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Sample records for psychiatric mental health

  1. Psychiatric nurse-patient interaction facilitating mental health.

    PubMed

    Poggenpoel, M

    1994-02-01

    A description is given of research involving the formulation of the "Psychiatric Nurse-Patient Interaction Facilitating Mental Health" psychiatric nursing model. Major concepts are identified, defined and propositional statements formulated. A description is given of the structure and process depicted in this model which views psychiatric nursing as a scientifically based interaction between a psychiatric nurse and a patient with the purpose of facilitating a patient's quest for mental health as integral part of health (wholeness). The patient can be an individual, family or community. The goal of psychiatric nursing is assisting the patient in mobilizing his resources to promote, maintain and restore health. The focus of psychiatric nursing assessment and diagnosis is the patient's mental processes as these influence his patterns of interaction with his internal and external environment. The patient's patterns of interaction with his environment determine his health status. The desired patient outcome that is worked for in psychiatric nursing is mental health as integral part of health (spiritual, mental and physical wholeness). Continued refinement of concepts, research and application in practice is necessary to validate this model. PMID:8044874

  2. Communication and Mental Health: Psychiatric Forerunners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Deems M.

    The connections between human communication and mental health were first noted 50 to 60 years ago by such early psychiatrists as Alfred Adler, Harry Stack Sullivan, and Karen Horney. They were concerned with understanding those communication processes and skills that make for effective, fully functioning human beings. Adler emphasized faulty…

  3. Adolescents' Perceptions of Their Consent to Psychiatric Mental Health Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Roberson, Anthony James; Kjervik, Diane K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a small-scale study in which the decision-making process of adolescents who consent to psychiatric mental health treatment was examined. Sixteen (16) adolescents were interviewed about their decisions related to initial and continued treatment, along with their understanding of minor consent laws. Interviews were audio-recorded, and transcripts were analyzed through concept analysis. Findings are presented in the context of the decision-making steps and research questions. Most adolescents did not recognize consequences related to psychiatric mental health treatment and did not assimilate and integrate information provided to them about treatment choices. Adolescents disagreed with current minor consent laws that allow minors to consent to certain healthcare treatments without the required consent of the parent. Further, adolescents reported that a collaborative approach in making decisions about the adolescent's psychiatric mental health treatment was most facilitative of achieving the goals of treatment. PMID:22474581

  4. Community Mental Health and the Psychiatric Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Psychiatric Technology, Sacramento, CA.

    The National Association of Psychiatric Technology (NAPT), a non-profit organization, is the outgrowth of local and state organizations of psychiatric attendants, aides, and technicians who had banded together to improve their knowledge and skills and to demonstrate their competence to assume greater responsibilities in the care and treatment of…

  5. Flipping the Classroom: Strategies for Psychiatric-Mental Health Course.

    PubMed

    Burden, Marsha L; Carlton, Kay Hodson; Siktberg, Linda; Pavlechko, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Experiences over 2 years substantiate the value of the pedagogical shift of "flipping the classroom" as an effective strategy in preparing students for didactic and clinical experiences in a psychiatric-mental health nursing course. This article describes strategies used to flip the classroom in the course. Student perceptions of the changed pedagogy and implications for nurse educators are presented. PMID:25888103

  6. Flipping the Classroom: Strategies for Psychiatric-Mental Health Course.

    PubMed

    Burden, Marsha L; Carlton, Kay Hodson; Siktberg, Linda; Pavlechko, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Experiences over 2 years substantiate the value of the pedagogical shift of "flipping the classroom" as an effective strategy in preparing students for didactic and clinical experiences in a psychiatric-mental health nursing course. This article describes strategies used to flip the classroom in the course. Student perceptions of the changed pedagogy and implications for nurse educators are presented.

  7. [Physical activities, psychiatric care and mental health].

    PubMed

    Davanture, Olivier

    2014-02-01

    At Ville-Evrard psychiatric hospital, sports activities are used as one of several therapeutic tools. The day-long multi-sport sessions, led notably by a nurse, form part of the care programme. Sport not only enables the patients to exert themselves, it is above all a form of therapeutic mediation which encourages verbal and non-verbal communication.

  8. Juvenile Mental Health Courts for Adjudicated Youth: Role Implications for Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Mental Health Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Burriss, F. Antoinette; Breland-Noble, Alfiee M.; Webster, Joe L.; Soto, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    TOPIC Juvenile mental health courts for adjudicated youth. PURPOSE To describe the role of psychiatric nurses in reducing mental health disparities for adjudicated youth via juvenile mental health courts. SOURCES ISI Web of Knowledge; Sage Journals Online; HighWire; PubMed; Google Scholar and Wiley Online Library and websites for psychiatric nursing organizations. Years included: 2000–2010. CONCLUSIONS Juvenile mental health courts may provide a positive and effective alternative to incarceration for youth with mental health problems with psychiatric nurses playing a key role in program implementation. PMID:21501288

  9. Racial Disparities in Mental Health Outcomes after Psychiatric Hospital Discharge among Individuals with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.

    2012-01-01

    Racial disparities in mental health outcomes have been widely documented in noninstitutionalized community psychiatric samples, but few studies have specifically examined the effects of race among individuals with the most severe mental illnesses. A sample of 925 individuals hospitalized for severe mental illness was followed for a year after…

  10. Psychiatric genetic research at the National Institute of Mental Health

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, K.; Mullican, C.; Maestri, N.

    1994-12-15

    For some time it has been known through the results of family, twin, and adoption studies that hereditary appears to play a significant casual role in many mental disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other mood disorders, Alzheimer`s Disease, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, autism, dyslexia, and Tourette`s syndrome. The precise patterns of inheritance of these complex disorders have not been determined, nor have the relevant genes been localized or cloned. Because the genetics are complex and because there is also clearly an environmental contribution to behavior, we expect the analysis of the genetics of mental illness to be arduous and not quickly resolved. There are several compelling reasons to continue to focus our attention on uncovering the genetic factors for severe mental illness. Prominent among these are the implications for better treatment of mental disorders. The National Institute of Mental Health supports a wide range of studies on psychiatric genetic research. 16 refs.

  11. [An object study about the teaching of psychiatric nursing and mental health].

    PubMed

    Kantorski, L P; da Silva, G B

    1998-01-01

    This article approaches the construction of a study object about the psychiatric nursing teaching and mental health. It is supported on the Marxist theoretical-methodological referential making a re-dimension of concepts as teaching--as a reproduction and resistance practice--ideology/counter-ideology, actors/social subjects, mental health and the psychiatric reform. PMID:10776284

  12. Psychiatric Mental Health Leadership at the Tipping Point.

    PubMed

    R Delaney, Kathleen

    2015-05-01

    Currently the United States health care system is responding to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) and the vision it contains for health care transformation. Along with sweeping changes in service delivery and payment structures, health care reform has championed concepts such as patient-centered care, integrated care, and wellness. Although these are not new ideas, their adaptation, in both ideology and service design has been accelerated in the context for reform. Indeed they are reaching a tipping point; the point where ideas gain wide acceptance and become influential trends. Although psychiatric mental health (PMH) nurses have been active in wellness, patient-centered care, and integrated care, at the current time they seem to be situated peripheral to these national trends. Increased presence of PMH nurses will facilitate their contribution to the development of these concepts within service structures and interventions. To increase knowledge and appreciation of PMH nurses' practice and unique perspective on these issues, leaders are needed who will connect and effectively communicate PMH nursing efforts to the broader health care arena. This article outlines the events that created a context for these three concepts (patient-centered care, wellness, and integrated care), and I suggest why they have reached a tipping point and discuss the need for greater PMH nursing presence in the American national dialog and the role of nursing leaders in facilitating these connections. PMID:26090854

  13. Mental health/psychiatric issues in elder abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Claudia; Livingston, Gill

    2014-11-01

    Elder abuse may be defined as a violation of a vulnerable older person's human and civil rights. Psychiatric illness is an important cause of vulnerability to abuse, especially when it is comorbid with other risk factors, such as physical frailty, sensory impairment, social isolation, and physical dependency. Health care providers are likely to encounter elder abuse regularly, and therefore have an important role in its detection and management, and in the treatment of subsequent psychiatric illness. This article reviews the relationships between psychiatric illnesses and elder abuse and neglect, examines the psychiatric consequences, and discusses how these may be treated. PMID:25439645

  14. Mental health/psychiatric issues in elder abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Claudia; Livingston, Gill

    2014-11-01

    Elder abuse may be defined as a violation of a vulnerable older person's human and civil rights. Psychiatric illness is an important cause of vulnerability to abuse, especially when it is comorbid with other risk factors, such as physical frailty, sensory impairment, social isolation, and physical dependency. Health care providers are likely to encounter elder abuse regularly, and therefore have an important role in its detection and management, and in the treatment of subsequent psychiatric illness. This article reviews the relationships between psychiatric illnesses and elder abuse and neglect, examines the psychiatric consequences, and discusses how these may be treated.

  15. Oxymoronic or synergistic: deconstructing the psychiatric and/or mental health nurse.

    PubMed

    Cutcliffe, John; Stevenson, Chris; Lakeman, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Examination of the names used to signify a nurse who specializes in working with people with mental health problems indicates the absence of a shared nomenclature and the frequent conflation of the terms 'psychiatric' and 'mental health'. Informed by the work of Derrida (1978) and Saussure (1916-1983), the authors encourage the deconstruction of and problematization of these terms, and this shows that what nurses who work with people with so-called mental illness are called has depended on where they have worked, the vagaries of passing fashion, and public policy. Further, there are irreconcilable philosophical, theoretical, and clinical positions that prevent nurses from practicing simultaneously as 'psychiatric' and 'mental health' nurses. Related service user literature indicates that it is disingenuous to camouflage 'psychiatric' services as 'mental health' services, and as signifiers, signified, and signs, psychiatric and mental health nursing are sustained by political agendas, which do not necessarily prioritize the needs of the person with the illness. Clearly demarked and less disingenuous signs for both mental health and psychiatric care would not only be a more honest approach, but would also be in keeping with the service user literature that highlights the expectation that there are two signs (and thus two services): psychiatric and mental health services. PMID:23066735

  16. Preserving the Art and Science of Psychotherapy for Advance Practice Psychiatric Mental Health Nurses.

    PubMed

    Caughill, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric Mental Health (PMH) Nurses are challenged to maintain the viability of their roles in today's healthcare climate as advances in research and complexity of mental healthcare needs of society continue to unfold. Today's mental health practice environment includes disciplines with marketable credentials. Roles for PMH nurses in recent decades are less clearly defined than for other disciplines, much of this related to changes in educational and practice settings. This article reviews literature on the topic of psychotherapy and a call for a renewed emphasis on this mode of treatment for psychiatric mental health advance practice nurses.

  17. [From the psychiatric sector to the mental health territory].

    PubMed

    Chiron, Anne-Sophie; Deloro, Cyrille

    2013-01-01

    There is currently a noticeable change in public health policy, as well as a paradigm shift with the policy of a mental health territory. From a humanist sector policy, centred on the patient, we are moving towards a policy of a mental health territory, which, although taking into account the changing needs of a group of people, no longer considers the specific needs of the individual. The notion of a geographic breakdown of the organisation of care is becoming predominant. PMID:24450004

  18. Psychiatric Disorders and Sexual Risk among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Stewart, Angela; Lescano, Celia; Whiteley, Laura; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sexual behaviors among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Adolescents in mental health treatment have been found to have higher rates of HIV risk behavior than their peers, but data concerning the relationship between psychopathology and risk are inconsistent and…

  19. Challenges to HIV prevention in psychiatric settings: Perceptions of South African mental health care providers

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Pamela Y.

    2009-01-01

    Mental health services in South Africa increasingly feel the brunt of the AIDS epidemic. Despite the high prevalence of infection in the psychiatric setting, HIV risk reduction interventions targeting South Africans with psychiatric illness remain few and far between. The attitudes of mental health care providers about sexual relations and HIV among people with mental illness continue to influence the extent to which these issues are addressed in care settings. This study examines these attitudes through the use of a semi-structured interview administered to 46 mental health care providers in four provinces of South Africa. I found that personal, contextual and political factors in the clinic and the hospital create barriers to integrating prevention activities. In particular, providers face at least three challenges to intervening in the epidemic among their patients: their own views of psychiatric illness, the transitions occurring in the mental health care system, and shifting social attitudes toward sexuality. Barriers operate at the individual level, the institutional level, and the societal level. At the individual level providers’ perceptions of psychiatric symptoms shape their outlook on intervention with psychiatric patients. At the institutional level disruptive transitions in service delivery relegate HIV services to lesser importance. At the societal level, personal beliefs about sexuality and mental illness have remained slow to change despite major political changes. Minimizing barriers to implementing HIV prevention services requires institutional and health care policies that ensure adequate resources for treating people with mental illness and for staff development and support. PMID:16647793

  20. Sexuality, vulnerability to HIV, and mental health: an ethnographic study of psychiatric institutions.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Diana de Souza; Mann, Claudio Gruber; Wainberg, Milton; Mattos, Paulo; Oliveira, Suely Broxado de

    2007-09-01

    This paper presents data from the ethnographic based formative phase of the Interdisciplinary Project on Sexuality, Mental Health, and AIDS (PRISSMA), sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and carried out in two psychiatric institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Results from ethnographic observations, focus groups, and key informant interviews with different groups of mental health care providers and day hospital and outpatient mental health clients regarding conceptions of sexuality and HIV vulnerability are described. The results suggest a diversity of notions about sexuality by both groups and point out the high HIV sexual risk in this psychiatric population. This formative phase has served as the basis for the cultural adaptation and creation of a Brazilian intervention for HIV prevention in the severely mentally ill, the feasibility of which has been successfully evaluated in the pilot phase.

  1. Psychiatric workforce needs and recommendations for the community mental health system: A state needs assessment

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Elizabeth Reisinger; Berry, Frank W.; Citron, Tod; Fitzgerald, Judy; Rapaport, Mark; Stephens, Bryan; Druss, Benjamin G.

    2015-01-01

    Similar to other states, Georgia is facing workforce challenges within its community mental health system. Georgia's Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Disabilities commissioned a needs assessment to examine the shortage of prescribing providers in the state's public mental health system. A unique partnership of key stakeholders developed and conducted the needs assessment. We examined the extent and impact of psychiatric workforce shortages, and opportunities for optimizing the psychiatric workforce and training the next generation of community psychiatrists. This column describes the partnership guiding this needs assessment process and summarizes the results and recommendations. PMID:25642608

  2. Mental health and psychiatric care in Bolivia: what do we know?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently Bolivia has implemented a universal health system, but their mental health policy is still emerging. Objectives To investigate the current state of the mental health care system in Bolivia and discuss challenges for structuring a coordinated network of services that can effectively meet the needs of the Bolivian population. Methods This review was conducted by searching for scholarly articles through the databases Lilacs, Medline OPS, HISA and IBECS REPIDISCA via the search portal in the Virtual Health Library - NLM (http://www.bireme.br). Results Bolivia has a National Mental Health Plan that is intended to guide mental health promotion, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of mental illness, but the resources for this area of health are limited. There are 1.06 psychiatrists and 0.46 psychologists per 100, 000 inhabitants. Information on psychiatric morbidity in Bolivia and the impact of mental disorders on the global burden of disease is scarce. Admission statistics reported by psychiatric hospitals in the country show that the main cause of hospitalization is substance abuse (30%). Alcohol consumption is responsible for 90% of these admissions, in addition to being a major cause of deaths in traffic and one of the main risk factors for domestic violence. Almost one in two women in Bolivia (47%) experienced some form of violence from their partner in the last year. Nineteen percent of women living with a partner reported being physically abused, while 7% were sexually abused by their partners. Isolated studies report that suicide rates are disproportionately high in Bolivia. Conclusions Although there is a shortage of epidemiological data in Bolivia, it is clear the impact of alcohol addiction in psychiatric admissions, domestic violence and traffic accidents. Violence against women and suicides are important issues to be tackled. Among the proposed strategies to afford human resources for mental health in Bolivia, “task shifting”, the

  3. The long-term mental health impact of peacekeeping: prevalence and predictors of psychiatric disorder

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Meaghan; Brand, Rachel M.; Korn, Sam; Creamer, Mark; McFarlane, Alexander C.; Sim, Malcolm R.; Forbes, Andrew B.; Hawthorne, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Background The mental health outcomes of military personnel deployed on peacekeeping missions have been relatively neglected in the military mental health literature. Aims To assess the mental health impacts of peacekeeping deployments. Method In total, 1025 Australian peacekeepers were assessed for current and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses, service history and exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs). A matched Australian community sample was used as a comparator. Univariate and regression analyses were conducted to explore predictors of psychiatric diagnosis. Results Peacekeepers had significantly higher 12-month prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (16.8%), major depressive episode (7%), generalised anxiety disorder (4.7%), alcohol misuse (12%), alcohol dependence (11.3%) and suicidal ideation (10.7%) when compared with the civilian comparator. The presence of these psychiatric disorders was most strongly and consistently associated with exposure to PTEs. Conclusions Veteran peacekeepers had significant levels of psychiatric morbidity. Their needs, alongside those of combat veterans, should be recognised within military mental health initiatives. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) licence. PMID:27703751

  4. Empathy toward Patients with Mental Illness among Baccalaureate Nursing Students: Impact of a Psychiatric Nursing and Mental Health Educational Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mousa, Marwa Abd El-Gawad Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is an ability and skill that can be learned and developed through appropriate education and practice. While the importance of nurses' empathy is widely acknowledged, little is known about the impact of passing through the psychiatric nursing and mental health educational experience at the Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University on…

  5. Psychiatric Boarding in Washington State and the Inadequacy of Mental Health Resources.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Joseph D

    2015-06-01

    Psychiatric boarding is a term derived from emergency medicine that describes the holding of patients deemed in need of hospitalization in emergency departments for extended periods because psychiatric beds are not available. Such boarding has occurred for many years in the shadows of mental health care as both inpatient beds and community services have decreased. This article focuses on a 2014 Washington State Supreme Court decision that examined the interpretation of certain sections of the Washington state civil commitment statute that had been used to justify the extended boarding of detained psychiatric patients in general hospital emergency departments. The impact of this decision on the state of Washington should be significant and could spark a national debate about the negative impacts of psychiatric boarding on patients and on the nation's general hospital emergency services.

  6. Immersion experience in undergraduate psychiatric mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Tratnack, Sheri A; O'Neill, Claudia M; Graham, Pat

    2011-09-01

    Immersion practica have been used in a variety of nursing settings to help prepare culturally competent nursing students. The psychiatric setting represents a diverse culture that traditionally has not appealed to nursing students when considering career options. This article describes the experiences of baccalaureate nursing students and hospital nursing staff following a brief immersion practicum at a psychiatric facility. Seven students were assigned to one practicum for six consecutive weekdays (45 hours), without the distraction of other classes. Both the students and staff rated the experience as positive. The students believed that their ability to form therapeutic relationships, develop clinical skills, and integrate theory into clinical practice was enhanced. While nursing faculty struggle to produce more graduates, with declining clinical sites and increased competition for these sites, the brief clinical immersion may be a reasonable alternative to a traditional rotation.

  7. Eradicating Barriers to Mental Health Care Through Integrated Service Models: Contemporary Perspectives for Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurses.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Horace; Alexander, Vinette

    2016-06-01

    There has been renewed, global interest in developing new and transformative models of facilitating access to high-quality, cost-effective, and individually-centered health care for severe mentally-ill (SMI) persons of diverse racial/ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. However, in our present-day health-service delivery systems, scholars have identified layers of barriers to widespread dispersal of well-needed mental health care both nationally and internationally. It is crucial that contemporary models directed at eradicating barriers to mental health services are interdisciplinary in context, design, scope, sequence, and best-practice standards. Contextually, nurses are well-positioned to influence the incorporation and integration of new concepts into operationally interdisciplinary, evidence-based care models with measurable outcomes. The aim of this concept paper is to use the available evidence to contextually explicate how the blended roles of psychiatric mental health (PMH) nursing can be influential in eradicating barriers to care and services for SMI persons through the integrated principles of collaboration, integration and service expansion across health, socioeconomic, and community systems. A large body of literature proposes that any best-practice standards aimed at eliminating barriers to the health care needs of SMI persons require systematic, well-coordinated interdisciplinary partnerships through evidence-based, high-quality, person-centered, and outcome-driven processes. Transforming the conceptual models of collaboration, integration and service expansion could be revolutionary in how care and services are coordinated and dispersed to populations across disadvantaged communities. Building on their longstanding commitment to individual and community care approaches, and their pivotal roles in research, education, leadership, practice, and legislative processes; PMH nurses are well-positioned to be both influential and instrumental in

  8. Perceived impact by administrators of psychiatric emergency services after changes in a state's mental health system.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Zeman, Lori Lackman; Koch, Alison

    2006-06-01

    As a safety net, psychiatric emergency services are sensitive to system changes. To determine the impact of a state's changes in its mental health system, administrators of publicly funded psychiatric emergency services were surveyed. They reported few (M=0.8) negative changes in coordination of care but 77% endorsed change in administrative burden (54% saying it negatively affected quality of services). Reporting negative effect of administrative burden was associated with treating more persons with substance abuse problems and greater challenge posed by distance to local providers. These results suggest that impact of state-level changes was not uniform but associated with local characteristics.

  9. Consent to psychiatric treatment: practical implications of the Mental Health (Amendment) Bill.

    PubMed

    Beedie, M A; Bluglass, R

    1982-05-29

    The case notes of all patients admitted in 1981 to two Birmingham psychiatric hospitals on compulsory orders for treatment were examined to determine whether, had the new "consent to treatment" proposals in the Mental Health (Amendment) Bill been in operation, a second opinion was necessary. This concluded that there will be difficulties in operating the arrangements to provide a second opinion, and the Government should reconsider the range of these proposals.

  10. Differences between generalists and mental health specialists in the psychiatric treatment of Medicare beneficiaries.

    PubMed Central

    Ettner, S L; Hermann, R C; Tang, H

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine differences between the general medical and mental health specialty sectors in the expenditure and treatment patterns of aged and disabled Medicare beneficiaries with a physician diagnosis of psychiatric disorder. DATA SOURCES: Based on 1991-1993 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey data, linked to the beneficiary's claims and area-level data on provider supply from the Area Resources File and the American Psychological Association. STUDY DESIGN: Outcomes examined included the number of psychiatric services received, psychiatric and total Medicare expenditures, the type of services received, whether or not the patient was hospitalized for a psychiatric disorder, the length of the psychiatric care episode, the intensity of service use, and satisfaction with care. We compared these outcomes for beneficiaries who did and did not receive mental health specialty services during the episode, using multiple regression analyses to adjust for observable population differences. We also performed sensitivity analyses using instrumental variables techniques to reduce the potential bias arising from unmeasured differences in patient case mix across sectors. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Relative to beneficiaries treated only in the general medical sector, those seen by a mental health specialist had longer episodes of care, were more likely to receive services specific to psychiatry, and had greater psychiatric and total expenditures. Among the elderly persons, the higher costs were due to a combination of longer episodes and greater intensity; among the persons who were disabled, they were due primarily to longer episodes. Some evidence was also found of higher satisfaction with care among the disabled individuals treated in the specialty sector. However, evidence of differences in psychiatric hospitalization rates was weaker. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health care provided to Medicare beneficiaries in the general medical sector does not appear to substitute perfectly for

  11. Disasters and mental health: new challenges for the psychiatric profession.

    PubMed

    López-Ibor, Juan J

    2006-01-01

    Articles published in the Viewpoint section of this Journal may not meet the strict editorial and scientific standards that are applied to major articles in The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry. In addition, the viewpoints expressed in these articles do not necessarily represent those of the Editors or the Editorial Board.A disaster is the consequence of an extraordinary event that destroys goods, kills people, produces physical or psychological harm but, above all, which overcomes the adaptive possibilities of the social group. Disasters have strong political background and consequences. They shake the life of a community and raise questions about safety, social organization and the meaning of life. Disasters confront psychiatrists with challenges far beyond regular clinical activities or research strategies. During early interventions after a disaster, psychiatrists often have to work out of their usual clinical premises, in contact with unfamiliar professionals (i.e. rescue personnel) and with individuals who should not be considered as 'cases', and therefore without keeping regular clinical records. In the latter stages they have to confront many factors which tend to cause the clinical consequences of those affected and who developed a psychiatric condition to be chronic. Reactions to stress occur in stages, each one characterised by a specific psychological mechanism. Symptoms include flashbacks, difficulties in remembering, avoidance of stimuli, blunting of responses, high arousal level and obsessive ruminations. The strong biological and psychosocial factors which are unchained after a disaster should be recognised and chanelled. The experience of psychiatry with the bio-psycho-social model can help to understand what disasters are, how some negative aspects of them could be prevented, and how their consequences, both clinical as well as social, can be reduced.

  12. Outpatient mental health service use by older adults after acute psychiatric hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Proctor, Enola; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    This study described outpatient mental health service used by elderly patients discharged from acute inpatient psychiatric treatment for depression, assessed services barriers, and identified factors related to the use of outpatient mental health services. The sample consisted of 199 elderly patients discharged home from a geropsychiatric unit of an urban midwestern hospital. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with use of various mental health services. Almost three quarters of the elderly patients saw a psychiatrist within 6 weeks postdischarge, but few used other outpatient mental health services. The most frequently reported barriers to use included (1) cost of services, (2) personal belief that depression would improve on its own, and (3) lack of awareness of available services. The use of various outpatient services was differentially related to predisposing, need, and enabling factors. Female patients, those residing in rural areas, and those who wanted to solve their problems on their own were less likely to use outpatient mental health services. Patients who reported greater levels of functional impairment, resided in rural areas, and perceived that getting services required too much time were less likely to see a psychiatrist in the postacute period. African American patients were more likely than whites to use day treatment programs. This may be related to the fact that most day treatment centers were located in areas where the majority of residents were African Americans.

  13. Mental health legislation in Lebanon: Nonconformity to international standards and clinical dilemmas in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Kerbage, Hala; El Chammay, Rabih; Richa, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Mental health legislation represents an important mean of protecting the rights of persons with mental disabilities by preventing human rights violations and discrimination and by legally reinforcing the objectives of a mental health policy. The last decade has seen significant changes in the laws relating to psychiatric practice all over the world, especially with the implementation of the Convention for the Rights of People with Disabilities (CRPD). In this paper, we review the existing legislation in Lebanon concerning the following areas in mental health: treatment and legal protection of persons with mental disabilities, criminal laws in relation to offenders with mental disorders, and laws regulating incapacity. We will discuss these texts in comparison with international recommendations and standards on the rights of persons with disabilities, showing the recurrent contradiction between them. Throughout our article, we will address the clinical dilemmas that Lebanese psychiatrists encounter in practice, in the absence of a clear legislation that can orient their decisions and protect their patients from abuse.

  14. [Closing forensic psychiatric hospitals in Italy: a new deal for mental health care?].

    PubMed

    Casacchia, Massimo; Malavolta, Maurizio; Bianchini, Valeria; Giusti, Laura; Di Michele, Vittorio; Giosuè, Patricia; Ruggeri, Mirella; Biondi, Massimo; Roncone, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The date of March 31, 2015, following the Law 81/2014, has marked a historical transition with the final closure of the six forensic psychiatric hospitals in Italy. This law identifies a new pathway of care that involves small-scale high therapeutic profile facilities (Residenze per la Esecuzione della Misura di Sicurezza, REMS) instead of the old forensic psychiatric hospitals. The Law promotes a new recovery-oriented rehabilitation approach for the persons with mental disorders who committed a criminal offence, but lack criminal responsibility and deemed as socially dangerous. After a brief description of what happens abroad, this article highlights the positive aspects of the law that, as a whole, has to be considered innovative and unavoidable. The main debated problems are also reviewed, including the lack of changes to the Criminal Code; the improper equation between insanity and mental illness and social dangerousness; the evaluation of "socially dangerousness", based solely on "subjective qualities" of the person, assessed out of his/her context, without paying attention to family and social conditions suitable for discharge; the expensive implementation of the REMS, mainly based on security policies and less on care and rehabilitation, the delay in their construction, and the search for residential alternatives structures; the uncertain boundaries of professional responsibility. Finally, several actions are suggested that can support the implementation of the law: information programs addressed to the general population; training activities for mental health professionals; systematic monitoring and evaluation of the outcomes of the care provided to the forensic psychiatric population; implementation of Agreement Protocols and a better cooperation with the judiciary. Scientific societies dealing with psychosocial rehabilitation need to be involved in such issues relating to the identification of the best care and rehabilitation pathways, which should be

  15. [Closing forensic psychiatric hospitals in Italy: a new deal for mental health care?].

    PubMed

    Casacchia, Massimo; Malavolta, Maurizio; Bianchini, Valeria; Giusti, Laura; Di Michele, Vittorio; Giosuè, Patricia; Ruggeri, Mirella; Biondi, Massimo; Roncone, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The date of March 31, 2015, following the Law 81/2014, has marked a historical transition with the final closure of the six forensic psychiatric hospitals in Italy. This law identifies a new pathway of care that involves small-scale high therapeutic profile facilities (Residenze per la Esecuzione della Misura di Sicurezza, REMS) instead of the old forensic psychiatric hospitals. The Law promotes a new recovery-oriented rehabilitation approach for the persons with mental disorders who committed a criminal offence, but lack criminal responsibility and deemed as socially dangerous. After a brief description of what happens abroad, this article highlights the positive aspects of the law that, as a whole, has to be considered innovative and unavoidable. The main debated problems are also reviewed, including the lack of changes to the Criminal Code; the improper equation between insanity and mental illness and social dangerousness; the evaluation of "socially dangerousness", based solely on "subjective qualities" of the person, assessed out of his/her context, without paying attention to family and social conditions suitable for discharge; the expensive implementation of the REMS, mainly based on security policies and less on care and rehabilitation, the delay in their construction, and the search for residential alternatives structures; the uncertain boundaries of professional responsibility. Finally, several actions are suggested that can support the implementation of the law: information programs addressed to the general population; training activities for mental health professionals; systematic monitoring and evaluation of the outcomes of the care provided to the forensic psychiatric population; implementation of Agreement Protocols and a better cooperation with the judiciary. Scientific societies dealing with psychosocial rehabilitation need to be involved in such issues relating to the identification of the best care and rehabilitation pathways, which should be

  16. What is cyberbullying & how can psychiatric-mental health nurses recognize it?

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan G; Godfrey, Alice J

    2011-10-01

    Cyberbullying is an emerging issue within our society, particularly among adolescents. The phenomenon is similar to traditional bullying in that it is hurtful, repetitive behavior involving a power imbalance, often causing psychosocial issues. With the availability of cell phones, Internet, and video gaming systems, adolescents are constantly plugged into technology and therefore at risk of being a victim or a perpetrator of cyberbullying. Both physical and mental health problems can result from cyberbullying, which, in turn, can affect an adolescent's performance in school and other crucial areas of life. Legal action is an option, but many times the law is not clear. Psychiatric-mental health nurses are in a position to help educate children about resources to prevent or cope with cyberbullying in a way that will help not only the patients themselves but also parents, teachers, school administrators, and the community. PMID:21919428

  17. AIDS and family planning counseling of psychiatrically ill women in community mental health clinics.

    PubMed

    Coverdale, J H; Aruffo, J F

    1992-02-01

    Eighty-two of 83 mental health professionals, including psychiatrists, were surveyed to determine their attitudes and behaviors toward AIDS prevention and family planning counseling with psychiatrically ill female outpatients. Nearly all reported that information should be provided on AIDS and family planning. However, they reported that they had raised topics of AIDS with only 19% of patients and family planning with only 25% of patients. This lack of communication was confirmed by patients' own reports. Factors which might relate to this lack of communication are explored.

  18. Constructivism applied to psychiatric-mental health nursing: an alternative to supplement traditional clinical education.

    PubMed

    DeCoux Hampton, Michelle

    2012-02-01

    With the popularity of accelerated pre-licensure nursing programmes and the growth in nursing student enrolments, traditional clinical education continues to be a challenge to deliver. Nursing faculty members are required to develop and implement educational innovations that achieve effective learning outcomes, while using fewer resources. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the effectiveness of a constructivism-based learning project to achieve specific learning outcomes and to supplement approximately 30 clinical hours in a psychiatric-mental health nursing course. Students participated in a 10-week, multistage project that examined life histories, treatment resources, and evidence-based practice, as applied to a single individual with a mental illness. Students reported increased understanding of mental health and illness, developed personal relevance associated with the knowledge gained, and learned to problem solve with regard to nursing care of individuals diagnosed with mental illness. For many students, there also appeared to be a reduction in stigmatized attitudes towards mental illness. Constructivism-based learning is a promising alternative to supplement clinical hours, while effectively achieving learning outcomes. Future research is needed to further validate the use of this method for the learning of course content, as well as the reduction of stigma.

  19. The Tidal Model: developing an empowering, person-centred approach to recovery within psychiatric and mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Barker, P

    2001-06-01

    Nursing theories and nursing models have a low profile within psychiatric and mental health nursing in the United Kingdom. This paper describes the philosophical and theoretical background of the Tidal Model, which emerged from a 5-year study of the 'need for psychiatric nursing'. The Tidal Model extends and develops some of the traditional assumptions concerning the centrality of interpersonal relations within nursing practice. The model also integrates discrete processes for re-empowering the person who is disempowered by mental distress or psychiatric services or both. The paper reports briefly on the ongoing evaluation of the model in practice.

  20. Teaching child psychiatric assessment skills: Using pediatric mental health screening tools.

    PubMed

    Hargrave, T M; Arthur, M E

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the workshop "Teaching Child Psychiatric Assessment Skills: Using Mental Health Screening Instruments," presented at the 35th Forum for Behavioral Sciences in Family Medicine on 20 September 2014. The goals of the presentation were (1) to teach family medicine behavioral health educators to use both general and problem-specific mental health screening tools (MHSTs) in their work with trainees to help satisfy the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) mandate for behavioral and mental health experience during family medicine residency, (2) to reflect on how MHSTs might be integrated into the flow of family medicine teaching practices, and (3) to exemplify how evidence-based methods of adult education might be used in teaching such content. One general MHST, the Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17 and one problem-specific MHST for each of the four commonest pediatric mental health issues: for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, the Vanderbilt; for Anxiety, the Screen for Childhood Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders; for Depression, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for teens; and for Aggression, the Retrospective-Modified Overt Aggression Scale, were practiced at least twice in the context of a clinical vignette. All of the selected MHSTs are free in the public domain and available for download from the website: www.CAPPCNY.org. Participants were asked to reflect on their own office practice characteristics and consider how MHSTs might be integrated into their systems of care. This workshop could be replicated by others wishing to teach the use of MHSTs in primary care settings or teaching programs.

  1. Managerial reforms and specialised psychiatric care: a study of resistive practices performed by mental health practitioners.

    PubMed

    Saario, Sirpa

    2012-07-01

    Throughout Western Europe, psychiatric care has been subjected to 'modernisation' by the implementation of various managerial reforms in order to achieve improved mental health services. This paper examines how practitioners resist specific managerial reforms introduced in Finnish outpatient clinics and a child psychiatry clinic. The empirical study involves documentary research and semi-structured interviews with doctors, psychologists, nurses and social workers. The analysis draws on notions of Foucault's conception of resistance as subtle strategies. Three forms of professional resistance are outlined: dismissive responses to clinical guidelines; a critical stance towards new managerial models; and improvised use of newly introduced information and communications technologies (ICTs). Resistance manifests itself as moderate modifications of practice, since more explicit opposition would challenge the managerial rhetoric of psychiatric care which is promoted in terms of positive connotations of client-centredness, users' rights, and the quality of the care. Therefore, instead of strongly challenging managerial reforms, practitioners keep them 'alive' and ongoing by continuously improvising, criticising and dismissing reforms' non-functional features. In conclusion it is suggested that managerial reforms in psychiatric care can only be implemented successfully if frontline practitioners themselves modify and translate them into clinical practice. The reconciliation between this task and practitioners' therapeutic orientation is proposed for further study.

  2. Caretaker mental health and family environment factors are associated with adolescent psychiatric problems in a Vietnamese sample

    PubMed Central

    Stratton, Kelcey Jane; Edwards, Alexis Christine; Overstreet, Cassie; Richardson, Lisa; Tran, Trinh Luong; Trung, Lam Tu; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Amstadter, Ananda Beth

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about risk factors for adolescent mental health in Vietnam. The present study investigated the relationship between caretaker mental health and adolescent mental health in a cross-sectional Vietnamese sample. Primary caretakers completed measures of their own mental distress and general health status using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) as well as reports of adolescent mental health using the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Multivariate regression models were used to examine the relationships between the caretaker and adolescent health variables. The demographic factors of age, sex, ethnicity, religious affiliation, and household wealth status demonstrated significant relationships with SDQ subscale scores. Caretaker mental health was positively associated with adolescent mental health, and this association remained significant even after accounting for other relevant demographic variables and caretaker general health status. Understanding correlates of adolescent mental health difficulties may help identify youth and families at risk for developing psychiatric problems and inform mental health interventions in Vietnam. PMID:25204862

  3. American Psychiatric Association: Position Statement on Firearm Access, Acts of Violence and the Relationship to Mental Illness and Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Pinals, Debra A; Appelbaum, Paul S; Bonnie, Richard; Fisher, Carl E; Gold, Liza H; Lee, Li-Wen

    2015-06-01

    The American Psychiatric Association, ("APA"), with more than 36,000 members at present, is the Nation's leading organization of physicians who specialize in psychiatry. APA provides for education and advocacy and develops policy through Position Statements. It promotes enhanced knowledge of particular topics relevant to psychiatric practice and patient care through Resource Documents. Since 1993, the APA has developed various positions and resource materials related to firearms and mental illness, incorporating evolving themes as new issues emerge. This paper reflects the APA's 2014 Position Statement on Firearm Access, Acts of Violence and the Relationship to Mental Illness and Mental Health Services. PMID:26095100

  4. American Psychiatric Association: Position Statement on Firearm Access, Acts of Violence and the Relationship to Mental Illness and Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Pinals, Debra A; Appelbaum, Paul S; Bonnie, Richard; Fisher, Carl E; Gold, Liza H; Lee, Li-Wen

    2015-06-01

    The American Psychiatric Association, ("APA"), with more than 36,000 members at present, is the Nation's leading organization of physicians who specialize in psychiatry. APA provides for education and advocacy and develops policy through Position Statements. It promotes enhanced knowledge of particular topics relevant to psychiatric practice and patient care through Resource Documents. Since 1993, the APA has developed various positions and resource materials related to firearms and mental illness, incorporating evolving themes as new issues emerge. This paper reflects the APA's 2014 Position Statement on Firearm Access, Acts of Violence and the Relationship to Mental Illness and Mental Health Services.

  5. The art, science, and techniques of reframing in psychiatric mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Pesut, D J

    1991-01-01

    Reframing is a powerful psychotherapeutic intervention. Changing the "frame" in which a person perceives events can change the meaning the person associates with the events. This article describes several types of reframing strategies that have been developed within the context of a model of human behavior and communication known as neurolinguistic programming (NLP). Fundamental assumptions of the NLP model are discussed and several reframing techniques are described. A set of strategies that clinicians can use to redefine behaviors and expand a client's model of the world are illustrated. Development of theoretical and clinical applications of the NLP model and reframing techniques in psychiatric-mental health nursing is an important task for the 1990s. PMID:1988384

  6. [New perspective on psychiatric mental health nursing research: revisiting the resilience of children].

    PubMed

    Shu, Bih-Ching

    2014-02-01

    Rapid changes in societal and environmental conditions mean that many health issues remain unresolved, especially in the realms of childhood social-emotional and mental problems. These problems threaten to affect the future development of affected children. Therefore, this article introduces the new perspective on gene-environment interactions and epigenetics in neuroscience, the definition of resilience, and current developments in related research. This article further integrates the literature to identify the association of resilience in children's emotional and behavioral adjustment. These evidence-based studies demonstrate the significance of resilience intervention and assessment in psychiatric nursing. These developments hold the potential to upgrade clinical applications and enhance the development of individuals. PMID:24519339

  7. The 2014 Scope and Standards of Practice for Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing: Key Updates.

    PubMed

    Kane, Catherine F

    2015-01-31

    The 2014 Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice is the specialty's description of competent nursing practice. The scope portion of this document identifies the focus of the specialty by defining nursing practice extents and limits. Standards are statements that identify the duties and obligations for which specialty nurses are held accountable, including general registered nurses and advanced practice nurses. This article begins with a brief overview of the revision process. The author describes key factors that influenced the revision, such as external documents and current priorities in healthcare, and synthesizes significant changes to the document, including commentary and comparisons to the generalist Scope and Standards of Practice. Implications for nursing education and a companion resource are discussed.

  8. Mental Health: Knowledge, Attitudes and Training of Professionals on Dual Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability and Psychiatric Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, S.; Stawski, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dual diagnosis (DD) refers to the coexistence of intellectual disability and psychiatric disorder. In order to provide individuals with DD with adequate care, it is essential for mental health workers to have adequate knowledge and positive attitudes. These may be achieved through proper training. Aims: To summarise the available…

  9. Job Stress and Self-Efficacy among Psychiatric Nursing Working in Mental Health Hospitals at Cairo, Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaki, Rania. A.

    2016-01-01

    Nursing stress is considered a problem that affects the practice worldwide. Job stress is a harmful response physically and emotionally when the nurses' skills, resources, and needs could not fulfill the requirement of the job. This study was aimed to assess job stress and self-efficacy among psychiatric nursing working in mental health hospitals…

  10. Mental health care and the politics of inclusion: a social systems account of psychiatric deinstitutionalization.

    PubMed

    Novella, Enric J

    2010-12-01

    This paper provides an interpretation, based on the social systems theory of German sociologist Niklas Luhmann, of the recent paradigmatic shift of mental health care from an asylum-based model to a community-oriented network of services. The observed shift is described as the development of psychiatry as a function system of modern society and whose operative goal has moved from the medical and social management of a lower and marginalized group to the specialized medical and psychological care of the whole population. From this theoretical viewpoint, the wider deployment of the modern social order as a functionally differentiated system may be considered to be a consistent driving force for this process; it has made asylum psychiatry overly incompatible with prevailing social values (particularly with the normative and regulative principle of inclusion of all individuals in the different functional spheres of society and with the common patterns of participation in modern function systems) and has, in turn, required the availability of psychiatric care for a growing number of individuals. After presenting this account, some major challenges for the future of mental health care provision, such as the overburdening of services or the overt exclusion of a significant group of potential users, are identified and briefly discussed.

  11. Greek-Cypriot mental health nurses' professional satisfaction and association with mild psychiatric symptoms.

    PubMed

    Karanikola, Maria N K; Kaite, Charis

    2013-08-01

    The present descriptive correlational study aims to explore among Greek-Cypriot mental health nurses (MHNs) the level of professional satisfaction, potential differences with regard to vocational characteristics, and associations with anxiety and depressive symptoms. A random sample of 225 Greek-Cypriot MHNs employed in hospital and community settings completed Hamilton's Anxiety Scale, Beck's Depression Inventory, and Stamps's Index of Work Satisfaction. Moderate levels of overall professional satisfaction of 4.38 (±0.58) were detected. Work experience was positively correlated with satisfaction from payment (τ = 0.230, P < 0.0001). Men seemed to be more satisfied with organizational policies (P = 0.0043) and performed tasks (P = 0.027) than women. Nurses working in psychiatric clinics of general hospitals experienced higher levels of professional satisfaction in general, and more satisfaction from organizational policies, autonomy, and task requirements than nurses working in community settings, substance misuse programs, and community mental health centres (P = 0.001). Nurses working in acute/admission settings were the less satisfied, compared to nurses working in rehabilitation wards (P = 0.017). Professional satisfaction was associated with anxiety (τ = 0.280, P < 0.0001) and depressive (τ = 0.246, P < 0.0001) symptoms. Greek-Cypriot MHNs seem to get moderate satisfaction from their work, whilst professional satisfaction is associated with their psychological well-being. Targeted managerial interventions and longitudinal research are warranted.

  12. Next-Generation Psychiatric Assessment: Using Smartphone Sensors to Monitor Behavior and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Zeev, Dror; Scherer, Emily A.; Wang, Rui; Xie, Haiyi; Campbell, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    in loneliness were associated with sensor-derived kinesthetic activity (p<.01). Conclusions and implications for practice Smartphones can be harnessed as instruments for unobtrusive monitoring of several behavioral indicators of mental health. Creative leveraging of smartphone sensing will create novel opportunities for close-to-invisible psychiatric assessment at a scale and efficiency that far exceed what is currently feasible with existing assessment technologies. PMID:25844912

  13. Psychiatric agriculture: systemic nutritional modification and mental health in the developing world.

    PubMed

    London, Douglas S; Stoll, Andrew L; Manning, Bruce B

    2006-01-01

    Modernization of agricultural systems to increase output causes changes to the nutritional content of food entire populations consume. Human nutritional needs differ from their "food", thus producing healthy agricultural products is not equivalent to providing agricultural products that are healthy for humans. Inclusion of the food production system as a factor in the increase of neuropsychiatric disorders and other chronic diseases helps explain negative trends in modern chronic diseases that remain unchecked despite stunning advances in modern medicine. Diseases in which our own technology plays a significant role include obesity and resulting disorders, such as diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke and arthritis. Modernization's lure leads to importation of modern agricultural practices into a nutritionally vulnerable, malnourished and sometimes starving developing world. Wealthier nations hedge their food portfolio by having access to a wider variety of foods. The developing world's reliance on staple foods means even a minor widespread nutritional modification of one key food can have profound effects. New agricultural techniques may improve or exacerbate neuropsychiatric disorders through nutritional modification in regions where populations walk a nutritional tightrope with little margin for error. In most of the developing world western psychiatric interventions have failed to make inroads. People's consumption of fish has a demonstrated beneficial effect on their mental health and the omega-3 fatty acid content is a significant factor. Epidemiological, biological and agricultural studies implicate a lack of dietary omega-3s as a factor in certain mental disorders. Replenishing omega-3s has improved mental illnesses in controlled clinical trials. This article's detailed tilapia fish-farming model demonstrates how aquaculture/agriculture techniques can function as a public health intervention by increasing dietary omega-3s through creation of

  14. Literature and music: an educational strategy in psychiatric mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Peterson, L C; Booth, C

    1988-10-01

    The authors believe that literature and music as an adjunct in teaching psychiatric-mental health nursing are enriching for students and faculty. Although a systematic evaluation process has not yet been completed, anecdotal evidence suggests that more interesting classes and greater learning results from a variety of teaching methods (Bloom, 1976; Shipman & Shipman, 1985). The students learn from the life experiences of others portrayed by the characters in literary and musical form. Insights into the psychodynamics of human behavior are gleaned through the study of the reality of the total person rather than a focus on mental disorders. Moreover, students take a more active role in learning since they problem-solve in class rather than the more passive role that usually accompanies the lecture format. Through the increased use of reflection, analysis, and self-discovery, students hopefully will continue to utilize these processes, thereby increasing their awareness of the psychological aspects of everyday media, valuing human behavior, and perceiving the world in a more integral whole. PMID:2852230

  15. [Is "mental health" part of the common good? The sociopolitical framework of psychiatric ethics and the responsibility of health-care elites].

    PubMed

    Bohlken, Eike

    2014-07-01

    Psychiatric work can only be that ethical as the framework of a health-care system allows. Thus, the responsibility of the health-care elites to establish a sociopolitical framework that suits psychiatric ethics is discussed on the basis of a theory of the common good and of a philosophical and normative elite theory. "Mental health" is demonstrated to be part of a basic sphere of the common good which cannot be denied to any member of a society. The final section discusses which specific duties can be derived for health-care elites on the ground of the aforementioned conception of "mental health" as a part of the common good.

  16. Using electronic patient records in mental health care to capture housing and homelessness information of psychiatric consumers.

    PubMed

    Booth, Richard G

    2006-12-01

    Homelessness among people with psychiatric illness is at an all time high. Many explanations for this phenomenon exist, including the incidence of discharge from inpatient hospital directly into the streets or shelter system. With little known about this unseen social issue afflicting many mental health consumers, this manuscript provides recommendations for using electronic patient records (EPR) as a conduit to capture housing and homelessness related information. With the increased use of EPRs in the Canadian health care system, the research and clinical benefits of this technology have only recently begun to be realized in mental health care. PMID:17050339

  17. [Mental capacity of psychiatric patients].

    PubMed

    Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang

    2010-12-01

    Nearly every society maintains legal norms that define those members of society qualified to participate in social affairs. Mental capacity and legal competence are deemed necessary conditions for legal actions to have legal validity. On Nov. 23, 2009, newly revised adult guardianship provisions came into effect in Taiwan. However, there has been lack of discussion with regard to how assessments of mental capacity and legal competence should be conducted on psychiatric patients. This paper reviewed relevant overseas literature on this subject and followed common practice in separating legal mental capacity into causal and functional components. The causal component predicates the diseases and illnesses that render the disability, while the functional component represents legally substantial impairments in terms of cognition, emotion and behavior. The paper explored functional component contents, including finance management, individual health care, independence in daily life, interpersonal relationships and communing. Findings pointed out that in setting up competence standards, a trade-off between respect for autonomy and beneficence is unavoidable. As Taiwan does not have rich empirical data on competence assessments and decisions, collaboration between the legal and psychiatric professions is recommended to engage in relevant research to enhance legal consistencies and the science of competence assessment.

