depressive symptoms as measured by the 12-item Center for Epidemiological Scale of Depression (CES-D), and serious psychological distress as measured by the Kessler 6 (K6). Overall, racial and non-racial everyday discrimination were consistently associated with worse mental health for older African Americans. Older African Americans who experienced higher levels of overall everyday discrimination had higher odds of any psychiatric disorder, any lifetime mood disorder, any lifetime anxiety disorder, and more lifetime DSM-IV disorders, in addition to elevated levels of depressive symptoms and serious psychological distress. These findings were similar for both racial discrimination and non-racial discrimination. This study documents the harmful association of not only racial discrimination, but also non-racial (and overall) discrimination with the mental health of older African Americans. Specifically, discrimination is negatively associated with mood and anxiety disorders as well as depressive symptoms and psychological distress. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Psychiatric disorders and clinical correlates of suicidal patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital in Tokyo

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital with suicidal behavior (SB) are considered to be especially at high risk of suicide. However, the number of studies that have addressed this patient population remains insufficient compared to that of studies on suicidal patients in emergency or medical settings. The purpose of this study is to seek features of a sample of newly admitted suicidal psychiatric patients in a metropolitan area of Japan. Method 155 suicidal patients consecutively admitted to a large psychiatric center during a 20-month period, admission styles of whom were mostly involuntary, were assessed using Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and II Disorders (SCID-I CV and SCID-II) and SB-related psychiatric measures. Associations of the psychiatric diagnoses and SB-related characteristics with gender and age were examined. Results The common DSM-IV axis I diagnoses were affective disorders 62%, anxiety disorders 56% and substance-related disorders 38%. 56% of the subjects were diagnosed as having borderline PD, and 87% of them, at least one type of personality disorder (PD). SB methods used prior to admission were self-cutting 41%, overdosing 32%, self-strangulation 15%, jumping from a height 12% and attempting traffic death 10%, the first two of which were frequent among young females. The median (range) of the total number of SBs in the lifetime history was 7 (1-141). Severity of depressive symptomatology, suicidal intent and other symptoms, proportions of the subjects who reported SB-preceding life events and life problems, and childhood and adolescent abuse were comparable to those of the previous studies conducted in medical or emergency service settings. Gender and age-relevant life-problems and life events were identified. Conclusions Features of the studied sample were the high prevalence of affective disorders, anxiety disorders and borderline PD, a variety of SB methods used prior to admission and frequent SB repetition

  11. Sex Differences in Stress-Related Psychiatric Disorders: Neurobiological Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bangasser, Debra A.; Valentino, Rita J.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is associated with the onset and severity of several psychiatric disorders that occur more frequently in women than men, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Patients with these disorders present with dysregulation of several stress response systems, including the neuroendocrine response to stress, corticolimbic responses to negatively valenced stimuli, and hyperarousal. Thus, sex differences within their underlying circuitry may explain sex biases in disease prevalence. This review describes clinical studies that identify sex differences within the activity of these circuits, as well as preclinical studies that demonstrate cellular and molecular sex differences in stress responses systems. These studies reveal sex differences from the molecular to the systems level that increase endocrine, emotional, and arousal responses to stress in females. Exploring these sex differences is critical because this research can reveal the neurobiological underpinnings of vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders and guide the development of novel pharmacotherapies. PMID:24726661

  12. Brief Report: Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Pregnant Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitsuhiro, Sandro Sendin; Chalem, Elisa; Barros, Marina Carvalho Moraes; Guinsburg, Ruth; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of ICD-10 psychiatric disorders in a population of pregnant teenage women from a Brazilian public hospital. Method: 1000 pregnant teenage women were evaluated using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, a structured interview which establishes diagnoses according to the International Classification…

  13. Brief Report: Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Pregnant Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitsuhiro, Sandro Sendin; Chalem, Elisa; Barros, Marina Carvalho Moraes; Guinsburg, Ruth; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of ICD-10 psychiatric disorders in a population of pregnant teenage women from a Brazilian public hospital. Method: 1000 pregnant teenage women were evaluated using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, a structured interview which establishes diagnoses according to the International Classification…

  14. Histories of Child Maltreatment and Psychiatric Disorder in Pregnant Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Elisa; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated histories of child maltreatment and psychiatric disorder in a high-risk sample of pregnant adolescents. Method: Cross-sectional data were obtained for 252 pregnant adolescents from high school, hospital, and group home settings in Montreal (Canada). Adolescents completed a child maltreatment questionnaire and a…

  15. Psychiatric Hospitalization among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, David S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined predictors of psychiatric hospitalization among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were collected from 760 caregivers of children with ASD. Cox regression was used to determine factors associated with hospitalization. Almost 11% were hospitalized. Youth in single parent homes were more likely to be hospitalized…

  16. Childhood abuse and psychiatric disorders among single and married mothers.

    PubMed

    Lipman, E L; MacMillan, H L; Boyle, M H

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of, and association between, childhood abuse and psychiatric disorders in single and married mothers. Single and married mothers who participated in the Ontario Health Survey, a province-wide study derived from a probability sample of the general population of Ontario aged 15 years and older (N=1,471), were included. Sociodemographic and mental health characteristics were collected by means of interviewer-administered questionnaires. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on childhood physical and sexual abuse. Compared with married mothers, single mothers reported substantially lower incomes as well as higher rates of childhood abuse and all psychiatric morbidities examined (current and lifetime affective or anxiety disorders and substance use disorders). Childhood abuse had a consistent and significant association with adult mental health, even when other risk variables were controlled. No interaction among childhood abuse and marital status and outcome was found. Single mothers reported more childhood abuse and experienced higher levels of poverty and psychiatric disorders than married mothers. Childhood abuse was associated with more psychiatric problems in both single and married mothers. Research, clinical, and policy implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Psychiatric Hospitalization among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, David S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined predictors of psychiatric hospitalization among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were collected from 760 caregivers of children with ASD. Cox regression was used to determine factors associated with hospitalization. Almost 11% were hospitalized. Youth in single parent homes were more likely to be hospitalized…

  18. Body Awareness in Preschool Children with Psychiatric Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, J.; Leitschuh, C.; Raymaekers, A.; Vandenbussche, I.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the body awareness of preschool children with a psychiatric disorder as measured by the test imitation of gestures (Berges & Lezine, 1978), using the subsections for pointing to body parts (passive vocabulary) and naming body parts (active vocabulary). Seventy-seven children from 37 to 72 months of age…

  19. Completed Suicide among Adolescents with No Diagnosable Psychiatric Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marttunen, Mauri J.; Henriksson, Markus M.; Isometsa, Erkki T.; Heikkinen, Martti E.; Aro, Hillevi M.; Lonnqvist, Jouko K.

    1998-01-01

    The characteristics of male adolescent suicide victims with (N=84) and without (N=8) diagnosable psychiatric disorder were compared. Psychological autopsy data were collected on all adolescent suicides in one year. Communication of suicidal intent and problems with discipline just before the suicide are among the few clinical warning signs found.…

  20. Childhood Maltreatment and Psychiatric Disorders Among Detained Youths

    PubMed Central

    King, Devon C.; Abram, Karen M.; Romero, Erin G.; Washburn, Jason J.; Welty, Leah J.; Teplin, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This manuscript examines the prevalence of childhood maltreatment and the relationship between childhood maltreatment and current psychiatric disorder in detained youths. Methods Clinical research interviewers assessed history of childhood maltreatment with the Child Maltreatment Assessment Profile and psychiatric diagnosis with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children version 2.3 in a stratified, random sample of 1829 detained youths at the Cook Country Juvenile Temporary Detention Center; final n=1735. History of maltreatment was also ascertained from records from the Cook County Court Child Protection Division. Results Over three-quarters of females and over two-thirds of males had a history of physical abuse (moderate or severe). More than 40% of females and 10% of males had a history of sexual abuse. Females and non-Hispanic whites had the highest prevalence rates of childhood maltreatment. Among females, sexual abuse was associated with every type of psychiatric disorder. For example, females who experienced abuse were 2.6 to 10.7 times more likely to have any disorder compared with females who had no maltreatment. Among males, maltreatment was associated with every disorder except anxiety disorders (odds ratios ranged from 1.9–7.9). Among those who were sexually abused, abuse with force was associated with anxiety and affective disorders for females and attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD)/disruptive behavior and substance use disorders for males. Conclusions Psychiatrists and other mental health specialists must screen delinquent youth, not only for psychiatric disorders but also for past and ongoing maltreatment. Discharge planning should include protective and therapeutic services. Trauma-related mental health services should be available during incarceration. PMID:22193789

  1. Sex differences in animal models of psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kokras, N; Dalla, C

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are characterized by sex differences in their prevalence, symptomatology and treatment response. Animal models have been widely employed for the investigation of the neurobiology of such disorders and the discovery of new treatments. However, mostly male animals have been used in preclinical pharmacological studies. In this review, we highlight the need for the inclusion of both male and female animals in experimental studies aiming at gender-oriented prevention, diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders. We present behavioural findings on sex differences from animal models of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance-related disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism. Moreover, when available, we include studies conducted across different stages of the oestrous cycle. By inspection of the relevant literature, it is obvious that robust sex differences exist in models of all psychiatric disorders. However, many times results are conflicting, and no clear conclusion regarding the direction of sex differences and the effect of the oestrous cycle is drawn. Moreover, there is a lack of considerable amount of studies using psychiatric drugs in both male and female animals, in order to evaluate the differential response between the two sexes. Notably, while in most cases animal models successfully mimic drug response in both sexes, test parameters and treatment-sensitive behavioural indices are not always the same for male and female rodents. Thus, there is an increasing need to validate animal models for both sexes and use standard procedures across different laboratories. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24697577

  2. Psychiatric disorders and obesity: A review of association studies.

    PubMed

    Rajan, T M; Menon, V

    2017-01-01

    Inconsistent evidence exists regarding the strength, direction, and moderators in the relationship between obesity and psychiatric disorders. This study aims to summarize the evidence on the association between psychiatric illness and obesity with particular attention to the strength and direction of association and also the possible moderators in each postulated link. Systematic electronic searches of MEDLINE through PubMed, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar were carried out from inception till October 2016. Generated abstracts were screened for eligibility to be included in the review. Study designs that evaluated the strength of relationship between obesity and psychiatric disorders were included in the study. Quality assessment of included studies was done using the Newcastle-Ottawa checklist tool. From a total of 2424 search results, 21 eligible articles were identified and reviewed. These included studies on obesity and depression (n = 15), obesity and anxiety (four) and one each on obesity and personality disorders, eating disorder (ED), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and alcohol use. Maximal evidence existed for the association between depression and obesity with longitudinal studies demonstrating a bidirectional link between the two conditions. The odds ratios (ORs) were similar for developing depression in obesity (OR: 1.21-5.8) and vice versa (OR: 1.18-3.76) with a stronger association observed in women. For anxiety disorders, evidence was mostly cross-sectional, and associations were of modest magnitude (OR: 1.27-1.40). Among other disorders, obesity, and EDs appear to have a close link (OR: 4.5). Alcohol use appears to be a risk factor for obesity and not vice versa but only among women (OR: 3.84). Obesity and depression have a significant and bidirectional association. Evidence is modest for anxiety disorders and inadequate for other psychiatric conditions. Gender appears to be an important mediator in these relationships.

  3. Hypocretins, Neural Systems, Physiology, and Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Bin; Jones, Jeff R; de Lecea, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The hypocretins (Hcrts), also known as orexins, have been among the most intensely studied neuropeptide systems since their discovery about two decades ago. Anatomical evidence shows that the hypothalamic neurons that produce hypocretins/orexins project widely throughout the entire brain, innervating the noradrenergic locus coeruleus, the cholinergic basal forebrain, the dopaminergic ventral tegmental area, the serotonergic raphe nuclei, the histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus, and many other brain regions. By interacting with other neural systems, the Hcrt system profoundly modulates versatile physiological processes including arousal, food intake, emotion, attention, and reward. Importantly, interruption of the interactions between these systems has the potential to cause neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here, we review the modulation of diverse neural systems by Hcrts and summarize potential therapeutic strategies based on our understanding of the Hcrt system's role in physiology and pathophysiological processes.

  4. Comorbidity between psychiatric and general medical disorders in homeless veterans.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Gerald; Luther, James F; Haas, Gretchen L; Gordon, Adam J; Appelt, Cathleen

    2009-12-01

    Homeless veterans have numerous co-occurring medical and behavioral health problems. Identification of common patterns of comorbid conditions may help providers to determine severity of medical conditions and triage health care more effectively. In this study we identify such patterns of comorbid medical and psychiatric disorders using cluster analysis and we evaluate relationships between these patterns and sociodemographic factors. We used data from a survey of 3,595 veterans in a regional VA network who were presently or recently homeless assessing nine major medical disorder and six psychiatric disorder categories. Diagnostic ratings of presence or absence of these disorders were placed into the same cluster analysis to determine whether separable clusters emerged reflecting differing diagnostic profiles. There are recognizable patterns of comorbidity involving several psychiatric and general medical disorders, as well as disorders of both types that exist independently. Cluster membership was associated with various sociodemographic indices. Mental and general medical health problems in homeless veterans often occur in association with each other and form identifiable patterns that vary on sociodemographic factors.

  5. Psychiatric disorder in the children of antisocial parents.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Ryan W; Iacono, William G

    2005-12-01

    Although parents with psychiatric disorders are likely to have children with psychiatric problems, the nature of disorder risk to offspring of antisocial parents has received limited attention. We examined the prevalence of common externalizing and internalizing disorders in the pre-adolescent and late adolescent offspring of antisocial parents. Lifetime diagnoses for a sample of 11-year-old twins (958 males, 1042 females) and a sample of 17-year-old twins (1332 males, 1434 females), as well as their parents, were obtained through in-person interviews. Odds ratios were calculated for the effect of the parent's diagnosis on the child's diagnosis, controlling for the effect of the co-parent's diagnosis.Results. We found that parental antisociality places the child at increased risk for developing a range of externalizing and internalizing disorders. This increase is evident by pre-adolescence and extends to a wide range of disorders by late adolescence. Each parent has an effect net any effects of the co-parent. Antisocial parents have children who have an increased likelihood of developing a broad range of psychiatric disorders.

  6. Study on Association Between Lipid Profile Values and Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dharwadkar, Kavitarati; Motagi, Manjunath V

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cholesterol is especially abundant in nervous system, where it plays important role in different aspects of cellular structure (e.g. fluidity of cell membranes) and function (e.g. membrane). Several studies showed that there may be a link between depression and low cholesterol because of altered central serotonergic functions. On the other hand, some studies also showed either no such association or yielded inconsistent results. However, many studies have related low cholesterol with different psychiatric disorders. Hence, we intend to see the possible link between the two. Aim: To study the association between lipid profile and psychiatric disorders. Materials and Methods: Patients attending Amala Institute of medical science, Psychiatry clinic in the month of January 2013 and whose lipid profile data before the start of treatment is available. Design: Descriptive study. The patients were classified into Neurotic and Psychotic spectrum after being diagnosed with the psychiatric diseases based on International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition (ICD10) by a Psychiatrist. There lipid profile (Total cholesterol; LDL=Low Density Lipoprotein; HDL=High Density Lipoprotein; TAG=Triacylglycerol) were estimated before the initiation of anti-psychotic treatment. Results: The lipid profile values though showed some statistically significant association between the psychotic and neurotic spectrum, there was no statistical significance between the low lipid profile and different psychiatric diseases. Conclusion: We have found that there is no significant association between low lipid profile and any psychiatric diseases. PMID:25654015

  7. Astrogliopathology in neurological, neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Parpura, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Astroglial cells represent a main element in the maintenance of homeostasis and providing defense to the brain. Consequently, their dysfunction underlies many, if not all, neurological, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. General astrogliopathy is evident in diametrically opposing morpho-functional changes in astrocytes, i.e. their hypertrophy along with reactivity or atrophy with asthenia. Neurological disorders with astroglial participation can be genetic, of which Alexander disease is a primary sporadic astrogliopathy, environmentally caused, such as heavy metal encephalopathies, or neurodevelopmental in origin. Astroglia also play a role in major neuropsychiatric disorders, ranging from schizophrenia to depression, as well as in additive disorders. Furthermore, astroglia contribute to neurodegenerative processes seen in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s diseases. PMID:25843667

  8. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones en Español ...

  9. Work characteristics and psychiatric disorder in civil servants in London.

    PubMed Central

    Stansfeld, S A; North, F M; White, I; Marmot, M G

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To describe the association between self reported and externally assessed work characteristics and psychiatric disorder. DESIGN--Analysis of questionnaire data collected from the first phase of the Whitehall II study, a cohort study of an employed population. SETTING--Twenty civil service departments in London. PARTICIPANTS--Altogether 6900 male and 3414 female civil servants aged 35-55 years. MAIN RESULTS--High levels of subjective social support at work, control at work, job variety, and skill use were associated with greater satisfaction and wellbeing and less psychiatric disorder measured by the 30 item general health questionnaire (GHQ). High levels of subjective work pace and conflicting demands were associated with less satisfaction and wellbeing and greater psychiatric disorder. The combined effects of work characteristics were similar to the effects of the work characteristics considered separately, except that for men there was a small interaction between psychological demands and control on the GHQ. There was little overall support for the two factor job strain model. In contrast, objective indices of work were generally not associated with the psychological indices. Findings in men and women were generally comparable and were not significantly influenced by employment grade. CONCLUSIONS--Negative affectivity and a tendency to report negatively about both work and the psychological indices may partly explain the difference in the findings between subjective and objective work characteristics. However, subjective work characteristics were still associated with psychiatric disorder after adjusting for negative affectivity. The potential confounding effects of employment grade did not explain the association between either subjective or objective work characteristics and the psychological indices. While modifications to the work environment may directly reduce certain adverse physical health effects, the influence of work place design and

  10. Work characteristics and psychiatric disorder in civil servants in London.

    PubMed

    Stansfeld, S A; North, F M; White, I; Marmot, M G

    1995-02-01

    To describe the association between self reported and externally assessed work characteristics and psychiatric disorder. Analysis of questionnaire data collected from the first phase of the Whitehall II study, a cohort study of an employed population. Twenty civil service departments in London. Altogether 6900 male and 3414 female civil servants aged 35-55 years. High levels of subjective social support at work, control at work, job variety, and skill use were associated with greater satisfaction and wellbeing and less psychiatric disorder measured by the 30 item general health questionnaire (GHQ). High levels of subjective work pace and conflicting demands were associated with less satisfaction and wellbeing and greater psychiatric disorder. The combined effects of work characteristics were similar to the effects of the work characteristics considered separately, except that for men there was a small interaction between psychological demands and control on the GHQ. There was little overall support for the two factor job strain model. In contrast, objective indices of work were generally not associated with the psychological indices. Findings in men and women were generally comparable and were not significantly influenced by employment grade. Negative affectivity and a tendency to report negatively about both work and the psychological indices may partly explain the difference in the findings between subjective and objective work characteristics. However, subjective work characteristics were still associated with psychiatric disorder after adjusting for negative affectivity. The potential confounding effects of employment grade did not explain the association between either subjective or objective work characteristics and the psychological indices. While modifications to the work environment may directly reduce certain adverse physical health effects, the influence of work place design and management on psychological wellbeing, satisfaction, and psychiatric

  11. Progress in understanding conversion disorder

    PubMed Central

    Allin, Matthew; Streeruwitz, Anna; Curtis, Vivienne

    2005-01-01

    Conversion disorder has a history that may reach back into antiquity, and it continues to present a clinical challenge to both psychiatrists and neurologists. This article reviews the current state of knowledge surrounding the prevalence, etiology, and neurobiology of conversion disorder. There have been improvements in the accuracy of diagnosis that are possibly related to improved technologies such as neuroimaging. Once the diagnosis is made, it is important to develop a therapeutic alliance between the patient and the medical team, and where comorbid psychiatric diagnoses have been made, these need to be adequately treated. While there have been no formal trials of medication or psychoanalytic treatments in this disorder, case reports suggest that a combination of antidepressants, psychotherapy, and a multidisciplinary approach to rehabilitation may be beneficial. PMID:18568070

  12. Cutaneous factitia in elderly patients: alarm signal for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chiriac, Anca; Foia, Liliana; Birsan, Cristina; Goriuc, Ancuta; Solovan, Caius

    2014-01-01

    Background The factitious disorders, more commonly known in daily practice as pathomimia, are expressed in dermatology units by skin lesions induced voluntarily by the patient, in order to draw attention of the medical staff and/or the family members. The disorder is often challenging to diagnose and even more difficult to document in front of the patient or relatives. It represents a challenge for the physician, and any attempt at treatment may be followed by recurrence of the self-mutilation. This paper describes two cases of pathomimia diagnosed by dermatologists and treated in a psychiatry unit, highlighting the importance of collaboration in these situations. Patients and methods Two case reports, describing old female patients with pathomimia, hospitalized in a department of dermatology for bizarre skin lesions. Results The first case was a 77-year-old female with unknown psychiatric problems and atrophic skin lesions on the face, self-induced for many months, with multiple hospitalizations in dermatology units, with no response to different therapeutic patterns, and full recovery after psychiatric treatment for a major depressive syndrome. The second case was a 61-year-old female patient with disseminated atrophic scars on the face, trunk, and limbs. She raised our interest because of possible psychiatric issues, as she had attempted to commit suicide. The prescription of antidepressants led to a significant clinical improvement. Conclusion These cases indicate that a real psychiatric disease may be recorded in patients suffering from pathomimia. Therefore, complete psychiatric evaluation in order to choose the proper therapy is mandatory for all these cases. Dermatologists and all physicians who take care of old patients must recognize the disorder in order to provide optimum care for this chronic condition. We emphasize therefore the importance of psychiatric evaluation and treatment to avoid the major risk of suicide. Skin lesions must be regarded as an

  13. Onset of Maternal Psychiatric Disorders after the Birth of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mothers of a child with autism spectrum disorder have more psychiatric disorders after the birth of their child. This might be because they have more psychiatric disorders before the birth, or the increase could be related to the burden of caring for their child. Aims: We aimed to calculate the incidence of a psychiatric diagnosis in…

  14. Onset of Maternal Psychiatric Disorders after the Birth of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mothers of a child with autism spectrum disorder have more psychiatric disorders after the birth of their child. This might be because they have more psychiatric disorders before the birth, or the increase could be related to the burden of caring for their child. Aims: We aimed to calculate the incidence of a psychiatric diagnosis in…

  15. Comorbidity of Psychiatric Disorders and Nicotine Dependence among Adolescents: Findings from a Prospective, Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griesler, Pamela C.; Hu, Mei-Chen; Schaffram, Christine; Kandel, Denise B.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between nicotine dependence and DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in 1,039 adolescents is examined. Findings revealed that psychiatric disorders most usually predicted the onset of the first basis of nicotine dependence while nicotine dependence does not appear to have an influence on the onset of psychiatric disorders. Other…

  16. Comorbidity of Psychiatric Disorders and Nicotine Dependence among Adolescents: Findings from a Prospective, Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griesler, Pamela C.; Hu, Mei-Chen; Schaffram, Christine; Kandel, Denise B.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between nicotine dependence and DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in 1,039 adolescents is examined. Findings revealed that psychiatric disorders most usually predicted the onset of the first basis of nicotine dependence while nicotine dependence does not appear to have an influence on the onset of psychiatric disorders. Other…

  17. [Psychiatric disorders and their effects on mortality and morbidity].

    PubMed

    Juckel, G

    2014-12-01

    Psychiatric disorders themselves--and not only the known psychotropic agents--lead to enhanced psychic and somatic morbidity, and not only as a so-called psychic reaction. Psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia are diseases with a high prevalence and incidence in most countries, and they are life-threatening because they induce--besides suicidality--also many somatic diseases such as coronary arte- riosclerotic syndrome and diabetes. As a result, they have an--often indirect--effect on mortality. In the future, studies should give greater attention to the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. True "psychosomatic medicine" consists of determining the combined biological effect of psychic and somatic factors and their interactions in greater detail.

  18. A neurobiological approach to the cognitive deficits of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Etkin, Amit; Gyurak, Anett; O'Hara, Ruth

    2013-12-01

    Deficits in brain networks that support cognitive regulatory functions are prevalent in many psychiatric disorders. Findings across neuropsychology and neuroimaging point to broad-based impairments that cross traditional diagnostic boundaries. These dysfunctions are largely separate from the classical symptoms of the disorders, and manifest in regulatory problems in both traditional cognitive and emotional domains. As such, they relate to the capacity of patients to engage effectively in their daily lives and activity, often persist even in the face of symptomatically effective treatment, and are poorly targeted by current treatments. Advances in cognitive neuroscience now allow us to ground an understanding of these cognitive regulatory deficits in the function and interaction of key brain networks. This emerging neurobiological understanding furthermore points to several promising routes for novel neuroscience-informed treatments targeted more specifically at improving cognitive function in a range of psychiatric disorders.

  19. Sleep in psychiatric disorders: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Kyung Lee, Elliott; Douglass, Alan B

    2010-07-01

    Although the precise function of sleep is unknown, decades of research strongly implicate that sleep has a vital role in central nervous system (CNS) restoration, memory consolidation, and affect regulation. Slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep have been of significant interest to psychiatrists; SWS because of its putative role in CNS energy recuperation and cognitive function, and REM sleep because of its suggested involvement in memory, mood regulation, and possible emotional adaptation. With the advent of the polysomnogram, researchers are now beginning to understand some of the consequences of disrupted sleep and sleep deprivation in psychiatric disorders. The same neurochemistry that controls the sleep-wake cycle has also been implicated in the pathophysiology of numerous psychiatric disorders. Thus it is no surprise that several psychiatric disorders have prominent sleep symptoms. This review will summarize normal sleep architecture, and then examine sleep abnormalities and comorbid sleep disorders seen in schizophrenia, as well as anxiety, cognitive, and substance abuse disorders.

  20. Conversion disorders: psychiatric and psychotherapeutic aspects.

    PubMed

    Cottencin, O

    2014-10-01

    Hysteria is still stigmatized and frequently associated with lying or malingering. However, conversion disorder is not malingering, nor factitious disorder. The first step for the clinician faced with suspected conversion disorder is to make a positive diagnosis, which is in fact an integral part of treatment. In the emergency situation, it is important to look for an underlying somatic disorder. Although no specific treatment exists, there is a consensus in favor of a positive role of psychotherapy. First of all, the main problem is to explain to patients that their physical complaint has a psychological cause. In order to deliver the diagnosis in the most appropriate and useful manner, physicians have to first convince themselves before trying to convince patients. Combined consultation (medicine and psychiatry) is a useful tool to help patients. With or without combined consultation, this approach requires patience and open-mindedness to motivate patients to recognize the value of psychotherapy. Coordination between specialists and general practitioners is an important part of this treatment, which frequently requires long-term intervention.

  1. Psychiatric Literacy and the Conduct Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Leno, Virginia Carter

    2012-01-01

    Past research regarding mental health literacy has indicated that public knowledge is lamentably poor. This study aimed to examine the effect of demographics, experience and personality, as predictors for understanding conduct disorders. An opportunistic sample of 125 participants with a mean age of 24.29 years completed an online questionnaire in…

  2. Resilience: A psychobiological construct for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Desousa, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of psychopathology of mental disorder is evolving, particularly with availability of newer insight from the field of genetics, epigenetics, social, and environmental pathology. It is now becoming clear how biological factors are contributing to development of an illness in the face of a number of psychosocial factors. Resilience is a psychobiological factor which determines individual's response to adverse life events. Resilience is a human capacity to adapt swiftly and successfully to stressful/traumatic events and manage to revert to a positive state. It is fundamental for growth of positive psychology which deals with satisfaction, adaptability, contentment, and optimism in people's life. Of late, there has been a paradigm shift in the understanding of resilience in context of stress risk vulnerability dimension. It is a neurobiological construct with significant neurobehavioral and emotional features which plays important role in deconstructing mechanism of biopsychosocial model of mental disorders. Resilience is a protective factor against development of mental disorder and a risk factor for a number of clinical conditions, e.g. suicide. Available information from scientific studies points out that resilience is modifiable factor which opens up avenues for a number of newer psychosocial as well as biological therapies. Early identification of vulnerable candidates and effectiveness of resilience-based intervention may offer more clarity in possibility of prevention. Future research may be crucial for preventive psychiatry. In this study, we aim to examine whether resilience is a psychopathological construct for mental disorder. PMID:26985103

  3. Dimensional psychiatry: reward dysfunction and depressive mood across psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Hägele, Claudia; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Rapp, Michael; Sterzer, Philipp; Beck, Anne; Bermpohl, Felix; Stoy, Meline; Ströhle, Andreas; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Dolan, Raymond J; Heinz, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A dimensional approach in psychiatry aims to identify core mechanisms of mental disorders across nosological boundaries. We compared anticipation of reward between major psychiatric disorders, and investigated whether reward anticipation is impaired in several mental disorders and whether there is a common psychopathological correlate (negative mood) of such an impairment. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a monetary incentive delay (MID) task to study the functional correlates of reward anticipation across major psychiatric disorders in 184 subjects, with the diagnoses of alcohol dependence (n = 26), schizophrenia (n = 44), major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 24), bipolar disorder (acute manic episode, n = 13), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n = 23), and healthy controls (n = 54). Subjects' individual Beck Depression Inventory-and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-scores were correlated with clusters showing significant activation during reward anticipation. During reward anticipation, we observed significant group differences in ventral striatal (VS) activation: patients with schizophrenia, alcohol dependence, and major depression showed significantly less ventral striatal activation compared to healthy controls. Depressive symptoms correlated with dysfunction in reward anticipation regardless of diagnostic entity. There was no significant correlation between anxiety symptoms and VS functional activation. Our findings demonstrate a neurobiological dysfunction related to reward prediction that transcended disorder categories and was related to measures of depressed mood. The findings underline the potential of a dimensional approach in psychiatry and strengthen the hypothesis that neurobiological research in psychiatric disorders can be targeted at core mechanisms that are likely to be implicated in a range of clinical entities.

  4. A Review of Indian Research on Co-occurring Psychiatric Disorders and Alcohol use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shalini; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2016-01-01

    Excessive use of alcohol has been identified as a major contributor to the global burden of disease. Excessive use of alcohol is a component cause of more than 200 disease and injury conditions. Alcohol use has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality across all regions of the world including South-East Asia. Epidemiological as well as clinic-based studies from Western countries have reported a high prevalence of co-occurrence of alcohol use disorder and psychiatric disorders. The research has established the clinical relevance of this comorbidity as it is often associated with poor treatment outcome, severe illness course, and high service utilization. Understandably, dual disorders in from of alcohol use disorders and psychiatric disorders present diagnostic and management challenge. The current article is aimed to review systematically the published Indian literature on comorbid alcohol use disorders and psychiatric disorders. PMID:27011396

  5. Peritraumatic reactions and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms after psychiatric admission.

    PubMed

    Ladois-Do Pilar Rei, Agnès; Bui, Eric; Bousquet, Benjamin; Simon, Naomi M; Rieu, Julie; Schmitt, Laurent; Billard, Julien; Rodgers, Rachel; Birmes, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore exposure to stressful events during a psychiatric admission and the predictive power of peritraumatic distress and dissociation in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after exposure to such events. Psychiatric inpatients (N = 239) were asked to report exposure to stressful events during their admission within 48 hours of being admitted. Individuals reporting at least one stressful event during admission (n = 70, 29%) were assessed for peritraumatic dissociation and distress in relation to this event and, 5 weeks later, were reassessed for PTSD symptoms. Eight participants (12.3%) scored above the cutoff for probable PTSD. Multiple regression analyses revealed that peritraumatic distress was a significant predictor of 5-week PTSD symptoms. Our findings suggest that individuals experiencing increased peritraumatic distress in relation to a stressful event experienced during a psychiatric admission might be at risk of PTSD symptoms and might benefit from increased attention.

  6. PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS IN PATIENTS RECEIVING ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS DRUGS

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, C.E.; Krishnamurthy, Kartikeya; Murthy, K.J.R.

    1985-01-01

    SUMMARY Eleven in-patients of the hospital for Tuberculosis and Chest Diseases, Hyderabad, who presented with psychiatric symptoms resulting in maladjustment were examined and placed in different diagnostic groups. There were five psychotics and six neurotics. Out of the five psychotics, three were manic and two were depressive. Among the six neutrotics, three were depressive and one each of anxiety, obsessive compulsive and phobic neurosis. All the patients improved on withdrawal of anti-tuberculosis drugs and there was no recurrence or symptoms on reintroduction of anti-tuberculosis drugs other than isoniazid. On re-introduction of Isoniazid, symptoms recurred. The psychiatric disorders were most likely due to Isoniazid and they were neither dose nor duration related. However, Isoniazid may be readministered in the less severe forms along with appropriate drugs to control psychiatric side-effects. PMID:21927126

  7. Neurological and psychiatric disorders as a neuroglial failure

    PubMed Central

    VERKHRATSKY, ALEXEI; PARPURA, VLADIMIR

    2014-01-01

    Neuroglia are a diverse non-neuronal population of cells in the central and peripheral nervous system. These cells have a variety of functions that can all be summed up as the maintenance of homeostasis of the nervous system. It is the loss of homeostasis that represents the culprit of all disorders. Thus, neuroglia can be envisioned as the pivotal element in all neural disorders, be that neurological or psychiatric. In this review, we discuss the role of glia in homeostasis and defence of the nervous system as well as changes in the morpho-functional characteristics of these cells in various disorders. PMID:25544781

  8. Psychiatric comorbidities in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Thaipisuttikul, Papan; Ittasakul, Pichai; Waleeprakhon, Punjaporn; Wisajun, Pattarabhorn; Jullagate, Sudawan

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidities are common in major depressive disorder (MDD). They may worsen outcome and cause economic burden. The primary objective was to examine the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in MDD. The secondary objectives were to compare the presence of comorbidities between currently active and past MDD, and between patients with and without suicidal risk. This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 250 patients with lifetime MDD and age ≥18 years were enrolled. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), Thai version, was used to confirm MDD diagnosis and classify comorbidities. MDD diagnosis was confirmed in 190, and 60 patients were excluded due to diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Of the 190 MDD patients, 25.8% had current MDD and 74.2% had past MDD. Eighty percent were women. The mean age at enrollment was 50 years, and at MDD onset was 41 years. Most patients were married (53.2%), employed (54.8%), and had ≥12 years of education (66.9%). There were 67 patients (35.3%) with one or more psychiatric comorbidities. Comorbidities included dysthymia (19.5%), any anxiety disorders (21.1%) (panic disorder [6.8%], agoraphobia [5.8%], social phobia [3.7%], obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD] [4.7%], generalized anxiety disorder [5.3%], and post-traumatic stress disorder [4.2%]), alcohol dependence (0.5%), psychotic disorder (1.6%), antisocial personality (1.1%), and eating disorders (0%). Compared with past MDD, the current MDD group had significantly higher OCD (P<0.001), psychotic disorder (P=0.048), past panic disorder (P=0.017), and suicidal risk (P<0.001). Suicidal risk was found in 32.1% of patients. Patients with suicidal risk had more comorbid anxiety disorder of any type (P=0.019) and psychotic disorder (P=0.032). Several comorbidities were associated with MDD. Patients with active MDD had higher comorbid OCD, psychotic disorder, past panic disorder, and suicidal risk. Patients with suicide risk had higher comorbid anxiety and

  9. Symptom severity and disability in psychiatric disorders: The U.S. Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Survey.

    PubMed

    García-Velázquez, R; Jokela, M; Rosenström, T H

    2017-11-01

    While most psychiatric diagnoses are based on simple counts of symptoms, some symptoms may be sign of a more severe mental syndrome than others. This calls for validated estimates of the relative severity specific symptoms imply within a disorder. We focused on four diagnostic disorders: Manic Episode (ME), Major Depressive Episode (MDE), Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Symptom-specific severity parameters were estimated, and validated by examining their association with levels of self-reported disability in daily activities over and above the number of symptoms. Data from the cohort study of the U.S. Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) was used, which comprises the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, National Survey of American Life, and the National Latino and Asian American Study. The four analytic datasets included respondents who endorsed disorder-specific pre-screening symptoms according to the World Mental Health Survey Initiative's version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Disability was measured using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. Item Response Theory and Tobit models were implemented. For ME, PTSD, and GAD (not MDE) symptom severity based on psychometric Item Response Theory predicted disability outcomes after adjusting for symptom count. For PTSD, symptom count was not associated with disability. The analytic sample for each psychiatric disorder was based on a pre-selection stemming from index criteria (e.g. sadness or pleasure loss for MDE), which implies that our results are only generalizable to those individuals at risk rather than for the entire population. Additionally, we acknowledge that the use of unidimensional models is only one of the several options to model psychopathological constructs. The same number of symptoms may be related to different levels of disability, depending on the specific symptoms from which the person suffers. Diagnostic

  10. Cannabis and neurodevelopment: implications for psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Sundram, Suresh

    2006-06-01

    The developing brain is susceptible to the effects of exogenous cannabinoids both during the perinatal period through maternal cannabis use and in young adolescent users. Emerging data from human and animal perinatal exposure studies demonstrate a subtle rather than gross effect of cannabis upon later functioning including; specific cognitive deficits especially in visuospatial function; impulsivity, inattention and hyperactivity; depressive symptoms; and substance use disorders. From animal studies motor control systems, neuroendocrine function and nociception may additionally be affected. Fetal studies indicate that these outcomes may be through cannabinoid mediated influences on the ontogeny of, especially dopamine and opioid, neurotransmitter systems. The effect of cannabinoids in the adolescent suggest long-term deleterious outcomes in cognition, depressive symptoms, schizophrenia and substance use disorders. Much of these data support a neurodevelopmental effect, however, predisposing genetic and/or environmental factors cannot be excluded from human studies. Gender specific differences have been observed in both human and animal studies implying sex hormone and related factors may interact with cannabinoids in neurodevelopment. Further understanding how cannabinoids influence neurodevelopment will inform public debate about the health effects of cannabis but also open avenues in discerning how modulation of the endocannabinoid system may assist in the development of therapeutic tools for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  11. Transcranial direct current stimulation in psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tortella, Gabriel; Casati, Roberta; Aparicio, Luana V M; Mantovani, Antonio; Senço, Natasha; D’Urso, Giordano; Brunelin, Jerome; Guarienti, Fabiana; Selingardi, Priscila Mara Lorencini; Muszkat, Débora; Junior, Bernardo de Sampaio Pereira; Valiengo, Leandro; Moffa, Adriano H; Simis, Marcel; Borrione, Lucas; Brunoni, André R

    2015-01-01

    The interest in non-invasive brain stimulation techniques is increasing in recent years. Among these techniques, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been the subject of great interest among researchers because of its easiness to use, low cost, benign profile of side effects and encouraging results of research in the field. This interest has generated several studies and randomized clinical trials, particularly in psychiatry. In this review, we provide a summary of the development of the technique and its mechanism of action as well as a review of the methodological aspects of randomized clinical trials in psychiatry, including studies in affective disorders, schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, child psychiatry and substance use disorder. Finally, we provide an overview of tDCS use in cognitive enhancement as well as a discussion regarding its clinical use and regulatory and ethical issues. Although many promising results regarding tDCS efficacy were described, the total number of studies is still low, highlighting the need of further studies aiming to replicate these findings in larger samples as to provide a definite picture regarding tDCS efficacy in psychiatry. PMID:25815258

  12. [Cannabis-induced cognitive and psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Dervaux, Alain; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Laqueille, Xavier

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have shown that Δ-9-THC the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, can impair cognitive functions, especially attention, episodic memory, working memory and executive functions. These impairments have been related to the duration, frequency, dose and age at onset of cannabis use. Cognitive deficits may disappear with abstinence, but abnormalities may be long-lasting in subjects who began smoking cannabis before age 15. The lifetime prevalence of cannabis use disorders is about 1% in the general population. The main characteristics of cannabis use disorders are craving, persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use, and persistent avoidance of familial, social occupational or recreational activities because of cannabis use. Nine prospective longitudinal studies in the generalpopulation have shown that cannabis use is associated with a two-fold increase in the risk of psychotic disorders, particularly schizophrenia, compared to controls. The risk of psychosis increases in a dose-related fashion. A higher risk of schizophrenia is predicted by earlier onset of cannabis use. The effects of cannabis are exerted primarily through THC interaction with cannabinoid (CB) 1 receptors in the brain. Cannabis exposure may disrupt the last steps of brain maturation, through the endocannabinoid system, thereby increasing the risk of psychosis during adolescence.

  13. The ANKK1 kinase gene and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Guillermo; Pérez-González, Rocío; Aragüés, María; Palomo, Tomás; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Roberto; Jiménez-Arriero, Miguel Angel; Hoenicka, Janet

    2009-07-01

    The TaqIA single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs1800497), which is located in the gene that codes for the putative kinase ANKK1 (ANKK1) near the termination codon of the D2 dopamine receptor gene (DRD2; chromosome 11q22-q23), is the most studied genetic variation in a broad range of psychiatric disorders and personality traits. A large number of individual genetic association studies have found that the TaqIA SNP is linked to alcoholism and antisocial traits. In addition, it has also been related to other conditions such as schizophrenia, eating disorders, and some behavioral childhood disorders. The TaqIA A1 allele is mainly associated with addictions, antisocial disorders, eating disorders, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders, while the A2 allele occurs more frequently in schizophrenic and obsessive-compulsive patients. Current data show that the TaqIA polymorphism may be a marker of both DRD2 and ANKK1 genetic variants. ANKK1 would belong to a family of kinases involved in signal transduction. This raises the question of whether signaling players intervene in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Basic research on the ANKK1 protein and its putative interaction with the D2 dopamine receptor could shed light on this issue.

  14. Personality disorder and pathways to inpatient psychiatric care.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Marianne; Moran, Paul

    2007-06-01

    The impact of personality disorder on pathways into psychiatric care is unknown. To examine associations between personality disorder status, length of pathway into inpatient psychiatric care, and involvement of the criminal justice service in the pathway into care. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV personality disorders (SCID-II) and a modified WHO Pathways Encounter Form were administered to a sample of 153 consecutive inpatients admitted to acute wards in one inner London borough over a 4-month period. Diagnosis, socio-demographic variables, social support and substance misuse were also ascertained. The presence of personality disorder was not associated with significant differences in the number of carers, time spent along the pathway, or probability of criminal justice system involvement. However, all three personality disorder clusters were significantly associated with increased use of Accident and Emergency (A & E) services. Given the high levels of contact with A & E services, casualty staff should receive improved training in the assessment and management of patients with personality disorders. Improved detection of personality disorder within A & E departments could lead to earlier diversion to mental health services and a consequential improvement in the planning of subsequent treatment.

  15. [Negative symptoms in patients with non schizophrenic psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Donnoli, Vicente F; Moroni, María V; Cohen, Diego; Chisari Rocha, Liliana; Marleta, María; Sepich Dalmeida, Tomás; Bonani, Matías; D'Alessio, Luciana

    2011-01-01

    The presence of negative symptoms (NS) in different clinical entities other than schizophrenia, with a dimensional approach of negative symptoms, was considered in this work. Determine the presence and distribution of NS, in a population of patients with non schizophrenic psychiatric disorders attending ambulatory treatment at public hospitals. Patients with define DSM IV diagnosis criteria for different disorders; affective, alimentary, substance abuse, anxiety, personality disorders and patients with ILAE diagnoses criteria for temporal lobe epilepsy were included. All patients underwent the subscale PANNS for negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Student T test was calculated to determine the differences of frequency for NS among psychiatric disorders. 106 patients were included; 60 women, 46 men, 38 years +/- 12.1. The 90% of patients have a low score of NS. Media 11.6, Max/min 9.38 -14.29. Emotional withdrawal and passive social withdrawal were more frequent in alimentary disorders than in affective disorder and than in epilepsy. Emotional withdrawal was more frequent in substance disorders than epilepsy. According this study, negative symptoms are present in a low to moderate intensity in non schizophrenic psychiatry entities and in the temporal lobe epilepsy.

  16. [Seasonal depressive disorder: a controlled study in Tunisian psychiatric sample].

    PubMed

    Mechri, Anwar; Zaafrane, Férid; Mrad, Amel; Khiari, Geneviève; Dogui, Mohamed; Gaha, Lotfi

    2004-05-01

    Seasonal affective disorder is considered as a clinical subtype of major depression. The criteria for seasonal pattern has been recently described in the international classification of mental disorders. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics of patients with major depression and with a seasonal and a non seasonal pattern. The study was conducted at the psychiatric ward at Monastir university hospital. 16 inpatients with major depression and seasonal pattern, diagnosed with DSM-IV criteria, were matched in age, sex and diagnostic sub-type to 32 inpatients with non seasonal mood disorders. Clinical symptoms and short term course during the most recent depressive episode were obtained. The onset of the depression with seasonal pattern was frequently in winter. It was marked by significantly higher rates of anxiety. The patients with seasonal depression had significantly higher rates of dysphoria, atypical vegetative symptomatology and lower rates of psychotic characteristics and suicidal thoughts. No differences were found as to the psychiatric family histories or the age at the first depressive episode. This study could focus of the novel psychiatric entity and may lead to the development of the genetic and neurobiologic research related to seasonal affective disorder.

  17. [Prevalence and role of psychiatric disorders in disability].

    PubMed

    Lang, U E; Hellweg, R

    2006-12-01

    Common risk factors for the receipt of disability income (DI) are psychiatric diagnosis at the time of conscription, showing low personal responsibility and job satisfication, unemployment after graduation, low rating on an "IQ" test, low educational level, part-time employment, isolation, separation, smoking, problem drinking, poor subjective state of health and well-being. Psychiatric diagnoses are considered to be the main reason for disability income in women and rank third in men. With average retirement age of 39 for males and 42 for females, schizophrenia is the most important single reason for early retirement before age 40. Major depression has been shown to be the fourth leading cause of DI worldwide. Personality disorders, which display primarily antisocial, histrionic, emotionally unstable and narcissistic behaviour (Cluster B personality disorders) have been associated with an earlier age of work disability, and borderline personality has been associated with failure to return to work. A dependent, schizoid, paranoid and antisocial personality tends to be associated with an increased risk of developing disability. A subtype of adaptation disorder that is characterised primarily by lasting embitterment after exceptional life events, which violate basic beliefs, namely post-traumatic embitterment disorder, shows up highly the development of DI. However, most of the patients applying for a DI have neither been sufficiently diagnosed nor received adequate psychiatric and/or psychotherapeutic treatment when they claim on their DI policy. Thus, the prognosis of the diseases listed above could well be improved at least for some patients depending on their disease (10-80 %).

  18. Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Children with Autism: Interview Development and Rates of Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyfer, Ovsanna T.; Folstein, Susan E.; Bacalman, Susan; Davis, Naomi O.; Dinh, Elena; Morgan, Jubel; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2006-01-01

    The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia was modified for use in children and adolescents with autism by developing additional screening questions and coding options that reflect the presentation of psychiatric disorders in autism spectrum disorders. The modified instrument, the Autism Comorbidity Interview-Present and…

  19. Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Children with Autism: Interview Development and Rates of Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyfer, Ovsanna T.; Folstein, Susan E.; Bacalman, Susan; Davis, Naomi O.; Dinh, Elena; Morgan, Jubel; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2006-01-01

    The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia was modified for use in children and adolescents with autism by developing additional screening questions and coding options that reflect the presentation of psychiatric disorders in autism spectrum disorders. The modified instrument, the Autism Comorbidity Interview-Present and…

  20. The Correlation Between Psychiatric Disorders and Women’s Lives

    PubMed Central

    Bursalioglu, Fusun Sevimli; Aydin, Nazan; Yazici, Esra; Yazici, Ahmet Bulent

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatric disorders are important factors which affect the quality of life: employment rates, interpersonal and intrafamilial communications, marriage, child-bearing, parental skills and many other social – cognitive areas in different ways. Psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder and depressive disorder have a negative impact on women’s lives. This study has compared the relationship between these mental illnesses and the liabilities of women’s lives. Methods: For the purpose of this study, 61 schizophrenics, 35 bipolar and 40 unipolar female patients and 60 healthy controls from a university hospital of eastern Turkey were evaluated with SCID- I, a family environmental scale and a personal information questionnaire. Results: The women with psychiatric disorders had higher rates of unemployment, shorter durations of marriage and lower numbers of parity, as compared to their healthy counterparts, especially after the onset of their illnesses. The schizophrenia and bipolar groups are at risk due to the psychotropic medications which they take during pregnancy. The onset or the exacerbations of illnesses during the postpartum period are also seen more in the schizophrenia and the bipolar groups. However, the patients did not use medicines more than the healthy controls during lactation. The schizophrenia and bipolar groups seem to be failing in using reliable methods of contraception. This data is important due to the traditional and the socio-economical structure of eastern Turkey, which may interrelate with the results. Conclusion: Women have to play various roles in life and they have various challenges which are related to these roles. The female psychiatric patients should be evaluated in the special perspective of ‘being women’, along with other clinical parameters. The evaluation of the social, cultural and the economic aspects and the collaborative teams of different clinical disciplines which are related to

  1. Consensus on guidelines for stereotactic neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nuttin, Bart; Wu, Hemmings; Mayberg, Helen; Hariz, Marwan; Gabriëls, Loes; Galert, Thorsten; Merkel, Reinhard; Kubu, Cynthia; Vilela-Filho, Osvaldo; Matthews, Keith; Taira, Takaomi; Lozano, Andres M; Schechtmann, Gastón; Doshi, Paresh; Broggi, Giovanni; Régis, Jean; Alkhani, Ahmed; Sun, Bomin; Eljamel, Sam; Schulder, Michael; Kaplitt, Michael; Eskandar, Emad; Rezai, Ali; Krauss, Joachim K; Hilven, Paulien; Schuurman, Rick; Ruiz, Pedro; Chang, Jin Woo; Cosyns, Paul; Lipsman, Nir; Voges, Juergen; Cosgrove, Rees; Li, Yongjie; Schlaepfer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background For patients with psychiatric illnesses remaining refractory to ‘standard’ therapies, neurosurgical procedures may be considered. Guidelines for safe and ethical conduct of such procedures have previously and independently been proposed by various local and regional expert groups. Methods To expand on these earlier documents, representative members of continental and international psychiatric and neurosurgical societies, joined efforts to further elaborate and adopt a pragmatic worldwide set of guidelines. These are intended to address a broad range of neuropsychiatric disorders, brain targets and neurosurgical techniques, taking into account cultural and social heterogeneities of healthcare environments. Findings The proposed consensus document highlights that, while stereotactic ablative procedures such as cingulotomy and capsulotomy for depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder are considered ‘established’ in some countries, they still lack level I evidence. Further, it is noted that deep brain stimulation in any brain target hitherto tried, and for any psychiatric or behavioural disorder, still remains at an investigational stage. Researchers are encouraged to design randomised controlled trials, based on scientific and data-driven rationales for disease and brain target selection. Experienced multidisciplinary teams are a mandatory requirement for the safe and ethical conduct of any psychiatric neurosurgery, ensuring documented refractoriness of patients, proper consent procedures that respect patient's capacity and autonomy, multifaceted preoperative as well as postoperative long-term follow-up evaluation, and reporting of effects and side effects for all patients. Interpretation This consensus document on ethical and scientific conduct of psychiatric surgery worldwide is designed to enhance patient safety. PMID:24444853

  2. [Creativity and psychiatric disorders: exploring a marginal area].

    PubMed

    Thys, E; Sabbe, B; De Hert, M

    2012-01-01

    Creativity is an important human quality on which many of man’s achievements are based. To give a historical and cultural context, to facilitate meaningful scientific research into the link between creativity and psychiatric disorders. Review of relevant literature. The possibility of a link between creativity and psychiatric vulnerability was first discussed in antiquity. Modern interest in the subject stems from the romantic era and acquired a scientific aura in the 19th century. In the 20th century creativity and psychopathology became still further entangled as a result of the influence that mentally disturbed artists exerted on art. The history of the Prinzhorn collection illustrates many aspects of this interaction. Psychometric, psychodiagnostic and genetic research supports a link between creativity and psychiatric illness within the bipolar-psychotic continuum, with schizotypy/thymotypy as prototypes of creativity-related disorders. Evolutionary hypotheses connect the schizophrenia paradox to a survival advantage obtained as a result of enhanced creative ability. Neuro-aesthetics explains the neurologic correlates of the aesthetic experience on the basis of the features of the visual system. A specific challenge for scientific research in this complex and heterogeneous area is appropriate operationalisation of creativity and psychiatric illness within an truly artistic context. There is a continuing need for meaningful definitions and measurement instruments and for a multidisciplinary collaboration.

  3. Screening of alcohol use disorders in psychiatric outpatients: influence of gender, age, and psychiatric diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Autet, Mónica; Garriga, Marina; Zamora, Francisco Javier; González, Idilio; Usall, Judith; Tolosa, Leticia; Benítez, Concepción; Puertas, Raquel; Arranz, Belén

    2017-07-14

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are 2 times higher among psychiatric patients than in the general population. The under-recognition of this dual diagnosis can entail several negative outcomes. Early assessment with a screening tool like the CAGE questionnaire could be an opportunity to improve patients' prognoses. The objective of this study is to assess AUD risk in an outpatient psychiatric sample with a modified CAGE, considering the influence of age, gender and clinical psychiatric diagnosis. An observational, multicentric, descriptive study was carried out. The 4-item CAGE scale, camouflaged in a healthy lifestyle questionnaire, was implemented, using a cut-off point of one. 559 outpatients were assessed. 54% were female and the average age was 50.07 years. 182 patients presented a CAGE score ≥1 (45.1% of men and 21.9% of women). Gender was the strongest predictor of a positive result in CAGE, as men were 3.03 times more likely to score ≥1 on the CAGE questionnaire (p < .001, 95% CI: 0.22-0.49). Patients with bipolar and personality disorders had the highest rates of CAGE scores ≥1 (45.2 and 44.9%, respectively), with a significant association between diagnosis and a positive score (p = .002). Patients above 60 years were 2.5 times less likely to score ≥1 on the CAGE (p = .017, 95% CI: 0.19-0.85). Specific screening questionnaires, like the CAGE scale, can be an easy and useful tool in the assessment of AUD risk in psychiatric outpatients. Male patients with a bipolar or personality disorder present a higher risk of AUD.

  4. Disrupting Disordered Neurocircuitry: Treating Refractory Psychiatric Illness With Neuromodulation

    PubMed Central

    Tye, Susannah J.; Frye, Mark A.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the premature and somewhat infamous rise and fall of psychosurgery in the mid-20th century, the current era of functional neuromodulation proffers immense opportunity for surgical intervention in treatment-resistant psychiatric disorders. On the basis of recent successes with novel, focused, less invasive, and reversible treatment strategies for movement disorders, several therapeutic trials have been conducted to investigate the effectiveness of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in treatment-resistant depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and Tourette syndrome. The many anatomic targets for these psychiatric disorders are indicative of both the system-wide effects of DBS and the network-level dysfunction mediating the emotional and cognitive disturbances. To gain insight into the application of neuromodulation therapies and their further advancement, we must elucidate neuroanatomic networks involved in refractory psychiatric illness, the neurophysiological anomalies that contribute to disordered information processing therein, and the local and system-wide modulatory effects of DBS. This review discusses the history of psychosurgical procedures, recent DBS clinical data, current anatomic models of psychopathology, and possible therapeutic mechanisms of action of DBS neuromodulation. Our search criteria for PubMed included combinations of the following terms: neuromodulation, DBS, depression, OCD, Tourette syndrome, mechanism of action, and history. Dates were not restricted. As clinical and basic scientific investigations probe the neuromodulatory effects of DBS in the treatment of refractory neuropsychiatric illness, our knowledge of these disorders and our potential to treat them are rapidly expanding. Indeed, this modern era of neuromodulation may provide the key that unlocks many of the mysteries pertaining to the biological basis of disordered emotional neurocircuitry. PMID:19483169

  5. Social Experience-Dependent Myelination: An Implication for Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Toritsuka, Michihiro; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Myelination is one of the strategies to promote the conduction velocity of axons in order to adjust to evolving environment in vertebrates. It has been shown that myelin formation depends on genetic programing and experience, including multiple factors, intracellular and extracellular molecules, and neuronal activities. Recently, accumulating studies have shown that myelination in the central nervous system changes more dynamically in response to neuronal activities and experience than expected. Among experiences, social experience-dependent myelination draws attention as one of the critical pathobiologies of psychiatric disorders. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of neuronal activity-dependent and social experience-dependent myelination and discuss the contribution of social experience-dependent myelination to the pathology of psychiatric disorders. PMID:26078885

  6. Lab-on-a-Chip Proteomic Assays for Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Peter, Harald; Wienke, Julia; Guest, Paul C; Bistolas, Nikitas; Bier, Frank F

    2017-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip assays allow rapid identification of multiple parameters on an automated user-friendly platform. Here we describe a fully automated multiplex immunoassay and readout in less than 15 min using the Fraunhofer in vitro diagnostics (ivD) platform to enable inexpensive point-of-care profiling of sera or a single drop of blood from patients with various diseases such as psychiatric disorders.

  7. How the epigenome contributes to the development of psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bredy, Timothy W.; Sun, Yi E.; Kobor, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Epigenetics commonly refers to the developmental process by which cellular traits are established and inherited without a change in DNA sequence. These mechanisms of cellular memory also orchestrate gene expression in the adult brain and recent evidence suggests that the “epigenome” represents a critical interface between environmental signals, activation, repression and maintenance of genomic responses, and persistent behavior. We here review the current state of knowledge regarding the contribution of the epigenome toward the development of psychiatric disorders. PMID:20127889

  8. Common Questions About Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Scott F; Banducci, Anne N; Vinci, Christine

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is a time-limited, goal-oriented psychotherapy that has been extensively researched and has benefits in a number of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, and insomnia. CBT uses targeted strategies to help patients adopt more adaptive patterns of thinking and behaving, which leads to positive changes in emotions and decreased functional impairments. Strategies include identifying and challenging problematic thoughts and beliefs, scheduling pleasant activities to increase environmental reinforcement, and extended exposure to unpleasant thoughts, situations, or physiologic sensations to decrease avoidance and arousal associated with anxiety-eliciting stimuli. CBT can be helpful in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by emphasizing safety, trust, control, esteem, and intimacy. Prolonged exposure therapy is a CBT technique that includes a variety of strategies, such as repeated recounting of the trauma and exposure to feared real-world situations. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, CBT focuses on establishing structures and routines, and clear rules and expectations within the home and classroom. Early intensive behavioral interventions should be initiated in children with autism before three years of age; therapy consists of 12 to 40 hours of intensive treatment per week, for at least one year. In many disorders, CBT can be used alone or in combination with medications. However, CBT requires a significant commitment from patients. Family physicians are well suited to provide collaborative care for patients with psychiatric disorders, in concert with cognitive behavior therapists.

  9. A Computational Analysis of Aberrant Delay Discounting in Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Story, Giles W.; Moutoussis, Michael; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2016-01-01

    Impatience for reward is a facet of many psychiatric disorders. We draw attention to a growing literature finding greater discounting of delayed reward, an important aspect of impatience, across a range of psychiatric disorders. We propose these findings are best understood by considering the goals and motivation for discounting future reward. We characterize these as arising from either the opportunity costs of waiting or the uncertainty associated with delayed reward. We link specific instances of higher discounting in psychiatric disorder to heightened subjective estimates of either of these factors. We propose these costs are learned and represented based either on a flexible cognitive model of the world, an accumulation of previous experience, or through evolutionary specification. Any of these can be considered suboptimal for the individual if the resulting behavior results in impairments in personal and social functioning and/or in distress. By considering the neurochemical and neuroanatomical implementation of these processes, we illustrate how this approach can in principle unite social, psychological and biological conceptions of impulsive choice. PMID:26793131

  10. Biomarker identification in psychiatric disorders: from neuroscience to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Razafsha, Mahdi; Khaku, Aunali; Azari, Hassan; Alawieh, Ali; Behforuzi, Hura; Fadlallah, Bilal; Kobeissy, Firas H; Wang, Kevin K; Gold, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Patients with psychiatric disorders exhibit several neurobehavioral and neuropsychological alterations compared to healthy controls. However, signature endpoints of these behavioral manifestations have not yet been translated into clinical tests for diagnosis and follow-up measures. Recently, neuroproteomic approaches have been utilized to identify unique signature markers indicative of these disorders. Development of reliable biomarkers has the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis, classification, and monitoring of clinical responses in psychiatric diseases. However, the lack of biological gold standards, the evolving nosology of psychiatric disorders, and the complexity of the nervous system are among the major challenges that have hindered efforts to develop reliable biomarkers in the field of neuropsychiatry and drug abuse. While biomarkers currently have a limited role in the area of neuropsychiatry, several promising biomarkers have been proposed in conditions such as dementia, schizophrenia, depression, suicide, and addiction. One of the primary objectives of this review is to discuss the role of proteomics in the development of biomarkers specific to neuropsychiatry. We discuss and evaluate currently available biomarkers as well as those that are under research for clinical use in the future.

  11. Body mass index and psychiatric disorders: a Mendelian randomization study

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Bowden, Jack; Loret de Mola, Christian; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Davey Smith, George; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. Observational studies suggest that obesity is associated with psychiatric traits, but causal inference from such studies has several limitations. We used two-sample Mendelian randomization methods (inverse variance weighting, weighted median and MR-Egger regression) to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI) with three psychiatric traits using data from the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits and Psychiatric Genomics consortia. Causal odds ratio estimates per 1-standard deviation increment in BMI ranged from 0.88 (95% CI: 0.62; 1.25) to 1.23 (95% CI: 0.65; 2.31) for bipolar disorder; 0.93 (0.78; 1.11) to 1.41 (0.87; 2.27) for schizophrenia; and 1.15 (95% CI: 0.92; 1.44) to 1.40 (95% CI: 1.03; 1.90) for major depressive disorder. Analyses removing potentially influential SNPs suggested that the effect estimates for depression might be underestimated. Our findings do not support the notion that higher BMI increases risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Although the point estimates for depression were consistent in all sensitivity analyses, the overall statistical evidence was weak. However, the fact that SNP-depression associations were estimated in relatively small samples reduced power to detect causal effects. This should be re-addressed when SNP-depression associations from larger studies become available. PMID:27601421

  12. [Alcohol consumption in patients with psychiatric disorders: assessment and treatment].

    PubMed

    Lang, J-P; Bonnewitz, M-L; Kusterer, M; Lalanne-Tongio, L

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol consumption in France exceeds the European average (12.7L of pure alcohol/habitant/year in 2009 for an average of 12.5 L). This consumption has a major professional, social and health impact on the individuals and their families. The cost of such, estimated in Europe to be of 155.8 billion Euros in 2010, is the highest among the central nervous system diseases in Europe, far higher than that of depression or dementia. Patients suffering from psychiatric disorders are more frequently affected by problems related to alcohol use than the general population. They are also more vulnerable to the immediate and subsequent consequences of their consumption. The alcohol related disorders that are often accompanied by risk taking and other addictive behaviour require a global assessment of the addiction, with and without substance, and of the complications. These have a strong impact on risk taking, compliance with care, and the morbidity of somatic and psychiatric disorders, as well as access to optimal care and the life span of patients suffering from psychiatric disorders. The development of addictology care, with integrative treatment programs, is recommended in response to these public health issues. Nevertheless, specific addictology practices and partners with addictology care structures are still scarcely developed in psychiatry. Firstly, it would be necessary to set up such integrated treatments through the systematisation of an "addictology" checkup on admission, a global assessment of addictive behaviour and cognitive disorders, using pragmatic tools that are user-friendly for the care teams, maintain the reduction in risk taking, and apply prescriptions for addiction to psychotropic treatments, in liaison with the referring general practitioner. As early as possible, accompanied by specific training in addictology for the psychiatrists and the mental health nursing teams, such care could be enhanced by the development of liaison and advanced psychiatric

  13. [Creativity and psychiatric disorders: recent neuroscientific insights].

    PubMed

    Thys, E; Sabbe, B; de Hert, M

    2011-01-01

    Creativity is an important human characteristic on which many of mankind's achievements are based. For centuries practitioners of various disciplines have deliberated over the possible connection between creativity and psychopathology. Even today the issue is still being investigated, mainly by groups working more or less independently; these range from art experts to psychiatrists and neuroscientists. In this article we bring together the foremost recent neuroscientific findings on the subject. We searched for relevant articles via electronic databases using a broad-band search strategy and concentrating mainly on neuroscientific publications. Our study of relevant articles showed that both the definition and the measurability of creativity are still problematic. Psychometric and psychodiagnostic research supports a link between creativity and the psychopathology of bipolar, schizophrenic and especially schizotypal disorders; the results of imaging techniques are less consistent and genetic research reveals a link between creativity and proneness to psychosis. There seems to be a connection between creativity and psychopathology in the bipolar-schizophrenic continuum. This connection is even more evident within the individual components of creativity and symptom groups of these pathologies. There is a need for accurate definitions, measuring instruments and multidisciplinary collaboration.

  14. Temperament dimensions explain the comorbidity of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, M; Przybeck, T R; Bellodi, L; Cloninger, C R

    1996-01-01

    The comorbidity of DSM-III-R axis I and axis II disorders presents conceptual and nosological challenges to psychiatry. In a consecutive series of 164 psychiatric outpatients and 36 healthy controls in Milan, Italy, psychopathology was measured by structured interviews for DSM-III-R disorders and temperament was measured by the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). Low reward dependence (RD) distinguished cluster A personality disorders and no axis I disorders. High novelty seeking (NS) characterized cluster B personality disorders and patients with eating disorders, alcohol abuse, or substance abuse. High harm avoidance (HA) characterized all cluster C personality disorders and patients with mood or anxiety disorders. The temperament dimensions were nearly independent of one another, but patients often had multiple DSM-III-R diagnoses. The joint relations of these disorders to multiple temperament dimensions accounted for their characteristic patterns of comorbidity. These findings support the hypothesis that interactions among temperament dimensions during development influence comorbidity between axis I and axis II disorders.

  15. Panic disorder in primary care: Comorbid psychiatric disorders and their persistence

    PubMed Central

    Tilli, Virpi; Suominen, Kirsi; Karlsson, Hasse

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although 70–80% of panic disorder patients use primary care to obtain mental health services, relatively few studies have examined panic patients in this setting. This study aimed to examine both the lifetime and current comorbid psychiatric disorders associated with panic disorder in primary care, the duration and severity of the disorder, and the sociodemographic factors associated with it. Design Patients were screened for panic disorder. Panic disorder and the comorbid disorders were determined using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I and II. Setting Eight different health care centers in primary care in the city of Espoo. Subjects Finnish-speaking, between 18 and 65 years of age. Main outcome measures Comorbid psychiatric disorders, the duration and severity of the disorder, and the sociodemographic factors. Results A sample of 49 panic disorder patients and 44 patients with no current psychiatric diagnosis were identified; 98% of panic disorder patients had at least one comorbid lifetime DSM-IV Axis I disorder. Major depressive disorder and other anxiety disorders were most common comorbid disorders. Lifetime alcohol use disorders also showed marked frequency. Interestingly, the remission rates of alcohol use disorders were notable. The panic symptoms appeared to persist for years. Panic disorder was associated with low education and relatively low probability of working full time. Conclusions Also in primary care panic disorder is comorbid, chronic, and disabling. It is important to recognize the comorbid disorders. High remission rates of comorbid alcohol use disorders encourage active treatment of patients also suffering from these disorders. PMID:23113695

  16. [Pervasive refusal syndrome is a severe child psychiatric disorder].

    PubMed

    Hulgaard, Ditte; Wacher, Jeanette; Dehlholm-Lambertsen, Gitte

    2015-10-26

    Pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) is a severe, pervasive and potentially life-threatening disorder, which was first de--scribed in 1991, as a syndrome of child psychiatric disorder. Little has been written about PRS. We report a case story of a ten-year-old boy developing all symptoms of PRS, including inability to eat, move or speak. Psychopharmacological treat-ment was not successful. Full rehabilitation was reported after a period of inpatient treatment and outpatient follow-up. Different aetiological factors for PRS have been proposed. A number of these are presented in the case story.

  17. A proposal to classify happiness as a psychiatric disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Bentall, R P

    1992-01-01

    It is proposed that happiness be classified as a psychiatric disorder and be included in future editions of the major diagnostic manuals under the new name: major affective disorder, pleasant type. In a review of the relevant literature it is shown that happiness is statistically abnormal, consists of a discrete cluster of symptoms, is associated with a range of cognitive abnormalities, and probably reflects the abnormal functioning of the central nervous system. One possible objection to this proposal remains--that happiness is not negatively valued. However, this objection is dismissed as scientifically irrelevant. PMID:1619629

  18. The social brain in psychiatric and neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Daniel P.; Adolphs, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric and neurological disorders have historically provided key insights into the structure-function relationships that subserve human social cognition and behavior, informing the concept of the ‘social brain’. In this review, we take stock of the current status of this concept, retaining a focus on disorders that impact social behavior. We discuss how the social brain, social cognition, and social behavior are interdependent, and emphasize the important role of development and compensation. We suggest that the social brain, and its dysfunction and recovery, must be understood not in terms of specific structures, but rather in terms of their interaction in large-scale networks. PMID:23047070

  19. Childhood-Onset Bipolar Disorder: Evidence for Increased Familial Loading of Psychiatric Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rende, Richard; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Strober, Michael; Gill, Mary Kay; Valeri, Sylvia; Chiappetta, Laurel; Ryan, Neal; Leonard, Henrietta; Hunt, Jeffrey; Iyengar, Satish; Keller, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether childhood-onset bipolar disorder (BP) is associated with an increased psychiatric family history compared with adolescent-onset BP. Method: Semistructured psychiatric interviews were conducted for 438 youth with BP spectrum disorders. To evaluate the effects of age at onset and psychiatric family history, the sample…

  20. Childhood-Onset Bipolar Disorder: Evidence for Increased Familial Loading of Psychiatric Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rende, Richard; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Strober, Michael; Gill, Mary Kay; Valeri, Sylvia; Chiappetta, Laurel; Ryan, Neal; Leonard, Henrietta; Hunt, Jeffrey; Iyengar, Satish; Keller, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether childhood-onset bipolar disorder (BP) is associated with an increased psychiatric family history compared with adolescent-onset BP. Method: Semistructured psychiatric interviews were conducted for 438 youth with BP spectrum disorders. To evaluate the effects of age at onset and psychiatric family history, the sample…

  1. Progressive multiple sclerosis and mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Lorefice, Lorena; Fenu, G; Trincas, G; Moro, M F; Frau, J; Coghe, G C; Cocco, E; Marrosu, M G; Carta, M G

    2015-09-01

    Mood disorders are very common among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, but their frequency in patients with progressive course (PMS) has not been adequately researched. Our study aimed to determine the frequency of mood disorders among patients with PMS compared with those with relapsing-remitting MS (RMS) and to explore the associations with disability and disease duration. The study included consecutive outpatients affected by MS according the 2010 revised Mc Donald diagnostic criteria. Psychiatric diagnoses were determined according to DSM-IV by psychiatrists using structured interview tools (ANTAS-SCID). Demographic and clinical data of patients were also collected. Disease courses were defined according to the re-examined phenotype descriptions by the Committee and MS Phenotype Group. Intergroup comparisons were performed by Chi-square test, while logistic regression analysis was performed to assess possible factors associated with mood disorders. In total, 240 MS patients (167 women) were enrolled; of these, 18 % (45/240) had PMS. The lifetime DSM-IV major depression diagnosis (MDD) was established in 40 and 23 % of the PMS and RMS patients, respectively. Using logistic regression analysis, the presence of MDD was independent from disease duration and disability and dependent on PMS course (P = 0.02; OR 2.2). Patients with PMS presented with MDD more frequently than those with RMS, independently from disease duration and physical disability. These findings highlight the importance of considering mood disorders, especially MDD, in the management of PMS patients.