  18. Patient-Centered Homes and Integrated Behavioral Health Care: Reclaiming the Role of "Consultant" for Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse Practitioner.

    PubMed

    Soltis-Jarrett, Victoria

    2016-06-01

    The notion of patient-centered care has long been linked with nursing practice since Florence Nightingale. The discipline of nursing is focused on the holistic care of individuals, families, and communities in times of sickness and/or health. However, in psychiatric-mental health nursing, the concepts of mental health and psychiatric illness still remain marginalized in our health care delivery systems, as well as in nursing education, knowledge development, and practice. Even with the concept of patient-centered homes, acute and primary care providers are reluctant to embrace care of those with psychiatric illness in their respective settings. Psychiatric illness was and continues to be in the shadows, hidden and often ignored by the larger community as well as by health care providers. This paper describes a Health Resources Services Administration (HRSA) Advanced Nursing Education (ANE) training grant's objective of reintegrating psychiatric-mental health practice into ALL health care delivery systems using the concept of patient-centered nursing care as a foundation for, and promotion of, the Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse Practitioner (PMH-NP) as the "navigator" for not only the patients and their families, but also for their acute and primary care colleagues using an Interprofessional Education Model. The major barriers and lessons learned from this project as well as the need for psychiatric-mental health nurses to reclaim their role as a consultant/liaison in acute, primary, and long-term care settings will be discussed. The PMHNP as a consultant/liaison is being revitalized as an innovative advanced practice nursing health care model in North Carolina. PMID:27144999

  19. Patient-Centered Homes and Integrated Behavioral Health Care: Reclaiming the Role of "Consultant" for Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse Practitioner.

    PubMed

    Soltis-Jarrett, Victoria

    2016-06-01

    The notion of patient-centered care has long been linked with nursing practice since Florence Nightingale. The discipline of nursing is focused on the holistic care of individuals, families, and communities in times of sickness and/or health. However, in psychiatric-mental health nursing, the concepts of mental health and psychiatric illness still remain marginalized in our health care delivery systems, as well as in nursing education, knowledge development, and practice. Even with the concept of patient-centered homes, acute and primary care providers are reluctant to embrace care of those with psychiatric illness in their respective settings. Psychiatric illness was and continues to be in the shadows, hidden and often ignored by the larger community as well as by health care providers. This paper describes a Health Resources Services Administration (HRSA) Advanced Nursing Education (ANE) training grant's objective of reintegrating psychiatric-mental health practice into ALL health care delivery systems using the concept of patient-centered nursing care as a foundation for, and promotion of, the Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse Practitioner (PMH-NP) as the "navigator" for not only the patients and their families, but also for their acute and primary care colleagues using an Interprofessional Education Model. The major barriers and lessons learned from this project as well as the need for psychiatric-mental health nurses to reclaim their role as a consultant/liaison in acute, primary, and long-term care settings will be discussed. The PMHNP as a consultant/liaison is being revitalized as an innovative advanced practice nursing health care model in North Carolina.

  20. A randomized trial of a mental health consumer-managed alternative to civil commitment for acute psychiatric crisis.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Thomas K; Stoneking, Beth C; Humphreys, Keith; Sundby, Evan; Bond, Jason

    2008-09-01

    This experiment compared the effectiveness of an unlocked, mental health consumer-managed, crisis residential program (CRP) to a locked, inpatient psychiatric facility (LIPF) for adults civilly committed for severe psychiatric problems. Following screening and informed consent, participants (n = 393) were randomized to the CRP or the LIPF and interviewed at baseline and at 30-day, 6-month, and 1-year post admission. Outcomes were costs, level of functioning, psychiatric symptoms, self-esteem, enrichment, and service satisfaction. Treatment outcomes were compared using hierarchical linear models. Participants in the CRP experienced significantly greater improvement on interviewer-rated and self-reported psychopathology than did participants in the LIPF condition; service satisfaction was dramatically higher in the CRP condition. CRP-style facilities are a viable alternative to psychiatric hospitalization for many individuals facing civil commitment. PMID:18626766

  1. Psychiatric Disorders Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Injuries: Data from the Iranian Mental Health Survey (IranMHS)

    PubMed Central

    SHADLOO, Behrang; MOTEVALIAN, Abbas; RAHIMI-MOVAGHAR, Vafa; AMIN-ESMAEILI, Masoumeh; SHARIFI, Vandad; HAJEBI, Ahmad; RADGOODARZI, Reza; HEFAZI, Mitra; RAHIMI-MOVAGHAR, Afarin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Injuries and psychiatric disorders, notably both major public health concerns, are associated with a high burden and are believed to be bi-directionally correlated. Those inflicted with injuries face increased risks of mental illnesses. Psychiatric disorders may make the individual prone to injuries. The objective of the study was to assess the correlation of mental disorders with non-fatal injuries. Methods: A total of 7886 participants aged 15 to 64 yr were interviewed in a national household survey in 2011 in Iran. Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI v2.1) was implemented to assess the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the past twelve months. Injuries were assessed using Short Form Injury Questionnaire (SFIQ-7). Results: Injury was reported in 35.9% and 22.8% of participants in the past twelve and past three months, respectively. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, mental disorders were significantly associated with injuries in the past three months (OR=1.6, 95% CI:1.36–1.87), recurrent injuries (OR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.21–2.41) and road/traffic accidents (OR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.28–4.49). Conclusion: Psychiatric disorders were found to be associated with an increased risk of injuries. Early detection and treatment of mental illnesses can contribute to injury prevention. PMID:27398335

  2. Integrating the 2013 Psychiatric Mental Health NP Competencies Into Educational Programs: Where Are We Now?

    PubMed

    Weber, Mary T; Delaney, Kathleen R; Snow, Diane

    2016-06-01

    Since the introduction of the revised National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties (NONPF) Nurse Practitioner Core Competencies and Population Focused Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner (PMHNP) Competencies, a national forum took place to hear from many PMHNP program directors in the field comparing how they have integrated the lifespan competencies and the master's (MS)/or doctor of nurse practice (DNP) essentials into their curriculum. In this paper, we will report first on the major areas of change in the structure and content of the PMHNP-lifespan curriculum as well as the comments made by many faculty from across the country as to challenges and innovative strategies used to meet these challenges. We will review some of the major issues in content, pedagogy, and evaluation methods as well as examples of how these curricular elements have been infused into select programs across the country. We conclude highlighting several key areas, suggested foci for change, and how the specialty might focus attention and accelerate the significant growth we are seeing in PMHNP programs. PMID:27256952

  3. Limited English proficiency as a barrier to mental health service use: a study of Latino and Asian immigrants with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Kim, Giyeon; Aguado Loi, Claudia X; Chiriboga, David A; Jang, Yuri; Parmelee, Patricia; Allen, Rebecca S

    2011-01-01

    Language barriers pose problems in mental health care for foreign-born individuals in the United States. Immigrants with psychiatric disorders may be at particular risk but are currently understudied. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of limited English proficiency (LEP) on mental health service use among immigrant adults with psychiatric disorders. Drawn from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), Latino and Asian immigrant adults aged 18-86 with any instrument-determined mood, anxiety, and substance use disorder (n = 372) were included in the present analysis. Results from hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that having health insurance, poor self-rated mental health, and more psychiatric disorders were independently associated with higher probability of mental health service use in the Latino group. After controlling for all background characteristics and mental health need factors, LEP significantly decreased odds of mental health service use among Latino immigrants. None of the factors including LEP predicted mental health service use among Asian immigrants, who were also the least likely to access such services. LEP was a barrier to mental health service use among Latino immigrants with psychiatric disorders. This study suggests that future approaches to interventions might be well advised to include not only enhancing the availability of bilingual service providers and interpretation services but also increasing awareness of such options for at least Latino immigrants. In addition, further investigation is needed to identify factors that can enhance access to mental health care services among Asians.

  4. [The triad configuration, humanist-existential-personal: a theoretical and methodological approach to psychiatric and mental health nursing].

    PubMed

    Vietta, E P

    1995-01-01

    The author establishes a research line based on a theoretical-methodological referential for the qualitative investigation of psychiatric nursing and mental health. Aspects of humanist and existential philosophies and personalism were evaluated integrating them in a unique perspective. In order to maintain the scientific method of research in this referential the categorization process which will be adopted in this kind of investigation was explained.

  5. Outsourcing mental health care services? The practice and potential of community-based farms in psychiatric rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Iancu, Sorana C; Zweekhorst, Marjolein B M; Veltman, Dick J; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Bunders, Joske F G

    2015-02-01

    Psychiatric rehabilitation supports individuals with mental disorders to acquire the skills needed for independent lives in communities. This article assesses the potential of outsourcing psychiatric rehabilitation by analysing care farm services in the Netherlands. Service characteristics were analysed across 214 care farms retrieved from a national database. Qualitative insights were provided by five case descriptions, selected from 34 interviews. Institutional care farms were significantly larger and older than private care farms (comprising 88.8% of all care farms). Private, independent care farms provide real-life work conditions to users who are relatively less impaired. Private, contracted care farms tailor the work activities to their capacities and employ professional supervisors. Institutional care farms accommodate for the most vulnerable users. We conclude that collaborations with independent, contracted and institutional care farms would provide mental health care organizations with a diversity in services, enhanced community integration and a better match with users' rehabilitation needs.

  6. An Analysis of Canadian Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing through the Junctures of History, Gender, Nursing Education, and Quality of Work Life in Ontario, Manitoba, Alberta, and Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A society that values mental health and helps people live enjoyable and meaningful lives is a clear aspiration echoed throughout our Canadian health care system. The Mental Health Commission of Canada has put forth a framework for a mental health strategy with goals that reflect the virtue of optimal mental health for all Canadians (Mental Health Commission Canada, 2009). Canadian nurses, the largest group of health care workers, have a vital role in achieving these goals. In Canada, two-thirds of those who experience mental health problems do not receive mental health services (Statistics Canada, 2003). Through a gendered, critical, and sociological perspective the goal of this paper is to further understand how the past has shaped the present state of psychiatric mental health nursing (PMHN). This integrative literature review offers a depiction of Canadian PMHN in light of the intersections of history, gender, education, and quality of nursing work life. Fourteen articles were selected, which provide a partial reflection of contemporary Canadian PMHN. Findings include the association between gender and professional status, inconsistencies in psychiatric nursing education, and the limitations for Canadian nurse practitioners to advance the role of the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner. PMID:23710367

  7. Focusing on psychiatric patients’ strengths: A new vision on mental health care in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Maghsoudi, Jahangir; Oreyzi, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Identifying and using the strengths of patients, in practice, is a new territory. Today, the need to educate nurses and psychiatric patients about positive psychology in practice and the importance of understanding and focusing on strengths is clear. However, little is known about the strengths the psychiatric patients use and experience. Thus, this study has been designed and conducted in order to understand how people with psychiatric disorders demonstrate their strengths. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 13 semi-structured, qualitative interviews with patients and 2 focus groups with nurses were carried out. In addition, a qualitative content analysis was used to identify significant strengths. Results: Based on the results, the four main strengths consisted of: Finding a meaning in daily living, work as enduring strength, entertaining activities, and positive relationship. Patients also reported that health care providers rarely focused on patients’ strengths, and experts confirmed these findings. Our findings indicate that patients’ own strengths are a pivotal factor in getting through their illness from their perspective. Conclusions: Despite the enduring legacy of pessimism regarding psychiatric patients, these people have a repertoire of strengths. Nurses should, therefore, have a greater focus on eliciting and nourishing psychiatric patients’ strengths in their care. It is suggested that the theoretical and practical aspects of patients’ strengths be incorporated in nursing school curricula. PMID:26120334

  8. [Teaching psychiatric nursing/mental health: its interface with the Brazilian psychiatric reform and national curriculum guidelines].

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Josicelia Dumêt; Sadigursky, Dora; Silva, Rosana Maria de Oliveira; Amorim, Aclair Bastos; Teixeira, Giselle Alves da Silva; de Araújo, Maria da Conceição Filgueiras

    2009-12-01

    This theoretical study addresses the education system for Psychiatric Nursing in an increasingly changing world of accelerated scientific and technological modernization. The objective is to discuss the pedagogy in Psychiatric Nursing, and its interface with the principles of the Brazilian psychiatric reform and national curriculum guidelines of nursing undergraduate courses. The theoretical foundation of the study consisted of constructs of the Brazilian psychiatric reform and national curriculum guidelines of nursing undergraduate courses and their relationship to factors constituting the pedagogy in psychiatric nursing. The study shows that it is not enough to identify technical issues regarding contents and teaching, didactic procedures, methods and pedagogical techniques; it is necessary to implement changes, using a new perspective and by daring to question the nature of knowledge and institutional psychiatric practices. PMID:20085170

  9. [Mental Health of elderly people: The prevalence and representations of psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Giordana, J Y; Roelandt, J L; Porteaux, C

    2010-01-01

    Upon the national data basis of the huge study "Mental Health in General Population", elaborated by the WHO Collaborating Centre, our research tries to identify the particularities of the advanced years population. The increasing number of the elderly in France and all over the world, as well as the demographic evolution prospects, truly justify our interest for them. A group of subjects older than 65 years old - representing 21,1% of the general population - was divided into two parts and the 65-74 years old (12.6%) - the 75 old years old and more (8.5%) - and was compared to the population between 18 and 74 years old (78.9%) who answered this investigation. The aim of our study was to detect the prevalence of the main psychic troubles of the elderly (depression, anxiety, addiction and psychiatric disorders), with a psychiatric tool, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). We also wanted to perceive how their perceptions and representations of the behaviours and clinical symptoms of the psychic troubles could be different from the ones of younger people. Thus, and according to the answers "normal/abnormal", "dangerous/not dangerous" linked to each item, we measured the possible difference between the answers and the representations of the general population towards the elderly. The elderly are generally confronted to multiple psychosocial stress factors (decrease of the cognitive performances, decline of the sensory abilities, drop of the social relationships, change of status, succession of loss and breach as well as the cessation of the professional activity and its network, which may favour the emergence of troubles. According to this, a higher rate of psychic troubles among the elderly than in the general investigated population, may be suspected. However, the study in general population points out that the prevalence of persons suffering from at least one trouble with the MINI declines among the subjects belonging to the highest brackets: 34

  10. Cultural concepts of distress and psychiatric disorders: literature review and research recommendations for global mental health epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Rasmussen, Andrew; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Haroz, Emily E; Maharjan, Sujen M; Mutamba, Byamah B; de Jong, Joop TVM; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-01-01

    Background Burgeoning global mental health endeavors have renewed debates about cultural applicability of psychiatric categories. This study’s goal is to review strengths and limitations of literature comparing psychiatric categories with cultural concepts of distress (CCD) such as cultural syndromes, culture-bound syndromes, and idioms of distress. Methods The Systematic Assessment of Quality in Observational Research (SAQOR) was adapted based on cultural psychiatry principles to develop a Cultural Psychiatry Epidemiology version (SAQOR-CPE), which was used to rate quality of quantitative studies comparing CCD and psychiatric categories. A meta-analysis was performed for each psychiatric category. Results Forty-five studies met inclusion criteria, with 18 782 unique participants. Primary objectives of the studies included comparing CCD and psychiatric disorders (51%), assessing risk factors for CCD (18%) and instrument validation (16%). Only 27% of studies met SAQOR-CPE criteria for medium quality, with the remainder low or very low quality. Only 29% of studies employed representative samples, 53% used validated outcome measures, 44% included function assessments and 44% controlled for confounding. Meta-analyses for anxiety, depression, PTSD and somatization revealed high heterogeneity (I2 > 75%). Only general psychological distress had low heterogeneity (I2 = 8%) with a summary effect odds ratio of 5.39 (95% CI 4.71-6.17). Associations between CCD and psychiatric disorders were influenced by methodological issues, such as validation designs (β = 16.27, 95%CI 12.75-19.79) and use of CCD multi-item checklists (β = 6.10, 95%CI 1.89-10.31). Higher quality studies demonstrated weaker associations of CCD and psychiatric disorders. Conclusions Cultural concepts of distress are not inherently unamenable to epidemiological study. However, poor study quality impedes conceptual advancement and service application. With improved study design and reporting using

  11. [Relationship between psychiatric diagnosis and social or medical data in a child mental health center (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Casadebaig, F; Chevalier, A

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to point out the most significant sociodemographic and medical parameters related to psychiatric diagnoses, such as registered at the Alfred-Binet Child Mental Health Center (Paris). Statistical analysis shows the specific tendencies of each diagnosis and their similarities. Some diagnoses are particularly associated to negative aspects of the investigated parameters. This is true for psychotic disorders whereas normal variations are linked to positive aspects. Between these two extremes, neurotic disorders, the most numerous, are located in a middle position for all the investigated variables.

  12. The Relationship between Mental Health, Vocational Rehabilitation Interagency Functioning, and Outcome of Psychiatrically Disabled Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dellario, Donald J.

    1985-01-01

    Conducted structured interviews of seven selected Mental Health (MH) and Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) dyads to assess interagency functioning, and compared results to selected interagency performance indicators. Results suggested that improved MH-VR linkages can increase the probability of successful rehabilitation outcomes for psychiatrically…

  13. Providing psychiatric-mental health care for Native Americans: lessons learned by a non-Native American PMHNP.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Amy G

    2007-05-01

    Providing culturally sensitive psychiatric-mental health nursing care to Native Americans requires a unique set of understandings. Traditional tribal customs and beliefs, historical events of the past 500 years, and acculturation and enculturation have affected Native Americans' health and well-being. In 2004, I had the opportunity to practice as a psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioner with a Native American tribe in the southwestern United States. This article describes the lessons I learned while practicing on the reservation and suggests ways other non-Native American practitioners can best serve this population. PMID:17526328

  14. The effect of income and race on quality of psychiatric care in community mental health centers.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Eri; Rothbard, Aileen B

    2005-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between quality of mental health care provided by community mental health centers (CMHCs) and the poverty and racial mix of neighborhoods. Indicators of quality of care were constructed by examining service mix and prescription patterns for adult patients with schizophrenia during fiscal year 1996. CMHCs in high income, Caucasian areas were found to have higher quality of care indicators than those in low income, African American areas; i.e., higher percentage of patients on atypical antpsychotic prescriptions (47% vs. 33%) and higher percentage using intensive case management (ICM) services (67% vs. 29%). Questions arise regarding the factors underlying this phenomena and the extent to which they are provider-driven or due to patient preferences. PMID:16142542

  15. All this happened, more or less: thoughts on 'truth', the role of fiction and its potential application in mental health and psychiatric nursing research.

    PubMed

    Biley, F C

    2009-12-01

    Fundamental differences in the philosophy of history as an academic discipline are briefly explored, primarily from two perspectives. The traditional psychiatric and mental health nursing historian objectively uses primary sources in order to be able to make 'truth' claims about the past. The post-modern psychiatric nursing historian, on the other hand, constructs truth claims, rather than discovers them, and in the process of doing so creates historical discourses that are different from the past. To the postmodern psychiatric nursing historian, all histories are fictions, created with the use of imagination, and have characteristics that are similar to the literary constructions that are more traditionally identified as fiction. A variety of literature is used in order to explore such claims, and the conclusion is drawn that, with caution and careful attention to the rigorous use of historical method, fiction can be used as a valid source for historical research in psychiatric and mental health nursing.

  16. 'Violence is not part of our job': a thematic analysis of psychiatric mental health nurses' experiences of patient assaults from a New Zealand perspective.

    PubMed

    Baby, Maria; Glue, Paul; Carlyle, Dave

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes psychiatric mental health nurses' (PMHN) experiences of patient assaults within mental healthcare settings using a thematic analytical approach. The aim of the study was to explore and describe psychiatric mental health nurses' experiences of patient assaults. The major findings of the study related to the nature and impact of assaults and supportive strategies associated with violence perpetrated by patients against psychiatric mental health nurses. Perpetrator risk factors for patients include mental health disorders, alcohol and drug use and the inability to deal with situational crises. The injuries sustained by nurses in the context of the study include lacerations, head injuries, dislocations and bruises. Psychological harm has also occurred, including quite severe mental health problems, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Protective strategies for combating negative consequences of workplace violence include practice of self-defence, social support and a supportive and consultative workplace culture with access to counselling services and assistance in all aspects, including finances. The paper concludes that while healthcare employers need to provide better support services to the healthcare professionals who are assaulted, the legal system also needs to acknowledge that assaults against nurses are a violation of human rights and violence should not to be tolerated as part of working in mental healthcare settings.

  17. Standardized Patient Versus Role-Play Strategies: A Comparative Study Measuring Patient-Centered Care and Safety in Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing.

    PubMed

    Alfes, Celeste M

    2015-01-01

    Nursing faculty traditionally use role-play to demonstrate mental health behaviors. However, until students interact with a mental health patient, they may not know what to expect. Standardized patient (SP) interactions can be used to overcome this challenge. This study compared pre-licensure nursing students' knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy following a sequence of psychiatric mental health role-play and SP experiences. Results suggest that the order of teaching strategies (role-play first versus SP interaction first) does not significantly impact student knowledge, attitude, or self-efficacy. However, student scores improved in all categories after the second experience. PMID:26753304

  18. Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurses' Exposure to Clients With Problematic Internet Experiences: A Mixed-Methods Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wieland, Diane M

    2015-10-01

    The current study explored the type and number of problematic Internet experiences (PIE) encountered by psychiatric-mental health nurses (PMHN) in clinical practice and analyzed PMHNs' clinical cases of clients with PIE. A mixed-methods quantitative survey with a qualitative component measured the types and number of PIE cases via a descriptive survey and derived themes using narrative inquiry methodology from written case descriptions. A sample of 16 PMHNs provided quantitative data and nine participants summarized clinical cases. PMHNs reported 92 adult and 33 child cases of PIE. Six themes were derived from the narrative data: (a) searching for pornography; (b) developing online romantic relationships; (c) online gaming is ruining my life; (d) spending excessive time on the Internet; (e) coming to terms with online sexual behaviors and addiction; and (f) cyberbullying. Implications for PMHN practice include the need for further assessment and intervention as PIE increase in the future. PMID:26489102

  19. Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurses' Exposure to Clients With Problematic Internet Experiences: A Mixed-Methods Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wieland, Diane M

    2015-10-01

    The current study explored the type and number of problematic Internet experiences (PIE) encountered by psychiatric-mental health nurses (PMHN) in clinical practice and analyzed PMHNs' clinical cases of clients with PIE. A mixed-methods quantitative survey with a qualitative component measured the types and number of PIE cases via a descriptive survey and derived themes using narrative inquiry methodology from written case descriptions. A sample of 16 PMHNs provided quantitative data and nine participants summarized clinical cases. PMHNs reported 92 adult and 33 child cases of PIE. Six themes were derived from the narrative data: (a) searching for pornography; (b) developing online romantic relationships; (c) online gaming is ruining my life; (d) spending excessive time on the Internet; (e) coming to terms with online sexual behaviors and addiction; and (f) cyberbullying. Implications for PMHN practice include the need for further assessment and intervention as PIE increase in the future.

  20. Prognosis after Adolescent Suicide Attempt: Mental Health, Psychiatric Treatment, and Suicide Attempts in a Nine-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health and suicidal behavior was examined 8 to 10 years after an adolescent suicide attempt. Of 71 persons, 79% had at least one psychiatric disorder (mean 1.7) at follow-up, most commonly depression (46%), personality disorder (46%), and anxiety disorder (42%). The stability of diagnoses was moderate. The suicide…

  1. Mental health care in Italy: organisational structure, routine clinical activity and costs of a community psychiatric service in Lombardy region.

    PubMed

    Fattore, G; Percudani, M; Pugnoli, C; Contini, A; Beecham, J

    2000-01-01

    The Magenta Community Mental Health Centre (CMHC) is the public agency responsible for providing adult psychiatric care to about 85,000 adult residents. In 1995, it had 1,145 clients and incurred costs of Euro 1.9 millions. Average cost per patient and per adult resident were Euro 1,661 and Euro 22.2, respectively. These values mask large variation across diagnosis: while patients with schizophrenia and related disorders had an average cost of Euro 3,771, those with neurotic and related disorders had an average cost of Euro 439. Patients with schizophrenia and related disorders (28% of the patients) absorbed about 60% of total costs and made extensive use of several types of services (hospital, outpatient, domiciliary, social and rehabilitative care). Since integrating different types of services is the key element of Italian psychiatric care, the new fee-for-service system adopted by the NHS to fund providers does not appear appropriate, particularly for schizophrenic patients.

  2. Physical restraint for psychiatric patients and its associations with clinical characteristics and the National Mental Health Law in China.

    PubMed

    An, Feng-Rong; Sha, Sha; Zhang, Qing-E; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Chiu, Helen F K; Wu, Ping-Ping; Jin, Xin; Zhou, Jian-Song; Tang, Yi-Lang; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2016-07-30

    Physical restraint (PR) for patients is an ongoing controversial topic in psychiatry. This study examined the percentage of PR and its associations with clinical characteristics and the implementation of the National Mental Health Law (NMHL) in China. The study consecutively assessed a sample of 1364 psychiatric inpatients. Socio-demographic and clinical data including use of PR were collected from the medical records using a form designed for this study and confirmed via interview. Psychopathology and insight were measured using standardized instruments. The percentage of PR was 27.2% in the whole sample with 30.7% and 22.4% occurring respectively before and after the NMHL implementation (p=0.001). In multiple logistic regression analysis PR was positively associated with unemployment, lower income, aggression in the past month, being admitted before the NMHL implementation and poorer insight. The percentage of PR in Chinese psychiatric patients is associated with various clinical factors and appeared to decrease after the implementation of the NMHL. Focused and individualized care for patients who are unemployed, have low income, recent aggression and poor insight would be necessary at early stages of admission.

  3. [Assessment of psychiatric and mental health services in Québec.].

    PubMed

    Wallot, H A

    1988-01-01

    One of the ways of finding out where we are going consists of asking ourselves where do we come from. Here the author uses a historical approach to give an overview of the problem of insanity in Québec. The author discusses how people view insanity, its causes and treatments and the characteristics of the organizations (actors, values, knowledge, human and financial resources) that have met its challenge. The author describes two periods: the period of bureaucratic rationalization (the Bédard and Castonguay-Nepveu reports) and the period of community responsibility. Rather than presenting anecdotes, the author concentrates on raising a number of questions that can help unravel the debate on forming a policy on mental health.

  4. Hope and interpersonal psychiatric/mental health nursing: a systematic review of the literature--part one.

    PubMed

    Koehn, C V; Cutcliffe, J R

    2007-04-01

    Psychiatric/mental health (P/MH) nursing is inherently an interpersonal endeavour; one that includes a broad range of 'helping activities'. The interpersonal activities and skills are enshrined in our underpinning philosophy, explored and learned in our curricula (all around the world) and enacted in our everyday clinical practice. Within this interpersonal context and framework, it is heartening to see that understated, abstract and yet-lasting concepts such as hope are gaining more acknowledgement, recognition and subsequently attention. While it is recognized that hope in mental health care is increasingly becoming the focal point of disciplined inquiry, the authors believe it is perhaps necessary and timely to re-examine these two concepts, namely: interpersonal P/MH nursing and hope/inspiring hope in people with mental health problems. Accordingly, this two-part article reports on a systematic review of the literature that focuses on hope (inspiring hope) within interpersonal (counselling) focused P/MH nursing. Part one focuses on the method used and the results, indicating that a total of 57 articles were included in the review: 39 were categorized as empirical studies involving either a quantitative or qualitative methodological design, and 18 were considered theoretical/clinical/review articles. Though not a product of an empirical investigation per se, it was clear that many of the articles shared and covered common ground. Thus, these were arranged into six 'loose' thematic groupings. The first three of these areas, schizophrenia, suicidality and depression form the remainder of part one of this article, and the remaining areas are included in part two.

  5. Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  6. Analytic and Special Studies Reports; Utilization of Psychiatric Facilities by Children: Current Status, Trends, Implications. Mental Health Statistics, Series B, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Beatrice M.; And Others

    Data are presented concerning the total number of children served in psychiatric facilities and the utilization of specific facilities, including outpatient psychiatric clinics, state and county mental hospitals, private mental hospitals, inpatient psychiatric services of general hospitals, psychiatric day-night services, private psychiatric…

  7. Migration background and juvenile mental health: a descriptive retrospective analysis of diagnostic rates of psychiatric disorders in young people

    PubMed Central

    Gaber, Tilman Jakob; Bouyrakhen, Samira; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Hagenah, Ulrich; Holtmann, Martin; Freitag, Christine Margarete; Wöckel, Lars; Poustka, Fritz; Zepf, Florian Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This article presents diagnostic rates for specific mental disorders in a German pediatric inpatient population over a period of 20 years with respect to migration background and socioeconomic status (SES). Methods Diagnostic data were obtained over a period of 20 years from 8,904 patients who visited a child and adolescent psychiatry mental health service in Germany. Data from 5,985 diagnosed patients (ICD-9 and ICD-10 criteria) were included with respect to gender, migration background, and SES. Results Migration- and gender-specific effects were found for both periods of assessment. The group of boys with a migration background showed significantly higher rates of reactions to severe stress, adjustment disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder compared to their male, non-migrant counterparts. Conversely, boys without a migration background showed a significantly higher percentage rate of hyperkinetic disorders than male migrants. Similar results were found for female migrants in the latter assessment period (ICD-10). In addition, female migrants showed lower rates of emotional disorders whose onset occurs in childhood compared to their non-migrant counterparts. Conclusions Data from this investigation provide preliminary evidence that the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents is influenced by migration background and SES. PMID:23787053

  8. Victimization of patients with severe psychiatric disorders: prevalence, risk factors, protective factors and consequences for mental health. A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Victimization among people with a Severe Mental Illness is a common phenomenon. The objectives of this study proposal are: to delineate the extent and kind of victimization in a representative sample of chronic psychiatric patients; to contribute to the development and validation of a set of instruments registering victimization of psychiatric patients; to determine risk factors and protective factors; and to gain insight into the possible consequences of victimization. Methods/Design An extensive data set of 323 patients with Sever Mental Illness (assessed 4 years ago) is used. In 2010 a second measurement will be performed, enabling longitudinal research on the predictors and consequences of victimization. Discussion The consequences of (re)victimization have barely been subjected to analysis, partially due to the lack of a comprehensive, conceptual model for victimization. This research project will contribute significantly to the scientific development of the conceptual model of victimization in chronic psychiatric patients. PMID:21067566

  9. Improved Utilization of Nonmedical Mental Health Workers through Increased Empathy Levels of Psychiatric Aides. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jon C.; And Others

    To determine if a relatively short training program focusing on interpersonal relationships, communication and observation skills, and knowledge and understanding of behavior would increase the empathic ability of psychiatric aides, 20 black aides of low socioeconomic background were randomly divided into an experimental and control group. The…

  10. MENTAL HEALTH AND PSYCHIATRIC NURSING IN PRACTICAL NURSE EDUCATION. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CRAWFORD, ANNIE L.

    THIRTY-ONE PROFESSIONAL NURSE EDUCATORS IN SCHOOLS OF PRACTICAL NURSING IN THE SOUTHEAST ATTENDED A TWO-WEEK CLINICAL WORKSHOP ON PSYCHIATRIC NURSING AT WESTERN STATE HOSPITAL, STAUNTON, VIRGINIA, IN AUGUST 1966. THEY RECONVENED FOR A THREE-DAY FOLLOW-UP CONFERENCE AT ATLANTA, GEORGIA, IN JANUARY 1967. THE PROJECT WAS UNDERTAKEN TO UPDATE THE…

  11. Toward the integration of comprehensive mental health services in HIV care: an assessment of psychiatric morbidity among HIV-positive individuals in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Olagunju, Andrew T; Ogundipe, Olasimbo A; Erinfolami, Adebayo R; Akinbode, Abiola A; Adeyemi, Joseph D

    2013-01-01

    Existing evidence from research supports the desirability of integration of mental health services into HIV care in order to mitigate the grave consequences of unattended mental health morbidity among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study aims to find out the burden and pattern of psychiatric disorders that is prevalent among HIV-positive individuals attending a Nigerian-based HIV clinic. The study participants, consisting of 295 HIV-positive adults were recruited using systematic random sampling method. The participants were subjected to questionnaire to elicit demographic profile and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) to screen for probable psychiatric disorders. This was followed by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Non patient (SCID-NP) to diagnose the presence of psychiatric morbidity in any of the participant with a GHQ-28 score ≥5 and 10% of those with GHQ-28 score <5. Data were analyzed with SPSS 17. Of the 295 participants interviewed, approximately one-quarter (25.1%) of the participants had diagnosable psychiatric illness based on SCID-NP. Depression was the commonest mental disorder detected as 44 (14.9%) met the DSM-IV Axis 1 diagnosis of major depressive disorders. Anxiety disorders, concurrent Nicotine with Alcohol dependence and cannabis abuse were elicited in 24 (8.1%), 4 (1.3%), and 2 (0.7%) participants, respectively. This study finds a higher burden of psychiatric disorders in PLWHA in comparison to what is obtainable in the general population based on previous research works in similar context. Thus further underscores the need for integration of comprehensive psychiatric services into HIV care. We advocate the support and commitment of key stakeholders in HIV care to the translation of this research-based evidence into practice among PLWHA. PMID:23391152

  12. TWELVE-MONTH TREATMENT OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN STRESS AND HEALTH SURVEY (WORLD MENTAL HEALTH SURVEY INITIATIVE)

    PubMed Central

    Seedat, S; Stein, DJ; Herman, A; Kessler, R; Sonnega, J; Heeringa, S; Williams, S; Williams, D

    2011-01-01

    Background The proportion of people with mental disorders in treatment is relatively small in low and middle income countries. However, little is known about patterns of recent service use in a country like South Africa. Methods A nationally representative household survey of 4351 adult South Africans was carried out. Twelve-month DSM-IV disorders were determined using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Prevalence and correlates of treatment were assessed among respondents with anxiety, mood and substance use disorders. Results One-fourth (25.5%) of respondents with a 12-month disorder had received treatment in the past 12 months either from a psychiatrist (3.8%), nonpsychiatrist mental health specialist (2.9%), general medical provider (16.6%), human services provider (6.6%), or complementary-alternative medical (CAM) provider (5.9%). Only 27.6% of severe cases had received any treatment. In addition, 13.4% of respondents with no disorder had accessed services in the past year. Blacks were significantly more likely than other racial groups to access the CAM sector while Whites were more likely to have seen a psychiatrist. Conclusions The majority of South Africans with a 12-month mental disorder have unmet treatment needs. In addition to a greater allocation of resources to mental health services, more community outreach and awareness initiatives are needed. PMID:18677573

  13. Mental Health Systems in Scandinavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, David J.

    The guidebook is introduced by general observations on the Scandinavian countries concerning history, social policy, medicine, mental health, and psychiatric diagnosis. Discussed individually for Norway, Sweden, and Denmark are the following areas: mental health programs and statistics; mental illness programs, regional, hospital, aftercare,…

  14. Perceived stress and coping strategies among Jordanian nursing students during clinical practice in psychiatric/mental health courses.

    PubMed

    Al-Zayyat, Abdulkarim Subhi; Al-Gamal, Ekhlas

    2014-08-01

    Clinical practice in the psychiatric/mental health nursing (PMHN) field is considered a highly-stressful experience for nursing students. The purpose of the present study was to identify the degrees of stress, the types of stressors, and coping strategies perceived by undergraduate nursing students during their clinical practice in PMHN courses. A descriptive, longitudinal design was used. Sixty-five students registered in PMHN clinical courses were recruited from five Jordanian universities using a systematic random-sampling method. Data collection was conducted in the second semester of the 2012-2013 academic year at two points of time: pre-PMHN clinical training and post-PMHN training. The Basic Information Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, and Coping Behavior Inventory were administered. Students' ages ranged from 20 to 25 years. The findings illustrate that the highest reported types of stressors at both data-collection times were taking care of patients, stress related to teachers and nursing staff, and from assignments and workloads. The most utilized coping strategy at both data-collection times was problem solving. The findings of the present study are useful for clinical educators in identifying nursing students' stressors, easing their learning in the clinical setting, and establishing an efficient PMHN course programme.

  15. PTSD in psychiatric nurses and other mental health providers: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jacobowitz, William

    2013-11-01

    Psychiatric nurses are subject to a high rate of assault by patients. The stress of exposure to assault and the potential for assault appear to impact nurses' emotional states in the form of post-traumatic stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most studies report a prevalence rate of PTSD in this population of between 9-10%. Training in the management of aggressive patients, participating in Critical Incident Debriefing, and having routine structured debriefing meetings may play a role in facilitating the development of resilience in nurses with respect to the risk of PTSD. Knowledge about the state of the science regarding aggression and PTSD is necessary for clinicians and researchers to develop and test effective strategies. This article presents a review of the current literature on this topic. PMID:24131410

  16. PTSD in psychiatric nurses and other mental health providers: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jacobowitz, William

    2013-11-01

    Psychiatric nurses are subject to a high rate of assault by patients. The stress of exposure to assault and the potential for assault appear to impact nurses' emotional states in the form of post-traumatic stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most studies report a prevalence rate of PTSD in this population of between 9-10%. Training in the management of aggressive patients, participating in Critical Incident Debriefing, and having routine structured debriefing meetings may play a role in facilitating the development of resilience in nurses with respect to the risk of PTSD. Knowledge about the state of the science regarding aggression and PTSD is necessary for clinicians and researchers to develop and test effective strategies. This article presents a review of the current literature on this topic.

  17. [Mental health in a municipality of the State of Querétaro: a community-based psychiatric research model].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Martínez, Alejandro; Díaz-Martínez, Rosa; Osornio-Rojo, Alfredo; Rascón-Gasca, María Luisa

    2003-01-01

    The main object of this study was to determine, by means of a house-to-house survey, prevalence of mental disorders and type of alcohol consumption in an underprivileged population from a municipality in the State of Querétaro, Mexico. Results show that there was an 18.26% prevalence of psychiatric disorders with psychiatric comorbility of 56.8%. Anxiety disorders with 14.9% were the most frequent diagnosis and additional problems in descending order were affective disorders (10.2%), alcohol abuse and dependency (4.9%), schizophrenia (2%), and drug abuse (1.2%). Total prevalence was above that reported previously in Mexican population. There was a 48.8% association between unemployment and presence of one or more psychiatric disorders. Nearly 50% of male population had a problem with or excessive consumption of alcohol. These results lead us to consider that this is a high-risk population and that efforts must be made to continue these assessments to better determine prevalence of mental disorders and problems associated with them as well as the optimal mechanisms for attention to therm.

  18. [Mental health in a municipality of the State of Querétaro: a community-based psychiatric research model].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Martínez, Alejandro; Díaz-Martínez, Rosa; Osornio-Rojo, Alfredo; Rascón-Gasca, María Luisa

    2003-01-01

    The main object of this study was to determine, by means of a house-to-house survey, prevalence of mental disorders and type of alcohol consumption in an underprivileged population from a municipality in the State of Querétaro, Mexico. Results show that there was an 18.26% prevalence of psychiatric disorders with psychiatric comorbility of 56.8%. Anxiety disorders with 14.9% were the most frequent diagnosis and additional problems in descending order were affective disorders (10.2%), alcohol abuse and dependency (4.9%), schizophrenia (2%), and drug abuse (1.2%). Total prevalence was above that reported previously in Mexican population. There was a 48.8% association between unemployment and presence of one or more psychiatric disorders. Nearly 50% of male population had a problem with or excessive consumption of alcohol. These results lead us to consider that this is a high-risk population and that efforts must be made to continue these assessments to better determine prevalence of mental disorders and problems associated with them as well as the optimal mechanisms for attention to therm. PMID:12754943

  19. Eight-year incidence of psychiatric disorders and service use from adolescence to early adulthood: longitudinal follow-up of the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Benjet, Corina; Borges, Guilherme; Méndez, Enrique; Albor, Yesica; Casanova, Leticia; Orozco, Ricardo; Curiel, Teresa; Fleiz, Clara; Medina-Mora, María Elena

    2016-02-01

    Half of mental disorders have their first onset before adulthood when the presence of a disorder may be particularly disruptive to developmental milestones. Retrospective prevalence estimates have been shown to underestimate the burden of mental illness and scarce data are available on the incidence of disorders throughout the adolescent period, especially in developing countries. Thus, the objective was to determine the incidence of mental disorders in an 8-year period from adolescence to young adulthood, onset of service use and their predictors in a Mexican cohort. 1071 respondents from a representative two-wave panel sample participated in the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey in 2005 and in the follow-up survey in 2013. Disorders were evaluated with the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview. 37.9% experienced the onset of a psychiatric disorder and 28.4% sought services for the first time. Substance use disorders had the greatest incidence, followed by mood and behavior disorders, anxiety disorders and lastly eating disorders. Sex, age, school dropout, childhood adversities and prior mental disorders predicted the onset of new disorders. Being female, having more educated parents and most classes of disorder predicted first time service use. These findings contribute to a paradigm shift in conceptions of mental disorder similar to how we think of common physical afflictions as near universal experiences across the life course, but less frequent at any given moment. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable. Therefore, public health policy should focus on early universal promotion of positive mental health and structural determinants of mental health.

  20. Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... mental health should be part of your complete medical evaluation before starting antiretroviral medications. And you should ...

  1. Use of Inpatient Psychiatric Services by Children and Youth under Age 18, United States, 1980. Mental Health Statistical Note No. 175.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milazzo-Sayre, Laura J.; And Others

    The report examines data from three sample surveys of admissions during 1980 to the inpatient psychiatric services of state and mental hospitals and private psychiatric hospitals and the separate inpatient psychiatric services of non-federal general hospitals. Findings revealed that an estimated 81,532 persons under 18 years were admitted to…

  2. The outcomes of psychiatric inpatients by proportion of experienced psychiatrists and nurse staffing in hospital: New findings on improving the quality of mental health care in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Sun Jung; Jang, Sung-In; Hahm, Myung-Il; Kim, Seung Ju; Lee, Seo Yoon; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-10-30

    Readmission rates for mental health care are higher in South Korea than other Organization for Economic Development (OECD) countries. Therefore, it is worthwhile to continue investigating how to reduce readmissions. Taking a novel approach, we determined the relationship between psychiatrist experience and mental health care readmission rates. We used National Health Insurance claim data (N=21,315) from 81 hospitals to analyze readmissions within 30 days of discharge for "mood disorders" or "schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders" during 2010-2013. In this study, multilevel models that included both patient and hospital-level variables were analyzed to examine associations with readmission. Readmissions within 30 days of discharge accounted for 1079 (5.1%) claims. Multilevel analysis demonstrated that the proportion of experienced psychiatrists at a hospital was inversely associated with risk of readmission (OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.74-0.84 per 10% increase in experienced psychiatrists). Readmission rates for psychiatric disorders within 30 days of discharge were lower in hospitals with a higher number of nurses (OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.94-0.96 per 10 nurses). In conclusion, health policymakers and hospital managers should make an effort to reduce readmissions for psychiatric disorders and other diseases by considering the role that physician experience plays and nurse staffing. PMID:26260566

  3. Novel Use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) to Predict Suicidal Ideation and Psychiatric Symptoms in a Text-Based Mental Health Intervention in Madrid

    PubMed Central

    Progovac, Ana M.; Chen, Pei; Mullin, Brian; Hou, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning were used to predict suicidal ideation and heightened psychiatric symptoms among adults recently discharged from psychiatric inpatient or emergency room settings in Madrid, Spain. Participants responded to structured mental and physical health instruments at multiple follow-up points. Outcome variables of interest were suicidal ideation and psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12). Predictor variables included structured items (e.g., relating to sleep and well-being) and responses to one unstructured question, “how do you feel today?” We compared NLP-based models using the unstructured question with logistic regression prediction models using structured data. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of suicidal ideation were 0.61, 0.56, and 0.57, respectively, compared to 0.73, 0.76, and 0.62 of structured data-based models. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of heightened psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12 ≥ 4) were 0.56, 0.59, and 0.60, respectively, compared to 0.79, 0.79, and 0.85 in structured models. NLP-based models were able to generate relatively high predictive values based solely on responses to a simple general mood question. These models have promise for rapidly identifying persons at risk of suicide or psychological distress and could provide a low-cost screening alternative in settings where lengthy structured item surveys are not feasible. PMID:27752278

  4. Same-sex sexuality and psychiatric disorders in the second Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS-2)

    PubMed Central

    Sandfort, Theo G. M.; de Graaf, Ron; ten Have, Margreet; Ransome, Yusuf; Schnabel, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Sexual orientation has been shown to be a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. This study compared whether sexual orientation-related disparities in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders are similar based on homosexual behavior versus attraction and tested whether, with increased acceptance of homosexuality, these disparities have diminished over time. Methods The Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 was administered with a total of 6,646 Dutch persons, aged 18 to 64 years. Results Between 2.0% and 2.5% of the participants reported same-sex sexual behavior in the preceding year or same-sex attraction. Homosexually active persons and persons with same-sex attraction reported a higher prevalence of disorders than heterosexual persons. There were more disparities in the prevalence of disorders based on sexual attraction than based on sexual behavior. Comparing these results with a previous study, showed that no significant changes over time have occurred in the pattern of health disparities. Conclusions Sexual orientation continues to be a risk factor for psychiatric disorders, stressing the need for understanding the origins of these disparities. PMID:26609539

  5. A Clinical Workshop in Mental Health and Psychiatric Nursing for Instructors in Schools of Practical Nursing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamar, Carl F.; And Others

    Twenty directors and instructors in schools of practical nursing in Kentucky and a total of nine directors and instructors from six other states and the District of Columbia attended a 2-week workshop at the University of Kentucky in July 1967. The purpose was to assist participants to integrate mental health concepts into the practical nurse…

  6. Quality of Publicly-Funded Outpatient Specialty Mental Health Care for Common Childhood Psychiatric Disorders in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zima, Bonnie T.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Knapp, Penny; Ladd, Heather; Tang, Lingqi; Duan, Naihua; Wallace, Peggy; Rosenblatt, Abram; Landsverk, John; Wells, Kenneth B.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe the documented adherence to quality indicators for the outpatient care of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and major depression for children in public mental health clinics and to explore how adherence varies by child and clinic characteristics. Method: A statewide, longitudinal cohort study of 813…

  7. [Mental health mainstreaming: promotion and recovery].

    PubMed

    Chang, Chueh; Hsieh, Chia-Jung

    2014-02-01

    Mental health is a human right and fundamental to good personal health. Developing, planning, and implementing mental health programs is a key part of health policies worldwide. This paper uses the perspective of "mental health mainstreaming" to define mental health and explore its relationship with mental illness and psychiatric disease. Further, we apply this perspective to Taiwan's three-tiered community mental illness prevention strategy as a reference for mental health promotion and rehabilitation programs in hopes that all healthcare providers help facilitate holistic community health. PMID:24519340

  8. Nutritional Factors Affecting Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Lim, So Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Arang; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals are important factors affecting mental health and the development of psychiatric disorders. Majority of scientific evidence relating to mental health focuses on depression, cognitive function, and dementia, and limited evidence is available about other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. As life span of human being is increasing, the more the prevalence of mental disorders is, the more attention rises. Lists of suggested nutritional components that may be beneficial for mental health are omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Saturated fat and simple sugar are considered detrimental to cognitive function. Evidence on the effect of cholesterol is conflicting; however, in general, blood cholesterol levels are negatively associated with the risk of depression. Collectively, the aims of this review are to introduce known nutritional factors for mental health, and to discuss recent issues of the nutritional impact on cognitive function and healthy brain aging. PMID:27482518

  9. Nutritional Factors Affecting Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Lim, So Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Arang; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Hyun Jin; Yang, Soo Jin

    2016-07-01

    Dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals are important factors affecting mental health and the development of psychiatric disorders. Majority of scientific evidence relating to mental health focuses on depression, cognitive function, and dementia, and limited evidence is available about other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. As life span of human being is increasing, the more the prevalence of mental disorders is, the more attention rises. Lists of suggested nutritional components that may be beneficial for mental health are omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Saturated fat and simple sugar are considered detrimental to cognitive function. Evidence on the effect of cholesterol is conflicting; however, in general, blood cholesterol levels are negatively associated with the risk of depression. Collectively, the aims of this review are to introduce known nutritional factors for mental health, and to discuss recent issues of the nutritional impact on cognitive function and healthy brain aging. PMID:27482518

  10. [Psychiatric hospitalization for mental illness: past, present and future].

    PubMed

    Martínez Ferretti, José María

    2011-01-01

    The use of psychiatric hospitalization for mental illness has evolved through Modernity. In the last century, indefinite and involuntary committal was a widespread practice but has now become an extraordinary and short-term therapeutic recourse. Even though law experts, doctors and other mental health professionals agree on the benefits of this shift, in practice there are disagreements rooted in the shortcomings of health service providers. The current medical and legal criteria for hospitalization of patients with mental disorders should move away from the concept of endangerment and embrace therapeutic procedures and social care. New contemporary challenges, such as drugs and violence, require the implementation of a social strategy that is more comprehensive than medical treatment. This article presents a series of case studies describing the circumstances that led to the hospitalization of mental health patients, mostly in the city of Buenos Aires. PMID:22091456

  11. Owls, larks and the significance of morningness/eveningness rhythm propensity in psychiatric-mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    McEnany, G; Lee, K A

    2000-03-01

    In the last decade there has been an upsurge in the research focusing on the interplay between the human circadian timing system and behavioral patterns in health and illness. Of particular interest in this area of inquiry is the overlay of what has been termed chronotype. What this refers to is the propensity of biological rhythms to express themselves in certain patterns of behavior. Commonly, these patterns have received names such as owl (evening chronotype) or lark (morning chronotype). Many people are neither a strong morning nor evening chronotype. If illness represents a change in the way a person's body functions within a given environment, then it is reasonable to believe that an "owl's" symptom presentation may vary significantly from the patterns of a "lark" who becomes ill. Recognizing that psychiatric nurses at both the generalist and the advanced practice levels have a strong interest in patterns of behavior, it stands to reason that using a lens that incorporates notions of the body's clock becomes essential. The interplay between the body's timing system and the thousands of other psychobiological rhythmic functions occurring everyday and within every human being is referred to as chronobiology. This article provides a primer for psychiatric nurses on issues of chronobiology related to morningness and eveningness rhythm propensity. PMID:10839061

  12. The Role of a Psychiatric Pharmacist in College Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Charles F.; Webber, Donna; Kurland, Michael; Holmes, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Published evidence indicates there is a growing prevalence of psychiatric illnesses on college campuses, and that approximately one quarter of students may be taking psychotropic medications. But attracting and retaining experienced mental health care professionals to college health settings is a challenging task. The psychiatric pharmacist is one…

  13. Atheism and mental health.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Rob

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of the impact of religiosity on mental health is an enduring, if somewhat quiet, tradition. There has been virtually no exploration, however, of the influence of atheism on mental health. Though not a "religion," atheism can be an orienting worldview that is often consciously chosen by its adherents, who firmly believe in the "truth" of atheism-a phenomenon known as "positive atheism." Atheism, especially positive atheism, is currently enjoying something of a renaissance in the Western liberal democracies-a trend often referred to as the "new atheism." I argue that atheism, especially positive atheism, should be treated as a meaningful sociocultural variable in the study of mental health. I argue that atheism (just like theism) is an appropriate domain of study for social and cultural psychiatrists (and allied social scientists) interested in exploring socio-environmental stressors and buffers relating to mental health. Specifically, I argue that (1) atheism needs to be accurately measured as an individual-level exposure variable, with the aim of relating that variable to psychiatric outcomes, (2) there needs to be greater systematic investigation into the influence of atheism on psychiatry as an institution, and (3) the relation of atheism to mental health needs to be explored by examining atheistic theory and its practical application, especially as it relates to the human condition, suffering, and concepts of personhood.

  14. Contacts with public services, with special reference to mental health care, preceding a serious crime: a retrospective study of 268 subjects of forensic psychiatric investigations.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Gunnar; Kristiansson, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    Between July 1995 and June 1996, 533 subjects underwent forensic psychiatric investigation I Sweden. Odd case numbers (n = 268) were included in the study. Of these 268 people, 50% had been in contact with psychiatric services during the six-month period preceding the crime leading to forensic psychiatric assessment. Contacts with psychiatric services during the six-month period preceding the crime were significantly more common in three categories of individuals than others. These were: women, individuals who were diagnosed as having a psychotic disorder during the forensic psychiatric investigation, and individuals found to suffer from a serious mental disorder as defined in the legislation. Subjects who were found not to suffer from a serious mental disorder and were thus not eligible for special sanctions on medicolegal grounds had significantly less psychiatric contacts before the crime, as did subjects under 20 years of age. However, these two groups still had considerably more psychiatric contacts than the general population. The present results suggest that the patient category studied requires special monitoring and case management in general psychiatry in Sweden. To this end, we call for closer studies of high-risk individuals, particularly of previously violent offenders and potentially violent offenders, and closer studies of their psychiatric contacts. This will provide a basis for the development of adequate programs and guidelines for effective care and treatment within the psychiatric sector.

  15. Gambling disorders, gambling type preferences, and psychiatric comorbidity among the Thai general population: Results of the 2013 National Mental Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; McNeil, Edward B; Tantirangsee, Nopporn; Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa

    2016-09-01

    Background and aims To estimate the prevalence of problem and pathological gambling, gender and age-group differences in gambling types, and comorbidities with other psychiatric disorders among the Thai general population. Methods Analysis was conducted on 4,727 participants of Thailand's 2013 National Mental Health Survey, a multistage stratified cluster survey, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Diagnoses of problem and pathological gambling and other psychiatric disorders were based on the DSM-IV-TR criteria with the following additional criteria for gamblers: more than 10 lifetime gambling episodes and a single year loss of at least 365 USD from gambling. Results The estimated lifetime prevalence rates of pathological and problem gambling were 0.90% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51-1.29] and 1.14% (95% CI: 0.58-1.70), respectively. The most popular type of gambling was playing lotteries [69.5%, standard error (SE) = 1.9], the prevalence of which was significantly higher among females and older age groups. The most common psychiatric disorders seen among pathological gamblers were alcohol abuse (57.4%), nicotine dependence (49.5%), and any drug use disorder (16.2%). Pathological gambling was highly prevalent among those who ever experienced major depressive episodes (5.5%), any drug dependence (5.1%), and intermittent explosive disorder (4.8%). The association between pathological gambling was strongest with a history of major depressive episode [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 10.4, 95% CI: 2.80-38.4]. Conclusion The study confirms the recognition of gambling disorders as a public health concern in Thailand and suggests a need for culturally specific preventive measures for pathological gamblers and those with a history of substance use disorders or major depression.

  16. Gambling disorders, gambling type preferences, and psychiatric comorbidity among the Thai general population: Results of the 2013 National Mental Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; McNeil, Edward B; Tantirangsee, Nopporn; Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa

    2016-09-01

    Background and aims To estimate the prevalence of problem and pathological gambling, gender and age-group differences in gambling types, and comorbidities with other psychiatric disorders among the Thai general population. Methods Analysis was conducted on 4,727 participants of Thailand's 2013 National Mental Health Survey, a multistage stratified cluster survey, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Diagnoses of problem and pathological gambling and other psychiatric disorders were based on the DSM-IV-TR criteria with the following additional criteria for gamblers: more than 10 lifetime gambling episodes and a single year loss of at least 365 USD from gambling. Results The estimated lifetime prevalence rates of pathological and problem gambling were 0.90% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51-1.29] and 1.14% (95% CI: 0.58-1.70), respectively. The most popular type of gambling was playing lotteries [69.5%, standard error (SE) = 1.9], the prevalence of which was significantly higher among females and older age groups. The most common psychiatric disorders seen among pathological gamblers were alcohol abuse (57.4%), nicotine dependence (49.5%), and any drug use disorder (16.2%). Pathological gambling was highly prevalent among those who ever experienced major depressive episodes (5.5%), any drug dependence (5.1%), and intermittent explosive disorder (4.8%). The association between pathological gambling was strongest with a history of major depressive episode [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 10.4, 95% CI: 2.80-38.4]. Conclusion The study confirms the recognition of gambling disorders as a public health concern in Thailand and suggests a need for culturally specific preventive measures for pathological gamblers and those with a history of substance use disorders or major depression. PMID:27648744

  17. Social Meanings Versus the Psychiatric Concept of Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dorothy L.

    1982-01-01

    According to the societal reaction perspective, mental illness develops when symptoms are molded and imputed by societal reaction into a stable and organized social role. Individuals are thrust into the role by being labeled mentally ill. In contrast, the psychiatric concept assumes that mental illness is a disease. Its purpose is to order, predict, and control the symptoms of mental disease. This paper examines some social theories of mental disorder and compares the societal reaction perspective to the psychiatric concept.

  18. The importance of relationships in mental health care: A qualitative study of service users' experiences of psychiatric hospital admission in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Gilburt, Helen; Rose, Diana; Slade, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Background While a number of studies have looked at life on service users' experiences of life on psychiatric wards, no research exists that have approached these experiences from the user perspective since the introduction of community care. Methods This user-led study uses a participatory approach to develop an understanding of the processes and themes which define the user experience of hospitalisation. Nineteen service users who had all had inpatient stays in psychiatric hospitals in London were interviewed in the community. Results Relationships formed the core of service users' experiences. Three further codes, treatment, freedom and environment defined the role of hospital and its physical aspects. Themes of communication, safety, trust, coercion, and cultural competency contributed to the concept of relationships. Conclusion Relationships with an individual which comprised effective communication, cultural sensitivity, and the absence of coercion resulted in that person being attributed with a sense of trust. This resulted in the patient experiencing the hospital as a place of safety in terms of risk from other patients and staff. Barriers to positive relationships included ineffective and negative communication, a lack of trust, a lack of safety in terms of staff as ineffective in preventing violence, and as perpetrators themselves, and the use of coercion by staff. This unique perspective both acts as a source of triangulation with previous studies and highlights the importance of the therapeutic relationship in providing a safe and therapeutic milieu for the treatment of people with acute mental health problems. PMID:18439254

  19. Ethical issues in forensic psychiatric research on mentally disordered offenders.

    PubMed

    Munthe, Christian; Radovic, Susanna; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses ethical issues in forensic psychiatric research on mentally disordered offenders, especially those detained in the psychiatric treatment system. The idea of a 'dual role' dilemma afflicting forensic psychiatry is more complicated than acknowledged. Our suggestion acknowledges the good of criminal law and crime prevention as a part that should be balanced against familiar research ethical considerations. Research aiming at improvements of criminal justice and treatment is a societal priority, and the total benefit of studies has to be balanced against the risks for research subjects inferred by almost all systematic studies. Direct substantial risks must be balanced by health benefits, and normal informed consent requirements apply. When direct risks are slight, as in register-based epidemiology, lack of consent may be counter-balanced by special measures to protect integrity and the general benefit of better understanding of susceptibility, treatment and prevention. Special requirements on consent procedures in the forensic psychiatric context are suggested, and the issue of the relation between decision competence and legal accountability is found to be in need of further study. The major ethical hazard in forensic psychiatric research connects to the role of researchers as assessors and consultants in a society entertaining strong prejudices against mentally disordered offenders. PMID:20017746

  20. Teen Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... worthless could be warning signs of a mental health problem. Mental health problems are real, painful, and sometimes severe. You ... things that could harm you or others Mental health problems can be treated. To find help, talk ...

  1. Primary Mental Health Care in the Americas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Bruno R.

    This paper outlines selected differences between the United States and Latin America health care systems as they relate to primary mental health care. It notes that historically both the United States and Latin America have relied on custodial psychiatric hospitals. The alternative of community care for psychiatric patients is described as it is…

  2. Telepsychiatry and school mental health.

    PubMed

    Grady, Brian J; Lever, Nancy; Cunningham, Dana; Stephan, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The provision of mental health services in schools has been one effective strategy for reaching out to a greater number of youth to identify and provide treatment for mental health issues. With the increasing challenges related to shortages in child and adolescent psychiatrists, it is critical to develop models of care that can maximize a full range of mental health services for all children and adolescents who need them. Telehealth offers an innovative distance technology strategy to effectively and efficiently provide access to psychiatric services in schools. Telepsychiatry has the potential to better link and enhance the provision of health services, and can be particularly beneficial in addressing geographic distance and/or capacity issues. This article describes the clinical, educational, and administrative uses of telemental health in the school environment with mental health professionals and staff.

  3. [Mental health services in Australia].

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Lesage, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Canada is 1.5 times the size of Australia. Australia's population of 20 million is located principally on the east coast. Like Canada, the Australia has a federal system of Government with 5 States and two territories. Each State and territory has its own legislation on mental health. The federal (Commonwealth) Government is responsible for health care planning. In addition, the federal Government subsidizes an insurance program (Medicare) that covers visits to specialists and family physicians, while provincial governments are involved in the provision of hospital care and community mental health services. The Commonwealth government also subsidises the cost of medication through the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. These funds are supplemented by private health insurance. Mental health costs account for 6.5 per cent of all health care costs. Primary care treats the majority of common psychological disorders such as anxiety or depression, while specialist mental health services concentrate on those with severe mental illness. There have been 4 national mental health plans since 1992 with the long term aims of promoting mental health, increasing the quality and responsiveness of services, and creating a consistent approach to mental health service system reform among Australian states and territories. These systematic cycles of planning have first allowed a shift from psychiatric hospitals to community services, from reliance on psychiatric hospitals as pivotal to psychiatric care system. Community care budgets have increased, but overall have decreased with money not following patients; but recent deployment of federally funded through Medicare access to psychotherapy by psychologists for common mental disorders in primary care have increased overall budget. Concerns remain that shift to youth first onset psychosis clinics may come from older long-term psychotic patients, a form of discrimination whilst evidence amount of excess mortality by cardio

  4. [Mental health services in Australia].

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Lesage, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Canada is 1.5 times the size of Australia. Australia's population of 20 million is located principally on the east coast. Like Canada, the Australia has a federal system of Government with 5 States and two territories. Each State and territory has its own legislation on mental health. The federal (Commonwealth) Government is responsible for health care planning. In addition, the federal Government subsidizes an insurance program (Medicare) that covers visits to specialists and family physicians, while provincial governments are involved in the provision of hospital care and community mental health services. The Commonwealth government also subsidises the cost of medication through the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. These funds are supplemented by private health insurance. Mental health costs account for 6.5 per cent of all health care costs. Primary care treats the majority of common psychological disorders such as anxiety or depression, while specialist mental health services concentrate on those with severe mental illness. There have been 4 national mental health plans since 1992 with the long term aims of promoting mental health, increasing the quality and responsiveness of services, and creating a consistent approach to mental health service system reform among Australian states and territories. These systematic cycles of planning have first allowed a shift from psychiatric hospitals to community services, from reliance on psychiatric hospitals as pivotal to psychiatric care system. Community care budgets have increased, but overall have decreased with money not following patients; but recent deployment of federally funded through Medicare access to psychotherapy by psychologists for common mental disorders in primary care have increased overall budget. Concerns remain that shift to youth first onset psychosis clinics may come from older long-term psychotic patients, a form of discrimination whilst evidence amount of excess mortality by cardio

  5. Monitoring fluid intake in mental health patients.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Daniel

    2016-08-17

    During my second year of nurse training, I had a clinical placement on an acute male psychiatric ward with around 20 male patients. They had a variety of mental health conditions, including depression, bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia. PMID:27533410

  6. Monitoring fluid intake in mental health patients.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Daniel

    2016-08-17

    During my second year of nurse training, I had a clinical placement on an acute male psychiatric ward with around 20 male patients. They had a variety of mental health conditions, including depression, bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia.

  7. Mental health: everyone's business.

    PubMed

    Dragon, Natalie

    2010-06-01

    Mental health is everyone's business the Australian College of Mental Health Nurses and the Wesley Mission affirmed last month. In the midst of a burgeoning demand for mental health services, the lack of funds allocated to mental health as part of a $7.3 billion health package in the federal budget does not add up.

  8. Mental health emergencies.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Anita

    I gained experience of psychiatric assessment in previous roles when working in a secure psychiatric ward and within the prison service. Although I have often performed mental state assessments and assessments of suicidal intent as part of my work, I read the CPD article to refresh my knowledge in this area.

  9. Seeking informal and formal help for mental health problems in the community: a secondary analysis from a psychiatric morbidity survey in South London.

    PubMed

    Brown, June; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Aschan, Lisa; Henderson, Max J; Hatch, Stephani L; Hotopf, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    BackgroundOnly 30-35% of people with mental health problems seek help from professionals. Informal help, usually from friends, family and religious leaders, is often sought but is under-researched. This study aimed to contrast patterns of informal and formal help-seeking using data from a community psychiatric morbidity survey (n=1692) (South East London Community Health (SELCOH) Study).MethodsPatterns of help-seeking were analysed by clinical, sociodemographic and socioeconomic indicators. Factors associated with informal and formal help-seeking were investigated using logistic regression. Cross-tabulations examined informal help-seeking patterns from different sources.Results`Cases¿ (n = 386) were participants who had scores of ¿ 12 on the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R), indicating a common mental disorder. Of these, 40.1% had sought formal help, (of whom three-quarters (29%) had also sought informal help), 33.6% had sought informal help only and only 26.3% had sought no help. When controlling for non-clinical variables, severity, depression, suicidal ideas, functioning and longstanding illnesses were associated with formal rather than informal help-seeking. Age and ethnic group influenced sources of informal help used. Younger people most frequently sought informal help only whereas older people tended to seek help from their family. There were ethnic group differences in whether help was sought from friends, family or religious leaders.ConclusionsThis study has shown how frequently informal help is used, whether in conjunction with formal help or not. Among the `cases¿, over 60% had sought informal help, whether on its own or together with formal help. Severity was associated with formal help-seeking. Patterns of informal help use have been found. The use and effectiveness of informal help merit urgent research.

  10. No Mental Health without Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve

    2016-05-01

    The poor physical health faced by people with mental illness has been the subject of growing attention, but there has been less focus on the issue of oral health even though it is an important part of physical health. This article discusses the two-way association between oral and mental health. In one direction, the prospect of dental treatment can lead to anxiety and phobia. In the other, many psychiatric disorders, such as severe mental illness, affective disorders, and eating disorders, are associated with dental disease: These include erosion, caries, and periodontitis. Left untreated, dental diseases can lead to teeth loss such that people with severe mental illness have 2.7 times the likelihood of losing all their teeth, compared with the general population. Possible interventions include oral health assessments using standard checklists that can be completed by nondental personnel, help with oral hygiene, management of iatrogenic dry mouth, and early dental referral. PMID:27254802

  11. "Chartering" the limits of involuntary psychiatric treatment in Victoria: interpreting the Mental Health Act 1986 (Vic) in the age of the Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities Act 2006 (Vic).

    PubMed

    Bradfield, Owen

    2010-09-01

    The Mental Health Act 1986 (Vic) allows for individuals with a serious mental illness to be treated on an involuntary basis either in a psychiatric hospital (on an involuntary treatment order) or in the community (on a community treatment order). The Act also establishes the Mental Health Review Board with the authority to review these orders within eight weeks of those orders being made and at least once every 12 months thereafter. This article analyses a recent decision of the board, Re Appeal of 09-085 [2009] VMHRB 1, in which the appellant challenged a decision of a psychiatrist to extend his community treatment order for a further 12 months. The appellant argued that aspects of his involuntary treatment under the Act amounted to "cruel, inhuman or degrading" treatment and therefore breached his right to freedom from "cruel, inhuman or degrading" treatment under s 10(b) of Victoria's recently enacted Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities Act 2006 (Vic). Thus, the board was asked to consider whether the definition of "treatment" under the Act was compatible with the rights and freedoms enacted by the Charter. This was the first time that a Victorian court or tribunal had considered the impact of the Charter on involuntary psychiatric treatment. The decision was also a prelude to the Victorian Government's announcement that it would comprehensively review its mental health legislation, now the oldest in Australia. As this case highlights, in determining the future direction of mental health legislation and policy in Victoria, the Charter has been crucial.

  12. Comparison of emergency nurses association Emergency Severity Triage and Australian emergency mental health triage systems for the evaluation of psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Downey, La Vonne A; Zun, Leslie S; Burke, Trena

    2014-01-01

    The use of a triage system in the emergency department allows for the ability to reliably assign patients for treatment within a short amount of time in order to prioritize and treat on the basis of patients injury and illness. A 5 point triage system has been shown to have the highest correlation with effective resource utilizations, lower time to be seen and treatment times, and admission or release outcomes for patients. The problem is, however, that these triage scales were developed on the basis of physical illness and not on the ever-increasing number of patients who present with mental illness. This article compares one physical and one specific mental illness-based triage system to measure the differences in times to be seen by a physician. It found that the specialized psychiatric triage system decreased wait times and allowed symptoms to be addressed sooner for patients presenting with psychiatric complaints.

  13. MENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHAMBERLAIN, IDA

    WEST VIRGINIA IS A RURAL STATE HAVING A LARGE POVERTY STRICKEN POPULATION. SINCE THIS GROUP HAD NO ACCESS TO MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES, THE STATE DEPARTMENT OF MENTAL HEALTH SPONSORED A VISTA PROGRAM IN MENTAL HEALTH AND MENTAL RETARDATION, AND ENCOURAGED THE VOLUNTEERS TO USE THEIR OWN CREATIVITY AND INGENUITY IN PROVIDING SUCH SERVICES AS--(1)…

  14. New Research into General Psychiatric Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There are a variety of models for the mental health care of adults with comorbid intellectual disability (ID) and mental illness. There has been a long-running debate as to whether this should be provided by general psychiatric or specialised ID services. A previous review concluded that there was no clear evidence to support either…

  15. Psychiatric Issues in Palliative Care: Assessing Mental Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Udo, Itoro; Mohammed, Zeid; Gash, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Issues surrounding capacity to consent to or refuse treatment are increasingly receiving clinical and legal attention. Through the use of 3 case vignettes that involve different aspects of mental health care in palliative care settings, mental capacity issues are discussed. The vignettes tackle capacity in a patient with newly developed mental illness consequent to physical illness, capacity in a patient with mental illness but without delirium and capacity in a patient with known impairment of the mind. These discussions give credence to best practice position where physicians act in the best interests of their patients at all times. It is important to emphasize that capacity decisions have to be made on a case by case basis, within the remit of legal protection. This is a fundamental requirement of the Mental Capacity Act 2005, England & Wales (MCA). The later is used as the legal basis for these discussions. The psychiatric liaison service is a useful resource to provide consultation, advice and or joint assessment to clinicians encountering complex dilemmas involving decision-making capacity. PMID:25278761

  16. Do biometric parameters of the hand differentiate schizophrenia from other psychiatric disorders? A comparative evaluation using three mental health modules.

    PubMed

    Zvi Shamir, Eyal; Levy, Anat; Morris Cassan, Stanley; Lifshitz, Tova; Shefler, Gaby; Tarrasch, Ricardo

    2015-08-30

    The link between schizophrenia and anomalies in the distal upper limb is well documented. Preliminary studies have identified a number of biometric parameters of the hand by which schizophrenics can be distinguished from matched controls. The current study seeks to determine whether patients with schizophrenia can be singled out from a disparate group of other mental disorders by using the same parameters. We studied three groups, totaling 134 men: 51 diagnosed with schizophrenia, 29 with anxiety and mood disorders, and 54 comprising a control group. Seven parameters were studied: the proximal interphalangeal joint, the eponychia of the middle and ring digits, two dermatoglyphic features, and two constitutional factors. Examiners evaluated the parameters based on photographs and prints. An initial Mann Whitney comparison showed no significant difference between the control group and those identified with anxiety and mood disorders. We therefore accounted for them as a single group. In a discriminant analysis, an overall accuracy of 78.4% was established with a sensitivity of 80.4% (schizophrenics identified correctly) and a specificity of 77.1% (controls identified correctly). These results suggest that the biometric parameters employed may be useful in identifying patients with schizophrenia from a disparate group of other mental disorders.

  17. Implications of Recovering for Mental Health Systems and Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaniol, LeRoy

    This presentation outlines the implications of psychiatric disability recovery for mental health systems and programs. Schizophrenia and other serious psychiatric disabilities have been viewed as irreversible illnesses with increasing disability over time. Mental health program planning, policies, and practices have been developed and implemented…

  18. Psychiatric Illness in Mentally Retarded Adolescents: Clinical Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masi, Gabriele

    1998-01-01

    Describes the clinical features of the most important psychiatric disorders in mentally retarded adolescents: mood disorders, psychotic disorders, severe behavioral disorders, personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and attention-deficit The impact of mental retardation on personality development is confirmed by the high psychopathological…

  19. [Mental health support for nurses].

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    Burnout specific to human service workers has been reported in the U.S. in the 1970s. Since then, such burnout has become widely known and the mental health of nurses has attracted attention. Stressors in the work environment and complexity have increased with advancement in increasingly complicated medical care. One of the major roles of a psychiatric liaison nurse is to provide support to improve the mental health of nurses. In our hospital, a psychiatric liaison nurse has a staff position under the direct supervision of the director of the nursing department but operates outside the chain of command. A psychiatric liaison nurse is not involved in the performance review of nurses. Thus, the nursing staff and the nursing manager can discuss their problems with the psychiatric liaison nurse without risks. Psychiatric liaison nurses provide support as counselors through individual and group interviews so that nurses can become re-energized about their work. In addition, psychiatric liaison nurses provide consultations and education. They perform coordination function to organize an environment to promote consultations regarding nurse support to the staff nurses and the nursing manager and to promote support by supervisors. For support after reinstatement of a nurse following a medical leave, it is particularly important to work with not only the individual nurse but also the entire nursing team. In our hospital, newly graduated nurses are given the GHQ-28 after one month of employment to assess the support they might need. In our study, nurses with high risks were divided into a group with a score of at least 6 points but less than 10 points and a group with a score of at least 10 points. The group with at least 10 points had significantly higher rates of leave of absence and resignation. Thus, early intervention was thought to be necessary in newly graduated nurses with a score of at least 10 points in the GHQ.

  20. Mental health services in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Orotaloa, Paul; Blignault, Ilse

    2012-06-01

    The Solomon Islands comprise an archipelago of nearly 1,000 islands and coral atolls and have an estimated population of 549,574 people. Formal mental health services date back to 1950 when an asylum was established. Since then the process of mental health service development has been largely one of incremental change, with a major boost to community services in the last two decades. During the 1990s a mental health outpatient clinic was established in Honiara, together with attempts to recruit nursing staff as psychiatric coordinators in the provinces. In 1996, the Ministry commenced sending registered nurses for psychiatric training in Papua New Guinea. By 2010, there were 13 psychiatric nurses and one psychiatrist, with a second psychiatrist in training. A National Mental Health Policy was drafted in 2009 but is yet to be endorsed by Cabinet. A significant portion of the population still turns to traditional healers or church leaders for purposes of healing, seeking help from Western medicine only after all other alternatives in the community have been exhausted. There is still a long way to go before mental health services are available, affordable and accessible to the whole population, including people living in geographically remote areas. Realization of this vision requires increased resourcing for mental health services; improved communication and collaboration between the centrally-based, national mental health services and the provincial health services; and closer, ongoing relationships between all stakeholders and partners, both locally and internationally. PMID:26767360

  1. Mental health services in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Orotaloa, Paul; Blignault, Ilse

    2012-06-01

    The Solomon Islands comprise an archipelago of nearly 1,000 islands and coral atolls and have an estimated population of 549,574 people. Formal mental health services date back to 1950 when an asylum was established. Since then the process of mental health service development has been largely one of incremental change, with a major boost to community services in the last two decades. During the 1990s a mental health outpatient clinic was established in Honiara, together with attempts to recruit nursing staff as psychiatric coordinators in the provinces. In 1996, the Ministry commenced sending registered nurses for psychiatric training in Papua New Guinea. By 2010, there were 13 psychiatric nurses and one psychiatrist, with a second psychiatrist in training. A National Mental Health Policy was drafted in 2009 but is yet to be endorsed by Cabinet. A significant portion of the population still turns to traditional healers or church leaders for purposes of healing, seeking help from Western medicine only after all other alternatives in the community have been exhausted. There is still a long way to go before mental health services are available, affordable and accessible to the whole population, including people living in geographically remote areas. Realization of this vision requires increased resourcing for mental health services; improved communication and collaboration between the centrally-based, national mental health services and the provincial health services; and closer, ongoing relationships between all stakeholders and partners, both locally and internationally.

  2. Sufism and mental health.

    PubMed

    Nizamie, S Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N A

    2013-01-01

    Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health. PMID:23858257

  3. Sufism and mental health

    PubMed Central

    Nizamie, S. Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health. PMID:23858257

  4. Promoting Access Through Integrated Mental Health Care Education.

    PubMed

    Kverno, Karan

    2016-01-01

    Mental disorders are the leading cause of non-communicable disability worldwide. Insufficient numbers of psychiatrically trained providers and geographic inequities impair access. To close this treatment gap, the World Health Organization (WHO) has called for the integration of mental health services with primary care. A new innovative online program is presented that increases access to mental health education for primary care nurse practitioners in designated mental health professional shortage areas. To create successful and sustainable change, an overlapping three-phase strategy is being implemented. Phase I is recruiting and educating primary care nurse practitioners to become competent and certified psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners. Phase II is developing partnerships with state and local agencies to identify and support the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner education and clinical training. Phase III is sustaining integrated mental health care services through the development of nurse leaders who will participate in interdisciplinary coalitions and educate future students. PMID:27347257

  5. Promoting Access Through Integrated Mental Health Care Education.

    PubMed

    Kverno, Karan

    2016-01-01

    Mental disorders are the leading cause of non-communicable disability worldwide. Insufficient numbers of psychiatrically trained providers and geographic inequities impair access. To close this treatment gap, the World Health Organization (WHO) has called for the integration of mental health services with primary care. A new innovative online program is presented that increases access to mental health education for primary care nurse practitioners in designated mental health professional shortage areas. To create successful and sustainable change, an overlapping three-phase strategy is being implemented. Phase I is recruiting and educating primary care nurse practitioners to become competent and certified psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners. Phase II is developing partnerships with state and local agencies to identify and support the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner education and clinical training. Phase III is sustaining integrated mental health care services through the development of nurse leaders who will participate in interdisciplinary coalitions and educate future students.

  6. Promoting Access Through Integrated Mental Health Care Education

    PubMed Central

    Kverno, Karan

    2016-01-01

    Mental disorders are the leading cause of non-communicable disability worldwide. Insufficient numbers of psychiatrically trained providers and geographic inequities impair access. To close this treatment gap, the World Health Organization (WHO) has called for the integration of mental health services with primary care. A new innovative online program is presented that increases access to mental health education for primary care nurse practitioners in designated mental health professional shortage areas. To create successful and sustainable change, an overlapping three-phase strategy is being implemented. Phase I is recruiting and educating primary care nurse practitioners to become competent and certified psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners. Phase II is developing partnerships with state and local agencies to identify and support the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner education and clinical training. Phase III is sustaining integrated mental health care services through the development of nurse leaders who will participate in interdisciplinary coalitions and educate future students. PMID:27347257

  7. Factors influencing mental health nurses' attitudes towards people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Lu, Huei-Lan; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors influencing mental health nurses' attitudes towards people with mental illness. A descriptive correlation design was used. A sample of 180 Taiwanese mental health nurses was recruited from mental health-care settings. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Pearson's product-moment correlation, Student's t-test, one-way anova, and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Negative attitudes were found among mental health nurses, especially with respect to individuals with substance abuse compared with those with schizophrenia and major depression. Mental health nurses who were older, had more clinical experiences in mental health care, and demonstrated greater empathy expressed more positive attitudes towards people with mental illness. Mental health nurses working at acute psychiatric units demonstrated more negative attitudes towards mental illness compared with those working in psychiatric rehabilitation units and outpatient clinics or community psychiatric rehabilitation centres. Particularly, length of mental health nursing practice and empathy significantly accounted for mental health nurses' attitudes towards mental illness. Understanding nurses' attitudes and their correlates towards people with mental illness is critical to deliver effective mental health nursing care.

  8. Pilot mental health: expert working group recommendations.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    Following a March 27, 2012, incident in which a pilot of a major commercial airline experienced a serious disturbance in his mental health, the Aerospace Medical Association formed an Ad Hoc Working Group on Pilot Mental Health. The working group met several times and analyzed current medical standards for evaluating pilot mental health. The result of the working group was a letter sent to the FAA and other organizations worldwide interested in medical standards. The Committee found that it is neither productive nor cost effective to perform extensive psychiatric evaluations as part of the routine pilot aeromedical assessment. However it did recommend greater attention be given to mental health issues by aeromedical examiners, especially to the more common and detectable mental health conditions and life stressors that can affect pilots and flight performance. They encouraged this through increased education and global recognition of the importance of mental health in aviation safety.

  9. American Christian Engagement With Mental Health and Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Kinghorn, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    Although religious belief and practice are relevant to mental health outcomes, many clinicians lack knowledge of particular religious traditions required to make informed judgments about referral to and collaboration with faith-based organizations and clinicians. This Open Forum examines five diverse American Christian approaches to mental health and mental illness-pastoral care and counseling, biblical counseling, integrationism, Christian psychology, and the work of the Institute for the Psychological Sciences--that are relevant for contemporary mental health service delivery. Each of these movements is briefly described and placed in historical, conceptual, and organizational context. Knowledge of the diverse and varied terrain of American Christian engagement with mental health care can inform clinicians' interactions with faith-based providers, clarify opportunities for responsible collaboration, and provide important insight into religious subcultures with faith-based concerns about contemporary psychiatric care.

  10. Brazil's mental health adventure.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Richard

    2003-01-01

    the Connecticut Mental Health Center. Since 1997, I've spent my vacations traveling and working in Brazil as an Outside Consultant on mental health projects with colleagues in Rio and Sao Paulo. In my travels I've been befriended and supported by adherents of a social movement, not unlike the U.S. Civil Rights Movement, that has struggled for many years to close Brazil's long-term psychiatric hospitals, create community-based services and expand the rights of mental patients. Now I see my Brazilian connection as part of my ongoing recovery. I see myself as having the opportunity to be a link between the mental health worlds of the U.S. and Brazil. I believe the two countries have much to offer each other when it comes to mental health. PMID:12653451

  11. Brazil's mental health adventure.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Richard

    2003-01-01

    the Connecticut Mental Health Center. Since 1997, I've spent my vacations traveling and working in Brazil as an Outside Consultant on mental health projects with colleagues in Rio and Sao Paulo. In my travels I've been befriended and supported by adherents of a social movement, not unlike the U.S. Civil Rights Movement, that has struggled for many years to close Brazil's long-term psychiatric hospitals, create community-based services and expand the rights of mental patients. Now I see my Brazilian connection as part of my ongoing recovery. I see myself as having the opportunity to be a link between the mental health worlds of the U.S. and Brazil. I believe the two countries have much to offer each other when it comes to mental health.

  12. Malaysia mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Parameshvara Deva, M

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be

  13. Malaysia mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Parameshvara Deva, M

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be

  14. Mental Health for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Sexual health for men Urinary health for ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Other mental health conditions include bipolar disorder , ...

  15. No health without mental health.

    PubMed

    Prince, Martin; Patel, Vikram; Saxena, Shekhar; Maj, Mario; Maselko, Joanna; Phillips, Michael R; Rahman, Atif

    2007-09-01

    About 14% of the global burden of disease has been attributed to neuropsychiatric disorders, mostly due to the chronically disabling nature of depression and other common mental disorders, alcohol-use and substance-use disorders, and psychoses. Such estimates have drawn attention to the importance of mental disorders for public health. However, because they stress the separate contributions of mental and physical disorders to disability and mortality, they might have entrenched the alienation of mental health from mainstream efforts to improve health and reduce poverty. The burden of mental disorders is likely to have been underestimated because of inadequate appreciation of the connectedness between mental illness and other health conditions. Because these interactions are protean, there can be no health without mental health. Mental disorders increase risk for communicable and non-communicable diseases, and contribute to unintentional and intentional injury. Conversely, many health conditions increase the risk for mental disorder, and comorbidity complicates help-seeking, diagnosis, and treatment, and influences prognosis. Health services are not provided equitably to people with mental disorders, and the quality of care for both mental and physical health conditions for these people could be improved. We need to develop and evaluate psychosocial interventions that can be integrated into management of communicable and non-communicable diseases. Health-care systems should be strengthened to improve delivery of mental health care, by focusing on existing programmes and activities, such as those which address the prevention and treatment of HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria; gender-based violence; antenatal care; integrated management of childhood illnesses and child nutrition; and innovative management of chronic disease. An explicit mental health budget might need to be allocated for such activities. Mental health affects progress towards the achievement of several

  16. Review of psychiatric services to mentally disordered offenders around the Pacific Rim.

    PubMed

    Every-Palmer, Susanna; Brink, Johann; Chern, Tor P; Choi, Wing-Kit; Hern-Yee, Jerome Goh; Green, Bob; Heffernan, Ed; Johnson, Sarah B; Kachaeva, Margarita; Shiina, Akihiro; Walker, David; Wu, Kevin; Wang, Xiaoping; Mellsop, Graham

    2014-03-01

    This article was commissioned to collate and review forensic psychiatric services provided in a number of key Pacific Rim locations in the hope that it will assist in future dialogue about service development. The Board of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists identified experts in forensic psychiatry from Australia, Canada, China, Hong Kong, Japan, Russia, Singapore, Taiwan, and the US. Each contributor provided an account of issues in their jurisdiction, including mental health services to mentally disordered offenders in prison, competence or fitness to stand trial, legal insanity as a defense at trial, diminished responsibility, and special forensic services available, including forensic hospitals and community forensic mental health services. Responses have been collated and are presented topic by topic and country by country within the body of this review. The availability of mental health screening and psychiatric in-reach or forensic liaison services within prisons differed considerably between countries, as did provisioning of community forensic mental health and rehabilitation services. Diversion of mentally disordered offenders to forensic, state, or hybrid hospitals was common. Legal constructs of criminal responsibility (insanity defense) and fitness to stand trial ("disability") are almost universally recognized, although variably used. Disparities between unmet needs and resourcing available were common themes. The legislative differences between contributing countries with respect to the mental health law and criminal law relating to mentally disordered offenders are relatively subtle. The major differences lie in operationalizing and resourcing forensic services.

  17. Review of psychiatric services to mentally disordered offenders around the Pacific Rim.

    PubMed

    Every-Palmer, Susanna; Brink, Johann; Chern, Tor P; Choi, Wing-Kit; Hern-Yee, Jerome Goh; Green, Bob; Heffernan, Ed; Johnson, Sarah B; Kachaeva, Margarita; Shiina, Akihiro; Walker, David; Wu, Kevin; Wang, Xiaoping; Mellsop, Graham

    2014-03-01

    This article was commissioned to collate and review forensic psychiatric services provided in a number of key Pacific Rim locations in the hope that it will assist in future dialogue about service development. The Board of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists identified experts in forensic psychiatry from Australia, Canada, China, Hong Kong, Japan, Russia, Singapore, Taiwan, and the US. Each contributor provided an account of issues in their jurisdiction, including mental health services to mentally disordered offenders in prison, competence or fitness to stand trial, legal insanity as a defense at trial, diminished responsibility, and special forensic services available, including forensic hospitals and community forensic mental health services. Responses have been collated and are presented topic by topic and country by country within the body of this review. The availability of mental health screening and psychiatric in-reach or forensic liaison services within prisons differed considerably between countries, as did provisioning of community forensic mental health and rehabilitation services. Diversion of mentally disordered offenders to forensic, state, or hybrid hospitals was common. Legal constructs of criminal responsibility (insanity defense) and fitness to stand trial ("disability") are almost universally recognized, although variably used. Disparities between unmet needs and resourcing available were common themes. The legislative differences between contributing countries with respect to the mental health law and criminal law relating to mentally disordered offenders are relatively subtle. The major differences lie in operationalizing and resourcing forensic services. PMID:24249353

  18. Living through Exposure to Toxic Psychiatric Orthodoxies: Exploring Narratives of People with "Mental Health Problems" Who Are Looking for Employment on the Open Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roets, Griet; Kristiansen, Kristjana; Van Hove, Geert; Vanderplasschen, Wouter

    2007-01-01

    This article explores lived experiences and insights of five people with long-term "mental health problems", focusing on their search for employment in a disabling society. In our qualitative, inductive analysis we investigate why it seems almost impossible to attain a status as respected adult workers. We present five central findings: (1) losing…

  19. Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morality and the changing boundaries of medicine, psychiatry and psychiatric and mental health nursing practice: a slave revolt?

    PubMed

    Biley, F C

    2010-10-01

    The main constructions in Nietzsche's On the Genealogy of Morality (1994) are employed in order to explore the changes in mental health care that have been recently taking place. Characterized by boundaries that define the objectivity of scientific method, the biological stratum or the area of concern (disease and the disembodied being) and the professional distance that is maintained in the healthcare encounter, the noble morality of contemporary allopathic (Western) mental health care practice appears to be being challenged, in an act of ressentiment, by the slave morality of society, inverting values and beliefs that have previously been held. Mental health care paternalism may be in the process of giving way to consumer sovereignty, patient participation in decision making and the re-discovery of the embodied being at the centre of the healthcare encounter. Nietzsche warns that the dominance of slave morality and the inversion of moral values (what was a quality that was held by the nobles and regarded as good) - that is, objectivity and mental health care paternalism - becomes bad; and what was a quality held by the slaves and regarded as bad - subjectivity - becomes good, may ultimately be detrimental to the advancement of society.

  20. Religion and mental health

    PubMed Central

    Behere, Prakash B.; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, the relation between religion and mental health and vice versa has been described. From primitive times different religions have different beliefs and systems of worshipping. Every religion with their belief system has implications on mental health and illness. We described how Hindu system of beliefs and rituals may have an effect in causation of various mental illnesses. It is also described how religion can help an individual to sustain one's life in various domains. The relationship between different religion and symptomatology is described. The impact and outcome of religion on mental health have been highlighted. PMID:23858253

  1. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma among Youth in Psychiatric Outpatient Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the experiences of mental illness stigma in 24 youth (58.3% male, 13-24 years, 75% Latino) in psychiatric outpatient treatment. Using Link and Phelan's (2001) model of stigmatization, we conducted thematic analysis of the interview texts, examining experiences of stigma at individual and structural levels, in addition to the…

  2. Evidence in mental health.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Susan Mace

    2014-12-01

    Health practitioners wishing to positively improve health outcomes for their clients have access to a unique set of collated tools to guide their practice. Systematic reviews provide guidance in the form of synthesized evidence that can form the basis of decision making as they provide care for their clients. This article describes systematic reviews as a basis for informed decision making by mental health practitioners. The process of systematic review is discussed, examples of existing systematic review topics relevant to mental health are presented, a sample systematic review is described, and gaps and emerging topics for mental health systematic reviews are addressed.

  3. Mental Health of Young Refugees.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Teena M; Durand, Simone C

    2015-12-01

    Children and adolescents exposed to violence and upheaval of war and relocation are at high risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Rates of PTSD among refugee children may exceed 50%. Additional stressors encountered while adjusting to host cultures add another layer of difficulty. Most refugee children struggling with symptoms of PTSD or depression are never linked with appropriate mental health care resources. Psychiatric nurses can serve a critical function in the identification and treatment of refugee children experiencing PTSD and depression. PMID:26653091

  4. Latino Adults’ Access to Mental Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Zayas, Luis H.; Hansen, Marissa C.

    2008-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, epidemiological studies using state-of-the-art methodologies have documented the unmet mental health needs of Latinos adults in the U.S. and Puerto Rico. This paper reviews 16 articles based on seven epidemiological studies, examines studies methodologies, and summarizes findings about how Latino adults access mental health services. Studies consistently report that, compared to non-Latino Whites, Latinos underutilize mental health services, are less likely to receive guideline congruent care, and rely more often on primary care for services. Structural, economic, psychiatric, and cultural factors influence Latinos’ service access. In spite of the valuable information these studies provide, methodological limitations (e.g., reliance on cross-sectional designs, scarcity of mixed Latino group samples) constrict knowledge about Latinos access to mental health services. Areas for future research and development needed to improve Latinos’ access and quality of mental health care are discussed. PMID:16598658

  5. Mental health legislation: an unavoidable necessity or a harmful anachronism.

    PubMed

    Margolin, Jacob; Witztum, Eliezer

    2006-01-01

    The article addresses the need for specific legislation in mental health, as opposed to other areas of medicine. Issues discussed include: patients' autonomy versus society's safety, insanity and its legal implications, compulsory modes of treatment in psychiatry, dangerousness and violence of psychiatric patients, the price and shortcomings of specific legislation in mental health, and the Israeli legal procedures for the treatment of mentally ill patients. The authors favor specific legislation in mental health, while supporting the need for proper checks and balances.

  6. Mental Health and the TC. Chapter 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.

    This document contains 19 papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities (TCs) that deal with the interface between the mental health establishments and the TC. Papers include: (1) "Psychiatry and the TC" (Jerome Jaffe); (2) "The Chemical Brain" (Sidney Cohen); (3) "Where Does the TC Fail?" (Ab Koster); (4) "Psychiatric Severity…

  7. Valuing mental health staff.

    PubMed

    2016-09-21

    Ben Thomas is the mental health, learning disabilities and dementia care professional officer at the Department of Health (DH). He has held senior clinical, academic and management posts in England and Australia, and was a director of nursing. Before working at the DH, Ben was head of mental health and learning disabilities at the National Patient Safety Agency. He is a member of the RCNi editorial board. PMID:27654559

  8. Mental Health of Dubai Medical College Students

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Jamshid; Galal Ahmed, Mohammed; Ali Bayoumi, Fatehia; Abdul Moneenum, Abeer; Alshawa, Haya

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Considering the association between medical school dropout and psychiatric distress, we aimed to assess the prevalence of psychiatric distress among medical students at Dubai Medical College. Methods: One hundred and three medical students were chosen randomly and were assessed by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Results: The mean age for the students was 18.85 year (Minimum: 17, Maximum: 22), and 90.3% were between 18 and 20 years old. The mean of GHQ score was 16.46. Of the participants, 47 (45.6%) were found to be in normal range (GHQ mean < 16). A total of 33 (32.1%) of the students reported evidence of psychiatric distress. Only 23 (22.3%) were found to have severe psychiatric distress. Conclusions: Early detection of psychiatric distress is important to prevent psychiatric morbidity and its unwanted effects on medical students and young doctors. Our results reveals that although a low percentage of Dubai Medical College students reported a significant level of psychiatric distress, however, it should not be underestimated, and actions should be taken to encourage Dubai Medical College students to get help from for psychiatric services for their emotional problems. The risk factors as well as the protective factors must be identified in nation-wide studies to promote mental health of medical students. PMID:24644486

  9. MENTAL HEALTH DIRECTORY, 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    YOLLES, STANLEY F.; AND OTHERS

    THE DIRECTORY IS INTENDED AS A REFERENCE GUIDE TO MENTAL HEALTH PROGRAMS AND SERVICES THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES. IT IS ORGANIZED INTO A FEDERAL SECTION AND A STATE AND COMMUNITY SECTION, EACH OF WHICH IS PRECEDED BY AN INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT CONCERNING THE LISTINGS IN THAT SECTION. ADDRESSES AND SHORT DESCRIPTIONS OF THE MAJOR MENTAL HEALTH…

  10. Mental Health Literacy, Attitudes to Help Seeking, and Perceived Need as Predictors of Mental Health Service Use: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Bonabi, Herdis; Müller, Mario; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Eisele, Jochen; Rodgers, Stephanie; Seifritz, Erich; Rössler, Wulf; Rüsch, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Many people with mental health problems do not use mental health care, resulting in poorer clinical and social outcomes. Reasons for low service use rates are still incompletely understood. In this longitudinal, population-based study, we investigated the influence of mental health literacy, attitudes toward mental health services, and perceived need for treatment at baseline on actual service use during a 6-month follow-up period, controlling for sociodemographic variables, symptom level, and a history of lifetime mental health service use. Positive attitudes to mental health care, higher mental health literacy, and more perceived need at baseline significantly predicted use of psychotherapy during the follow-up period. Greater perceived need for treatment and better literacy at baseline were predictive of taking psychiatric medication during the following 6 months. Our findings suggest that mental health literacy, attitudes to treatment, and perceived need may be targets for interventions to increase mental health service use.

  11. Chronic Illness & Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... talk therapy, that helps people change negative thinking styles and behaviors that may contribute to their depression. ... Mental Health Office of Science Policy, Planning, and Communications Science Writing, Press, and Dissemination Branch 6001 Executive ...

  12. Women's Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... a group that has the same age, race, religion, cultural background as you, or one that speaks ... mental health problems, like depression or having a history of trauma or abuse. If you or someone ...

  13. Women and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... to other mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder , research has not found differences in rates that ... Featured Health Topics Anxiety Disorders Depression Eating Disorders Bipolar Disorder (Manic-Depressive Illness) Schizophrenia Borderline Personality Disorder Suicide ...