  2. The disruptive behavior disorders in the psychiatric emergency service.

    PubMed

    Breslow, R E; Klinger, B I; Erickson, B J

    1999-01-01

    Many children and adolescents presenting to the Psychiatric Emergency Service (PES) are diagnosed with the Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD), Conduct Disorder (CD), and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Sometimes it may be difficult to reliably diagnose these disorders in the PES setting. Given these limitations, a large database of 6 years of PES visits showed 314 patients with DBD compared with 1625 without DBD. More DBD patient visits required the intervention of police and/or the mobile crisis team. These patients are more likely to have additional diagnoses of depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, be in current treatment, or involved with court or the correctional system. They are less frequently referred by other emergency services such as medical ERs. DBD patients do not require emergency medication or psychiatric hospitalization any more frequently than other youngsters presenting to the PES. In the PES setting there is little differentiation between the CD and the ODD population. A more detailed study of the presenting symptomatology of the DBD vs non-DBD patients revealed that DBD patients showed over twice as many disruptive behavior symptoms. Fights and defiance were present significantly more frequently than in controls, with a trend toward increased frequency of bullying and stealing. The clinical and public mental health implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Purinergic Signaling and Energy Homeostasis in Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, D.; Shan, D.; Ayers-Ringler, J.; Oliveros, A.; Benitez, J.; Prieto, M.; McCullumsmith, R.; Choi, D.-S.

    2016-01-01

    Purinergic signaling regulates numerous vital biological processes in the central nervous system (CNS). The two principle purines, ATP and adenosine act as excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, respectively. Compared to other classical neurotransmitters, the role of purinergic signaling in psychiatric disorders is not well understood or appreciated. Because ATP exerts its main effect on energy homeostasis, neuronal function of ATP has been underestimated. Similarly, adenosine is primarily appreciated as a precursor of nucleotide synthesis during active cell growth and division. However, recent findings suggest that purinergic signaling may explain how neuronal activity is associated neuronal energy charge and energy homeostasis, especially in mental disorders. In this review, we provide an overview of the synaptic function of mitochondria and purines in neuromodulation, synaptic plasticity, and neuron-glia interactions. We summarize how mitochondrial and purinergic dysfunction contribute to mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), depression, and addiction. Finally, we discuss future implications regarding the pharmacological targeting of mitochondrial and purinergic function for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:25950756

  4. The impact of environmental factors in severe psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Andrea; Malchow, Berend; Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, schizophrenia has been regarded as a developmental disorder. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis proposes schizophrenia to be related to genetic and environmental factors leading to abnormal brain development during the pre- or postnatal period. First disease symptoms appear in early adulthood during the synaptic pruning and myelination process. Meta-analyses of structural MRI studies revealing hippocampal volume deficits in first-episode patients and in the longitudinal disease course confirm this hypothesis. Apart from the influence of risk genes in severe psychiatric disorders, environmental factors may also impact brain development during the perinatal period. Several environmental factors such as antenatal maternal virus infections, obstetric complications entailing hypoxia as common factor or stress during neurodevelopment have been identified to play a role in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, possibly contributing to smaller hippocampal volumes. In major depression, psychosocial stress during the perinatal period or in adulthood is an important trigger. In animal studies, chronic stress or repeated administration of glucocorticoids have been shown to induce degeneration of glucocorticoid-sensitive hippocampal neurons and may contribute to the pathophysiology of affective disorders. Epigenetic mechanisms altering the chromatin structure such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation may mediate effects of environmental factors to transcriptional regulation of specific genes and be a prominent factor in gene-environmental interaction. In animal models, gene-environmental interaction should be investigated more intensely to unravel pathophysiological mechanisms. These findings may lead to new therapeutic strategies influencing epigenetic targets in severe psychiatric disorders. PMID:24574956

  5. Exposure to aircraft noise and risk of psychiatric disorders: the Elmas survey--aircraft noise and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Hardoy, Maria Carolina; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Marci, Anna Rita; Carbone, Fiora; Cadeddu, Mariangela; Kovess, Viviane; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Carpiniello, Bernardo

    2005-01-01

    Evidence that high levels of aircraft noise lead to psychiatric disorders in the community is contradictory. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of mental disorders in a sample living in the immediate surroundings of an airport compared with those from a sample of residents from the same region who had not been exposed to the risk of aircraft noise. Exposed subjects were residents in Giliaquas in the vicinity of Elmas airport (Sardinia, Italy). The control sample was drawn from a database of a large community survey, after matching for sex, age and employment status. All subjects were interviewed using a simplified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Exposed subjects showed a higher frequency of Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Anxiety Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (NOS). Previous studies generally suggested that high levels of environmental noise are associated with subsyndromal states (psychiatric symptoms) more than with specific syndromes. The present study shows an increased risk for long-lasting syndromal anxiety states (Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Anxiety Disorder NOS), thus supporting the hypothesis of a sustained central autonomic arousal due to chronic exposure to noise.

  6. Psychiatric disorders and treatment among newly homeless young adults with histories of foster care.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ronald G; Hasin, Deborah

    2012-09-01

    Although foster care placement is often preceded by stressful events such as child abuse, foster care itself often exposes children to additional severe stressors. A history of foster care, as well as the childhood abuse that often precedes it, is common among homeless young adults. This study examined whether a history of foster care was associated with psychiatric disorders, prior psychiatric counseling, prescription of psychiatric medications, and prior psychiatric hospitalization among newly homeless young adults. A consecutive sample of 423 adults aged 18 to 21 years who sought emergency shelter for the first time between October 1, 2007, and February 29, 2008, were assessed at intake. Logistic regression analyses determined the associations between foster care and any psychiatric disorder (affective, anxiety, personality, and psychotic) and psychiatric treatment. The analyses adjusted for demographic characteristics, childhood abuse, substance use, prior arrest, unemployment, lack of high school diploma, and histories of psychiatric disorders and drug abuse among biological relatives. Homeless young adults with histories of foster care were 70% more likely than those without such histories to report any psychiatric disorder. They were more than twice as likely to have received mental health counseling for a psychiatric disorder, to have been prescribed psychiatric medication, and to have been hospitalized for psychiatric problems. Histories of foster care among homeless young adults should trigger screening for psychiatric disorders to aid in the provision of treatment (counseling, medication, and hospitalization) tailored to the psychiatric needs of this highly vulnerable population.

  7. Ethical challenges in developing drugs for psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Carrier, Felix; Banayan, David; Boley, Randy; Karnik, Niranjan

    2017-03-06

    As the classification of mental disorders advances towards a disease model as promoted by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), there is hope that a more thorough neurobiological understanding of mental illness may allow clinicians and researchers to determine treatment efficacy with less diagnostic variability. This paradigm shift has presented a variety of ethical issues to be considered in the development of psychiatric drugs. These challenges are not limited to informed consent practices, industry funding, and placebo use. The consideration for alternative research models and quality of research design also present ethical challenges in the development of psychiatric drugs. The imperatives to create valid and sound research that justify the human time, cost, risk and use of limited resources must also be considered. Clinical innovation, and consideration for special populations are also important aspects to take into account. Based on the breadth of these ethical concerns, it is particularly important that scientific questions regarding the development of psychiatric drugs be answered collaboratively by a variety of stakeholders. As the field expands, new ethical considerations will be raised with increased focus on genetic markers, personalized medicine, patient-centered outcomes research, and tension over funding. We suggest that innovation in trial design is necessary to better reflect practices in clinical settings and that there must be an emphasized focus on expanding the transparency of consent processes, regard for suicidality, and care in working with special populations to support the goal of developing sound psychiatric drug therapies.

  8. Late Preterm Birth, Maternal Depression, and Risk of Preschool Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Cynthia E.; Lenze, Shannon N.; Luby, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Preterm children are at greater risk for psychiatric disorders, including anxiety disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), than their term-born peers. Prior research has focused primarily on children born at early gestational ages. Less is known about the rate of psychiatric disorders among late preterm or early…

  9. Late Preterm Birth, Maternal Depression, and Risk of Preschool Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Cynthia E.; Lenze, Shannon N.; Luby, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Preterm children are at greater risk for psychiatric disorders, including anxiety disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), than their term-born peers. Prior research has focused primarily on children born at early gestational ages. Less is known about the rate of psychiatric disorders among late preterm or early…

  10. [Personality disorders in a psychiatric unit: retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Morón, D; Chinchilla Moreno, A

    1995-01-01

    From those patients who were admitted to the psychiatric in-patient unit of the Hospital Ramón y Cajal of Madrid across a period of eight years, those who received a diagnosis of personality disorder according to the axis II of DSM-III or DSM-III-R were selected. We analyzed the patterns of comorbidity between axis I and II, length of the admission, the percentage of readmissions and general variables as age and sex. 17.35% of the patients admitted for the first time and 27.03% of those readmitted received a clinical diagnosis of personality disorder. The most frequent disorders were: unspecified, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive and dependent. In the 93.81% of the patients admitted for the first time, comorbidity with axis I disorders was found. Cluster A personality disorders were most frequently associated to schizophrenia and delusional disorder, cluster B diagnoses with dystimia and alcohol-related problems and cluster C disorders with depression, dystimia and OCD. The cluster A was the one that presented more frequently without axis I comorbidity (14.28%). Cluster B disorders were associated with a shorter length of the admission but, as the unspecified personality disorder, were readmitted more frequently. We discuss the results and compare them with those obtained by other authors.

  11. [Influence of psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders on quality of life].

    PubMed

    Pikó, Bettina; Rudisch, Tibor

    2007-09-02

    The term 'quality of life' has received a growing highlight in relation to the care of chronically ill people during the past decades. The main goal of the present study has been to analyze patients' quality of life regarding the following diagnoses: headache (tension headache); mood disorders (depression); anxiety, and comorbid states, involving some psychological variables, such as hostility or social support. There were 157 patients participating in the study who came from a registered patients' pool in the Neuropsychiatric Rehabilitation Ward, Department of Psychiatry, University of Szeged, during the spring semester of 2005. The final sample size contained 151 patients who might be sorted into five main disease groups: mood disorders (depression); anxiety disorders; mixed psychiatric diagnosis; headache; and comorbid diagnosis (headache and psychiatric disorder together). The mean scores of the scales of patients' quality of life were investigated according to gender and disease groups; in addition, we also analyzed the psychological background of the quality of life. Based on factor analysis, two factors of the quality of life scale were detected: one factor labelled 'everyday activities' factor (including items such as work, financial situation, nutrition, sexual life or self-actualization), and another one labelled 'social activities' factor (e.g., activities with spouse, family, other persons, religious and community activities). According to the disease groups, differences could be detected particularly in the field of everyday activities; especially patients suffering from mood disorders reported higher levels of deterioration of their quality of life, whereas in comparison with them, patients of headache showed less changes. When there was comorbid psychiatric illness besides headache, a more determinant deterioration of the quality of life could be detected. Hostility and psychosomatic/anxiety symptoms contributed mostly to deterioration of the quality

  12. Mechanisms of non-genetic inheritance and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Toth, Miklos

    2015-01-01

    Inheritance is typically associated with the Mendelian transmission of information from parents to offspring by alleles (DNA sequence). However, empirical data clearly suggest that traits can be acquired from ancestors by mechanisms that do not involve genetic alleles, referred to as non-genetic inheritance. Information that is non-genetically transmitted across generations includes parental experience and exposure to certain environments, but also parental mutations and polymorphisms, because they can change the parental 'intrinsic' environment. Non-genetic inheritance is not limited to the first generation of the progeny, but can involve the grandchildren and even further generations. Non-genetic inheritance has been observed for multiple traits including overall development, cardiovascular risk and metabolic symptoms, but this review will focus on the inheritance of behavioral abnormalities pertinent to psychiatric disorders. Multigenerational non-genetic inheritance is often interpreted as the transmission of epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation and chromatin modifications, via the gametes (transgenerational epigenetic inheritance). However, information can be carried across generations by a large number of bioactive substances, including hormones, cytokines, and even microorganisms, without the involvement of the gametes. We reason that this broader definition of non-genetic inheritance is more appropriate, especially in the context of psychiatric disorders, because of the well-recognized role of parental and early life environmental factors in later life psychopathology. Here we discuss the various forms of non-genetic inheritance in humans and animals, as well as rodent models of psychiatric conditions to illustrate possible mechanisms.

  13. [The amygdaloid complex and its implication in psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Ledo-Varela, M T; Giménez-Amaya, J M; Llamas, A

    2007-01-01

    The amygdaloid complex is a group of nuclei located deep in the temporal lobe and closely involved in the limbic system. Its alteration has been associated with some psychiatric processes. In this article, an overall review was made of the published data concerning the amygdaloid complex in the most common psychiatric diseases. A damaged amygdaloid complex is commonly observed, that in the Klüver-Bucy syndrome presents the fullest expression. A decrease in the amygdaloid complex of schizophrenic patients has been observed. This finding was found bilaterally in men whereas in women it was only located in one hemisphere. This finding suggests that morphometric alterations in the amygdaloid complex are more diffuse and more severe in men with schizophrenia. This subcortical complex is larger in children with autism, but not in adolescents, in whom the amygdaloid complex volume matches the normal volume of an adolescent or an adult without this pathology. However, neuroanatomical studies have shown microscopic alterations. In patients with mood disorders, it has been reported that the left amygdaloid complex presents a lesser volume. Moreover, in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer disease a slight amygdaloid atrophia was found related to the healthy controls. It can be concluded that the amygdaloid complex is involved in several psychiatric processes, due to structural or functional damage. However, more studies are still needed in order to delimitate the real influence of the amygdaloid complex in these disorders.

  14. Mechanisms of Non-Genetic Inheritance and Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Miklos

    2015-01-01

    Inheritance is typically associated with the Mendelian transmission of information from parents to offspring by alleles (DNA sequence). However, empirical data clearly suggest that traits can be acquired from ancestors by mechanisms that do not involve genetic alleles, referred to as non-genetic inheritance. Information that is non-genetically transmitted across generations includes parental experience and exposure to certain environments, but also parental mutations and polymorphisms, because they can change the parental ‘intrinsic' environment. Non-genetic inheritance is not limited to the first generation of the progeny, but can involve the grandchildren and even further generations. Non-genetic inheritance has been observed for multiple traits including overall development, cardiovascular risk and metabolic symptoms, but this review will focus on the inheritance of behavioral abnormalities pertinent to psychiatric disorders. Multigenerational non-genetic inheritance is often interpreted as the transmission of epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation and chromatin modifications, via the gametes (transgenerational epigenetic inheritance). However, information can be carried across generations by a large number of bioactive substances, including hormones, cytokines, and even microorganisms, without the involvement of the gametes. We reason that this broader definition of non-genetic inheritance is more appropriate, especially in the context of psychiatric disorders, because of the well-recognized role of parental and early life environmental factors in later life psychopathology. Here we discuss the various forms of non-genetic inheritance in humans and animals, as well as rodent models of psychiatric conditions to illustrate possible mechanisms. PMID:24889369

  15. Unintentional Injuries among Psychiatric Outpatients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ching-I; Liu, Chia-Yih; Yang, Ching-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background No study has investigated the percentages of and factors related to unintentional injuries among psychiatric outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to investigate these issues. Methods One-hundred and forty-one outpatients with MDD at baseline were enrolled from psychiatric outpatients by systematic sampling, and 119 subjects attended a one-year follow-up. Self-reported unintentional injuries in the past one year were recorded. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR. The severity of depression was evaluated by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Other data, including body weight and height, cigarette smoking, headaches, and medications, were collected. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to investigate independent factors related to unintentional injuries. Results At baseline and follow-up, 40.4% and 27.7% of subjects had experienced at least one unintentional injury in the past one year, respectively. About half of subjects with unintentional injuries needed medical treatment for injuries and had functional impairment due to injuries. A greater severity of depression, cigarette smoking, a higher body mass index, and an older age were independent risk factors related to unintentional injuries. Conclusion Unintentional injuries that increased the medical burden and functional impairment were common among outpatients with MDD and should not be neglected. Treatment of depression, control of body weight, and quitting cigarettes might be helpful to prevent unintentional injuries. PMID:27992483

  16. Family history of psychiatric disorders and the outcome of psychiatric patients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Holma, K Mikael; Melartin, Tarja K; Holma, Irina A K; Paunio, Tiina; Isometsä, Erkki T

    2011-06-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is often comorbid with other heritable disorders. The correlates of a family history (FH) of mood disorders but not of comorbid disorders among MDD patients have been investigated. Since bipolar disorder (BD) is highly heritable, latent BD may bias findings. The Vantaa Depression Study included 269 psychiatric out- and in-patients with DSM-IV MDD, diagnosed with semistructured interviews and followed-up for 5 years with a life-chart. The FH of mood, psychotic disorders, and alcoholism among first-degree relatives of 183 patients was investigated. Three fourths (74.9%) of patients reported a FH of some major mental disorder; 60.7% of mood disorder, 36.6% alcoholism, and 10.9% psychotic disorder. In multivariate regression models, a FH of mood disorder was associated with high neuroticism (OR 1.08 [1.02-1.15], p=0.014); a FH of alcoholism with alcohol dependence, number of cluster B personality disorder symptoms, and dysthymia (OR 2.27 [1.01-5.08], p=0.047; OR=1.11 [1.01-1.23], p=0.030; and OR 4.35 [1.51-12.5], p=0.007), and a FH of psychotic disorder with more time spent with depressive symptoms (OR 1.03 [1.00-1.05], p=0.043). However, after excluding those who later switched to BD, several of the associations abated or lost significance. Family history was ascertained only by an interview of the proband. The majority of MDD patients have a positive FH besides mood also of other disorders. A mood disorder FH may correlate with higher neuroticism, alcoholism FH with alcoholism or personality disorders. FH studies of MDD should take into account the impact of patients switching to BD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. CAPs-IDD: Characteristics of Assessment Instruments for Psychiatric Disorders in Persons with Intellectual Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeilinger, E. L.; Nader, I. W.; Brehmer-Rinderer, B.; Koller, I.; Weber, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Assessment of psychiatric disorders in persons with an intellectual developmental disorder (IDD) can be performed with a variety of greatly differing instruments. This makes the choice of an instrument best suited for the intended purpose challenging. In this study, we developed a comprehensive set of characteristics for the evaluation…

  18. A Pilot Study of Abnormal Growth in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Peters, Cindy T. R.; Oosterling, Iris J.; Visser, Janne C.; Bons, Danielle; van Steijn, Daphne J.; Draaisma, Jos; van der Gaag, Rutger-Jan; Buitelaar, Jan. K.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine whether early growth abnormalities are (a) comparable in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other childhood psychiatric disorders, and (b) specific to the brain or generalized to the whole body. Head circumference, height, and weight were measured during the first 19 months of life in 129 children…

  19. A Pilot Study of Abnormal Growth in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Peters, Cindy T. R.; Oosterling, Iris J.; Visser, Janne C.; Bons, Danielle; van Steijn, Daphne J.; Draaisma, Jos; van der Gaag, Rutger-Jan; Buitelaar, Jan. K.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine whether early growth abnormalities are (a) comparable in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other childhood psychiatric disorders, and (b) specific to the brain or generalized to the whole body. Head circumference, height, and weight were measured during the first 19 months of life in 129 children…

  20. CAPs-IDD: Characteristics of Assessment Instruments for Psychiatric Disorders in Persons with Intellectual Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeilinger, E. L.; Nader, I. W.; Brehmer-Rinderer, B.; Koller, I.; Weber, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Assessment of psychiatric disorders in persons with an intellectual developmental disorder (IDD) can be performed with a variety of greatly differing instruments. This makes the choice of an instrument best suited for the intended purpose challenging. In this study, we developed a comprehensive set of characteristics for the evaluation…

  1. TEMPERAMENT AS DETERMINANT OF PHENOMENOLOGY OF CHILDHOOD PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS*

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Savita; Varma, V.K.; Verma, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    SUMMARY The study was carried out with the main aim of finding the relationship between the temperament 01 children and the phenomenology of the psychiatric disorders exhibited by them. Temperament was taken as the independent variable, phenomenology of the psychiatric disorders in children as the dependent variable and parental handling methods as the intervening variable. Instruments for the measurement of temperament, childhood psychopathology and parental handling were developed and standardized for use in the context of the Indian culture and in Hindi language as the preliminary work for the main study. A group of 100 children suffering from various types of emotional disorders and a control group of 100 normal children were studied with regard to the three variables mentioned earlier. Data on the two groups were separately analysed through univariate and multivariate (factor analysis and hierarchical multiple regression) statistics. The results revealed that the phenomenological categories of Low Intelligence with behaviour Problems, conduct Disorders and Somatization were significantly related to the temperament variables of Emotionality, Energy and Attentitivity respectively. The syndromes of Anxiety, Depression, Psychotic symptoms, Special symptoms and Physical illness with Emotional problems did not have relationship with the temperament or parental handling. Thus, temperament has been found to be specific risk factor leading to specific psychopathologies. PMID:21927188

  2. Molecular genetic approaches to understanding the comorbidity of psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gizer, Ian R.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies demonstrating high rates of co-occurrence among psychiatric disorders at the population level have contributed to large literatures focused on identifying the causal mechanisms underlying the patterns of co-occurrence among these disorders. Such efforts have long represented a core focus of developmental psychopathologists and have more recently been supported by the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative developed by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), which provides a further framework for how the hypothesized mechanisms can be studied at different levels of analysis. The present overview focuses on molecular genetic approaches that are being used currently to study the etiology of psychiatric disorders, and how these approaches have been applied in efforts to understand the biological mechanisms that give rise to comorbid conditions. The present report begins with a review of molecular genetic approaches used to identify individual variants that confer risk for multiple disorders and the intervening biological mechanisms that contribute to their comorbidity. This is followed by a review of molecular genetic approaches that use genetic data in aggregate to examine these questions, and concludes with a discussion of how developmental psychopathologists are uniquely positioned to apply these methods in a way that will further our understanding of the causal factors that contribute to the development of comorbid conditions. PMID:27739393

  3. Role of Islam in the management of Psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sabry, Walaa M.; Vohra, Adarsh

    2013-01-01

    With the significant growth of the Muslim population all over the world, there exists a corresponding increase in the need for mental health services that suit this group of patients. Research demonstrates the effectiveness of the integration of spirituality and religiosity into psychotherapy and how religious beliefs could affect the management plans. This article discusses the impact of various beliefs in the Islamic faith on the bio-psychosocial model for the management of different psychiatric disorders including focusing on the modification of psychotherapeutic techniques as cognitive restructuring. It also shows other types of therapies such as music therapy, meditation therapy, and aromatherapy. The main emphasis remains to ensure that Muslim psychiatric patients get ethical, acceptable, and effective treatment. PMID:23858256

  4. Role of Islam in the management of Psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Sabry, Walaa M; Vohra, Adarsh

    2013-01-01

    With the significant growth of the Muslim population all over the world, there exists a corresponding increase in the need for mental health services that suit this group of patients. Research demonstrates the effectiveness of the integration of spirituality and religiosity into psychotherapy and how religious beliefs could affect the management plans. This article discusses the impact of various beliefs in the Islamic faith on the bio-psychosocial model for the management of different psychiatric disorders including focusing on the modification of psychotherapeutic techniques as cognitive restructuring. It also shows other types of therapies such as music therapy, meditation therapy, and aromatherapy. The main emphasis remains to ensure that Muslim psychiatric patients get ethical, acceptable, and effective treatment.

  5. Illuminating circuitry relevant to psychiatric disorders with optogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Elizabeth E.; Christoffel, Daniel J.; Deisseroth, Karl; Malenka, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    The brain’s remarkable capacity to generate cognition and behavior is mediated by an extraordinarily complex set of neural interactions that remain largely mysterious. This complexity poses a significant challenge in developing therapeutic interventions to ameliorate psychiatric disease. Accordingly, few new classes of drugs have been made available for patients with mental illness since the 1950’s. Optogenetics offers the ability to selectively manipulate individual neural circuit elements that underlie disease-relevant behaviors and is currently accelerating the pace of preclinical research into neurobiological mechanisms of disease. In this review, we highlight recent findings from studies that employ optogenetic approaches to gain insight into normal and aberrant brain function relevant to mental illness. Emerging data from these efforts offers an exquisitely detailed picture of disease-relevant neural circuits in action, and hints at the potential of optogenetics to open up entirely new avenues in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:25215625

  6. Illuminating circuitry relevant to psychiatric disorders with optogenetics.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Elizabeth E; Christoffel, Daniel J; Deisseroth, Karl; Malenka, Robert C

    2015-02-01

    The brain's remarkable capacity to generate cognition and behavior is mediated by an extraordinarily complex set of neural interactions that remain largely mysterious. This complexity poses a significant challenge in developing therapeutic interventions to ameliorate psychiatric disease. Accordingly, few new classes of drugs have been made available for patients with mental illness since the 1950s. Optogenetics offers the ability to selectively manipulate individual neural circuit elements that underlie disease-relevant behaviors and is currently accelerating the pace of preclinical research into neurobiological mechanisms of disease. In this review, we highlight recent findings from studies that employ optogenetic approaches to gain insight into normal and aberrant brain function relevant to mental illness. Emerging data from these efforts offers an exquisitely detailed picture of disease-relevant neural circuits in action, and hints at the potential of optogenetics to open up entirely new avenues in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Using animal models to study post-partum psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Perani, C V; Slattery, D A

    2014-01-01

    The post-partum period represents a time during which all maternal organisms undergo substantial plasticity in a wide variety of systems in order to ensure the well-being of the offspring. Although this time is generally associated with increased calmness and decreased stress responses, for a substantial subset of mothers, this period represents a time of particular risk for the onset of psychiatric disorders. Thus, post-partum anxiety, depression and, to a lesser extent, psychosis may develop, and not only affect the well-being of the mother but also place at risk the long-term health of the infant. Although the risk factors for these disorders, as well as normal peripartum-associated adaptations, are well known, the underlying aetiology of post-partum psychiatric disorders remains poorly understood. However, there have been a number of attempts to model these disorders in basic research, which aim to reveal their underlying mechanisms. In the following review, we first discuss known peripartum adaptations and then describe post-partum mood and anxiety disorders, including their risk factors, prevalence and symptoms. Thereafter, we discuss the animal models that have been designed in order to study them and what they have revealed about their aetiology to date. Overall, these studies show that it is feasible to study such complex disorders in animal models, but that more needs to be done in order to increase our knowledge of these severe and debilitating mood and anxiety disorders. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24527704

  8. Psychiatric comorbidity in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Sobanski, Esther

    2006-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic, lifelong disorder with childhood-onset, which seriously impairs the affected adults in a variety of daily living functions like educational and occupational functioning, partnership and parenting. ADHD is associated with a high percentage of comorbid psychiatric disorders in every lifespan. In adulthood between 65-89% of all patients with ADHD suffer from one or more additional psychiatric disorders, above all mood and anxiety disorders, substance use disorders and personality disorders, which complicates the clinical picture in terms of diagnostics, treatment and outcome issues. The present overview provides information of comorbid psychiatric disorders in adults with ADHD, underlying associations and clinical implications.

  9. Aggregation of Lifetime Axis I Psychiatric Disorders through Age 30: Incidence, Predictors, and Associated Psychosocial Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Richard F.; Kosty, Derek B.; Seeley, John R.; Olino, Thomas M.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal data from representative birth cohorts on the aggregation of psychiatric disorders, or the cumulative number of unique diagnosed disorders experienced by persons within a circumscribed period, are limited. Consequently, risk factors for and psychosocial implications of lifetime disorder aggregation in the general population remain largely unknown. This research evaluates the incidence, predictors, and psychosocial sequela of lifetime disorder aggregation from childhood through age 30. Over a 14-year period, participants in the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project (probands; N = 816) were repeatedly evaluated for psychiatric disorders and assessed with multiple measures of psychosocial functioning. First-degree relatives of probands (N = 2,414) were also interviewed to establish their lifetime psychiatric history. The cumulative prevalence of common lifetime psychiatric disorders for the proband sample was 71%. Three-quarters of all proband psychiatric disorders occurred among 37% of the sample, and 82% of all disorder diagnoses were made among persons who met criteria for at least one other lifetime disorder. Lifetime disorder aggregation in probands was predicted by lifetime psychiatric disorder densities among first-degree relatives and was related to heterotypic comorbidity patterns that included disorders from both internalizing and externalizing domains, most notably major depressive and alcohol use disorders. By age 30, disorder aggregation was significantly associated with mental health care service utilization and predictive of personality disorder pathology and numerous indicators of poor psychosocial functioning. Possible implications of disorder aggregation on the conceptualization of lifetime psychiatric disorder comorbidity are discussed. PMID:23421525

  10. Psychiatric Disorders and Function in Adolescents with d-TGA

    PubMed Central

    DeMaso, David R; Labella, Madelyn; Taylor, George Alexander; Forbes, Peter W; Stopp, Christian; Bellinger, David C; Rivkin, Michael J; Wypij, David; Newburger, Jane W

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compared adolescents with with d-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) with healthy adolescents with respect to prevalence of psychiatric disorders and global psychosocial functioning. Study design Subjects, consisting of 139 adolescents with d-TGA (16.1±0.5 years) and 61 healthy adolescents (15.3±1.1 years) without known risk factors for brain disorders, underwent a battery of assessments, including semi-structured psychiatric interviews; self-report measures of depressive, anxiety, and disruptive behavior symptoms; and brain magnetic resonance imaging. Previous cognitive functioning and parental stress assessments at age eight as well as parental post-traumatic stress at age 16 years were explored as potential risk factors predictive of overall psychiatric functioning. Results Compared with healthy adolescents, adolescents with d-TGA had higher lifetime prevalence of structured interview-derived ADHD (19% versus 7%, P=0.03), along with reduced global psychosocial functioning (80.6±11.2 versus 87.2±7.1, P<0.001) as well as significant increases in self-reported depressive (P=0.01), anxiety (P=0.02), and disruptive behavior symptoms (parent P<0.001 and adolescent P=0.03). Nevertheless, these youth scored in the non-clinical range on all self-report measures. Level of global psychosocial functioning was positively related to cognitive functioning (P<0.001) and negatively related to parental stress (P=0.008). Conclusions Although adolescents with d-TGA demonstrate significant resilience to known neuropsychological and academic deficits, they show increased rates of ADHD and reduced psychosocial functioning. Impaired cognitive functioning and parental stress at younger age emerged as significant risk factors for psychiatric impairment. PMID:25063716

  11. Socioeconomic status and psychiatric disorders: the causation-selection issue.

    PubMed

    Dohrenwend, B P; Levav, I; Shrout, P E; Schwartz, S; Naveh, G; Link, B G; Skodol, A E; Stueve, A

    1992-02-21

    Are inverse relations between psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic status due more to social causation (adversity and stress) or social selection (downward mobility of genetically predisposed)? This classical epidemiological issue is tested by focusing on ethnic status in relation to socioeconomic status. Ethnic status cannot be an effect of disorder because it is present at birth whereas socioeconomic status depends on educational and occupational attainment. A birth cohort sample of 4914 young, Israel-born adults of European and North African background was selected from the country's population register, screened, and diagnosed by psychiatrists. Results indicate that social selection may be more important for schizophrenia and that social causation may be more important for depression in women and for antisocial personality and substance use disorders in men.

  12. Psychiatric disorders biochemical pathways unraveled by human brain proteomics.

    PubMed

    Saia-Cereda, Verônica M; Cassoli, Juliana S; Martins-de-Souza, Daniel; Nascimento, Juliana M

    2017-02-01

    Approximately 25 % of the world population is affected by a mental disorder at some point in their life. Yet, only in the mid-twentieth century a biological cause has been proposed for these diseases. Since then, several studies have been conducted toward a better comprehension of those disorders, and although a strong genetic influence was revealed, the role of these genes in disease mechanism is still unclear. This led most recent studies to focus on the molecular basis of mental disorders. One line of investigation that has risen in the post-genomic era is proteomics, due to its power of revealing proteins and biochemical pathways associated with biological systems. Therefore, this review compiled and analyzed data of differentially expressed proteins, which were found in postmortem brain studies of the three most prevalent psychiatric diseases: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorders. Overviewing both the proteomic methods used in postmortem brain studies, the most consistent metabolic pathways found altered in these diseases. We have unraveled those disorders share about 21 % of proteins affected, and though most are related to energy metabolism pathways deregulation, the main differences found are 14-3-3-mediated signaling in schizophrenia, mitochondrial dysfunction in bipolar disorder and oxidative phosphorylation in depression.

  13. Comorbidity of substance use disorders and other psychiatric disorders among adolescents: evidence from an epidemiologic survey.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Robert E; Roberts, Catherine Ramsay; Xing, Yun

    2007-04-01

    This paper extends our knowledge of comorbidity of substance use disorders (SUDs) and other psychiatric disorders by examining comorbidity of specific types of SUDs and risk of comorbidity separately for abuse and dependence. The research question is whether there is specificity of risk for comorbidity for different SUDs and whether greater comorbidity is associated with dependence. Data are presented from a probability sample of 4175 youths aged 11-17 assessed with the NIMH DISC-IV and self-administered questionnaires. SUDs outcomes are alcohol, marijuana and other substances in past year. Mean number of other comorbid disorders ranged from 1.9 for marijuana abuse to 2.2 for other substance abuse and 1.9 for marijuana dependence to 2.8 for other substance dependence. None of the abuse SUDs does not increase risk of anxiety disorders, but dependence does. Both abuse and dependence increased risk of comorbid mood disorders. Similar results were observed for disruptive disorders. Patterns of comorbidity varied by substance, by abuse versus dependence, and by category of other psychiatric disorders. In general, there was greater association of comorbidity with other disorders for dependence versus abuse. Marijuana is somewhat less associated with other disorders than alcohol or other substances. The strongest association is for comorbid disruptive disorders, regardless of SUDs category. Having SUDs and comorbid other psychiatric disorders was associated with substantial functional impairment. Females with SUDs tended to have higher rates of comorbid disorders, as did older youths. There were no differences observed among ethnic groups. When comorbidity of SUDs with other disorders was examined, controlling for other non-SUDs disorders for each specific disorder examined, the greater odds for dependence versus abuse essentially disappeared for all disorders except disruptive disorders, suggesting larger number of comorbid non-SUDs in part account for the observed

  14. The association of chronic adversity with psychiatric disorder and disorder severity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Benjet, Corina; Borges, Guilherme; Méndez, Enrique; Fleiz, Clara; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the impact of chronic adversity on psychopathology in adolescents, taking into account the type of adversity, number of adversities experienced and type of psychiatric disorder, as well as to estimate the impact on severity of the disorder. A total of 3,005 male and female adolescents from the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey aged 12-17 years were interviewed in a stratified multistage general population probability survey. Assessment of 20 DSM-IV disorders, disorder severity and 12 chronic childhood adversities were assessed with the adolescent version of the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI-A). Family dysfunction adversities including abuse presented the most consistent associations between chronic adversity and psychopathology and their impact was generally non-specific with regard to the type of disorder. Parental divorce, parental death and economic adversity were not individually associated with psychopathology. Among those with a psychiatric disorder, sexual abuse and family violence were associated with having a seriously impairing disorder. The odds of having a psychiatric disorder and a serious disorder increased with increasing numbers of adversities; however, each additional adversity increased the odds at a decreasing rate. While the study design does not allow for conclusions regarding causality, these findings suggest general pathways from family dysfunction to psychopathology rather than specific associations between particular adversities and particular disorders, and provide further evidence for the importance of family-focused intervention and prevention efforts.