  14. Positive mental health and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Heather

    2014-09-01

    Based on the Mental Health Continuum Short Form administered in the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health (CCHS-MH), the percentages of Canadians aged 15 or older classified as having flourishing, moderate or languishing mental health were 76.9%, 21.6% and 1.5%, respectively. Compared with estimates for other countries, a higher percentage of Canadians were flourishing. In accordance with the complete mental health model, mental health was also assessed in combination with the presence or absence of mental illness (depression; bipolar disorder; generalized anxiety disorder; alcohol, cannabis or other drug abuse or dependence). An estimated 72.5% of Canadians (19.8 million) were classified as having complete mental health; that is they were flourishing and did not meet the criteria for any of the six past 12-month mental or substance use disorders included in the CCHS-MH. Age, marital status, socio-economic status, spirituality and physical health were associated with complete mental health. Men and women were equally likely to be in complete mental health. PMID:25229895

  15. Health policy and mental health.

    PubMed

    Dekker, E

    1987-01-01

    Health policy can be described as policy directed at the determinants of health, i.e. biological and environmental factors, lifestyle and the health care system. This type of policy now has become a policy objective in an increasing number of countries. In this article mental health is placed in the broad context of this policy. The central question is: can the mental health field grasp the opportunity of a growing interest in prevention and health promotion in general, as major objectives of health policy? Or will it stay more or less isolated from the mainstream of current developments? Answering this question means looking at the conditions of health policy. For health policy it is required that a definition be given of health problems and "causing" conditions. There should further be available intervention possibilities of a preventive and intersectoral character and also preventive strategies. It is stated that there is enough standardized information on mental health problems and experience with community-based research to let mental health participate in drawing up a community diagnosis. It also appears possible to construct an ecological health status model for mental health. Research on the factors in this model shows a shift in focus from risk populations to risk situations, e.g. unemployment, industrial disability, divorce and isolation. Further it is recognized that the search for causal factors is substituted by that for precipitating factors. Social-demographic factors, taken alone, are not precipitating factors. What matters is the combination of an underdeveloped coping mechanism, little social support, and prolonged stressful conditions or sudden stressful events.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10287174

  16. Familiarity with mental illness and approval of structural discrimination against psychiatric patients in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schomerus, Georg; Matschinger, Herbert; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2007-01-01

    Structural discrimination against psychiatric patients may occur as a result of distribution of resources in the health system. We examine whether familiarity with mental illness, which reduces discrimination on the individual level, also moderates the approval of structural discrimination in health care funding. We conducted a representative survey of the German population (N=5025) in 2001 using a fully structured personal interview, including a measure of preferences for the allocation of health resources and an assessment of familiarity with mental illness. The approval of structural discrimination was inversely related to the individual's familiarity with mental illness in depression and, to a lesser extent, in schizophrenia. This relationship was absent for alcoholism and generally weak for contacts to mentally ill persons outside one's own family. Strategies successful in reducing individual discrimination are thus not necessarily suitable for combating structural discrimination and need to be tailored to their specific target.

  17. Mental health for nations.

    PubMed

    Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-08-01

    Mental ill health is a universal phenomenon: that is, it is seen across all cultures and societies, even though the presentation may be culture-specific and affected by cultural norms and more. Governments have a moral and ethical duty to develop mental health services which are accessible, appropriate, and non-discriminatory. Equity in funding mental health services is critical. As globally services and their quality vary dramatically, one should be proposing and agreeing on minimum standards of care. In this paper the basic components and minimum standards of care are described. It is imperative that services are non-discriminatory. It is important that governments work with psychiatrists, other mental health professionals, and individuals with mental illness, their families, and carers to plan, develop, and deliver services with adequate funding. Employers and psychological first aid must also be remembered. Services must be geographically accessible. In this endeavour primary care services have a major role to play. Training and clinical decision-making must be part of the change in service delivery. It is imperative that every effort is made to keep the population mentally as well as physically healthy, and people who develop mental illness must have access to evidence-based treatment at the earliest possible opportunity. PMID:27686156

  18. Psychiatric components of a Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.

    1987-01-01

    The operational psychiatric requirements for a comprehensive Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on a permanently manned Space Station are examined. Consideration is given to the psychological health maintenance program designed for the diagnosis of mental distress in astronauts during flight and for prevention of mental breakdown. The types of mental disorders that can possibly affect the astronauts in flight are discussed, including various organic, psychotic, and affective mental disorders, as well as anxiety, adjustment, and somatoform/dissociative disorders. Special attention is given to therapeutic considerations for psychiatric operations on Space Station, such as restraints, psychopharmacology, psychotherapy, and psychosocial support.

  19. Workplace Literacy for Psychiatric Health Care Workers. Final Performance Report [and] External Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perin, Dolores; And Others

    This report documents the Workplace Literacy for Psychiatric Health Care Workers project, a partnership between a labor union and the City University of New York through which workplace literacy instruction was provided to mental hygiene therapy aides (MHTAs) employed in five state-operated psychiatric hospitals in New York City. Among the…

  20. Correlates of Mental Health among Latino Farmworkers in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Crain, Rebecca; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Schwantes, Melody; Isom, Scott; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Latino farmworkers are a vulnerable population who confront multiple threats to their mental health. Informed by the stress-process model of psychiatric disorder, the goal of this paper is to determine personal and situational correlates of poor mental health among Latino farmworkers. Structured interview data were obtained from farmworkers (N=69) in six counties in eastern and western North Carolina. Results indicated that a substantial number of farmworkers have poor mental health, as indicated by elevated depressive symptoms (52.2%) and anxiety (16.4%). Results also indicated that each mental health outcome had different predictors. Addressing the mental health issues of farmworkers requires a comprehensive, multifaceted approach. PMID:22757952

  1. Mental Health Issues and Special Care Patients.

    PubMed

    Clark, David B

    2016-07-01

    Mental illness is a major health issue in the world today, yet often remains misunderstood, unrecognized, and undertreated. Patients suffering from severe psychiatric disorders generally display poor oral health, often as a consequence of both lifestyle and avoidant-type behaviors that become exacerbated by their illness. Individuals with severe mental illness display a greater incidence of oral disease compared with a similar demographic not dealing with these particular disorders. Efforts to enhance the oral health of these vulnerable patients will play a significant role in the overall rebuilding of their self-esteem and contribute positively to their journey toward stability and recovery. PMID:27264850

  2. Mental Health Issues and Special Care Patients.

    PubMed

    Clark, David B

    2016-07-01

    Mental illness is a major health issue in the world today, yet often remains misunderstood, unrecognized, and undertreated. Patients suffering from severe psychiatric disorders generally display poor oral health, often as a consequence of both lifestyle and avoidant-type behaviors that become exacerbated by their illness. Individuals with severe mental illness display a greater incidence of oral disease compared with a similar demographic not dealing with these particular disorders. Efforts to enhance the oral health of these vulnerable patients will play a significant role in the overall rebuilding of their self-esteem and contribute positively to their journey toward stability and recovery.

  3. [About mental health outreach services in Japan].

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Shunichi; Fujieda, Yumiko; Shimizu, Kimiko; Ishibashi, Aya; Eguchi, Satoshi

    2013-04-01

    Outreach services are very important in community mental health care. There are two types for outreach services. One is mental health activities, such as early intervention and consultation, and the other is intended to prevent recurrence and readmission by supporting the daily living activities of a patient in a community. We have 2.73 psychiatric care beds in hospitals per 1,000 population. So, it is just the beginning in changing from hospital centered psychiatry to community mental health care. Outreach services are being tried in several places in our country. In this essay, we describe mental health outreach services in Japan and we have illustrated vocational rehabilitation and outreach job support in our day treatment program.

  4. Strategies for Improving Nursing Students' Mental Health Clinical Rotation.

    PubMed

    Kroning, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Mental illness is a huge problem many people face in the U.S. and around the world. The American Psychiatric Nurses Association indicates there is a shortage of nurses in every level and role in psychiatric-mental health nursing. Raising up a generation of nurses who want to work with the mentally ill is a challenge for nurse educators. The use of role playing and simulation in the learning lab prior to entering the clinical setting and reflective journaling in the clinical rotation can improve undergraduate nursing students' mental health clinical experience. PMID:27295244

  5. Strategies for Improving Nursing Students' Mental Health Clinical Rotation.

    PubMed

    Kroning, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Mental illness is a huge problem many people face in the U.S. and around the world. The American Psychiatric Nurses Association indicates there is a shortage of nurses in every level and role in psychiatric-mental health nursing. Raising up a generation of nurses who want to work with the mentally ill is a challenge for nurse educators. The use of role playing and simulation in the learning lab prior to entering the clinical setting and reflective journaling in the clinical rotation can improve undergraduate nursing students' mental health clinical experience.

  6. Clinically Sensitive Peer-Assisted Mediation in Mental Health Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Susan; Stone, James L.; Holbrook, Terry

    2002-01-01

    Describes a pilot mediation program that offers an empowering alternative to problem resolution used by mental health consumers receiving treatment at an inpatient psychiatric center. The training program uses mental health clinicians and consumers (peer advocates) to act as assistants in mediating disputes between consumers and between consumers…

  7. Inpatient Mental Health Services in Rural Areas: An Interregional Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagenfeld, Morton O.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A classification of nonmetropolitan counties based on type of economy, socioeconomic level, and land use was applied to inpatient psychiatric services data of the National Institute of Mental Health. The scarce inpatient mental health services in nonmetropolitan areas were located mostly in nonfederal general hospitals in specialized-government…

  8. Correlates of Mental Health among Latino Farmworkers in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Rebecca; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Schwantes, Melody; Isom, Scott; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Latino farmworkers are a vulnerable population who confront multiple threats to their mental health. Informed by the stress-process model of psychiatric disorder, the goal of this paper is to determine primary and context-specific stressors of poor mental health among Latino farmworkers. Methods: Structured interview data were obtained…

  9. Mental Health Stigma among Adolescents: Implications for School Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranke, Derrick; Floersch, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated adolescents with a mental health diagnosis and their experience of stigma in schools. Forty adolescents between the ages of twelve and seventeen who met DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric illness and who were prescribed psychiatric medication were selected. The Teen Subjective Experience of Medication Interview was used to…

  10. Mental health services in the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Okasha, Ahmed; Karam, Elie; Okasha, Tarek

    2012-02-01

    This paper summarizes the current situation of mental health services in the Arab world. Out of 20 countries for which information is available, six do not have a mental health legislation and two do not have a mental health policy. Three countries (Lebanon, Kuwait and Bahrain) had in 2007 more than 30 psychiatric beds per 100,000 population, while two (Sudan and Somalia) had less than 5 per 100,000. The highest number of psychiatrists is found in Qatar, Bahrain and Kuwait, while seven countries (Iraq, Libya, Morocco, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen) have less than 0.5 psychiatrists for 100,000 population. The budget allowed for mental health as a percentage from the total health budget, in the few countries where information is available, is far below the range to promote mental health services. Some improvement has occurred in the last decade, but the mental health human resources and the attention devoted to mental health issues are still insufficient.

  11. Mental health services in the Arab world

    PubMed Central

    OKASHA, AHMED; KARAM, ELIE; OKASHA, TAREK

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current situation of mental health services in the Arab world. Out of 20 countries for which information is available, six do not have a mental health legislation and two do not have a mental health policy. Three countries (Lebanon, Kuwait and Bahrain) had in 2007 more than 30 psychiatric beds per 100,000 population, while two (Sudan and Somalia) had less than 5 per 100,000. The highest number of psychiatrists is found in Qatar, Bahrain and Kuwait, while seven countries (Iraq, Libya, Morocco, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen) have less than 0.5 psychiatrists for 100,000 population. The budget allowed for mental health as a percentage from the total health budget, in the few countries where information is available, is far below the range to promote mental health services. Some improvement has occurred in the last decade, but the mental health human resources and the attention devoted to mental health issues are still insufficient. PMID:22295010

  12. Mental Health, Racism, and Sexism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others

    This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…

  13. Emergency Department Mental Health Triage and Consultancy Service: an advanced practice role for mental health nurses.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Stuart; Wynaden, Dianne; Finn, Michael; McGowan, Sunita; Chapman, Rose; Gray, Shirilee

    2003-04-01

    This paper describes a four-month preparatory training program for mental health nurses to provide an Emergency Mental Health Triage and Consultancy Service in the emergency department. The emergency department is an important gateway for patients presenting with psychiatric/psychosocial problems and mental health professionals need to provide prompt and effective care to this group of patients. Prior to the implementation of the service, it was acknowledged that occupational stress and burnout could affect the turnover of mental health nurses in the department. Therefore, a training program was employed to prepare a number of experienced mental health nurses to work at an advanced practitioner level. The four-month training program developed at Fremantle Hospital in Western Australia provided support, guidance and clinical supervision. In the first 12 months of the service, five mental health nurses completed the program, thus creating a pool of nurses who were able to provide the service. The results demonstrated that providing mental health nurses with a structured program was instrumental in facilitating their movement to an advanced practitioner level. The nurses were able to apply advanced knowledge and skills to assess and manage clients with complex mental health /psychosocial problems. Furthermore, on leaving the emergency department these nurses were able to utilise the advanced skills in other areas of mental health nursing practice.

  14. The 5/95 Gap on the dissemination of mental health research: The World Psychiatric Association (WPA) task force report on project with editors of low and middle income (LAMI) countries.

    PubMed

    de Jesus Mari, J; Patel, V; Kieling, C; Anders, M; Jakovljevi, M; Lam, L C; Lotaief, F; Mendlowicz, M V; Okulat, G; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S; Tamam, L; Tyrer, P; Herrman, H

    2009-02-01

    The World Psychiatric Association (WPA) Task Force and a small group previously convened by the WPA publications committee initiated three activities between 2006-2008 that aimed to respond to the need for greater support for psychiatry journals in LAMI countries. In a joint venture with participants from the Global Mental Health Movement the Task Force editors from LAMI countries in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America were contacted to identify potential journals to target for indexation (Medline and ISI). The committee analyzed the editors' applications on the following criteria: a) geographical representativeness; b) affiliation to a professional mental health society; c) regular publication of at least 4 issues per year over the past few years; d) comprehensive national and international editorial boards; e) publication of original articles, or at least abstracts, in English; f) some level of current indexation; g) evidence of a good balance between original and review articles in publications; and h) a friendly access website. The committee received 26 applications (11 from Latin America, 7 from Central Europe, 4 from Asia and 4 from Africa), and selected 8 journals, 2 from each geographical area, on the basis of the overall scores obtained for the items mentioned, to participate in an editors meeting held in Prague in September 2008. The aims of the committee are twofold: a) to concentrate support for those selected journals; and b) to assist all LAMI mental health editors in improving the quality of their journals and fulfilling the requirements for full indexation. This report summarizes the procedures conducted by the committee, the assessment of the current non-indexed journals, and offers suggestions for further action.

  15. Mental Health Services for Children; Focus: The Community Mental Health Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD. Center for Studies of Child and Family Mental Health.

    The need to help the emotionally disturbed is discussed with a focus on community mental health centers. Psychiatric services described are diagnosis, inpatient care, day care, outpatient care, emergency care, continuity of care and services, and care adjusted to age groupings ranging from infancy to adolescence. Aspects of the community goal of…

  16. From Mental Disorder to Iatrogenic Hypogonadism - Dilemmas in Conceptualizing Gender Identity Variants as Psychiatric Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.

    2009-01-01

    The categorization of gender identity variants (GIVs) as “mental disorders” in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) is highly controversial among professionals as well as among persons with GIV. After providing a brief history of GIV categorizations in the DSM, this paper presents some of the major issues of the ongoing debate: GIV as psychopathology versus natural variation; definition of “impairment” and “distress” for GID; associated psychopathology and its relation to stigma; the stigma impact of the mental-disorder label itself; the unusual character of “sex reassignment surgery” as a psychiatric treatment; and the consequences for health and mental-health services if the disorder label is removed. Finally, several categorization options are examined: Retaining the GID category, but possibly modifying its grouping with other syndromes; narrowing the definition to dysphoria and taking “disorder” out of the label; categorizing GID as a neurological or medical rather than a psychiatric disorder; removing GID from both the DSM and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD); and creating a special category for GIV in the DSM. I conclude that--as also evident in other DSM categories--the decision on the categorization of GIVs cannot be achieved on a purely scientific basis, and that a consensus for a pragmatic compromise needs to be arrived at that accommodates both scientific considerations and the service needs of persons with GIVs. PMID:19851856

  17. Lifestyle and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Mental health professionals have significantly underestimated the importance of lifestyle factors (a) as contributors to and treatments for multiple psychopathologies, (b) for fostering individual and social well-being, and (c) for preserving and optimizing cognitive function. Consequently, therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) are underutilized…

  18. Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    PubMed

    SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.

  19. Pennsylvania Women's Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towns, Kathryn; And Others

    Women have undergone a revolution in their self-perception and their traditional relationships to work, money, marriage, and family. These social changes have implications for every aspect of women's lives, including their mental health. Because of the special problems and conflicts confronting women today, data need to be analyzed on policies,…

  20. Mental Health in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strother, Deborah Burnett

    1983-01-01

    This article's review of recent educational materials dealing with mental health and the classroom includes research into school setting and organization, early detection and remediation, curriculum, and teaching and counseling. The authors also describe a model program in Memphis, Tennessee, and offer various steps for teaching social skills.…

  1. Selected Mental Health Audiovisuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    Presented are approximately 2,300 abstracts on audio-visual Materials--films, filmstrips, audiotapes, and videotapes--related to mental health. Each citation includes material title; name, address, and phone number of film distributor; rental and purchase prices; technical information; and a description of the contents. Abstracts are listed in…

  2. [Burn injuries and mental health].

    PubMed

    Palmu, Raimo; Vuola, Jyrki

    2016-01-01

    Currently a large proportion of patients with severe burn injuries survive. This gives increasing challenges also for psychological recovery after the trauma. More than half of burn patients have mental disorders already before the burn injury but also patients who previously had no mental disorders may suffer from them. Some of the hospitalize burn patients have injuries due to suicidal attempts. Only a small proportion of burn patients receive appropriate psychiatric care although psychosocial interventions specifically planned for burn victims exist. More frequent screening of symtoms of mental disorders and psychiatric consultation, also after acute care in hospital, could lead to better management of post-burn psychiatric care as well as better management of the burn treatment and rehabilitation itself. PMID:27089616

  3. Latina Mothers' Perceptions of Mental Health and Mental Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Conner, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Latina mothers' perceptions of mental health and factors that promote/restore mental health were explored in this qualitative study. Participants discussed the importance of community, safety, and financial stability in addition to conventional factors that are related to mental health. Implications for working with urban Latinas and their…

  4. Mental health and housing.

    PubMed

    Kari-Koskinen, O; Karvonen, P

    1976-01-01

    With the present trend away from the designing of individual buildings and towards the systematic planning of whole residential communities, it should be possible to take mental health requirements into account at the planning stage. At present, sociologists are all too seldom consulted on matters of residential planning. When discussing the relationship between housing and mental health one cannot restrict oneself only to the external aspects of the house, but rather one must also consider the opportunities available for the members of the family to satisfy their own needs, both within the home and in its immediate surroundings. Factors which may affect residential requirements include geographical location, type and standard of dwelling and time and continuity of occupation. A move between two districts or groups representing different housing norms and values may lead to withdrawal symptoms in the individual. This may arise equally well from the remoteness of the country districts as from the conflicting pressures brought on by the abundance of contacts available in the large towns. Town life tends to heighten susceptibility to neuroses and personality conflicts. The character of a residential area may affect the mental health of its occupants. Faris & Dunham (4), in studying the incidence of various types of mental illness with an urban population, observed that schizophrenia was most common among people who were in some way isolated from social involvement. The striving for spaciousness in residential areas and the creation of a "summer city" or "garden city" image or a "family-centred way of life" may lead to unexpected problems and have a variety of social consequences. Mental health difficulties have been noted, for example, among housewives in "dormitory" towns or suburbs (11). The institutions required by a community may be grouped into four categories, representing the basic needs of its members. These are (1) economic institutions, (2) social and

  5. Sexual Health Education: A Psychiatric Resident's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waineo, Eva; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Morreale, Mary K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This report discusses psychiatric residents' perceptions of sexual health education and their opinions regarding curricular improvements. Methods: An anonymous, web-based survey was sent to residents in one general psychiatry program (N = 33). The response rate was 69.7%. Results: Residents reported inadequate experience in multiple…

  6. Australia's national mental health policy.

    PubMed

    Whiteford, H A

    1993-10-01

    In April 1992 the health ministers of all Australian states, territories, and the federal government endorsed Australia's first National Mental Health Policy. The major principles outlined in the policy include protecting consumers' rights, setting national service standards, mainstreaming mental health services with general health services, better integrating inpatient and community mental health services to ensure continuity of care, and linking mental health services and other social and disability services. A five-year National Mental Health Plan, accompanied by additional federal funding, has also been released, with time frames for implementing the policy in all states and territories and at the federal level. PMID:8225277

  7. Dystonia: Emotional and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coping Tips & Strategies Are You Severely Depressed? Dystonia & Depression Dystonia & Anxiety Finding a Mental Health Professional When a Child is Diagnosed Online Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is ...

  8. Components of Positive Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Logan

    1971-01-01

    Thirty items designed to measure behavior in the six areas described by Jahoda as comprising positive mental health were administered. The data contraindicate the hypothesis that positive mental health is a unitary factor. (Author)

  9. Integrated Educational and Mental Health Services within a Day Treatment Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Greta; Radka, Dale F.

    This paper discusses the integration of educational and mental health services for children and adolescents within a psychiatric day treatment setting at the Bradley School housed in a private psychiatric hospital affiliated with Brown University in Rhode Island. A full range of mental health services are used, and therapies are delivered in the…

  10. The homeless mentally ill. The perspective of the American Psychiatric Association.

    PubMed

    Lamb, H R; Talbott, J A

    1986-07-25

    The homeless mentally ill have become one of the greatest problems of present-day society. The American Psychiatric Association's Task Force on the Homeless Mentally Ill concluded that this is not the result of deinstitutionalization per se but of the way it has been carried out; homelessness among the chronically and severely mentally ill is symptomatic of the grave problems facing them generally in this country. Thus, the problem will not be solved until the basic underlying problems are addressed and a comprehensive and integrated system of care for the chronically mentally ill is established. Specific recommendations of the Task Force include an ample range of graded, supervised community housing; comprehensive and accessible psychiatric care and rehabilitation; the availability of general medical assessment and care, crisis services, and a dependable source of income; a system of case management in which one mental health worker is responsible for each patient; changes in commitment laws to make them more responsive to clinical needs; coordination between the various community resources; and ongoing asylum and sanctuary for that small proportion who require it.

  11. Mental Health Program Reports - 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Julius, Ed.

    The volume is reported to reflect the broad range of National Institute of Mental Health activities in areas of research, development of mental health manpower, and delivery of mental health services. Twenty papers examine, respectively, relationship of life histories and biochemistry of siblings and twins to schizophrenia, training of Navaho…

  12. Diagnostic ambivalence: psychiatric workarounds and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Whooley, Owen

    2010-03-01

    In 1980 the American Psychiatric Association (APA), faced with increased professional competition, revised the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Psychiatric expertise was redefined along a biomedical model via a standardised nosology. While they were an integral part of capturing professional authority, the revisions demystified psychiatric expertise, leaving psychiatrists vulnerable to infringements upon their autonomy by institutions adopting the DSM literally. This research explores the tensions surrounding standardisation in psychiatry. Drawing on in-depth interviews with psychiatrists, I explore the 'sociological ambivalence' psychiatrists feel towards the DSM, which arises from the tension between the desire for autonomy in practice and the professional goal of legitimacy within the system of mental health professions. To carve a space for autonomy for their practice, psychiatrists develop 'workarounds' that undermine the DSM in practice. These workarounds include employing alternative diagnostic typologies, fudging the numbers (or codes) on official paperwork and negotiating diagnoses with patients. In creating opportunities for patient input and resistance to fixed diagnoses, the varied use of the DSM raises fundamental questions for psychiatrists about the role of the biomedical model of mental illness, especially its particular manifestation in the DSM.

  13. Mental and Social Health Atlas I in Saudi Arabia: 2007-08.

    PubMed

    Al-Habeeb, A A; Qureshi, N A

    2010-05-01

    Based on the World Health Organization's Mental Health Atlas, the first Mental and Social Health Atlas in Saudi Arabia describes the historical background of mental health and social services in the country and identifies several deficiencies in the system including infrastructure and logistics and lack of epidemiological data. There is now great progress in strategic planning for developing and improving mental health care services across the nation, with suggestions to develop psychiatric services for identified special populations, to establish community mental health care services, to improve research and training in mental health, and to update mental health annual information systems using advanced information technology.

  14. Seclusion experienced by mental health professionals.

    PubMed

    Kuosmanen, L; Makkonen, P; Lehtila, H; Salminen, H

    2015-06-01

    Seclusion in psychiatric inpatient care means confining service users in a locked room. Service users and staff seem to have different opinions on the usefulness of seclusion. This is possibly the first time when two mental health nurses went voluntarily into seclusion and reported their experiences. The nurses felt that the seclusion room was inhumane and proposed improvements to seclusion in general and to the seclusion facilities in particular. Seclusion in psychiatric hospital care refers to isolating a service user from other service users and staff, most often in a locked and unfurnished room. Service users' experiences of seclusion are mostly negative, and although some have seen a rationale for its use, mental health nurses should be encouraged to evaluate current seclusion practices from the service user's perspective. In this small-scale experiment, two mental health nurses were voluntarily secluded for 24 h. The aim was to explore the experience of being secluded, to understand and evaluate the impact of seclusion in greater detail, and to encourage discussion on one of the controversies in mental health nursing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to evaluate the impact of seclusion based on mental health nurses' firsthand experiences. The nurses received usual seclusion treatment and described their experiences of this every 6 h. Based on the nurses' experiences, seclusion, even in voluntary, safe and planned circumstances, may increase anxiety and frustration. Seclusion was viewed negatively and the physical environment was considered inhumane. The nurses offered some practical suggestions for updating seclusion practices and re-designing seclusion facilities. Mental health nurses, who frequently decide on and invariably implement seclusion, are key to improving seclusion practices.

  15. Excess non-psychiatric hospitalizations among employees with mental disorders: a 10-year prospective study of the GAZEL cohort

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo Da Silva, M; Lemogne, C; Melchior, M; Zins, M; Van Der Waerden, J; Consoli, S M; Goldberg, M; Elbaz, A; Singh-Manoux, A; Nabi, H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether non-psychiatric hospitalizations rates were higher in those with mental disorders. Method In a cohort of 15 811 employees, aged 35–50 years in 1989, mental disorder status was defined from 1989 to 2000. Hospitalizations for all-causes, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and cancer, were recorded yearly from 2001 to 2011. Negative binomial regression models were used to estimate hospitalization rates over the follow-up. Results After controlling for baseline sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviors, self-rated health, and self-reported medical conditions, participants with a mental disorder had significantly higher rates of all-cause hospitalization [incidence rate ratio, IRR = 1.20 (95%, 1.14–1.26)], as well as hospitalization due to MI [IRR = 1.44 (95%, 1.12–1.85)]. For stroke, the IRR did not reach statistical significance [IRR = 1.37 (95%, 0.95–1.99)] and there was no association with cancer [IRR = 1.01 (95%, 0.86–1.19)]. A similar trend was observed when mental disorders groups were considered (no mental disorder, depressive disorder, mental disorders due to psychoactive substance use, other mental disorders, mixed mental disorders, and severe mental disorder). Conclusion In this prospective cohort of employees with stable employment as well as universal access to healthcare, we found participants with mental disorders to have higher rates of non-psychiatric hospitalizations. PMID:25289581

  16. School Mental Health Resources and Adolescent Mental Health Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…

  17. The built environment and mental health.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gary W

    2003-12-01

    The built environment has direct and indirect effects on mental health. High-rise housing is inimical to the psychological well-being of women with young children. Poor-quality housing appears to increase psychological distress, but methodological issues make it difficult to draw clear conclusions. Mental health of psychiatric patients has been linked to design elements that affect their ability to regulate social interaction (e.g., furniture configuration, privacy). Alzheimer's patients adjust better to small-scale, homier facilities that also have lower levels of stimulation. They are also better adjusted in buildings that accommodate physical wandering. Residential crowding (number of people per room) and loud exterior noise sources (e.g., airports) elevate psychological distress but do not produce serious mental illness. Malodorous air pollutants heighten negative affect, and some toxins (e.g., lead, solvents) cause behavioral disturbances (e.g., self-regulatory ability, aggression). Insufficient daylight is reliably associated with increased depressive symptoms. Indirectly, the physical environment may influence mental health by altering psychosocial processes with known mental health sequelae. Personal control, socially supportive relationships, and restoration from stress and fatigue are all affected by properties of the built environment. More prospective, longitudinal studies and, where feasible, randomized experiments are needed to examine the potential role of the physical environment in mental health. Even more challenging is the task of developing underlying models of how the built environment can affect mental health. It is also likely that some individuals may be more vulnerable to mental health impacts of the built environment. Because exposure to poor environmental conditions is not randomly distributed and tends to concentrate among the poor and ethnic minorities, we also need to focus more attention on the health implications of multiple

  18. Health Policy Considerations in Treating Mental and Behavioral Health Emergencies in the United States.

    PubMed

    Halmer, Thiago C; Beall, Rakel C; Shah, Asim A; Dark, Cedric

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, health care providers have sounded the call that the US mental health system is in crisis. With decreases in funding and eroding access to care, the availability of psychiatric services has become increasingly limited, failing to meet growing needs. This article provides a brief history of mental health services in the United States and describes the current landscape of US psychiatric care; it touches upon some of the most important policy considerations, describing some of the glaring issues in US mental health care today. Last, it offers some potential remedies to improve care in acute behavioral emergencies. PMID:26493530

  19. Health Policy Considerations in Treating Mental and Behavioral Health Emergencies in the United States.

    PubMed

    Halmer, Thiago C; Beall, Rakel C; Shah, Asim A; Dark, Cedric

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, health care providers have sounded the call that the US mental health system is in crisis. With decreases in funding and eroding access to care, the availability of psychiatric services has become increasingly limited, failing to meet growing needs. This article provides a brief history of mental health services in the United States and describes the current landscape of US psychiatric care; it touches upon some of the most important policy considerations, describing some of the glaring issues in US mental health care today. Last, it offers some potential remedies to improve care in acute behavioral emergencies.

  20. Positioning mental health nursing practice within a positive health paradigm.

    PubMed

    Wand, Timothy

    2013-04-01

    Mental health service provision has traditionally been dominated by biomedical models of illness and disorder, a problem-based orientation, and the assessment and management of risk. While psychotherapeutic approaches are numerous and have been widely utilized, psychotropic medications, either as monotherapy or in conjunction with psychological therapies, remain the mainstay for the 'treatment' of mental health problems. This is despite growing uncertainty over the effectiveness of psychotropic medications (particularly antidepressants), as well as their potential for enduring and debilitating side-effects. This discussion paper outlines the emerging field of positive health, which eschews a psychiatric disorder and illness focus, and is instead oriented towards the identification of strengths, abilities, hopes, and the individual's preferred future. The shift in positive health, from illness towards wellness, aims to build health literacy and the capacity of individuals to make decisions conducive to health, and thereby make more effective the use of health-care services. A positioning of mental health nursing practice within a positive health paradigm is promoted. By illustration, a number of solution-focused mental health assessment questions are tabled to contrast the current format for mental health assessment, which rather than being 'comprehensive', is predominantly concerned only with problem and risk identification, and the search for pathology in the individual.

  1. 76 FR 68198 - Lists of Designated Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... (54 FR 8735). The criteria for psychiatric HPSAs were expanded to mental health HPSAs on January 22, 1992 (57 FR 2473). Currently funded PHS Act programs use only the primary medical care, mental health... designated HPSAs and supersedes the HPSA lists published in the Federal Register on February 20, 2002 (67...

  2. Disparities in the Geography of Mental Health: Implications for Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent theory and research on geographic disparities in mental health and their implications for social work. It focuses on work emerging from the fields of mental health geography, psychiatric epidemiology, and social work, arguing that a wide range of spatial disparities in mental health are important to understand but that…

  3. Mental Health, United States, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This document presents timely statistical information on the nation's organized mental health service delivery system. Included are: (1) "Chronic Mental Disorder in the United States" (Howard H. Goldman and Ronald W. Manderscheid); (2) "Specialty Mental Health System Characteristics" (Michael J. Witkin, Joanne E. Atay, Adele S. Fell, and Ronald W.…

  4. Chicano Aging and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Manuel, Ed.; Ruiz, Rene A., Ed.

    Focusing on the direction future research on the Chicano elderly should take, the 10 papers address theory development, methodological approach, social policy and problems, mental health service delivery, and issues of mental illness. The first seven papers discuss: the theoretical perspectives of research pertaining to mental health and the…

  5. What Is Infant Mental Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

    2012-01-01

    Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

  6. Improving Mental Health in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.

    2015-01-01

    Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…

  7. [Mental health care in Austria: history--developments--perspectives].

    PubMed

    Meise, Ullrich; Wancata, Johannes; Hinterhuber, Hartmann

    2008-01-01

    The reform of psychiatric services in Austria started during the second half of the seventies of the 20th century. During the early phase the reform focussed on dehospitalization and principles of community psychiatry. About 60% of psychiatric hospital beds were closed and the size of psychiatric hospitals was reduced. One of the psychiatric hospitals was closed and psychiatric departments were opened as part of district general hospitals. During this time the number of psychiatric hospital admissions increased markedly and a large proportion of mentally ill are treated as inpatients in non-psychiatric wards. Only about a fifth of self-employed psychiatrists working in their own office have a contract with health insurances. In Austria, the number of psychotherapists is much higher than the number of psychiatrist. A variety of different types of community services provide social and vocational rehabilitation, focussing on consultation, housing, daily structure and employment. Psychiatric services are nowadays fragmented into a number of sub-disciplines such as psychosomatics or child and adolescent psychiatry. This fragmentation and the missing coordination of psychiatric services hamper the enhancements of psychiatric care. This complicates the development of integrated services, i.e. the structured and planned cooperation of the different types of services. Since there are no binding rules for the organisation and planning in entire Austria, financing and organisation of services is fragmented. For establishing an integrated health care, coordination and cooperation between providers, sponsors of health care as well as policy makers are essential.

  8. Computational Tracking of Mental Health in Youth: Latin American Contributions to a Low-Cost and Effective Solution for Early Psychiatric Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Natália Bezerra; Copelli, Mauro; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2016-01-01

    The early onset of mental disorders can lead to serious cognitive damage, and timely interventions are needed in order to prevent them. In patients of low socioeconomic status, as is common in Latin America, it can be hard to identify children at risk. Here, we briefly introduce the problem by reviewing the scarce epidemiological data from Latin…

  9. Psychedelics and Mental Health: A Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Teri S.; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan

    2013-01-01

    Background The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline. Objective To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population. Method Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale), mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive), symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis), and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events. Results 21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted) reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote), or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems. Conclusion We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems. PMID:23976938

  10. Mental health triage: towards a model for nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Sands, N

    2007-05-01

    Mental health triage/duty services play a pivotal role in the current framework for mental health service delivery in Victoria and other states of Australia. Australia is not alone in its increasing reliance on mental health triage as a model of psychiatric service provision; at a global level, there appears to be an emerging trend to utilize mental health triage services staffed by nurses as a cost-effective means of providing mental health care to large populations. At present, nurses comprise the greater proportion of the mental health triage workforce in Victoria and, as such, are performing the majority of point-of-entry mental health assessment across the state. Although mental health triage/duty services have been operational for nearly a decade in some regional healthcare sectors of Victoria, there is little local or international research on the topic, and therefore a paucity of established theory to inform and guide mental health triage practice and professional development. The discussion in this paper draws on the findings and recommendations of PhD research into mental health triage nursing in Victoria, to raise discussion on the need to develop theoretical models to inform and guide nursing practice. The paper concludes by presenting a provisional model for mental health triage nursing practice.

  11. Mental health triage nursing: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Sands, N

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents the findings of a doctoral research project that involved a state-wide investigation into mental health triage nursing in Victoria, Australia. Mental health triage is a specialized domain of nursing practice that has emerged within the context of wider mental health reform in the State. The overall aim of the study was to produce a comprehensive definition and description of psychiatric triage nursing in Victoria. Methodological triangulation was used in the design of the study to enable the use of both survey (n = 139) and semi-structured interview (n = 21) data collection methods. Mental health triage nursing was found to be a complex, stressful role that involves high levels of responsibility, clinical decision making, and multiple role functions, many of which overlap into areas of practice previously the exclusive domain of medicine, such as assessment, diagnosis, and referral. The paper raises discussion on contemporary professional issues of concern to mental health triage nursing, and concludes with recommendations for the future development of the discipline.

  12. Global Mental Health: concepts, conflicts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Rob

    2015-08-01

    This paper introduces, describes and analyses the emerging concept of Global Mental Health (GMH). The birth of GMH can be traced to London, 2007, with the publication of a series of high-profile papers in The Lancet. Since then, GMH has developed into a movement with proponents, adherents, opponents, an ideology and core activities. The stated aims of the Movement for GMH are 'to improve services for people living with mental health problems and psychosocial disabilities worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries where effective services are often scarce'. GMH could be considered an attempt to right a historic wrong. During the colonial and post-colonial eras, the mental health of subject populations was accorded a very low priority. This was fuelled by scientific racism, which alleged that mental illness was uncommon in places such as Africa. As developing nations have made the epidemiological transition, the burden of mental illness has proportionately increased, with research suggesting a massive 'treatment gap' between those in need and those actually receiving formal mental health care. As such, much GMH research and action has been devoted to: (i) the identification and scale-up of cost-effective evidence-supported interventions that could be made more widely available; (ii) task-shifting of such intervention delivery to mental-health trained non-specialist Lay Health Workers. GMH has come under sustained critique. Critics suggest that GMH is colonial medicine come full circle, involving the top-down imposition of Western psychiatric models and solutions by Western-educated elites. These critiques suggest that GMH ignores the various indigenous modalities of healing present in non-Western cultures, which may be psychologically adaptive and curative. Relatedly, critics argue that GMH could be an unwitting Trojan horse for the mass medicalisation of people in developing countries, paving the way for exploitation by Big Pharma, while ignoring

  13. Resilience and mental health.

    PubMed

    Davydov, Dmitry M; Stewart, Robert; Ritchie, Karen; Chaudieu, Isabelle

    2010-07-01

    The relationship between disease and good health has received relatively little attention in mental health. Resilience can be viewed as a defence mechanism, which enables people to thrive in the face of adversity and improving resilience may be an important target for treatment and prophylaxis. Though resilience is a widely-used concept, studies vary substantially in their definition, and measurement. Above all, there is no common underlying theoretical construct to this very heterogeneous research which makes the evaluation and comparison of findings extremely difficult. Furthermore, the varying multi-disciplinary approaches preclude meta-analysis, so that clarification of research in this area must proceed firstly by conceptual unification. We attempt to collate and classify the available research around a multi-level biopsychosocial model, theoretically and semiotically comparable to that used in describing the complex chain of events related to host resistance in infectious disease. Using this underlying construct we attempt to reorganize current knowledge around a unitary concept in order to clarify and indicate potential intervention points for increasing resilience and positive mental health. PMID:20395025

  14. Computational Tracking of Mental Health in Youth: Latin American Contributions to a Low-Cost and Effective Solution for Early Psychiatric Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mota, Natália Bezerra; Copelli, Mauro; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2016-06-01

    The early onset of mental disorders can lead to serious cognitive damage, and timely interventions are needed in order to prevent them. In patients of low socioeconomic status, as is common in Latin America, it can be hard to identify children at risk. Here, we briefly introduce the problem by reviewing the scarce epidemiological data from Latin America regarding the onset of mental disorders, and discussing the difficulties associated with early diagnosis. Then we present computational psychiatry, a new field to which we and other Latin American researchers have contributed methods particularly relevant for the quantitative investigation of psychopathologies manifested during childhood. We focus on new technologies that help to identify mental disease and provide prodromal evaluation, so as to promote early differential diagnosis and intervention. To conclude, we discuss the application of these methods to clinical and educational practice. A comprehensive and quantitative characterization of verbal behavior in children, from hospitals and laboratories to homes and schools, may lead to more effective pedagogical and medical intervention. PMID:27254827

  15. Stigma and mental health challenges in medical students

    PubMed Central

    Hankir, Ahmed Khaldoon; Northall, Amy; Zaman, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Despite the perception that medical students and doctors should be ‘invincible’, mental health challenges are common in this population. Medical students and doctors have low levels of help seeking for their own psychiatric problems often only presenting to mental health services once a crisis arises. Fear of exposure to stigmatisation is a crucial factor contributing to symptom concealment and is a barrier to accessing mental health services. Autobiographical narratives of the ‘Wounded Healer’ are gaining popularity among medical students and doctors with mental health challenges both as an effective form of adjunctive therapy and as a means to campaign against stigma. Indeed, the results of a randomised controlled trial to assess the efficacy of Coming Out Proud with mental illness revealed immediate positive effects on stigma stress-related variables. We provide an autobiographical narrative from a medical student who has first-hand experience with mental health challenges. PMID:25183806

  16. [Impact of disasters on the mental health].

    PubMed

    Cernuda Martínez, José Antonio; Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael

    2013-12-01

    The study on the impact of disasters on the mental health is a relatively recent research field. Despite this, there are a significant number of studies showing the epidemiological data of the psychiatric pathology present in survivors and those affected by disasters This review attempts to summarize current knowledge and give an integrated vision of the effects of the disasters on the mental health, either natural or manmade disasters, as well as identify the effects prevalence and differences in each type of disaster. Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety disorders, suicidal ideation or suicide attempts are some of the pathologies observed in people affected by disasters and with an ineffective adaptation, jointly with an increase in the consumption of toxic substances, generating an additional public health problem within another problem. The consequences will be different depending on the type of population and its cultural pattern, sex and gender of the affected people and type of disasters.

  17. Mental health and quality of mental health care.

    PubMed

    Taipale, V

    2001-01-01

    Mental health is an intrinsic part of health. Its prevailing position as secondary to physical health and its consequent neglect are based on inaccurate assumptions about mental health. Nowhere in the world, in either the developed or the developing countries, has mental health work been given priority as part of social policy, health policy or public policy. Yet all countries readily admit the major impact of mental health disturbances on the national economy and public health. The mentally sick are at the bottom of the list in service systems the world over, and the common attitude towards them tends to be highly negative. Meanwhile there is convincing evidence of the global and growing need for mental health services. The international debate on mental health policy has its origins in two arenas: in human rights issues and in service reform issues. The debate on human rights concerns legislation on mental health, compulsory treatment and coercive measures. As to the service reform process, the universal focus has been on the financing of health care, on cuts and downsizing, where no priority has been given to the quality of care. The social consequences of mental illnesses may be far more seriously marginalising for the patient than is the illness itself. They are caused by the inexperience and the exclusion mechanisms of the social community. They are evident also in non-institutional services, causing isolation and rejection. The state of mental health patients will not improve without the strong involvement of health policy planners, quality assurance developers and the medical and scientific community. We need far more studies and research in the field. We need also the empowerment of the patients themselves and their relatives.

  18. Paternal age and mental health of offspring

    PubMed Central

    Malaspina, Dolores; Gilman, Caitlin; Kranz, Thorsten Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The influence of paternal age on the risk for sporadic forms of Mendelian disorders is well known, but a burgeoning recent literature also demonstrates a paternal age effect for complex neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, autism, bipolar disorder and even for learning potential, expressed as intelligence. Mental illness is costly to the patients, the family and the public health system, accounting for the largest portion of disability costs in our economy. The delayed onset of neuropsychiatric conditions and lack of physical manifestations at birth are common frequencies in the population that have obscured the recognition that a portion of the risks for mental conditions is associated with paternal age. Identification of these risk pathways may be leveraged for knowledge about mental function and for future screening tests. However, only a small minority of at-risk offspring are likely to have such a psychiatric or learning disorder attributable to paternal age, including the children of older fathers. PMID:25956369

  19. [Mental health in Chile and Finland: Challenges and lessons].

    PubMed

    Retamal C, Pedro; Markkula, Niina; Peña, Sebastián

    2016-07-01

    This article analyses and compares the epidemiology of mental disorders and relevant public policies in Chile and Finland. In Chile, a specific mental health law is still lacking. While both countries highlight the role of primary care, Finland places more emphasis on participation and recovery of service users. Comprehensive mental health policies from Finland, such as a successful suicide prevention program, are presented. Both countries have similar prevalence of mental disorders, high alcohol consumption and high suicide rates. In Chile, the percentage of total disease burden due to psychiatric disorders is 13% and in Finland 14%. However, the resources to address these issues are very different. Finland spends 4.5% of its health budget on mental health, while in Chile the percentage is 2.2%. This results in differences in human resources and service provision. Finland has five times more psychiatric outpatient visits, four times more psychiatrists, triple antidepressant use and twice more clinical guidelines for different psychiatric conditions. In conclusion, both countries have similar challenges but differing realities. This may help to identify gaps and potential solutions for public health challenges in Chile. Finland’s experience demonstrates the importance of political will and long-term vision in the construction of mental health policies.

  20. [Mental health in Chile and Finland: Challenges and lessons].

    PubMed

    Retamal C, Pedro; Markkula, Niina; Peña, Sebastián

    2016-07-01

    This article analyses and compares the epidemiology of mental disorders and relevant public policies in Chile and Finland. In Chile, a specific mental health law is still lacking. While both countries highlight the role of primary care, Finland places more emphasis on participation and recovery of service users. Comprehensive mental health policies from Finland, such as a successful suicide prevention program, are presented. Both countries have similar prevalence of mental disorders, high alcohol consumption and high suicide rates. In Chile, the percentage of total disease burden due to psychiatric disorders is 13% and in Finland 14%. However, the resources to address these issues are very different. Finland spends 4.5% of its health budget on mental health, while in Chile the percentage is 2.2%. This results in differences in human resources and service provision. Finland has five times more psychiatric outpatient visits, four times more psychiatrists, triple antidepressant use and twice more clinical guidelines for different psychiatric conditions. In conclusion, both countries have similar challenges but differing realities. This may help to identify gaps and potential solutions for public health challenges in Chile. Finland’s experience demonstrates the importance of political will and long-term vision in the construction of mental health policies. PMID:27661557

  1. Comorbid internet addiction in male clients of inpatient addiction rehabilitation centers: psychiatric symptoms and mental comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E; Koch, Andreas; Dickenhorst, Ulrike; Müller, Kai W

    2013-11-01

    Addictive Internet use has recently been proposed to be included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Still, little is known about its nosological features, including comorbidity with other mental disorders and disorder-specific psychopathological symptoms. To investigate whether Internet addiction (IA) is an issue in patients in addiction treatment, 1826 clients were surveyed in 15 inpatient rehabilitation centers. Male patients meeting criteria for comorbid IA (n = 71) were compared with a matched control group of male patients treated for alcohol addiction without addictive Internet use (n = 58). The SCL-90-R, the Patient Health Questionnaire, and the seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder were used to assess associated psychiatric symptoms and further comorbid disorders. Comorbid IA was associated with higher levels of psychosocial symptoms, especially depression, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and interpersonal sensitivity. Moreover, the patients with IA more frequently met criteria for additional mental disorders. They display higher rates of psychiatric symptoms, especially depression, and might be in need of additional therapeutic treatment. In rehabilitation centers, a regular screening for IA is recommended to identify patients with this (non-substance-related) addiction and supply them with additional disorder-specific treatment.

  2. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.

    PubMed

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-03-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  3. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.

    PubMed

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-03-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  4. The Impact of Organizational Factors and Government Policy on Psychiatric Nurses' Family-Focused Practice With Parents Who Have Mental Illness, Their Dependent Children, and Families in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Grant, Anne; Reupert, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Government policy and organizational factors influence family-focused practice (FFP) in adult mental health services. However, how these aspects shape psychiatric nurses' practice with parents who have mental illness, their dependent children, and families is less well understood. Drawing on the findings of a qualitative study, this article explores the way in which Irish policy and organizational factors might influence psychiatric nurses' FFP, and whether (and how) FFP might be further promoted. A purposive sample of 14 psychiatric nurses from eight mental health services completed semi-structured interviews. The analysis was inductive and presented as thematic networks. Both groups described how policies and organizational culture enabled and/or hindered FFP, with differences between community and acute participants seen. This study indicates a need for policies and organizational supports, including child and family skills training, to promote a whole family approach in adult mental health services.

  5. [Anomie and public mental health].

    PubMed

    Parales-Quenza, Carlos J

    2008-01-01

    This article uses the concept of anomie for understanding public mental-health issues and constructing strategies aimed at promoting health and preventing disease. Studying anomie involves many definitions and approaches; this article conceptualises anomie as dérréglement or derangement and as a total social fact as its effects and consequences are pervasive across all areas of human experience. The article suggests the pertinence of the concept to public health based on several authors' observations depicting Latin-America as being a set of anomic societies and Colombia as the extreme case. Current definitions of mental health in positive terms (not just as being the absence of mental illness) validate the need for considering anomie as an indicator of public mental health. The article proposes that if anomie expresses itself through rules as basic social structure components, then such rules should also be considered as the point of intervention in promoting mental health.

  6. [Women and the mental health policy].

    PubMed

    Guberman, N

    1990-05-01

    This article analyzes Québec mental health policy from a feminist point of view. The critique focuses on the decyphering of three tacit premises that the author describes as wanting. On the base of these premises, the author argues that the policy avoids differences in sex and in gender role and their impact on mental health/disorders, that it belongs to a "naturalist" trend that wants to benefit families through the social integration of psychiatrized patients, and that it offers a scuttled partnership with women's groups. The author concludes by pointing out the policy's limits and dangers for women and women's groups, and by raising the issue of the relationship feminist services maintain with the State.

  7. [Alternatives to chronic hospitalization in mental health].

    PubMed

    Gabay, Pablo M; Fernández Bruno, Mónica D

    2009-01-01

    It is not possible to work on alternatives to chronic institutionalization without taking into account a reform of the mental health care system. A great deal of experience has been accumulated and a lot of unsolved problems have arisen since the beginning of the deinstitutionalization in USA and Europe in the 60s. The aim was the closing of psychiatric hospitals, and so the accent was put on the physical place of treatment instead on the quality of the treatment or on the actual needs of the people involved. A review of the experiences is made and some clues are given to avoid the major problems and errors that have presented. Political decisions, experienced professionals, a stable and sufficient budget, modification of some laws, the creation of community institutions that fulfill the patient's needs before moving them, postgraduate training in rehabilitation, flexibility and creativity with empirical and scientific grounds are needed for a successful reform of the mental health care system.

  8. Adolescent mental health in China.

    PubMed

    McClure, G M

    1988-03-01

    Adolescent Mental Health in China is the responsibility of the wider society and is supported by social, educational and health care resources. With limited facilities, China emphasizes community mental health care, with prevention and health promotion as priorities. Mental health is considered in the context of an orderly socialist society with stable family life supported by the state. Society is currently influenced by a mixture of Communist ideology, ancient tradition and newer Western approaches. Difficulties in reconciling these factors are affecting the attitudes and behaviour of China's youth. PMID:3290295

  9. A roadmap for mental health.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alison

    2016-09-21

    The Five Year Forward View could be a turning point in the battle to get mental health parity with physical health, address long waiting times and unmet need, and ensure people get care close to home.

  10. A roadmap for mental health.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alison

    2016-09-21

    The Five Year Forward View could be a turning point in the battle to get mental health parity with physical health, address long waiting times and unmet need, and ensure people get care close to home. PMID:27654538

  11. Mental Health, United States, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manderscheid, Ronald W., Ed.; Henderson, Marilyn J., Ed.

    In recent years, the mental health community has made great strides in understanding more about the delivery of mental health services, improving efficiency and quality in services, and also about how to build strengths and resilience in the face of lifes stresses. This volume adds to the knowledge base so that the important task of system change…

  12. International Collaboration in Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bertram S., Ed.; Torrey, E. Fuller, Ed.

    Presented in five parts on research, services, training, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse are 31 reports of mental health studies and programs supported by the U.S. and other countries. Explained in the introduction are reasons the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has supported international collaboration. The following are among subjects…

  13. International Students and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…

  14. Child Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... important to recognize and treat mental illnesses in children early on. Once mental illness develops, it becomes a regular part of your child's behavior. This makes it more difficult to treat. ...

  15. Mental health issues of peacekeeping workers.

    PubMed

    Shigemura, Jun; Nomura, Soichiro

    2002-10-01

    The end of the Cold War has brought a dramatic change to the international political situation and the role of the United Nations peacekeeping operations (PKO) has drawn increased attention. While many reports on PKO have focused on political or sociologic considerations, the mental health of the peacekeepers themselves has received little attention and psychiatric problems that can have a negative impact on mission success have been largely ignored. Participation in PKO creates a number of stressors and serious psychiatric and/or physical disorders may result. Yet, there is little research on this topic, either domestically or globally, and the methodology for clinical intervention remains in an early stage of development. We have reviewed previous reports to determine how various stressors before, during and after deployment affect the participants. Research in associated fields (e.g. crisis workers and military personnel) are also reviewed and their application to peacekeeping psychiatry is discussed. It must be admitted that the significance of PKO is arguable and each PKO is unique in terms of the nature of its mission and the local situation. Yet, the relationship between the psychiatric status of the personnel and the characteristics of an individual mission has never been studied. At present, no clear consensus regarding a framework for psychiatric intervention exists. Studies that enhance the recognition and significance of peacekeeping psychiatry are likely to improve the efficacy of PKO.

  16. Mental health issues of peacekeeping workers.

    PubMed

    Shigemura, Jun; Nomura, Soichiro

    2002-10-01

    The end of the Cold War has brought a dramatic change to the international political situation and the role of the United Nations peacekeeping operations (PKO) has drawn increased attention. While many reports on PKO have focused on political or sociologic considerations, the mental health of the peacekeepers themselves has received little attention and psychiatric problems that can have a negative impact on mission success have been largely ignored. Participation in PKO creates a number of stressors and serious psychiatric and/or physical disorders may result. Yet, there is little research on this topic, either domestically or globally, and the methodology for clinical intervention remains in an early stage of development. We have reviewed previous reports to determine how various stressors before, during and after deployment affect the participants. Research in associated fields (e.g. crisis workers and military personnel) are also reviewed and their application to peacekeeping psychiatry is discussed. It must be admitted that the significance of PKO is arguable and each PKO is unique in terms of the nature of its mission and the local situation. Yet, the relationship between the psychiatric status of the personnel and the characteristics of an individual mission has never been studied. At present, no clear consensus regarding a framework for psychiatric intervention exists. Studies that enhance the recognition and significance of peacekeeping psychiatry are likely to improve the efficacy of PKO. PMID:12193236

  17. The challenge of gun control for mental health advocates.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Anand

    2013-09-01

    Mass shootings, such as the 2012 Newtown massacre, have repeatedly led to political discourse about limiting access to guns for individuals with serious mental illness. Although the political climate after such tragic events poses a considerable challenge to mental health advocates who wish to minimize unsympathetic portrayals of those with mental illness, such media attention may be a rare opportunity to focus attention on risks of victimization of those with serious mental illness and barriers to obtaining psychiatric care. Current federal gun control laws may discourage individuals from seeking psychiatric treatment and describe individuals with mental illness using anachronistic, imprecise, and gratuitously stigmatizing language. This article lays out potential talking points that may be useful after future gun violence.

  18. The challenge of gun control for mental health advocates.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Anand

    2013-09-01

    Mass shootings, such as the 2012 Newtown massacre, have repeatedly led to political discourse about limiting access to guns for individuals with serious mental illness. Although the political climate after such tragic events poses a considerable challenge to mental health advocates who wish to minimize unsympathetic portrayals of those with mental illness, such media attention may be a rare opportunity to focus attention on risks of victimization of those with serious mental illness and barriers to obtaining psychiatric care. Current federal gun control laws may discourage individuals from seeking psychiatric treatment and describe individuals with mental illness using anachronistic, imprecise, and gratuitously stigmatizing language. This article lays out potential talking points that may be useful after future gun violence. PMID:24042247

  19. Palestinian mothers' perceptions of child mental health problems and services.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Abdel Aziz; El Gammal, Hossam; Vostanis, Panos

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore Palestinian mothers' perceptions of child mental health problems and their understanding of their causes; to determine Palestinian mothers' awareness of existing services and sources of help and support; to identify professionals in the community whom Palestinian mothers would consult if their child had mental health problems; and to establish their views on ways of increasing awareness of child mental health issues and services. Checklists exploring the above issues were completed by 249 Palestinian mothers living in refugee camps in the Gaza Strip. Palestinian mothers equally perceived emotional, behavioural and psychotic symptoms as suggestive of mental ill health in childhood. Mothers perceived multiple causes of child mental health problems, including family problems, parental psychiatric illness and social adversity. A substantial proportion (42.6%) had knowledge of local child mental health care services. Overall, mothers preferred Western over traditional types of treatment, and were keen to increase mental health awareness within their society. Despite a different cultural tradition, Palestinian mothers appear open to a range of services and interventions for child mental health problems. As in other non-Western societies, child mental health service provision should be integrated with existing primary health care, schools, and community structures. PMID:16946953

  20. [Complex expertise on the psychiatric health of a criminal].

    PubMed

    Gierowski, Józef Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    The development of psychiatry and psychology has brought about a situation in need of newer evaluation of the surroundings in which the justice department tries to use specialist knowledge of the processes governing human psychic life and health. The lacking of clear criteria between the competencies of psychiatrists and psychologists is a certain standard in dealing with the disturbed or mentally ill persons. This is a result of the application of a multidisciplinary approach towards the patient in the area of diagnosis, therapy and rehabilitation. The advancing psychiatric and psychological knowledge has a difficulty in findings its way to forensic psychiatry and psychology. However, owing to the fact that current legal regulations require complex psychiatric-psychological opinions to be formulated, it is worthy to take a closer look at the issue. The fore-mentioned model has its benefits and its flaws. The compiling of the complex opinion may bring about the risk of "mixing up" of the contents as used by the various experts and cause certain methodological problems. From another perspective it would appear that it is impossible to refrain from applying the newly developing interdisciplinary links. Positive experiences with the DSM classification give a strong argument to the sensibility of this approach. The author analyses the bases for cooperation between the psychiatric-psychological expertise which arises from the rules and regulations of the penal law and the code of penal conduct. They pertain to the rules of being able in body and mind and the application of the so called security measures. The model of psychiatric-psychological cooperation taken up by the law-giver does not pertain fully to the essential competencies of psychiatry and psychology and is not a compact consequential solution.

  1. Psychiatric Symptoms in Alzheimer's Disease: Mental Status Examination versus Caregiver Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Benjamin; Buswell, Arthur

    1994-01-01

    To examine possible reasons for conflicting prevalence data on psychiatric features of Alzheimer's disease, compared results of mental status examination by physician with questionnaire completed by caregivers in eliciting 12 different psychiatric symptoms. Found agreement only on categories suggesting agitation. Formal examination showed more…

  2. Smartphone Applications for Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Radovic, Ana; Vona, Pamela L; Santostefano, Antonella M; Ciaravino, Samantha; Miller, Elizabeth; Stein, Bradley D

    2016-07-01

    Many adolescents and adults do not seek treatment for mental health symptoms. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist individuals with mental health concerns in alleviating symptoms or increasing understanding. This study seeks to characterize apps readily available to smartphone users seeking mental health information and/or support. Ten key terms were searched in the Apple iTunes and Google Play stores: mental health, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar, trauma, trauma in schools, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), child trauma, and bullying. A content analysis of the first 20 application descriptions retrieved per category was conducted. Out of 300 nonduplicate applications, 208 (70%) were relevant to search topic, mental health or stress. The most common purported purpose for the apps was symptom relief (41%; n = 85) and general mental health education (18%; n = 37). The most frequently mentioned approaches to improving mental health were those that may benefit only milder symptoms such as relaxation (21%; n = 43). Most app descriptions did not include information to substantiate stated effectiveness of the application (59%; n = 123) and had no mention of privacy or security (89%; n = 185). Due to uncertainty of the helpfulness of readily available mental health applications, clinicians working with mental health patients should inquire about and provide guidance on application use, and patients should have access to ways to assess the potential utility of these applications. Strategic policy and research developments are likely needed to equip patients with applications for mental health, which are patient centered and evidence based. PMID:27428034

  3. Competencies for disaster mental health.

    PubMed

    King, Richard V; Burkle, Frederick M; Walsh, Lauren E; North, Carol S

    2015-03-01

    Competencies for disaster mental health are essential to domestic and international disaster response capabilities. Numerous consensus-based competency sets for disaster health workers exist, but no prior study identifies and discusses competency sets pertaining specifically to disaster mental health. Relevant competency sets were identified via MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and Google Scholar searches. Sixteen competency sets are discussed, some providing core competencies for all disaster responders and others for specific responder groups within particular professions or specialties. Competency sets specifically for disaster mental health professionals are lacking, with the exception of one set that focused only on cultural competence. The identified competency sets provide guidance for educators in developing disaster mental health curricula and for disaster health workers seeking education and training in disaster mental health. Valid, criterion-based competencies are required to guide selection and training of mental health professionals for the disaster mental health workforce. In developing these competencies, consideration should be given to the requirements of both domestic and international disaster response efforts.

  4. Mental health of prisoners: prevalence, adverse outcomes, and interventions.

    PubMed

    Fazel, Seena; Hayes, Adrian J; Bartellas, Katrina; Clerici, Massimo; Trestman, Robert

    2016-09-01

    More than 10 million people are imprisoned worldwide, and the prevalence of all investigated mental disorders is higher in prisoners than in the general population. Although the extent to which prison increases the incidence of mental disorders is uncertain, considerable evidence suggests low rates of identification and treatment of psychiatric disorders. Prisoners are also at increased risk of all-cause mortality, suicide, self-harm, violence, and victimisation, and research has outlined some modifiable risk factors. Few high quality treatment trials have been done on psychiatric disorders in prisoners. Despite this lack of evidence, trial data have shown that opiate substitution treatments reduce substance misuse relapse and possibly reoffending. The mental health needs of women and older adults in prison are distinct, and national policies should be developed to meet these. In this Review, we present clinical, research, and policy recommendations to improve mental health care in prisons. National attempts to meet these recommendations should be annually surveyed. PMID:27426440

  5. Bulgaria mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Tomov, Toma; Mladenova, Maya; Lazarova, Irina; Sotirov, Vladimir; Okoliyski, Mihail

    2004-01-01

    The mental health profile of Bulgaria has been compiled and following analysis of both the factual findings and the process of data collection a report has been prepared. The subject of discussion in the paper concerns several major findings: the discrepancy between what the policy documents state and the actual situation in mental health; the organizational culture, which alienates; and the peculiarities of the process of change and how it is driven under political pressure from outside the country. Analysis extends to encompass the influence of the general health reform on the mental health sector, the deficits of the leadership and how they impact on the effectiveness of the system, and the interdependence between the country's economy and the health sector. A conclusion is made about the need to consolidate the public health approach using the lever of international collaboration in the field of mental health. PMID:15276942

  6. Bulgaria mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Tomov, Toma; Mladenova, Maya; Lazarova, Irina; Sotirov, Vladimir; Okoliyski, Mihail

    2004-01-01

    The mental health profile of Bulgaria has been compiled and following analysis of both the factual findings and the process of data collection a report has been prepared. The subject of discussion in the paper concerns several major findings: the discrepancy between what the policy documents state and the actual situation in mental health; the organizational culture, which alienates; and the peculiarities of the process of change and how it is driven under political pressure from outside the country. Analysis extends to encompass the influence of the general health reform on the mental health sector, the deficits of the leadership and how they impact on the effectiveness of the system, and the interdependence between the country's economy and the health sector. A conclusion is made about the need to consolidate the public health approach using the lever of international collaboration in the field of mental health.

  7. Economic stress and mental health.

    PubMed

    Butts, H F

    1979-04-01

    This paper correlates economic stress with minority status, resource allocations for mental health programs, and vulnerability to mental disability. Several hypotheses are advanced:1. A major and recurring psychological pattern of the American national character is prowhite, antiblack paranoia.2. Mental health fiscal allocations and programmatic determinations in ghetto, lower socioeconomic, minority-populated urban areas are predicated on political and racist considerations, the underlying motivation being to keep minorities at greater risk of mental disability.3. Economic privation and stress increase vulnerability to mental illness, especially in a minority population for whom health, mental health, educational, and social services are grossly inadequate.4. Poverty and economic stress combine with health systems that are unresponsive to the needs of blacks and other minorities, resulting in the perpetuation of disabilities and other conditions in blacks that are potentially preventable.5. Health and mental health resources should be increased rather than diminished during periods of economic stress, especially in the public sector.6. In order to provide each citizen with access to quality health and mental health care regardless of race and/or economic status, there must be enacted a national health insurance program based on tax-levy monies that will cover all aspects of health and mental health care.7. Racism and social status will continue to be powerful determinants of the quality of service that white professionals render to black patients and to poor white patients, unless our training institutions mount a massive campaign to train appropriately and to include significant numbers of minority candidates and trainees in the effort. To date this effort is virtually nonexistent.

  8. Economic Stress and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Butts, Hugh F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper correlates economic stress with minority status, resource allocations for mental health programs, and vulnerability to mental disability. Several hypotheses are advanced: 1. A major and recurring psychological pattern of the American national character is prowhite, antiblack paranoia. 2. Mental health fiscal allocations and programmatic determinations in ghetto, lower socioeconomic, minority-populated urban areas are predicated on political and racist considerations, the underlying motivation being to keep minorities at greater risk of mental disability. 3. Economic privation and stress increase vulnerability to mental illness, especially in a minority population for whom health, mental health, educational, and social services are grossly inadequate. 4. Poverty and economic stress combine with health systems that are unresponsive to the needs of blacks and other minorities, resulting in the perpetuation of disabilities and other conditions in blacks that are potentially preventable. 5. Health and mental health resources should be increased rather than diminished during periods of economic stress, especially in the public sector. 6. In order to provide each citizen with access to quality health and mental health care regardless of race and/or economic status, there must be enacted a national health insurance program based on tax-levy monies that will cover all aspects of health and mental health care. 7. Racism and social status will continue to be powerful determinants of the quality of service that white professionals render to black patients and to poor white patients, unless our training institutions mount a massive campaign to train appropriately and to include significant numbers of minority candidates and trainees in the effort. To date this effort is virtually nonexistent. PMID:439171

  9. Support System for Mental Health Professionals*

    PubMed Central

    Dandekar, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    This paper talks of support systems for mental health professionals wherein the Bombay Psychiatric Society (BPS) should devote some meetings exclusively to problems pertaining to the profession, e.g., long and odd working hours leading to potentially hazardous practice schedules, unhealthy competitive attitudes and culture. A crash course in self-defence against potentially psychotic patients and drug addicts is advocated as also awareness of the potential hazards in dealing with the litigious paranoid patients, erotomaniacs and some of the difficult hysterical patients. Potential medicolegal problems arise in treating an uncooperative patient without his knowledge and consent on an outpatient department basis, admitting such an uncooperative patient to a nursing home or a hospital, administering electroconvulsive therapies, maintaining detailed clinical records of patients, and legal issues involving smaller psychiatric private nursing homes. This paper stresses on the use of Yoga as a recognised psycho-physiological therapy. Furthermore, it suggests on the need for BPS, as a professional body, to have a cell to guide and help aspiring young professionals in setting up private practice. It points out the need to evolve some concrete programmes that in the long run should help alleviate stresses and strains and promote positive comprehensive health amongst mental health professionals. PMID:25838730

  10. Child rights and mental health.

    PubMed

    Carlson, M

    2001-10-01

    This article introduces the principles and articles of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and discusses the implications of this new conceptualization of childhood for child mental health. Consistent with the articles of the CRC, Canadian and US health administrations call for including the perspectives and participation of children in promotion of their own mental health and in the planning of mental health services. Examples of the incorporation of the CRC into programs and services for children and youth are described.

  11. Attitudes of Psychiatric Nurses about the Request for Euthanasia on the Basis of Unbearable Mental Suffering(UMS)

    PubMed Central

    Wampers, Martien; De Lepeleire, Jan; Correll, Christophe U.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction When psychiatric patients express a wish for euthanasia, this should first and foremost be interpreted as a cry for help. Due to their close day-to-day relationship, psychiatric nurses may play an important and central role in responding to such requests. However, little is known about nurses’ attitudes towards euthanasia motivated by unbearable mental suffering. Objectives The aim of this study was to provide insight into the attitudes and actions taken by psychiatric nurses when confronted with a patient’s euthanasia request based on unbearable mental suffering (UMS). Method A questionnaire was sent to 11 psychiatric hospitals in the Flemish part of Belgium. Results The overall response rate was 70% (N = 627). Psychiatric nurses were frequently confronted with a request for euthanasia, either directly (N = 329, 53%) or through a colleague (N = 427, 69%). A majority (N = 536, 84%) did not object to euthanasia in a psychiatrically ill population with UMS. Confounding factors were the psychiatric diagnosis and the type of ward where the nurses were working. Most participants acknowledged a lack of knowledge and skills to adequately address the euthanasia request (N = 434, 71%). Nearly unanimously (N = 618, 99%), study participants indicated that dealing with euthanasia requests and other end-of-life issues should be part of the formal training of nurses. Conclusion The results highlight the need for ethically sound and comprehensive provision of care. Psychiatric nurses play an important role in dealing with the complex issue of requests for euthanasia. There is also a need for education, training and clear guidelines on the level of health care organizations. PMID:26700007

  12. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C.

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of ‘preventive medicine’ This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six ‘R’s such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health. PMID:26664073

  13. Southeast Asian Mental Health: Treatment, Prevention, Services, Training and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owan, Tom Choken, Ed.

    This sourcebook contains 19 papers which discuss the mental health service needs of Southeast Asian refugees in the United States. The volume is divided into five sections: Treatment; Prevention; Services; Training; and Research. The papers (and their authors) are: (1) "Psychiatric Care for Southeast Asians: How Different Is Different?" (Tran Minh…

  14. Medicare Prospective Reimbursement for Mental Health Services: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, William R.; Thompson, Warren A.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews literature evaluating appropriateness of Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS) through Diagnostic-Related Groups (DRGs), since its implementation in 1983, for psychiatric care. Cites shortcomings that make the system untenable for mental health care, including lack of homogeneity of DRGs, inability to predict length of stay, and…

  15. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinton, Chris; Elison, Sarah; Howlin, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Although many researchers have investigated emotional and behavioral difficulties in individuals with Williams syndrome, few have used standardized diagnostic assessments. We examined mental health problems in 92 adults with Williams syndrome using the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities--PAS-ADD (Moss,…

  16. Forensic social work in a mental health setting.

    PubMed

    Goldmeier, J; Wise, B F; Wright, C U

    1986-01-01

    In forensic social work, a relatively new field of practice, significant contact between social work and the law is prominent. A statewide program of services to forensic psychiatric patients in Maryland demonstrates the principles and issues involved in forensic work and the widespread applicability of social work concerns in the criminal justice and mental health systems.

  17. Utilization Review and Evaluation in a Community Mental Health Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riedel, Donald C.; And Others

    The paper presents the conceptual framework and research strategy of the psychiatric utilization review and evaluation (PURE) project at the Connecticut Mental Health Center. Review by structure, by outcome and by process are considered briefly. The Basic Utilization Review Program was developed to provide a more sophisticated and economical…

  18. Role of the prescribing observatory for mental health.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Thomas R E; Paton, Carol

    2012-12-01

    Positive change in prescribing practice in psychiatric services can be achieved with participation in the UK Prescribing Observatory for Mental Health (POMH-UK) quality improvement programmes. Key elements are feedback of benchmarked performance for local clinical reflection and customised change interventions informed by the national audit findings and parallel qualitative work. However, progress is gradual and gains generally modest.

  19. Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Health: United States-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlot, Lauren; Beasley, Joan B.

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, research directed specifically at improving our understanding of the psychiatric assessment and treatment of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) has grown, yet lags far behind efforts for typically developing children and adults. In the United States, a lack of a national approach to the mental health problems of…

  20. Competency of Psychiatric Residents in the Treatment of People with Severe Mental Illness before and after a Community Psychiatry Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Melinda; Romero-Gonzalez, Mauricio; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Klee, Anne; Kirwin, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatric rehabilitation is an evidence-based service with the goal of recovery for people with severe mental illness. Psychiatric residents should understand the services and learn the principles of psychiatric rehabilitation. This study assessed whether a 3-month rotation in a psychiatric rehabilitation center changes the competency…

  1. Integration of mental health into primary care in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Rachel; Kiima, David; Njenga, Frank; Okonji, Marx; Kingora, James; Kathuku, Dammas; Lock, Sarah

    2010-06-01

    Integration of mental health into primary care is essential in Kenya, where there are only 75 psychiatrists for 38 million population, of whom 21 are in the universities and 28 in private practice. A partnership between the Ministry of Health, the Kenya Psychiatric Association and the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London was funded by Nuffield Foundation to train 3,000 of the 5,000 primary health care staff in the public health system across Kenya, using a sustainable general health system approach. The content of training was closely aligned to the generic tasks of the health workers. The training delivery was integrated into the normal national training delivery system, and accompanied by capacity building courses for district and provincial level staff to encourage the inclusion of mental health in the district and provincial annual operational plans, and to promote the coordination and supervision of mental health services in primary care by district psychiatric nurses and district public health nurses. The project trained 41 trainers, who have so far trained 1671 primary care staff, achieving a mean change in knowledge score of 42% to 77%. Qualitative observations of subsequent clinical practice have demonstrated improvements in assessment, diagnosis, management, record keeping, medicine supply, intersectoral liaison and public education. Around 200 supervisors (psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses and district public health nurses) have also been trained. The project experience may be useful for other countries also wishing to conduct similar sustainable training and supervision programmes. PMID:20671901

  2. Interface between Intellectual Disability and Mental Health: hermeneutic review

    PubMed Central

    Surjus, Luciana Togni de Lima e Silva; Campos, Rosana Teresa Onocko

    2014-01-01

    A literature review was conducted aiming to understand the interface between the Intellectual Disability and Mental Health fields and to contribute to mitigating the path of institutionalizing individuals with intellectual deficiencies. The so-called dual diagnosis phenomenon remains underestimated in Brazil but is the object of research and specific public policy internationally. This phenomenon alerts us to the prevalence of mental health problems in those with intellectual disabilities, limiting their social inclusion. The findings reinforce the importance of this theme and indicate possible diagnostic invisibility of the development of mental illness in those with intellectual disabilities in Brazil, which may contribute to sustaining psychiatric institutionalization of this population.  PMID:25119948

  3. Suicide Ideation in Older Adults: Relationship to Mental Health Problems and Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corna, Laurie M.; Cairney, John; Streiner, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the prevalence of suicide ideation among community-dwelling older adults and the relationship between suicide ideation, major psychiatric disorder, and mental health service use. Design and Methods: We use data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 1.2: Mental Health and Well-being (CCHS 1.2). We estimate the prevalence of…

  4. Online Social Networking and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract During the past decade, online social networking has caused profound changes in the way people communicate and interact. It is unclear, however, whether some of these changes may affect certain normal aspects of human behavior and cause psychiatric disorders. Several studies have indicated that the prolonged use of social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook, may be related to signs and symptoms of depression. In addition, some authors have indicated that certain SNS activities might be associated with low self-esteem, especially in children and adolescents. Other studies have presented opposite results in terms of positive impact of social networking on self-esteem. The relationship between SNS use and mental problems to this day remains controversial, and research on this issue is faced with numerous challenges. This concise review focuses on the recent findings regarding the suggested connection between SNS and mental health issues such as depressive symptoms, changes in self-esteem, and Internet addiction. PMID:25192305

  5. Online social networking and mental health.

    PubMed

    Pantic, Igor

    2014-10-01

    During the past decade, online social networking has caused profound changes in the way people communicate and interact. It is unclear, however, whether some of these changes may affect certain normal aspects of human behavior and cause psychiatric disorders. Several studies have indicated that the prolonged use of social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook, may be related to signs and symptoms of depression. In addition, some authors have indicated that certain SNS activities might be associated with low self-esteem, especially in children and adolescents. Other studies have presented opposite results in terms of positive impact of social networking on self-esteem. The relationship between SNS use and mental problems to this day remains controversial, and research on this issue is faced with numerous challenges. This concise review focuses on the recent findings regarding the suggested connection between SNS and mental health issues such as depressive symptoms, changes in self-esteem, and Internet addiction.

  6. Online social networking and mental health.

    PubMed

    Pantic, Igor

    2014-10-01

    During the past decade, online social networking has caused profound changes in the way people communicate and interact. It is unclear, however, whether some of these changes may affect certain normal aspects of human behavior and cause psychiatric disorders. Several studies have indicated that the prolonged use of social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook, may be related to signs and symptoms of depression. In addition, some authors have indicated that certain SNS activities might be associated with low self-esteem, especially in children and adolescents. Other studies have presented opposite results in terms of positive impact of social networking on self-esteem. The relationship between SNS use and mental problems to this day remains controversial, and research on this issue is faced with numerous challenges. This concise review focuses on the recent findings regarding the suggested connection between SNS and mental health issues such as depressive symptoms, changes in self-esteem, and Internet addiction. PMID:25192305

  7. Addressing Risks to Advance Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Iltis, Ana S.; Misra, Sahana; Dunn, Laura B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Campbell, Amy; Earll, Sarah A.; Glowinski, Anne; Hadley, Whitney B.; Pies, Ronald; DuBois, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk communication and management are essential to the ethical conduct of research, yet addressing risks may be time consuming for investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) may reject study designs that appear too risky. This can discourage needed research, particularly in higher risk protocols or those enrolling potentially vulnerable individuals, such as those with some level of suicidality. Improved mechanisms for addressing research risks may facilitate much needed psychiatric research. This article provides mental health researchers with practical approaches to: 1) identify and define various intrinsic research risks; 2) communicate these risks to others (e.g., potential participants, regulatory bodies, society); 3) manage these risks during the course of a study; and 4) justify the risks. Methods As part of a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded scientific meeting series, a public conference and a closed-session expert panel meeting were held on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. The expert panel reviewed the literature with a focus on empirical studies and developed recommendations for best practices and further research on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. IRB review was not required because there were no human subjects. The NIMH played no role in developing or reviewing the manuscript. Results Challenges, current data, practical strategies, and topics for future research are addressed for each of four key areas pertaining to management and disclosure of risks in clinical trials: identifying and defining risks, communicating risks, managing risks during studies, and justifying research risks. Conclusions Empirical data on risk communication, managing risks, and the benefits of research can support the ethical conduct of mental health research and may help investigators better conceptualize and confront risks and to gain IRB approval. PMID:24173618

  8. The mental health care bill 2013: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Choudhary Laxmi; Shekhar, Shivendra

    2015-01-01

    The Mental Health Care Bill - 2013 has been introduced in Rajya Sabha and is now waiting for enactment. The Bill entails unprecedented measures to be undertaken by the Government ensuring everyone right to access mental health care and treatment from services run or funded by the Government. The Government is to meet the man-power requirement of mental health professionals according to international standard within a period of ten years. Various rights of persons with mental illness have been ensured. All the places where psychiatric patients are admitted and treated including the general hospital psychiatry units (GHPU) are to be registered as mental health establishments. Unmodified ECT has been banned and ECT to minors can be given only after approval from the Mental Health Review Board. This article advocates for exemption of GHPU from the purview of the Bill, taking into consideration impediment created in the treatment of vast majority of psychiatric patients who retain their insight into the illness and seldom require involuntary admissions. It is also advocated to reconsider ban on unmodified ECT and restriction placed on ECT to minor which are very effective treatment methods based on scientific evidence. In our country, family is an important asset in management of mental illness. But requirement of seeking approval from the Board in many of the mental health care decision may discourage the families to be proactive in taking care of their wards. The Board and Mental Health Authorities at the central and the state levels are authorized to take many crucial decisions, but these panels have very few experts in the field of mental health.

  9. The mental health care bill 2013: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Choudhary Laxmi; Shekhar, Shivendra

    2015-01-01

    The Mental Health Care Bill - 2013 has been introduced in Rajya Sabha and is now waiting for enactment. The Bill entails unprecedented measures to be undertaken by the Government ensuring everyone right to access mental health care and treatment from services run or funded by the Government. The Government is to meet the man-power requirement of mental health professionals according to international standard within a period of ten years. Various rights of persons with mental illness have been ensured. All the places where psychiatric patients are admitted and treated including the general hospital psychiatry units (GHPU) are to be registered as mental health establishments. Unmodified ECT has been banned and ECT to minors can be given only after approval from the Mental Health Review Board. This article advocates for exemption of GHPU from the purview of the Bill, taking into consideration impediment created in the treatment of vast majority of psychiatric patients who retain their insight into the illness and seldom require involuntary admissions. It is also advocated to reconsider ban on unmodified ECT and restriction placed on ECT to minor which are very effective treatment methods based on scientific evidence. In our country, family is an important asset in management of mental illness. But requirement of seeking approval from the Board in many of the mental health care decision may discourage the families to be proactive in taking care of their wards. The Board and Mental Health Authorities at the central and the state levels are authorized to take many crucial decisions, but these panels have very few experts in the field of mental health. PMID:25969610

  10. WHEN PARENTS WITH SEVERE MENTAL ILLNESS LOSE CONTACT WITH THEIR CHILDREN: ARE PSYCHIATRIC SYMPTOMS OR SUBSTANCE USE TO BLAME?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Danson; Macias, Rosemarie Lillianne; Gold, Paul B.; Barreira, Paul; Fisher, William

    2009-01-01

    This study compared parental psychiatric symptom severity, and the absence or presence of severe substance abuse, as predictors of contact with minor children for a representative sample of adults with diagnoses of serious mental illness (N = 45). Child contact and psychiatric symptom severity were measured during regularly scheduled 6-month research interviews over a total 30-month period following each participant’s entry into the project. Severe substance abuse was documented as present or absent for the 6-month interval preceding each interview. Results revealed that incidence of severe substance abuse was repeatedly associated with less frequent parent-child contact, even after controlling for psychiatric symptoms, diagnosis, gender, age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Neither psychiatric diagnosis nor symptom severity predicted frequency of child contact when substance abuse was taken into account. Mental health agencies offering parenting classes for adults with serious mental illness should incorporate substance use interventions to reduce loss of child custody and strengthen parent-child relationships. PMID:20011665

  11. The treatment gap in mental health care.

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Robert; Saxena, Shekhar; Levav, Itzhak; Saraceno, Benedetto

    2004-01-01

    Mental disorders are highly prevalent and cause considerable suffering and disease burden. To compound this public health problem, many individuals with psychiatric disorders remain untreated although effective treatments exist. We examine the extent of this treatment gap. We reviewed community-based psychiatric epidemiology studies that used standardized diagnostic instruments and included data on the percentage of individuals receiving care for schizophrenia and other non-affective psychotic disorders, major depression, dysthymia, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and alcohol abuse or dependence. The median rates of untreated cases of these disorders were calculated across the studies. Examples of the estimation of the treatment gap for WHO regions are also presented. Thirty-seven studies had information on service utilization. The median treatment gap for schizophrenia, including other non-affective psychosis, was 32.2%. For other disorders the gap was: depression, 56.3%; dysthymia, 56.0%; bipolar disorder, 50.2%; panic disorder, 55.9%; GAD, 57.5%; and OCD, 57.3%. Alcohol abuse and dependence had the widest treatment gap at 78.1%. The treatment gap for mental disorders is universally large, though it varies across regions. It is likely that the gap reported here is an underestimate due to the unavailability of community-based data from developing countries where services are scarcer. To address this major public health challenge, WHO has adopted in 2002 a global action programme that has been endorsed by the Member States. PMID:15640922

  12. Students or Patients? Provision of Education in the Mental Health Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Peter; Godding, Bernard

    1992-01-01

    British government proposals for community care of psychiatric patients require a response from adult educators about the need for learning opportunities both inside and outside institutions for people with mental health problems. (SK)

  13. A review of reception order in the management of mentally ill persons in a psychiatric institute

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Nakkeerar; Ramanathan, Rajkumar; Kumar, Venkatesh Madhan; Chellappan, Dhanabalan Kalingarayan Palayam; Ramasamy, Jeyaprakash

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mentally ill prisoners, when requiring admission in a psychiatric facility, have to be admitted only by a reception order of a judicial magistrate and convicts by warrants issued by the Government to jail superintendents and the superintendent of the hospital. Both can be only under Section 27 of The Mental Health Act, 1987. Materials and Methods: A study of the contents of reception order and warrants regarding the acts and section under which they were issued over 1 year period for the admission of the patients in the criminal ward of the Institute of Mental Health was carried out. Results: Only three reception orders quoted Section 27 out of 54 patients admitted under a reception order. Nineteen patients were admitted by the jail superintendents. Discussion: Various issues that were found in the reception order and their consequences are discussed, and a possible response to these issues is mooted. Conclusion: Almost none of the reception orders were found to be proper. This deficit needs to be rectified by sensitizing the various authorities. PMID:27385850

  14. Mapping mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, Sri Lanka, India and Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Limited evidence about mental health finances in low and middle-income countries is a key challenge to mental health care policy initiatives. This study aimed to map mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, India (Kerala state), Sri Lanka and Lao PDR focusing on how much money is available for mental health, how it is spent, and how this impacts mental health services. Methods A researcher in each region reviewed public mental health-related budgets and interviewed key informants on government mental health financing. A total of 43 key informant interviews were conducted. Quantitative data was analyzed in an excel matrix using descriptive statistics. Key informant interviews were coded a priori against research questions. Results National ring-fenced budgets for mental health as a percentage of national health spending for 2007-08 is 1.7% in Sri Lanka, 3.7% in Ghana, 2.0% in Kerala (India) and 6.6% in Uganda. Budgets were not available in Lao PDR. The majority of ring-fenced budgets (76% to 100%) is spent on psychiatric hospitals. Mental health spending could not be tracked beyond the psychiatric hospital level due to limited information at the health centre and community levels. Conclusions Mental health budget information should be tracked and made publically accessible. Governments can adapt WHO AIMS indicators for reviewing national mental health finances. Funding allocations work more effectively through decentralization. Mental health financing should reflect new ideas emerging from community based practice in LMICs. PMID:20507558

  15. [Financial crisis and mental health in Greece].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O; Karabelas, D; Kafkas, A

    2011-01-01

    Several studies indicate an association between economic crises and psychological burden. To investigate the possible impact of the current economic crisis on mental health in Greece, the association between two economic indicators (unemployment and average income) and mental health variables (psychiatric clinic admittance, visits to outpatients' departments and emergency units, suicides, homicides, mortality rates and divorces) was studied. The data were gathered by the Greek Statistical Service and some others were provided by the following hospitals: Eginition Hospital, Psychiatric Hospital of Attica, Athens General Hospital and Evaggelismos Hospital. Simple and multiple regression analyses were performed on the data. There was no significant correlation between the level of unemployment, as well as the average income, and admittance to the psychiatric clinics. A significant correlation was isolated between unemployment and visits to outpatients' department (R2 = 0.40, p = 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0.49, p = 0.0002) of Eginition Hospital. The unemployment rate during the period 1981-2008 was positively associated with the number of homicides (R2 = 0.16, beta = 0.000049, p = 0.03), as well as the number of divorces (R2 = 0.20, beta = 0.005, p = 0.02) during the same period. The average income showed positive association with the visits to both outpatients' department (R2 = 0.55, p < 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0,37, p = 0.004) of Eginition Hospital. However, the data from the 4 hospitals of the study revealed a negative correlation between average income and visits to outpatients' departments (R2 = 0.70, p = 0.02) and emergency units (R2 = 0.90, p < 0.001). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation between the average income and suicide rates (R2 = 0.37, p = 0.007), as well as a positive correlation between the average income and divorce rates (R2 = 0.73, p < 0.001) were found. The findings show several similarities with previous surveys in

  16. [Financial crisis and mental health in Greece].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O; Karabelas, D; Kafkas, A

    2011-01-01

    Several studies indicate an association between economic crises and psychological burden. To investigate the possible impact of the current economic crisis on mental health in Greece, the association between two economic indicators (unemployment and average income) and mental health variables (psychiatric clinic admittance, visits to outpatients' departments and emergency units, suicides, homicides, mortality rates and divorces) was studied. The data were gathered by the Greek Statistical Service and some others were provided by the following hospitals: Eginition Hospital, Psychiatric Hospital of Attica, Athens General Hospital and Evaggelismos Hospital. Simple and multiple regression analyses were performed on the data. There was no significant correlation between the level of unemployment, as well as the average income, and admittance to the psychiatric clinics. A significant correlation was isolated between unemployment and visits to outpatients' department (R2 = 0.40, p = 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0.49, p = 0.0002) of Eginition Hospital. The unemployment rate during the period 1981-2008 was positively associated with the number of homicides (R2 = 0.16, beta = 0.000049, p = 0.03), as well as the number of divorces (R2 = 0.20, beta = 0.005, p = 0.02) during the same period. The average income showed positive association with the visits to both outpatients' department (R2 = 0.55, p < 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0,37, p = 0.004) of Eginition Hospital. However, the data from the 4 hospitals of the study revealed a negative correlation between average income and visits to outpatients' departments (R2 = 0.70, p = 0.02) and emergency units (R2 = 0.90, p < 0.001). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation between the average income and suicide rates (R2 = 0.37, p = 0.007), as well as a positive correlation between the average income and divorce rates (R2 = 0.73, p < 0.001) were found. The findings show several similarities with previous surveys in

  17. Changing Roles of Mental Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garai, Josef E.

    The roles that mental health professionals must play to facilitate the prevention of mental illness and the introduction of mentally healthy attitudes in our society is discussed. Mental health professionals must re-examine the meaning of mental health in the context of the current world situation and ask themselves to what extent they are…

  18. Developmental Differences in the Symptomatology of Psychiatric Inpatients with and without Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Marion; Zigler, Edward

    1995-01-01

    The symptomatology of 93 psychiatric inpatients with mild mental retardation was compared with that of a matched sample of inpatients without mental retardation. Patients with retardation displayed more outwardly directed and less inwardly directed symptoms; more symptoms involving action than thought; and psychotic symptom pictures which more…

  19. Migration and mental health in Europe (the state of the mental health in Europe working group: appendix 1)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background This paper is a part of the work of the group that carried out the report "The state of the mental health in Europe" (European Commission, DG Health and Consumer Protection, 2004) and deals with the mental health issues related to the migration in Europe. Methods The paper tries to describe the social, demographical and political context of the emigration in Europe and tries to indicate the needs and (mental) health problems of immigrants. A review of the literature concerning mental health risk in immigrant is also carried out. The work also faces the problem of the health policy toward immigrants and the access to health care services in Europe. Results Migration during the 1990s has been high and characterised by new migrations. Some countries in Europe, that have been traditionally exporters of migrants have shifted to become importers. Migration has been a key force in the demographic changes of the European population. The policy of closed borders do not stop migration, but rather seems to set up a new underclass of so-called "illegals" who are suppressed and highly exploited. In 2000 there were also 392.200 asylum applications. The reviewed literature among mental health risk in some immigrant groups in Europe concerns: 1) highest rate of schizophrenia; suicide; alcohol and drug abuse; access of psychiatric facilities; risk of anxiety and depression; mental health of EU immigrants once they returned to their country; early EU immigrants in today disadvantaged countries; refugees and mental health Due to the different condition of migration concerning variables as: motivation to migrations (e.g. settler, refugees, gastarbeiters); distance for the host culture; ability to develop mediating structures; legal residential status it is impossible to consider "migrants" as a homogeneous group concerning the risk for mental illness. In this sense, psychosocial studies should be undertaken to identify those factors which may under given conditions, imply

  20. Measuring the effectiveness of the national Mental Health Triage Scale in an emergency department.

    PubMed

    Happell, Brenda; Summers, Monica; Pinikahana, Jaya

    2003-12-01

    The mainstreaming process has significantly altered the means of access to mental health services in Australia. Increasingly people seeking mental health care present at general hospital emergency departments. The triage system, which has proven effective for prioritizing physical illness and injury, has proven problematic when applied to mental health-related problems. This paper presents the results of a study undertaken in the emergency department of a Victorian public hospital. The Mental Health Triage Scale was introduced and used independently by triage nurses and the psychiatric nurse consultants employed in the department. Following a 3-month period, the two sets of triage scores for psychiatric presentations (n = 137) were compared. The findings suggest that triage nurses are rating clients experiencing mental health problems as in more urgent need of care than their psychiatric nursing counterparts. This suggests that the introduction of the guidelines alone is insufficient, and that education is required for more effective use of the tool.

  1. State mental health directors' priorities for mental health care.

    PubMed

    Ahr, P R; Holcomb, W R

    1985-01-01

    The National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors surveyed all state mental health directors, through a series of mail questionnaires, to determine their national priorities for mental health care in the 1980s. In a ranking of 62 issues, the directors considered the top two priorities to be providing services and support programs in the community for the chronically mentally ill. Other highly ranked priorities included developing community residential programs, assuring continuation and funding of programs in a period of financial retrenchment, and developing a continuum of services for children and adolescents. A cluster analysis showed that within the overall group four different patterns of priorities emerged: issues related to certification and accreditation, to expansion of community programs both with and without a decrease in institution-based care, and to financial accountability.

  2. Religion, Guilt, and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faiver, Christopher M.; O'Brien, Eugene M.; Ingersoll, R. Elliott

    2000-01-01

    Article reviews the constructs of religion, guilt, and mental health, and explores relationships between these constructs as they pertain to the counseling profession. General therapeutic approaches are identified and summarized for counseling practice. (Author/JDM)

  3. [The occupational health of medical personnel of psychiatric institutions].

    PubMed

    Ruzhenskaia, E V

    2013-01-01

    The article considers the issues of self-assessment of occupational health by medical personnel of psychiatric service. The main issues and areas of occupation health disorders are identified. The main directions of disorders prevention are presented.

  4. Pathological Gamblers Respond Equally Well to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Regardless of Other Mental Health Treatment Status

    PubMed Central

    Champine, Robey B.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    Data consistently demonstrate comorbidity between pathological gambling and psychiatric disorders. This study compares severity of gambling and psychosocial problems and gambling treatment outcomes in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers (N = 231) based on their self-reported mental health treatment utilization. As expected, participants currently receiving mental health treatment demonstrated the most psychiatric problems, and those with no mental health treatment the least. Although preferred gambling activity differed according to mental health treatment status, severity of gambling problems and gambling treatment outcomes did not. Individual cognitive-behavioral therapy was efficacious in reducing gambling problems irrespective of mental health treatment utilization. PMID:20958852

  5. Mental health in Tamil cinema.

    PubMed

    Mangala, R; Thara, R

    2009-06-01

    Tamil cinema is a vibrant part of the lives of many in south India. A chequered history and a phenomenal growth have made this medium highly influential not only in Tamil Nadu politics, but also in the social lives of the viewers. This paper provides an overview of the growth of Tamil cinema, and discusses in detail the way mental health has been handled by Tamil films. Cinema can be used very effectively to improve awareness about mental health issues.

  6. Mental health services. Poor relations.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J; Sashidharan, S

    1999-04-01

    The case for London requiring greater resources for mental health services than other parts of the country has not been proved. Liverpool, Birmingham and Manchester are among the six most deprived areas in England. Spending per capita on mental health services in inner London is double that in Birmingham and Liverpool and 40 per cent higher than in Manchester. A national strategy is needed to address inequities in funding.

  7. Mental health service use by the elderly in nursing homes.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, B J; Wagner, H R; Taube, J E; Magaziner, J; Permutt, T; Landerman, L R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Because current Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act regulations influence the disposition of US nursing home residents who have mental illness, National Nursing Home Survey (1985) data are analyzed for predictors of mental health service use. METHODS. Elderly residents' rates of mental health service use are presented. Logistic regression yielded odds ratios for treatment by both mental health specialists and general practitioners for client and service system variables. RESULTS. Among the two thirds of elderly residents with a mental disorder (including dementia), only 4.5% receive any mental health treatment in a 1-month period. The ratio of specialist to general practitioner care is approximately 1:1. Patients seen by a specialist are likely to be younger (aged 65 to 74); live in the Northeast; and have a diagnosis of schizophrenia (13:1), dementia (3:1), or other mental disorders (5:1). Prior residence in a psychiatric hospital predicts care by both health professional types. Rural location, nonproprietary ownership of the nursing home, and aggressive behavior point to general physician care. CONCLUSIONS. Our findings indicate significant neglect of the mental health needs of older nursing home residents and underscore the importance of monitoring the regulations for screening and treatment of mental disorders under the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act. PMID:8438968

  8. Substance abuse as a risk factor for violence in mental illness: some implications for forensic psychiatric practice and clinical ethics

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Hanna; Fazel, Seena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To review recent research on the relationship between substance abuse, crime, violence and mental illness, and suggest how this research could aid forensic psychiatrists, psychologists and other mental health professionals in assessing and managing risk, and balancing patient care and public protection. Recent findings Substance abuse in mentally ill forensic psychiatric patients should be considered an important risk factor for violence and re-offending. Summary Improved treatment for substance abuse in forensic psychiatric patients and other mentally disordered offenders together with the offer of monitored abstinence as a condition of leave or discharge could be usefully considered as a means of reducing and managing risk. This may improve patient care by addressing mental health needs and increasing opportunity and likelihood of successful re-integration into the community and better life prospects; protect the public by reducing risk of re-offending and offering real time monitoring and potential intervention when risk is heightened; and help forensic psychiatrists strike a balance between patient care and public protection, potentially alleviating some of the difficulty and anxiety that decisions to grant leave or discharge can create. PMID:23722099

  9. Rural Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... Tools Maps Funding & Opportunities News Events Models and Innovations About This Guide Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics ...

  10. Evolving systems of care: Individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder in custody of civil and forensic psychiatric services.

    PubMed

    Crocker, A G; Côté, G

    2009-09-01

    Following psychiatric deinstitutionalization and changes in involuntary civil commitment laws, many individuals with severe mental disorders have been receiving mental health services through the back door, that is, the criminal justice system. Significant changes to the section of Criminal Code of Canada dealing with individuals with mental disorders have led to significant annual increases in the number of individuals declared Not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD), many of whom are directed to civil psychiatric settings. The goal of the present study was to describe the psychosociocriminological and risk characteristics of individuals found NCRMD remanded to civil psychiatric hospitals (CPH) compared to a forensic psychiatric hospital (FPH). This study was conducted between October 2004 and August 2006 in the sole FPH of the province of Québec and two large CPH in the Montréal metropolitan area. The final sample for the current study consisted of 96 men: 60 from the FPH and 36 from the two CPH. Results indicate that individuals in both settings have similar psychosociocriminal profiles, including PCL-R scores, but that individuals in CPH have higher scores in the Risk subscale of the HCR-20 than do their counterparts in the FPH. This difference is due to a higher score on two items: exposure to destabilizing factors and noncompliance with remediation attempts. Results are discussed in terms of the need for civil psychiatric settings to implement risk assessment and management programs into their services, and the need for further research into forensic mental health services.