  15. Psychiatric disorders among elderly patients admitted to hospital medical wards.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, B

    1987-01-01

    A psychiatric investigation was carried out on patients aged 65-80 years who were admitted to the medical wards of six general hospitals in an industrial urban area of West Germany. In all, 626 patients were screened for cognitive and affective disorder using a short standardized interview, and at the second stage all those with abnormal responses, as well as a subsample of the apparently normal patients, were examined in greater detail. After correction for inaccuracies of screening, the frequency of psychiatric illness in this patient population was estimated as 30.2%, made up of 9.1% with organic brain syndromes and 21.1% with functional mental disorders. Comparison with field-study data for the same background population showed that the hospital patients were at increased risk for mental disturbance. At follow up after one year, outcome in terms of mortality, admission to long-term care and dependency on others was worst for patients with organic mental disorder, even after matching for age and initial severity of physical impairment. Functional mental illness was also associated with a relatively poor outcome in terms of dependency. The mental status of elderly medical patients appears to be important for the prognosis. PMID:3560118

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of Psychological Distress and Psychiatric Disorders in Asylum Seekers and Refugees Resettled in an Italian Catchment Area.

    PubMed

    Nosè, Michela; Turrini, Giulia; Imoli, Maria; Ballette, Francesca; Ostuzzi, Giovanni; Cucchi, Francesca; Padoan, Chiara; Ruggeri, Mirella; Barbui, Corrado

    2017-07-20

    In recent years there has been a progressive rise in the number of asylum seekers and refugees displaced from their country of origin, with significant social, economic, humanitarian and public health implications. The aim of this study is to describe the frequency and correlates of psychological distress and psychiatric disorders in asylum seekers and refugees resettled in an Italian catchment area. In the catchment area of Verona, all male asylum seekers and refugees aged 18 or above included in the Italian protection system for asylum seekers and refugees during a period of 1 year were screened for psychological distress and psychiatric disorders using validated questionnaires. During the study period, 109 asylum seekers or refugees were recruited. The frequency of traumatic events experienced was very high. More than one-third of the participants (36%) showed clinically relevant psychological distress, and one-fourth (25%), met the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis, mainly PTSD and depressive disorders. In multivariate analyses, time after departure, length of stay in the host country and number of traumatic events were independent factors associated with psychological distress and psychiatric disorders. In an unselected sample of male asylum seekers and refugees, after around 1 year of resettlement in an Italian catchment area, the frequency of psychological distress and psychiatric disorders was substantial and clinically relevant. Health care systems should include a mental health component to recognise and effectively treat mental health conditions.

  17. Mindfulness meditation practices as adjunctive treatments for psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Marchand, William R

    2013-03-01

    Mindfulness meditation-based therapies are being increasingly used as interventions for psychiatric disorders. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) have been studied extensively. MBSR is beneficial for general psychological health and pain management. MBCT is recommended as an adjunctive treatment for unipolar depression. Both MBSR and MBCT have efficacy for anxiety symptoms. Informed clinicians can do much to support their patients who are receiving mindfulness training. This review provides information needed by clinicians to help patients maximize the benefits of mindfulness training and develop an enduring meditation practice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. SEARCHING HUMAN BRAIN FOR MECHANISMS OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Sabina; Heckers, Stephan; Benes, Francine M.

    2014-01-01

    In the past 25 years, research on the human brain has been providing a clear path toward understanding the pathophysiology of psychiatric illnesses. The successes that have been accrued are matched by significant difficulties identifying and controlling a large number of potential confounding variables. By systematically and effectively accounting for unwanted variance in data from imaging and postmortem human brain studies, meaningful and reliable information regarding the pathophysiology of human brain disorders can be obtained. This perspective paper focuses on postmortem investigations to discuss some of the most challenging sources of variance, including diagnosis, comorbidity, substance abuse and pharmacological treatment, which confound investigations of human brain. PMID:25458567

  19. Use of olanzapine in non-psychotic psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Goodnick, P J; Barrios, C A

    2001-04-01

    The history of antipsychotic medications begins in the 1950s with chlorpromazine, developed originally as an antihistamine but found to be an aid in the reduction of symptoms of delusions and hallucinations. This phenothiazine derivative was followed by numerous others in the same class (e.g., thioridazine) and then by antipsychotics in other classes (e.g., the popular haloperidol of the butyrophenone class). This group of medications is associated with a number of unpleasant side effects and complications. These included extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), orthostatic hypotension, hyperprolactinemia and last, but certainly not least, tardive dyskinesia (TD). As a consequence, other alternative antipsychotics were developed in which D(2) blockade effect generally associated with EPS and TD was offset by 5-HT(2) antagonism. The first of this class was clozapine; however, it is associated with agranulocytopenia of sudden onset as well as seizure induction. However, olanzapine, a close structural relative, was soon synthesised for treatment of psychosis and particularly schizophrenia (Zyprexatrade mark, Eli Lilly). It was released in the US in November 1996 with FDA approval for that indication. However, antipsychotics have always been used for other psychiatric disorders, aside from schizophrenia. This includes, in particular, mania, where chlorpromazine use predated lithium as an effective treatment. Other uses for antipsychotics have included other mood disorders, dementia, childhood disorders and personality problems. Here, information on the application of olanzapine to non-schizophrenic disorders is reviewed. Despite the fact that the research post-dates FDA approval in 1996, there was already sufficient evidence for olanzapine's effectiveness in acute mania to obtain approval from the US FDA in March 2000. Other research supports its use as adjunctive therapy in depressive disorders. Phase IV studies and case reports have found limited support for olanzapine's use

  20. Antibiotics May Trigger Mitochondrial Dysfunction Inducing Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Stefano, George B.; Samuel, Joshua; Kream, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    Clinical usage of several classes of antibiotics is associated with moderate to severe side effects due to the promotion of mitochondrial dysfunction. We contend that this may be due to perturbation of unique evolutionary relationships that link selective biochemical and molecular aspects of mitochondrial biology to conserved enzymatic processes derived from bacterial progenitors. Operationally, stereo-selective conformational matching between mitochondrial respiratory complexes, cytosolic and nuclear signaling complexes appears to support the conservation of a critically important set of chemical messengers required for existential regulation of homeostatic cellular processes. Accordingly, perturbation of normative mitochondrial function by select classes of antibiotics is certainly reflective of the high degree of evolutionary pressure designed to maintain ongoing bidirectional signaling processes between cellular compartments. These issues are of critical importance in evaluating potentially severe side effects of antibiotics on complex behavioral functions mediated by CNS neuronal groups. The CNS is extremely dependent on delivery of molecular oxygen for maintaining a required level of metabolic activity, as reflected by the high concentration of neuronal mitochondria. Thus, it is not surprising to find several distinct behavioral abnormalities conforming to established psychiatric criteria that are associated with antibiotic usage in humans. The manifestation of acute and/or chronic psychiatric conditions following antibiotic usage may provide unique insights into key etiological factors of major psychiatric syndromes that involve rundown of cellular bioenergetics via mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, a potential window of opportunity exists for development of novel therapeutic agents targeting diminished mitochondrial function as a factor in severe behavioral disorders. PMID:28063266

  1. Ethnic Disparities in School-Based Behavioral Health Service Use for Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Jill; Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Pellecchia, Melanie; Marcus, Steven; Hadley, Trevor; Mandell, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We examined racial/ethnic disparities in school-based behavioral health service use for children with psychiatric disorders. Methods: Medicaid claims data were used to compare the behavioral healthcare service use of 23,601 children aged 5-17 years by psychiatric disorder (autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD],…

  2. Ethnic Disparities in School-Based Behavioral Health Service Use for Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Jill; Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Pellecchia, Melanie; Marcus, Steven; Hadley, Trevor; Mandell, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We examined racial/ethnic disparities in school-based behavioral health service use for children with psychiatric disorders. Methods: Medicaid claims data were used to compare the behavioral healthcare service use of 23,601 children aged 5-17 years by psychiatric disorder (autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD],…

  3. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors and Psychiatric Symptoms in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratis, Elizabeth A.; Lecavalier, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at high risk for co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Previous research has suggested that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) are associated with symptoms of co-occurring psychiatric disorders in individuals with ASD, but this relationship is not well understood. The current study…

  4. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Medication Use in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Tara R.; Viskochil, Joseph; Farley, Megan; Coon, Hilary; McMahon, William M.; Morgan, Jubel; Bilder, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate comorbid psychiatric disorders and psychotropic medication use among adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ascertained as children during a 1980's statewide Utah autism prevalence study (n = 129). Seventy-three individuals (56.6%) met criteria for a current psychiatric disorder; 89 participants…

  5. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Medication Use in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Tara R.; Viskochil, Joseph; Farley, Megan; Coon, Hilary; McMahon, William M.; Morgan, Jubel; Bilder, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate comorbid psychiatric disorders and psychotropic medication use among adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ascertained as children during a 1980's statewide Utah autism prevalence study (n = 129). Seventy-three individuals (56.6%) met criteria for a current psychiatric disorder; 89 participants…

  6. Psychiatric disorders associated with alcoholism: 2 year follow-up of treatment.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Peña, Jorge F; Alvarez-Cotoli, Paloma; Rodríguez-Solano, José J

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholics show high rates of comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders. It is known that women are more likely to have psychiatric comorbidity than men. Existence of comorbidity in alcoholism implies a worse prognosis in the disease evolution. Treatment becomes more complex because these patients have more physical, psychological, familial and social problems than alcoholics without comorbidity. This two-year treatment follow-up study has aimed to assess the evolution of a group of patients who have a psychiatric disorder associated with alcoholism. We selected 100 patients enrolled in the alcohol program, with psychiatric disorder associated with “Harmful Use of Alcohol” or “Alcohol Dependence Syndrome” (ICD-10). This population was compared with a control sample consisting of 284 alcoholic patients without associated psychiatric disorders. The percentage of women with psychiatric disorder associated with alcoholism is 47% (almost 1/1 in relation to men), significantly higher than the 10.56% of the control sample. Psychiatric disorders most frequently associated with alcoholism are personality disorders (30%), adjustment disorders (24%), depressive disorders (22%), and anxiety disorders (18%). In schizophrenic patients, the rate of alcoholism is 11% and in bipolar disorders 9%. After two years of follow up, it was found that 28% of the patients with psychiatric disorders associated with alcoholism were in abstinence compared to 41.90% of the control sample. Therefore, there is evidence of a worse outcome of patients suffering from a dual diagnosis.

  7. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors and Psychiatric Symptoms in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratis, Elizabeth A.; Lecavalier, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at high risk for co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Previous research has suggested that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) are associated with symptoms of co-occurring psychiatric disorders in individuals with ASD, but this relationship is not well understood. The current study…

  8. Changing psychiatric perception of African-Americans with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, G Eric

    2012-12-01

    This article explored the origins and implications of the underdiagnosis of affective disorders in African-Americans. MEDLINE and old collections were searched using relevant key words. Reference lists from the articles that were gathered from this procedure were reviewed. The historical record indicated that the psychiatric perception of African-Americans with affective disorders changed significantly during the last 200 years. In the antebellum period, the mental disorders of slaves mostly went unnoticed. By the early 20th century, African-Americans were reported to have high rates of manic-depressive disorder compared with whites. By the mid-century, rates of manic-depressive disorder in African-Americans plummeted, whereas depression remained virtually nonexistent. In recent decades, diagnosed depression and bipolar disorder, whether in clinical or research settings, were inexplicably low in African-Americans compared with whites. Given these findings, American psychiatry needs to appraise the deep-seated effects of historical stereotypes on the diagnosis and treatment of African-Americans.

  9. Mental capacity in patients involuntarily or voluntarily receiving psychiatric treatment for an acute mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Mandarelli, Gabriele; Tarsitani, Lorenzo; Parmigiani, Giovanna; Polselli, Gian M; Frati, Paola; Biondi, Massimo; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2014-07-01

    Despite the growing amount of data, much information is needed on patients' mental capacity to consent to psychiatric treatment for acute mental disorders. The present study was undertaken to compare differences in capacity to consent to psychiatric treatment in patients treated voluntarily and involuntarily and to investigate the role of psychiatric symptoms, competency, and cognitive functioning in determining voluntariness of hospital admission. Involuntary patients were interviewed with the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T), the 24-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices, and their data were compared with those for age- and sex-matched voluntary patients. Involuntary patients performed worse in all MacCAT-T subscales. Capacity to consent to treatment varied widely within each group. Overall, involuntary patients have worse consent-related mental capacity than those treated voluntarily, despite capacity to consent to treatment showing a significant variability in both groups. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Pathophysiological Role of Neuroinflammation in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Brain diseases and disorders such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, depression, schizophrenia, autism, and addiction lead to reduced quality of daily life through abnormal thoughts, perceptions, emotional states, and behavior. While the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood, human and animal studies have supported a role of neuroinflammation in the etiology of these diseases. In the central nervous system, an increased inflammatory response is capable of activating microglial cells, leading to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. In turn, the pro-inflammatory cytokines aggravate and propagate neuroinflammation, degenerating healthy neurons and impairing brain functions. Therefore, activated microglia may play a key role in neuroinflammatory processes contributing to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and neurodegeneration. PMID:27230456

  11. Peritraumatic reactions and posttraumatic stress disorder in psychiatrically impaired youth.

    PubMed

    Sugar, Jeff; Ford, Julian D

    2012-02-01

    Although peritraumatic dissociation and other subjective peritraumatic reactions, such as emotional distress and arousal, have been shown to affect the relationship between a traumatic event and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults, systematic studies with youth have not been done. In a mixed ethnic and racial sample of 90 psychiatrically impaired youth (ages 10-18, 56% boys), we investigated the contributions of peritraumatic dissociation, emotional distress, and arousal to current PTSD severity after accounting for the effects of gender, trauma history, trait dissociation, and psychopathology (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and depression). Peritraumatic dissociation emerged as the only peritraumatic variable associated with current PTSD severity assessed both by questionnaire and interview methods (β = .30 and .47 p < .01). Peritraumatic dissociation can be rapidly assessed in clinical practice and warrants further testing in prospective studies as a potential mediator of the trauma-PTSD relationship in youth.

  12. Translational Assessment of Reward and Motivational Deficits in Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Der-Avakian, Andre; Barnes, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in reward and motivation are common symptoms characterizing several psychiatric and neurological disorders. Such deficits may include anhedonia, defined as loss of pleasure, as well as impairments in anticipatory pleasure, reward valuation, motivation/effort, and reward learning. This chapter describes recent advances in the development of behavioral tasks used to assess different aspects of reward processing in both humans and non-human animals. While earlier tasks were generally developed independently with limited cross-species correspondence, a newer generation of translational tasks has emerged that are theoretically and procedurally analogous across species and allow parallel testing, data analyses, and interpretation between human and rodent behaviors. Such enhanced conformity between cross-species tasks will facilitate investigation of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying discrete reward and motivated behaviors and is expected to improve our understanding and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by reward and motivation deficits. PMID:26873017

  13. Translational Assessment of Reward and Motivational Deficits in Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Der-Avakian, Andre; Barnes, Samuel A; Markou, Athina; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    Deficits in reward and motivation are common symptoms characterizing several psychiatric and neurological disorders. Such deficits may include anhedonia, defined as loss of pleasure, as well as impairments in anticipatory pleasure, reward valuation, motivation/effort, and reward learning. This chapter describes recent advances in the development of behavioral tasks used to assess different aspects of reward processing in both humans and non-human animals. While earlier tasks were generally developed independently with limited cross-species correspondence, a newer generation of translational tasks has emerged that are theoretically and procedurally analogous across species and allow parallel testing, data analyses, and interpretation between human and rodent behaviors. Such enhanced conformity between cross-species tasks will facilitate investigation of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying discrete reward and motivated behaviors and is expected to improve our understanding and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by reward and motivation deficits.

  14. Spontaneous Social Behaviors Discriminate “Behavioral Dementias” from Psychiatric Disorders and Other Dementias

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Katherine P.; Santos-Modesitt, Wendy; Kramer, Joel H.; Pavlic, Danijela; Beckman, Victoria; Miller, Bruce L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Changes in social behavior are often the first symptoms of neurodegenerative disease. Patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) often go undiagnosed, or are misclassified as psychiatric patients, because in the absence of cognitive deficits, non-experts fail to recognize these social changes as dementia symptoms. The object of this study was to improve screening for behavioral dementia in primary care and mental health settings by quantifying spontaneous social behaviors specific to FTLD. Method In a university hospital dementia clinic, examiners blind to subject diagnosis performed one hour of cognitive testing, then completed the Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy (IMP), an 18-item checklist of observed inappropriate behaviors. Patients then underwent a multidisciplinary evaluation to derive a neurodegenerative or psychiatric diagnosis. Data were collected from 288 subjects: 45 Alzheimer's disease (AD), 40 frontotemporal dementia (FTD), 21 semantic dementia (SD), 13 progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), 14 corticobasal degeneration (CBD), 21 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), 37 dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), 16 vascular dementia, 29 mixed vascular and AD, 35 primary psychiatric disorders, and 17 normal older controls. Results Statistical item analyses demonstrated specific patterns of social behavior that differentiated both FTD and SD patients from 1) non-dementing older adults, 2) non-dementing individuals with psychiatric conditions, 3) individuals with cerebrovascular disease, and 4) individuals with other neurodegenerative disorders. SDs verbally and physically interrupted evaluations, spoke perseveratively and tangentially and resisted clinician redirection. FTDs were apathetic or disinhibited and were unconcerned about meeting clinician expectations. Conclusions Specific, abnormal interpersonal behaviors can alert non-experts to the need for specialized dementia referral. PMID:18312039

  15. Epigenetic dynamics in psychiatric disorders: environmental programming of neurodevelopmental processes.

    PubMed

    Kofink, Daniel; Boks, Marco P M; Timmers, H T Marc; Kas, Martien J

    2013-06-01

    Epigenetic processes have profound influence on gene translation and play a key role in embryonic development and tissue type specification. Recent advances in our understanding of epigenetics have pointed out that epigenetic alterations also play an important role in neurodevelopment and may increase the risk to psychiatric disorders. In addition to genetic regulation of these processes, compelling evidence suggests that environmental conditions produce persistent changes in development through epigenetic mechanisms. Adverse environmental influences in early life such as maternal care, alcohol exposure and prenatal nutrition interact with epigenetic factors and may induce neurodevelopmental disturbances that are related to psychiatric disorders. This review outlines recent findings linking environmentally induced modifications of the epigenome to brain development and psychopathology. Better understanding of these modifications is relevant from the perspective that they may be reversible and, therefore, offer potential for novel treatment strategies. We present the current state of knowledge and show that integrative approaches are necessary to further understand the causal pathways between environmental influences, epigenetic modification, and neuronal function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Linking Activation of Microglia and Peripheral Monocytic Cells to the Pathophysiology of Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yuta; Yu, Zhiqian; Sakai, Mai; Tomita, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    A wide variety of studies have identified microglial activation in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. Relatively fewer, but robust, studies have detected activation of peripheral monocytic cells in psychiatric disorders. Considering the origin of microglia, as well as neuropsychoimmune interactions in the context of the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, it is reasonable to speculate that microglia interact with peripheral monocytic cells in relevance with the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders; however, these interactions have drawn little attention. In this review, we summarize findings relevant to activation of microglia and monocytic cells in psychiatric disorders, discuss the potential association between these cell types and disease pathogenesis, and propose perspectives for future research on these processes. PMID:27375431

  17. CAPs-IDD: Characteristics of Assessment Instruments for Psychiatric Disorders in Persons with Intellectual Developmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Zeilinger, E L; Nader, I W; Brehmer-Rinderer, B; Koller, I; Weber, G

    2013-08-01

    Assessment of psychiatric disorders in persons with an intellectual developmental disorder (IDD) can be performed with a variety of greatly differing instruments. This makes the choice of an instrument best suited for the intended purpose challenging. In this study, we developed a comprehensive set of characteristics for the evaluation and description of assessment instruments for psychiatric disorders in adult persons with IDD. This simplifies the search for an instrument as it makes an easy and direct comparison possible and hereby allows a more thorough and appropriate decision making when selecting assessment tools. A mixed-methods approach was used. First, a systematic literature search was conducted to identify existing tools for the description and evaluation of assessment instruments. Second, the content of these tools was combined and missing features and IDD-specific attributes were added. Finally, expert consultations were performed. The Characteristics of Assessment Instruments for Psychiatric Disorders in Persons with Intellectual Developmental Disorders (CAPs-IDD) lists characteristics to evaluate and describe instruments for psychiatric disorders in persons with IDD. It comprises two sections: first, the conceptual and measurement model; second, the psychometric properties. Each section consists of various subsections and a detailed response format for coding instruments. The use of the CAPs-IDD helps to identify and choose instruments that best suit the respective purpose. Filled with information, it could be made accessible via new technologies to researchers and practitioners and be updated when new information is available. Thus, it contributes to a more reliable and valid assessment of possible psychiatric disorders in persons with IDD. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  18. Substance-induced dissociative disorders and psychiatric nosology.

    PubMed

    Good, M I

    1989-04-01

    Transient amnesias, fugues, twilight states, automatisms, depersonalization, and furors or explosive disorders can occur in association with, or be caused by, various medications or substance-induced organic brain states. Agents capable of precipitating dissociative-like states include alcohol, barbiturates and similarly acting hypnotics, benzodiazepines, scopolamine, clioquinol, beta-adrenergic blockers, marijuana and certain psychedelic drugs, general anesthetics, and others. The presentations of substance-induced dissociative states may resemble those of functional dissociative disorders, or organic and psychogenic dissociative factors may coexist and be intertwined or indistinguishable. Organic dissociative states are distinct from intoxication, amnestic disorder, frank delirium, or other organic mental disorders as specified in DSM-III and DSM-III-R, yet these diagnostic manuals have no inclusive category or coherent nosological approach to dissociative states not strictly psychogenic in etiology. Substance-induced and other organic dissociative disorders can have clinical, medicolegal, and neuropsychological significance. They provide a unique opportunity for the study of mind-brain relationships and should be included in psychiatric nosology.

  19. Depressives with secondary alcoholism: psychiatric disorders in offspring.

    PubMed

    Merikangas, K R; Weissman, M M; Prusoff, B A; Pauls, D L; Leckman, J F

    1985-05-01

    The risk of psychiatric illness among the offspring of probands with major depression and secondary alcoholism was examined. The offspring aged 6-17 (N = 107) and 18 + (N = 171) of probands with major depression (114 with depression only and 19 with secondary alcoholism) were compared with the offspring aged 6-17 (N = 87) and 18 + (N = 103) of controls (N = 82). Offspring of probands with secondary alcoholism had a threefold greater risk of alcoholism and a fivefold greater risk of antisocial personality-conduct disorder compared with offspring of probands with depression only, and a threefold greater risk of alcoholism and a 20-fold greater risk of antisocial personality-conduct disorder compared with offspring of controls. Familial aggregation of alcoholism was observed only among probands with secondary alcoholism. The presence of secondary alcoholism in depressed probands did not convey additional increase in risk of either major depression or anxiety disorders to offspring beyond that observed among offspring of probands with depression only. This suggests that depression and alcoholism are not alternate forms of expression of the same underlying illness. Assortative mating for alcoholism among parents was related to increased risk of both alcoholism and antisocial personality-conduct disorder but not of major depression among offspring. A linear effect on rates of these disorders according to the number of parents with alcoholism was observed.

  20. Cannabis and psychiatric disorders: it is not only addiction.

    PubMed

    Leweke, F Markus; Koethe, Dagmar

    2008-06-01

    Since the discovery of the endocannabinoid system, a growing body of psychiatric research has emerged focusing on the role of this system in major psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), major depression and anxiety disorder. Continuing in the line of earlier epidemiological studies, recent replication studies indicate that frequent cannabis use doubles the risk for psychotic symptoms and SCZ. Further points of clinical research interest are alterations of endocannabinoids and their relation to symptoms as well as postmortem analyses of cannabinoid CB(1) receptor densities in SCZ. A possible neurobiological mechanism for the deleterious influence of cannabis use in SCZ has been suggested, involving the disruption of endogenous cannabinoid signaling and functioning. Even though the number of studies is still limited for affective and anxiety disorders, previous results suggest these diseases to be exciting objectives of cannabinoid-associated research. Therefore, it became apparent that cannabis use is not only frequent in patients suffering from BD, but that it also induces manic symptoms in this group. In addition, prior antipsychotic treatment decreased the numerical density of CB(1) immunoreactive glial cells in bipolar patients. Although the data on the influence of cannabis use on the development of major depression is controversial, cannabinoid compounds could display a new class of medication, as suggested by the antidepressive effects of the fatty acid amino hydrolase inhibitor URB597 in animal models. With numerous open questions and controversial results, further research is required to specify and extend the findings in this area, which provides a promising target for novel pharmacotherapeutic interventions.

  1. Psychiatric disorders and treatment among newly homeless young adults with histories of foster care

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Ronald G.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective While foster care placement is often preceded by stressful events such as childhood abuse, foster care itself often exposes children to additional severe stressors. A history of foster care, as well as the childhood abuse that often precedes it, is common among homeless young adults. However, whether a history of foster care elevates the likelihood of psychiatric disorders and treatment among homeless young adults, after adjustment for childhood abuse, is unknown. This study examined whether a history of foster care was associated with psychiatric disorders, prior psychiatric counseling, prescription of psychiatric medications, and prior psychiatric hospitalization among newly homeless young adults, controlling for childhood abuse and other covariates. Methods Among a consecutive sample of 424 newly homeless young adults (18 to 21 years) in a crisis shelter, logistic regression analyses determined the associations between foster care and any psychiatric disorder (affective, anxiety, personality, psychotic) and psychiatric treatment, adjusted for demographics, childhood abuse, substance abuse, prior arrest, unemployment, lack of high school diploma, and histories of psychiatric disorders and drug abuse among biological relatives. Results Homeless young adults with histories of foster care were 70% more likely to report any psychiatric disorder (AOR=1.70) and twice as likely to have received mental health counseling for a psychiatric disorder (AOR=2.17), been prescribed psychiatric medication (AOR=2.26), and been hospitalized for psychiatric problems (AOR=2.15) than those without such histories. Conclusions Histories of foster care should trigger screening for psychiatric disorders among homeless young adults to aid in the provision of treatment (counseling, medication, hospitalization) tailored to their psychiatric needs. PMID:22706986

  2. The brain through the retina: the flash electroretinogram as a tool to investigate psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Joëlle; Maziade, Michel; Hébert, Marc

    2014-01-03

    Investigating the living brain remains one of the major obstacles in psychiatry research in order to better understand the biological underpinning of brain disorders. Novel approaches are needed to study brain functions indirectly. Since it is part of the central nervous system, retinal functions as measured with the flash electroretinogram (ERG) may reflect the central dysfunctions reported in psychiatric disorders. This review describes the flash ERG anomalies reported in patients with psychiatric disorders such as seasonal affective disorder, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder and drug addiction and discusses how changes in retinal functions might be used as biomarkers for psychiatric disorder as well as a potential aid to diagnosis in psychiatry.

  3. Animal-assisted therapy with farm animals for persons with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Berget, Bente; Braastad, Bjarne O

    2011-01-01

    Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) with farm animals for humans with psychiatric disorders may reduce depression and state anxiety, and increase self-efficacy, in many participants. Social support by the farmer appears to be important. Positive effects are best documented for persons with affective disorders or clinical depression. Effects may sometimes take a long time to be detectable, but may occur earlier if the participants are encouraged to perform more complex working skills. Progress must however be individually adapted allowing for flexibility, also between days. Therapists involved with mental health show a pronounced belief in the effects of AAT with farm animals, variation being related to type of disorder, therapist's sex and his/her experience with AAT. Research is still scarce and further research is required to optimize and individually adapt the design of farm animal-assisted interventions.

  4. Psychiatric symptoms of patients with primary mitochondrial DNA disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of our study was to assess psychiatric symptoms in patients with genetically proven primary mutation of the mitochondrial DNA. Methods 19 adults with known mitochondrial mutation (MT) have been assessed with the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire 20-item Disability Index (HAQ-DI), the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form (BDI-SF), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the clinical version of the Structured Clinical Interview for the the DSM-IV (SCID-I and SCID-II) As control, 10 patients with hereditary sensorimotor neuropathy (HN), harboring the peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22) mutation were examined with the same tools. Results The two groups did not differ significantly in gender, age or education. Mean HAQ-DI score was 0.82 in the MT (range: 0-1.625) and 0.71 in the HN group (range: 0-1.625). Level of disability between the two groups did not differ significantly (p = 0.6076). MT patients scored significantly higher on the BDI-SF and HDRS than HN patients (12.85 versus 4.40, p = 0.031, and 15.62 vs 7.30, p = 0.043, respectively). The Global Severity Index (GSI) of SCL-90-R also showed significant difference (1.44 vs 0.46, p = 0.013) as well as the subscales except for somatization. SCID-I interview yielded a variety of mood disorders in both groups. Eight MT patient (42%) had past, 6 (31%) had current, 5 (26%) had both past and current psychiatric diagnosis, yielding a lifetime prevalence of 9/19 (47%) in the MT group. In the HN group, 3 patients had both past and current diagnosis showing a lifetime prevalence of 3/10 (30%) in this group. SCID-II detected personality disorder in 8 MT cases (42%), yielding 3 avoidant, 2 obsessive-compulsive and 3 personality disorder not otherwise specified (NOS) diagnosis. No personality disorder was identified in the HN group. Conclusions Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence of psychiatric symptoms in patients with mitochondrial

  5. Comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with psychiatric disorder: an overview.

    PubMed

    Pliszka, S R

    1998-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been noted to be comorbid with a variety of psychiatric disorders. These include oppositional defiant and conduct disorders, as well as affective, anxiety, and learning disorders. Considerable debate has revolved as to the meaning of this overlap. Does it occur by chance or is it an artifact of referral bias? Are the comorbid conditions secondary to the ADHD, or can other psychiatric disorders masquerade as attentional problems? Alternatively, ADHD may exist as distinct subtypes, each with its specific comorbidity. Studies that have examined the comorbidity of oppositional, conduct, affective, anxiety, and learning disorders in ADHD are reviewed. ADHD and ADHD with conduct disorder appear to be distinct subtypes, possibly with different etiologies. While the short-term response to stimulants is the same in these two groups, children with ADHD and conduct disorder children have higher rates of antisocial personality as adults. Coexisting anxiety appears to attenuate impulsivity in ADHD, and stimulant response is poorer in ADHD children with comorbid anxiety. Anxiety and ADHD appear to be inherited independently. A subset of ADHD children also meet criteria for bipolar disorder, although the exact prevalence of this diagnosis in ADHD children is strongly debated. Regardless of prevalence, this is a severely impaired group of ADHD children, with high rates of aggression and psychiatric disorder in their families. The comorbidity of ADHD and major depression is much less studied, and few firm conclusions can be made about it. Finally, about 20%-25% of ADHD children meet criteria for a learning disorder, but learning disorders appear to be independent of ADHD.

  6. Day hospital versus admission for acute psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Max; Crowther, Ruth; Sledge, William Hurt; Rathbone, John; Soares-Weiser, Karla

    2014-01-01

    Background Inpatient treatment is an expensive way of caring for people with acute psychiatric disorders. It has been proposed that many of those currently treated as inpatients could be cared for in acute psychiatric day hospitals. Objectives To assess the effects of day hospital versus inpatient care for people with acute psychiatric disorders. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (June 2010) which is based on regular searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. We approached trialists to identify unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of day hospital versus inpatient care, for people with acute psychiatric disorders. Studies were ineligible if a majority of participants were under 18 or over 65, or had a primary diagnosis of substance abuse or organic brain disorder. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted and cross-checked data. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous data. We calculated weighted or standardised means for continuous data. Day hospital trials tend to present similar outcomes in slightly different formats, making it difficult to synthesise data. We therefore sought individual patient data so that we could re-analyse outcomes in a common format. Main results Ten trials (involving 2685 people) met the inclusion criteria. We obtained individual patient data for four trials (involving 646 people). We found no difference in the number lost to follow-up by one year between day hospital care and inpatient care (5 RCTs, n = 1694, RR 0.94 CI 0.82 to 1.08). There is moderate evidence that the duration of index admission is longer for patients in day hospital care than inpatient care (4 RCTs, n = 1582, WMD 27.47 CI 3.96 to 50.98). There is very low evidence that the duration of day patient care (adjusted days/month) is longer for patients in day hospital care than inpatient care (3 RCTs, n = 265, WMD 2.34 days

  7. Psychiatric disorders in rescue workers after the Oklahoma City bombing.

    PubMed

    North, Carol S; Tivis, Laura; McMillen, J Curtis; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Spitznagel, Edward L; Cox, Jann; Nixon, Sara; Bunch, Kenneth P; Smith, Elizabeth M

    2002-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders were studied in a volunteer group of 181 firefighters who served as rescue/recovery workers after the Oklahoma City bombing. Approximately 34 months after the disaster, the authors retrospectively assessed psychopathology both before and after the bombing with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Findings for male rescue workers were compared with those of male primary victims who had been in the direct path of the blast and who had been assessed with the same instrument. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder related to the bombing was significantly lower in male rescue workers (13%) than in male primary victims (23%). High rates of alcohol disorders (postdisaster: 24%; lifetime: 47%) were seen among all rescue workers, with virtually no new cases occurring after the bombing. The resilience seen in firefighters may be related to their career selection, their preparedness and experience, the fewer injuries they suffered, and postdisaster mental health interventions. However, alcohol disorders were endemic before the disaster, indicating a need for ongoing programs targeting this problem.

  8. [The psychiatric nursing, ABEn and the Scientific Department of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing: progress and challenges].

    PubMed

    Esperidião, Elizabeth; Silva, Nathália dos Santos; Caixeta, Camila Cardoso; Rodrigues, Jeferson

    2013-09-01

    This study contextualizes the Psychiatric Nursing and Mental Health in Brazil, considering the major historic, political and social factors that influence nursing care in this area. Reflections pointed to changes in the paradigm of psychosocial care considering the legal aspects that regulate the actions, progress and challenges experienced in the practice of Psychiatric Nursing in healthcare settings as well as in nursing education. It is essential to train professionals to work in management and assistance in perspective and interdisciplinary care network. The achievements for this specialty rush on a scientific critical and organized politically and who knows answer the reality of professionals. In this view, the Scientific Department of Psychiatric Nursing and Mental Health, created by the Brazilian Association of Nursing was installed as a strategy to bring together and consolidate the work of experts, aiming to achieve the excellence of the Specialized Care in Psychiatry and Mental Health.