  11. Social determinants of mental health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jessica; Balfour, Reuben; Bell, Ruth; Marmot, Michael

    2014-08-01

    A person's mental health and many common mental disorders are shaped by various social, economic, and physical environments operating at different stages of life. Risk factors for many common mental disorders are heavily associated with social inequalities, whereby the greater the inequality the higher the inequality in risk. The poor and disadvantaged suffer disproportionately, but those in the middle of the social gradient are also affected. It is of major importance that action is taken to improve the conditions of everyday life, beginning before birth and progressing into early childhood, older childhood and adolescence, during family building and working ages, and through to older age. Action throughout these life stages would provide opportunities for both improving population mental health, and for reducing risk of those mental disorders that are associated with social inequalities. As mental disorders are fundamentally linked to a number of other physical health conditions, these actions would also reduce inequalities in physical health and improve health overall. Action needs to be universal: across the whole of society and proportionate to need. Policy-making at all levels of governance and across sectors can make a positive difference. PMID:25137105

  12. Social determinants of mental health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jessica; Balfour, Reuben; Bell, Ruth; Marmot, Michael

    2014-08-01

    A person's mental health and many common mental disorders are shaped by various social, economic, and physical environments operating at different stages of life. Risk factors for many common mental disorders are heavily associated with social inequalities, whereby the greater the inequality the higher the inequality in risk. The poor and disadvantaged suffer disproportionately, but those in the middle of the social gradient are also affected. It is of major importance that action is taken to improve the conditions of everyday life, beginning before birth and progressing into early childhood, older childhood and adolescence, during family building and working ages, and through to older age. Action throughout these life stages would provide opportunities for both improving population mental health, and for reducing risk of those mental disorders that are associated with social inequalities. As mental disorders are fundamentally linked to a number of other physical health conditions, these actions would also reduce inequalities in physical health and improve health overall. Action needs to be universal: across the whole of society and proportionate to need. Policy-making at all levels of governance and across sectors can make a positive difference.

  13. Mental Health Issues of Women After Release From Jail and Prison: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Ann E; Kako, Peninnah; Sawin, Kathleen J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this review article is to gain an understanding of the mental health issues of women released from jail or prison. Thirty-six studies were synthesized using the biopsychosocial model. Results indicate that released women's mental health issues include psychiatric diagnoses, psychological trauma, substance use disorders; access to psychological medications and services; and motherhood challenges, support, access to basic needs, and criminalized behaviors. Nurses can promote released women's mental health through pre-release assessment and treatment of mental health issues and ensuring access to post-release resources.  Future research should examine released women's mental health experiences.

  14. Emergency department mental health triage consultancy service: a qualitative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wynaden, Dianne; Chapman, Rose; McGowan, Sunita; McDonough, Stuart; Finn, Michael; Hood, Sean

    2003-07-01

    This study evaluated staff perception of a three-month clinical trial of an emergency mental health triage and consultancy service. Eleven night duty emergency department (ED) staff were interviewed on the last night of the trial. Data was analysed according to the standards of qualitative research and through content analysis major themes were identified. Staff-perceived value of the emergency mental health triage and consultancy service to the emergency department was identified under three major themes: "enhancing the quality of service for people requiring psychiatric/psychosocial intervention", "the impact on the ED environment" and "providing education and support". The findings of this study show that ED staff perceived that the emergency mental health triage and consultancy service made a valuable contribution to the overall functioning of the ED. The findings also highlight the advanced practice role undertaken by mental health nurses in the ED.

  15. Burnout and work environments of public health nurses involved in mental health care

    PubMed Central

    Imai, H; Nakao, H; Tsuchiya, M; Kuroda, Y; Katoh, T

    2004-01-01

    Aims: (1) To examine whether prevalence of burnout is higher among community psychiatric nurses working under recently introduced job specific work systems than among public health nurses (PHNs) engaged in other public health services. (2) To identify work environment factors potentially contributing to burnout. Methods: Two groups were examined. The psychiatric group comprised 525 PHNs primarily engaged in public mental health services at public health centres (PHCs) that had adopted the job specific work system. The control group comprised 525 PHNs primarily engaged in other health services. Pines' Burnout Scale was used to measure burnout. Respondents were classified by burnout score into three groups: A (mentally stable, no burnout); B (positive signs, risk of burnout); and C (burnout present, action required). Groups B and C were considered representative of "burnout". A questionnaire was also prepared to investigate systems for supporting PHNs working at PHCs and to define emergency mental health service factors contributing to burnout. Results: Final respondents comprised 785 PHNs. Prevalence of burnout was significantly higher in the psychiatric group (59.2%) than in the control group (51.5%). Responses indicating lack of job control and increased annual frequency of emergency overtime services were significantly correlated with prevalence of burnout in the psychiatric group, but not in the control group. Conclusions: Prevalence of burnout is significantly higher for community psychiatric nurses than for PHNs engaged in other services. Overwork in emergency services and lack of job control appear to represent work environment factors contributing to burnout. PMID:15317917

  16. Promoting resilience and recovery in a Buddhist mental health support group.

    PubMed

    Phoenix, Bethany

    2014-04-01

    Communities of faith are important arenas for psychiatric mental health nurses to promote emotional well-being and support recovery for persons with mental health problems. This article describes an innovative faith-based mental health group, based on Buddhist philosophy and practice and established by an advanced practice psychiatric nurse, that uses psychoeducation, peer support, and faith encouragement to help participants find hope and meaning in the experience of mental health problems. A brief overview of Buddhism and selected concepts relevant to the philosophical framework of the Buddhist mental health support group is followed by a review of the common themes of the group discussions. These include: finding value in the illness experience; differentiating the proper role of treatment from that of Buddhist practice in optimizing mental health; and experiencing a deeper sense of joy, despite current suffering.

  17. Promoting resilience and recovery in a Buddhist mental health support group.

    PubMed

    Phoenix, Bethany

    2014-04-01

    Communities of faith are important arenas for psychiatric mental health nurses to promote emotional well-being and support recovery for persons with mental health problems. This article describes an innovative faith-based mental health group, based on Buddhist philosophy and practice and established by an advanced practice psychiatric nurse, that uses psychoeducation, peer support, and faith encouragement to help participants find hope and meaning in the experience of mental health problems. A brief overview of Buddhism and selected concepts relevant to the philosophical framework of the Buddhist mental health support group is followed by a review of the common themes of the group discussions. These include: finding value in the illness experience; differentiating the proper role of treatment from that of Buddhist practice in optimizing mental health; and experiencing a deeper sense of joy, despite current suffering. PMID:24702210

  18. Caregiver Factors Predicting Service Utilization among Youth Participating in a School-Based Mental Health Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett-Zeigler, Inger; Lyons, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Large numbers of children and adolescents experience diagnosable psychiatric disturbances; however, the majority of those with need do not utilize mental health services. Characteristics of caregivers are important predictors of which youth will access and continue to use services over time. In recent years school-based mental health intervention…

  19. Characteristics of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Received Services through Community Mental Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Stephanie A.; Corrigan, Susan K.; McDonald, Thomas P.; Holmes, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Despite the presence of significant psychiatric comorbidity among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), little research exists on those who receive community-based mental health services. This project examined one year (2004) of data from the database maintained by 26 community mental health centers (CMHCs) in the Midwestern US state of…

  20. Mental Health Status, Drug Treatment Use, and Needle Sharing among Injection Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundgren, Lena M.; Amodeo, Maryann; Chassler, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among mental health symptoms, drug treatment use, and needle sharing in a sample of 507 injection drug users (IDUs). Mental health symptoms were measured through the ASI psychiatric scale. A logistic regression model identified that some of the ASI items were associated with needle sharing in an opposing…

  1. Mental Health Practitioners' Reflections on Psychological Work in Uganda: Exploring Perspectives from Different Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jennifer; d'Ardenne, Patricia; Nsereko, James; Kasujja, Rosco; Baillie, Dave; Mpango, Richard; Birabwa, Harriet; Hunter, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    The Butabika-East London Link collaborated with Ugandan mental health services to train mental health professionals (psychiatric clinical officers, "PCOs", and clinical psychologists and psychiatrists, "Core Group") in psychological therapies. The aims of this research were to investigate how professionals were applying and…

  2. The Relationship between Academic Achievement and School-Based Mental Health Services for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lisa O.

    2012-01-01

    Mental health issues among American adolescents and children can negatively impact their potential for school success. As many as 10% of students among the general education population suffer from psychiatric disorders, yet only between 1% and 5% of those students are being served. The effects of mental health difficulties are problematic for…

  3. [Current problems in psychiatric health care in Poland (2005)].

    PubMed

    Puzyński, Stanisław; Langiewicz, Wanda; Pietrzykowska, Bozena

    2006-01-01

    The paper is a presentation of the most important and actual psychiatric health care problems in Poland: the financial situation of hospitals, the risk faced by the out-patient psychiatric care,ethical problems related to clinical practice, as well as issues on postgraduate education.

  4. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children’s mental disorders affect many children and families. Boys and girls of all ages, ethnic/racial backgrounds, and regions ... highest among 6 to 11 year old children.  Boys were more likely than girls to have ADHD, behavioral or conduct problems, autism ...

  5. Correctional Officers and the Incarcerated Mentally Ill: Responses to Psychiatric Illness in Prison

    PubMed Central

    Galanek, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. men’s prison, I investigate how this social and cultural context structures relations between correctional officers and inmates with severe mental illness. Utilizing interpretivist perspectives, I explore how these relations are structured by trust, respect, and meanings associated with mental illness. Officers’ discretionary responses to mentally ill inmates included observations to ensure psychiatric stability and flexibility in rule enforcement and were embedded within their role to ensure staff and inmate safety. Officers identified housing, employment, and social support as important for inmates’ psychiatric stability as medications. Inmates identified officers’ observation and responsiveness to help seeking as assisting in institutional functioning. These findings demonstrate that this prison’s structures and values enable officers’ discretion with mentally ill inmates, rather than solely fostering custodial responses to these inmates’ behaviors. These officers’ responses to inmates with mental illness concurrently support custodial control and the prison’s order. PMID:25219680

  6. Ethical issues in perinatal mental health.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laura J

    2009-06-01

    The principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice can guide clinicians in finding ethical approaches to the treatment of women who have psychiatric disorders during preconception, pregnancy, and postpartum. Table 1 summarizes some clinical dilemmas in perinatal mental health care, the ethical conundrums posed by these situations, and guiding principles or tools that can help clinicians resolve ethical conflicts. The concept of relational ethics helps resolve apparent mother-offspring ethical conflicts, and the practice of preventive ethics helps anticipate and reduce the risk of ethical dilemmas and adverse clinical outcomes. These central principles suggest the following guidelines in caring for perinatal women: In situations that seem to pit the needs of a pregnant or postpartum woman against the needs of her fetus or baby, reframe the problem to find a solution that most benefits the mother-baby dyad while posing the least risk to the dyad. In evaluating a pregnant woman's ability to make autonomous, informed decisions about medical care, assess her ability to decide on behalf of both herself and her fetus. When explaining the risks of treatments such as psychotropic medication during pregnancy, avoid errors of omission by also explaining the risks of withholding the treatments. Apply the principle of justice to ensure that women are not stigmatized by having psychiatric disorders or by being pregnant. When screening for maternal psychiatric symptoms, ensure that the benefits of screening outweigh the ethical costs by designing effective follow-up systems for helping women who have positive screens. When treating women of reproductive age for psychiatric disorders, proactively discuss family planning and, when appropriate, the anticipated risks of the illness and the treatment during future pregnancies. Offer preventive interventions to reduce these risks. PMID:19486812

  7. Health sciences librarians and mental health laws.

    PubMed

    Hartz, F R

    1978-10-01

    Two U.S. Supreme Court decisions, O'Connor v. Donaldson and Bounds v. Smith, hold important implications for health sciences librarians serving in mental health facilities. The first, O'Connor, with its many ancillary holdings, puts mental health personnel on notice that patients have certain basic rights, which courts all over the country will now be required to enforce. In Bounds the court has ruled that prison authorities must assist prison inmates in preparing and filing legal papers. The ruling will most likely benefit all mentally disabled prisoners, and future litigation may expand this category to include: (1) persons committed under the criminal code, (2) persons under involuntary commitment not related to the criminal code, and (3) persons voluntarily committed. A selective annotated bibliography, consisting of background readings in mental health and the law, basic rights, law library materials, and mental health legal services, has been compiled to help librarians establish and develop legal collections in anticipation of court decisions that will expand the conditions of Bounds to include all mentally disabled patients. PMID:361117

  8. Health sciences librarians and mental health laws.

    PubMed Central

    Hartz, F R

    1978-01-01

    Two U.S. Supreme Court decisions, O'Connor v. Donaldson and Bounds v. Smith, hold important implications for health sciences librarians serving in mental health facilities. The first, O'Connor, with its many ancillary holdings, puts mental health personnel on notice that patients have certain basic rights, which courts all over the country will now be required to enforce. In Bounds the court has ruled that prison authorities must assist prison inmates in preparing and filing legal papers. The ruling will most likely benefit all mentally disabled prisoners, and future litigation may expand this category to include: (1) persons committed under the criminal code, (2) persons under involuntary commitment not related to the criminal code, and (3) persons voluntarily committed. A selective annotated bibliography, consisting of background readings in mental health and the law, basic rights, law library materials, and mental health legal services, has been compiled to help librarians establish and develop legal collections in anticipation of court decisions that will expand the conditions of Bounds to include all mentally disabled patients. PMID:361117

  9. Effectiveness and predictors of outcome in routine out-patient mental health care for older adults.

    PubMed

    Veerbeek, Marjolein A; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2014-04-23

    ABSTRACT Background: Meta-analyses show efficacy of several psychological and pharmacological interventions for late-life psychiatric disorders, but generalization of effects to routine mental health care for older people remains unknown. Aim of this study is to investigate the improvement of functioning within one year of referral to an outpatient mental health clinic for older adults. Methods: Pre-post measurement of the Health of Nations Outcome Scale 65+ (HoNOS 65+) in 704 older people referred for psychiatric problems (no dementia) to any of the seven participating mental health care organizations. Results: The pre-post-test Cohen's d effect size was 1.08 in the total group and 1.23 in depressed patients, the largest subgroup. Linear regression identified better functioning at baseline, comorbid personality disorder, somatic comorbidity and life events during treatment as determinants of a worse outcome. Conclusions: Functioning of older persons with psychiatric problems largely improves after treatment in routine mental health care.

  10. The Mental Health Status of California Veterans.

    PubMed

    Tran, Linda Diem; Grant, David; Aydin, May

    2016-04-01

    Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2011--2013 showed approximately 90,000 veterans had mental health needs and 200,000 reported serious thoughts of suicide during the 12 months prior to participating in CHIS. Although the proportion of veterans reporting mental health need or serious psychological distress was no higher than the general population, California veterans were more likely to report lifetime suicide ideation. This policy brief uses CHIS data to examine the mental health status, needs, and barriers to care among veterans in California. Veterans were more likely to receive mental health or substance use treatment than nonveterans, yet three of four veterans with mental health needs received either inadequate or no mental health care. Integrating mental and physical health services, increasing access to care, retaining veterans who seek mental health treatment, and reducing stigma are among the strategies that might improve the mental health of California's veterans. PMID:27416644

  11. The Mental Health Status of California Veterans.

    PubMed

    Tran, Linda Diem; Grant, David; Aydin, May

    2016-04-01

    Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2011--2013 showed approximately 90,000 veterans had mental health needs and 200,000 reported serious thoughts of suicide during the 12 months prior to participating in CHIS. Although the proportion of veterans reporting mental health need or serious psychological distress was no higher than the general population, California veterans were more likely to report lifetime suicide ideation. This policy brief uses CHIS data to examine the mental health status, needs, and barriers to care among veterans in California. Veterans were more likely to receive mental health or substance use treatment than nonveterans, yet three of four veterans with mental health needs received either inadequate or no mental health care. Integrating mental and physical health services, increasing access to care, retaining veterans who seek mental health treatment, and reducing stigma are among the strategies that might improve the mental health of California's veterans.

  12. Good Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... all the difference. Mind/Body Connection: How Your Emotions Affect Your Health (Copyright © American Academy of Family Physicians) - This site discusses ways to improve your emotional health in order to have better ...

  13. Leadership and mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; Deacon, Maureen; Jackson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    This discussion paper argues for the critical importance of successful leadership for effective mental health nursing, observing that nursing leadership has long been regarded problematically by the profession. Using empirical and theoretical evidence we debate what leadership styles and strategies are most likely to result in effective, recovery-orientated mental health nursing. Models of transformational and distributed leadership are found to be highly congruent with mental health nursing values, yet the literature suggests it is a type of leadership more often desired than experienced. We note how the scholarly literature tends to ignore the "elephant in the room" that is organizational power, and we question whether transformational leadership pursued within a specific clinical context can influence beyond those confines. Nevertheless it is within these contexts that consumers experience nursing, effective or otherwise, thus we should advocate what is known about effective leadership wherever it is required.

  14. Issues in Mental Health Counseling with Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prout, H. Thompson; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews mental-health issues concerning persons with mental retardation, particularly as these issues apply to mental-health counseling. Included in this review is a discussion of the prevalence of psychopathology, types of problems presented, issues in clinical bias, access to community services, assessment techniques, and specific…

  15. [Changing Forensic Mental Health in France: A Review].

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Yoji; Hasuzawa, Suguru

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the background and recent changes in French forensic mental health. The literature suggests that three law reforms have been crucial to changes in the mental health system. First, the Penal Code of 1992 redefined the provisions of criminal responsibility and introduced the category of diminished responsibility. Second, a controversial law for preventive detention (rétention de sûretê) was enacted in 2008, according to which criminals with severe personality disorders are subject to incarceration even after the completion of their prison sentences if they are still considered to pose a danger to the public. Third, the revision of mental health laws in 2011 altered the forms of involuntary psychiatric treatments, stipulating a judge's authority to decide treatment. In parallel with these legal reforms, the psychiatric treatment system for offenders with mental disorders has been reconstructed. The number of difficult patient units (unités pour malades difficiles) has increased from four to ten across the nation in order to meet the needs of patients transferred from general psychiatric institutions for the reason of being unmanageable. In the penitentiary system, new facilities have been established to cope with the growing number of inmates with mental disorders. As background to these changes, it is pointed out that the current psychiatric system has undergone deinstitutionalization and become less tolerant of aggressive behavior in patients. In the broader context, public sensitivity towards severe crime, as shown by the sensation triggered by serious crimes conducted by pedophiles, seems to urge tough policies. In the 2000 s, several homicides committed by psychiatric patients had a great impact on the public, which led President Sarkozy to issue a statement calling for stronger security in psychiatric institutions. The harsh attitude of courts towards psychiatric practices is illustrated by a 2012 ruling; after a patient escaped from

  16. [Changing Forensic Mental Health in France: A Review].

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Yoji; Hasuzawa, Suguru

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the background and recent changes in French forensic mental health. The literature suggests that three law reforms have been crucial to changes in the mental health system. First, the Penal Code of 1992 redefined the provisions of criminal responsibility and introduced the category of diminished responsibility. Second, a controversial law for preventive detention (rétention de sûretê) was enacted in 2008, according to which criminals with severe personality disorders are subject to incarceration even after the completion of their prison sentences if they are still considered to pose a danger to the public. Third, the revision of mental health laws in 2011 altered the forms of involuntary psychiatric treatments, stipulating a judge's authority to decide treatment. In parallel with these legal reforms, the psychiatric treatment system for offenders with mental disorders has been reconstructed. The number of difficult patient units (unités pour malades difficiles) has increased from four to ten across the nation in order to meet the needs of patients transferred from general psychiatric institutions for the reason of being unmanageable. In the penitentiary system, new facilities have been established to cope with the growing number of inmates with mental disorders. As background to these changes, it is pointed out that the current psychiatric system has undergone deinstitutionalization and become less tolerant of aggressive behavior in patients. In the broader context, public sensitivity towards severe crime, as shown by the sensation triggered by serious crimes conducted by pedophiles, seems to urge tough policies. In the 2000 s, several homicides committed by psychiatric patients had a great impact on the public, which led President Sarkozy to issue a statement calling for stronger security in psychiatric institutions. The harsh attitude of courts towards psychiatric practices is illustrated by a 2012 ruling; after a patient escaped from

  17. Community Mental Health Services in Latin America for People with Severe Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Minoletti, Alberto; Galea, Sandro; Susser, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    Mental disorders are highly prevalent in Latin American countries and exact a serious emotional toll, yet investment in public mental health remains insufficient. Most countries of the region have developed national and local initiatives to improve delivery of mental health services over the last 22 years, following the technical leadership of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO). It is especially notable that PAHO/WHO facilitated the development of national policies and plans, as well as local programs, to deliver specialized community care for persons with severe mental disorders. Nevertheless, at present, the majority of Latin American countries maintain a model of services for severe mental disorders based primarily on psychiatric hospitals that consume most of the national mental health budget. To accelerate the pace of change, this article emphasizes the need to develop cross-country regional initiatives that promote mental health service development, focusing on severe mental disorders. As one specific example, the authors describe work with RedeAmericas, which has brought together an interdisciplinary group of international investigators to research regional approaches and train a new generation of leaders in public mental health. More generally, four regional strategies are proposed to complement the work of PAHO/ WHO in Latin America: 1) to develop multi-country studies on community services, 2) to study new strategies and interventions in countries with more advanced mental health services, 3) to strengthen advocacy groups by cross-country interchange, and 4) to develop a network of well-trained leaders to catalyze progress across the region. PMID:25339792

  18. Video Surveillance in Mental Health Facilities: Is it Ethical?

    PubMed

    Stolovy, Tali; Melamed, Yuval; Afek, Arnon

    2015-05-01

    Video surveillance is a tool for managing safety and security within public spaces. In mental health facilities, the major benefit of video surveillance is that it enables 24 hour monitoring of patients, which has the potential to reduce violent and aggressive behavior. The major disadvantage is that such observation is by nature intrusive. It diminishes privacy, a factor of huge importance for psychiatric inpatients. Thus, an ongoing debate has developed following the increasing use of cameras in this setting. This article presents the experience of a medium-large academic state hospital that uses video surveillance, and explores the various ethical and administrative aspects of video surveillance in mental health facilities.

  19. History of mental health in South Africa. Part XII. Services for criminals, delinquents and psychopaths.

    PubMed

    Minde, M

    1975-12-27

    The development in the United States of psychiatric services for delinquents and criminals, which had a considerable influence on mental health services in South Africa, is described. It was followed by the appointment of court psychiatrists in thsi country, mainly to assist the Children's Courts. The findings of the Rumpff Commission on the responsibility of the mentally deranged persons are described, and psychiatric services for children are discussed.

  20. Determinants of mental illness stigma for adolescents discharged from psychiatric hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Moses, Tally

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the factors that increase the risk for enacted mental illness stigma (i.e. rejection, devaluation and exclusion) as perceived by the stigmatized person. This is particularly true for the population of adolescents diagnosed with a mental illness. The aim of this study was to address this question and examine select social and clinical factors that predict enacted stigma (self-reported) with research that follows eighty American adolescents for 6 months following a first psychiatric hospitalization. Drawing on social identity theory, and research on stigma-threatening environments, social group identification and social support, this study tested four hypotheses: affiliation or identification with higher status and lower status peers predicts more and less stigma respectively (H1); a greater and more supportive social network, and more perceived family support predict less stigma (H2); greater severity of internalizing and externalizing symptoms predicts more stigma (H3); and poorer school functioning predicts more stigma (H4). Results indicated that about 70% of adolescents reported experiencing enacted stigma (at 6 months); disrespect or devaluation was more common than outright social rejection. Using OLS regression analyses, the results provided partial support for H1, H3 and H4, while H2 was not supported. The baseline factors found to be most predictive of enacted stigma ratings at 6-months were: affiliating with more friends with mental health problems, identifying with the 'populars' peer group, higher internalizing symptom ratings, and self-reported disciplinary problems at school. These four factors remained significant when controlling for initial enacted stigma ratings, pointing to their importance in determining changes in social stigma experiences in the follow-up period. They also remained significant when controlling for perceived public stigma ratings at follow-up, indicating that the findings were not due to generalized

  1. Childhood Mental Ability and Lifetime Psychiatric Contact: A 66-Year Follow-Up Study of the 1932 Scottish Mental Ability Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Nicholas P.; McConville, Pauline M; Hunter, David; Deary, Ian J.; Whalley, Lawrence J.

    2002-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that intelligence is related to the risk of mental illness by linking childhood mental ability data to registers of psychiatric contact in a stable population of 4,199 adults in Scotland. Findings show intelligence to be an independent predictor of psychiatric contact, with each standard deviation decrease in IQ resulting in…

  2. [Financial crisis and mental health].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O

    2010-01-01

    Most studies investigating the effects of the economic crisis on the quality of life indicate a correlation between unemployment or other economic indexes and the general levels of death rates, depression, and suicide tendencies. The most common effects of an economic crisis are unemployment, spending power cuts, general insecurity and public spending retrenchment, including health related budget cuts. Under conditions of economic crisis, the poor represent a high risk group since they are the first ones to be put at risk. At the same time, due to their pre-existing functionality reduction, individuals already experiencing psychiatric diseases also represent a high risk group, thus creating a vice circle where poverty nurtures psychiatric disorders and vice-versa. For every country in the midst of a recession, protecting high risk target groups is the first priority. In these cases, research showcases that social security networks' reinforcement represents the first strategic priority. Other factors, for instance personality features related to increased vulnerability to psychosocial threat -such as low tolerance to frustration or low self esteem- also play an important role. At the organizational level, one has to research practices and policies that employers use to respond to changing conditions. An economic recession is a chance to revamp essential services toward weaker populations that need to be protected. This translates into a buttressing of the social welfare system while promoting timely interventions. Amongst others, the registration of high risk population groups, the rehabilitation and social inclusion of unemployed individuals and individuals with psychiatric problems, the training of first responders and primary care physicians, the tracing and curing of depression and other usual disorders, as well as an improved access to the psychiatric-health provision system.

  3. J. Krishnamurti'S teachings - relevance to mental health.

    PubMed

    Rao, A V

    1995-10-01

    The technique of J.Krishnamurti's communication marked by a dyadic style, 'pariprasna', a sense of togetherness, absence of persuasion and authoritativeness could be incorporated into psychotherapeutic sessions. Self-reliance and a genuine feeling of psychological oneness with others and to see things 'as they are' are discussed. The need for desirelessness to avoid conflicts and psychologically dying moment to moment to overcome fears e.g. of death and resolving chronic resentment is explained. A new way of ending sorrow has been pointed out. Krishnamurti's ideas on meditation have been dealt with briefly. Many of these concepts could be assimilated into psychiatric practice and towards promotion of mental health. Krishnamurti's call for a 'total transformation' of instant nature within the individual's psyche to effect a societal change is highlighted. Finally, a brief evaluation of Krishnamurti's contribution has been offered.

  4. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Mental Health Care for Children and Young Adults: A National Study.

    PubMed

    Marrast, Lyndonna; Himmelstein, David U; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2016-10-01

    Psychiatric and behavior problems are common among children and young adults, and many go without care or only receive treatment in carceral settings. We examined racial and ethnic disparities in children's and young adults' receipt of mental health and substance abuse care using nationally representative data from the 2006-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys. Blacks' and Hispanics' visit rates (and per capita expenditures) were about half those of non-Hispanic whites for all types and definitions of outpatient mental health services. Disparities were generally larger for young adults than for children. Black and white children had similar psychiatric inpatient and emergency department utilization rates, while Hispanic children had lower hospitalization rates. Multivariate control for mental health impairment, demographics, and insurance status did not attenuate racial/ethnic disparities in outpatient care. We conclude that psychiatric and behavioral problems among minority youth often result in school punishment or incarceration, but rarely mental health care.

  5. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Mental Health Care for Children and Young Adults: A National Study.

    PubMed

    Marrast, Lyndonna; Himmelstein, David U; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2016-10-01

    Psychiatric and behavior problems are common among children and young adults, and many go without care or only receive treatment in carceral settings. We examined racial and ethnic disparities in children's and young adults' receipt of mental health and substance abuse care using nationally representative data from the 2006-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys. Blacks' and Hispanics' visit rates (and per capita expenditures) were about half those of non-Hispanic whites for all types and definitions of outpatient mental health services. Disparities were generally larger for young adults than for children. Black and white children had similar psychiatric inpatient and emergency department utilization rates, while Hispanic children had lower hospitalization rates. Multivariate control for mental health impairment, demographics, and insurance status did not attenuate racial/ethnic disparities in outpatient care. We conclude that psychiatric and behavioral problems among minority youth often result in school punishment or incarceration, but rarely mental health care. PMID:27520100

  6. Mental Health in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrick, Stephen J.

    1978-01-01

    There is no component of the school program that has as its declared objective the enhancement of the health and quality of life of the child, the elimination of health problems that impede learning, and the prevention of disease and illness. The author finds this situation objectionable. (MM)

  7. Mental Health. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This comprehensive course from the Practical Nursing series of competency-based curricula is designed to prepare students for employment by systematically guiding the students' learning activities from the simple to the complex. These materials prepare health care practitioners to function effectively in the rapidly changing health care industry.…

  8. The role of competency to stand trial in mental health courts.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Kathleen P; Wygant, Dustin B

    2005-01-01

    Concerns have been raised in the literature about the competency to stand trial and competency to make treatment decisions of defendants referred to mental health courts. However, there is little information reported about the evaluation and prevalence of incompetence, characteristics of incompetent mental health court defendants, and disposition of mentally ill defendants too disturbed to be diverted from the criminal justice system through mental health courts. This study reports on the 85 potential mental health court defendants referred for trial competency evaluations during the first three years of operation of the Akron Ohio Mental Health Court. Of the 80 defendants who could be located for evaluation, 77.5% were found incompetent, and 53% of the incompetent defendants were not restored to competence even after an average of 49 days of treatment in a state psychiatric hospital. The implications of these findings in terms of the diversion potential of mental health courts for the severely mentally ill are discussed.

  9. 77 FR 38838 - Lists of Designated Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... HPSAs were revised and published on March 2, 1989, in Federal Register (54 FR 8735). The criteria for psychiatric HPSAs were expanded to mental health HPSAs on January 22, 1992 (57 FR 2473). Currently-funded PHS... lists published in the Federal Register on November 3, 2011 (76 FR 68198). The lists include...

  10. 78 FR 38718 - Lists of Designated Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... criteria for correctional facility HPSAs were revised and published on March 2, 1989 (54 FR 8735). The criteria for psychiatric HPSAs were expanded to mental health HPSAs on January 22, 1992 (57 FR 2473... on June 29, 2012 (77 FR 38838). The lists also include automatic facility HPSAs, designated as...

  11. The American Psychiatric Association's resource document on mental retardation and capital sentencing: implementing Atkins v. Virginia.

    PubMed

    Bonnie, Richard J

    2004-01-01

    State legislatures need guidance in implementing the United States Supreme Court's decision in Atkins v. Virginia barring execution of mentally retarded offenders. In this Resource Document, the American Psychiatric Association's Council on Psychiatry and Law, the component charged with developing policies and positions relating to forensic psychiatry, recommends statutory language addressing the definition of mental retardation, procedures relating to its assessment, and qualifications of testifying experts.

  12. Mental Health Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Illness & disability Drugs, alcohol & smoking Your feelings Relationships Bullying Safety Your future Environmental health Skip section navigation ( ... to what’s called conduct disorder. This sometimes includes bullying, destroying property, and being cruel to animals — plus ...

  13. Prevention Through Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicary, Judith R.

    1978-01-01

    Three rationales for affective, school-based prevention activities are to: (1) deter or lessen self- and socially-destructive behavior; (2) enhance cognitive development; and (3) promote maximum total growth, health, and development of each individual. (Author/MJB)

  14. Affiliative and prosocial motives and emotions in mental health.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Paul

    2015-12-01

    This paper argues that studies of mental health and wellbeing can be contextualized within an evolutionary approach that highlights the coregulating processes of emotions and motives. In particular, it suggests that, although many mental health symptoms are commonly linked to threat processing, attention also needs to be directed to the major regulators of threat processing, ie, prosocial and affiliative interactions with self and others. Given that human sociality has been a central driver for a whole range of human adaptations, a better understanding of the effects of prosocial interactions on health is required, and should be integrated into psychiatric formulations and interventions. Insight into the coregulating processes of motives and emotions, especially prosocial ones, offers improved ways of understanding mental health difficulties and their prevention and relief.

  15. Affiliative and prosocial motives and emotions in mental health

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that studies of mental health and wellbeing can be contextualized within an evolutionary approach that highlights the coregulating processes of emotions and motives. In particular, it suggests that, although many mental health symptoms are commonly linked to threat processing, attention also needs to be directed to the major regulators of threat processing, ie, prosocial and affiliative interactions with self and others. Given that human sociality has been a central driver for a whole range of human adaptations, a better understanding of the effects of prosocial interactions on health is required, and should be integrated into psychiatric formulations and interventions. Insight into the coregulating processes of motives and emotions, especially prosocial ones, offers improved ways of understanding mental health difficulties and their prevention and relief. PMID:26869839

  16. The Workplace and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierre, Karin Domnick

    1986-01-01

    Findings of the Canadian Mental Health and the Workplace Project are that (1) the quality of interpersonal relations in the workplace is a major factor in emotional well-being and (2) work must be balanced with other parts of one's life. These findings imply the need for social support networks and alternative work patterns. (SK)

  17. Child Mental Health Services, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Betty

    School and residential therapeutic programs of Child Health Mental Services, Inc. serving schizophrenic, autistic, and emotionally disturbed children and youth (2-21 years old) are described. The residential components include a family unit home as well as a supervised apartment living program. Admissions procedures for the school program are…

  18. Mental health care in Cambodia.

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, D. J.; van de Put, W. A.

    1999-01-01

    An effort is being made in Cambodia to involve grass-roots personnel in the integration of the care of the mentally ill into a broad framework of health services. This undertaking is examined with particular reference to the work of the Transcultural Psychosocial Organization. PMID:10212521

  19. Mental Health and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Henry C.

    1982-01-01

    Briefly reviews historical development of mental health and the law as a multidisciplinary field and considers variety of information seekers addressing certain topics of special importance. Pertinent information sources and services are outlined. Fifteen references and a recommended core library for fellowship programs in forensic psychiatry are…

  20. Volunteers in Community Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet gives detailed accounts of mental health programs in operation around the nation. A total of nine different types of activities is included. "Helping Children" describes a program whereby students from nearby colleges give troubled children, at home, an experience in friendship by serving as big brothers or sisters. "Helping the…

  1. Ethnic Lifestyles and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia-Weber, Gloria, Ed.

    This document presents two overview essays (one on the ethnic history of the United States and one on multicultural society) and seven articles on various aspects of the relationship between ethnic values and mental health. Articles were originally presented as papers at a series of seminars convened to encourage humanists from four ethnic groups…

  2. Children's Mental Health. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plattner, Ilse Elisabeth; Haugen, Kirsten; Cohen, Alan; Levin, Diane E.

    2003-01-01

    Presents four articles discussing mental health issues that pertain to early childhood education: "Granting Children Their Emotions" (Ilse Elisabeth Plattner); "Double Vision: Parent and Professional Perspectives on Our Family's Year in Crisis" (Kirsten Haugen); "Coping with Stress and Surviving Challenging Times" (Alan Cohen); and "When the World…

  3. Toward Explaining Mental Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aneshensel, Carol S.

    2009-01-01

    Mental health disparities refer to the disproportionate amount of psychopathology found among persons of disadvantageous social standing, such as persons of low socioeconomic status (SES). Although social and self selection cannot entirely be ruled out as explanations for these differences, the accumulation of evidence supports a social causation…

  4. Mental Health Care: Who's Who

    MedlinePlus

    ... degree in social work (M.S.W.); Licensed Clinical Social Workers (L.C.S.W.) have additional supervised training and clinical work experience. Licensed Professional Counselor: Master’s degree in psychology, counseling or a related field. Mental Health Counselor: ...

  5. Mental Health Service Delivery Systems and Perceived Qualifications of Mental Health Service Providers in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Decia Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of…

  6. General Psychiatric Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, R.

    2004-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disability (ID) and mental illness may use general or specialist psychiatric services. This review aims to assess if there is evidence for a difference in outcome between them. A literature review was conducted using a variety of electronic databases and hand-search strategies to identify all studies evaluating the outcome…

  7. Mental health issues of muslim americans.

    PubMed

    Basit, Abdul; Hamid, Mohammad

    2010-11-01

    The underpinning of all research leading to various schools of thought in the field of psychiatry and psychology is without doubt a product of Western professionals who represent the religio-cultural traditions, historical symbols, and narratives of Western society. Also, the major schools of psychotherapy emerged during an era of individualism and logical positivism reflecting the religious, ethical, and cultural heritage that has shaped the modern Western society. Consequently, the methods and techniques developed in the West may not be always suitable and effective for Muslim Americans. To respond to the growing needs of psychiatric problems encountered by Muslim Americans, many community social service centers have been established in the United States during the past two decades. We now have a growing body of research data suggesting how to tailor our field to the specific needs of this population. We will discuss what kind of emotional and psychiatric problems are most prevalent in Muslim Americans and explain the therapeutic approaches mental health professionals have used and the treatment strategies which have been found effective in the psychosocial rehabilitation of Muslim Americans. PMID:23864761

  8. Mental Health Issues of Muslim Americans

    PubMed Central

    Basit, Abdul; Hamid, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    The underpinning of all research leading to various schools of thought in the field of psychiatry and psychology is without doubt a product of Western professionals who represent the religio-cultural traditions, historical symbols, and narratives of Western society. Also, the major schools of psychotherapy emerged during an era of individualism and logical positivism reflecting the religious, ethical, and cultural heritage that has shaped the modern Western society. Consequently, the methods and techniques developed in the West may not be always suitable and effective for Muslim Americans. To respond to the growing needs of psychiatric problems encountered by Muslim Americans, many community social service centers have been established in the United States during the past two decades. We now have a growing body of research data suggesting how to tailor our field to the specific needs of this population. We will discuss what kind of emotional and psychiatric problems are most prevalent in Muslim Americans and explain the therapeutic approaches mental health professionals have used and the treatment strategies which have been found effective in the psychosocial rehabilitation of Muslim Americans. PMID:23864761

  9. [Mental health in Pointe-St-Charles : towards collective responsibility.].

    PubMed

    Blanchet, L

    1978-01-01

    The Pointe St-Charles Community Clinic is a popular, user-run clinic, where psychiatric treatment is integrated into the services of the medical-social teams, and where, more globally, an attitude of a collective responsability for mental health is beginning to develop as a result of the active involvement, on the part of both clinic workers and users, in the social change process and the optimal use of the natural community ressource network.

  10. Does gender matter? Exploring mental health recovery court legal and health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Catherine L; Butkiewicz, Robert; Williams, Emily R; Jacobson, Caron; Morse, Diane S; Cerulli, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background Based upon therapeutic justice principles, mental health courts use legal leverage to improve access and compliance to treatment for defendants who are mentally ill. Justice-involved women have a higher prevalence of mental illness than men, and it plays a greater role in their criminal behavior. Despite this, studies examining whether women respond differently than men to mental health courts are lacking. Study goals were to examine gender-related differences in mental health court participation, and in criminal justice, psychiatric and health-related outcomes. Methods This study utilized a quasi-experimental pre-posttest design without a control group. The data were abstracted from administrative records of Kalamazoo Community Mental Health and Substance Abuse agency, the county jail and both county hospitals, 2008 through 2011. Generalized estimating equation regression was used to assess gender-differences in pre-post program outcomes (jail days, psychiatric and medical hospitalization days, emergency department visits) for the 30 women and 63 men with a final mental health court disposition. Results Program-eligible females were more likely than males to become enrolled in mental health court. Otherwise they were similar on all measured program-participation characteristics: treatment compliance, WRAP participation and graduation rate. All participants showed significant reductions in emergency department visits, but women-completers had significantly steeper drops than males: from 6.7 emergency department visits to 1.3 for women, and from 4.1 to 2.4 for men. A similar gender pattern emerged with medical-hospitalization-days: from 2.2 medical hospital days down to 0.1 for women, and from 0.9 days up to 1.8 for men. While women had fewer psychiatric hospitalization days than men regardless of program involvement (2.5 and 4.6, respectively), both genders experienced fewer days after MHRC compared to before. Women and men showed equal gains from

  11. EPA guidance on mental health and economic crises in Europe.

    PubMed

    Martin-Carrasco, M; Evans-Lacko, S; Dom, G; Christodoulou, N G; Samochowiec, J; González-Fraile, E; Bienkowski, P; Gómez-Beneyto, M; Dos Santos, M J H; Wasserman, D

    2016-03-01

    This European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance paper is a result of the Working Group on Mental Health Consequences of Economic Crises of the EPA Council of National Psychiatric Associations. Its purpose is to identify the impact on mental health in Europe of the economic downturn and the measures that may be taken to respond to it. We performed a review of the existing literature that yields 350 articles on which our conclusions and recommendations are based. Evidence-based tables and recommendations were developed through an expert consensus process. Literature dealing with the consequences of economic turmoil on the health and health behaviours of the population is heterogeneous, and the results are not completely unequivocal. However, there is a broad consensus about the deleterious consequences of economic crises on mental health, particularly on psychological well-being, depression, anxiety disorders, insomnia, alcohol abuse, and suicidal behaviour. Unemployment, indebtedness, precarious working conditions, inequalities, lack of social connectedness, and housing instability emerge as main risk factors. Men at working age could be particularly at risk, together with previous low SES or stigmatized populations. Generalized austerity measures and poor developed welfare systems trend to increase the harmful effects of economic crises on mental health. Although many articles suggest limitations of existing research and provide suggestions for future research, there is relatively little discussion of policy approaches to address the negative impact of economic crises on mental health. The few studies that addressed policy questions suggested that the development of social protection programs such as active labour programs, social support systems, protection for housing instability, and better access to mental health care, particularly at primary care level, is strongly needed.

  12. EPA guidance on mental health and economic crises in Europe.

    PubMed

    Martin-Carrasco, M; Evans-Lacko, S; Dom, G; Christodoulou, N G; Samochowiec, J; González-Fraile, E; Bienkowski, P; Gómez-Beneyto, M; Dos Santos, M J H; Wasserman, D

    2016-03-01

    This European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance paper is a result of the Working Group on Mental Health Consequences of Economic Crises of the EPA Council of National Psychiatric Associations. Its purpose is to identify the impact on mental health in Europe of the economic downturn and the measures that may be taken to respond to it. We performed a review of the existing literature that yields 350 articles on which our conclusions and recommendations are based. Evidence-based tables and recommendations were developed through an expert consensus process. Literature dealing with the consequences of economic turmoil on the health and health behaviours of the population is heterogeneous, and the results are not completely unequivocal. However, there is a broad consensus about the deleterious consequences of economic crises on mental health, particularly on psychological well-being, depression, anxiety disorders, insomnia, alcohol abuse, and suicidal behaviour. Unemployment, indebtedness, precarious working conditions, inequalities, lack of social connectedness, and housing instability emerge as main risk factors. Men at working age could be particularly at risk, together with previous low SES or stigmatized populations. Generalized austerity measures and poor developed welfare systems trend to increase the harmful effects of economic crises on mental health. Although many articles suggest limitations of existing research and provide suggestions for future research, there is relatively little discussion of policy approaches to address the negative impact of economic crises on mental health. The few studies that addressed policy questions suggested that the development of social protection programs such as active labour programs, social support systems, protection for housing instability, and better access to mental health care, particularly at primary care level, is strongly needed. PMID:26874960

  13. Relationship between loneliness, psychiatric disorders and physical health ? A review on the psychological aspects of loneliness.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Raheel; Shoib, Sheikh; Shah, Tabindah; Mushtaq, Sahil

    2014-09-01

    Human beings are social species which require safe and secure social surroundings to survive. Satisfying social relationships are essential for mental and physical well beings. Impaired social relationship can lead to loneliness. Since the time of dawn, loneliness is perceived as a global human phenomenon. Loneliness can lead to various psychiatric disorders like depression, alcohol abuse, child abuse, sleep problems, personality disorders and Alzheimer's disease. It also leads to various physical disorders like diabetes, autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and cardiovascular diseases like coronary heart disease, hypertension (HTN), obesity, physiological aging, cancer, poor hearing and poor health. Left untended, loneliness can have serious consequences for mental and physical health of people. Therefore it is important to intervene at the right time to prevent loneliness, so that physical and mental health of patients is maintained. PMID:25386507

  14. Relationship Between Loneliness, Psychiatric Disorders and Physical Health ? A Review on the Psychological Aspects of Loneliness

    PubMed Central

    Shoib, Sheikh; Shah, Tabindah; Mushtaq, Sahil

    2014-01-01

    Human beings are social species which require safe and secure social surroundings to survive. Satisfying social relationships are essential for mental and physical well beings. Impaired social relationship can lead to loneliness. Since the time of dawn, loneliness is perceived as a global human phenomenon. Loneliness can lead to various psychiatric disorders like depression, alcohol abuse, child abuse, sleep problems, personality disorders and Alzheimer’s disease. It also leads to various physical disorders like diabetes, autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and cardiovascular diseases like coronary heart disease, hypertension (HTN), obesity, physiological aging, cancer, poor hearing and poor health. Left untended, loneliness can have serious consequences for mental and physical health of people. Therefore it is important to intervene at the right time to prevent loneliness, so that physical and mental health of patients is maintained. PMID:25386507

  15. Malayalam cinema and mental health.

    PubMed

    Menon, Koravangattu Valsraj; Ranjith, Gopinath

    2009-06-01

    There is a tradition of using films to teach various aspects of psychiatry and we feel that Malayalam cinema can also be used suitably to teach effectively. These films can be an invaluable resource in cultural competency training as they depict the effects of culture on psychopathology and cultural and regional influences on attitudes to mental illness and stigma. We also note that the portrayal is often far from reality but this is not a barrier for using the films as an effective alternative to traditional and didactic teaching methods. This method of teaching can stimulate interest and discussion and demystify the myths of novice students and others about mental health.

  16. Critical race theory speaks to the sociology of mental health: mental health problems produced by racial stratification.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tony N

    2003-09-01

    The sociology of mental health focuses on the epidemiology, etiology, correlates, and consequences of mental health (i.e., psychiatric disorder and symptoms, psychological distress, and subjective well-being) in an attempt to describe and explain how social structure influences an individual's psychological health. Critical race theory describes and explains iterative ways in which race is socially constructed across micro- and macro-levels, and how it determines life chances implicating the mundane and extraordinary in the continuance of racial stratification (i.e., racism). This paper invoked critical race theory to inform the sociology of mental health's approach to studying race and mental health by conceptualizing five hypothetical mental health problems that could exist because of racial stratification. These problems were: (1) nihilistic tendencies, (2) anti-self issues, (3) suppressed anger expression, (4) delusional denial tendencies, and (5) extreme racial paranoia. Mental health problems such as these and undocumented others can only be recognized given awareness of the social and personal implications of racial stratification.

  17. Policy issues in mental health among the elderly.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Karen M

    2010-12-01

    Americans are living longer than ever before in history. With age comes an increased risk for chronic mental health disorders. About 1 in 8 baby boomers is expected to be diagnosed with Alzheimer disease, which will amount to some ten million members of this age cohort. The prevalence of mental health disorders among the elderly is often unrecognized. One in four older adults lives with depression, anxiety disorders, or other significant psychiatric disorders. Mental health disorders are frequently comorbid in older adults, occurring with a number of common chronic illnesses such as in diabetes, cardiac disease, and arthritis. The public is becoming more aware of the aging of the population and the difficulties that are exacerbated by unmet services and limited access to mental health services. This article describes policy issues related to chronic mental health disorders and the older population. Mental health parity, a recent policy issue occurring at the national level, is discussed first followed by workforce issues specific to the discipline of nursing.

  18. Mental Health and Mental Retardation Services in Nevada. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, J. S.; And Others

    Summarized are the findings and recommendations of a 2-year study of all major services and service delivery systems in Nevada for persons with mental health disorders, mentally retarded persons, and abusers of alcohol and other drugs. Considered are the following areas of basic service needs: prevention of the mentally handicapping conditions,…

  19. Promoting Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee

    2016-01-01

    In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.

  20. State propaganda and mental disorders: the issue of psychiatric casualties among Japanese soldiers during the Asia-Pacific War.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Janice

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the politics of Japanese wartime medical policy, demonstrating how state propaganda about the people and their armed forces influenced authoritative views on health and what might endanger it. By focusing on the obstacles faced by psychiatrists trying to promote more official concern for mental health issues, it challenges the validity of figures indicating a low incidence of psychological trauma among the country's soldiers. Civilian psychiatrists had to contend with the threat of censorship and arrest for even discussing war-induced mental disorders; at the same time, army psychiatrists as military insiders were pressured to convince their patients that their conditions were not serious and did not merit compensation. While discussing the neglected topic of Japanese psychiatric casualties, an attempt is made to provide a comparative approach by referring to the state of military psychiatry in other national settings.

  1. Psychiatric disorders and sleep issues.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Eliza L

    2014-09-01

    Sleep issues are common in people with psychiatric disorders, and the interaction is complex. Sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, can precede and predispose to psychiatric disorders, can be comorbid with and exacerbate psychiatric disorders, and can occur as part of psychiatric disorders. Sleep disorders can mimic psychiatric disorders or result from medication given for psychiatric disorders. Impairment of sleep and of mental health may be different manifestations of the same underlying neurobiological processes. For the primary care physician, key tools include recognition of potential sleep effects of psychiatric medications and familiarity with treatment approaches for insomnia in depression and anxiety.

  2. Leveraging Mental Health Dollars into Your District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilkenny, Robert; Katz, Nechama; Baron, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    By addressing common reasons that schools and mental health partners often cannot sustain sufficient school-based mental health services, Connecting With Care (CWC)--a mental health collaboration that places full-time clinicians in schools in Boston's most under-served urban neighborhood--is demonstrating how schools and districts can leverage…

  3. Perceived Age Discrimination and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Anastasia S. Vogt

    2007-01-01

    Although perceived discrimination (especially due to race-ethnicity) decreases mental health, the influence of perceived discrimination due to other reasons on mental health needs to be explored. This study examines the relationship between perceived age discrimination and mental health and determines whether psychosocial resources explain or…

  4. The first mental health law of China.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yang; Wang, Jijun; Xie, Bin

    2015-02-01

    The first mental health law of China entered into effect on May 1, 2013. This was the biggest event in the mental health field in China. The present review introduces its legislative process, its main idea, and the principle and essence of formulating this mental health law. Current problems of the law and possible countermeasures are also discussed.

  5. Families, Managed Care, & Children's Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Marilyn C., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue of a bulletin on family support and children's mental health focuses on managed care and the impact on children who are in need of mental health services. Articles include: "Private Sector Managed Care and Children's Mental Health" (Ira S. Lourie and others); "Just What Is Managed Care?" (Chris Koyanagi); "Managed Behavioral…

  6. Handbook of Infant Mental Health. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Charles H., Jr., Ed.

    This revised edition offers an interdisciplinary analysis of the developmental, clinical, and social aspects of mental health from birth to age 3. Chapters are organized into five areas, covering the context of mental health, risk and protective factors, assessment, psychopathology, intervention, and applications of infant mental health. The…

  7. Hispanics and Culturally Sensitive Mental Health Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hispanic Research Center Research Bulletin, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The objective of improving mental health care for Hispanics has been reviewed, most often, as dependent upon the provision of culturally sensitive mental health services. "Cultural sensitivity," however, is an imprecise term, especially when efforts are made to put it into operation when providing mental health services to Hispanic clients.…

  8. Experience Placements. Mental Health Career Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    The purpose of the Mental Health Career Development Program (MHCD) is to recruit and develop talented professionals for major roles in the multidisciplinary Federal mental health effort at the National Institute of Mental Health and other agencies. This booklet is intended to assist MHCD members and their advisors in planning for the transition…

  9. Ethnic Issues in Adolescent Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiffman, Arlene Rubin, Ed.; Davis, Larry E., Ed.

    The essays collected in this book examine the effects of ethnicity on the mental health of adolescents. A dual set of issues emerges throughout the volume: the importance of adolescent mental health in contributing to adult well-being, and the necessity of understanding ethnicity in studying and treating mental health problems. The book is divided…

  10. Psychiatry and the death penalty: dilemma for mental health professionals.

    PubMed

    Kermani, E J; Drob, S L

    1988-01-01

    The arguments for and against mental health professionals' participation in death penalty proceedings are presented against the background of U.S. Supreme Court decisions which have had a bearing on this issue. It is concluded that the possibility of presenting mitigating psychologic testimony in such proceedings necessitates the possibility of exacerbating psychiatric testimony and that hence, mental health professionals who testify for the prosecution in such cases do not, on a wider view, violate their hippocratic oaths or other ethical codes. A number of safeguards, however, should be instituted with respect to such testimony. Psychiatrists, psychologists or other qualified mental health professionals should (1) testify with medical "possibility" or "probability," (2) not be permitted to address ultimate legal issues and (3) be permitted, in fact encouraged, to present alternative interpretations of forensic psychiatric findings. It is further argued that in addition to being justified in testifying for the prosecution on death penalty cases, mental health professionals may have a moral rationale for treating death row prisoners and restoring them to competency.

  11. Improving competence in emergency mental health triage.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, M; Jarman, H; Berk, M

    2002-07-01

    The Emergency Department is an important contact point for people with mental health problems (Tobin et al. 1999, p. 2). The Barwon Health Emergency Department is no exception. Approximately 1000 clients per year, or 2.6% of the 38,000 people seen annually in the Barwon Health, Geelong Hospital Emergency Department present with a primary mental health complaint or associated issue. The triage scale used in the Emergency Department contained little guidance for the triage of clients with mental health problems. A triage scale specifically designed to highlight mental health emergencies was implemented and its impact on practice was assessed. Improvements in communication, nurses' confidence in triaging clients with mental health problems and time to intervention by mental health staff were made. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of a mental health triage scale and changes to practice that resulted.

  12. Religion, Senescence, and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Van Ness, Peter H.; Larson, David B.

    2015-01-01

    The authors review epidemiological and survey research relevant to the relationships between religiousness/spirituality and mental health in people at the end of life, with the end of helping psychiatrists, psychologists, and other mental health professionals dealing with older Americans. They give special attention to well-being, religious coping, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety, depression, and suicide, and consider the extent to which hope is a mediator of the purported salutary effects of religiousness. Studies were selected from the comprehensive and systematic review of 20th-century scientific literature concerning religion and health. Authors also review current studies relevant to religion and end-of-life issues. Religious persons reported generally higher levels of well-being. The review also found fairly consistent inverse associations of religiousness with rates of depression and suicide. There was some negative association between religious participation and cognitive dysfunction, but the association with anxiety was inconsistent, with some studies showing a correlation between higher levels of religion and anxiety. Religion’s effects on mental health are generally protective in direction but modest in strength. PMID:12095898

  13. Improving Quality of Emergency Care Through Integration of Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Martha; Wrenn, Glenda; Ede, Victor; Wilson, Nana; Custer, William; Risby, Emile; Claeys, Michael; Shelp, Frank E; Atallah, Hany; Mattox, Gail; Satcher, David

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to better integrate emergency medical and psychiatric care at a large urban public hospital, identify impact on quality improvement metrics, and reduce healthcare cost. A psychiatric fast track service was implemented as a quality improvement initiative. Data on disposition from the emergency department from January 2011 to May 2012 for patients impacted by the pilot were analyzed. 4329 patients from January 2011 to August 2011 (pre-intervention) were compared with 4867 patients from September 2011 to May 2012 (intervention). There was a trend of decline on overall quality metrics of time to triage and time from disposition to discharge. The trend analysis of the psychiatric length of stay and use of restraints showed significant reductions. Integrated emergency care models are evidence-based approach to ensuring that patients with mental health needs receive proper and efficient treatment. Results suggest that this may also improve overall emergency department's throughput.

  14. Terrorism, suicide bombing, fear and mental health.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Ian

    2007-06-01

    This paper is based on the Bruce Burns Memorial Trust Lecture, Terrorism and Mental Health, presented in October 2005, in Birmingham. In addition to written sources, it is informed by the author's experience and contact with military and police experts in this arena over 28 years as a member of the British Army. The diagnosis and treatment of post traumatic mental disorders are not addressed in this paper. The author explores the general phenomenon of terrorism, in an endeavour to inform understanding of terrorist acts. He stresses the need for contextualisation of acts of terror, their perpetrators, their effects on populations and individuals, and attention to the psychology of groups. The author aims to invite and inform further thought and debate on the subject by raising a wide range of issues which do not sit comfortably within a strict psychiatric, research-based paradigm. The author covers a brief history of terrorism; organisational requirements of terror groups and the process of recruiting personnel to them; the means, motives and opportunities terrorists exploit in their work; the need for communication with terror groups; sacrificial death; governmental responses to terrorist acts and fear and mental health. The author proposes that terrorist organisations perform some of the functions of a family; that acts of terror are 'propaganda by deed'; that terrorism, or more precisely the media's treatment of it, breeds 'formless fears' which may directly lead to the development of fear-based symptoms and illness within societies. He notes that terrorism is an enterprise from which many players ('experts', media, politicians, etc.) benefit; that terrorism has its shadow in counter-terrorism, which may range from benign to malignant and that psychiatry could, in this context, acknowledge its bias towards individual psychologies and rectify its lack of understanding of groups and the behaviours of individuals within them.

  15. Community mental health nursing in Alberta, Canada: an oral history.

    PubMed

    Boschma, Geertje

    2012-01-01

    Community mental health nurses had a central role in the construction of new rehabilitative practices and community mental health services in the 1960s and 1970s. The purpose of this article is, first, to explore how nurses understood and created their new role and identity in the turbulent context of deinstitutionalization. The development of after care services for patients discharged from Alberta Hospital in Ponoka (AH-Ponoka), a large mental institution in Calgary, in the Canadian province of Alberta, will be used as a case study. I specifically focus on the establishment of outpatient services in a new psychiatric department at Foothills General Hospital in Calgary. Second, I examine how deinstitutionalization itself shaped community mental health nurses' work. Oral history interviews with nurses and other mental health professionals, who had a central role in this transformation process, provide a unique lens through which to explore this social change. The article concludes that new rehabilitative, community-based mental health services can better be understood as a transformation of former institutional practices rather than as a definite break with them.

  16. Introduction: the need to address older women's mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Malatesta, Victor J

    2007-01-01

    Women are the primary consumers of mental health services. Ironically, research addressing their unique needs lags behind that of men's issues. The aging process introduces an important variable that accentuates the relative lack of information and specific treatment guidelines for older women who are confronted by mental health problems. This volume offers a comprehensive overview for the health professional who is seeking a greater depth of understanding with respect to the study of mental health problems in general, and how these issues pertain specifically to women and the aging process. A second goal of this project is to provide the practicing therapist and counselor with a research update and a broad clinical perspective offered by seasoned clinicians. Using current psychiatric diagnosis as a framework, the contributions address the range of mental health problems, including dementia and cognitive impairment, schizophrenia, alcohol abuse, mood and anxiety disorders, traumatic and dissociative conditions, sexual and eating disorders, and personality disorders. It is hoped that this book will inform, inspire and encourage students and health professionals in their work with middle aged and older women who are facing mental health challenges. PMID:17588876

  17. Smoking Behaviour and Mental Health Disorders—Mutual Influences and Implications for Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Minichino, Amedeo; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Calò, Wanda Katharina; Spagnoli, Francesco; Francesconi, Marta; Vicinanza, Roberto; Delle Chiaie, Roberto; Biondi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is strongly associated with a variety of psychiatric disorders. Smokers are more likely than non-smokers to meet current criteria for mental health conditions, such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders and psychosis. Evidence also suggest that smokers with psychiatric disorders may have more difficulty quitting, offering at least a partial explanation for why smoking rates are higher in this population. The mechanisms linking mental health conditions and cigarette smoking are complex and likely differ across each of the various disorders. The most commonly held view is that patients with mental health conditions smoke in an effort to regulate the symptoms associated with their disorder. However some recent evidence suggests that quitting smoking may actually improve mental health symptoms. This is particularly true if the tobacco cessation intervention is integrated into the context of ongoing mental health treatment. In this paper we reviewed and summarized the most relevant knowledge about the relationship between tobacco use and dependence and psychiatric disorders. We also reviewed the most effective smoking cessation strategies available for patients with psychiatric comorbidity and the impact of smoking behavior on psychiatric medication. PMID:24157506

  18. Smoking behaviour and mental health disorders--mutual influences and implications for therapy.

    PubMed

    Minichino, Amedeo; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Calò, Wanda Katharina; Spagnoli, Francesco; Francesconi, Marta; Vicinanza, Roberto; Delle Chiaie, Roberto; Biondi, Massimo

    2013-10-10

    Tobacco use is strongly associated with a variety of psychiatric disorders. Smokers are more likely than non-smokers to meet current criteria for mental health conditions, such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders and psychosis. Evidence also suggest that smokers with psychiatric disorders may have more difficulty quitting, offering at least a partial explanation for why smoking rates are higher in this population. The mechanisms linking mental health conditions and cigarette smoking are complex and likely differ across each of the various disorders. The most commonly held view is that patients with mental health conditions smoke in an effort to regulate the symptoms associated with their disorder. However some recent evidence suggests that quitting smoking may actually improve mental health symptoms. This is particularly true if the tobacco cessation intervention is integrated into the context of ongoing mental health treatment. In this paper we reviewed and summarized the most relevant knowledge about the relationship between tobacco use and dependence and psychiatric disorders. We also reviewed the most effective smoking cessation strategies available for patients with psychiatric comorbidity and the impact of smoking behavior on psychiatric medication.

  19. Integrating Mental Health Promotion and Substance Abuse Prevention on College Campuses. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the American Psychiatric Association, college can be an exciting time, though for some it can be overwhelming and stressful. Depression, anxiety, substance use, and eating disorders are common mental health issues on college campuses. The 2010 American College Health Association National College Health Assessment found that 28 percent…

  20. Independent mental health nurse prescribing.

    PubMed

    Jones, A; Harborne, G C

    2009-08-01

    Independent prescribing (IP) is a new form of prescriptive authority for mental health services. Very little is known about where IP is being implemented and factors to support or constrain its adoption. An opportunistic sample of 119 respondents made up of nurses, doctors, support workers, occupational therapists and social workers completed an online survey. The sample worked in adult, old age and substance misuse services. Hospital wards and community mental health teams were identified as the highest ranked areas for implementation. A total of 68% of the sample identified pharmacology as the area for further training. And 40% of the sample felt that IP had been introduced to make services more effective. This opportunistic sample supported IP as a means to offer greater patient choice and as a method to broaden the boundaries of nursing practice. Integral to this development is the link between the psychiatrist and IP nurse in terms of work allocation and supervision.

  1. Ethical issues in mental health

    PubMed Central

    DuBois, James; Bailey-Burch, Brendolyn; Bustillos, Dan; Campbell, Jean; Cottler, Linda; Fisher, Celia; Hadley, Whitney B.; Hoop, Jinger G.; Roberts, Laura; Salter, Erica K.; Sieber, Joan E.; Stevenson, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review To describe community engaged research (CEnR) and how it may improve the quality of a research study while addressing ethical concerns that communities may have with mental health and substance abuse research. This article includes a review of the literature as well as recommendations from an expert panel convened with funding from the US National Institute of Mental Health. Recent findings CEnR represents a broad spectrum of practices including representation on institutional ethics committees, attitude research with individuals from the study population, engaging community advisory boards, forming research partnerships with community organizations, and including community members as co-investigators. Summary CEnR poses some challenges; for example, it requires funding and training for researchers and community members. However, it offers many benefits to researchers and communities and some form of CEnR is appropriate and feasible in nearly every study involving human participants. PMID:21460643

  2. Institutions, Politics, and Mental Health Parity

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Elaine M.; Uggen, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Mental health parity laws require insurers to extend comparable benefits for mental and physical health care. Proponents argue that by placing mental health services alongside physical health services, such laws can help ensure needed treatment and destigmatize mental illness. Opponents counter that such mandates are costly or unnecessary. The authors offer a sociological account of the diffusion and spatial distribution of state mental health parity laws. An event history analysis identifies four factors as especially important: diffusion of law, political ideology, the stability of mental health advocacy organizations and the relative health of state economies. Mental health parity is least likely to be established during times of high state unemployment and under the leadership of conservative state legislatures. PMID:24353902

  3. Psychiatric and Medical Health Care Policies in Juvenile Detention Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen A.; Kelleher, Kelly; Gupta, Ravindra A.; Rolls, Jennifer; Gardner, William

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine the existing health care policies in U.S. juvenile detention centres. The results conclude that juvenile detention facilities have many shortfalls in providing care for adolescents, particularly mental health care.

  4. Child physical abuse and adult mental health: a national study.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16-2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention.

  5. The Mental Health of Black Caribbean Immigrants: Results from the National Survey of American Life

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Haile, Rahwa; González, Hector M.; Neighbors, Harold; Baser, Raymond; Jackson, James S.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among Black Caribbean immigrant (“Caribbean Black”) and African American populations and the correlates of psychiatric disorders among the Caribbean Black population. Methods. We conducted descriptive and age-adjusted analyses of the data from the National Survey of American Life—an in-person household mental health survey of noninstitutionalized US Blacks. We assessed psychiatric disorders as defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results. Compared with African American men, Caribbean Black men had higher risks for 12-month rates of psychiatric disorders. Caribbean Black women had lower odds for 12-month and lifetime psychiatric disorders compared with African American women. Risks varied by ethnicity, immigration history, and generation status within the Caribbean sample. First-generation Caribbean Blacks had lower rates of psychiatric disorders compared with second- or third-generation Caribbean Blacks, and, compared with first-generation Carribbean Blacks, third-generation Caribbean Blacks had markedly elevated rates of psychiatric disorders. Conclusions. Mental health risks were associated with ethnic diversity within the US Black population. Increased exposure to minority status in the United States was associated with higher risks for psychiatric disorders among Black Caribbean immigrants, which possibly reflects increased societal stress and downward social mobility associated with being Black in America. PMID:17138909

  6. Positive mental health: is there a cross-cultural definition?

    PubMed

    Vaillant, George E

    2012-06-01

    SEVEN MODELS FOR CONCEPTUALIZING POSITIVE MENTAL HEALTH ARE REVIEWED: mental health as above normal, epitomized by a DSM-IV's Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score of over 80; mental health as the presence of multiple human strengths rather than the absence of weaknesses; mental health conceptualized as maturity; mental health as the dominance of positive emotions; mental health as high socio-emotional intelligence; mental health as subjective well-being; mental health as resilience. Safeguards for the study of mental health are suggested, including the need to define mental health in terms that are culturally sensitive and inclusive, and the need to empirically and longitudinally validate criteria for mental health.

  7. Rural mental health: neither romanticism nor despair.

    PubMed

    Wainer, J; Chesters, J

    2000-06-01

    This paper explores the relationship between rural places and mental health. It begins with a definition of mental health and an outline of the data that have led to the current concern with promoting positive mental health. We then consider aspects of rural life and place that contribute to positive mental health or increase the likelihood of mental health problems. Issues identified include environment, place, gender identity, violence and dispossession and the influence of the effects of structural changes in rural communities. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the determinants of resilience in rural places, including social connectedness, valuing diversity and economic participation. PMID:11249401

  8. "Suffering in thought": an analysis of the mental health needs of female domestic workers living with violence in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy

    2010-02-01

    The impact of violence on the mental health of women has been acknowledged but with limited exploration in resource-poor countries. Using critical ethnography and feminist methods, we analyzed the impact of violence on the mental health of a sample of Malawian women employed in domestic service. The analysis showed mental health as being situated in the context of poverty, inhumane treatment, social isolation, and the erosion of hope. We offer suggestions on how psychiatric nurses and other health care providers can promote the mental health of women employed in domestic service while acknowledging the limited mental health services in Malawi.

  9. The World Health Organization's recent work on the lexicography of mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Janca, A; Sartorius, N

    1995-01-01

    Standardization of nomenclature and terminology used in the field of mental health has been one of the main goals of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Mental Health Programme among recent activities undertaken to achieve this goal, is the development of definition and guidelines accompanying the chapter dealing with mental disorders in the tenth revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) and of a set of instruments for the assessment of mental disorders. To enhance common understanding and uniformity of usage of the terms embedded in the classification and instruments and to facilitate their use in different cultures and settings, a series of lexica and glossaries has also been produced by WHO. The article describes the basic characteristics of the Lexicon of psychiatric and mental health terms, 2nd edition; Lexicon of alcohol and drug terms; Lexicon of crosscultural terms in mental health; SCAN glossary; and the ICD-10 symptom glossary for mental disorders.

  10. Mental health policy developments in Latin America.

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, R. D.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    New assessment guidelines for measuring the overall impact of mental health problems in Latin America have served as a catalyst for countries to review their mental health policies. Latin American countries have taken various steps to address long-standing problems such as structural difficulties, scarce financial and human resources, and social, political, and cultural obstacles in the implementation of mental health policies and legislation. These policy developments, however, have had uneven results. Policies must reflect the desire, determination, and commitment of policy-makers to take mental health seriously and look after people's mental health needs. This paper describes the development of mental health policies in Latin American countries, focusing on published data in peer-reviewed journals, and legislative change and its implementation. It presents a brief history of mental health policy developments, and analyzes the basis and practicalities of current practice. PMID:10885167

  11. Defendants with Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Health Diagnoses: Faring in a Mental Health Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, M. M.; Griggs, M.; Dykens, E. M.; Hodapp, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Begun in the late 1990s, mental health courts are specialty criminal courts developed to address the needs of persons with mental illness. Methods: As many persons with intellectual disabilities (IDs) may overlap in the mental health court system, we used mental health court records to examine the phenomenology and outcomes of 224…

  12. States Pass Diverse Slate of Mental Health Legislation in 2013. Mental Health: 2013 Legislative Session

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Recent violence in schools and on college campuses has brought into sharp focus the need to address mental health issues in educational settings. Getting students with mental health problems the help they need, without stigmatizing mental illness, may help prevent future tragedies. Children with mental health problems face a host of challenges,…

  13. The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738

  14. Yuta (shaman) and community mental health on Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Naka, K; Toguchi, S; Takaishi, T; Ishizu, H; Sasaki, Y

    1985-01-01

    This study reports on the relations between the yuta (shaman) and the community mental health activities on Okinawa, Japan. Focus is on the process of initiation of the yuta and its meanings from the mental health viewpoints, the functions of the yuta in the particular cultural background of the island, and the importance of admitting the existence of the yuta in its relations to the psychiatric treatment in a mental hospital. The discussion is based on the authors' research findings which were obtained mostly through their therapeutic activities and their field studies. The authors' assumption is that each culture has in it a certain social background that is unique in that culture by which a stress or insanity is increased or brought about, but in the same culture there are ways to decrease the stress and to cure the insanity.

  15. Mental Health Counseling: A Stakeholder's Manifesto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Edward S.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the original dreams of the founders of the American Mental Health Counselors Association; looks at history and comments on the state of mental health counseling as it has struggled to evolve as a profession. Urges those in the counseling profession to consider an acquisitions and mergers corporate mentality to ensure and enhance the…

  16. Early Intervention Services in Youth Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Darryl; Johnston, Amy; Campbell, Bronwyn; Littlefield, Lyn

    2007-01-01

    Mental and substance use disorders are leading contributors to the burden of disease among young people in Australia, but young people experience a range of barriers to accessing appropriate treatment for their mental health concerns. The development of early intervention services that provide accessible and effective mental health care has the…

  17. NIMH Support of Rural Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutner, Michael; Windle, Charles

    1991-01-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) aims to improve mental health services by funding research projects and research centers. NIMH also supports state planning, protection of and advocacy for the mentally ill, disaster relief, professional training, and public information programs. (DM)

  18. Mental Health Is Served by Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris

    For more than 35 years the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has been the nation's major instrument of support for research in mental health. The yield from this ongoing research effort has been substantial, with a substantive increase of information about the causes, treatment, and prevention of mental illness as well as the factors that…

  19. Issues in Children's Mental Health. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmo, Margaret L.

    This Kids Count report examines issues related to children's mental health in Virginia. The report discusses the effects of children's mental illness, presents risk and protective factors, and describes the incidence of children's mental health problems. Information specific to Virginia is presented, including the prevalence of youth suicide,…

  20. Mental Health Mobile Apps: From Infusion to Diffusion in the Mental Health Social System.

    PubMed

    East, Marlene Lynette; Havard, Byron C

    2015-01-01

    The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations

  1. Mental Health Mobile Apps: From Infusion to Diffusion in the Mental Health Social System

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations

  2. Mental Health and Mental Illness in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.

    Statistics of mental illness in Maryland are provided in the areas of diagnostic distribution of admissions and resident patients, size and nature of patient population, percentage change in daily cost per patient, employee-patient ratios, length of hospitalization, diagnostic treatment trends, patient mortality, and Baltimore's specific problems…

  3. Impact of intimate partner violence on pregnant women's mental health: mental distress and mental strength.

    PubMed

    Rose, Linda; Alhusen, Jeanne; Bhandari, Shreya; Soeken, Karen; Marcantonio, Kristen; Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis

    2010-02-01

    The mental health consequences of living with intimate partner violence (IPV) are substantial. Despite the growing awareness of the incidence of depression and PTSD in women experiencing IPV, few studies have examined prospectively the experience of IPV during pregnancy and the impact of the abuse on women's mental health. As a component of a larger clinical trial of an intervention for pregnant abused women, 27 women participated in a qualitative study of their responses to the abuse in the context of pregnancy and parenting. Results indicate that women's changing perceptions of self was related to mental distress, mental health, or both mental distress and mental health. PMID:20070224

  4. The development of the serious mental illness physical Health Improvement Profile.

    PubMed

    White, J; Gray, R; Jones, M

    2009-06-01

    WHITE J., GRAY R. & JONES M. (2009) Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing16, 493-498 The development of the serious mental illness physical Health Improvement ProfilePeople with serious mental illness (SMI), such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, are more likely to suffer from a range of long-term physical conditions including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Consequently they will die 10-15 years earlier than the general population. Health services have failed to address this major health inequality because of a lack of consensus about the type and frequency of monitoring people with SMI require and a lack of knowledge and skills in the mental health workforce. We developed the SMI physical Health Improvement Profile to help mental health nurses profile the physical health of the SMI patients they work with and direct them towards the evidence base interventions available to address identified health problems. PMID:19538607

  5. Contemporary Perspectives on Spirituality and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pulkit; Charak, Ruby; Sharma, Vibha

    2009-01-01

    The paper strives to elucidate the complex yet intimate relation between spirituality and mental health from contemporary perspectives. The diverse and constantly evolving views that spiritualists and mental health professionals have held toward each other over last century are discussed with special accent on the transpersonal spiritual framework within psychology. The role of spirituality in promoting mental health and alleviating mental illness is highlighted. The paper is concluded with an increasing need to integrate spirituality within the mental health field albeit there are several impediments in achieving the same, which need to be worked through circumspectly. PMID:21938086

  6. Evolving systems of care: Individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder in custody of civil and forensic psychiatric services.

    PubMed

    Crocker, A G; Côté, G

    2009-09-01

    Following psychiatric deinstitutionalization and changes in involuntary civil commitment laws, many individuals with severe mental disorders have been receiving mental health services through the back door, that is, the criminal justice system. Significant changes to the section of Criminal Code of Canada dealing with individuals with mental disorders have led to significant annual increases in the number of individuals declared Not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD), many of whom are directed to civil psychiatric settings. The goal of the present study was to describe the psychosociocriminological and risk characteristics of individuals found NCRMD remanded to civil psychiatric hospitals (CPH) compared to a forensic psychiatric hospital (FPH). This study was conducted between October 2004 and August 2006 in the sole FPH of the province of Québec and two large CPH in the Montréal metropolitan area. The final sample for the current study consisted of 96 men: 60 from the FPH and 36 from the two CPH. Results indicate that individuals in both settings have similar psychosociocriminal profiles, including PCL-R scores, but that individuals in CPH have higher scores in the Risk subscale of the HCR-20 than do their counterparts in the FPH. This difference is due to a higher score on two items: exposure to destabilizing factors and noncompliance with remediation attempts. Results are discussed in terms of the need for civil psychiatric settings to implement risk assessment and management programs into their services, and the need for further research into forensic mental health services. PMID:19720502

  7. Mental Health under National Health Care Reform: The Empirical Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Christopher G.; DeVito, Jo Anne

    1994-01-01

    Reviews research pertinent to mental health services under health care reform proposals. Examines redistributional impact of inclusion of outpatient mental health benefits, optimal benefit packages, and findings that mental health services lower medical utilization costs. Argues that extending minimalist model of time-limited benefits to national…

  8. The Slovenian Mental Health Act de lege ferenda.

    PubMed

    Ivanc, Blaz

    2008-06-01

    This article analyzes the case-law of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Slovenia relating to the protection of mentally ill persons. In case No. U-I-60/03 the Constitutional Court declared that the provisions of Arts. 70 to 81 of the Non-litigious Civil Procedure Act (a Chapter on involuntary Commitment to the closed wards of psychiatric hospitals) are not in conformity with the Constitution. As an interim measure the Constitutional Court instructed the regular Courts (in the procedure for the involuntary commitment of persons to a mental institution) to ensure the following: an ex officio counsel must be appointed for an involuntarily committed person upon the commencement of proceedings; and the notification of detention that the authorised mental institution is obliged to submit to the court must contain reasons substantiating the necessity of detention. The Legislature's intention is to enact a special Law (Mental Health Act) that will not only deal with the procedural questions, but also with all other constitutional and statutory rights and freedoms of the mentally ill patients. It should also deal with other forms of institutional and non-institutional care for mentally ill persons. The author discusses the Ombudsman's control over the rights and freedoms of involuntary committed in-patients. Finally, the author discusses some of the most problematic issues of the Slovenian Mental Health Actde lege ferenda.

  9. Oregon's Gun Relief Program for Adjudicated Mentally Ill Persons: The Psychiatric Security Review Board.

    PubMed

    Britton, Juliet; Bloom, Joseph D

    2015-06-01

    This article describes the State of Oregon's implementation of two programs designed to comply with federal gun laws regarding reporting individuals who have received mental health adjudications in criminal and civil courts. One mandate requires that states submit names of adjudicated individuals to the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) while the second requires that the state establish a qualifying gun restoration program for those disqualified from gun ownership. In 2009, Oregon's Legislature developed an administrative approach to gun restoration and assigned the responsibility for conducting these hearing to the Oregon Psychiatric Security Review Board (PSRB). The PSRB is a state administrative board that has existed since 1977 and has been primarily focused on the supervision and treatment of adult and juvenile insanity acquittees. The gun restoration program began in 2010, but to date has only received three completed petitions requesting restoration of firearm rights. The article concludes with a discussion that surmises why very few of the Oregonians who are listed in NICS have submitted petitions for relief.

  10. Oregon's Gun Relief Program for Adjudicated Mentally Ill Persons: The Psychiatric Security Review Board.

    PubMed

    Britton, Juliet; Bloom, Joseph D

    2015-06-01

    This article describes the State of Oregon's implementation of two programs designed to comply with federal gun laws regarding reporting individuals who have received mental health adjudications in criminal and civil courts. One mandate requires that states submit names of adjudicated individuals to the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) while the second requires that the state establish a qualifying gun restoration program for those disqualified from gun ownership. In 2009, Oregon's Legislature developed an administrative approach to gun restoration and assigned the responsibility for conducting these hearing to the Oregon Psychiatric Security Review Board (PSRB). The PSRB is a state administrative board that has existed since 1977 and has been primarily focused on the supervision and treatment of adult and juvenile insanity acquittees. The gun restoration program began in 2010, but to date has only received three completed petitions requesting restoration of firearm rights. The article concludes with a discussion that surmises why very few of the Oregonians who are listed in NICS have submitted petitions for relief. PMID:25728522

  11. Farmers' suicide in India: implications for public mental health.

    PubMed

    Das, Anindya

    2011-01-01

    Farmers' suicide in India is a cause of concern and government figures, though conservative, predict an impending epidemic. Various measures to curb this calamity are being made in a piecemeal manner. Considering it as an issue of social and mental health concern, this article attempts to evaluate the situation based on the tenet that health and illness are the result of a complex interplay between biological, psychological, social, environmental, economic and political factors. Thus in India the agrarian crisis, among other causes, has been largely debated as the major reason for the current state of farmers. It is important that (psychiatric) epidemiology and public mental health try to evolve mechanisms to understand and implement measures, and take this into consideration when attempting health promotion and prevention.

  12. Assault experiences: Lessons learned from mental health nurses in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-I; Hsieh, Wen-Po; Lee, Li-Hung; Chen, Shu-Ling

    2016-06-01

    Mental health nurse are frequently subjected to patients' violent and aggressive behaviour. These assault experiences have given rise to mental health nurses' physical and psychological trauma, and negatively impact the quality of patient care. The purpose of the present qualitative study was to understand mental health nurses' experiences of being assaulted, the influences on their patient care, and their perspectives of the effectiveness of in-service, violence-prevention education. Ten mental health nurses from two different inpatient mental health facilities were interviewed using a semistructured interview guide. Thematic analysis of interview data found six themes: (i) violence is unpredictable; (ii) violence is normal; (iii) lasting psychological trauma; (iv) limited support from peers and the administrator; (v) violence prevention requires team cooperation; and (vi) doubting the effectiveness of in-service education on violence prevention. Psychiatric ward administrators should assess nurses' learning and skill needs to determine whether these needs are met by existing in-service training programmes. A culture of safety should also be promoted by building a warm and supportive ward climate for both staff and patients, which would include team cooperation and support for colleagues who suffer a violent incident. PMID:27170463

  13. Mental health care and the opposition movement in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Haafkens, J; Nijhof, G; Van der Poel, E

    1986-01-01

    In The Netherlands, there is a more or less recognized movement in the field of mental health care which is referred to as the psychiatric opposition movement or the patients movement. The nucleus of the Dutch movement consists of patients and ex-patients. As far as mental health professionals are participating in the movement, they do so as more or less passive supporters of a movement dominated by patients and ex-patients. This article is dealing with two questions. The first question is how and to what degree the opposition movement in The Netherlands has succeeded in breaking through or at least questioning the closed nature of Dutch mental health care system. The second question will be whether the dilemma between resistance and dependence in the position of patients and ex-patients is visible in the activities of the opposition movement, and whether this dilemma acted as an obstacle to their efforts to influence the mental health care debate in The Netherlands. An effort is being made to answer this question by describing the position of the opposition movement with respect to the Insanity Law and with respect to the organization of mental health care. In conclusion, three stages were found to be crucial in the development of Dutch opposition movement. In the 1970s, the opposition movement appeared to operate within the borders of a closed system in which the medical profession had a high degree of autonomy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD and depression

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Thomas; Moergeli, Hanspeter; Kohler, Michaela; Carraro, Giovanni E.; Schnyder, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, mental health professionals’ attitudes toward posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), compared to other psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or depression, have rarely been studied. Objective We assessed mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD compared to patients suffering from depression. Method Case vignettes of a patient with either PTSD or depression were presented to two samples of mental health professionals: attendees of a conference on posttraumatic stress (N=226) or of a lecture for psychiatry residents (N=112). Participants subsequently completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitude reactions to the presented case. Results Participants showed similarly positive attitudes toward depression and PTSD. PTSD elicited a more favorable attitude with regard to prosocial reactions, estimated dependency, attributed responsibility, and interest in the case, particularly in mental health professionals specializing in psychotraumatology. Across diagnoses, higher age and longer professional experience were associated with more positive attitudes toward patients. Conclusions Mental health professionals’ positive attitudes toward patients with depression and PTSD correlate with their specific knowledge about the disorder, their level of professional training, and their years of professional experience. Limitations The instruments used, although based on established theoretical concepts in attitude research, were not validated in their present versions. PMID:26507340

  15. Person first: what people with enduring mental disorders value about community psychiatric nurses and CPN services.

    PubMed

    Adam, R; Tilley, S; Pollock, L

    2003-04-01

    Based on a Scottish study, this article presents findings from qualitative analysis of interview data, on views of people with enduring mental disorders (people) regarding services provided by community psychiatric nurses (CPNs) and what these people value in working with CPNs. Thirteen people took part in semi-structured interviews, and data were analysed using strategies including thematic analysis. The main finding was that people value their interpersonal relationship with CPNs. This relationship has a specific function in the individual's overall social network. The CPN-person relationship forms the context of 'purposeful talk', and is shaped and developed through the talk. It provides comfort and a greater sense of confidence with which people can cope with daily life. A valued feature of the personalized relationship with CPNs is continuity, associated with regularity of contact with CPNs, accessibility (both physical and emotional) and respect for and commitment to people as individuals. We interpret CPNs, as they appear in these accounts given by people with enduring mental disorders, as 'beings-in-between', bridging symbolically the worlds of hospital and community. They are figures between 'friends' and professionals, to whom people who have been ill can relate and show feelings which would, if otherwise expressed, compromise participation in community. CPNs help sustain people experiencing 'illness in the context of life' and enhance their potential for participation in the community. In doing so they contribute to public health. Viability of sustaining relationships and personal care, valued at the micro-level of interaction, depends on support at the meso-level by managers, and at the macro-level by policy makers and funders. Health service managers who play a key role in instigating and managing service changes should engage in regular dialogue with CPNs about the impact of change on the ability of CPNs to maintain sustaining relationships with

  16. [The mental patient and the psychiatric institution: the voice of the silenced].

    PubMed

    de Britto Telles, Eleny Alves

    2002-01-01

    A systematized observation of human behavior towards madness induced personal questions on what mental patients had to say about their own life dynamics. The perspective of these people, regarding the concept of insanity, is the subject of this study. This descriptive and qualitative investigation has two objectives. The first is the description of the speech of mental patients in relation to insanity. The second objective is the analysis of their perception of the psychiatric process. Results obtained through semi-structured interviews showed that the great majority of the patients do not consider themselves mentally ill. They approach madness as stereotypy, aggressiveness, mendicancy and absence of reasoning. Although they admitted being different, they did not consider themselves mentally ill.

  17. What is a mental/psychiatric disorder? From DSM-IV to DSM-V.

    PubMed

    Stein, D J; Phillips, K A; Bolton, D; Fulford, K W M; Sadler, J Z; Kendler, K S

    2010-11-01

    The distinction between normality and psychopathology has long been subject to debate. DSM-III and DSM-IV provided a definition of mental disorder to help clinicians address this distinction. As part of the process of developing DSM-V, researchers have reviewed the concept of mental disorder and emphasized the need for additional work in this area. Here we review the DSM-IV definition of mental disorder and propose some changes. The approach taken here arguably takes a middle course through some of the relevant conceptual debates. We agree with the view that no definition perfectly specifies precise boundaries for the concept of mental/psychiatric disorder, but in line with a view that the nomenclature can improve over time, we aim here for a more scientifically valid and more clinically useful definition.

  18. A typology of advance statements in mental health care.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Claire; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Szmukler, George; Thornicroft, Graham; Zinkler, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Advance statements documenting mental health service consumers' preferences for treatment during a future mental health crisis or period of incapacity have gained currency in recent years in the United States and some European countries. Several kinds of advance statements have emerged -- some as legal instruments, others as treatment planning methods -- but no formal comparison has been made among them. This article reviews the literature in English and German to develop a comparative typology of advance statements: joint crisis plans, crisis cards, treatment plans, wellness recovery action plans, and psychiatric advance directives (with and without formal facilitation). The features that distinguish them are the extent to which they are legally binding, whether health care providers are involved in their production, and whether an independent facilitator assists in their production. The differing nature of advance statements is related to the diverse models of care upon which they are based and the legislative and service contexts in which they have been developed. However, there is recent convergence between the United Kingdom and the United States with respect to research interventions that facilitate the production of advance statements, as evidence emerges for the effectiveness of facilitated psychiatric advance directives and joint crisis plans. Different types of advance statements can coexist and in some cases may interact in complementary ways. However, the relationship of advance statements to involuntary treatment is more problematic, as is their effective implementation in many mental health service settings. PMID:18182541

  19. [Mental health care for immigrants in Germany].

    PubMed

    Schouler-Ocak, M

    2015-11-01

    Immigrants represent a very heterogeneous population, with various stress factors for mental disorders. These individuals are confronted with numerous access barriers within the health care system, which are reflected in limited utilization of the mental health system and psychotherapy services. A particularly large gap in health service provision exists among refugees and asylum-seekers. There is an urgent need for action in terms of opening up of the mental health system, improving and simplifying routes of access, and facilitating treatment options.

  20. [Adverse perinatal and infant outcomes among children born to mothers with major mental disorders in a psychiatric hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Priscila Krauss; Vieira, Cláudia Lima; Santos, Jacqueline Fernandes de Cintra; Lima, Lúcia Abelha; Legay, Letícia Fortes; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos

    2014-08-01

    Adverse perinatal and infant outcomes are the leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries like Brazil. Among the risk factors are maternal mental disorders. A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted based on passive follow-up using probabilistic record linkage to estimate the prevalence of adverse perinatal and infant outcomes in children of women admitted to a public psychiatric hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and who gave birth from 1999 to 2009. Prevalence rates were: low birth weight (27.6%), prematurity (17.4%), malformations (2.5%), stillbirths (4.8%), and neonatal deaths (3.7%). Associated factors were deficient prenatal care, schizophrenia, and low income. The results corroborate the high prevalence of adverse perinatal and infant outcomes in mothers with major mental disorders, and that screening of psychiatric symptoms and specialized care by mental health professionals are essential throughout prenatal and postpartum care.

  1. A national study of transitional hospital services in mental health.

    PubMed Central

    Dorwart, R A; Hoover, C W

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Shifts in care for the seriously mentally ill from inpatient to community-based treatment have highlighted the importance of transitional care. Our objectives were to document the kinds and quantity of transitional services provided by psychiatric hospitals nationally and to assess the impact of hospital type (psychiatric vs general), ownership (public vs private), case mix, and revenue source on provision of these services. METHODS. A national sample of nonfederal inpatient mental health facilities (n = 915) was surveyed in 1988, and data were analyzed by using multiple regression. RESULTS. Half (46%) of the facilities surveyed provided patient follow-up of 1 week or less, and almost all (93%) conducted team review of discharge plans, but 74% provided no case management services. Hospital type was the most consistent predictor of transitional care, with psychiatric hospitals providing more of these services than general hospitals. Severity of illness, level of nonfederal funding, urbanicity, and teaching hospital affiliation were positively associated with provision of case management. CONCLUSIONS. Transitional care services for mentally ill patients leaving the hospital were found to be uneven and often inadequate. Reasons for broad variation in services are discussed. PMID:8059877

  2. The Microbiota, Immunoregulation, and Mental Health: Implications for Public Health.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Christopher A; Smith, David G; Siebler, Philip H; Schmidt, Dominic; Stamper, Christopher E; Hassell, James E; Yamashita, Paula S; Fox, James H; Reber, Stefan O; Brenner, Lisa A; Hoisington, Andrew J; Postolache, Teodor T; Kinney, Kerry A; Marciani, Dante; Hernandez, Mark; Hemmings, Sian M J; Malan-Muller, Stefanie; Wright, Kenneth P; Knight, Rob; Raison, Charles L; Rook, Graham A W

    2016-09-01

    The hygiene or "Old Friends" hypothesis proposes that the epidemic of inflammatory disease in modern urban societies stems at least in part from reduced exposure to microbes that normally prime mammalian immunoregulatory circuits and suppress inappropriate inflammation. Such diseases include but are not limited to allergies and asthma; we and others have proposed that the markedly reduced exposure to these Old Friends in modern urban societies may also increase vulnerability to neurodevelopmental disorders and stress-related psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and affective disorders, where data are emerging in support of inflammation as a risk factor. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the potential for Old Friends, including environmental microbial inputs, to modify risk for inflammatory disease, with a focus on neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions. We highlight potential mechanisms, involving bacterially derived metabolites, bacterial antigens, and helminthic antigens, through which these inputs promote immunoregulation. Though findings are encouraging, significant human subjects' research is required to evaluate the potential impact of Old Friends, including environmental microbial inputs, on biological signatures and clinically meaningful mental health prevention and intervention outcomes. PMID:27436048

  3. [Influence of physical activity on mental well-being and psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Knechtle, B

    2004-08-25

    It has been shown that endurance as well as resistance training improves mental well-being in the athlete. In patients with psychiatric disorders, physical exercise diminishes clinical symptoms. Especially in patients with depression, endurance exercise improves mood. Physical training has to be integrated in a concept due to the fact the physical exercise can not replace medicinal therapy. It has to be postulated that improved mood is a result of increased endogenous opioids. PMID:15468581

  4. A psychiatric study of deviant eating behaviour among mentally handicapped adults.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, G; Whitehouse, A M

    1990-08-01

    A study of deviant eating behaviour among mentally handicapped adults in community placements is reported. Those individuals with a psychiatric disorder showed more deviant eating behaviour. Depressed subjects, in particular, showed an excess of the amount eaten and time spent searching for food, as well as the tendency to eat all sweet food presented to them. Non-food pica was uncommon, even among the autistic subjects. PMID:2224381

  5. PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND LEUKOCYTE TELOMERE LENGTH: UNDERLYING MECHANISMS LINKING MENTAL ILLNESS WITH CELLULAR AGING

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Daniel; Epel, Elissa S.; Mellon, Synthia H.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Révész, Dóra; Verhoeven, Josine E.; Reus, Victor I.; Lin, Jue; Mahan, Laura; Hough, Christina M.; Rosser, Rebecca; Bersani, F. Saverio; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.; Wolkowitz, Owen M.

    2015-01-01

    Many psychiatric illnesses are associated with early mortality and with an increased risk of developing physical diseases that are more typically seen in the elderly. Moreover, certain psychiatric illnesses may be associated with accelerated cellular aging, evidenced by shortened leukocyte telomere length (LTL), which could underlie this association. Shortened LTL reflects a cell’s mitotic history and cumulative exposure to inflammation and oxidation as well as the availability of telomerase, a telomere-lengthening enzyme. Critically short telomeres can cause cells to undergo senescence, apoptosis or genomic instability, and shorter LTL correlates with poorer health and predicts mortality. Emerging data suggest that LTL may be reduced in certain psychiatric illnesses, perhaps in proportion to exposure to the psychiatric illnesses, although conflicting data exist. Telomerase has been less well characterized in psychiatric illnesses, but a role in depression and in antidepressant and neurotrophic effects has been suggested by preclinical and clinical studies. In this article, studies on LTL and telomerase activity in psychiatric illnesses are critically reviewed, potential mediators are discussed, and future directions are suggested. A deeper understanding of cellular aging in psychiatric illnesses could lead to re-conceptualizing them as systemic illnesses with manifestations inside and outside the brain and could identify new treatment targets. PMID:25999120

  6. Influence of Criminal Justice Involvement and Psychiatric Diagnoses on Treatment Costs Among Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Allison G; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Lin, Hsiuju; Easter, Michele M; Frisman, Linda K; Swartz, Marvin S

    2015-09-01

    The impact of criminal justice involvement and clinical characteristics on the cost of public treatment services for adults with serious mental illnesses is unknown. The authors examined differential effects of justice involvement on behavioral health treatment costs by primary psychiatric diagnosis (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) and also by substance use diagnosis among 25,133 adult clients of Connecticut's public behavioral health system in fiscal years 2006 and 2007. Justice-involved adults with schizophrenia had the highest costs, strongly driven by forensic hospitalizations. Addressing the cross-system burdens of forensic hospitalizations may be a sensible starting point in the effort to reduce costs in both the public behavioral health and justice systems. PMID:25975893

  7. Influence of Criminal Justice Involvement and Psychiatric Diagnoses on Treatment Costs Among Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Allison G; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Lin, Hsiuju; Easter, Michele M; Frisman, Linda K; Swartz, Marvin S

    2015-09-01

    The impact of criminal justice involvement and clinical characteristics on the cost of public treatment services for adults with serious mental illnesses is unknown. The authors examined differential effects of justice involvement on behavioral health treatment costs by primary psychiatric diagnosis (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) and also by substance use diagnosis among 25,133 adult clients of Connecticut's public behavioral health system in fiscal years 2006 and 2007. Justice-involved adults with schizophrenia had the highest costs, strongly driven by forensic hospitalizations. Addressing the cross-system burdens of forensic hospitalizations may be a sensible starting point in the effort to reduce costs in both the public behavioral health and justice systems.