  9. Major depressive disorder in a Kenyan youth sample: relationship with parenting behavior and parental psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies on mental health problems during childhood and youth development phases have reported that families of children diagnosed with a depressive disorder tend to be dysfunctional. These dysfunctions have been shown to be mediating factors for children to develop psychiatric disorders in the future. Objective This study was designed to investigate whether perceived parenting behavior and parental psychiatric disorders have any relationship with youth presenting with major depressive disorder. Methodology The study sample had a total number of 250 purposely selected youth attending the Youth Clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi. Results This study found associations between major depressive disorders (MDD) in the youth and co-morbid psychiatric disorders among the youth: conduct disorder (OR = 2.93, 95% CI 1.04 to 8.26, p = 0.035), any anxiety disorder (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.20 to 4.87, p = 0.012), drug abuse (OR = 3.40, 95% CI 2.01 to 5.76, p < 0.001), alcohol use (OR = 3.29, 95% CI 1.94 to 5.57, p < 0.001), and suicidal behavior (OR = 5.27, 95% CI 2.39 to 11.66, p < 0.001). The results also indicate that a higher proportion of youth between 16 and 18 years had major depressive disorder than the youth below 16 years or above 18 years of age (OR = 2.66, 95% CI 1.40 to 5.05, p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis shows that both rejecting maternal behavior (AOR = 2.165, 95% CI 1.060 to 4.422, p = 0.003) and maternal MDD (AOR = 5.27, 95% CI 1.10 to 14.76, p < 0.001) are associated with MDD in youth. Conclusion Negative maternal parenting behavior and maternal depressive disorder are associated with major depressive disorder in children. PMID:23663452

  10. Risk of Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Disorders Among Siblings of Probands With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Jokiranta-Olkoniemi, Elina; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Sucksdorff, Dan; Suominen, Auli; Gyllenberg, David; Chudal, Roshan; Leivonen, Susanna; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan S; Sourander, Andre

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has focused on examining the familial clustering of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Little is known about the clustering of other psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders among siblings of persons with ASD. To examine the risk for psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders among full siblings of probands with ASD. The Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders used a population-based cohort that included children born from January 1, 1987, to December 31, 2005, who received a diagnosis of ASD by December 31, 2007. Each case was individually matched to 4 control participants by sex and date and place of birth. The siblings of the cases and controls were born from January 1, 1977, to December 31, 2005, and received a diagnosis from January 1, 1987, to December 31, 2009. This nested case-control study included 3578 cases with ASD with 6022 full siblings and 11 775 controls with 22 127 siblings from Finnish national registers. Data were analyzed from March 6, 2014, to February 12, 2016. The adjusted risk ratio (RR) for psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders among siblings of probands with ASD vs siblings of matched controls. Additional analyses were conducted separately for ASD subgroups, including childhood autism, Asperger syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified. Analyses were further stratified by sex and intellectual disability among the probands. Among the 3578 cases with ASD (2841 boys [79.4%]) and 11 775 controls (9345 boys [79.4%]), 1319 cases (36.9%) and 2052 controls (17.4%) had at least 1 sibling diagnosed with any psychiatric or neurodevelopmental disorder (adjusted RR, 2.5; 95% CI, 2.3-2.6). The largest associations were observed for childhood-onset disorders (1061 cases [29.7%] vs 1362 controls [11.6%]; adjusted RR, 3.0; 95% CI, 2.8-3.3), including ASD (374 cases [10.5%] vs 125 controls [1.1%]; adjusted RR, 11.8; 95% CI, 9

  11. Association between autoimmune thyroiditis and depressive disorder in psychiatric outpatients.

    PubMed

    Degner, Detlef; Haust, Merle; Meller, Johannes; Rüther, Eckart; Reulbach, Udo

    2015-02-01

    Thyroid diseases are often associated with psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in the general population is estimated to be at about 5-14 %. A clinical study was conducted to evaluate the association between autoimmune thyroiditis and depression in psychiatric outpatients. Fifty-two patients with depression and nineteen patients with schizophrenia (serving as control group), attending a psychiatric outpatient unit, were included. In addition to the measurement of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies, and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland was performed. The proportion of pathologically increased anti-TPO levels in patients with depression was high. Furthermore, the distribution of pathologically increased anti-TPO levels was significantly (χ (2) = 5.5; p = 0.019) different between patients with depression (32.7 %) and patients with schizophrenia (5.3 %). In a gender- and age-adjusted logistic regression, the odds ratio of uni- or bipolar patients with depression for an autoimmune thyroiditis was ten times higher (95 % CI = 1.2-85.3) when compared with schizophrenia patients. TSH basal level did not differ between patients with depression and patients with schizophrenia. Our study demonstrates a strong association between anti-TPO levels, which are considered to be of diagnostic value for autoimmune thyroiditis (in combination with a hypoechoic thyroid in ultrasonography) with uni- or bipolar depression. It should be noted that the routinely measured TSH level is not sufficient in itself to diagnose this relevant autoimmune comorbidity.

  12. Psychiatric disorders and muscle tenderness in episodic and chronic migraine.

    PubMed

    Mongini, Franco; Deregibus, Andrea; Rota, Eugenia

    2005-09-01

    This review first reports on the data concerning the relationship between migraine and personality traits and psychiatric disorders. The relationship between migraine and tenderness of the pericranial and cervical muscles is then discussed. In one study, a psychologic assessment was performed in 56 women with migraine, and the Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory (MMPI) and State Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered at baseline (T0) and after 6-7 years (T2). Frequency, severity and duration of migraine were recorded at T0, after treatment (T1) and at T2, and their relationship to the prevalence of depression, MMPI and State Trait Anxiety Inventory data were examined. Pain parameters improved in all patients in T0-1, but were higher at T2 in patients with depression at T0. The patients whose migraine improved at T2 had significantly lower MMPI and State Trait Anxiety Inventory scores at T0 and T2. Moreover, the prevalence of depression of the patients whose migraine improved at T2 was 37.5% at T0 and decreased to 12.5% at T2. The authors subsequently studied the function of the frontal lobe in 23 female patients previously treated for chronic migraine and 23 controls by applying three neuropsychologic tests (gambling task, tower of hanoi-3 and object alternation test). The patient group performed significantly worse on the tower of hanoi-3 and the object alternation test. In order to assess the extent to which muscle tenderness may relate to psychiatric disorders in patients with migraine and tension-type headache, diagnosed according International Headache Society criteria [2004], a psychologic assessment was performed and palpation tenderness scores calculated for the pericranial and cervical muscles in 459 patients. In total, 125 patients had frequent episodic migraine, 97 had chronic migraine, 82 had frequent episodic tension-type headache and chronic tension-type headache was present in 83. In a further 72 patients, both episodic migraine and

  13. ASD, a Psychiatric Disorder, or Both? Psychiatric Diagnoses in Adolescents with High-Functioning ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Oswald, Donald P.; Day, Taylor N.; Eack, Shaun M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Varied presentations of emotion dysregulation in autism complicate diagnostic decision making and may lead to inaccurate psychiatric diagnoses or delayed autism diagnosis for high-functioning children. This pilot study aimed to determine the concordance between prior psychiatric diagnoses and the results of an autism-specific psychiatric interview…

  14. Recovery resources and psychiatric severity among persons with substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Majer, John M; Payne, Jason C; Jason, Leonard A

    2015-05-01

    A comparative analysis of recovery resources (abstinence social support, abstinence self-efficacy) was conducted among two groups exiting inpatient treatment for substance use disorders: persons with psychiatric comorbid substance use disorders and persons with substance use disorders. Both groups reported comparable levels of abstinence social support, but this resource was not significantly related to substance use among persons with psychiatric comorbid substance use disorders. Although abstinence self-efficacy was significantly related to substance use, persons with psychiatric comorbid substance use disorders reported significantly lower levels of abstinence self-efficacy than persons with substance use disorders. Findings suggest that persons with psychiatric comorbid substance use disorders exit alcohol/drug treatment with lower levels of abstinence self-efficacy compared to their substance use disorder peers.

  15. The progression of coeliac disease: its neurological and psychiatric implications.

    PubMed

    Campagna, Giovanna; Pesce, Mirko; Tatangelo, Raffaella; Rizzuto, Alessia; La Fratta, Irene; Grilli, Alfredo

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the paper is to show the various neurological and psychiatric symptoms in coeliac disease (CD). CD is a T cell-mediated, tissue-specific autoimmune disease which affects genetically susceptible individuals after dietary exposure to proline- and glutamine-rich proteins contained in certain cereal grains. Genetics, environmental factors and different immune systems, together with the presence of auto-antigens, are taken into account when identifying the pathogenesis of CD. CD pathogenesis is related to immune dysregulation, which involves the gastrointestinal system, and the extra-intestinal systems such as the nervous system, whose neurological symptoms are evidenced in CD patients. A gluten-free diet (GFD) could avoid cerebellar ataxia, epilepsy, neuropathies, migraine and mild cognitive impairment. Furthermore, untreated CD patients have more symptoms and psychiatric co-morbidities than those treated with a GFD. Common psychiatric symptoms in untreated CD adult patients include depression, apathy, anxiety, and irritability and schizophrenia is also common in untreated CD. Several studies show improvement in psychiatric symptoms after the start of a GFD. The present review discusses the state of the art regarding neurological and psychiatric complications in CD and highlights the evidence supporting a role for GFD in reducing neurological and psychiatric complications.

  16. Longitudinal studies: An essential component for complex psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    McInnis, Melvin G; Greden, John F

    2016-01-01

    Most psychiatric syndromes are chronic and lifetime in course. Kraepelin's seminal work pointed out a century ago that longitudinal/lifetime assessments were powerful aids in differentiating dementia praecox from manic-depressive disorder. Despite this, clinical research investigations in psychiatry have historically emphasized short-term and cross-sectional approaches. This review of an array of longitudinal studies supports that they are arguably an essential component of psychiatric investigations, but that they must be coupled with other approaches. The use of standardized, validated, repeated assessments in a disease over the course of time must be incorporated with pathophysiology investigations to identify underlying mechanisms, biomarker studies, comparative effectiveness clinical trials to identify the best treatments for different causes, and translational strategies to provide the right treatments to the right patients at the right time. Strategies for incorporating longitudinal assessments into newer diagnostic proposals, such as the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Motor impairment among different psychiatric disorders: Can patterns be identified?

    PubMed

    Van Damme, Tine; Fransen, Erik; Simons, Johan; van West, Dirk; Sabbe, Bernard

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore motor impairment in male adolescents suffering from psychiatric conditions. Taking into account the heterogeneity of a clinical population, motor profiles of distinctive diagnostic groups were evaluated. Whether or not motor ability discriminates between several diagnostic categories was investigated. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2) was administered to examine a detailed motor profile. The motor abilities of a clinical population (n=144) were compared to those of typically developing peers (n=87), using independent t-tests. To account for differences in intellectual functioning, a one-way ANCOVA was performed. To investigate the extent to which a specific diagnosis contributes to variation in motor scores a stepwise linear regression approach was applied. Results indicated that the clinical group performed significantly worse in comparison to the control group on all BOT-2 scales, even after controlling for IQ. The constructed models indicated that diagnostic categories accounted for a significant amount of the variance in motor ability scores. The results imply that motor ability of adolescents with a psychiatric disorder is in need of attention, regardless of the diagnosis and support the notion that objective motor assessment should be part of routine clinical practice.

  18. Psychiatric Disabilities and Substance Abuse Disorder: Psychosocial and Vocational Concerns--Implications for Rehabilitation Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Latofia; Templeton, Mary Anne

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the literature on the comorbidity of substance abuse and psychiatric disorder. The paper examines the medical, psychosocial, and vocational rehabilitation concerns associated with substance abuse and psychiatric disorder comorbidity. A greater emphasis is placed on vocational concerns and the role of…

  19. Preschoolers' Observed Temperament and Psychiatric Disorders Assessed with a Parent Diagnostic Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Dyson, Margaret; Olino, Thomas M.; Durbin, C. Emily; Klein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence supports the role of temperament in the origins of psychiatric disorders. However, there are few data on associations between temperament and psychiatric disorders in early childhood. A community sample of 541 three-year-old preschoolers participated in a laboratory temperament assessment, and caregivers were administered a structured…

  20. Longitudinal Predictors of Psychiatric Disorders in Very Low Birth Weight Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westrupp, E. M.; Northam, E.; Doyle, L. W.; Callanan, C.; Anderson, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine risk and protective factors for adult psychiatric disorders in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight less than 1,501 g) survivors. 79 of 154 (51%) VLBW subjects recruited at birth were assessed in early adulthood (24-27 years). Participants were screened for a psychiatric disorder; those elevated were…

  1. Preschoolers' Observed Temperament and Psychiatric Disorders Assessed with a Parent Diagnostic Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Dyson, Margaret; Olino, Thomas M.; Durbin, C. Emily; Klein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence supports the role of temperament in the origins of psychiatric disorders. However, there are few data on associations between temperament and psychiatric disorders in early childhood. A community sample of 541 three-year-old preschoolers participated in a laboratory temperament assessment, and caregivers were administered a structured…

  2. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Youth: An Agenda for Advocacy by School Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, Beth

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the National Institute of Mental Health's (NIMH) epidemiological studies of childhood and adolescent psychiatric disorders. Notes the significant number of students with diagnosable psychiatric disorders uncovered by the NIMH. Concludes with an agenda for action at the school, district, and governmental levels to include school…

  3. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children Diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Examination of Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worley, Julie A.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the triad of impairments experienced by children and adolescents diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), they often present with symptoms of psychiatric disorders. To date, very few studies have examined gender differences in regards to psychiatric symptoms in children and adolescents diagnosed with an ASD. Thus, the current…

  4. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Psychiatric Disorders among Adolescent Bedouin with Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manor-Binyamini, Iris

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and types of psychiatric disorders among Bedouin adolescents with mild to moderate intellectual disability. This is the first study ever conducted on this topic within the Bedouin community in the Negev in Israel. The issue of psychiatric disorders among adolescents with intellectual disability…

  5. Annual Research Review: Transgenic Mouse Models of Childhood-Onset Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Holly R.; Feng, Guoping

    2011-01-01

    Childhood-onset psychiatric disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), mood disorders, obsessive compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSD), and schizophrenia (SZ), affect many school-age children, leading to a lower quality of life, including difficulties in school and personal relationships that…

  6. Annual Research Review: Transgenic Mouse Models of Childhood-Onset Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Holly R.; Feng, Guoping

    2011-01-01

    Childhood-onset psychiatric disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), mood disorders, obsessive compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSD), and schizophrenia (SZ), affect many school-age children, leading to a lower quality of life, including difficulties in school and personal relationships that…

  7. Psychiatric disorders in children with Prader-Willi syndrome-Results of a 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lo, S T; Collin, P J L; Hokken-Koelega, A C S

    2015-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as psychosis are highly prevalent in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). However, knowledge about the presence and progression of psychiatric disorders in children with PWS is very limited. Sixty-one children with PWS aged 7-17 years were tested using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) and Compulsive Behaviour Checklist (CBC), and 38/61 were retested after 2 years. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders and the association with age, gender, genetic subtype, and total IQ were assessed. In addition, occurrence and characteristics of compulsions were determined. Prior to the study, two boys were known with psychotic symptoms and treated with antipsychotics. At baseline, none scored positive for psychotic disorder. During the follow-up, only one boy with known psychotic symptoms required a dose adjustment of his antipsychotic medication. After 2 years, none of the children had a psychotic disorder according to the DISC. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) was the most common diagnosis and present in 20% of children with PWS, and this was not associated with age (β = -0.081, P = 0.546), gender (β = 0.013, P = 0.923), genetic subtype (β = -0.073, P = 0.584), or total IQ (β = -0.150, P = 0.267). The most common compulsions were hoarding and fixed hygiene sequences. In our large group of 61 children with PWS, the majority had no psychotic disorder and no progression was found during 2-year follow-up. ODD was present in 20% of children. No changes in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders were found during the 2-year follow-up study and genetic subtype was not related to psychosis, depression, or ODD.

  8. The role of the cerebellum in neurobiology of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Shakiba, Alia

    2014-11-01

    For a long time, cerebellum was only known for its role in movement coordination and until recently, its role in non-motor brain function was largely ignored. Recent evidences has expanded the concept of coordination, from voluntary movements and orientation of the body to nearly every cerebral function including emotion regulation, social cognition, and time perception. This article aims to review the current evidences supporting the role of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, including studies using volumetric and/or functional imaging techniques, genetic and molecular studies, and clinical reports. The implication of these findings, their potential use, and future directions are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comorbidity of autoimmune thyroid disorders and psychiatric disorders during the postpartum period: a Danish nationwide register-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bergink, V; Pop, V J M; Nielsen, P R; Agerbo, E; Munk-Olsen, T; Liu, X

    2017-09-20

    The postpartum period is well-known risk period for the first onset of autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITDs) as well as first onset of psychiatric disorders. These two disorders are some of the most prevalent medical conditions postpartum, often misdiagnosed and disabling if left untreated. Our study was designed to explore the possible bidirectional association between AITDs and psychiatric disorders during the postpartum period. A population-based cohort study through linkage of Danish national registers, which comprised 312 779 women who gave birth to their first child during 1997-2010. We conducted Poisson regression analysis to estimate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of psychiatric disorders among women with first-onset AITDs, the IRR of AITDs among women with first-onset psychiatric disorders as well as the overlap between these disorders using a comorbidity index. Women with first-onset AITDs postpartum were more likely to have first-onset psychiatric disorders than women who did not have postpartum AITDs (IRR = 1.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25-2.81). Women with first-onset postpartum psychiatric disorders had a higher risk of AITDs than women with no psychiatric disorders (IRR = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.45-3.20). The comorbidity index 2 years after delivery was 2.26 (95% CI: 1.61-2.90), indicating a comorbidity between first-onset AITDs and psychiatric disorders. First-onset AITDs and psychiatric disorders co-occur in the postpartum period, which has relevance to further studies on the etiologies of these disorders and why childbirth in particular triggers the onset.

  10. Substance use disorders, psychiatric disorders, and mortality after release from prison: a nationwide longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Fazel, Seena

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background High mortality rates have been reported in people released from prison compared with the general population. However, few studies have investigated potential risk factors associated with these high rates, especially psychiatric determinants. We aimed to investigate the association between psychiatric disorders and mortality in people released from prison in Sweden. Methods We studied all people who were imprisoned since Jan 1, 2000, and released before Dec 31, 2009, in Sweden for risks of all-cause and external-cause (accidents, suicide, homicide) mortality after prison release. We obtained data for substance use disorders and other psychiatric disorders, and criminological and sociodemographic factors from population-based registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) by Cox regression, and then used them to calculate population attributable fractions for post-release mortality. To control for potential familial confounding, we compared individuals in the study with siblings who were also released from prison, but without psychiatric disorders. We tested whether any independent risk factors improved the prediction of mortality beyond age, sex, and criminal history. Findings We identified 47 326 individuals who were imprisoned. During a median follow-up time of 5·1 years (IQR 2·6–7·5), we recorded 2874 (6%) deaths after release from prison. The overall all-cause mortality rate was 1205 deaths per 100 000 person-years. Substance use disorders significantly increased the rate of all-cause mortality (alcohol use: adjusted HR 1·62, 95% CI 1·48–1·77; drug use: 1·67, 1·53–1·83), and the association was independent of sociodemographic, criminological, and familial factors. We identified no strong evidence that other psychiatric disorders increased mortality after we controlled for potential confounders. In people released from prison, 925 (34%) of all-cause deaths in men and 85 (50%) in women were potentially attributable to substance

  11. Psychiatric Disorders in HTLV-1-Infected Individuals with Bladder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Orge, Glória O.; Dellavechia, Thais R.; Carneiro-Neto, José Abraão; Araújo-de-Freitas, Lucas; Daltro, Carla H. C.; Santos, Carlos T.; Quarantini, Lucas C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported high rates of depression and anxiety in HTLV-1 infected individuals with the neurological disease and in the asymptomatic phase. No study has investigated the rates in individuals that already show bladder symptoms without severe neurological changes; that is, during the oligosymptomatic phase. The present study investigated patients in this intermediate form on the spectrum of the infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Brazilian Version 5.0.0 (MINI PLUS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Data analysis was performed in STATA statistical software (version 12.0). Depressive disorder was the most frequent comorbidity. Current depressive disorder was higher in the group of overactive bladder subjects (11.9%), and lifelong depression was more frequent in the HAM/TSP group (35%). The three groups had similar frequencies of anxiety disorders. Increased frequency and severity of anxiety and depression symptoms were observed in the overactive bladder group. Conclusion/Significance The results suggest that individuals with overactive bladders need a more thorough assessment from the mental health perspective. These patients remain an understudied group regarding psychiatric comorbidities. PMID:26018525

  12. Daily weather variables and affective disorder admissions to psychiatric hospitals.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have reported that admission rates in patients with affective disorders are subject to seasonal variation. Notwithstanding, there has been limited evaluation of the degree to which changeable daily meteorological patterns influence affective disorder admission rates. A handful of small studies have alluded to a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (heat waves in particular), wind direction and sunshine. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test, ARIMA and time-series regression analyses to examine whether daily meteorological variables--namely wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, hours of sunshine, sunlight radiation and temperature--influence admission rates for mania and depression across 12 regions in Ireland over a 31-year period. Although we found some very weak but interesting trends for barometric pressure in relation to mania admissions, daily meteorological patterns did not appear to affect hospital admissions overall for mania or depression. Our results do not support the small number of papers to date that suggest a link between daily meteorological variables and affective disorder admissions. Further study is needed.

  13. Daily weather variables and affective disorder admissions to psychiatric hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have reported that admission rates in patients with affective disorders are subject to seasonal variation. Notwithstanding, there has been limited evaluation of the degree to which changeable daily meteorological patterns influence affective disorder admission rates. A handful of small studies have alluded to a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (heat waves in particular), wind direction and sunshine. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test, ARIMA and time-series regression analyses to examine whether daily meteorological variables—namely wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, hours of sunshine, sunlight radiation and temperature—influence admission rates for mania and depression across 12 regions in Ireland over a 31-year period. Although we found some very weak but interesting trends for barometric pressure in relation to mania admissions, daily meteorological patterns did not appear to affect hospital admissions overall for mania or depression. Our results do not support the small number of papers to date that suggest a link between daily meteorological variables and affective disorder admissions. Further study is needed.

  14. Psychiatric disorders in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: association of anxiety disorder with shorter disease duration.

    PubMed

    Hawro, Tomasz; Krupińska-Kun, Maria; Rabe-Jabłońska, Jolanta; Sysa-Jędrzejowska, Anna; Robak, Ewa; Bogaczewicz, Jarosław; Woźniacka, Anna

    2011-10-01

    Physicians' awareness about neuropsychiatric syndromes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is not rarely limited to seizures and psychoses included in the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification. Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) with its rich symptomatology still belongs to the faintly recognised and understood aspects of lupus. The objective was to investigate prevalence and clinical correlations of psychiatric disorders in SLE patients. Fifty-two SLE patients were included. Disease duration and current and cumulative corticosteroid doses were calculated. Disease activity was assessed with the Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM). All subjects were examined by a psychiatrist. Psychiatric disorders were classified according to ACR criteria for neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE). Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clock Drawing Test (CDT) were used to screen for cognitive impairments. Mental disorders were diagnosed in 16 (30.77%), depressive disorder in 6 (11.54%), cognitive dysfunction in 5 (9.62%), anxiety disorder in 4 (7.69%) and psychosis in one patient (1.92%). SLE duration was shorter in patients diagnosed with anxiety disorder (P < 0.05), and cumulative dose of corticosteroids was lower in patients with anxiety disorder (P < 0.01). There was high positive correlation between SLE duration and cumulative dose of corticosteroids (r = 0.684, P < 0.001). Shorter SLE duration in patients with anxiety disorder seems to reflect its adaptative nature.

  15. Psychiatric Co-occurring Symptoms and Disorders in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lever, Anne G; Geurts, Hilde M

    2016-06-01

    Although psychiatric problems are less prevalent in old age within the general population, it is largely unknown whether this extends to individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We examined psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young, middle-aged, and older adults with and without ASD (Nmax = 344, age 19-79 years, IQ > 80). Albeit comparable to other psychiatric patients, levels of symptoms and psychological distress were high over the adult lifespan; 79 % met criteria for a psychiatric disorder at least once in their lives. Depression and anxiety were most common. However, older adults less often met criteria for any psychiatric diagnosis and, specifically, social phobia than younger adults. Hence, despite marked psychological distress, psychiatric problems are also less prevalent in older aged individuals with ASD.

  16. Psychiatric disorders in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome are frequent, diverse and strongly associated with pain.

    PubMed

    Hershenfeld, Samantha Aliza; Wasim, Syed; McNiven, Vanda; Parikh, Manasi; Majewski, Paula; Faghfoury, Hanna; So, Joyce

    2016-03-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a heterogeneous group of hereditary connective tissue disorders characterized by joint hypermobility, widespread musculoskeletal pain and tissue fragility. Psychiatric disorders and psychosocial impairment are common, yet poorly characterized, findings in EDS patients. We investigated the frequency and types of psychiatric disorders and their relationship to systemic manifestations in a cohort of 106 classic and hypermobility type EDS patients. In this retrospective study, extensive medical chart review was performed for patients referred at two genetics clinics who were diagnosed with EDS. Statistical analysis was undertaken to determine the frequency of psychiatric disorders and association with systemic findings. Psychiatric disorders were found in 42.5% of the EDS cohort, with 22.7% of patients affected with 2 or more psychiatric diagnoses. Anxiety and depression were most commonly reported, with frequencies of 23.6 and 25.5%, respectively. A variety of other psychiatric diagnoses were also identified. Abdominal pain [odds ratio (OR) 7.38], neuropathic pain (OR 4.07), migraines (OR 5.21), joint pain (OR 2.85) and fatigue (OR 5.55) were significantly associated with the presence of a psychiatric disorder. The presence of any pain symptom was significantly associated with having a psychiatric disorder (OR 9.68). Muscle pain (OR 2.79), abdominal pain (OR 5.78), neuropathic pain (OR 3.91), migraines (OR 2.63) and fatigue (OR 3.78) were significantly associated with having an anxiety or mood disorder. Joint hypermobility and the classic dermatological features of EDS showed no significant association with having a psychiatric disorder. Our findings demonstrate a high frequency of psychiatric disorders and an association with pain symptoms in EDS.

  17. Factors Affecting Minor Psychiatric Disorder in Southern Iranian Nurses: A Latent Class Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Jamshid; Roustaei, Narges; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi; Sadeghi, Erfan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mental health is one of the most important dimensions of life and its quality. Minor Psychiatric Disorder as a type of mental health problem is prevalent among health workers. Nursing is considered to be one of the most stressful occupations. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of minor psychiatric disorder and its associated factors among nurses in southern Iran. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 771 nurses working in 20 cities of Bushehr and Fars provinces in southern Iran. Participants were recruited through multi-stage sampling during 2014. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used for screening of minor psychiatric disorder in nurses. Latent Class Regression was used to analyze the data. Results: The prevalence of minor psychiatric disorder among nurses was estimated to be 27.5%. Gender and sleep disorders were significant factors in determining the level of minor psychiatric disorder (P Values of 0.04 and < 0.001, respectively). Female nurses were 20% more likely than males to be classified into the minor psychiatric disorder group. Conclusions: The results of this study provide information about the prevalence of minor psychiatric disorder among nurses, and factors, which affect the prevalence of such disorders. These findings can be used in strategic planning processes to improve nurses’ mental health. PMID:26339670

  18. Early life and oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders: what can we learn from animal models?

    PubMed

    Mhillaj, Emanuela; Morgese, Maria Grazia; Trabace, Luigia

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex pathology characterized by the occurrence of a variety of symptoms classified as positive, negative and cognitive. Although the exact etiopathogenesis of this disorder has not been unraveled yet, many theories have been endorsed during the last years. Among these, the neurochemical theories have been the most suited, considering the dopaminergic and glutamatergic dysfunctions to be mainly responsible for psychotic symptoms. However, the lack of efficacy of the available drugs, namely antipsychotics, toward negative and cognitive symptoms led to hypothesize alternative approaches. In this regard, the neurodevelopmental theory of schizophrenia has emerged, proposing the association between the occurrence of environmental risk factors in early-life and the development of psychosis in late-life. In particular, exposure to early life stressing situations, such as pre- and peri-natal stress, has been suggested as a risk factor to d evelop psychopathologies in adulthood in people genetically predisposed. A crucial support in favor of this hypothesis came from neurodevelopmental animal models of schizophrenia, such as maternal malnutrition, maternal deprivation, maternal infections as well as post-weaning social isolation rearing. Moreover, data from these models, corroborated by clinical findings, indicate that oxidative and nitrosative stress play a crucial role in the etiopathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. In the present work, we reviewed the recent progress in literature regarding data available from animal models linking oxidative and nitrosative stress to psychiatric disorders in order to evaluate novel biomarkers of pathology as well as novel therapeutical targets.

  19. Hippocampal-Prefrontal Circuit and Disrupted Functional Connectivity in Psychiatric and Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Long, Cheng; Yang, Li

    2015-01-01

    In rodents, the hippocampus has been studied extensively as part of a brain system responsible for learning and memory, and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) participates in numerous cognitive functions including working memory, flexibility, decision making, and rewarding learning. The neuronal projections from the hippocampus, either directly or indirectly, to the PFC, referred to as the hippocampal-prefrontal cortex (Hip-PFC) circuit, play a critical role in cognitive and emotional regulation and memory consolidation. Although in certain psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, structural connectivity viewed by imaging techniques has been consistently found to be associated with clinical phenotype and disease severity, the focus has moved towards the investigation of connectivity correlates of molecular pathology and coupling of oscillation. Moreover, functional and structural connectivity measures have been emerging as potential intermediate biomarkers for neuronal disorders. In this review, we summarize progress on the anatomic, molecular, and electrophysiological characters of the Hip-PFC circuit in cognition and emotion processes with an emphasis on oscillation and functional connectivity, revealing a disrupted Hip-PFC connectivity and electrical activity in psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders as a promising candidate of neural marker for neuronal disorders. PMID:25918722

  20. Marital distress and DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in a population-based national survey.

    PubMed

    Whisman, Mark A

    2007-08-01

    The associations between marital distress and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) Axis I psychiatric disorders were evaluated in a United States population-based survey of married individuals in which there was no upper age exclusionary criterion (N = 2,213). Marital distress was associated with (a) broad-band classifications of anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders and (b) all narrow-band classifications of specific disorders except for panic disorder, with the strongest associations obtained between marital distress and bipolar disorder, alcohol use disorders, and generalized anxiety disorder. The association between marital distress and major depressive disorder increased in magnitude with increasing age; there was no evidence that the association between marital distress and other psychiatric disorders was moderated by gender or age. Results support continued research on the association between couple functioning and mental health.

  1. Phemenological aspects of personality disorders in adult psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Benedik, Emil; Dobnik, Sana Coderl

    2014-06-01

    Many empirical studies give evidence of co-occurrence of mental and personality disorders (PDs). On the other hand theoretical models explain the relationship between personality and mental disorders from different perspectives. This research studied the phemenological aspects of PDs in adult psychiatric patients with different mental disorders according to cognitive and psychoanalytic criteria for personality pathology. In order to study personality pathology in different diagnostic groups we constructed a self-report Questionnaire of Personality Disorders (VMO-2) on the basis of the DSM-IV-TR classification of PD (APA 2000), Beck's theory of dysfunctional beliefs (Beck et al. 2004) and psychoanalytic theories of personality (Kernberg 1986). The content of items in VMO-2 reflected the phenomenology of PDs and is focused on the basic experience of self and others in specific personality types. The questionnaire consists of 193 items which are divided into 11 clinical scales (Histrionic, Obsessive-compulsive, Avoidant, Dependent, Depressive, Narcissistic, Borderline, Antisocial, Paranoid, Schizoid and Schizotypal PD scale) and a validity (Lie) scale. The sample of 642 adult patients with different mental disorders and 477 healthy controls of both genders served as subjects in the study. All groups of patients reached higher scores on VMO-2 and revealed more personality pathology as compared to the control group. There were differences in specific personality scales between patients of different diagnostic groups. The schizotypal PD scale discriminated significantly between patients with schizophrenia and the majority of other diagnostic groups. The group of patients with opioid dependence disorder reached the highest mean score on the scale for antisocial PD. Our results on VMO-2 show partial support for psychodynamic and cognitive theories of personality pathology. Results are also in accordance with other empirical studies which show that some characteristics of

  2. Stability of childhood anxiety disorder diagnoses: a follow-up naturalistic study in psychiatric care.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Juan J; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Blanco, Carlos; Perez-Rodriguez, M Mercedes; Arriero, Miguel A Jimenez; Artes-Rodriguez, Antonio; Rynn, Moira; Shaffer, David; Oquendo, Maria A

    2010-04-01

    Few studies have examined the stability of major psychiatric disorders in pediatric psychiatric clinical populations. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term stability of anxiety diagnoses starting with pre-school age children through adolescence evaluated at multiple time points. Prospective cohort study was conducted of all children and adolescents receiving psychiatric care at all pediatric psychiatric clinics belonging to two catchment areas in Madrid, Spain, between 1 January, 1992 and 30 April, 2006. Patients were selected from among 24,163 children and adolescents who received psychiatric care. Patients had to have a diagnosis of an ICD-10 anxiety disorder during at least one of the consultations and had to have received psychiatric care for the anxiety disorder. We grouped anxiety disorder diagnoses according to the following categories: phobic disorders, social anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), stress-related disorders, and "other" anxiety disorders which, among others, included generalized anxiety disorder, and panic disorder. Complementary indices of diagnostic stability were calculated. As much as 1,869 subjects were included and had 27,945 psychiatric/psychological consultations. The stability of all ICD-10 anxiety disorder categories studied was high regardless of the measure of diagnostic stability used. Phobic and social anxiety disorders showed the highest diagnostic stability, whereas OCD and "other" anxiety disorders showed the lowest diagnostic stability. No significant sex differences were observed on the diagnostic stability of the anxiety disorder categories studied. Diagnostic stability measures for phobic, social anxiety, and "other" anxiety disorder diagnoses varied depending on the age at first evaluation. In this clinical pediatric outpatient sample it appears that phobic, social anxiety, and stress-related disorder diagnoses in children and adolescents treated in community outpatient services may

  3. Full spectrum of psychiatric disorders related to foreign migration: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2013-04-01

    Although increased risk for schizophrenia among immigrants is well established, knowledge of the broader spectrum of psychiatric disorders associated with a foreign migration background is lacking. To examine the full range of psychiatric disorders associated with any type of foreign migration background among persons residing in Denmark, including foreign-born adoptees, first- and second-generation immigrants, native Danes with a history of foreign residence, and persons born abroad to Danish expatriates. Danish population-based cohort study. Persons were followed up from their 10th birthday for the development of mental disorders based on outpatient and inpatient data. All persons born between January 1, 1971, and December 31, 2000 (N = 1 859 419) residing in Denmark by their 10th birthday with follow-up data to December 31, 2010. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and cumulative incidences for psychiatric outcomes. All categories of foreign migration background, except persons born abroad to Danish expatriates, were associated with increased risk for at least 1 psychiatric disorder. Foreign-born adoptees had increased IRRs for all psychiatric disorders and had the highest IRRs for these disorders compared with other foreign migration categories. First- and second-generation immigrants having 2 foreign-born parents had significantly increased IRRs for schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders and had similar risk magnitudes. Second-generation immigrants having 1 foreign-born parent had significantly increased IRRs for all psychiatric disorders. Native Danes with a history of foreign residence had increased IRRs for bipolar affective disorder, affective disorders, personality disorders, and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The extent to which a background of foreign migration confers an increased risk for the broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders varies according to parental origin, with greatest risks for foreign-born adoptees. The spectrum of psychiatric

  4. Borderline personality disorder and Axis I psychiatric and substance use disorders among women experiencing homelessness in three US cities.

    PubMed

    Whitbeck, Leslie B; Armenta, Brian E; Welch-Lazoritz, Melissa L

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we report prevalence rates of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and Axis I psychiatric and substance use disorders among randomly selected women who were experiencing episodes of homelessness in three US cities. The sample consists of 156 women, 79 from Omaha, NE, 39 from Pittsburgh, PA, and 38 from Portland, OR. It included 140 women from shelters and 16 women from meal locations. Latent class analysis was used to evaluate BPD symptoms. A large majority of the women (84.6 %) met criteria for at least one lifetime psychiatric disorder, about three-fourths (73.1 %) met criteria for a psychiatric disorder in the past year, and 39.7 % met past month criteria for a psychiatric disorder. Approximately three-fourths of the sample (73.7 %) met lifetime criteria for at least two disorders, about half (53.9 %) met criteria for at least three lifetime disorders, and approximately one-third (39.1 %) met criteria for four or more disorders. Latent class analyses indicated that 16.7 % of the women could be categorized as low self-harm BPD and 19.9 % high self-harm BPD. In shelters and in treatment settings, these women will present with complex histories of multiple serious psychiatric disorders. They are highly likely to manifest symptoms of BPD, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance abuse disorders in addition to other psychiatric symptoms which will add to clinical complications.