  8. Trucking organization and mental health disorders of truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Shattell, Mona; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Collins, Chad; Sönmez, Sevil; Fehrenbacher, Caitlin

    2012-07-01

    There are over 3 million truck drivers employed in the commercial transportation and material moving occupations, one of the largest occupational groups in the United States. Workers in this large and growing occupational segment are at risk for a range of occupational health-induced conditions, including mental health and psychiatric disorders due to high occupational stress, low access and use of health care, and limited social support. The purpose of this study was to explore male truck drivers' mental health risks and associated comorbidities, using a cross-sectional and quantitative design. Data were collected from a random sample of 316 male truckers between the ages of 23 and 76 at a large truck stop located within a 100-mile radius of Greensboro, North Carolina, USA, using a self-administered 82-item questionnaire. Surveyed truckers were found to have significant issues affecting their mental health, such as loneliness (27.9%), depression (26.9%), chronic sleep disturbances (20.6%), anxiety (14.5%), and other emotional problems (13%). Findings have potential to help researchers develop interventions to improve the emotional and occupational health of truck drivers, a highly underserved population. Mental health promotion, assessment, and treatment must become a priority to improve the overall trucking environment for truckers, the transportation industry, and safety on US highways. PMID:22757596

  9. Trucking organization and mental health disorders of truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Shattell, Mona; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Collins, Chad; Sönmez, Sevil; Fehrenbacher, Caitlin

    2012-07-01

    There are over 3 million truck drivers employed in the commercial transportation and material moving occupations, one of the largest occupational groups in the United States. Workers in this large and growing occupational segment are at risk for a range of occupational health-induced conditions, including mental health and psychiatric disorders due to high occupational stress, low access and use of health care, and limited social support. The purpose of this study was to explore male truck drivers' mental health risks and associated comorbidities, using a cross-sectional and quantitative design. Data were collected from a random sample of 316 male truckers between the ages of 23 and 76 at a large truck stop located within a 100-mile radius of Greensboro, North Carolina, USA, using a self-administered 82-item questionnaire. Surveyed truckers were found to have significant issues affecting their mental health, such as loneliness (27.9%), depression (26.9%), chronic sleep disturbances (20.6%), anxiety (14.5%), and other emotional problems (13%). Findings have potential to help researchers develop interventions to improve the emotional and occupational health of truck drivers, a highly underserved population. Mental health promotion, assessment, and treatment must become a priority to improve the overall trucking environment for truckers, the transportation industry, and safety on US highways.

  10. Indian health care professionals' attitude towards spiritual healing and its role in alleviating stigma of psychiatric services.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, P; Rane, A; Dias, A; Bhat, J; Shukla, A; Lakshmi, S; Ansari, B K; Ramaswamy, R S; Reddy, R A; Tribulato, A; Agarwal, A K; SatyaPrasad, N; Mushtaq, A; Rao, P H; Murthy, P; Koenig, H G

    2014-12-01

    Persons with mental illnesses in India and rest of developing world continue to consult religious/spiritual (R/S) healers or traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) professionals prior to seeking psychiatric services that are devoid of spiritual components of care. We aim to understand TCAM and allopathic professionals' perspectives on patients' R/S needs within mental health services, cross-sectional study was conducted at five TCAM and two allopathic tertiary care hospitals in three different Indian states; 393 participants completed RSMPP, a self-administered, semi-structured survey questionnaire. Perspectives of TCAM and allopathic health professionals on role of spirituality in mental health care were compared. Substantial percentage, 43.7 % TCAM and 41.3 % allopathic, of participants believe that their patients approach R/S or TCAM practitioners for severe mental illness; 91.2 % of TCAM and 69.7 % of allopaths were satisfied with R/S healers (p = 0.0019). Furthermore, 91.1 % TCAM and 73.1 % allopaths (p = 0.000) believe that mental health stigma can be minimized by integrating with spiritual care services. Overall, 87 % of TCAM and 73 % of allopaths agreed to primary criterion variable: 'spiritual healing is beneficial and complementary to psychiatric care.' A quarter of allopaths (24.4 %) and 38 % of TCAM physicians reportedly cross-refer their grieving patients to religious/TCAM healer and psychiatrist/psychologist, respectively; on logistic regression, significant (p < 0.05) predictors were clinical interactions/references to r/s healers. Providing spiritual care within the setup of psychiatric institution will not only complement psychiatric care but also alleviate stigma against mental health services. Implications on developing spiritual care services like clinical chaplaincy are discussed.

  11. When Parents with Severe Mental Illness Lose Contact with Their Children: Are Psychiatric Symptoms or Substance Use to Blame?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Danson; Macias, Rosemarie Lillianne; Gold, Paul B.; Barreira, Paul; Fisher, William

    2008-01-01

    This study compared parental psychiatric symptom severity, and the absence or presence of severe substance abuse, as predictors of contact with minor children for a representative sample of adults with diagnoses of serious mental illness (N = 45). Child contact and psychiatric symptom severity were measured during regularly scheduled 6-month…

  12. [Dangerous states and mental health disorders: perceptions and reality].

    PubMed

    Tassone-Monchicourt, C; Daumerie, N; Caria, A; Benradia, I; Roelandt, J-L

    2010-01-01

    Image of Madness was always strongly linked with the notion of "dangerousness", provoking fear and social exclusion, despite the evolution of psychiatric practices and organisation, and the emphasis on user's rights respect. Mediatization and politicization of this issue through news item combining crime and mental illness, reinforce and spread out this perception. This paper presents a review of the litterature on social perceptions associating "dangerousness", "Insanity" and "mental illness", available data about the link between "dangerous states" and "psychiatric disorders", as well as the notion of "dangerousness" and the assessment of "dangerous state" of people suffering or not from psychiatric disorders. MAPPING OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS: The French Survey "Mental Health in General Population: Images and Realities (MHGP)" was carried out between 1999 and 2003, on a representative sample of 36.000 individuals over 18 years old. It aims at describing the social representations of the population about "insanity/insane" and "mental illness/mentally ill". The results show that about 75% of the people interviewed link "insanity" or "mental illness" with "criminal or violent acts". Young people and those with a high level of education more frequently categorize violent and dangerous behaviours in the field of Mental illness rather than in that of madness. CORRELATION BETWEEN DANGEROUS STATE AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS: in the scientific literature, all experts reject the hypothesis of a direct link between violence and mental disorder. Besides, 2 tendencies appear in their conclusions: on one hand, some studies establish a significative link between violence and severe mental illness, compared with the general population. On the other hand, results show that 87 to 97% of des aggressors are not mentally ills. Therefore, the absence of scientific consensus feeds the confusion and reinforce the link of causality between psychiatric disorders and violence. OFFICIAL

  13. Debt trajectories and mental health.

    PubMed

    Hojman, Daniel A; Miranda, Álvaro; Ruiz-Tagle, Jaime

    2016-10-01

    In the last few decades, there was a marked increase in consumer debt in the United States, Latin America and other emerging countries, spurring a debate about the real costs and benefits of household credit. Using a unique longitudinal dataset with detailed health and balance sheet information from a large sample of 10,900 Chilean households we study the relationship between debt trajectories in a three-year time window and mental health. We find that depressive symptoms are higher for those who have been persistently over-indebted, followed by those who transit from moderate to high debt levels. We also find that those who transition from over-indebtedness to moderate debt levels have no additional depressive symptoms compared to those with trajectories of moderate debt throughout (never over-indebted). This suggests that the debt-related contribution to depressive symptoms vanishes as debt levels fall. The association between debt and depressive symptoms seems to be driven by non-mortgage debt -primarily consumer credit- or late mortgage payments; secured debt (secured by collateral) per se is not associated with depressive symptoms. Policy interventions to reduce the negative association of over-indebtedness on mental health are discussed. PMID:27598550

  14. Debt trajectories and mental health.

    PubMed

    Hojman, Daniel A; Miranda, Álvaro; Ruiz-Tagle, Jaime

    2016-10-01

    In the last few decades, there was a marked increase in consumer debt in the United States, Latin America and other emerging countries, spurring a debate about the real costs and benefits of household credit. Using a unique longitudinal dataset with detailed health and balance sheet information from a large sample of 10,900 Chilean households we study the relationship between debt trajectories in a three-year time window and mental health. We find that depressive symptoms are higher for those who have been persistently over-indebted, followed by those who transit from moderate to high debt levels. We also find that those who transition from over-indebtedness to moderate debt levels have no additional depressive symptoms compared to those with trajectories of moderate debt throughout (never over-indebted). This suggests that the debt-related contribution to depressive symptoms vanishes as debt levels fall. The association between debt and depressive symptoms seems to be driven by non-mortgage debt -primarily consumer credit- or late mortgage payments; secured debt (secured by collateral) per se is not associated with depressive symptoms. Policy interventions to reduce the negative association of over-indebtedness on mental health are discussed.

  15. Limitations of the Patient Health Questionnaire in Identifying Anxiety and Depression in Community Mental Health: Many Cases Are Undetected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Lee, Bong-Jae

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the concordance between the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) in diagnosing anxiety and depressive disorders. Method: Fifty women seeking psychiatric services for their children at two mental health centers in western Pennsylvania were assessed for anxiety and…

  16. Global Mental Health: An Introduction.

    PubMed

    Verdeli, Helen

    2016-08-01

    In this introductory paper to the Global Mental Health volume, the inception and development of the filed in the last 15 years is reviewed, placing an emphasis on a series of pivotal turning points. A critical delivery strategy, task-shifting is briefly described, as well as the fundamental principles of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT), an evidence-based psychotherapy being adapted and delivered in low-resource settings. Nine case studies by the trainees, supervisors, or local providers from India, the United States, Haiti, Israel, Colombia, and Kenya, presented in this volume, illustrate the prevention and treatment processes or in-depth assessment of "psychological distress" as locally defined and expressed. PMID:27532521

  17. Indian Psychiatric Society-World Psychiatric Association - World Health Organization survey on usefulness of International Classification of Diseases-10

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Grover, Sandeep; Maj, Mario; Reed, Geoffrey; Thirunavukarasu, M.; Garg, Uttam Chand

    2014-01-01

    Background: World Health Organization (WHO) is in the process of revising the International Classification of Diseases 10 (ICD-10). For increasing the acceptability of the ICD-11, WHO along with World Psychiatric Association (WPA), conducted a survey of psychiatrists around the world, in which 386 psychiatrists from India participated. Aim: To present the findings of “WPA-WHO Global Survey of Psychiatrists’ Attitudes toward Mental Disorders Classification” for Indian psychiatrists who participated in the survey as members of Indian Psychiatric Society. Methodology: The online survey was sent to qualified psychiatrists who are members of Indian Psychiatric Society and are residing in India. Results: Of the 1702 members who were urged to participate in the survey, 386 (22.7%) participated. Most(79%) of the psychiatrists opined that they use formal classificatory systems in their day-to-day clinical practice. ICD-10 was the most commonly (71%) followed classificatory system. Nearly half (48%) felt the need for only 10–30 categories for use in clinical settings and another 44% opined that 31-100 categories are required for use. Most of the participants (85%) suggested that a modified/simpler classificatory system should be designed for primary care practitioners. Similarly, the same number of participants (89%) argued that for maximum utility of a nosological system diagnostic criteria should provide flexible guidance that allows cultural variation and clinical judgement. About 75% opined that the diagnostic system they were using was difficult to apply across cultures. Conclusion: Findings of the survey suggest that classificatory systems are routinely used in day-to-day practice by most of the participating psychiatrists in India and most expect that future classificatory system should provide flexible guidance that allows cultural variation and clinical judgement. PMID:25568475

  18. Recognition rights, mental health consumers and reconstructive cultural semantics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Those in mental health-related consumer movements have made clear their demands for humane treatment and basic civil rights, an end to stigma and discrimination, and a chance to participate in their own recovery. But theorizing about the politics of recognition, 'recognition rights' and epistemic justice, suggests that they also have a stake in the broad cultural meanings associated with conceptions of mental health and illness. Results First person accounts of psychiatric diagnosis and mental health care (shown here to represent 'counter stories' to the powerful 'master narrative' of biomedical psychiatry), offer indications about how experiences of mental disorder might be reframed and redefined as part of efforts to acknowledge and honor recognition rights and epistemic justice. However, the task of cultural semantics is one for the entire culture, not merely consumers. These new meanings must be negotiated. When they are not the result of negotiation, group-wrought definitions risk imposing a revision no less constraining than the mis-recognizing one it aims to replace. Contested realities make this a challenging task when it comes to cultural meanings about mental disorder. Examples from mental illness memoirs about two contested realities related to psychosis are examined here: the meaninglessness of symptoms, and the role of insight into illness. They show the magnitude of the challenge involved - for consumers, practitioners, and the general public - in the reconstruction of these new meanings and realities. Conclusion To honor recognition rights and epistemic justice acknowledgement must be made of the heterogeneity of the effects of, and of responses to, psychiatric diagnosis and care, and the extent of the challenge of the reconstructive cultural semantics involved. PMID:22244148

  19. Periodontal Health among Non-Hospitalized Chronic Psychiatric Patients in Mangaluru City-India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rashmi; Kota, Keshava Pai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A substantial section of society constituting the mentally ill and psychiatric patients deserve special attention. Evidence has suggested that psychological factors have contributed to an increase in the susceptibility to periodontal disease. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate the gingival and periodontal health of chronically non-hospitalized psychiatric patients in Mangaluru city, India. Materials and Methods Forty one psychiatric patients having chronic psychiatric illness and on neuroleptic medications for a minimum of 2 years were included in the study. The control group consisted of 41 healthy dental patients who were selected to match the study group by age and gender, and for both groups 20 teeth excluding the third molars should be present. Demographic characteristics, dental examination including gingival index and periodontal health according to the community periodontal index were recorded for each patient in both the groups. Results In the psychiatric patient group (Group A) 47.1% subjects were suffering from schizophrenia and 17.6% subjects were having mood disorder. Gingivitis varied from mild to severe among the patients of both the groups. Bleeding on probing (CPI 1) was recorded in 23.5% in Group A and 14.6% in Group B. Dental calculus (CPI 2) in 38.2% in Group A and 58.5% in Group B of the subjects, 20.6% with at least one 4mm to 5mm pocket (CPI 3), and 17.6% with at least one 6mm pocket (CPI 4). Conclusion The present study underlines a considerable need for prevention and treatment of periodontal disease among chronic psychiatric patients in Mangaluru city. Every effort should be made to increase the awareness of this cohort regarding the importance of oral hygiene practices and on the early diagnosis of periodontal problems. PMID:27656561

  20. Toward a new architecture for global mental health.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Pedersen, Duncan

    2014-12-01

    Current efforts in global mental health (GMH) aim to address the inequities in mental health between low-income and high-income countries, as well as vulnerable populations within wealthy nations (e.g., indigenous peoples, refugees, urban poor). The main strategies promoted by the World Health Organization (WHO) and other allies have been focused on developing, implementing, and evaluating evidence-based practices that can be scaled up through task-shifting and other methods to improve access to services or interventions and reduce the global treatment gap for mental disorders. Recent debates on global mental health have raised questions about the goals and consequences of current approaches. Some of these critiques emphasize the difficulties and potential dangers of applying Western categories, concepts, and interventions given the ways that culture shapes illness experience. The concern is that in the urgency to address disparities in global health, interventions that are not locally relevant and culturally consonant will be exported with negative effects including inappropriate diagnoses and interventions, increased stigma, and poor health outcomes. More fundamentally, exclusive attention to mental disorders identified by psychiatric nosologies may shift attention from social structural determinants of health that are among the root causes of global health disparities. This paper addresses these critiques and suggests how the GMH movement can respond through appropriate modes of community-based practice and ongoing research, while continuing to work for greater equity and social justice in access to effective, socially relevant, culturally safe and appropriate mental health care on a global scale. PMID:25358524

  1. The mental health system in Brazil: Policies and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Mateus, Mario D; Mari, Jair J; Delgado, Pedro GG; Almeida-Filho, Naomar; Barrett, Thomas; Gerolin, Jeronimo; Goihman, Samuel; Razzouk, Denise; Rodriguez, Jorge; Weber, Renata; Andreoli, Sergio B; Saxena, Shekhar

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to assess the mental health system in Brazil in relation to the human resources and the services available to the population. Methods The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO AIMS) was recently applied in Brazil. This paper will analyse data on the following sections of the WHO-AIMS: a) mental health services; and b) human resources. In addition, two more national datasets will be used to complete the information provided by the WHO questionnaire: a) the Executive Bureau of the Department of Health (Datasus); and b) the National Register of Health Institutions (CNS). Results There are 6003 psychiatrists, 18,763 psychologists, 1985 social workers, 3119 nurses and 3589 occupational therapists working for the Unified Health System (SUS). At primary care level, there are 104,789 doctors, 184, 437 nurses and nurse technicians and 210,887 health agents. The number of psychiatrists is roughly 5 per 100,000 inhabitants in the Southeast region, and the Northeast region has less than 1 psychiatrist per 100,000 inhabitants. The number of psychiatric nurses is insufficient in all geographical areas, and psychologists outnumber other mental health professionals in all regions of the country. The rate of beds in psychiatric hospitals in the country is 27.17 beds per 100,000 inhabitants. The rate of patients in psychiatric hospitals is 119 per 100,000 inhabitants. The average length of stay in mental hospitals is 65.29 days. In June 2006, there were 848 Community Psychosocial Centers (CAPS) registered in Brazil, a ratio of 0.9 CAPS per 200,000 inhabitants, unequally distributed in the different geographical areas: the Northeast and the North regions having lower figures than the South and Southeast regions. Conclusion The country has opted for innovative services and programs, such as the expansion of Psychosocial Community Centers and the Return Home program to deinstitutionalize long-stay patients

  2. Role for Occupational Therapy in Community Mental Health: Using Policy to Advance Scholarship of Practice.

    PubMed

    Mahaffey, Lisa; Burson, Kathrine A; Januszewski, Celeste; Pitts, Deborah B; Preissner, Katharine

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapists must be aware of professional and policy trends. More importantly, occupational therapists must be involved in efforts to influence policy both for the profession and for the people they serve (Bonder, 1987). Using the state of Illinois as an example, this article reviews the policies and initiatives that impact service decisions for persons with psychiatric disabilities as well as the rationale for including occupational therapy in community mental health service provision. Despite challenges in building a workforce of occupational therapists in the mental health system, this article makes the argument that the current climate of emerging policy and litigation combined with the supporting evidence provides the impetus to strengthen mental health as a primary area of practice. Implications for scholarship of practice related to occupational therapy services in community mental health programs for individuals with psychiatric disability are discussed. PMID:26115330

  3. Role for Occupational Therapy in Community Mental Health: Using Policy to Advance Scholarship of Practice.

    PubMed

    Mahaffey, Lisa; Burson, Kathrine A; Januszewski, Celeste; Pitts, Deborah B; Preissner, Katharine

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapists must be aware of professional and policy trends. More importantly, occupational therapists must be involved in efforts to influence policy both for the profession and for the people they serve (Bonder, 1987). Using the state of Illinois as an example, this article reviews the policies and initiatives that impact service decisions for persons with psychiatric disabilities as well as the rationale for including occupational therapy in community mental health service provision. Despite challenges in building a workforce of occupational therapists in the mental health system, this article makes the argument that the current climate of emerging policy and litigation combined with the supporting evidence provides the impetus to strengthen mental health as a primary area of practice. Implications for scholarship of practice related to occupational therapy services in community mental health programs for individuals with psychiatric disability are discussed.

  4. Capacity-Building for African American Mental Health Training and Research: Lessons from the Howard-Dartmouth Collaborative Summer School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipolito, Maria M. S.; Malik, Mansoor; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Whitley, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many psychiatric residents have traditionally received little-or-no training in cross cultural approaches to psychiatric training and research. Method: The Dartmouth-Howard Collaboration summer school training program had a 5-year grant to explore approaches to enhancing understanding of cultural factors in mental health treatment and…

  5. Mental Health and Self-Directed Violence among Student Service Members/Veterans in Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blosnich, John R.; Kopacz, Marek S.; McCarten, Janet; Bossarte, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Using a sample of student service members/veterans, the current study aimed to examine the prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses and suicide-related outcomes and the association of hazardous duty with mental health. Participants: Data are from the Fall 2011 National College Health Assessment (N = 27,774). Methods: Logistic regression was…

  6. Using Decision Support to Address Racial Disparities in Mental Health Service Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawal, Purva H.; Anderson, Tanya R.; Romansky, Jill R.; Lyons, John S.

    2008-01-01

    Unfortunately, racial disparities are well documented in the delivery of behavioral health services. This study examines the effects of implementing a decision support process, integrating clinical information into the administration of mental health services, on racial disparities in psychiatric hospital admissions for children in state custody.…

  7. A Bibliography for Schools on Mental Health/Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupper, Lisa, Ed.

    This bibliography for schools lists 49 print resources on mental health and mental illness published from 1989 through 1994. Resources are listed alphabetically by author within the categories of directories and bibliographies, and other print resources. The names, addresses, and telephone numbers of publishers are provided at the end of the…

  8. Mental Health and Mental Retardation Services in Nevada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, J. S.; And Others

    Summarized are the findings and recommendations of a 2-year study of all major mental health, and mental retardation, alcohol, and drug abuse services and programs in Nevada. Fourteen chapters are given to the following topics (sample subtopics are in parentheses): description of the survey (scope of the project); summary and recommendations…

  9. Social disorder and diagnostic order: the US Mental Hygiene Movement, the Midtown Manhattan study and the development of psychiatric epidemiology in the 20th century

    PubMed Central

    March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

    2014-01-01

    Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual’s mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State’s commitment to measure the national social and economic burdens of psychiatric disorders and subsequently to determine the need for mental health services and to survey these needs over time. Notably absent in these decades have been environmentally oriented approaches to cultivating normal, healthy mental states, approaches initially present after World War II. We focus here on a set of community studies conducted in the 1950s, particularly the Midtown Manhattan study, which grew out of a holistic conception of mental health that depended on social context and had a strong historical affiliation with: the Mental Hygiene Movement and the philosophy of its founder, Adolf Meyer; the epidemiological formation of field studies and population surveys beginning early in the 20th century, often with a health policy agenda; the recognition of increasing chronic disease in the USA; and the radical change in orientation within psychiatry around World War II. We place the Midtown Manhattan study in historical context—a complex narrative of social institutions, professional formation and scientific norms in psychiatry and epidemiology, and social welfare theory that begins during the Progressive era (1890-1920) in the USA. PMID:25031047

  10. Public and Private Responsibility for Mental Health: Mental Health's Fourth Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dokecki, Paul R.

    Three revolutions in the history of mental health were identified by Nicholas Hobbs: the humane revolution, the scientific and therapeutic revolution, and the public health revolution. The shift of responsibilities for mental health and substance abuse services from the public to the private sector may constitute a fourth mental health revolution.…

  11. Promoting and Protecting Mental Health as Flourishing: A Complementary Strategy for Improving National Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Corey L. M.

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes the conception and diagnosis of the mental health continuum, the findings supporting the two continua model of mental health and illness, and the benefits of flourishing to individuals and society. Completely mentally healthy adults--individuals free of a 12-month mental disorder and flourishing--reported the fewest missed…

  12. Factors for success in mental health advocacy

    PubMed Central

    Hann, Katrina; Pearson, Heather; Campbell, Doris; Sesay, Daniel; Eaton, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Background Mental health advocacy groups are an effective way of pushing the mental health agenda and putting pressure on national governments to observe the right to health; however, there is limited research that highlights best practices for such groups in low-resource settings. In an effort to improve the scaling up of mental health in Sierra Leone, stakeholders came together to form the country's first mental health advocacy group: the Mental Health Coalition – Sierra Leone. Since its inception, the group has worked towards raising the profile of mental health in Sierra Leone and developing as an advocacy organisation. Design The study's aim was to investigate views on enabling factors and barriers associated with mental health advocacy in a low-income country using a community-based participatory approach and qualitative methodology. Focus groups (N=9) were held with mental health stakeholders, and key informant interviews (N=15) were conducted with advocacy targets. Investigators analysed the data collaboratively using coding techniques informed by grounded theory. Results Investigators reveal viewpoints on key factors in networking, interacting with government actors, and awareness raising that enabled mental health advocacy aims of supporting policy, service delivery, service user rights, training for service delivery, and awareness raising. The investigators outline viewpoints on barriers for advocacy aims in framing the issue of mental health, networking, interacting with government actors, resource mobilization, and awareness raising. Conclusions The findings outline enabling factors, such as networking with key stakeholders, and barriers, such as lack of political will, for achieving mental health advocacy aims within a low-resource setting, Sierra Leone. Stakeholder coalitions can further key policy development aims that are essential to strengthen mental health systems in low-resource settings. PMID:26689456

  13. An overview of Ghana’s mental health system: results from an assessment using the World Health Organization’s Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This survey provides data on the Mental Health System in Ghana for the year 2011. It supplies essential planning information for the implementation of Ghana’s new Mental Health Act 846 of 2012, a renewal of the Ghana 5 year plan for mental health and it contributes to international knowledge base on mental health. It provides a baseline from which to measure future progress in Ghana and comparison data for use in other countries. In addition to reporting our findings we describe and analyse deficiencies and strengths of the Ghana mental health system. Methods We used the World Health Organization’s Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS) to collect, analyse, and report data on the mental health system and services for all districts of the ten regions of Ghana. Data was collected in 2012, based on the year 2011. Results In 2011, Ghana was a lower middle income country with a population of approximately 25 million. A mental health policy, plan and legislation were in place. Mental health legislation was outdated and no longer in line with best practice standards. Services were significantly underfunded with only 1.4% of the health expenditure going to mental health, and spending very much skewed towards urban areas. There were 123 mental health outpatient facilities, 3 psychiatric hospitals, 7 community based psychiatric inpatient units, 4 community residential facilities and 1 day treatment centre, which is well below what would be expected for Ghana’s economic status. The majority of patients were treated in outpatient facilities and psychiatric hospitals and most of the inpatient beds were provided by the latter. There were an estimated 2.4 million people with mental health problems of which 67,780 (ie 2.8%) received treatment in 2011. The were 18 psychiatrists, 1,068 Registered Mental Nurses, 19 psychologists, 72 Community Mental Health Officers and 21 social workers working in mental health which is unbalanced with an

  14. [Sexuality, psychiatric institution and normalization of the mentally ill.].

    PubMed

    Dupras, A

    1977-01-01

    The author sets three objectives: to determine the status of sexuality in pedagogical institutions; to examine the means used to control sexuality; and to trace a global interpretation of the links between sexuality and the institution. The development of the asylum saw the appearance of moral treatment which sought to promote certain social values and to repress those behaviours such as sexual activity which opposed the fundamental bourgeois social virtues. These notions were presented in the guise of an ethical standard and a normative scientific current (eg. sexuality is a symptom to be eliminated; it is a cause of insanity.) Now, while no longer attacked in the institution, sexuality is nonetheless perceived as lacking any inherent value and is worthwhile only in terms of its therapeutic utility* The same phenomenon is observable in the school. To illustrate the second point the author analyses the phenomenon of masturbation. The 18th century saw masturbation cited as the cause of insanity and numerous physical disorders. Viewed as a diversion of the child's natural forms, and as bringing into question the substitutive educational system, masturbation was excluded from the school of the period. At present, masturbation is permitted but there is no recognition of the child's free enjoyment. Instead a system of exercises has been developped which permit the child greater body control. This masturbation has become a therapeutic technique to obtain a normative level of pleasure.Touching on the third point, the author states that society regulates sexual life with a complex normative system in order to incorporate it within an identification with sexual institutions and no longer with judicial sanctions. Applying this analysis to the situation of the mentally ill, the author argues that the latter's sexuality is socially normalized by the definition and utilisation of illegal areas where it's actualization is permitted.

  15. Mental health consequences of chemical and radiologic emergencies: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    MCCormick, Lisa C; Tajeu, Gabriel S; Klapow, Joshua

    2015-02-01

    This article reviews the literature pertaining to psychological impacts in the aftermath of technological disasters, focusing on the immediate psychological and mental health consequences emergency department physicians and first responders may encounter in the aftermath of such disasters. First receivers see a wide spectrum of psychological distress, including acute onset of psychiatric disorders, the exacerbation of existing psychological and psychiatric conditions, and widespread symptomatology even in the absence of a diagnosable disorder. The informal community support systems that exist after a natural disaster may not be available to communities affected by a technological disaster leading to a need for more formal mental health supportive services.

  16. Disaster-related mental health needs of women and children.

    PubMed

    Corrarino, Jane E

    2008-01-01

    Since the events of September 11, 2001 and Hurricane Katrina, the world has become more acutely aware of disasters and their sequelae, and efforts have been made to improve preparedness-related skills of healthcare professionals. One area that requires more skill building concerns the ability to deal with mental health-related needs. Although the appearance of postdisaster psychological symptoms in adults varies, the incidence of psychopathology in women and children is high after disasters. Children are disproportionately affected by disasters, and their special needs have only recently begun to be understood and considered in disaster-related planning. Categories of psychological effects include distress symptoms, risk behaviors, and psychiatric disorders. These issues require ongoing care, not single interventions. This article describes how maternal child health nurses can develop and use the requisite skills to effectively assist families to optimize their mental health status and prevent sequelae after a disaster.

  17. Childhood and adolescence: challenges in mental health.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Saurabh Rambiharilal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Ramasamy, Jegadeesh

    2013-05-01

    Mental health is an integral and essential component of health. The World Health Organization (WHO) constitution states: "Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." More than 450 million people suffer from mental disorders worldwide. In India, mental health services, especially for children and adolescents, are limited both in terms of number of facilities as well as trained professionals. The majority of mental health services are restricted to urban areas, that is, medical colleges or regional mental health institutes. Mere presence of a treatment facility does not guarantee that all children/adolescents suffering from mental illness will utilize such services. In fact, most of the time there is a significant delay from the patient side in accessing mental health services either because of lack of awareness or associated stigma. It is high time to promote positive mental health in children, adolescents and their parents through health education. Parental counseling is of utmost importance in order to avoid the delay in treatment seeking.

  18. Psychiatric hospitalization in Poland.

    PubMed

    Frydman, L

    1983-01-01

    An overview of psychiatric hospitalization in Poland is presented in the context of Polish political and socio-cultural developments. The areas addressed include: the characteristics of the patient population; the organization of Polish mental health service; the nature of psychiatric treatment; psychiatric legislation; patients' rights; and the training and social status of the various mental health professionals. In spite of the meager resources allocated to mental health services, and the consequent staff shortages and overcrowded, drab living conditions in psychiatric facilities, the care afforded patients is generally humane and nonoppressive. Polish psychiatry has succeeded in maintaining its professional autonomy and has assumed a leadership role in the modernization of its service delivery system.

  19. The 1978 Italian mental health law--a personal evaluation: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, G B

    1991-01-01

    The author discusses the sociopsychiatric consequences of the 1978 Italian mental health law. He also reviews the international scientific ideas that led up to it. The sociopolitical psychiatric views of the late Franco Basaglia, pioneer of the change in the mental health system of the Italian Republic, are described. Statistical reports and critical analyses are reported. Objective data, based on the author's personal experience as a practising psychiatrist in Rome, Italy, from 1969 to 1987, are given. PMID:1999825

  20. Findings from mental health screening of newly arrived refugees in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Savin, Daniel; Seymour, Deborah J; Littleford, Linh Nguyen; Bettridge, Juli; Giese, Alexis

    2005-01-01

    States are required to provide a public health screening for all newly arrived refugees in the United States. In 1997, a comprehensive program was created to include both a physical examination and a mental health screening. This article provides a complete description of the mental health screening process, including two illustrative cases, and reports information about the refugees who participated in the program. Ten percent of screened refugees were offered mental health referrals; of those, 37% followed up. Refugees who presented for treatment reported a higher number of symptoms upon screening compared with those who were offered referrals but did not follow up. Psychiatric evaluation confirmed that those who screened positive and presented for treatment were experiencing a high level of suffering and qualified for mental health diagnoses. The findings support inclusion of a mental health screening as part of the public health screening. PMID:16134561

  1. Mental Health Promotion Education in Multicultural Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanlou, Nazilla

    2003-01-01

    A mental health promotion perspective provides a system-based understanding of relationships between culture and health. Educating nurses for multicultural practice should adopt an interdisciplinary approach that fosters critical awareness of diverse influences on mental health and their intersections. (Contains 38 references.) (SK)

  2. Women and mental health in India: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Savita; Shah, Ruchita

    2015-01-01

    Gender is a critical determinant of mental health and mental illness. The patterns of psychological distress and psychiatric disorder among women are different from those seen among men. Women have a higher mean level of internalizing disorders while men show a higher mean level of externalizing disorders. Gender differences occur particularly in the rates of common mental disorders wherein women predominate. Differences between genders have been reported in the age of onset of symptoms, clinical features, frequency of psychotic symptoms, course, social adjustment, and long-term outcome of severe mental disorders. Women who abuse alcohol or drugs are more likely to attribute their drinking to a traumatic event or a stressor and are more likely to have been sexually or physically abused than other women. Girls from nuclear families and women married at a very young age are at a higher risk for attempted suicide and self-harm. Social factors and gender specific factors determine the prevalence and course of mental disorders in female sufferers. Low attendance in hospital settings is partly explained by the lack of availability of resources for women. Around two-thirds of married women in India were victims of domestic violence. Concerted efforts at social, political, economic, and legal levels can bring change in the lives of Indian women and contribute to the improvement of the mental health of these women. PMID:26330636

  3. Mental Capacity and Mental Health Acts part 1: advance decisions.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    The Department of Health is undertaking a review of the Mental Health Act 1983 code of practice and as part of that review has opened a consultation on what changes should be made. One key area for change is a chapter that provides clearer information about the interface between the Mental Health Act 1983 and the Mental Capacity Act 2005. Both the House of Commons Health Select Committee and the House of Lords Mental Capacity Act Committee have argued that poor understanding of the interface has led to flawed decision making by doctors and nurses. In the first of a short series of articles, Richard Griffith considers the interface between these two important statutes, beginning with advance decisions to refuse treatment (ADRT).

  4. Emotional reactions to involuntary psychiatric hospitalization and stigma-related stress among people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Müller, Mario; Lay, Barbara; Corrigan, Patrick W; Zahn, Roland; Schönenberger, Thekla; Bleiker, Marco; Lengler, Silke; Blank, Christina; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-02-01

    Compulsory admission to psychiatric inpatient treatment can be experienced as disempowering and stigmatizing by people with serious mental illness. However, quantitative studies of stigma-related emotional and cognitive reactions to involuntary hospitalization and their impact on people with mental illness are scarce. Among 186 individuals with serious mental illness and a history of recent involuntary hospitalization, shame and self-contempt as emotional reactions to involuntary hospitalization, the cognitive appraisal of stigma as a stressor, self-stigma, empowerment as well as quality of life and self-esteem were assessed by self-report. Psychiatric symptoms were rated by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. In multiple linear regressions, more self-stigma was predicted independently by higher levels of shame, self-contempt and stigma stress. A greater sense of empowerment was related to lower levels of stigma stress and self-contempt. These findings remained significant after controlling for psychiatric symptoms, diagnosis, age, gender and the number of lifetime involuntary hospitalizations. Increased self-stigma and reduced empowerment in turn predicted poorer quality of life and reduced self-esteem. The negative effect of emotional reactions and stigma stress on quality of life and self-esteem was largely mediated by increased self-stigma and reduced empowerment. Shame and self-contempt as reactions to involuntary hospitalization as well as stigma stress may lead to self-stigma, reduced empowerment and poor quality of life. Emotional and cognitive reactions to coercion may determine its impact more than the quantity of coercive experiences. Interventions to reduce the negative effects of compulsory admissions should address emotional reactions and stigma as a stressor.

  5. Relationship between mental health and job efficiency.

    PubMed

    Barnes, B L

    1984-06-01

    A homogeneous group of 153 Merchant Marine Officers were analysed on Seafarers' Mental Health Questionnaire (SMHQ) to evaluate their mental health state. The confidential reports of the officers relating to their job performance were scrutinised to determine the level of job efficiency. Individuals obtaining more than the mean effective percentage score were allotted to the high-efficiency group and those obtaining less, to the low-efficiency group. The results obtained show significant mean differences on almost all the mental health dimensions except sexual satisfaction, thus revealing that the job efficiency of seafarers is influenced by different aspects of mental health adjustments. PMID:6741596

  6. Mental health policy development in Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Gureje, O.; Alem, A.

    2000-01-01

    Mental health issues are usually given very low priority in health service policies. Although this is changing, African countries are still confronted with so many problems caused by communicable diseases and malnutrition that they have not waken up to the impact of mental disorders. Every country must formulate a mental health policy based on its own social and cultural realities. Such policies must take into account the scope of mental health problems, provide proven and affordable interventions, safeguard patients' rights, and ensure equity. PMID:10885166

  7. Mental Health: An Interdisciplinary and International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klineberg, Otto

    The World Federation for Mental Health was founded as an international apolitical organization concerned with quality of life rather than merely the absence or prevention of mental illness. An examination of the manner and extent to which mental problems arise in different cultural settings can provide data needed to understand the relationship…

  8. Recent developments in the use of online resources and mobile technologies to support mental health care.

    PubMed

    Turvey, Carolyn L; Roberts, Lisa J

    2015-01-01

    This review describes recent developments in online and mobile mental health applications, including a discussion of patient portals to support mental health care. These technologies are rapidly evolving, often before there is systematic investigation of their effectiveness. Though there are some reviews of the effectiveness of mental health mobile apps, perhaps the more significant development is innovation in technology evaluation as well as new models of interprofessional collaboration in developing behavioural health technologies. Online mental health programs have a strong evidence base. Their role in population health strategies needs further exploration, including the most effective use of limited clinical staff resources. Patient portals and personal health records serve to enhance mental health treatment also, though concerns specific to mental health must be addressed to support broader adoption of portals. Provider concerns about sharing psychiatric notes with patients hinder support for portals. Health information exchange for mental health information requires thoughtful consent management strategies so mental health patients can benefit. Finally, the broad array of health information technologies may overwhelm patients. User-friendly, well-designed, patient-centred health information technology homes may integrate these functions to promote a holistic approach to care plans and overall wellness. Such technology homes have special security needs and require providers and patients to be well informed about how best to use these technologies to support behavioural health interventions. PMID:26523397

  9. Recent developments in the use of online resources and mobile technologies to support mental health care.

    PubMed

    Turvey, Carolyn L; Roberts, Lisa J

    2015-01-01

    This review describes recent developments in online and mobile mental health applications, including a discussion of patient portals to support mental health care. These technologies are rapidly evolving, often before there is systematic investigation of their effectiveness. Though there are some reviews of the effectiveness of mental health mobile apps, perhaps the more significant development is innovation in technology evaluation as well as new models of interprofessional collaboration in developing behavioural health technologies. Online mental health programs have a strong evidence base. Their role in population health strategies needs further exploration, including the most effective use of limited clinical staff resources. Patient portals and personal health records serve to enhance mental health treatment also, though concerns specific to mental health must be addressed to support broader adoption of portals. Provider concerns about sharing psychiatric notes with patients hinder support for portals. Health information exchange for mental health information requires thoughtful consent management strategies so mental health patients can benefit. Finally, the broad array of health information technologies may overwhelm patients. User-friendly, well-designed, patient-centred health information technology homes may integrate these functions to promote a holistic approach to care plans and overall wellness. Such technology homes have special security needs and require providers and patients to be well informed about how best to use these technologies to support behavioural health interventions.

  10. The psychiatric model: a critical analysis of its undermining effects on nursing in chronic mental illness.

    PubMed

    Hall, B A

    1996-03-01

    Nursing has incorporated many aspects of the medical model in forming nursing practice. I argue that this conception has not resulted in an effective approach for patients with mental illness, especially those with chronic mental illness. In attempting to formulate practice, nurses are impeded by the constraints of this almost universally accepted model, perhaps in ways that have evaded conscious awareness. Patients, also, must try to live their lives within limited options imposed by professional people who supposedly have their best interest at heart. This article identifies the assumptions of the psychiatric medical model and shows how using this narrow, received format is inconsistent with nursing practice. The author delineates the process of her awakening to its undermining effect on her relationships with patients and offers suggestions for more appropriate practice in chronic mental illness.

  11. Psychiatric labelling, sex role stereotypes and beliefs about the mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Cormack, S; Furnham, A

    1998-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of two main variables on specific attitudes and beliefs about mental illness. The first variable tested the labelling theory proposal that the label of mental illness per se is stigmatizing for those so labelled. The second tested the proposal of Rosenfield (1982) that males and females receive a more severe societal reaction for deviance when the deviant behaviour is inconsistent with traditional sex role norms. Questionnaires with vignettes describing four behaviour types were given to young adult respondents. The expected effect of a psychiatric diagnosis and of deviance from sex role stereotypes were not confirmed. It was concluded that while several variables combine to influence specific attitudes and beliefs about the mentally ill, the type of behaviour displayed is the crucial factor. PMID:10459508

  12. [Mental retardation and sexual abuse. 65 mentally retarded men submitted to forensic psychiatric examination because of sex offences].

    PubMed

    Noreik, K; Grünfeld, B

    1993-06-20

    65 mentally impaired men charged with different sexual crimes were submitted to judicial psychiatric examination. 37% of these men had previously stayed in institutions for the mentally impaired, two thirds had worked for a period. Half of the charged men were functionally retarded and the rest were assessed as functioning at an even lower level. Approximately every third man suffered from serious behavioural symptoms and personality disturbances. Most of the abuse was towards acquaintances or persons in the local environment. Almost half of the men used violence in connection with the abuse. Two thirds of the victims were under the age of 16 years. About half of the men were charged with sexual abuse of minors, and a few with rape. The majority were charged, and almost half were placed under preventive detention. PMID:8322353

  13. Development and evaluation of an inner city mental health team.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, M; Gunnell, D; Maxwell, B; Mumford, D

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the development and activity of a Community Mental Health Team, originally targeted to meet the needs of African Caribbean, Asian and homeless populations in an inner city area. The study was based on all (n = 1046) client referrals to the Bristol Inner City Community Mental Health Team between 1987 and 1994. Additional qualitative interviews were held with general practitioners (GPs) from each of the nine practices in the area. The setting was the inner city area of Bristol, an area with a population of around 35,000 27% of whom are from ethnic minority communities. This is an area shown in previous research to have a high level of mental health problems. Trends in referral rates, demographic characteristics and seriousness of psychiatric illness amongst those referred to the Inner City Mental Health Team were the main outcome measures used. In the years studied there were significant increases in the number and proportion of overall referrals from GPs and psychiatrists and decreases in referrals from other agencies. In particular, there were reductions in the referral both of clients from the originally identified target groups and of patients with serious mental illness. GPs tended to refer a greater proportion of patients with less serious mental illness. The results of the study showed that a team originally developed to meet the needs of the homeless and those from ethnic minorities has, with the removal of special project funding, shifted its focus away from the client groups for whom it was originally developed to those with less serious mental health problems. These changes are partially attributable both to changes in the remit of the team, making it more acceptable to GPs, and to a growing acceptance of community-based mental health services among GPs and their patients. Changes in the geographic catchment area served by the team has also played a role in the observed trends. Commissioners of mental health

  14. 'One flew over the psychiatric unit': mental illness and the media.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M

    2003-06-01

    Media representation of mental illness has received growing research attention within a variety of academic disciplines. Cultural and media studies have often dominated in this research and discussion. More recently healthcare professionals have become interested in this debate, yet despite the importance of this subject only a selection of papers have been published in professional journals relating to nursing and healthcare. This paper examines the way in which mental illness in the United Kingdom is portrayed in public life. Literature from the field of media studies is explored alongside the available material from the field of mental healthcare. Three main areas are used to put forward an alternative approach: film representation and newspaper reporting of mental illness; the nature of the audience; and finally the concept of myth. The paper concludes by considering this approach in the context of current mental health policy on mental health promotion.

  15. Contribution of the Nordic School of Public Health to the public mental health research field: a selection of research initiatives, 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Anna K; Fredén, Lars; Lindqvist, Rafael; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2015-08-01

    The field of public mental health has been defined by an expert group convened by the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) as encompassing the experience, occurrence, distribution and trajectories of positive mental health and mental health problems and their determinants; mental health promotion and prevention of mental disorders; as well as mental health system policies, governance and organization. The mental health priorities of the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2010 signalled a mutual Nordic exchange of knowledge in the following thematic areas: child and adolescent mental health; working life and mental health; mental health in older people; strengthening the role of primary care in mental health service provision; stronger involvement of users and carers; and reduction of use of coercion in psychiatric care. Efforts to realize these priorities included commissioning the Nordic Research Academy for Mental Health, an NHV-based network of research institutions with a common interest in mental health research across the Nordic countries, to develop, organize and follow-up projects on public mental health. The research initiatives included mental health policy analysis, register-based research and research focused on the users' perspective in a Nordic context, as well as EU-level research policy analysis. The public mental health research conducted at the NHV highlighted the complexity of mental health and emphasized that the broad determinants of mental health need to be increasingly addressed in both public health research and practice. For example, health promotion actions, improved access to health care, a healthy alcohol policy and prevention of suicides and violence are all needed to reduce the life expectancy gap - a red flag indicator of public health inequalities. By exchanging knowledge and best practice, the collaboration between the Nordic countries contributes to the welfare of the region. The expertise and traditions developed at the NHV are of

  16. Contribution of the Nordic School of Public Health to the public mental health research field: a selection of research initiatives, 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Anna K; Fredén, Lars; Lindqvist, Rafael; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2015-08-01

    The field of public mental health has been defined by an expert group convened by the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) as encompassing the experience, occurrence, distribution and trajectories of positive mental health and mental health problems and their determinants; mental health promotion and prevention of mental disorders; as well as mental health system policies, governance and organization. The mental health priorities of the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2010 signalled a mutual Nordic exchange of knowledge in the following thematic areas: child and adolescent mental health; working life and mental health; mental health in older people; strengthening the role of primary care in mental health service provision; stronger involvement of users and carers; and reduction of use of coercion in psychiatric care. Efforts to realize these priorities included commissioning the Nordic Research Academy for Mental Health, an NHV-based network of research institutions with a common interest in mental health research across the Nordic countries, to develop, organize and follow-up projects on public mental health. The research initiatives included mental health policy analysis, register-based research and research focused on the users' perspective in a Nordic context, as well as EU-level research policy analysis. The public mental health research conducted at the NHV highlighted the complexity of mental health and emphasized that the broad determinants of mental health need to be increasingly addressed in both public health research and practice. For example, health promotion actions, improved access to health care, a healthy alcohol policy and prevention of suicides and violence are all needed to reduce the life expectancy gap - a red flag indicator of public health inequalities. By exchanging knowledge and best practice, the collaboration between the Nordic countries contributes to the welfare of the region. The expertise and traditions developed at the NHV are of

  17. Undergraduate mental health nursing education in Australia: More than Mental Health First Aid.

    PubMed

    Happell, Brenda; Wilson, Rhonda; McNamara, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Mental Health First Aid training is designed to equip people with the skills to help others who may be developing mental health problems or experiencing mental health crises. This training has consistently been shown to increase: (1) the recognition of mental health problems; (2) the extent to which course trainees' beliefs about treatment align with those of mental health professionals; (3) their intentions to help others; and (4) their confidence in their abilities to assist others. This paper presents a discussion of the potential role of Mental Health First Aid training in undergraduate mental health nursing education. Three databases (CINAHL, Medline, and PsycINFO) were searched to identify literature on Mental Health First Aid. Although Mental Health First Aid training has strong benefits, this first responder level of education is insufficient for nurses, from whom people expect to receive professional care. It is recommended that: (1) Mental Health First Aid training be made a prerequisite of preregistration nurse education, (2) registered nurses make a larger contribution to addressing the mental health needs of Australians requiring care, and (3) current registered nurses take responsibility for ensuring that they can provided basic mental health care, including undertaking training to rectify gaps in their knowledge. PMID:26775530

  18. Rural Mental Health Ecology: A Framework for Engaging with Mental Health Social Capital in Rural Communities.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rhonda L; Wilson, G Glenn; Usher, Kim

    2015-09-01

    The mental health of people in rural communities is influenced by the robustness of the mental health ecosystem within each community. Theoretical approaches such as social ecology and social capital are useful when applied to the practical context of promoting environmental conditions which maximise mental health helping capital to enhance resilience and reduce vulnerably as a buffer for mental illness. This paper explores the ecological conditions that affect the mental health and illness of people in rural communities. It proposes a new mental health social ecology framework that makes full use of the locally available unique social capital that is sufficiently flexible to facilitate mental health helping capital best suited to mental health service delivery for rural people in an Australian context.

  19. The mental state of arsonists as determined by forensic psychiatric examinations.

    PubMed

    Räsänen, P; Hakko, H; Väisänen, E

    1995-01-01

    In this study we evaluated whether arsonists (n = 98) differ from homicide offenders (n = 55) in regard to psychiatric disorders, suicidality, and criminal responsibility in the context of forensic psychiatric pretrial examinations. Arsonists were mainly male, poorly educated, unemployed, and living in rural areas. Eighty-four percent of the arsonists and 62 percent of the homicide offenders had an alcohol abuse problem. This difference was statistically significant (p = .002). The arsonists more commonly had suicidal thoughts and attempted suicides. Over one-third of the arsonists used fire-setting as a suicide attempt. In comparing the arsonists with the control group, there was a statistically significant difference in the variables that indicate suicidality. Arsonists more commonly had diagnosed psychiatric diseases (p = .008). The incidence of psychoses was fourfold, chronic or severe depression about threefold, and mental retardation twofold when compared with the homicide offenders. Eighty-five percent of the arsonists had received psychiatric care before the crime was committed. The arsonists were more often found to be not criminally responsible for the crime committed (p = .01).

  20. The impact of racism on the delivery of health care and mental health services.

    PubMed

    Hollar, M C

    2001-01-01

    This article presents research findings useful in formulating a Best Practices Model for the delivery of mental health services to underserved minority populations. Aspects of the role of racism in health care delivery and public health planning are explored. An argument is made for inclusion of the legacy of the slavery experience and the history of racism in America in understanding the current health care crisis in the African-American population. The development of an outline in APA DSM IV for the use of cultural formulations in psychiatric diagnosis is discussed.