  5. Parents of adolescents with psychiatric disorders: insight into the disorder, self-stigma and parental stress.

    PubMed

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka; Morag-Yaffe, Mayad; Gaziel, Meyrav; Schapir, Lior; Zalsman, Gil; Shoval, Gal

    2014-07-01

    Parents of adolescents with mental disorders experience stress partially due to the way they perceive and experience their offspring's disorder. The current study assessed the mediator role of self-stigma in the relationship between insight into the disorder and parental stress of parents of adolescents with mental disorders. A total of 37 parents of adolescents with psychiatric disorders were assessed for their level of insight, self-stigma and parental stress. The hypothesized mediation model was confirmed and is consistent with previous study on parents of adults with severe mental illness. The positive association between insight and parental stress is mediated by these parents' self-stigma, suggesting that insight increases the self-stigma, which in turn increases the parental stress. These results may have clinical implications with regard to the treatment of the family of adolescents with mental disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Preadolescent children of substance-dependent fathers with antisocial personality disorder: psychiatric disorders and problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Moss, H B; Baron, D A; Hardie, T L; Vanyukov, M M

    2001-01-01

    We compared psychiatric disorders and problem behavior scores in pre-adolescent children of fathers with alcohol or other drug dependence and ASP (SD+/ASP+), children whose fathers had substance dependence without ASP (SD+/ASP-), and children whose fathers were without either disorder (SD-/ASP-). SD+/ASP+ children showed elevated rates of major depression, conduct disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and separation anxiety disorder when compared to SD+/ASP- and SD-/ASP- children. SD+/ASP+ children had higher internalizing and externalizing problem behavior scores than the other two groups of children. The results suggest that SD+/ASP+ children are at significant risk for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology.

  7. Circadian clock and stress interactions in the molecular biology of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Landgraf, Dominic; McCarthy, Michael J; Welsh, David K

    2014-10-01

    Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by circadian rhythm abnormalities, including disturbed sleep/wake cycles, changes in locomotor activity, and abnormal endocrine function. Animal models with mutations in circadian "clock genes" commonly show disturbances in reward processing, locomotor activity and novelty seeking behaviors, further supporting the idea of a connection between the circadian clock and psychiatric disorders. However, if circadian clock dysfunction is a common risk factor for multiple psychiatric disorders, it is unknown if and how these putative clock abnormalities could be expressed differently, and contribute to multiple, distinct phenotypes. One possible explanation is that the circadian clock modulates the biological responses to stressful environmental factors that vary with an individual's experience. It is known that the circadian clock and the stress response systems are closely related: Circadian clock genes regulate the physiological sensitivity to and rhythmic release of glucocorticoids (GC). In turn, GCs have reciprocal effects on the clock. Since stressful life events or increased vulnerability to stress are risk factors for multiple psychiatric disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol use disorder (AUD) and schizophrenia (SCZ), we propose that modulation of the stress response is a common mechanism by which circadian clock genes affect these illnesses. Presently, we review how molecular components of the circadian clock may contribute to these six psychiatric disorders, and present the hypothesis that modulation of the stress response may constitute a common mechanism by which the circadian clock affects multiple psychiatric disorders.

  8. Identification of neural targets for the treatment of psychiatric disorders: the role of functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Vago, David R; Epstein, Jane; Catenaccio, Eva; Stern, Emily

    2011-04-01

    Neurosurgical treatment of psychiatric disorders has been influenced by evolving neurobiological models of symptom generation. The advent of functional neuroimaging and advances in the neurosciences have revolutionized understanding of the functional neuroanatomy of psychiatric disorders. This article reviews neuroimaging studies of depression from the last 3 decades and describes an emerging neurocircuitry model of mood disorders, focusing on critical circuits of cognition and emotion, particularly those networks involved in the regulation of evaluative, expressive and experiential aspects of emotion. The relevance of this model for neurotherapeutics is discussed, as well as the role of functional neuroimaging of psychiatric disorders.

  9. Molecular Mechanisms of Bipolar Disorder: Progress Made and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeni; Santos, Renata; Gage, Fred H.; Marchetto, Maria C.

    2017-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic and progressive psychiatric illness characterized by mood oscillations, with episodes of mania and depression. The impact of BD on patients can be devastating, with up to 15% of patients committing suicide. This disorder is associated with psychiatric and medical comorbidities and patients with a high risk of drug abuse, metabolic and endocrine disorders and vascular disease. Current knowledge of the pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms causing BD is still modest. With no clear biological markers available, early diagnosis is a great challenge to clinicians without previous knowledge of the longitudinal progress of illness. Moreover, despite recommendations from evidence-based guidelines, polypharmacy is still common in clinical treatment of BD, reflecting the gap between research and clinical practice. A major challenge in BD is the development of effective drugs with low toxicity for the patients. In this review article, we focus on the progress made and future challenges we face in determining the pathophysiology and molecular pathways involved in BD, such as circadian and metabolic perturbations, mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction, autophagy and glutamatergic neurotransmission; which may lead to the development of new drugs. PMID:28261061

  10. Molecular Mechanisms of Bipolar Disorder: Progress Made and Future Challenges.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeni; Santos, Renata; Gage, Fred H; Marchetto, Maria C

    2017-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic and progressive psychiatric illness characterized by mood oscillations, with episodes of mania and depression. The impact of BD on patients can be devastating, with up to 15% of patients committing suicide. This disorder is associated with psychiatric and medical comorbidities and patients with a high risk of drug abuse, metabolic and endocrine disorders and vascular disease. Current knowledge of the pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms causing BD is still modest. With no clear biological markers available, early diagnosis is a great challenge to clinicians without previous knowledge of the longitudinal progress of illness. Moreover, despite recommendations from evidence-based guidelines, polypharmacy is still common in clinical treatment of BD, reflecting the gap between research and clinical practice. A major challenge in BD is the development of effective drugs with low toxicity for the patients. In this review article, we focus on the progress made and future challenges we face in determining the pathophysiology and molecular pathways involved in BD, such as circadian and metabolic perturbations, mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction, autophagy and glutamatergic neurotransmission; which may lead to the development of new drugs.

  11. Parental psychiatric disorders associated with autism spectrum disorders in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Julie L; Forssen, Ulla; Hultman, Christina M; Cnattingius, Sven; Savitz, David A; Feychting, Maria; Sparen, Par

    2008-05-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder defined by impaired social interaction, communication, and behavior. Causes and correlates of autism are largely unknown, but elevated frequencies of psychiatric disorders and distinct personality traits have been reported among the family members of individuals with autism. Linkage of data from Swedish registries was used to investigate whether hospitalization for psychiatric conditions was higher among parents of children with autism compared with control subjects. Data sources included the Swedish Medical Birth Register (child's birth), the Swedish Multi-Generation Register (linking parents to children), and Swedish Hospital Discharge Register (hospitalization records). Children born between 1977 and 2003 who had a hospitalization record indicating autism before 10 years of age (n = 1227) were matched with 30,693 control subjects from the Swedish Medical Birth Register by gender, year of birth, and hospital. Parent diagnoses were based on an inpatient hospital diagnostic evaluation and included schizophrenia, other nonaffective psychoses, affective disorders, neurotic and personality disorders and other nonpsychotic disorders, alcohol and drug addiction and abuse, and autism. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for child's age, gender, hospital of birth, parents' age, country of birth and socioeconomic status, and diagnosis of a mental disorder in the other parent. Parents of children with autism were more likely to have been hospitalized for a mental disorder than parents of control subjects. Schizophrenia was more common among case mothers and fathers compared with respective control parents. Depression and personality disorders were more common among case mothers but not fathers. CONCLUSIONS; This large population study supports the potential for familial aggregation of psychiatric conditions that may provide leads for future investigations of heritable

  12. Psychiatric disorders and the labor market: an analysis by disorder profiles.

    PubMed

    Cowell, Alexander J; Luo, Zhehui; Masuda, Yuta J

    2009-03-01

    A key societal cost of mental illness is its impact on the labor market. In examining the relationship between psychiatric disorders and the labor market, the literature to date either examines psychiatric disorders in broad classes or focuses on the impact of specific conditions. The aim is to examine the relationships among meaningful profiles of concurrent past year disorders and labor market outcomes by gender. Data are from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions for 2001/2002 (NESARC), a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population aged 18 or older residing in the United States. The analysis sample contains 18,429 women and 16,426 men (unweighted). We examined the relationship between profiles of psychiatric disorders and three labor market outcomes: labor force participation; employment, conditional on labor force participation; and working full-time conditional on being employed. Because no attempt was made to control for potential endogeneity between the labor market outcomes and the psychiatric profiles, we are unable to establish the causal direction of the associations estimated. First, anxiety disorders among women appear to be associated with labor market outcomes (e.g., anxiety profile in employment outcome: OR=0.76, p<.05). Second, for employment among women large effects were seen for mood disorder and mood and anxiety; in contrast for men, these disorder profiles had significant associations with working full-time rather than employment. Third, for women, of the three labor market outcomes, employment status is particularly sensitive to the profiles of disorders. For men, no such pattern was found for any single labor market outcome. Concurrent psychiatric disorder profiles affect men and women differently in the labor market. The greatest differences are in (i) the relationship between labor market outcomes and profiles exhibiting anxiety disorders, and (ii) which labor market outcomes are influenced

  13. Predictors of psychiatric disorders in liver transplantation candidates: logistic regression models.

    PubMed

    Rocca, Paola; Cocuzza, Elena; Rasetti, Roberta; Rocca, Giuseppe; Zanalda, Enrico; Bogetto, Filippo

    2003-07-01

    This study has two goals. The first goal is to assess the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) candidates by means of standardized procedures because there has been little research concerning psychiatric problems of potential OLT candidates using standardized instruments. The second goal focuses on identifying predictors of these psychiatric disorders. One hundred sixty-five elective OLT candidates were assessed by our unit. Psychiatric diagnoses were based on the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Patients also were assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the Spielberger Anxiety Index, State and Trait forms (STAI-X1 and STAI-X2). Severity of cirrhosis was assessed by applying Child-Pugh score criteria. Chi-squared and general linear model analysis of variance were used to test the univariate association between patient characteristics and both clinical psychiatric diagnoses and severity of psychiatric diseases. Variables with P less than.10 in univariate analyses were included in multiple regression models. Forty-three percent of patients presented at least one psychiatric diagnosis. Child-Pugh score and previous psychiatric diagnoses were independent significant predictors of depressive disorders. Severity of psychiatric symptoms measured by psychometric scales (HDRS, STAI-X1, and STAI-X2) was associated with Child-Pugh score in the multiple regression model. Our data suggest a high rate of psychiatric disorders, particularly adjustment disorders, in our sample of OLT candidates. Severity of liver disease emerges as the most important variable in predicting severity of psychiatric disorders in these patients.

  14. Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We apply univariate and bivariate methods for the estimation of genetic variation within and covariation between disorders. SNPs explained 17–29% of the variance in liability. The genetic correlation calculated using common SNPs was high between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (0.68 ± 0.04 s.e.), moderate between schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (0.43 ± 0.06 s.e.), bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (0.47 ± 0.06 s.e.), and ADHD and major depressive disorder (0.32 ± 0.07 s.e.), low between schizophrenia and ASD (0.16 ± 0.06 s.e.) and non-significant for other pairs of disorders as well as between psychiatric disorders and the negative control of Crohn’s disease. This empirical evidence of shared genetic etiology for psychiatric disorders can inform nosology and encourages the investigation of common pathophysiologies for related disorders. PMID:23933821

  15. Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs.

    PubMed

    Lee, S Hong; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M; Faraone, Stephen V; Purcell, Shaun M; Perlis, Roy H; Mowry, Bryan J; Thapar, Anita; Goddard, Michael E; Witte, John S; Absher, Devin; Agartz, Ingrid; Akil, Huda; Amin, Farooq; Andreassen, Ole A; Anjorin, Adebayo; Anney, Richard; Anttila, Verneri; Arking, Dan E; Asherson, Philip; Azevedo, Maria H; Backlund, Lena; Badner, Judith A; Bailey, Anthony J; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barchas, Jack D; Barnes, Michael R; Barrett, Thomas B; Bass, Nicholas; Battaglia, Agatino; Bauer, Michael; Bayés, Mònica; Bellivier, Frank; Bergen, Sarah E; Berrettini, Wade; Betancur, Catalina; Bettecken, Thomas; Biederman, Joseph; Binder, Elisabeth B; Black, Donald W; Blackwood, Douglas H R; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Boehnke, Michael; Boomsma, Dorret I; Breen, Gerome; Breuer, René; Bruggeman, Richard; Cormican, Paul; Buccola, Nancy G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Bunney, William E; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Byerley, William F; Byrne, Enda M; Caesar, Sian; Cahn, Wiepke; Cantor, Rita M; Casas, Miguel; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambert, Kimberly; Choudhury, Khalid; Cichon, Sven; Cloninger, C Robert; Collier, David A; Cook, Edwin H; Coon, Hilary; Cormand, Bru; Corvin, Aiden; Coryell, William H; Craig, David W; Craig, Ian W; Crosbie, Jennifer; Cuccaro, Michael L; Curtis, David; Czamara, Darina; Datta, Susmita; Dawson, Geraldine; Day, Richard; De Geus, Eco J; Degenhardt, Franziska; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary J; Doyle, Alysa E; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Duketis, Eftichia; Ebstein, Richard P; Edenberg, Howard J; Elia, Josephine; Ennis, Sean; Etain, Bruno; Fanous, Ayman; Farmer, Anne E; Ferrier, I Nicol; Flickinger, Matthew; Fombonne, Eric; Foroud, Tatiana; Frank, Josef; Franke, Barbara; Fraser, Christine; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B; Freitag, Christine M; Friedl, Marion; Frisén, Louise; Gallagher, Louise; Gejman, Pablo V; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S; Geschwind, Daniel H; Giegling, Ina; Gill, Michael; Gordon, Scott D; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Green, Elaine K; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Grice, Dorothy E; Gross, Magdalena; Grozeva, Detelina; Guan, Weihua; Gurling, Hugh; De Haan, Lieuwe; Haines, Jonathan L; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hallmayer, Joachim; Hamilton, Steven P; Hamshere, Marian L; Hansen, Thomas F; Hartmann, Annette M; Hautzinger, Martin; Heath, Andrew C; Henders, Anjali K; Herms, Stefan; Hickie, Ian B; Hipolito, Maria; Hoefels, Susanne; Holmans, Peter A; Holsboer, Florian; Hoogendijk, Witte J; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hultman, Christina M; Hus, Vanessa; Ingason, Andrés; Ising, Marcus; Jamain, Stéphane; Jones, Edward G; Jones, Ian; Jones, Lisa; Tzeng, Jung-Ying; Kähler, Anna K; Kahn, René S; Kandaswamy, Radhika; Keller, Matthew C; Kennedy, James L; Kenny, Elaine; Kent, Lindsey; Kim, Yunjung; Kirov, George K; Klauck, Sabine M; Klei, Lambertus; Knowles, James A; Kohli, Martin A; Koller, Daniel L; Konte, Bettina; Korszun, Ania; Krabbendam, Lydia; Krasucki, Robert; Kuntsi, Jonna; Kwan, Phoenix; Landén, Mikael; Långström, Niklas; Lathrop, Mark; Lawrence, Jacob; Lawson, William B; Leboyer, Marion; Ledbetter, David H; Lee, Phil H; Lencz, Todd; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Levinson, Douglas F; Lewis, Cathryn M; Li, Jun; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Lin, Dan-Yu; Linszen, Don H; Liu, Chunyu; Lohoff, Falk W; Loo, Sandra K; Lord, Catherine; Lowe, Jennifer K; Lucae, Susanne; MacIntyre, Donald J; Madden, Pamela A F; Maestrini, Elena; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahon, Pamela B; Maier, Wolfgang; Malhotra, Anil K; Mane, Shrikant M; Martin, Christa L; Martin, Nicholas G; Mattheisen, Manuel; Matthews, Keith; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarroll, Steven A; McGhee, Kevin A; McGough, James J; McGrath, Patrick J; McGuffin, Peter; McInnis, Melvin G; McIntosh, Andrew; McKinney, Rebecca; McLean, Alan W; McMahon, Francis J; McMahon, William M; McQuillin, Andrew; Medeiros, Helena; Medland, Sarah E; Meier, Sandra; Melle, Ingrid; Meng, Fan; Meyer, Jobst; Middeldorp, Christel M; Middleton, Lefkos; Milanova, Vihra; Miranda, Ana; Monaco, Anthony P; Montgomery, Grant W; Moran, Jennifer L; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel; Morken, Gunnar; Morris, Derek W; Morrow, Eric M; Moskvina, Valentina; Muglia, Pierandrea; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Muir, Walter J; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Murtha, Michael; Myers, Richard M; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Neale, Michael C; Nelson, Stan F; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Nikolov, Ivan; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; Nolen, Willem A; Nöthen, Markus M; Nurnberger, John I; Nwulia, Evaristus A; Nyholt, Dale R; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Oades, Robert D; Olincy, Ann; Oliveira, Guiomar; Olsen, Line; Ophoff, Roel A; Osby, Urban; Owen, Michael J; Palotie, Aarno; Parr, Jeremy R; Paterson, Andrew D; Pato, Carlos N; Pato, Michele T; Penninx, Brenda W; Pergadia, Michele L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Pickard, Benjamin S; Pimm, Jonathan; Piven, Joseph; Posthuma, Danielle; Potash, James B; Poustka, Fritz; Propping, Peter; Puri, Vinay; Quested, Digby J; Quinn, Emma M; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Rasmussen, Henrik B; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Rehnström, Karola; Reif, Andreas; Ribasés, Marta; Rice, John P; Rietschel, Marcella; Roeder, Kathryn; Roeyers, Herbert; Rossin, Lizzy; Rothenberger, Aribert; Rouleau, Guy; Ruderfer, Douglas; Rujescu, Dan; Sanders, Alan R; Sanders, Stephan J; Santangelo, Susan L; Sergeant, Joseph A; Schachar, Russell; Schalling, Martin; Schatzberg, Alan F; Scheftner, William A; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Scherer, Stephen W; Schork, Nicholas J; Schulze, Thomas G; Schumacher, Johannes; Schwarz, Markus; Scolnick, Edward; Scott, Laura J; Shi, Jianxin; Shilling, Paul D; Shyn, Stanley I; Silverman, Jeremy M; Slager, Susan L; Smalley, Susan L; Smit, Johannes H; Smith, Erin N; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; St Clair, David; State, Matthew; Steffens, Michael; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Strauss, John S; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T Scott; Sutcliffe, James S; Szatmari, Peter; Szelinger, Szabocls; Thirumalai, Srinivasa; Thompson, Robert C; Todorov, Alexandre A; Tozzi, Federica; Treutlein, Jens; Uhr, Manfred; van den Oord, Edwin J C G; Van Grootheest, Gerard; Van Os, Jim; Vicente, Astrid M; Vieland, Veronica J; Vincent, John B; Visscher, Peter M; Walsh, Christopher A; Wassink, Thomas H; Watson, Stanley J; Weissman, Myrna M; Werge, Thomas; Wienker, Thomas F; Wijsman, Ellen M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Williams, Nigel; Willsey, A Jeremy; Witt, Stephanie H; Xu, Wei; Young, Allan H; Yu, Timothy W; Zammit, Stanley; Zandi, Peter P; Zhang, Peng; Zitman, Frans G; Zöllner, Sebastian; Devlin, Bernie; Kelsoe, John R; Sklar, Pamela; Daly, Mark J; O'Donovan, Michael C; Craddock, Nicholas; Sullivan, Patrick F; Smoller, Jordan W; Kendler, Kenneth S; Wray, Naomi R

    2013-09-01

    Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We apply univariate and bivariate methods for the estimation of genetic variation within and covariation between disorders. SNPs explained 17-29% of the variance in liability. The genetic correlation calculated using common SNPs was high between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (0.68 ± 0.04 s.e.), moderate between schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (0.43 ± 0.06 s.e.), bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (0.47 ± 0.06 s.e.), and ADHD and major depressive disorder (0.32 ± 0.07 s.e.), low between schizophrenia and ASD (0.16 ± 0.06 s.e.) and non-significant for other pairs of disorders as well as between psychiatric disorders and the negative control of Crohn's disease. This empirical evidence of shared genetic etiology for psychiatric disorders can inform nosology and encourages the investigation of common pathophysiologies for related disorders.

  16. Psychiatric disorders in individuals with methamphetamine dependence: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Akindipe, Taiwo; Wilson, Don; Stein, Dan J

    2014-06-01

    Methamphetamine dependence may be associated with a range of psychiatric disorders. However, relatively few studies have systematically examined these disorders and possible risk factors. This study used a structured diagnostic interview to assess the prevalence and pattern of co-morbid psychiatric disorders in individuals with methamphetamine dependence; and identified risk factors for this comorbidity. One hundred adult volunteers with a diagnosis of methamphetamine dependence and without co-morbid medical disorders were consecutively recruited from three drug rehabilitation centres. Each volunteer was assessed with a socio-demographic questionnaire and evaluated for psychiatric comorbidity using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I). A regression model was used to determine predictors of psychiatric comorbidity. Co-morbid psychiatric disorders were present in 36.0% of the sample; these included mood disorders (16.0%), psychotic disorders (13.0%) and anxiety disorders (7.0%). One in four of these disorders were assessed as being substance-induced. Independent predictors of psychiatric comorbidity included being male (OR = 10.04, 95% C.I = 2.07-48.63, p = 0.004), younger (OR = 0.87, 95% C.I = 0.77-0.99, p = 0.04), and having a previous psychiatric disorder (OR = 18.45, 95% C.I = 3.81-89.33, p < 0.001). Mood, psychotic, and anxiety disorders are common in individuals with methamphetamine dependence. Risk factors for such comorbidity can be identified. These findings underscore the need for an integrated model of care addressing both substance use disorders and psychiatric comorbidity.

  17. Psychiatric Disorders and Polyphenols: Can They Be Helpful in Therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Trebatická, Jana; Ďuračková, Zdeňka

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric disorders permanently increases. Polyphenolic compounds can be involved in modulation of mental health including brain plasticity, behaviour, mood, depression, and cognition. In addition to their antioxidant ability other biomodulating properties have been observed. In the pathogenesis of depression disturbance in neurotransmitters, increased inflammatory processes, defects in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and redox imbalance are observed. Ginkgo biloba, green tea, and Quercus robur extracts and curcumin can affect neuronal system in depressive patients. ADHD patients treated with antipsychotic drugs, especially stimulants, report significant adverse effects; therefore, an alternative treatment is searched for. An extract from Ginkgo biloba and from Pinus pinaster bark, Pycnogenol, could become promising complementary supplements in ADHD treatment. Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disorder, with oxidative stress involved in its pathophysiology. The direct interference of polyphenols with schizophrenia pathophysiology has not been reported yet. However, increased oxidative stress caused by haloperidol was inhibited ex vivo by different polyphenols. Curcumin, extract from green tea and from Ginkgo biloba, may have benefits on serious side effects associated with administration of neuroleptics to patients suffering from schizophrenia. Polyphenols in the diet have the potential to become medicaments in the field of mental health after a thorough study of their mechanism of action. PMID:26180581

  18. Disorders of memory and plasticity in psychiatric disease.

    PubMed

    Pittenger, Christopher

    2013-12-01

    Plasticity is found throughout the nervous system and is thought to underlie key aspects of development, learning and memory, and repair. Neuropiastic processes include synaptic plasticity, cellular growth and remodeling, and neurogenesis. Dysregulation of these processes can contribute to a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases. In this review we explore three different ways in which dysregulation of neuropiastic and mnemonic processes can contribute to psychiatric illness. First, impairment of the mechanisms of plasticity can lead to cognitive deficits; this is most obvious in dementia and amnesia, but is also seen in more subtle forms in other conditions. We explore the relationship between stress, major depression, and impaired neuroplasticity in some detail. Second, enhanced memories can be pathogenic; we explore the example of post-traumatic stress disorder, in which intrusive trauma associated memories, accompanied by hyperactivity of the normal fear learning circuitry, are core aspects of the pathology. Third, impaired modulation of the relationship between parallel memory systems can contribute to maladaptive patterns of behavior; we explore the bias towards inflexible, habit-like behavior patterns in drug addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Together, these examples illustrate how different abnormalities in the mechanisms of neuroplasticity and memory formation can contribute to various forms of psychopathology. It is hoped that a growing understanding of these relationships, and of the fundamental mechanisms underlying neuroplasticity in the normal brain, will pave the way for new understandings of the mechanisms of neuropsychiatric disease and the development of novel treatment strategies.

  19. Apolipoproteins in the brain: implications for neurological and psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, David A; Weickert, Cyndi Shannon; Garner, Brett

    2011-01-01

    The brain is the most lipid-rich organ in the body and, owing to the impermeable nature of the blood–brain barrier, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism within this organ is distinct from the rest of the body. Apolipoproteins play a well-established role in the transport and metabolism of lipids within the CNS; however, evidence is emerging that they also fulfill a number of functions that extend beyond lipid transport and are critical for healthy brain function. The importance of apolipoproteins in brain physiology is highlighted by genetic studies, where apolipoprotein gene polymorphisms have been identified as risk factors for several neurological diseases. Furthermore, the expression of brain apolipoproteins is significantly altered in several brain disorders. The purpose of this article is to provide an up-to-date assessment of the major apolipoproteins found in the brain (ApoE, ApoJ, ApoD and ApoA-I), covering their proposed roles and the factors influencing their level of expression. Particular emphasis is placed on associations with neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:21423873

  20. Mechanisms of the placebo effect in pain and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Holmes, R D; Tiwari, A K; Kennedy, J L

    2016-11-01

    Placebo effect research over the past 15 years has improved our understanding of how placebo treatments reduce patient symptoms. The expectation of symptom improvement is the primary factor underlying the placebo effect. Such expectations are shaped by past experiences, contextual cues and biological traits, which ultimately modulate one's degree of response to a placebo. The body of evidence that describes the physiology of the placebo effect has been derived from mechanistic studies primarily restricted to the setting of pain. Imaging findings support the role of endogenous opioid and dopaminergic networks in placebo analgesia in both healthy patients as well as patients with painful medical conditions. In patients with psychiatric illnesses such as anxiety disorders or depression, a vast overlap in neurological changes is observed in drug responders and placebo responders supporting the role of serotonergic networks in placebo response. Molecular techniques have been relatively underutilized in understanding the placebo effect until recently. We present an overview of the placebo responder phenotypes and genetic markers that have been associated with the placebo effect in pain, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and depression.

  1. Does Vitamin C Influence Neurodegenerative Diseases and Psychiatric Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Luchowska-Kocot, Dorota; Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Musik, Irena; Kurzepa, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin C (Vit C) is considered to be a vital antioxidant molecule in the brain. Intracellular Vit C helps maintain integrity and function of several processes in the central nervous system (CNS), including neuronal maturation and differentiation, myelin formation, synthesis of catecholamine, modulation of neurotransmission and antioxidant protection. The importance of Vit C for CNS function has been proven by the fact that targeted deletion of the sodium-vitamin C co-transporter in mice results in widespread cerebral hemorrhage and death on post-natal day one. Since neurological diseases are characterized by increased free radical generation and the highest concentrations of Vit C in the body are found in the brain and neuroendocrine tissues, it is suggested that Vit C may change the course of neurological diseases and display potential therapeutic roles. The aim of this review is to update the current state of knowledge of the role of vitamin C on neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic sclerosis, as well as psychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety and schizophrenia. The particular attention is attributed to understanding of the mechanisms underlying possible therapeutic properties of ascorbic acid in the presented disorders. PMID:28654017

  2. Psychiatric Disorders in Adolescents and Adults with Autism and Intellectual Disability: A Representative Study in One County in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Trine L.; Helverschou, Sissel B; Eilertsen, Dag E.; Heggelund, Trond; Myrbakk, Even; Martinsen, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Few studies assess psychiatric disorders in representative samples of individuals with autism and ID. Symptoms of autism and psychiatric disorders have been confounded. PAC, a conceptually analysed and validated screening instrument, was used. Aims: Assess prevalence of psychiatric disorders in individuals with intellectual disability only…

  3. Impulse control disorders are associated with multiple psychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Elina; Kaasinen, Valtteri; Siri, Chiara; Martikainen, Kirsti; Cilia, Roberto; Niemelä, Solja; Joutsa, Juho

    2014-01-01

    Impulse control disorders can have serious adverse consequences to the life of a patient with Parkinson's disease. Although impulse control disorders are common, a possible psychiatric comorbidity has not been fully characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychiatric symptoms exhibited by Parkinson's disease patients with impulse control disorders. The study was conducted as a postal survey to patients in the registry of the Finnish Parkinson Association. A total of 290 Parkinson's disease patients were evaluated for impulse control disorders using the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease. Psychiatric symptoms were systematically screened using the Symptom Checklist 90. We found that 108 of the evaluated patients had one or more impulse control disorders. Patients with impulse control disorders had markedly higher scores for symptoms of psychoticism (Bonferroni corrected p < 0.001), interpersonal sensitivity (p < 0.001), obsessive-compulsive disorder (p < 0.001), and depression (p = 0.01) when compared with patients without impulse control disorders. Impulse control disorders were shown to be independently associated with these symptoms. Patients with multiple impulse control disorders had higher scores for depression and obsessive-compulsive symptoms when compared with patients that exhibited only one impulse control disorder. COUNCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the previous observations that impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease are linked with multiple psychiatric symptoms, including psychoticism, interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive-compulsive symptoms and depression. Clinicians treating these patients should acknowledge the concomitant psychiatric symptoms.

  4. Association between psychiatric disorders and osteoarthritis: a nationwide longitudinal population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Wang, Wei-Te; Lin, Li-Fong; Liao, Chun-De; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Lin, Hui-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the association between depressive disorders and osteoarthritis (OA) has been studied, the association of other psychiatric disorders with OA remains unclear. Here, we investigated whether psychiatric disorders are risk factors for OA. The data were obtained from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 of Taiwan. We collected the ambulatory care claim records of patients who were diagnosed with psychiatric disorders according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2008. The prevalence and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of osteoarthritis among patients with psychiatric disorders and the control cohort were estimated. Of 74,393 patients with psychiatric disorders, 16,261 developed OA during the 7-year follow-up period. The crude HR for OA was 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39–1.49), which was higher than that of the control cohort. The adjusted HR for OA was 1.42 (95% CI, 1.39–1.42) among patients with psychiatric disorders during the 7-year follow-up period. Further analysis revealed that affective psychoses, neurotic illnesses or personality disorders, alcohol and drug dependence or abuse, and other mental disorders were risk factors for OA. This large-scale longitudinal population-based study revealed that affective psychoses, personality disorders, and alcohol and drug dependence or abuse are risk factors for OA. PMID:27368019

  5. All-Cause Mortality in Women With Severe Postpartum Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Johannsen, Benedicte Marie Winther; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Bergink, Veerle; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Munk-Olsen, Trine

    2017-01-01

    Objective The postpartum period is associated with a high risk of psychiatric episodes. The authors studied mortality in women with first-onset severe psychiatric disorders following childbirth and compared their mortality rates with those in women from the background population including other female psychiatric patients (mothers and childless women). Method In a register-based cohort study with linked information from Danish population registers, the authors identified women with first psychiatric inpatient or outpatient contacts 0–3 months postpartum. The main outcome measure was mortality rate ratios (MRRs): deaths from natural causes (diseases and medical conditions) or unnatural causes (suicides, accidents, and homicides). The cohort included 1,545,857 women representing 68,473,423 person-years at risk. Results In total, 2,699 women had first-onset psychiatric disorders 0–3 months postpartum, and 96 of these died during follow-up. Women with postpartum psychiatric disorders had a higher MRR (3.74; 95% CI=3.06–4.57) than non-postpartum-onset mothers (MRR=2.73; 95% CI=2.67–2.79) when compared with mothers with no psychiatric history. However, childless women with psychiatric diagnoses had the highest MRR (6.15; 95% CI=5.94–6.38). Unnatural cause of death represented 40.6% of fatalities among women with postpartum psychiatric disorders, and within the first year after diagnosis, suicide risk was drastically increased (MRR=289.42; 95% CI=144.02–581.62) when compared with mothers with no psychiatric history. Conclusions Women with severe postpartum psychiatric disorders had increased MRRs compared with mothers without psychiatric diagnoses, and the first year after diagnosis represents a time of particularly high relative risk for suicide in this vulnerable group. PMID:26940804

  6. Language disorders and attention deficit disorders in young children referred for psychiatric services: analysis of prevalence and a conceptual synthesis.

    PubMed

    Love, A J; Thompson, M G

    1988-01-01

    Nearly two-thirds of a group of preschool children referred for psychiatric outpatient services were found to have language disorders when assessed by standardized procedures, a higher number than reported in previous studies. Significant interrelationships between language disorders and attention deficit disorders were found. Analyses of prevalence rates, gender ratios, and selected psychosocial factors led to reformulation of approaches to assessment and treatment of young children with severe psychiatric problems.

  7. Psychiatric disorders among adolescents from Lebanon: prevalence, correlates, and treatment gap.

    PubMed

    Maalouf, Fadi T; Ghandour, Lilian A; Halabi, Fadi; Zeinoun, Pia; Shehab, Al Amira Safa; Tavitian, Lucy

    2016-08-01

    Adolescence is a critical age for the development of psychiatric disorders. Although Lebanon, a low-to-middle income country, has suffered from decades of war and political instability, the burden of psychiatric disorders among adolescents in Lebanon remains unclear. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among adolescents in the Lebanese capital, Beirut, and to study the correlates and treatment seeking behavior associated with these disorders. Through a multistage cluster sampling design, 510 adolescents, aged 11-17 years were recruited from a household sample in Beirut in 2012. Parents and adolescents completed a battery of self-reported questionnaires and interviews including the Development and Well-being Assessment (DAWBA), the Peer-Relations Questionnaire (PRQ), and a demographic/clinical information questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to study the correlates of psychiatric disorders. The 30-day prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 26.1 %, with anxiety disorders (13.1 %) and ADHD (10.2 %) being the most prevalent disorders. Only 6 % of those with disorders reported seeking professional help. Parental marital status, not attending school, having a chronic medical condition, having a family history of psychiatric disorders, as well as propensity to bullying and to being victimized by peers emerged as correlates of having psychiatric disorders. A clear treatment gap is evident with a high 30-day prevalence of psychiatric disorders among adolescents in Beirut coupled with a very low percentage seeking treatment. Scaling up mental health services and addressing potential barriers to seeking care would be important to close this gap.

  8. Psychiatric disorders and violent reoffending: a national cohort study of convicted prisoners in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Fazel, Seena

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Reoffending and presence of psychiatric disorders are common in prisoners worldwide. However, whether psychiatric disorders are risk factors for reoffending is still unknown. We aimed to examine the association between psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorder, and violent reoffending. Methods We did a longitudinal cohort study of 47 326 prisoners who were imprisoned since Jan 1, 2000, and released before Dec 31, 2009, in Sweden. We obtained data for diagnosed psychiatric disorders from both inpatient and outpatient registers, and sociodemographic and criminological factors from other population-based registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for violent reoffending with Cox regression. To control for potential familial confounding, we compared sibling prisoners with and without psychiatric disorders. We calculated population attributable fraction to assess the population effect. Findings Diagnosed psychiatric disorders were associated with an increased hazard of violent reoffending in male (adjusted HR 1·63 [95% CI 1·57–1·70]) and female (2·02 [1·54–2·63]) prisoners, and these associations were independent of measured sociodemographic and criminological factors, and, in men, remained substantial after adjustment for unmeasured familial factors (2·01 [1·66–2·43]). However, findings differed between individual diagnoses and sex. We found some evidence of stronger effects on violent reoffending of alcohol and drug use disorders and bipolar disorder than of other psychiatric disorders. Alcohol use disorder seemed to have a greater effect in women than in men (women 2·08 [1·66–2·60]; men 1·63 [1·56–1·71]). The overall effects of psychiatric disorders did not differ with severity of crime. The hazard of violent reoffending increased in a stepwise way with the number of diagnosed psychiatric disorders. Assuming causality, up to 20% (95% CI 19–22) of violent reoffending in men and 40% (27–52) in women was

  9. [Dimensions of psychological disorders in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders based on clinical observations].

    PubMed

    Döpfner, M; Berner, W; Schwitzgebel, P; Lehmkuhl, G

    1994-12-01

    Up to now dimensional classification systems for psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents have been developed exclusively on the basis of parent, teacher and self-report questionnaires. In the present study a dimensional classification system for psychiatric disorders was developed that is based on clinical ratings and involves factor, reliability and correlational analyses. The ratings are made with a special documentation system for psychopathology in children and adolescents. Four primary symptom scales (aggressive symptoms, antisocial symptoms, hyperkinetic symptoms and social-emotional impulsivity) are combined into the secondary scale external symptoms. Two symptom scales (social and achievement anxiety, depressive symptoms) make up the scale internal symptoms. Two other symptom scales cover language and eating disturbances. Reliability coefficients are given and correlational structures discussed.

  10. Ethnicity in Trauma and Psychiatric Disorders: Findings from the Collaborative Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Benítez, Carlos I.; Yen, Shirley; Shea, M. Tracie; Edelen, Maria O.; Markowitz, John C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Ansell, Emily B.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Gunderson, John G.; Morey, Leslie C.

    2013-01-01

    The study’s aims are to explore ethnic differences in rates of adverse childhood experiences and lifetime traumatic events and in rates of psychiatric disorders for patients exposed to similar traumas. Rates of these events and rates of major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress, substance use, and borderline personality disorders were compared among 506 non-Hispanic Whites (N-HW), 108 Latina(o)s, and 94 African Americans (AA) participating in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorder Study. We found that Whites reported higher rates of neglect than African Americans and Latina(o)s, higher rates of verbal/emotional abuse than African Americans, and higher rates of accidents and injuries/feared serious injury than Latina(o)s. African Americans had higher rates of seeing someone injured/killed than Whites. No significant interaction was observed between adverse events and ethnicity for mental disorders. PMID:20455250

  11. A review of Quality of Life studies in Nigerian patients with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Aloba, O; Fatoye, O; Mapayi, B; Akinsulore, S

    2013-09-01

    The concept of Quality of Life is becoming an increasingly important measure of the impact of psychiatric disorders and is now recognized as useful in the healthcare evaluation of patients with psychiatric disorders. The aim of this review was to document and analyze the research data on quality of life in Nigerian patients with psychiatric disorders. The electronic databases, Medline and Pubmed were searched for published articles on quality of life in Nigerian patients with psychiatric disorders. A total of 6 studies met the inclusion criteria. All the studies employed the generic World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale - Brief version, which is the only quality of life instrument whose psychometric properties have been evaluated among Nigerian patients with psychiatric disorders. Some of the studies revealed that quality of life was significantly associated with socio demographic factors such marital and employment status and social support. Poor quality of life was reported to be associated with illness related factors such as co morbid medical problems, presence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and non adherence to medications. All the studies with the exception of two were conducted in centers located in South-western Nigeria. Quality of life in Nigerian patients suffering from psychiatric disorders is under-researched. There is need for more studies to prospectively investigate quality of life and associated factors among Nigerian patients with psychiatric disorders.

  12. Boys with Asperger Syndrome Grow Up: Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Disorders 20 Years After Initial Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gillberg, I Carina; Helles, Adam; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We examined comorbid psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in fifty adult males (mean age 30 years) with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood and followed up prospectively for almost two decades (13-26 years). Only three of the 50 men had never met criteria for an additional psychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnosis and more than half had ongoing comorbidity (most commonly either ADHD or depression or both). Any psychiatric comorbidity increased the risk of poorer outcome. The minority of the AS group who no longer met criteria for a full diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder were usually free of current psychiatric comorbidity. The high rate of psychiatric/neurodevelopmental comorbidities underscores the need for a full psychiatric/neurodevelopmental assessment at follow-up of males with AS.

  13. Psychiatric Service Use and Psychiatric Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaumik, S.; Tyrer, F. C.; McGrother, C.; Ganghadaran, S. K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: UK policies aim to facilitate access to general psychiatric services for adults with intellectual disability (ID). If this is to be achieved, it is important to have a clear idea of the characteristics and proportion of people with ID who currently access specialist psychiatric services and the nature and extent of psychiatric…

  14. Standardized assessment of substance-related, other psychiatric, and comorbid disorders among probationers.

    PubMed

    Lurigio, Arthur J; Cho, Young Ik; Swartz, James A; Johnson, Timothy P; Graf, Ingrid; Pickup, Lillian

    2003-12-01

    This study examined the prevalence of alcohol- and substance-related disorders in a random sample of 627 adult probationers in Illinois. The investigation also explored the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders and their co-occurrences with alcohol and substance use disorders. To detect the presence of psychiatric disorders, researchers employed standardized assessment tools based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. Overall, results showed that probationers had significantly higher rates of psychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, and co-occurring disorders compared with persons in the general population. In light of these findings, probation administrators are urged to invest more resources in treating drug use, mental illness, and codisorders, the latter of which is associated with a higher risk of violent behaviors.

  15. The relative contribution of goal-directed and habit systems to psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Woodhead, Sophie; Robbins, Trevor

    2017-09-01

    Psychiatric disorders may be caused by underlying imbalances between goal-directed and habit systems in the brain. Numerous studies have aimed to establish whether this is because of a goal-directed system deficit, enhanced habit system, or both. This transdiagnostic approach to studying psychiatric disorders is increasingly popular. Maladaptive habitual behaviour is present in many disorders. It is the principal observation in disorders of compulsivity and is also present in other psychiatric disorders that are not primarily characterised by compulsive behaviour. The psychopathology that causes these disorders might be similar and could be targeted with specific treatment. Traditional categorical classification systems of psychiatric disorders do not reflect similarities in neurobiological dysfunction. The comorbidity and overlap between psychiatric disorders means that a dimensional classifications system based on underlying brain system dysfunction might be more appropriate. In this paper, the neural and neuromodulatory systems that contribute to goal-directed and habit systems are discussed. Account is taken of model-based and model-free computational learning mechanisms that are thought to give rise to goal-directed and habitual control respectively. Different psychiatric disorders that have a deficit in goal-directed behaviour or habit systems are then explored to see if there are similarities in the underlying neural systems despite differences in clinical presentation. It concludes that the relative contribution of goal-directed and habit systems in psychiatric disorders is not evenly distributed. Similar dysfunction of these systems might cause different psychiatric disorders. This neurobiological finding might influence classification systems and research into potential treatments.

  16. Association between childhood psychiatric disorders and psychotic experiences in adolescence: A population-based longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Siebald, Caroline; Khandaker, Golam M; Zammit, Stanley; Lewis, Glyn; Jones, Peter B

    2016-08-01

    Adolescent psychotic experiences (PEs) are common, and are associated with both psychotic and non-psychotic illnesses. In order to examine psychopathological and cognitive antecedents of adolescent PEs, we have conducted a longitudinal study of common childhood psychiatric disorders and subsequent adolescent PEs in the population-based prospective ALSPAC birth cohort. Depression, anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant or conduct disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder were diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria in 8253 participants at age 8years. IQ was assessed by WISC-III also at 8years. PEs, depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed at 13years. Logistic regression calculated odds ratio (OR) for PEs at 13years associated with psychiatric disorders at 8years. Linear regression calculated mean difference in IQ between groups with and without psychiatric disorder. Mediating effects of IQ, mood and anxiety symptoms on the psychiatric disorder-PEs relationship were examined. In total, 599 children were assessed to have a DSM-IV psychiatric disorder at 8years (7.2%). These children compared with those without any psychiatric disorder performed worse on all measures of IQ; adjusted mean difference in total IQ -6.17 (95% CI, -7.86, -4.48). Childhood psychiatric disorders were associated with PEs subsequently in adolescence; adjusted OR 1.96 (95% CI, 1.47-2.68). The association between psychiatric disorder and subsequent PEs was partly mediated by, independently, IQ deficit at 8years and depressive and anxiety symptoms at 13years. The findings indicate that adolescent PEs are associated with general cognitive ability and past and present psychopathological factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cross-species behavioural genetics: A starting point for unravelling the neurobiology of human psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    de Mooij-van Malsen, Annetrude J G; Vinkers, Christiaan H; Peterse, Danielle P; Olivier, Berend; Kas, Martien J H

    2011-08-01

    Identifying the genetic and neurobiological mechanisms underlying certain behavioural traits is an important strategy to understand the aetiology of various psychiatric disorders and to find potential new treatment possibilities. It has proven a great challenge to develop paradigms that allow translational research for behavioural phenotypes that are relevant for disorders across the psychiatric spectrum. Recently, there has been increasing attention for studies that implement rodent behavioural paradigms in the home cage to assess the association between genetic backgrounds and behavioural traits. The application of interspecies genetics to unravel these traits has revealed novel insights in the genetic mechanisms that are encoding phenotypes relevant to biological processes underlying psychiatric disorders. By means of two examples, namely the stress-induced hyperthermia paradigm and the home cage environment, this review aims to show that by using individual genetic variations with phenotypes obtained from mice and across categories of neuropsychiatric disorders, novel insights in the neurobiological trajectory of psychiatric disorders can be obtained.

  18. Psychiatric disorders in cancer patients at a university hospital in Japan: descriptive analysis of 765 psychiatric referrals.

    PubMed

    Tada, Yukio; Matsubara, Mei; Kawada, Satoshi; Ishida, Mayumi; Wada, Makoto; Wada, Tomomi; Onishi, Hideki

    2012-03-01

    In cancer patients, adjustment disorders, delirium and depression have been identified as common psychiatric disorders. Although a comparable result was reported in the National Cancer Center in Japan, the nature of patients in that hospital may differ from that in local hospitals. There is a possibility to expand the findings of psycho-oncology by evaluation of the data from a local university hospital and comparison with the National Cancer Center data. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of cancer patients who were referred to the Department of Psycho-Oncology at Saitama Medical University International Medical Center. We identified their characteristics and psychiatric diagnoses and compared these with the National Cancer Center data. During the study period, 765 cancer patients were referred. The numbers of inpatients and outpatients were almost the same. The most common psychiatric diagnosis was adjustment disorders (24%), followed by delirium (16%) and then major depressive disorder (12%). The rank of these three was the same as that at the National Cancer Center. Outpatients constituted more than 80% of the patients with major depressive disorder. The proportion of cancer patients with schizophrenia in this study (4.3%) was higher than that in the National Cancer Center (1.6%). This study revealed basic information about the consultation data of cancer patients at a local university hospital in Japan. The importance of communication with outpatients was suggested. It seems that cancer treatment for patients with schizophrenia in a local hospital is also important.

  19. Longitudinal Psychiatric Symptoms Progress in Prodromal Huntington Disease: a Decade of Data

    PubMed Central

    Epping, Eric A.; Kim, Ji-In; Craufurd, David; Brashers-Krug, Thomas M.; Anderson, Karen E.; McCusker, Elizabeth; Luther, Jolene; Long, Jeffrey D.; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Psychiatric symptoms are a significant aspect of Huntington disease (HD), an inherited neurodegenerative illness. The presentation of these symptoms is highly variable in patients, and their course does not fully correlate with motor or cognitive disease progression. We sought to better understand the development and longitudinal course of psychiatric manifestations in patients who carry the HD mutation starting from the prodromal period prior to motor diagnosis. Method Longitudinal measures for up to 10 years of psychiatric symptoms from the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised were obtained from 1305 participants (1007 carrying the HD mutation) and 1235 companions enrolled in the Neurobiological Predictors of Huntington’s Disease (PREDICT-HD) study. Participants with the HD mutation were stratified into three groups according to probability of motor diagnosis within five years. Using linear mixed effects regression models, differences in psychiatric symptoms at baseline and over time between HD mutation positive groups and controls were compared as well as between HD mutation participants and their companions. Results 19 of 24 psychiatric measures showed significant increases at baseline and longitudinally in HD mutation carrying individuals or their companions versus controls. The differences were greatest when comparing symptom reports from companions (versus self-report), especially in participants who were closest to motor diagnosis. Conclusions Results indicate psychiatric manifestations develop more often than previously thought in the HD prodrome. Symptoms also increase with progression of disease severity. Companions of HD mutation carriers also report greater psychiatric symptoms over time compared to affected individuals, consistent with decreasing awareness. PMID:26472629

  20. Intimate relationship involvement, intimate relationship quality, and psychiatric disorders in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Whisman, Mark A; Johnson, Daniel P; Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L

    2014-12-01

    Prior research has shown that poor relationship quality in marriage and other intimate relationships demonstrates cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with a variety of psychiatric disorders in adults. In comparison, there has been less research on the covariation between relationship quality and psychiatric disorders in adolescents, a developmental period that is associated with elevated risk of incidence of several disorders and that is important for the acquisition and maintenance of intimate relationships. The present study was conducted to examine the associations between intimate relationship involvement, intimate relationship quality, and psychiatric disorders in a population-based sample of adolescents. The associations between relationship involvement, positive and negative relationship quality, and 12-month prevalence of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders were evaluated in adolescents from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement. Participants completed an interview-based assessment of psychiatric disorders and a self-report measure of relationship quality. Results indicated that the prevalence of broad categories of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, and several specific disorders were significantly associated with (a) being married, cohabiting, or involved in a serious relationship; and (b) reporting more negative (but not less positive) relationship quality. For several disorders, the association between the disorder and relationship involvement was moderated by age, wherein the strength of the association decreased in magnitude with increasing age. Findings suggest that being in an intimate relationship and reporting higher levels of negative relationship quality are associated with the prevalence of several common psychiatric disorders in adolescents.

  1. Psychiatric comorbidities of adults with early- and late-onset attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the psychiatric comorbidities in adults who were diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, 5th edition attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as a function of recalled symptom onset before and after the age of 7 years and whether the childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms were associated with psychiatric comorbidities. In all, 214 adults who were diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, 5th edition attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 174 non-attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder controls (aged 17-40 years) received psychiatric interviews to confirm their previous and current attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder status and other psychiatric diagnoses. Demographics and risks of lifetime psychiatric disorders were compared among three groups: (1) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, onset <7 years (early-onset); (2) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, onset between 7 and 12 years (late-onset) and (3) non-attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder controls. We also tested the effects of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms on the risk of later psychiatric comorbidities by Cox regression analyses. Regardless of the age of onset, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was significantly associated with a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities. There were similar comorbid patterns between early- and late-onset attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Regardless of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis, increased severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms was associated with higher risks of oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, dysthymia and sleep disorder but not major depression, which was associated with the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. Our findings suggest that elevating the threshold of age of onset to 12 years in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

  2. Psychiatric comorbidities in epilepsy: Should they be considered in the classification of epileptic disorders?

    PubMed

    Kanner, Andres M

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities is relatively high in people with epilepsy (PWE), as one in three patients will have experienced a psychiatric disorder in the course of their life. The new definition of epilepsy recognizes these comorbidities as part of the seizure disorder, which need to be recognized and treated together with the actual epileptic seizures. Psychiatric comorbidities have a complex relation with epilepsy, being associated with a negative course of the seizure disorder, worse tolerance of pharmacotherapy with AEDs, development of iatrogenic psychiatric complications from pharmacologic and surgical treatments, and increased mortality risks. Given their negative impact at several levels of the lives of PWE, should psychiatric comorbidities be included in a classification of the epilepsies? This question is addressed in this article. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "The new approach to classification: Rethinking cognition and behavior in epilepsy". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. How spiritual values and worship attendance relate to psychiatric disorders in the Canadian population.

    PubMed

    Baetz, Marilyn; Bowen, Rudy; Jones, Glenn; Koru-Sengul, Tulay

    2006-09-01

    Research into risk and protective factors for psychiatric disorders may help reduce the burden of these conditions. Spirituality and religion are 2 such factors, but research remains limited. Using a representative national sample of respondents, this study examines the relation between worship frequency and the importance of spiritual values and DSM-IV psychiatric and substance use disorders. In 2002, the Canadian Community Health Survey obtained data from about 37,000 individuals aged 15 years or older. While controlling for demographic characteristics, we determined odds ratios for lifetime, 1-year, and past psychiatric disorders, with worship frequency and spiritual values as predictors. Higher worship frequency was associated with lower odds of psychiatric disorders. In contrast, those who considered higher spiritual values important (in a search for meaning, in giving strength, and in understanding life's difficulties) had higher odds of most psychiatric disorders. This study confirms an association between higher worship frequency and lower odds of depression and it expands that finding to other psychiatric disorders. The association between spiritual values and mood, anxiety, and addictive disorders is complex and may reflect the use of spirituality to reframe life difficulties, including mental disorders.

  4. Quality of Life and Psychiatric Symptoms in Wilson’s Disease: the Relevance of Bipolar Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carta, MG; Mura, G; Sorbello, O; Farina, G; Demelia, L

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Wilson’s disease is an inherited disorder caused by a gene located on chromosome 13, which involved copper transportation across cell membranes. The disease can cause a reduced incorporation of copper into ceruloplasmin resulting in accumulation of this metal in the liver, central nervous system, kidneys and other organs. The objective is to define the frequencies of psychiatric disorders in WD, the amount of impairment of Quality of Life [QoL] in patients with WD and the relevance of the psychiatric disorders in the QoL of people suffering by WD. Methods: This is a systematic review. The search of the significant articles was carried out in PubMed using specific key words. Results: Such other neurological diseases, WD is characterized by chronic course and need of treatments, impairment of functional outcomes and high frequency of psychiatric symptoms, although a specific association between Bipolar Disorders and WD was recently found. Despite this, since today few studies are carried on WD patients’ quality of life related to psychiatric symptoms. Some new reports showed a link between presence of Bipolar Disorders diagnosis, cerebral damage and low Qol. Conclusion: Prospective studies on large cohorts are required to establish the effective impact of psychiatric disorders comorbidity, particularly Bipolar Disorders, on quality of life in WD and to clarify the causal link between brain damage, psychiatric disorders and worsening of QoL. PMID:23049615

  5. Quality of Life and Psychiatric Symptoms in Wilson's Disease: the Relevance of Bipolar Disorders.

    PubMed

    Carta, Mg; Mura, G; Sorbello, O; Farina, G; Demelia, L

    2012-01-01

    Wilson's disease is an inherited disorder caused by a gene located on chromosome 13, which involved copper transportation across cell membranes. The disease can cause a reduced incorporation of copper into ceruloplasmin resulting in accumulation of this metal in the liver, central nervous system, kidneys and other organs. The objective is to define the frequencies of psychiatric disorders in WD, the amount of impairment of Quality of Life [QoL] in patients with WD and the relevance of the psychiatric disorders in the QoL of people suffering by WD. This is a systematic review. The search of the significant articles was carried out in PubMed using specific key words. Such other neurological diseases, WD is characterized by chronic course and need of treatments, impairment of functional outcomes and high frequency of psychiatric symptoms, although a specific association between Bipolar Disorders and WD was recently found. Despite this, since today few studies are carried on WD patients' quality of life related to psychiatric symptoms. Some new reports showed a link between presence of Bipolar Disorders diagnosis, cerebral damage and low Qol. Prospective studies on large cohorts are required to establish the effective impact of psychiatric disorders comorbidity, particularly Bipolar Disorders, on quality of life in WD and to clarify the causal link between brain damage, psychiatric disorders and worsening of QoL.

  6. Virtual Reality Objectifies the Diagnosis of Psychiatric Disorders: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    van Bennekom, Martine J; de Koning, Pelle P; Denys, Damiaan

    2017-01-01

    To date, a diagnosis in psychiatry is largely based on a clinical interview and questionnaires. The retrospective and subjective nature of these methods leads to recall and interviewer biases. Therefore, there is a clear need for more objective and standardized assessment methods to support the diagnostic process. The introduction of virtual reality (VR) creates the possibility to simultaneously provoke and measure psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, VR could contribute to the objectivity and reliability in the assessment of psychiatric disorders. In this literature review, we will evaluate the assessment of psychiatric disorders by means of VR environments. First, we investigate if these VR environments are capable of simultaneously provoking and measuring psychiatric symptoms. Next, we compare these measures with traditional diagnostic measures. We performed a systematic search using PubMed, Embase, and Psycinfo; references of selected articles were checked for eligibility. We identified studies from 1990 to 2016 on VR used in the assessment of psychiatric disorders. Studies were excluded if VR was used for therapeutic purposes, if a different technique was used, or in case of limitation to a non-clinical sample. A total of 39 studies were included for further analysis. The disorders most frequently studied included schizophrenia (n = 15), developmental disorders (n = 12), eating disorders (n = 3), and anxiety disorders (n = 6). In attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, the most comprehensive measurement was used including several key symptoms of the disorder. Most of the studies, however, concerned the use of VR to assess a single aspect of a psychiatric disorder. In general, nearly all VR environments studied were able to simultaneously provoke and measure psychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, in 14 studies, significant correlations were found between VR measures and traditional diagnostic measures. Relatively small clinical sample sizes were used

  7. Physical activity in adolescents with psychiatric disorders and in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adults who suffer from psychiatric disorders report low levels of physical activity and the activity levels differ between disorders. Less is known regarding physical activity across psychiatric disorders in adolescence. We investigate the frequency and type of physical activity in adolescent psychiatric patients, compared with adolescents in the general population. Methods A total of 566 adolescent psychiatric patients aged 13–18 years who participated in the CAP survey, Norway, were compared to 8173 adolescents aged 13–19 years who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Young-HUNT 3, Norway. All adolescents completed a questionnaire, including questions about physical activity and participation in team and individual sports. Results Approximately 50% of adolescents with psychiatric disorders and 25% of the population sample reported low levels of physical activity. Within the clinical sample, those with mood disorders (62%) and autism spectrum disorders (56%) were the most inactive and those with eating disorders (36%) the most active. This pattern was the same in individual and team sports. After multivariable adjustment, adolescents with a psychiatric disorder had a three-fold increased risk of lower levels of physical activity, and a corresponding risk of not participating in team and individual sports compared with adolescents in the general population. Conclusions Levels of physical activity were low in adolescent psychiatric patients compared with the general population, yet activity levels differed considerably between various disorders. The findings underscore the importance of assessing physical activity in adolescents with psychiatric disorders and providing early intervention to promote mental as well as physical health in this early stage of life. PMID:24450542

  8. Psychiatric Disorders and Health-Related Quality of Life in Children With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Butwicka, Agnieszka; Fendler, Wojciech; Zalepa, Adam; Szadkowska, Agnieszka; Zawodniak-Szalapska, Malgorzata; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka; Mlynarski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic condition with major effect on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and mental health. In 1990s, high rates of psychiatric disorders were reported among children with T1DM. Little is known, however, about current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children with T1DM and the relation between psychiatric diagnosis and HRQoL. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision) psychiatric disorders and the association between psychiatric comorbidity and HRQoL in the pediatric population with T1DM. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 207 children, aged 8-18 years, diagnosed with T1DM. The presence of psychiatric disorders has been assessed by the standard diagnostic interview according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision) criteria. HRQoL was measured by the general and diabetes mellitus-specific modules of the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Of the evaluated patients, 26.6% (N = 55) met the criteria for psychiatric disorders at the time of evaluation. The most common diagnoses were anxiety (N = 32; 15.5%) and mood disorders (N = 8; 3.9%). One-third of the patients (N = 66, 31.9%) met the criteria for at least 1 psychiatric diagnosis in their lifetime. The presence of psychiatric disorders was related to an elevated hemoglobin A1c level (8.6% vs 7.6%) and a lowered HRQoL level in the general pediatric quality of life inventory. In the diabetes mellitus-specific pediatric quality of life inventory, children with psychiatric disorders revealed more symptoms of diabetes mellitus, treatment barriers, and lower adherence than children without psychiatric disorders. T1DM in children is associated with a very high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity, which is related to elevated hemoglobin A1c and lower HRQoL levels. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine

  9. Quality of Life in Children with Psychiatric Disorders: Self-, Parent, and Clinician Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaansen, Dennis; Koot, Hans M.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between child psychiatric disorders and quality of life (QoL). Method: In a sample of 310 children (ages 6-18 years) referred for psychiatric problems, children, parents, and clinicians reported on psychopathology and subjective and objective QoL indicators. Results: Six diagnostic categories were…

  10. The Persistence and Stability of Psychiatric Problems in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonoff, Emily; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Baird, Gillian; Pickles, Andrew; Happe, Francesca; Charman, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Background: Psychiatric problems are common in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), but the reasons are poorly understood. We use a longitudinal population-representative cohort to examine for the first time the persistence of psychiatric problems and to identify risk factors for their occurrence and stability. Methods: Eighty-one 16-year olds (75…

  11. Applied Behavior Analysis in the Treatment of Severe Psychiatric Disorders: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scotti, Joseph R.; And Others

    Clinical research in the area of severe psychiatric disorders constituted the major focus for the discipline of applied behavior analysis during the early 1960s. Recently, however, there appears to be a notable lack of a behavioral focus within many inpatient psychiatric settings and a relative dearth of published behavioral treatment studies with…

  12. The Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders among Repeat DUI Offenders Accepting a Treatment-Sentencing Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Howard J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; LaPlante, Debi A.; LaBrie, Richard A.; Albanese, Mark; Caro, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity likely contributes to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol among repeat offenders. This study presents one of the first descriptions of the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders in treatment. Participants included all consenting eligible admissions (N=729) to a 2-week…

  13. Psychiatric Disorders in Smokers Seeking Treatment for Tobacco Dependence: Relations with Tobacco Dependence and Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Megan E.; Smith, Stevens S.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Fleming, Michael F.; Bittrich, Amy A.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Leitzke, Cathlyn J.; Zehner, Mark E.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present research examined the relation of psychiatric disorders to tobacco dependence and cessation outcomes. Method: Data were collected from 1,504 smokers (58.2% women; 83.9% White; mean age = 44.67 years, SD = 11.08) making an aided smoking cessation attempt as part of a clinical trial. Psychiatric diagnoses were determined with…

  14. An Investigation of Psychiatric Comorbidity and Symptom Awareness among Male Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backner, William; Clark, Elaine; Jenson, William; Gardner, Michael; Kahn, James

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate presence and awareness of psychological problems and functioning in adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and comorbid psychiatric conditions. For this reason, 26 adolescent males diagnosed with both "high-functioning" ASD and psychiatric conditions were assessed. Twenty-six age-…

  15. Quality of Life in Children with Psychiatric Disorders: Self-, Parent, and Clinician Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaansen, Dennis; Koot, Hans M.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between child psychiatric disorders and quality of life (QoL). Method: In a sample of 310 children (ages 6-18 years) referred for psychiatric problems, children, parents, and clinicians reported on psychopathology and subjective and objective QoL indicators. Results: Six diagnostic categories were…

  16. The Persistence and Stability of Psychiatric Problems in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonoff, Emily; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Baird, Gillian; Pickles, Andrew; Happe, Francesca; Charman, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Background: Psychiatric problems are common in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), but the reasons are poorly understood. We use a longitudinal population-representative cohort to examine for the first time the persistence of psychiatric problems and to identify risk factors for their occurrence and stability. Methods: Eighty-one 16-year olds (75…

  17. The Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders among Repeat DUI Offenders Accepting a Treatment-Sentencing Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Howard J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; LaPlante, Debi A.; LaBrie, Richard A.; Albanese, Mark; Caro, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity likely contributes to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol among repeat offenders. This study presents one of the first descriptions of the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders in treatment. Participants included all consenting eligible admissions (N = 729) to a 2-week…

  18. The Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders among Repeat DUI Offenders Accepting a Treatment-Sentencing Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Howard J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; LaPlante, Debi A.; LaBrie, Richard A.; Albanese, Mark; Caro, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity likely contributes to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol among repeat offenders. This study presents one of the first descriptions of the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders in treatment. Participants included all consenting eligible admissions (N=729) to a 2-week…

  19. A Rating Scale to Screen Symptoms of Psychiatric Disorders in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina; Van der Ploeg, Jan D.

    2008-01-01

    To be able to offer children with developmental disorders adequate help, professionals working in special needs education must use a screening device to assess the specific psychiatric difficulties of the children. In this paper the psychometric properties of an easy-to-use parental rating scale to screen symptoms of major psychiatric disorders…

  20. Maternal Psychiatric Disorders, Parenting, and Maternal Behavior in the Home during the Child Rearing Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S.

    2006-01-01

    Data from the Children in the Community Study, a community-based longitudinal study, were used to investigate associations between maternal psychiatric disorders and child-rearing behaviors. Maternal psychiatric symptoms and behavior in the home were assessed in 782 families during the childhood and adolescence of the offspring. Maternal anxiety,…

  1. The Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders among Repeat DUI Offenders Accepting a Treatment-Sentencing Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Howard J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; LaPlante, Debi A.; LaBrie, Richard A.; Albanese, Mark; Caro, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity likely contributes to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol among repeat offenders. This study presents one of the first descriptions of the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders in treatment. Participants included all consenting eligible admissions (N = 729) to a 2-week…

  2. An Examination of Language Learning Disabilities in Youth with Psychiatric Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javorsky, James

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between psychiatric and language disorders in 96 youth (mean age 13) in a private psychiatric hospital. Over 33% of subjects exhibited significant deficits in both phonology and syntax, qualifying for a language learning disability diagnosis, but only 44% of this group were receiving special education services…

  3. A Rating Scale to Screen Symptoms of Psychiatric Disorders in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina; Van der Ploeg, Jan D.

    2008-01-01

    To be able to offer children with developmental disorders adequate help, professionals working in special needs education must use a screening device to assess the specific psychiatric difficulties of the children. In this paper the psychometric properties of an easy-to-use parental rating scale to screen symptoms of major psychiatric disorders…

  4. Disordered gambling and co-morbidity of psychiatric disorders among college students: an examination of problem drinking, anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ryan J; Usdan, Stuart; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen

    2014-06-01

    We assessed the occurrence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders (i.e., problem drinking, anxiety, and depression) among college students who met the threshold for disordered gambling. The participants included a large sample of undergraduate students (n = 1,430) who were enrolled in an introductory health course at a large, southeastern university in Spring 2011 and completed an online assessment that included scales to assess disordered gambling, problem drinking, anxiety, and depression. We calculated screening scores, computed prevalence rates for each disorder, and calculated Pearson correlations and Chi square tests to examine correlations and co-morbid relationships between the four disorders. Analyses indicated that all disorders were significantly associated (p < .01) except for disordered gambling and anxiety. Because college students who experience disordered gambling (and other psychiatric disorders) are at increased risk of experiencing co-occurring disorders, it might be useful for college health professionals to concurrently screen and intervene for co-occurring disorders.

  5. The Evolution of the Classification of Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Surís, Alina; Holliday, Ryan; North, Carol S.

    2016-01-01

    This article traces the history of classification systems for mental illness and then reviews the history of the American diagnostic system for mental disorders. The steps leading up to each publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) are described including leaders, timelines, pre-publication meetings, and field trials. Important changes in the purpose of the manuals are described with a focus on events leading to the manual’s third edition (DSM-III), which represented a paradigm shift in how we think about, and use, the classification system for mental illness. For the first time, DSM-III emphasized empirically-based, atheoretical and agnostic diagnostic criteria. New criticisms of the DSM-III and subsequent editions have arisen with a call for a new paradigm shift to replace diagnostic categories with continuous dimensional systems of classification, returning to etiologically-based definitions and incorporating findings from neurobiological science into systems of diagnosis. In the foreseeable future, however, psychiatric diagnosis must continue to be accomplished by taking a history and assessing the currently established criteria. This is necessary for communication about diseases and education of clinicians and scientists in medical fields, as well as advancement of research needed to further advance the diagnostic criteria of psychiatry. PMID:26797641

  6. The Evolution of the Classification of Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Surís, Alina; Holliday, Ryan; North, Carol S

    2016-01-18

    This article traces the history of classification systems for mental illness and then reviews the history of the American diagnostic system for mental disorders. The steps leading up to each publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) are described including leaders, timelines, pre-publication meetings, and field trials. Important changes in the purpose of the manuals are described with a focus on events leading to the manual's third edition (DSM-III), which represented a paradigm shift in how we think about, and use, the classification system for mental illness. For the first time, DSM-III emphasized empirically-based, atheoretical and agnostic diagnostic criteria. New criticisms of the DSM-III and subsequent editions have arisen with a call for a new paradigm shift to replace diagnostic categories with continuous dimensional systems of classification, returning to etiologically-based definitions and incorporating findings from neurobiological science into systems of diagnosis. In the foreseeable future, however, psychiatric diagnosis must continue to be accomplished by taking a history and assessing the currently established criteria. This is necessary for communication about diseases and education of clinicians and scientists in medical fields, as well as advancement of research needed to further advance the diagnostic criteria of psychiatry.

  7. Clock Genes and Altered Sleep-Wake Rhythms: Their Role in the Development of Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Charrier, Annaëlle; Olliac, Bertrand; Roubertoux, Pierre; Tordjman, Sylvie

    2017-04-29

    In mammals, the circadian clocks network (central and peripheral oscillators) controls circadian rhythms and orchestrates the expression of a range of downstream genes, allowing the organism to anticipate and adapt to environmental changes. Beyond their role in circadian rhythms, several studies have highlighted that circadian clock genes may have a more widespread physiological effect on cognition, mood, and reward-related behaviors. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms in core circadian clock genes have been associated with psychiatric disorders (such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). However, the underlying mechanisms of these associations remain to be ascertained and the cause-effect relationships are not clearly established. The objective of this article is to clarify the role of clock genes and altered sleep-wake rhythms in the development of psychiatric disorders (sleep problems are often observed at early onset of psychiatric disorders). First, the molecular mechanisms of circadian rhythms are described. Then, the relationships between disrupted circadian rhythms, including sleep-wake rhythms, and psychiatric disorders are discussed. Further research may open interesting perspectives with promising avenues for early detection and therapeutic intervention in psychiatric disorders.

  8. Clock Genes and Altered Sleep–Wake Rhythms: Their Role in the Development of Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Charrier, Annaëlle; Olliac, Bertrand; Roubertoux, Pierre; Tordjman, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    In mammals, the circadian clocks network (central and peripheral oscillators) controls circadian rhythms and orchestrates the expression of a range of downstream genes, allowing the organism to anticipate and adapt to environmental changes. Beyond their role in circadian rhythms, several studies have highlighted that circadian clock genes may have a more widespread physiological effect on cognition, mood, and reward-related behaviors. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms in core circadian clock genes have been associated with psychiatric disorders (such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). However, the underlying mechanisms of these associations remain to be ascertained and the cause–effect relationships are not clearly established. The objective of this article is to clarify the role of clock genes and altered sleep–wake rhythms in the development of psychiatric disorders (sleep problems are often observed at early onset of psychiatric disorders). First, the molecular mechanisms of circadian rhythms are described. Then, the relationships between disrupted circadian rhythms, including sleep–wake rhythms, and psychiatric disorders are discussed. Further research may open interesting perspectives with promising avenues for early detection and therapeutic intervention in psychiatric disorders. PMID:28468274

  9. Sigma-1 receptor chaperones in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pokrass, Michael J; Klauer, Neal R; De Credico, Nicole E

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) are molecular chaperones that reside mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but exist also in the proximity of the plasma membrane. Sig-1Rs are highly expressed in the CNS and are involved in many cellular processes including cell differentiation, neuritogenesis, microglia activation, protein quality control, calcium-mediated ER stress and ion channel modulation. Disturbance in any of the above cellular processes can accelerate the progression of many neurological disorders; therefore, the Sig-1R has been implicated in several neurological diseases. Areas covered This review broadly covers the functions of Sig-1Rs including several neurodegenerative disorders in humans and drug addiction-associated neurological disturbance in the case of HIV infection. We discuss how several Sig-1R ligands could be utilized in therapeutic approaches to treat those disorders. Expert opinion Emerging understanding of the cellular functions of this unique transmembrane chaperone may lead to the use of new agents or broaden the use of certain available ligands as therapeutic targets in those neurological disorders. PMID:25331742

  10. Psychiatric disorders in a sample of repeat impaired-driving offenders.

    PubMed

    Lapham, Sandra C; C'de Baca, Janet; McMillan, Garnett P; Lapidus, Jodi

    2006-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess alcohol- and drug-use disorders and other psychiatric disorders in a sample of repeat driving under the influence (DUI) offenders. We interviewed offenders to estimate lifetime and 12-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders as designated by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (alcohol and drug abuse and dependence, major depressive or dysthymic disorder, bipolar disorder, post- traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], and obsessive-compulsive disorder). The offenders interviewed (385 men, 74 women) were those who had been adjudicated in the Multnomah County, OR, Driving Under the Influence of Intoxicants Intensive Supervision Program. Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The majority of respondents (53.8%) were alcohol dependent. Sixty-five percent of men and 79.7% of women had at least one lifetime disorder comorbid with alcohol abuse or dependence. The most prevalent lifetime non-substance-use disorder was major depressive or dysthymic disorder (30.9%) followed by PTSD (15.3%). Approximately 40% of subjects reported meeting criteria for lifetime nonalcohol drug abuse for at least one drug type, and 30% were drug dependent for at least one drug type; overall, 54% of all offenders had drug abuse or dependence disorders. Assessment and treatment services for repeat alcohol-impaired driving offenders should be sufficiently comprehensive to provide care for drug-use disorders and other psychiatric problems.

  11. Social Class, Social Mobility and Risk of Psychiatric Disorder - A Population-Based Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Tiikkaja, Sanna; Sandin, Sven; Malki, Ninoa; Modin, Bitte; Sparén, Pär; Hultman, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study explored how adult social class and social mobility between parental and own adult social class is related to psychiatric disorder. Material and Methods In this prospective cohort study, over 1 million employed Swedes born in 1949-1959 were included. Information on parental class (1960) and own mid-life social class (1980 and 1990) was retrieved from the censuses and categorised as High Non-manual, Low Non-manual, High Manual, Low Manual and Self-employed. After identifying adult class, individuals were followed for psychiatric disorder by first admission of schizophrenia, alcoholism and drug dependency, affective psychosis and neurosis or personality disorder (N=24 659) from the Swedish Patient Register. We used Poisson regression analysis to estimate first admission rates of psychiatric disorder per 100 000 person-years and relative risks (RR) by adult social class (treated as a time-varying covariate). The RRs of psychiatric disorder among the Non-manual and Manual classes were also estimated by magnitude of social mobility. Results The rate of psychiatric disorder was significantly higher among individuals belonging to the Low manual class as compared with the High Non-manual class. Compared to High Non-manual class, the risk for psychiatric disorder ranged from 2.07 (Low Manual class) to 1.38 (Low Non-manual class). Parental class had a minor impact on these estimates. Among the Non-manual and Manual classes, downward mobility was associated with increased risk and upward mobility with decreased risk of psychiatric disorder. In addition, downward mobility was inversely associated with the magnitude of social mobility, independent of parental class. Conclusions Independently of parental social class, the risk of psychiatric disorder increases with increased downward social mobility and decreases with increased upward mobility. PMID:24260104

  12. Predictors of psychiatric readmission among patients with bipolar disorder at an academic safety-net hospital.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jane E; Passos, Ives C; de Azevedo Cardoso, Taiane; Jansen, Karen; Allen, Melissa; Begley, Charles E; Soares, Jair C; Kapczinski, Flavio

    2016-06-01

    Even with treatment, approximately one-third of patients with bipolar disorder relapse into depression or mania within 1 year. Unfavorable clinical outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder include increased rates of psychiatric hospitalization and functional impairment. However, only a few studies have examined predictors of psychiatric hospital readmission in a sample of patients with bipolar disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of psychiatric readmission within 30 days, 90 days and 1 year of discharge among patients with bipolar disorder using a conceptual model adapted from Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Service Use. In this retrospective study, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted in a sample of 2443 adult patients with bipolar disorder who were consecutively admitted to a public psychiatric hospital in the United States from 1 January to 31 December 2013. In the multivariate models, several enabling and need factors were significantly associated with an increased risk of readmission across all time periods examined, including being uninsured, having ⩾3 psychiatric hospitalizations and having a lower Global Assessment of Functioning score. Additional factors associated with psychiatric readmission within 30 and 90 days of discharge included patient homelessness. Patient race/ethnicity, bipolar disorder type or a current manic episode did not significantly predict readmission across all time periods examined; however, patients who were male were more likely to readmit within 1 year. The 30-day and 1-year multivariate models showed the best model fit. Our study found enabling and need factors to be the strongest predictors of psychiatric readmission, suggesting that the prevention of psychiatric readmission for patients with bipolar disorder at safety-net hospitals may be best achieved by developing and implementing innovative transitional care initiatives that address the issues

  13. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among Toronto hospital workers one to two years after the SARS outbreak.

    PubMed

    Lancee, William J; Maunder, Robert G; Goldbloom, David S

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the incidence of psychiatric disorders among health care workers in Toronto in the one- to two-year period after the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and to test predicted risk factors. New-onset episodes of psychiatric disorders were assessed among 139 health care workers by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Past history of psychiatric illness, years of health care experience, and the perception of adequate training and support were tested as predictors of the incidence of new-onset episodes of psychiatric disorders after the SARS outbreak. The lifetime prevalence of any depressive, anxiety, or substance use diagnosis was 30%. Only one health care worker who identified the SARS experience as a traumatic event was diagnosed as having PTSD. New episodes of psychiatric disorders occurred among seven health care workers (5%). New episodes of psychiatric disorders were directly associated with a history of having a psychiatric disorder before the SARS outbreak (p=.02) and inversely associated with years of health care experience (p=.03) and the perceived adequacy of training and support (p=.03). Incidence of new episodes of psychiatric disorders after the SARS outbreak were similar to or lower than community incidence rates, which may indicate the resilience of health care workers who continued to work in hospitals one to two years after the SARS outbreak. In preparation for future events, such as pandemic influenza, training and support may bolster the resilience of health care workers who are at higher risk by virtue of their psychiatric history and fewer years of health care experience.

  14. Psychiatric disorders and violence: a study of delinquent youth after detention.

    PubMed

    Elkington, Katherine S; Teplin, Linda A; Abram, Karen M; Jakubowski, Jessica A; Dulcan, Mina K; Welty, Leah J

    2015-04-01

    To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and violence in delinquent youth after detention. The Northwestern Juvenile Project is a longitudinal study of youth from the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center (Chicago, Illinois). Violence and psychiatric disorders were assessed via self-report in 1,659 youth (56% African American, 28% Hispanic, 36% female, aged 13-25 years) interviewed up to 4 times between 3 and 5 years after detention. Using generalized estimating equations and logistic regression, we examined the following: the prevalence of violence 3 and 5 years after detention; the contemporaneous relationships between psychiatric disorders and violence as youth age; and whether the presence of a psychiatric disorder predicts subsequent violence. Rates of any violence decreased between 3 and 5 years after detention, from 35% to 21% (males), and from 20% to 17% (females). There was a contemporaneous relationship between disorder and violence. Compared to the group with no disorder, males and females with any disorder had greater odds of any violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.9-4.7, and AOR = 4.4, 95% CI = 3.0-6.3, respectively). All specific disorders were associated contemporaneously with violence, except for major depressive disorder/dysthymia among males. Substance use disorders predicted subsequent violence. Males with other drug use disorder and females with marijuana use disorder 3 years after detention had greater odds of any violence 2 years later (AOR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.4-8.2, and AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.1-3.8, respectively). Aside from substance use disorders, the psychiatric disorders studied may not be useful markers of subsequent violence. Violence assessment and reduction must be key components of ongoing psychiatric services for high-risk youth. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychiatric Disorders and Violence: A Longitudinal Study of Delinquent Females and Males After Detention

    PubMed Central

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.; Jakubowski, Jessica A.; Dulcan, Mina K.; Welty, Leah J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and violence in delinquent youth after detention. Method The Northwestern Juvenile Project is a longitudinal study of youth from the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center (Chicago, Illinois). Violence and psychiatric disorders were assessed via self-report in 1,659 youth (56% African American, 28% Hispanic, 36% female, ages 13–25) interviewed up to 4 times between three and five years after detention. Using generalized estimating equations and logistic regression, we examined (1) the prevalence of violence three and five years after detention; (2) the contemporaneous relationships between psychiatric disorders and violence as youth age; and (3) if the presence of a psychiatric disorder predicts subsequent violence. Results Rates of any violence decreased between 3 and 5 years after detention, from 35% to 21% (males), and from 20% to 17% (females). Contemporaneous relationship between disorder and violence: Compared to the group with no disorder, males and females with any disorder had greater odds of any violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.0 [95%CI, 1.9–4.7] and AOR, 4.4 [95%CI, 3.0–6.3], respectively). All specific disorders were associated contemporaneously with violence, except for major depressive disorder/dysthymia among males. Disorder and subsequent violence: Males with other drug use disorder and females with marijuana use disorder 3 years after detention had greater odds of any violence 2 years later (AOR, 3.4 [95%CI, 1.4–8.2] and AOR, 2.0 [95%CI, 1.1–3.8], respectively). Conclusion Aside from substance use disorders, the psychiatric disorders studied may not be useful markers of subsequent violence. Violence assessment and reduction must be key components of ongoing psychiatric services for high-risk youth. PMID:25791147

  16. Neurodevelopmental Plasticity in Pre- and Postnatal Environmental Interactions: Implications for Psychiatric Disorders from an Evolutionary Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-A; Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Goto, Yukiori

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are disadvantageous behavioral phenotypes in humans. Accordingly, a recent epidemiological study has reported decreased fecundity in patients with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. Moreover, the fecundity of the relatives of these patients is not exceedingly higher compared to the fecundity of the relatives of normal subjects. Collectively, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among humans is expected to decrease over generations. Nevertheless, in reality, the prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in humans either have been constant over a long period of time or have even increased more recently. Several attempts to explain this fact have been made using biological mechanisms, such as de novo gene mutations or variants, although none of these explanations is fully comprehensive. Here, we propose a hypothesis towards understanding the biological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders from evolutionary perspectives. This hypothesis considers that behavioral phenotypes associated with psychiatric disorders might have emerged in the evolution of organisms as a neurodevelopmental adaptation against adverse environmental conditions associated with stress. PMID:26060583

  17. Neurodevelopmental Plasticity in Pre- and Postnatal Environmental Interactions: Implications for Psychiatric Disorders from an Evolutionary Perspective.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-A; Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Goto, Yukiori

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are disadvantageous behavioral phenotypes in humans. Accordingly, a recent epidemiological study has reported decreased fecundity in patients with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. Moreover, the fecundity of the relatives of these patients is not exceedingly higher compared to the fecundity of the relatives of normal subjects. Collectively, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among humans is expected to decrease over generations. Nevertheless, in reality, the prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in humans either have been constant over a long period of time or have even increased more recently. Several attempts to explain this fact have been made using biological mechanisms, such as de novo gene mutations or variants, although none of these explanations is fully comprehensive. Here, we propose a hypothesis towards understanding the biological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders from evolutionary perspectives. This hypothesis considers that behavioral phenotypes associated with psychiatric disorders might have emerged in the evolution of organisms as a neurodevelopmental adaptation against adverse environmental conditions associated with stress.

  18. Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Kelley J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA commitment to human space flight includes continuing to fly astronauts on the ISS until it is decommissioned as well as possibly returning astronauts to the moon or having astronauts venture to an asteroid or Mars. As missions leave low Earth orbit and explore deeper space, BHP supports and conducts research to enable a risk posture that considers the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders “acceptable given mitigations,” for pre-, in, and post-flight.The Human System Risk Board (HSRB) determines the risk of various mission scenarios using a likelihood (per person per year) by consequences matrix examining those risks across two categories—long term health and operational (within mission). Colors from a stoplight signal are used by HSRB and quickly provide a means of assessing overall perceived risk for a particular mission scenario. Risk associated with the current six month missions on the ISS are classified as “accepted with monitoring” while planetary missions, such as a mission to Mars, are recognized to be a “red” risk that requires mitigation to ensure mission success.Currently, the HSRB deems that the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric outcomes requires mitigation for planetary missions owing to long duration isolation and radiation exposure (see Table 1). While limited research evidence exists from spaceflight, it is well known anecdotally that the shift from the two week shuttle missions to the six month ISS missions renders the psychological stressors of space as more salient over longer duration missions. Shuttle astronauts were expected just to tolerate any stressors that arose during their mission and were successful at doing so (Whitmire et al, 2013). While it is possible to deal with stressors such as social isolation and to live with incompatible crewmembers for two weeks on shuttle, “ignoring it” is much less likely to be a successful coping mechanism

  19. Dissecting psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Brodersen, Kay H.; Deserno, Lorenz; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Lin, Zhihao; Penny, Will D.; Buhmann, Joachim M.; Stephan, Klaas E.

    2013-01-01

    This proof-of-concept study examines the feasibility of defining subgroups in psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding, using dynamical system models which infer neuronal circuit mechanisms from neuroimaging data. To this end, we re-analysed an fMRI dataset of 41 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 42 healthy controls performing a numerical n-back working-memory task. In our generative-embedding approach, we used parameter estimates from a dynamic causal model (DCM) of a visual–parietal–prefrontal network to define a model-based feature space for the subsequent application of supervised and unsupervised learning techniques. First, using a linear support vector machine for classification, we were able to predict individual diagnostic labels significantly more accurately (78%) from DCM-based effective connectivity estimates than from functional connectivity between (62%) or local activity within the same regions (55%). Second, an unsupervised approach based on variational Bayesian Gaussian mixture modelling provided evidence for two clusters which mapped onto patients and controls with nearly the same accuracy (71%) as the supervised approach. Finally, when restricting the analysis only to the patients, Gaussian mixture modelling suggested the existence of three patient subgroups, each of which was characterised by a different architecture of the visual–parietal–prefrontal working-memory network. Critically, even though this analysis did not have access to information about the patients' clinical symptoms, the three neurophysiologically defined subgroups mapped onto three clinically distinct subgroups, distinguished by significant differences in negative symptom severity, as assessed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). In summary, this study provides a concrete example of how psychiatric spectrum diseases may be split into subgroups that are defined in terms of neurophysiological mechanisms specified by a generative model

  20. Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents Attending Pediatric Out Patient Departments of Tertiary Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Jesmin, Akhter; Rahman, Khan Muhammad Zillur; Muntasir, Maruf Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Psychiatric disorders are increasingly recognized among children and adolescents in Bangladesh. Psychiatric disorders are more common in children with chronic and acute pediatric disorders. Our study was designed to determine the psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents attending pediatric outpatient departments of tertiary care hospitals. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out from July 2012 to February 2013 in pediatric outpatient departments of three prime tertiary level hospitals of Dhaka, Bangladesh. A purposive sampling technique was used. A total of 240 male and female children aged 5 to 16 years old were included in the study. We used a semi-structured questionnaire to obtain sociodemographic and other relevant clinical information about the children and their families from their parents or caregivers and a validated parent version of the Bangla Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) for measuring psychopathology. Results The mean age of the children was 9.0± 2.6 years. The majority (71%) of children were in the 5–10 year age group. The male/female ratio was 1.2:1. Among the respondents, 18% were found to have a psychiatric disorder. Behavioral disorders, emotional disorders, and developmental disorders were found in 9.0%, 15.0% and 0.4% respectively. Hyperkinetic disorder was the single most frequent (5.0%) psychiatric disorder. Conclusions A significant number of children were found to have psychiatric disorders. Our study indicates the importance of identification and subsequent management of psychiatric conditions among the pediatric population. PMID:27403237

  1. Parental warmth and psychiatric disorders among Puerto Rican children in two different socio-cultural contexts.

    PubMed

    Santesteban-Echarri, Olga; Ramos-Olazagasti, María A; Eisenberg, Ruth E; Wei, Chiaying; Bird, Héctor R; Canino, Glorisa; Duarte, Cristiane S

    2017-04-01

    Parental warmth (PW) has a strong influence on child development and may precede the onset of psychiatric disorders in children. PW is interconnected with other family processes (e.g., coercive discipline) that may also influence the development of psychiatric disorders in children. We prospectively examined the association between PW and child psychiatric disorders (anxiety, major depression disorder, ADHD, disruptive behavior disorders) over the course of three years among Puerto Rican youth, above and beyond the influence of other family factors. Boricua Youth Study participants, Puerto Rican children 5 to 13 years of age at Wave 1 living in the South Bronx (New York) (SB) and San Juan and Canguas (PR) (n = 2,491), were followed for three consecutive years. Youth psychiatric disorders were measured by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV (DISC-IV). Generalized Linear Mixed models tested the association between PW (Wave 1) and psychiatric disorders in the next two years adjusting for demographic characteristics and family processes. Higher levels of PW were related to lower odds of child anxiety and major depressive disorder over time (OR = 0.69[0.60; 0.79]; 0.49[0.41; 0.58], respectively). The strength of the association between PW and ADHD and disruptive behavior disorder declined over time, although it was still significant in the last assessment (OR = 0.44[0.37; 0.52]; 0.46[0.39; 0.54], respectively). PW had a unique influence on psychiatric disorders beyond the influence of other parenting and family processes. Stronger associations were observed among girls for depression and ADHD. Incorporating PW behaviors such as acceptance, support, and comforting into interventions focused on parenting skills may help prevent child psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Women with and without intellectual disability and psychiatric disorders: an examination of the literature.

    PubMed

    Taggart, L; McMillan, R; Lawson, A

    2008-09-01

    This article examines the literature on women with and without intellectual disability and psychiatric disorders, using a gender social model of health. Relevant empirical studies, international literature reviews and policies between 1980 and 2007 were identified from electronic databases, journals and secondary sources. Three areas were examined: psychiatric disorders, their contextual background, and their clinical presentation. There are minimal levels of research into women with intellectual disability and psychiatric disorders. However, this article hypothesizes that women with intellectual disability have higher rates of psychiatric disorders than women without. This may result from greater vulnerability related both to internal factors (;intra': cognitive deficits, poorer communication skills, limited social skills) and to the external world (;inter': lack of opportunities, stigma, poor social support networks). The article argues that such women require gender-sensitive mental health services. However, more empirical evidence is required to support this claim and to inform development and delivery of services.

  3. Risk of Psychiatric Disorders following Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shih-Jen; Yang, Albert C.; Huang, Min-Wei; Chen, Pan-Ming; Wang, Shu-Li; Lu, Ti; Shen, Cheng-Che

    2014-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders among women of reproductive age. A higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, including depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and bipolar disorder has been proved in patients with PCOS. However, a clear temporal causal relationship between PCOS and psychiatric disorders has not been well established. Objective We explored the relationship between PCOS and the subsequent development of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and sleep disorder. Methods We identified patients who were diagnosed with PCOS by an obstetrician-gynecologist in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort was constructed of patients without PCOS who were matched according to age and sex. The occurrence of subsequent new-onset psychiatric disorders was evaluated in both cohorts based on diagnoses made by psychiatrists. Results The PCOS cohort consisted of 5431 patients, and the comparison cohort consisted of 21,724 matched control patients without PCOS. The incidence of depressive disorder (hazard ratio [HR] 1.296, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.084–.550), anxiety disorder (HR 1.392, 95% CI 1.121–1.729), and sleep disorder (HR 1.495, 95% CI 1.176–1.899) were higher among the PCOS patients than among the patients in the comparison cohort. In addition, a higher incidence of newly diagnosed depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and sleep disorder remained significantly increased in all of the stratified follow-up durations (0–1, 1–5, ≥5 y). Conclusions PCOS might increase the risk of subsequent newly diagnosed depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and sleep disorder. The risk of newly diagnosed bipolar disorder, which has often been reported in the literature to be comorbid with PCOS, was not significantly elevated. PMID:24816764

  4. The impact of comorbid psychiatric disorders on methadone maintenance treatment in opioid use disorder: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Rosic, Tea; Naji, Leen; Bawor, Monica; Dennis, Brittany B; Plater, Carolyn; Marsh, David C; Thabane, Lehana; Samaan, Zainab

    2017-01-01

    Objective There is a significant interindividual variability in treatment outcomes in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opioid use disorder (OUD). This prospective cohort study examines the impact of comorbid psychiatric disorders on continued illicit opioid use in patients receiving MMT for OUD. Methods Data were collected from 935 patients receiving MMT in outpatient clinics between June 2011 and June 2015. Using linear regression analysis, we evaluated the impact of having a comorbid psychiatric disorder on continued illicit opioid use during MMT, adjusting for important confounders. The main outcome measure was percentage of opioid-positive urine screens for 6 months. We conducted a subgroup analysis to determine the influence of specific comorbid psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorders, on continued illicit opioid use. Results Approximately 80% of participants had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder in addition to OUD, and 42% of participants had a comorbid substance use disorder. There was no significant association between having a psychiatric comorbidity and continuing opioid use (P=0.248). Results from subgroup analysis, however, suggest that comorbid tranquilizer (β=20.781, P<0.001) and cocaine (β=6.344, P=0.031) use disorders are associated with increased rates of continuing opioid use. Conclusion Results from our study may serve to guide future MMT guidelines. Specifically, we find that cocaine or tranquilizer use disorder, comorbid with OUD, places patients at high risk for poor MMT outcomes. Treatment centers may choose to gear more intensive therapy toward such populations. PMID:28579787

  5. The impact of comorbid psychiatric disorders on methadone maintenance treatment in opioid use disorder: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rosic, Tea; Naji, Leen; Bawor, Monica; Dennis, Brittany B; Plater, Carolyn; Marsh, David C; Thabane, Lehana; Samaan, Zainab

    2017-01-01

    There is a significant interindividual variability in treatment outcomes in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opioid use disorder (OUD). This prospective cohort study examines the impact of comorbid psychiatric disorders on continued illicit opioid use in patients receiving MMT for OUD. Data were collected from 935 patients receiving MMT in outpatient clinics between June 2011 and June 2015. Using linear regression analysis, we evaluated the impact of having a comorbid psychiatric disorder on continued illicit opioid use during MMT, adjusting for important confounders. The main outcome measure was percentage of opioid-positive urine screens for 6 months. We conducted a subgroup analysis to determine the influence of specific comorbid psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorders, on continued illicit opioid use. Approximately 80% of participants had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder in addition to OUD, and 42% of participants had a comorbid substance use disorder. There was no significant association between having a psychiatric comorbidity and continuing opioid use (P=0.248). Results from subgroup analysis, however, suggest that comorbid tranquilizer (β=20.781, P<0.001) and cocaine (β=6.344, P=0.031) use disorders are associated with increased rates of continuing opioid use. Results from our study may serve to guide future MMT guidelines. Specifically, we find that cocaine or tranquilizer use disorder, comorbid with OUD, places patients at high risk for poor MMT outcomes. Treatment centers may choose to gear more intensive therapy toward such populations.

  6. Substance use and other psychiatric disorders among 100 American Indian patients.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, J; Neider, J; Westermeyer, M

    One hundred American Indian patients with a Psychoactive Substance Use Disorder (PSUD) were studied with special reference to associated psychiatric disorders. This clinical sample was divided into three groups: PSUD only, PSUD plus an Organic Mental Disorder (OMD), and PSUD plus any other psychiatric disorder. OMD diagnoses included primarily Delirium Tremens and Alcoholic Hallucinosis; cases of Alcohol Amnestic Disorder, Alcohol Dementia, and trauma-induced OMD were also encountered. Other psychiatric disorders included primarily Major Depression and Anxiety Disorder, with smaller numbers of Schizophrenia, Conduct, Sexual, and other Disorders. Demographic and clinical characteristics were compared among these three groups. Those with PSUD+OMD tended to be older, male, and have more DSM-III Axis 3 disorders (American Psychiatric Association 1980) as compared to other patients; those with PSUD+other diagnoses tended to be single and younger. Education and occupational status were not related to the three diagnostic groups. The data were also subjected to MANOVA analysis. Even when corrected for sex, types of substance being abused, Axis 3 health status, and other factors, the three diagnostic groups still bore a significant relationship to age. Those with PSUD+Other psychiatric diagnoses besides OMD tended to be youngest. Those with PSUD-only were intermediate by age, while those with PSUD+OMD tended to be the oldest.

  7. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparison with Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; de Bruin, Esther I.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted with the aim to identify comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (n = 40) and to compare those comorbidity rates to those in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 40). Participants were clinically referred children aged 7-18 years. DSM-IV…

  8. Cognitive and Psychiatric Phenotypes of Movement Disorders in Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Pazi, Hilla; Jaworowski, Solomon; Shalev, Ruth S

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The cognitive and psychiatric aspects of adult movement disorders are well established, but specific behavioural profiles for paediatric movement disorders have not been delineated. Knowledge of non-motor phenotypes may guide treatment and determine which symptoms are suggestive of a specific movement disorder and which indicate medication…

  9. Cognitive and Psychiatric Phenotypes of Movement Disorders in Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Pazi, Hilla; Jaworowski, Solomon; Shalev, Ruth S

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The cognitive and psychiatric aspects of adult movement disorders are well established, but specific behavioural profiles for paediatric movement disorders have not been delineated. Knowledge of non-motor phenotypes may guide treatment and determine which symptoms are suggestive of a specific movement disorder and which indicate medication…

  10. Euthanasia for people with psychiatric disorders or dementia in Belgium: analysis of officially reported cases.

    PubMed

    Dierickx, Sigrid; Deliens, Luc; Cohen, Joachim; Chambaere, Kenneth

    2017-06-23

    Euthanasia for people who are not terminally ill, such as those suffering from psychiatric disorders or dementia, is legal in Belgium under strict conditions but remains a controversial practice. As yet, the prevalence of euthanasia for people with psychiatric disorders or dementia has not been studied and little is known about the characteristics of the practice. This study aims to report on the trends in prevalence and number of euthanasia cases with a psychiatric disorder or dementia diagnosis in Belgium and demographic, clinical and decision-making characteristics of these cases. We analysed the anonymous databases of euthanasia cases reported to the Federal Control and Evaluation Committee Euthanasia from the implementation of the euthanasia law in Belgium in 2002 until the end of 2013. The databases we received provided the information on all euthanasia cases as registered by the Committee from the official registration forms. Only those with one or more psychiatric disorders or dementia and no physical disease were included in the analysis. We identified 179 reported euthanasia cases with a psychiatric disorder or dementia as the sole diagnosis. These consisted of mood disorders (N = 83), dementia (N = 62), other psychiatric disorders (N = 22) and mood disorders accompanied by another psychiatric disorder (N = 12). The proportion of euthanasia cases with a psychiatric disorder or dementia diagnosis was 0.5% of all cases reported in the period 2002-2007, increasing from 2008 onwards to 3.0% of all cases reported in 2013. The increase in the absolute number of cases is particularly evident in cases with a mood disorder diagnosis. The majority of cases concerned women (58.1% in dementia to 77.1% in mood disorders). All cases were judged to have met the legal requirements by the Committee. While euthanasia on the grounds of unbearable suffering caused by a psychiatric disorder or dementia remains a comparatively limited practice in Belgium, its

  11. Reliability and Validity of the "Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes-Parent Version" in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witwer, Andrea N.; Lecavalier, Luc; Norris, Megan

    2012-01-01

    The "Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes-Parent Version" (P-ChIPS) is a structured psychiatric interview designed to assess the presence of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. This study examined the reliability and validity of the P-ChIPS in 61 youngsters (6- to 17-years-old) with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Reliability…

  12. Reliability and Validity of the "Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes-Parent Version" in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witwer, Andrea N.; Lecavalier, Luc; Norris, Megan

    2012-01-01

    The "Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes-Parent Version" (P-ChIPS) is a structured psychiatric interview designed to assess the presence of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. This study examined the reliability and validity of the P-ChIPS in 61 youngsters (6- to 17-years-old) with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Reliability…

  13. Diagnostic profiles of adult psychiatric outpatients with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Gorlin, Eugenia I; Dalrymple, Kristy; Chelminski, Iwona; Zimmerman, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Despite growing recognition that attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent, impairing, and comorbid disorder that persists into adulthood, reports on the nature and extent of its psychiatric comorbidities have been mixed to date. This study compared the prevalence rates of all major Axis I disorders as well as borderline personality disorder in an unselected sample of adult psychiatric outpatients with and without ADHD. As part of the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we administered a DSM-IV-based semi-structured diagnostic interview assessing ADHD and other psychiatric disorders to 1134 patients presenting for initial evaluation at an outpatient psychiatric practice. Logistic regression analyses were used to compare the rates of each disorder in patients with versus without an ADHD diagnosis (both overall and by Combined and Inattentive type). Patients with (versus without) any ADHD diagnosis had significantly higher rates of bipolar disorder, social phobia, impulse control disorders, eating disorders, and BPD, and significantly lower rates of major depressive disorder and adjustment disorder (all p<.05). Patients with (versus without) ADHD-Inattentive type had significantly higher rates of social phobia and eating disorders, whereas those with (versus without) the ADHD-Combined type had significantly higher rates of bipolar disorder, alcohol dependence, and BPD (all p<.05). In this novel investigation of the psychiatric profiles of an unselected sample of treatment-seeking adult outpatients with versus without ADHD, a distinct pattern of comorbidities emerged across subtypes, with implications for the accurate assessment and treatment of patients presenting for psychiatric care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychiatric Co-Occurring Symptoms and Disorders in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lever, Anne G.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2016-01-01

    Although psychiatric problems are less prevalent in old age within the general population, it is largely unknown whether this extends to individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We examined psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young, middle-aged, and older adults with and without ASD (N[subscript max] = 344, age 19-79 years, IQ > 80).…

  15. Psychiatric Co-Occurring Symptoms and Disorders in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lever, Anne G.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2016-01-01

    Although psychiatric problems are less prevalent in old age within the general population, it is largely unknown whether this extends to individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We examined psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young, middle-aged, and older adults with and without ASD (N[subscript max] = 344, age 19-79 years, IQ > 80).…

  16. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Childhood Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Famularo, Richard; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study of 117 severely abused children found that 35% exhibited evidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Results indicated that PTSD was correlated with attention deficit disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, suicidal ideation, and mood disorders. (CR)

  17. Correlates of Substance Use Disorder among Psychiatric Outpatients: Focus on Cognition, Social Role Functioning and Psychiatric Status

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.; Simons, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared psychiatric outpatients who were never, former, and current substance abusers on psychiatric, social, and cognitive functioning. Fifty-six outpatients with schizophrenia-spectrum and bipolar disorders volunteered to complete diagnostic and social role function interviews, self-report inventories, and neuropsychological tests. Multinomial logit regression analyses indicated that current and former abusers reported greater subjective feelings of distress than those who never abused. Contrary to expectations, however, both groups of substance abusers performed better on non-verbal cognitive tests compared to those who never abused. Differences in social functioning were also observed: former abusers demonstrated better instrumental role functioning than those who never abused. This pattern of findings challenges assumptions about additive effects of comorbid disorders on cognitive and social functioning. PMID:12819549

  18. Parent Report of Community Psychiatric Comorbid Diagnoses in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Rebecca E.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Law, J. Kiely; Law, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    We used a national online registry to examine variation in cumulative prevalence of community diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity in 4343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models compared influence of individual, family, and geographic factors on cumulative prevalence of parent-reported anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Adjusted odds of community-assigned lifetime psychiatric comorbidity were significantly higher with each additional year of life, with increasing autism severity, and with Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified compared with autistic disorder. Overall, in this largest study of parent-reported community diagnoses of psychiatric comorbidity, gender, autistic regression, autism severity, and type of ASD all emerged as significant factors correlating with cumulative prevalence. These findings could suggest both underlying trends in actual comorbidity as well as variation in community interpretation and application of comorbid diagnoses in ASD. PMID:22937248

  19. [The prevalence of eating disorders and comorbid psychiatric disorders in the Sivas Province].

    PubMed

    Semız, Murat; Kavakcı, Önder; Yağız, Ayşegül; Yontar, Gözde; Kuğu, Nesim

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) in the Sivas province, and to identify the sociodemographic characteristics and co-morbid axis-I and axis-II diagnoses in EDs. 1122 people between 18-44 years of age were enrolled in the study after completing the eating attitude test (EAT), and people who had points around the cut-off score had clinical interviews. The control group included subjects that were age- and sex-matched with the ED group, were not diagnosed with an ED, and had an EAT score <30. In order to determine the following as axis I or axis II, SCID-I (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders) and SCID-II (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders) were performed on both the eating disorder and control groups. As a result of the scanning done with EAT, we observed that 5.25% of this population might have an eating behavior disorder. The prevalence of the eating disorders was found to be 1.52% by the structured clinical interview in the second step of the study. While the prevalence of bulimia nervosa was determined to be 0.63%, that of binge eating disorder was 0.81%. The diagnosis of ED is common and statistically significant among women (88.2%). According to the study, persons diagnosed with ED were more likely to have a moderate income as compared with those who were not diagnosed with an ED. Also, people with ED had been exposed to more traumas, and it was more likely that someone in their family had a psychiatric diagnosis. Among the patient group, the axis I and axis II co-morbidity rates were significantly higher than those of the control group. 47% (8/17) of the patients were determined to have a co-morbid axis I diagnosis. The most frequently diagnosed co-morbidity was major depressive disorder. 41% of the patients were determined to have an axis II diagnosis. The most common rate of diagnosis was 11.8% for both obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and

  20. CHILDREN OF LOW-INCOME DEPRESSED MOTHERS: PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT†

    PubMed Central

    Feder, Adriana; Alonso, Angelique; Tang, Min; Liriano, Wanda; Warner, Virginia; Pilowsky, Daniel; Barranco, Eva; Wang, Yanping; Verdeli, Helena; Wickramaratne, Priya; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although several studies have documented a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children of depressed than nondepressed parents, previous research was conducted in predominantly White, middle, or upper-middle class populations. Only limited information is available on psychiatric disorders and psychosocial functioning in children of low-income depressed mothers. Methods We report the findings in children of mothers with and without a lifetime history of major depressive disorder, who were recruited from a large urban primary-care practice. Bilingual clinical interviewers assessed 58 children with structured diagnostic interviews administered to most children (90%) and to their mothers as informants. Diagnostic assessments and best estimate diagnoses of the children were blind to the mothers’ diagnostic status. Results The families were poor and predominantly Hispanic, more than half of them headed by single mothers. After adjusting for child age and gender, and for any possible sibling correlation, children of depressed mothers had significantly higher rates of lifetime depressive, separation anxiety, oppositional defiant, and any psychiatric disorders than children of control mothers, with a lifetime prevalence of any psychiatric disorder of 84.6 versus 50.0%, respectively. Children of depressed mothers also reported significantly lower psychosocial functioning and had higher rates of psychiatric treatment. Conclusions We conclude that the risk for psychiatric disorders may be particularly high in children of low-income depressed mothers. The primary-c